• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Introduction
 Horse judging II - how to...
 Notes






Title: 4-H horse program : horses and horsemanship
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078696/00004
 Material Information
Title: 4-H horse program : horses and horsemanship
Physical Description: Book
Creator: 4-H Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Publisher: 4-H Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
 Subjects
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078696
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Horse judging II - how to judge
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Notes
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






horses and horsemanship


~iu,


4-H HORSE PROGRAM







NAME


ADDRESS

CLUB








4-H HORSE PROGRAM
HORSES AND HORSEMANSHIP

This educational material has been prepared for 4-H use by the Cooperative Extension Services of the
U.S. Department of Agriculture and State Land-Grant Universities in cooperation with the National 4-H
Council and the American Quarter Horse Association.

Trade or brand names used in the publications are used only for the purpose of educational information.
The information given herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no
endorsement of products or breeds of horses by the Federal Extension Service or State Cooperative
Extension Services is implied, nor does it imply approval of products or breeds of horses to the exclusion
of others which may also be suitable.

This material was originally published by the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy
Chase, Maryland 20815.

Programs and educational materials supported by National 4-H Council; Extension Service, United
States Department of Agriculture; and all Cooperative Extension Services of the State Land-Grant
Universities are available to all persons regardless of race, color, sex, age, religion, national origin or
handicap. All are equal opportunity employers.








Horse Judging II How to Judge


The main points of horse judging are described in Horse
Judging I What to look For. Other things which the
4-H horse judge needs to learn are:


* How to judge a class
* Terms to use
* How to give oral reasons


HOW TO JUDGE A CLASS
A good horse judge follows a pattern or system, when
placing a class. He considers the most important points,
comparing each horse to his ideal. He, then ranks them
accordingly.
Usually, horses are judged at the halter. In 4-H contests,
there are usually four in a class, and these are numbered
from 1 to 4, left to right. Study the class from a distance
(10 to 20 paces), looking at a side view, a front view.
and a rear view. You should make a tentative placing at
this time.
Then watch the horses in action. They should be led
toward you and away from you at the walk and the trot.
Observe the action of feet and legs and overall
coordination.
When the horses are lined up again, you can move
among them for a close-up inspection. In judging
contests you should make notes on the class as you











judge.

Side view (from a distance), look for -
Type, style, balance
Proportional depth of leg and depth of body
Slope and length of shoulder
Length and setting of head, neck, and ears
Length and strength of back
Shortness of coupling, Length and turn of croup
Width of forearm, arm, stifle and gaskin muscles
Set of front legs (correct, calf, or buck-kneed)


Set of rear legs (correct, sickle-hocked, post-legged),
Slope of pastern
Height at withers, Length of underline

Rear view (from a distance), look for -
General width and proportional width over hips and
through thigh or quarter and stifle
Length and width of inside and outside gaskin

... .. ... . ,




,w gar^^l


z gsrla


Ypp
3,


muscle
Set of hind legs and hocks (correct, cow-hocked,
bow-legged)

Front view (from a distance), look for -
Shape and expression of head: size and setting of
ears

,* gNf -r9 a ,: w..v... ..WW. ... .




,..Wo-





Width of chest and muscling of arm, forearm, and
V-muscle
Set of front legs (correct, splay-footed, pigeon-toed,
knock-kneed, or bow-legged)
Alignment of knee and cannon

On close inspection, look for -
Close view of above points
Height and cleanness of withers
Shortness and muscling of coupling
Soundness of feet and legs
Shape and texture of hoof, depth of heel
Unsoundness: lameness, blindness, curbs,
spavins, splints
Defects, blemishes, Spring of ribs
Parrot mouth (ask exhibitor to display the horse's
teeth)
Where horse is in action, (Walk horse to judge. Trot
horse away from judge), look for -








Horse Judging II How to Judge.


A long step, true and free, with enough joint flexion
for feet to clear ground
Good head carriage and action in front when coming
toward you
Length of stride and hock action as horse travels
away from you.
TERMS TO USE
The following list includes some of the terms commonly
used in comparing horses. The desirable qualities are
listed on the left in comparative form. The undesirable
qualities are listed in critical terms, and each is listed
across from a corresponding comparative term.


Comparative Terms

General

Typier (more (breed) type) ......
Sm other .................
Higher quality ...............
More nicely balanced ..........
M ore stylish .................
Heavier muscled ..............
Longer, cleaner muscling .......
Head and Neck


Criticisms


......... . . Off type
.. .............. R ough
....... Coarse: low quality
. ....... Poorly balanced
........ ........... P lain
. . .. Light-muscled
.... Short, bunchy muscling


Shorter, broader head ..................
M ore alert eye ......................
N eater m uzzle ...................... .
M ore massive jaw ...................
Shorter ear ........................ .
Cleaner at the throat latch ............. .
Smoother-necked ................... .
Neck blends smoothly at shoulder ........
M ore breed character .................
Longer neck ....................... .
More desirable set to neck ......... Low i


Shoulder
More prominent withers ........
Cleaner withers ............. .
More angle in the shoulder ......
Deeper shoulder (longer) .......
More sloping shoulder .........
Smoother shoulder .......... .
Chest and Forelegs
Deeper-chest ................
Broader-chest ............. .
W ider set forelegs .............
Heavier forearm .............


Long, narrow head
..... Sleepy eyed
... Coarse muzzle
....... Small jaw
... Long, mule ear
Coarse throated
Coarse, thick neck
Rough at shoulder
...... Plain head
...... Short neck
headed, high headed


.......... Low flat withers
...... Muttony (fat) withers
........... Steep shoulder
. .Shallow shoulder (shorter)
........... Steep shoulder
.......... Rough shoulder


........ Shallow-chest
........ Narrow-chest
....... Narrow-set forelegs
......... . Light forearm


Longer tapering forearm muscle Short, bunchy forearm muscle
Smoother knee joint ...................... Coarsejointed
Deeperjointed ......................... Shallowjointed
Shorter cannon ............ . ....... .. Long cannon
More medium length pastern . Long, weak, short, stiff pastern
More correct set of pastern ...... Weak pastern; steep pastern
Barrel and Top
Deeper in the heart ............... . Shallow in the heart


More spring of forerib ..........
Shorter back ................ .
Shorter, stronger coupling .......
Closer-coupled ...............
Stronger-back ................
Sm oother-hip ............... .
Longer underline ..............


Quarter and Rear Legs
Heavy-quartered ...
Longer croup .....
Nicer-turned croup .
From the side:
Wider stifle .......
Wider gaskin ......
Deeper hock ......
From the rear:
Thicker, fuller quarter
Thicker through stifle
More gaskin inside an
Smoother hocked .


Bone, Feet and Legs, Stance
Heavier bone: stronger bone ......
Flatter, cleaner cannons .........
Shorter cannons ...............


..... Flat-ribbed; flat-sided
........ . Long back
...... Long weak coupling
........... Slack-coupled
........ . W eak back
..... Rough hips; box hips
.......... Short underline


............ . Light-quartered
.................... Short croup
............ Steep croup: flat croup

..................... arrow stifle
. . . . . Light gaskin
. . . . . Shallow hock

r ................ Narrow quarter
e ............ Light in the stifle
id out .............. Thin gaskin
.............. Coarse, rough hocks


. . . . . Light bone
. ..... Round cannons
........... Long cannons


More correct pasterns ......... Weak pasterns, steep pasterns
Cleanerjoints .................. Fleshy joints: puffy joints
Roomier, well-rounded feet. .................. Mute-footed
Deeper, more open heel .......... Shallow heel: narrow heel
Smoother, harder hooves ............. Thin. cracked hooves
Straighter legs ............... ........ Crooked legs
Front Legs
Straighter on front legs ..........................
Knock-kneed: bow-legged: buck-kneed: calf-kneed
Straighter on feet ............... Pigeon-toed: splay-footed
Hind Legs
More correct on hind legs .........................
Cow-hocked: bow-legged: (bandy-legged)
Straighter feet ............... ..... Toes-out: toes-in
M ore correct set at the hock ..........................
Sickle-hock (too much angle): post-legged (not enough angle)
Action
Truer action ............................. Faulty action
M oves straighter in front ............................
Paddles (wings out): moves close (rope walks)
Moves straighter behind ............... Wings out: wings in
M ore correct hock action ............................
Rolls the hocks (lateral movement): jerks the hocks
Freer M oving .......... ...........................
Stumbles; interferes: forges (hitting front foot with back)
Snappier stride ......................... Sluggish
Longer stride ........................... Short stride
More forceful stride ....................... Halting stride
More correct flexion (hocks, knees, ankles) ................
Stiff (hock, knee, ankle); too much flexion (lifts feet too high)


December 1989


Page 4







Horse Judging II How to Judge.


GIVING ORAL REASONS
In a judging contest, you will have an opportunity to tell
exactly why you believe some of the classes should be
placed the way you placed them. Two minutes is the
usual time limit for discussing a class of four animals.
Ordinarily it shouldn't take this long.
The key to success in giving reasons is practice. This is
the only way to develop a good, smooth delivery. As you
learn to place the classes, you learn to use the proper
terms in comparing the animals and to organize a set of
reasons. Then, practice, practice, practice. Do it aloud,
with someone listening. If you must practice alone, look
into a mirror. This is hard at first, but it helps develop
your ability to concentrate on the class.
ORGANIZING YOUR REASONS
Accuracy is most important in giving reasons. However,
unless you can present your reasons pleasantly and
clearly, the value of accuracy is largely lost because
much of what is said doesn't "get through" to the
listener.
The way you organize your reasons largely determines
how easy the reasons are "to follow". There are many
different ways to organize reasons. The system used
should be logical and clear. When discussing points
about any animal in the class, cover these points in the
order in which they are located on the animal. For
example: "(general observations first) ... One was a
larger, more powerfully muscled, typier mare than 3.
(Then start at a particular point on the animal and go
from point to point on your mental picture of the
animal). Number 1 was wider through the chest, deeper
in the barrel, and cleaner about the withers. She was
shorter coupled and longer in the croup than 3. One was
especially thicker through the stifle and gaskin muscles
and stood straighter on her legs. She had more breed
character and femininity about the head and moved with
a truer stride than 3."
By using this system, you are not likely to forget any
points, your reasons are much easier to follow, and you
gain confidence by knowing exactly what points you
will discuss next. It doesn't matter where you choose to
start and stop, but you should develop your own pattern
and make this a habit. Many times, you will find no
difference worth mentioning in some of the points. In
this case you simply skip over these and go to the next
point you wish to mention in the order in which you see
it on the animal.
It is essential that you form a mental image or picture of
each animal as you judge a class. When you give a set of
reasons on that class you should visualize the animals. It


is impossible to give a good set of reasons by trying to
memorize your notes on a class.
OTHER RULES FOR GIVING REASONS
Do not claim strong points for one animal unless it
has them. Claim the points where one is superior and
then grant to the other animal its points of advantage.
Emphasize the major differences strongly. Giving big
differences first on each pair helps.
Be concise and definite. Don't hunt for things to say. If
you don't remember, go on to the next pair you are to
discuss.
Give your reasons with confidence and without
hesitation. Talk with enough vim and vigor to keep the
judge
interested, but do not talk too loudly.
End reasons strongly. Give a concise final statement as
to why you place the last animal last.
Be sure you have your reasons well organized, so you
will not hesitate when you present them to the judge.
Stand about six feet away from the judge as you give
your reasons. Stand with your feet spread apart, hands
behind you, and look him straight in the eyes.
HOW YOUR REASONS ARE GRADED
The judge will determine the value of your reasons by
Accuracy You must tell the truth. This means that you
need to see the big things in the class correctly.
Accuracy is very important. You will lose points for
incorrect statements.
Presentation and Delivery Present your reasons in a
logical, well-organized manner that is pleasant to hear,
and clear and easy to follow. If reasons are poorly
presented, the value of accuracy may be lost because the
listener cannot grasp much of what you say. Speak
slowly and clearly. Use well organized statements. Be
sure to use correct grammar. Speak loud enough to be
understood. Avoid talking too loudly and too rapidly.
Emphasize the important comparisons.
Completeness Bring out all of the major differences in
your reasons. Omit small things that leave room for
doubt.
Terms Use correct terms. Incorrect terms greatly
detract from the value of your reasons.
REASONS ON A CLASS OF QUARTER HORSES
As an example, the following set of reasons is given on a
class of Quarter Horse Mares. You should study this set
of reasons as to organization and terms used. It is not to
be memorized or used for any class you may judge
because it will not fit any other class.
I placed this class of Quarter Horse mares 4-2-3-1. In the
top pair, I placed 4 over 2 because she has more balance


December 1989


Page 5







Horse Judging II How to Judge.


and Quarter Horse type. She has a more correct slope to
the shoulders, more prominent withers and a shorter,
stronger coupling than 2. Number 4 has a longer,
nicer-turned croup and is thicker through the stifle and
gaskin. She also moves with a freer, truer stride than 2. I
grant that 2 has more muscling in the forearm and stands
straighter on her front legs than 4, but I criticize Number
2 because she is short in the croup and light in the gaskin
muscles. She is too low at the withers.
In the middle pair, I placed 2 over 3 because she has
more balance and style and is straighter on her legs.
Number 2 has a breedier, more feminine head, and her
neck blends more smoothly at the shoulder. She has a
longer, smoother muscling and moves with more snap
and flexion than 3.1 fault 3 because she is bunchy in her
muscling and plain about the head. She is sluggish in her
movement and forges occasionally.
In the bottom pair I placed 3 over 1 because she is
heavier muscled and has more Quarter Horse type. She
is shorter in the cannons and has a more durable hoof. I
grant that 1 is more alert and handles her feet and legs
better than 3, but I placed her last because she is off-type
and very light-muscled. Number 1 is steep-shouldered,
narrow through the chest and barrel and shallow bodied.
She is weak in the coupling, very light in the rear
quarter, and too long in the cannons. For these reasons I
placed this class of Quarter Horse mares 4-2-3-1.


M.ri


1*


DRAW OR PASTE A PICTURE OF YOUR HORSE HERE.


December 1989


Page 6







Horse Judging II How to Judge.


NOTES


December 1989


Page 7


































































1. This document is 4HHSG02, one of a series of the 4-H Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative
Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Printed. Please visit the
FAIRS Website at http://hammockifas.ufl.edu.

2. Bobby J. Rankin, New Mexico State University, Debbie Glauer, member of 4-H Animal Science Design
Team, Department of Family, Youth and Community Science, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.


.LI, UNIVERSITY OF
' FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Christine
Taylor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose
of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only
to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, age, sex, handicap or national origin. The information in this
publication is available in alternate formats. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available
free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is available from Publications
Distribution Center, University of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about alternate formats is available from
Educational Media and Services, University of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810. This information was published
December 1989, Florida Cooperative Extension Service.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs