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 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Acknowledgement
 Illustrators
 Great oaks from little acorns
 Project requirements






Title: What's a tree to me? : member's manual
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078695/00009
 Material Information
Title: What's a tree to me? : member's manual
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Florida 4-H Youth Development, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Publisher: Florida 4-H Youth Development, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
 Subjects
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078695
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 2 (MULTIPLE)
    Illustrators
        Page 3
    Great oaks from little acorns
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Project requirements
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





MEMBER'S MANUAL


4H FOM 10


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What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


This educational material has been adapted for use in Florida by Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School
of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, in cooperation with Florida 4-H.

The material was originally prepared for 4-H use by the Department of Education, New York State College of
Agriculture and Life Sciences, through a special grant from the International Paper Company Foundation.
Administration of the grant was by Cornell Cooperative Extension Service New York City 4-H office. Original
publication was through the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815.

Reviewers

Mr. B.J. Allen, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Miss Linda L. Dearmin, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Dr. Suzanne G. Fisher, Assistant Dean and Chairperson, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Dr. D. Mitchell Flinchum, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry Specialist, School of Forest Resources and
Conservation

Mr. Anthony S. Jensen, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry and Wildlife Specialist, School of Forest
Resources and Conservation

Dr. Wayne R. Marion, Associate Professor and Extension Wildlife Ecology Specialist, School of Forest Resources
and Conservation

Dr. Nancy Pywell, Assistant Professor of Natural Resources Education, School of Forest Resources


October 1990


Page 2







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Illustrators

Mrs. Joyce M. Lottinville, Illustrator, and Dr. Nancy Pywell, School of Forest Resources and Conservation











ne day a very old man left his house early in the
morning and returned several hours later with a
sapling. The sapling was half as tall as you are and
as thin as a wooden pencil. The old man began
planting it at the roadside in front of his house. He
worked slowly because he was old and because he
enjoyed the work. As he planted, a neighbor came
by and looked at the tiny sapling.

"Why you silly old man," the neighbor laughed, "you're wasting your time planting such a small sapling!
You'll be gone before it grows large enough to fill this space with beauty and shade."

"You are correct," the old man calmly replied as he continued planting. "But, I am not planting this tree for
myself. All my life I have had fine trees to look at and walk under because when I was young, old people planted
trees. Now, I plant trees -- for those to come!"











What's a Tree to Me? was developed to teach you more about trees their importance, value, usefulness, and the
pleasure they give. If you live in the city, the suburbs, or the country, trees are an important part of your life. What
would your neighborhood be like without trees?

You will learn how trees grow, what trees do for people and the environment, and how you can help trees. There
are many exciting activities and opportunities to invite guest speakers to your meetings. You can also learn about
careers that deal with trees. The more effort you put into this project, the more benefits you will receive from it.
Have a TREEmendous time!


October 1990


Page 3







GREAT OAKS FROM LITTLE ACORNS


{i \ /LITTLE

A 0/ACORNS




Take apart one of your flowers. First, pick off or cut
off all the petal-like parts. Leave only the stamens and the
pistil. Now look at the top of a stamen, using a magnifier.
What does it look like?

Can you see some tiny yellow"dust" on the stamen?
Each piece of dust, called apollen grain, is half of what is
needed to start a seed.


When you see the word "seed" what do you
think of? What are some kinds of seeds that you
know? Have you ever seen the inside of a seed?
How do you think a seed comes to be, anyway?

Seeds begin as flowers. Did you know that
Florida means "abounding in flowers"? Look
carefully at a flower such as an Easter lily. Inside
the petals are both male and female flower parts.
Right in the center is a pistil, the female part of the
flower. It is inside the pistil that seeds grow. But
they cannot form until pollen from the stamens gets
to the pistil. Can you think of some ways that the
pollen can get to the pistil? Look for the stamens
that grow around the pistils. They resemble white
pins with long heads.




pistil
stamen










Usually insects or wind help to transfer pollen from
the stamen to the pistil. The top of the pistil is a bit
sticky. When pollen of the right kind lands on the
pistil, each pollen grain sends a microscopic tube down
through the pistil to an ovule Inside the base. In the
ovule is the other half of what is needed for a seed.


If you sliced through the ovary in the base of the pistil in your flower, the inside would look this --


ovules







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


One of the tiny seed-like structures is an ovule. When the microscopic tube from a pollen grain grows down
the pistil to an ovule, a sperm given off by the pollen grain joins with the egg in the ovule. It is then that a seed gets
started.

The ovules of different plants make seeds that
look different. In an apple, the outer covering of
each ovule becomes hard and brown. An apple
seed is brown. In an orange, the outer covering of
each ovule stays white, so an orange seed is white.
r What color is the seed of a cucumber? A hickory
nut? A lima bean?

SWhen the seed begins to grow in the ovary, the
So _ovary changes too. In a cucumber plant, the ovary
becomes big and juicy, with a green covering.
When you eat a cucumber, you eat the ovary and
the ovules (called seeds when they are full grown).
To eat an orange, the outer covering of the ovary
needs to be peeled. Only the inner part of the
ovary is juicy and edible. The seeds are thrown away. Do you throw away the seeds when you eat a cucumber?
How about squash? Tomato? Grape? String bean? Black-eyed peas?

Did you know that trees have flowers too? They produce seeds, much like cucumbers and tomatoes and Easter
lilies do. Some common Florida tree flowers look like this:













Red Maple Magnolia

Yellow Poplar




Dogwood Plum

In some trees, such as wax myrtle and most hollies, female and male flowers are on separate trees. Only the
female flowers produce berries and seeds. In most trees the male and female parts are close together. What do you
think is inside a seed, anyway?


October 1990


Page 5







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


A common, big seed that you can buy in stores, and which is good to eat when cooked will show you.

Put a few lima beans in a dish of water. Soak them overnight. The next day, carefully split one open. You
will see a tiny plant curved around one end. This is a new bean plant -- all ready to grow when it is planted.


































A seed is a tiny plant surrounded by some food and a cover. It began to grow inside the ovule of the flower,
and then stopped. The hard cover around it protects it until it is planted. Then the new plant will start growing
again when the conditions are right.

Just think -- every seed has in it a completely new plant and some food. Every tree seed has in it a completely
new living tree -- alive, but not actively growing -- yet!

What do you think would happen if all the seeds from one tree fell right at the base of the tree? Almost none
would grow. They would be competing with the parent tree for water, light, and room to grow. So it is important
for each tree to scatter its seeds as far as possible. Trees have many different ways of scattering seeds. What are
some you can think of?


October 1990


Page 6







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


This picture shows some of the ways tree seeds are dispersed or scattered. Many seeds are dispersed by the
wind. Some have wings to spin them or slow them as they fall. Some have fuzz that acts as a parachute.

Some seeds are carried away by animals and buried. Sometimes birds eat fruits such as cherries, but drop the
pits or seeds. People may eat a fruit such as grapes, and spit out the seeds. Can you think of other ways seeds
might be dispersed? Make a list of all the ways you can think of that tree seeds get scattered. On your way home
from school, keep an eye out for seeds along the sidewalk. How do you think they got there?

Seeds are awfully small compared to trees. The greatest oak grew from a tiny acorn. And the giant sequoia,
one of the world's biggest trees, grows from a seed no bigger than a grain of rice!


October 1990


Page 7







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Project Requirements

I. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

1) Why do you think our state was named "Florida"?





2) Where do seeds come from?





3) What is the pistil of a flower?





4) What are the stamens of a flower?





5) Explain how a seed comes to be.









6) What is a seed?


October 1990


Page 8







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Project Requirements

II. CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING PROJECTS TO DO.

1) a) Line ajar or tall glass with paper towels.
b) Fill the jar with moist peat moss, cotton, or sawdust.
c) Pour about an inch of water into the container.
d) Put corn, beans, grass seed, or pine seed between the paper and the glass.
e) Place the glass in a warm place.
f) Write down what you see at the same time every day.

2) Go on a seed scavenger hunt. Write down the different kinds of seeds you found, where you found them,
and how you think they got there.

3) a) Remove and wash the seed from an avocado.
b) Peel away the outer cover of the seed and put it in water, so it does not dry out.
c) Hang the seed in ajar of water (pointed side up) by supporting the seed with toothpicks. Just the
bottom should touch the water.
d) Place in warm, dimly lit place. In 3 to 8 weeks a shoot and root should emerge. Move the seed to
stronger light until the root is 2 to 3 inches long.
e) Plant the seed by burying it halfway into a good, sandy soil mixture. Place the plant in a warm, sunny
spot. To keep your plant bushy, pinch off the top inch of soft growth. Keep the plant out of drafts.

III. WRITE A STORY ABOUT YOUR PROJECT.

Include what you learned, the problems you had, and what was the most fun.


** ATTACH ADDITIONAL PAGES, IF NEEDED **


October 1990


Page 9

















Name:


Age:


County: 4-H Club:

Years in 4-H work: School:

Leader's Name: Do you live in the City?


UF^ UNIVERSITY of

UFLORIDA
IFAS Extension


1. This document has been extracted from 4H FOM 10 (section 9 of 11 sections) which
supercedes 4H-480, one of a series of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation for 4-H
Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Date reprinted October 1990. Please visit the
FAIRS Website at http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu.

2. Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School of Forest Resources and Conservation,
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, 32611.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
Christine Taylor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further
the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, age, sex, handicap or national origin. The
information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is
available from Publications Distribution Center, University of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about
alternate formats is available from Educational Media and Services, University of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810.
This information was published as 4H FOM 10, which supercedes 4H-480, Florida Cooperative Extension Service.




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