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 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Introduction
 Common unsoundnesses and blemi...
 Notes






Title: 4-H horse program : horse science
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078697/00003
 Material Information
Title: 4-H horse program : horse science
Physical Description: Book
Creator: 4-H Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Publisher: 4-H Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
 Subjects
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078697
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Common unsoundnesses and blemishes
        Page 4
    Notes
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





horse science


4-H


HORSE


PROGRAM







NAME


ADDRESS

CLUB


4-H HORSE PROGRAM
HORSE SCIENCE



This educational material has been prepared for 4-H use by the Cooperative Extension Services of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture and State Land-Grant Universities in cooperation with the National 4-H Council and the
American Quarter Horse Association.

Trade or brand names used in the publications are used only for the purpose of educational information. The
information given herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement
of products or breeds of horses by the Federal Extension Service or State Cooperative Extension Services is
implied, nor does it imply approval of products or breeds of horses to the exclusion of others which may also be
suitable.

This material was originally published by the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase,
Maryland 20815.

Programs and educational materials of National 4-H Council are available to all persons regardless of race, color,
sex, age, religion, national origin or handicap. Council is an equal opportunity employer.








Horse Science: Unsoundness and Blemishes


Soundness in the horse is of extreme importance, since
his efficiency in performance is dependent upon his ability
to move.
Any abnormal deviation in the structure or function of
a horse constitutes an unsoundness. All unsoundnesses do
not have the same degree of severity. Some unsoundnesses
can be treated successfully, others can not.
An example of a blemish is an unsightly scar or rope
burn. A blemish does not interfere with the service ability of
the horse.
Any time a horse is lame, we can suspect an
unsoundness. Lameness is any irregularity in gait which
results from moving with pain or difficulty. Lameness may
be detected while the horse is in a standing position,
however, it is most noticeable at the walk or trot. If lameness
is severe, the horse will refuse
POLL EVIL


SWEENEY"-












WIND PUFF
OVER THE KNEE



BOWED TENDO


Page 3


to put weight on the affected limb, even in the standing
position. When moving, the lame horse is forced to carry
most of his weight on the sound limbs, hence the "nodding"
of the head when the sound limb strikes the ground. When
the lameness is on the left fore leg, the head will nod as the
right foot is planted on the ground but will jerk up as the left
or lame leg touches the ground. Lameness in both front legs
is indicated by a stiff, stilted action and short stride. The
head is carried higher than usual without nodding.
The exact location of lameness is often difficult to
determine. Many common unsoundnesses of the legs may be
detected by carefully comparing the opposite leg. Swelling
and implantation can be observed by handling the leg.
Most unsoundnesses of the legs and feet are caused by
injury, or excess stress and strain. Horses with faulty
conformation are always subject to unsoundness. Many
times it is possible to detect an unsoundness by being
familiar with correct conformation. Concussion lameness is
associated with straight backs and pasterns, for example.


BOIL MtKNIA )



BOG SPAVIN-
BONE SPAVIP




E BONE


RING


June 1989







Horse Science: Unsoundness and Blemishes


COMMON UNSOUNDNESSES AND
BLEMISHES

The following unsoundnesses and blemishes are
identified: U-unsoundness, B-blemish.

Head

1) cataract (U) cloudy or opaque appearance of the eye.
2) defective eyes (U) impaired vision or blindness.
3) poll evil (U) inflamed swelling of poll between ears. FOUNDERED HOOF
4) roman nose faulty conformation.
5) parrot mouth (U) lower jaw is shorter than upper jaw.
6) undershot jaw (U) upper jaw is shorter than lower '
jaw.

Neck :. : .

1) ewe-neck faulty conformation. "
"N.... .. i

Withers and Shoulders

1) fistula of withers (U or B) inflamed swelling of
withers.
2) sweeny (U) atrophy or decrease in size of a single
muscle or group of muscles, usually found in shoulder or
hip.
A SIDEBONE
Front Legs

1) shoe boil or capped elbow (B) soft, flabby swelling at
the point of elbow.
2) knee sprung or buck knee over on the knees. Faulty
conformation.
3) calf-kneed back at the knees. Faulty conformation.
4) splint (B) capsule enlargement usually found inside
upper part of front cannon.
5) wind puff (U) puffy swellings occurring either side of .
tendons above fetlock or knee.
6) bowed tendons (U) enlarged, stretched flexor tendons ';
behind the cannon bones. -
7) ringbone (U) bony growth on either or both sides of .:
pastern. .,
8) sidebone (U) bony growth above and toward the rear
quarter of hoofhead.
9) quittor (U) fistula of the hoofhead. ...
10) quarter or sand crack (B) vertical split in the wall of ,?
the hoof.
11) navicular disease (U) inflammation of small
navicular bone usually inside front foot.
12) founder (U) turning up of hoof and rough, deep
rings in hoof wall caused by over feeding, severe SPLINTS
concussion or disease and abnormal management.
13) contracted feet (B) abnormal contraction of heel.
14) thrush (B) disease of the frog.


June 1989


Page 4







Horse Science: Unsoundness and Blemishes


CONTRACTED TENDONS,
COCKED ANKLE OR KNUCKLING














..CAPPED

CAPPED HOCK


Body

1) heaves (U) difficult breathing, lung damage.
2) roaring (U) difficult breathing due to obstruction
usually in larynx.
3) rupture (U) protrusion of internal organs through the
wall (hernia) of the body. Umbilical or scrotal areas most
common.
4) sway back faulty conformation.
5) hipdown (U) fracture of prominence of hip and
falling away.

Rear Limbs

1) stifled (U) displaced patella of stifle joint.
2) stringhalt (U) nervous disorder characterized by
excessive jerking of the hind leg.
3) thoroughpin (U) puffy swelling which appears on
upper part of hock and in front of the large tendon.
4) capped hock (B or U) enlargement on point of hock.
Depends on stage of development.
5) bog spavin (U) meaty, soft swelling occurring on
inner front part of hock.
6) bone spavin or jack spavin (U) bony growth usually
found on inside lower point of hock.
7) curb (U) hard swelling on back surface of rear
cannon about four inches below point of hock.
8) cocked ankle (U) usually in hind feet, horse stands
bent forward, due to contracted tendons.
9) blood spavin (B) swelling of vein usually below seat
of bog spavin.


NOTES


June 1989


Page 5







Horse Science: Unsoundness and Blemishes


NOTES


June 1989


Page 6







Horse Science: Unsoundness and Blemishes


NOTES


June 1989


Page 7



































































1. This document is section 3 of 14 of 4HHSGO1, which supersedes CO 201, one of a series of the 4-H Youth
Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University
of Florida. Date first printed August 1965. Date revised June 1989. Please visit the FAIRS Website at
http://hanunock.ifas.ufl.edu.


,T UNIVERSITY OF
' FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
Instituteof Food and Agricultural Scences


2. Morris Hemstrom, University of Idaho. Debbie Glauer, member of 4-H Animal Science Design Team, Department
of Family, Youth and Community Science, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Christine
Taylor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of
the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, age, sex, handicap or national origin. The information in this publication
is available in alternate formats. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from county extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is available from Publications Distribution Center,
University of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about alternate formats is available from Educational Media and
Services, University of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810. This information was published June 1989 as CO 201, which is
superseded by 4HHSG01, Florida Cooperative Extension Service.




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