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 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Acknowledgement
 Illustrators
 Stump detective
 Project requirements






Title: What's a tree to me? : member's manual
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078695/00007
 Material Information
Title: What's a tree to me? : member's manual
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Florida 4-H Youth Development, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Publisher: Florida 4-H Youth Development, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
 Subjects
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078695
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 2 (MULTIPLE)
    Illustrators
        Page 3
    Stump detective
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Project requirements
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





MEMBER'S MANUAL


4H FOM 10


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What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


This educational material has been adapted for use in Florida by Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School
of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, in cooperation with Florida 4-H.

The material was originally prepared for 4-H use by the Department of Education, New York State College of
Agriculture and Life Sciences, through a special grant from the International Paper Company Foundation.
Administration of the grant was by Cornell Cooperative Extension Service New York City 4-H office. Original
publication was through the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815.

Reviewers

Mr. B.J. Allen, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Miss Linda L. Dearmin, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Dr. Suzanne G. Fisher, Assistant Dean and Chairperson, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Dr. D. Mitchell Flinchum, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry Specialist, School of Forest Resources and
Conservation

Mr. Anthony S. Jensen, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry and Wildlife Specialist, School of Forest
Resources and Conservation

Dr. Wayne R. Marion, Associate Professor and Extension Wildlife Ecology Specialist, School of Forest Resources
and Conservation

Dr. Nancy Pywell, Assistant Professor of Natural Resources Education, School of Forest Resources


October 1990


Page 2







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Illustrators

Mrs. Joyce M. Lottinville, Illustrator, and Dr. Nancy Pywell, School of Forest Resources and Conservation











ne day a very old man left his house early in the
morning and returned several hours later with a
sapling. The sapling was half as tall as you are and
as thin as a wooden pencil. The old man began
planting it at the roadside in front of his house. He
worked slowly because he was old and because he
enjoyed the work. As he planted, a neighbor came
by and looked at the tiny sapling.

"Why you silly old man," the neighbor laughed, "you're wasting your time planting such a small sapling!
You'll be gone before it grows large enough to fill this space with beauty and shade."

"You are correct," the old man calmly replied as he continued planting. "But, I am not planting this tree for
myself. All my life I have had fine trees to look at and walk under because when I was young, old people planted
trees. Now, I plant trees -- for those to come!"











What's a Tree to Me? was developed to teach you more about trees their importance, value, usefulness, and the
pleasure they give. If you live in the city, the suburbs, or the country, trees are an important part of your life. What
would your neighborhood be like without trees?

You will learn how trees grow, what trees do for people and the environment, and how you can help trees. There
are many exciting activities and opportunities to invite guest speakers to your meetings. You can also learn about
careers that deal with trees. The more effort you put into this project, the more benefits you will receive from it.
Have a TREEmendous time!


October 1990


Page 3






STUMP DETECTIVE


STUMP

DETECTIVE


What does a detective use to solve a mystery? He uses clues. Stump detectives use clues in tree stumps.
These clues help them interpret what happened to the tree while it was alive. Be a stump detective! All you need
is a stump and your eyes ... and brains!
Look at some annual rings in a wooden object. They show how the tree grew. Each year the tree grew a new
layer -- lighter in the wet season, darker in the dry season. Almost no growth occurred in the cold season.
How long did it take to grow one annual ring? How many annual rings does the object you're looking at
have? How many years did it take to grow this much wood?
A very thin layer of cells that covers the whole tree just under the bark produces the annual growth rings.
This thin layer is called the cambium. It is so thin that you probably can't see it. All the wood in the tree grows
from the cambium. What do you think would happen to the tree if someone cut through the cambium all the way
around the tree?
The outer, most recently made, part of a tree trunk is called the sapwood. It is made of many tiny tubes that
carry water from the roots to the leaves. As the sapwood gets older, these tubes get clogged. Then it is called
heartwood. Often the heartwood is darker in color than the sapwood.







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Where are the heartwood and sapwood in this picture? About how old is the oldest part of the sapwood? What do
you think would happen to this part of the sapwood if the tree kept growing?
























A stump detective can learn a lot more about a tree than its age when it is cut. He or she can even learn what
the weather was like when the tree was growing!

In one block of wood, are all the annual rings the same width? A wide ring means a lot of growth that year. A
narrow ring means little growth. What might cause a tree to grow faster some years than others? Could it be from
plenty of rain that year? Could a narrow ring mean not much rain?

There are other reasons for trees to grow faster or
slower, too. Would a tree grow faster or slower if:

some of its roots are cut for a new sidewalk?

a nearby tree is cut down?

insects eat a lot of its leaves?

people walk on its roots?

it is dug up and moved to another place?

a tall building goes up on its sunny side?

people pull its leaves off as they walk by?


October 1990


Page 5







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


What else could happen to a tree to make it grow faster or slower?

Some trees grow more on one side than the other, like this:


A Myster to Solve...

In a park, Maria and Jorge found a
tree stump that looked like this:


Rainfall
Year
(in centimeters)

1969 55

1970 58

1971 63

1972 65

1973 72

1974 88

1975 128

1976 120

1977 100

1978 127

1979 122

1980 98


October 1990


Page 6







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Maria said, "They must have cut this tree when they built the park in 1981." Jorge said, "I'll bet it was cut
when they tore down that old building back in 1976." Who is right? How can you tell?

The chart showing the amount of rainfall in their city for the last 12 years should help.


Which of these trees do you think would grow more on one side than the other?

This tree is injured. What might have caused the injury? How old was the tree at the time? How many years
did it take for the injury to heal all the way?


October 1990


Page 7







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Project Requirements


I. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

1) What is the cambium of a tree, and what does it do?


2) What are sapwood and heartwood, and how do they differ?


3) How are a tree's annual rings related to weather?


4) What are some things that could affect a tree's growth?


II. CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING PROJECTS TO DO.

1) Be a stump detective. Find a stump, and try to determine where the youngest part of the stump is. Where is
the oldest? Where is the heartwood? The sapwood? The cambium? Make a drawing of the stump. Label the
heartwood and sapwood. Under your drawing, write the age of the tree when it was cut.

2) Conduct a tree survey in your neighborhood. Look for trees that have been damaged In some way. Record
the kind of tree, where it was found, and the kind of damage. Could this damage have been avoided?


October 1990


Page 8







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


3) Take pictures of damaged trees. Mount the pictures on a piece ofposterboard, and label each photo
according to the type of damage. Bring your poster to the next club meeting.

III. WRITE A STORY ABOUT YOUR PROJECT.

Include what you learned, the problems you had, and what was the most fun.


** ATTACH ADDITIONAL PAGES, IF NEEDED **


October 1990


Page 9

















Name:


Age:


County: 4-H Club:

Years in 4-H work: School:

Leader's Name: Do you live in the City?


UF^ UNIVERSITY of

UFLORIDA
IFAS Extension


1. This document has been extracted from 4H FOM 10 (section 7 of 11 sections) which
supercedes 4H-480, one of a series of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation for 4-H
Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Date reprinted October 1990. Please visit the
FAIRS Website at http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu.

2. Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School of Forest Resources and Conservation,
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, 32611.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
Christine Taylor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further
the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, age, sex, handicap or national origin. The
information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is
available from Publications Distribution Center, University of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about
alternate formats is available from Educational Media and Services, University of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810.
This information was published as 4H FOM 10, which supercedes 4H-480, Florida Cooperative Extension Service.




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