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 Notes






Title: 4-H horse program : horse science
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 Material Information
Title: 4-H horse program : horse science
Physical Description: Book
Creator: 4-H Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Publisher: 4-H Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
 Subjects
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078697
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Notes
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





horse science


4-H


HORSE


PROGRAM







NAME


ADDRESS

CLUB


4-H HORSE PROGRAM
HORSE SCIENCE



This educational material has been prepared for 4-H use by the Cooperative Extension Services of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture and State Land-Grant Universities in cooperation with the National 4-H Council and the
American Quarter Horse Association.

Trade or brand names used in the publications are used only for the purpose of educational information. The
information given herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement
of products or breeds of horses by the Federal Extension Service or State Cooperative Extension Services is
implied, nor does it imply approval of products or breeds of horses to the exclusion of others which may also be
suitable.

This material was originally published by the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase,
Maryland 20815.

Programs and educational materials of National 4-H Council are available to all persons regardless of race, color,
sex, age, religion, national origin or handicap. Council is an equal opportunity employer.







Horse Science: External Parasites Affecting the Horse


Have you ever been aggravated by swarms of
mosquitoes, irritated by ticks and chiggers, or agitated by
fleas? These discomforts and many more are experienced by
some horses for extended periods of time because of
external parasites.

A parasite is defined as "a plant or animal living on, in,
or with another living organism (its host) at whose expense
it derives food and shelter." External parasites of horses
usually bite (with the exception of certain flies) and/or suck
blood for food, and use body temperature and the hair of the
host for comfort and shelter.

Foals and young growing horses are especially
susceptible to all types of parasites, which may result in
temporary or permanent lack of development.

External parasites are a problem to many horses. They
are often associated with improper nutrition, mild forms of
disease, stress, and sometimes conditions of general neglect.
External parasites are easier to eradicate or control than
internal parasites, but response to treatment may be
disappointing unless a total health program is practiced.

The most common external parasites are (1) flies, (2)
lice, (3) mites, (4) ticks, and (5) a fungus causing ringworm.
Both ringworm and mange mites are communicable to man.


Page 3


Flies
Flies are a constant source of annoyance to horses,
making them restless and ill at ease. The house fly and face
fly feed on skin, nasal and eye secretions, or debris, but do
not bite. The tenaciousness of the feeding face fly makes its
presence particularly annoying to horses. They are
commonly found in the northern half of the United States.
Horn flies, stable flies, and deer and horse flies are
biting insects that suck blood. Since they show a preference,
some horses are severely harassed by these pests. Biting flies
can be vectors of serious diseases such as encephalomyelitis.
Blow flies are common to large areas of the United
States, and effect damage by laying eggs in wounds. One
type hatches into maggots which feed on dead tissue,
retarding healing and enlarging the wound. The other type
hatches into screwworms, which feed on live tissue, causing
severe damage and sometimes death. Both types are easily
eradicated by cleaning the wound and applying a proper
medicant.

Control
Fly control is best effected by removal of waste and
decaying vegetable material. Manure should be stored in
covered containers or spread thinly (for rapid drying) on
fields not used by horses.
Remove moist hay, straw, garbage. and grain frequently
during warm weather. Use screens when practical.


June 1989







Horse Science: External Parasites Affecting the Horse


Life Cycle


Treatment


The four stages of the life cycle are the egg, the larva,
the pupa, the adult. House, stable, and horn flies commonly
lay their eggs in manure or occasionally in decaying
vegetation or any moist collection of spilled grain. Face flies
lay their eggs in fresh manure on pastures. Horse and deer
flies deposit eggs in the mud of swamps, salt marshes, or on
vegetation near water.


Successful treatment of flies varies from one part of the
country to another and will be influenced by the degree of
immunity they have established for a specific product. For
this reason a qualified person should be consulted for
recommendation in a given area. Regardless of the area,
pesticides should be considered poisonous and should be
regarded with extreme caution. Read the directions carefully
and follow them closely. Do not permit sprays to
contaminate feed or surfaces that horses will lick. Do not
store them where they may accidentally get into feed. Baits
are effective but poisonous and should be placed out of
reach of horses because many contain enough sugar to
induce their consumption. Strands or cords treated with
insecticide and hung in stables are often effective. Daily
sponging or spraying may be necessary to give protection
from horse flies and face flies. For those insecticides
commonly used and recommended for your area, contact
your local county agent or veterinarian.


Lice


HORSE FLY


Lice that infest horses are of both the biting and sucking
kind. Long hair is conducive to maximum reproduction and
spread of lice, thus they are often observed in poorly
groomed and poorly housed horses, especially in early
spring. Symptoms include rubbing, biting, general
unthriftiness, and patches of skin denuded of hair.

Life Cycle

The adult lice attach their eggs to the hair, usually close
to the skin (the so-called nits). Here they hatch in from 11 to
20 days. The young lice reach maturity and the female
begins laying eggs when she is 11 to 12 days of age. Lice
live their entire lives on the host, and can exist only about
three days when off the host animal.


STABLE FLY


BITING LICE


June 1989


Page 4







Horse Science: External Parasites Affecting the Horse


SUCKING LICE


Prevention


Proper feeding. grooming, and clean stabling will do
much to prevent louse infestations. Lice may be carried from
one animal to another on harness, saddles, blankets, brushes,
or curry combs moved directly from a lousy animal to one
free from lice.

Treatment

Horses may be dipped, sprayed, sponged, or dusted
thoroughly for lice control. The treatment should be
repeated in two to three weeks in order to destroy the lice
hatching from eggs not destroyed by the first application.
Contact your county agent or veterinarian for the
recommended insecticides most commonly used in your area
under prevailing regulations.


SARCOPTIC MANGE MITE
FEMALE MAGNIFIED 100 TIMES


Mites

Mites are microscopic creatures that cause horse mange.
Positive identity is difficult because skin scrapings must be
examined carefully under a microscope. Three genera exist:
Sarcoptes, Psoroptes, or Chorioptes. Sarcoptic mites burrow
under the skin scurf where they lay eggs and reproduce.
Chorioptic type may cause foot mange resembling scratches,
although all three may cause mange on any part of the body.
Symptoms include irritation, itching, inflammation, loss
of hair, crusty scab formation, and folding of the skin.

Life Cycle

Female mites lay from 10 to 25 eggs during the laying
period, which lasts from 12 to 15 days. After this period the
female dies in the burrow. Eggs hatch in 3 to 10 days into
young mites. After passing through several molts, they reach
maturity and are ready to begin egg laying again in from 10
to 12 days.

Treatment

Mange is difficult to eradicate in any species of animal.
Experience indicates that infested animals should be re-
treated every 7 days in order to gain control. Dusts are not
effective. Spraying or thorough wetting with a brush-
washing technique is necessary to reach the well-hidden
mites. Your county agent or veterinarian are your best
sources for information regarding the prevailing regulations
for the kinds and use of insecticides.

Ticks

Ticks are a problem to horses in many parts of the
country. Like other biting insects, they are vectors of some
serious diseases. Piroplasmosis recently infected over one
hundred horses in the southeastern part of the United States.
In 1960, the red tick, carrier of African horse fever, was
identified for the first time in this country, in zoo animals in
Florida.














TICKS MALE


June 1989


Page 5







Horse Science: External Parasites Affecting the Horse


TICKS FEMALE

Life Cycle

The four stages include the egg, the six-legged larva or
seed tick, the eight-legged nymph. and the adult. Transition
from one stage to the next occurs by molting. The number of
generations produced annually varies from one every two or
more years up to four or five per year, depending on the
species. All ticks attach to the host and feed on blood.

Treatment

In areas where ticks are a serious problem, dipping
entire animals must be resorted to. If only a few ticks are
found, swab them with cotton dipped in alcohol or
chloroform. Since ticks breathe by means of spiracles or
holes found on the abdomen, this tends to anesthetize or
suffocate them. Several insecticides are available. Follow
the recommendations of your county agent or veterinarian
regarding their use.




















RINGWORM OF THE HORSE DUE TO
TRICHOPHYTON EQUINUM


Ringworm

Ringworm is caused by various species of fungi,
arranged in circles on the skin. If penetration is deep
enough, severe itching results; and secondary infection may
lead to abscesses. The lesions are usually covered with
greyish crusts through which short hairs protrude.

Treatment

If only a few lesions are present, soften crusts with
warm soap and water and remove, dry the area, and paint
with tincture of iodine daily for one to two weeks. If lesions
are extensive, contact your veterinarian, since there are
many new fungicides more effective than iodine. When
treating or handling infected horses, use rubber gloves and
wash hands thoroughly after treatment. All scrapings should
be carefully disposed of. Children are particularly prone to
ringworm infections.
Under the best management conditions horses harbor
some parasites. Their effect is not spectacular or may be
unnoticed, but they decrease work efficiency and cause
discomfort. Heavy infestations render horses useless and
may cause death or permanent damage. For these reasons a
total health program should be effected.


PRECAUTIONS
MOST INSECTICIDES ARE POISONOUS TO
MAN AND OTHER ANIMALS; PARTICULARLY
CONCENTRATES PRIOR TO DILUTION FOR
APPLICATION. ALL PRECAUTIONS ON THE
LABELS SHOULD BE FOLLOWED FOR THEIR USE
AND STORAGE. READ THE LABEL CAREFULLY!
AVOID CONTAMINATION OF FEED AND WATER
WITH INSECTICIDES.


















HORSE HAIR INFECTED BY T. EQUINUM
ECTOTHRIX TYPE OF PARASITISM, X522


June 1989


Page 6







Horse Science: External Parasites Affecting the Horse


NOTES


June 1989


Page 7



































































1. This document is section 13 of 14 of 4HHSGO1, which supersedes CO 201, one of a series of the 4-H Youth
Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University
of Florida. Date first printed August 1965. Date revised June 1989. Please visit the FAIRS Website at
http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu.

2. Melvin Bradley, University of Missouri. Debbie Glauer, member of 4-H Animal Science Design Team, Department
of Family, Youth and Community Science, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.


. UNIVERSITY OF
"' ,FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Christine
Taylor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of
the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, age, sex, handicap or national origin. The information in this publication
is available in alternate formats. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from county extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is available from Publications Distribution Center,
University of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about alternate formats is available from Educational Media and
Services, University of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810. This information was published June 1989 as CO 201, which is
superseded by 4HHSG01, Florida Cooperative Extension Service.




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