Front Cover
 E pluribus unum
 Recycle your own paper!
 Record section

Title: What's a tree to me? : member's manual
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078695/00006
 Material Information
Title: What's a tree to me? : member's manual
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Florida 4-H Youth Development, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Publisher: Florida 4-H Youth Development, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078695
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 3
    E pluribus unum
        Page 4
    Recycle your own paper!
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Record section
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida


4H FOM 10




What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


This educational material has been adapted for use in Florida by Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School
of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, in cooperation with Florida 4-H.

The material was originally prepared for 4-H use by the Department of Education, New York State College of
Agriculture and Life Sciences, through a special grant from the International Paper Company Foundation.
Administration of the grant was by Cornell Cooperative Extension Service New York City 4-H office. Original
publication was through the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815.


Mr. B.J. Allen, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Miss Linda L. Dearmin, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Dr. Suzanne G. Fisher, Assistant Dean and Chairperson, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Dr. D. Mitchell Flinchum, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry Specialist, School of Forest Resources and

Mr. Anthony S. Jensen, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry and Wildlife Specialist, School of Forest
Resources and Conservation

Dr. Wayne R. Marion, Associate Professor and Extension Wildlife Ecology Specialist, School of Forest Resources
and Conservation

Dr. Nancy Pywell, Assistant Professor of Natural Resources Education, School of Forest Resources

October 1990

Page 2

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Mrs. Joyce M. Lottinville, Illustrator, and Dr. Nancy Pywell, School of Forest Resources and Conservation

ne day a very old man left his house early in the
morning and returned several hours later with a
sapling. The sapling was half as tall as you are and
as thin as a wooden pencil. The old man began
planting it at the roadside in front of his house. He
worked slowly because he was old and because he
enjoyed the work. As he planted, a neighbor came
by and looked at the tiny sapling.

"Why you silly old man," the neighbor laughed, "you're wasting your time planting such a small sapling!
You'll be gone before it grows large enough to fill this space with beauty and shade."

"You are correct," the old man calmly replied as he continued planting. "But, I am not planting this tree for
myself. All my life I have had fine trees to look at and walk under because when I was young, old people planted
trees. Now, I plant trees -- for those to come!"

What's a Tree to Me? was developed to teach you more about trees their importance, value, usefulness, and the
pleasure they give. If you live in the city, the suburbs, or the country, trees are an important part of your life. What
would your neighborhood be like without trees?

You will learn how trees grow, what trees do for people and the environment, and how you can help trees. There
are many exciting activities and opportunities to invite guest speakers to your meetings. You can also learn about
careers that deal with trees. The more effort you put into this project, the more benefits you will receive from it.
Have a TREEmendous time!

October 1990

Page 3


What can tell you the news, keep your cereal fresh, and get you a seat at the Super Bowl? Paper! Where does
paper come from? TREES! The woody fibers found in tree trunks are the raw material paper comes from.

e.F '- ,.:
.~: .\ L'"''lu? ~-4
,i..I I


Look at the "tails" side of a U.S. coin. See where it says E
PLURIBUS UNUM? That's the motto of the United States of
America, written in Latin. It means "out of many, one." As
individuals, each of us can do a lot of work, but when we work as a
team, we can do much more. Many become one when individuals
work as a team. If paper had a motto, it might be E PLURIBUS

Paper From Fibers

Tear a piece of paper in two. Look at the tom edge. Use a magnifier if you have one. What do you see?

The rough edge on atom piece of paper Is made up of hair-like pieces calledfibers. These fibers were once part of
a tree trunk that was chipped into pieces about as big as your thumbnail. These wood chips were mixed with
chemicals and water in a large tank called a digester. Here the chips were broken down into individual fibers like
the fibers on the torn edge of a piece of paper.

The fibers, chemicals, and water in the digester made a soupy mixture called pulp. To make paper, the pulp was
sprayed on a flat surface, pressed, and dried. From the many fibers in the pulp came one one sheet of paper, E

You don't always have to cut down a tree to make paper. You can recycle or reuse it.

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

Recycle Your Own Paper!


0-0 L A-
-- -1_1

4: ~

.. i.


Equipment and materials you will need:

1) Two aluminum roll or pie pans (aluminum is recyclable too). The small sizes (8" x 5" roll pans, or 10" pie
pans) work well.

2) A piece of fine-mesh window screen, 12" x 12". Fiber-glass screen is best because it lies flat and is easy to
cut. But wire screen will work.

3) A plastic or metal basin that will hold two gallons (8 quarts) of water.

4) Newspaper.

5) Two tablespoons of liquid laundry starch.

6) One box of paper clips.

7) One rolling pin.

8) One electric iron (treated with care, and cleaned after use).

9) One electric blender (treated with care, and cleaned after use).

All set? O.K., follow these directions...

October 1990

Page 5

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

Paper-makers Use a Device Called a Deckle.

You can make a deckle by following these directions:

1) Cut a piece of screen which is the same size as the bottom of your pan, and has four tabs on it. To do this set
the pan on the screen and draw a crayon line around the bottom edge. Remove the pan and draw four tabs on the
outline. Check the pictures before you begin.

shope of screen
Sfor roll pan



shape of screen

for cake pon

2) Cut a rectangular hole in the bottom of each roll pan. (If you are using pie pans, cut a round hole). Leave a
"shelf' about one inch wide around the hole. The shelf will keep the screen from falling through the hole. Check
the pictures before cutting.

I" shelf

October 1990

Page 6


What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

3) Place the screen that you cut into one of the pans. Set the other pan in on top of the screen.
Fold the screen tabs over the outside edge of the lower pan. Clip the pans together at the tabs, using a
paper clip at each place. Now you have a deckle.

Preparing the Pulp

1) Tear one page of newspaper into pieces about the size of a dime. The newspaper will provide you
with fibers. Do this six times so that you have six piles of torn paper. This will take a while, so
work as a team. E PLURIBUS UNUM!

2) Fill the blender with water to one inch from the top. Add one pile of newspaper pieces. Blend at
the highest speed until the newspaper pieces have broken down into fibers (about one minute).
The mixture will look like cloudy water. Pour the mixture or pulp into the basin.

3) Repeat step 2 with the five piles you have left. If your blender holds one quart, you will have one
and an half gallon of pulp when all the piles have been blended. Add two quarts of water to the
pulp mixture to make two gallons. (If your blender holds less than a quart, add enough water to
the pulp in the basin to make two gallons.)

October 1990


Page 7

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

Making a Sheet of Paper

1) Add two tablespoons of liquid laundry starch to your pulp mixture and stir it with your hands.
(The starch acts as a binder between the wood fibers suspended in the mixture.) How does it feel?

2) Now you are ready to make paper. Hold the deckle with both hands and slide it gently into the
pulp mixture at a slight angle.

3) Hold the deckle as level as you can, near the bottom of the basin. When you have a uniform
"cloud" of fibers floating over the screen, lift the deckle S-L-O-W-L-Y and evenly out of the

4) Place the deckle on a couple of sheets of newspaper and let it drain. When the newspaper is
soaked, place the deckle on fresh newspaper. As it drains, carefully disassemble the deckle.
(Remove the paper clips carefully to avoid disturbing the pulp sheet). Carefully remove the
screen, with the pulp sheet on it, and place it on a fresh stack of newspapers.

October 1990


Page 8

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

5) The layer of pulp should be fairly solid now. Gently pat it dry with extra newspapers. When it is
quite dry, peel the pulp sheet off the screen and "sandwich" it between fresh newspaper.

6) Roll a rolling pin over the pulp "sandwich" to remove any remaining water and to pack the fibers
together. Do it again with fresh newspaper. (Dry and save the newspaper; it can be recycled).

7) Place the pulp sheet on a flat surface (a piece of wood or desk top) covered with several layers of
newspaper. Then iron the sheet dry with an iron set at "rayon." Or, make a fresh "pulp sandwich"
and place it between sheets of newspaper. Then leave it overnight.

8) When the pulp sheet is dry, you'll have lots of individual fibers working as a team in one piece of
hand-made paper.


Clean up

Do not pour mixture into a sink; it will clog the drain. Filter the pulp mixture through a deckle.
Remove the collected fibers from the screen and dispose of them In a wastebasket. When you are
working with pulp at a sink, always keep the drain-strainer in place. E PLURIBUS UNUM!

October 1990

Page 9

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

Record Section

Project Requirements


1) What does E PLURIBUS UNUM mean?

2) How does E PLURIBUS UNUM relate to paper?

3) What is paper made of?

4) Why is recycling important?

5) What else besides paper can we recycle?


1) Start a newspaper recycling drive at your school or in your neighborhood.

2) Recycle magazines and paperback books by donating them to hospitals and convalescent homes.

3) Start an aluminum can collection club. Find a collection center and return the cans. You can
make money this way!

4) Visit a recycling center. Write a report on what you saw.

5) Visit a paper mill. Set up a tour before you go.

October 1990

Page 10

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Include what you learned, problems you had, and what was the most fun.


October 1990

Page 11



County: 4-H Club:

Years in 4-H work: School:

Leader's Name: Do you live in the City?


IFAS Extension

1. This document has been extracted from 4H FOM 10 (section 6 of 11 sections) which
supercedes 4H-480, one of a series of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation for 4-H
Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Date reprinted October 1990. Please visit the
FAIRS Website at http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu.

2. Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School of Forest Resources and Conservation,
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, 32611.

Christine Taylor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further
the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, age, sex, handicap or national origin. The
information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is
available from Publications Distribution Center, University of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about
alternate formats is available from Educational Media and Services, University of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810.
This information was published as 4H FOM 10, which supercedes 4H-480, Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

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