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 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Acknowledgement
 Illustrators
 Wood that is knot
 Record section






Title: What's a tree to me? : member's manual
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078695/00005
 Material Information
Title: What's a tree to me? : member's manual
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Florida 4-H Youth Development, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Publisher: Florida 4-H Youth Development, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
 Subjects
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078695
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 2 (MULTIPLE)
    Illustrators
        Page 3
    Wood that is knot
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Record section
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





MEMBER'S MANUAL


4H FOM 10


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What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


This educational material has been adapted for use in Florida by Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School
of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, in cooperation with Florida 4-H.

The material was originally prepared for 4-H use by the Department of Education, New York State College of
Agriculture and Life Sciences, through a special grant from the International Paper Company Foundation.
Administration of the grant was by Cornell Cooperative Extension Service New York City 4-H office. Original
publication was through the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815.

Reviewers

Mr. B.J. Allen, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Miss Linda L. Dearmin, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Dr. Suzanne G. Fisher, Assistant Dean and Chairperson, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Dr. D. Mitchell Flinchum, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry Specialist, School of Forest Resources and
Conservation

Mr. Anthony S. Jensen, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry and Wildlife Specialist, School of Forest
Resources and Conservation

Dr. Wayne R. Marion, Associate Professor and Extension Wildlife Ecology Specialist, School of Forest Resources
and Conservation

Dr. Nancy Pywell, Assistant Professor of Natural Resources Education, School of Forest Resources


October 1990


Page 2







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Illustrators

Mrs. Joyce M. Lottinville, Illustrator, and Dr. Nancy Pywell, School of Forest Resources and Conservation











ne day a very old man left his house early in the
morning and returned several hours later with a
sapling. The sapling was half as tall as you are and
as thin as a wooden pencil. The old man began
planting it at the roadside in front of his house. He
worked slowly because he was old and because he
enjoyed the work. As he planted, a neighbor came
by and looked at the tiny sapling.

"Why you silly old man," the neighbor laughed, "you're wasting your time planting such a small sapling!
You'll be gone before it grows large enough to fill this space with beauty and shade."

"You are correct," the old man calmly replied as he continued planting. "But, I am not planting this tree for
myself. All my life I have had fine trees to look at and walk under because when I was young, old people planted
trees. Now, I plant trees -- for those to come!"











What's a Tree to Me? was developed to teach you more about trees their importance, value, usefulness, and the
pleasure they give. If you live in the city, the suburbs, or the country, trees are an important part of your life. What
would your neighborhood be like without trees?

You will learn how trees grow, what trees do for people and the environment, and how you can help trees. There
are many exciting activities and opportunities to invite guest speakers to your meetings. You can also learn about
careers that deal with trees. The more effort you put into this project, the more benefits you will receive from it.
Have a TREEmendous time!


October 1990


Page 3






WOOD THAT IS KNOT


WOOD
that is Y














What makes a knot? Why are some knots tight and others loose? Why do some boards have knots and others not?
Are knots good or bad to have in wood?
Long ago, there were many huge trees. Most were cut down for lumber. The board with a knot was not a good
board. Some of the widest, cleanest boards were used for tables, floors, cupboards, boats, and even the sides of
houses. Knot-free boards were easy to get. They were not expensive.
In time, most of the biggest trees were cut. Only smaller trees were left. The trunks were not so tall as on the giant
trees. Often, the trunks had branches. When the trunks were sawed into
lumber, the lumber had knots. Why?



board. Some of the widest, cleanest boards were used for tables, floors, cupboards, boats, and even the sides of
houses. Knot-free boards were easy to get. They were not expensive.


lumber, the lumber had knots. Why?


When a tree with a branch is cut lengthwise, it looks like this:







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Where the branch grows out, the "grain" (the direction of the layers) of the wood turns to one side. It continues out
into the branch. The grain of the trunk is the grain of the branch, too. Whenever there is a branch on a tree, the
grain of the trunk continues right out into the branch.


Boards cut from a tree that has branches often have knots. The knot is a cross-section (a cut across) of the branch.
In a cross-section, the grain looks different from that in the main trunk.


When lumber is cut from a tree trunk where there is a living branch, there is a tight knot. Its wood is connected to
the rest of the wood in the board. It is not easy to loosen this knot.


Look at a piece of wood that has a tight knot. Use a
-' magnifier. Can you see that there are rings in the knot,
S,,,.- .something like the rings in a stump, or the rings in a
baseball bat? These are the rings in a branch of the
tree. The picture on the last page of this chapter shows
how they were formed.

i Imagine a very simple tree with one branch. The
branch starts out as a single little shoot at the side.
S-Each year another layer of wood grows around that of
S"- ---the previous year. Each year another layer. And
",. another. But as the tree grows larger in diameter, it
S-. grows over and around the branch. That makes it
-. -harder and harder for the branch to grow larger too,
there is just too much wood around it.


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As the tree trunk gets larger in diameter, the new wood of
the branch gets crowded. The rings are pushed closer
together.


Sometimes, because of crowding and shading by the upper
branches, the lower branches may die. But the tree trunk
keeps growing out over the dead branch. As long as the
dead branch stays on the tree, the trunk grows out around it.
Each year, another layer. And another. And another.

When lumber is cut from a tree where the trunk grew
around a dead limb, the knot is loose. Its wood is not
connected to the rest of the wood in the board. Sometimes,
the knot can be pushed out by a finger.


October 1990


Page 5







What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Often, trees grown close together shade the bottom branches, and these
branches die. If they fall off soon after dying, they do not leave knots in
the wood. But if they remain on the tree as it grows, they leave loose
knots.


Because the wood in a knot is crowded by the tree trunk, it is usually very
hard. Try to pound a nail into a knot. Then try to pound a nail into clear
wood. Which is easier? Some knots are carved to make bowls for pipes.
The wood in them is so hard that it lasts a long time, even with tobacco
burning in it.


,.


Look at the spacing of the growth rings in the knot and in the clear wood beside it. Where are the rings closer
together? What are some other differences that you can see between clear wood and wood that is knot wood?


Once wood that had knots was considered poor quality. But in time, people began to think knots were attractive.
Especially in wood used to panel rooms. Now knotty pine is prized wood for walls and furniture.


Something to think about... Swings often hang from tree limbs. As a tree grows, does the limb get higher above the
ground? Must a swing be lengthened as the tree grows? Must a fence that is nailed to a tree be loosened and
lowered from time to time? Or do limbs stay at the same height as a tree gets bigger and older? What about knots?
Do they move up as the tree gets older, or do they stay in the same place?


October 1990


Page 6


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What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


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October 1990


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What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Record Section

Project Requirements

I. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS


1) What makes a knot?





2) What is a knot?






3) Explain the difference between a tight knot and a loose knot.








4) Why do the bottom branches of trees grown close together often die?








5) Why is the wood in a knot usually very hard?








6) The growth rings in a knot are closer together than the growth rings in the clear wood beside it.

True or False?


October 1990


Page 8






What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual Page 9

II. CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING PROJECTS TO DO

1) Make a poster similar to the drawing on the last page of the chapter. Using your poster, explain to your
parents how a knot is made.


2) See how many wooden objects in your house have knots in them. Are they tight or loose knots?


III. WRITE A STORY ABOUT YOUR PROJECT

Include what you learned, problems you had, and what was the most fun.































** ATTACH ADDITIONAL PAGES, IF NEEDED **


October 1990


I


I

















Name:


Age:


County: 4-H Club:

Years in 4-H work: School:

Leader's Name: Do you live in the City?


UF9 UNIVERSITY of

FLORIDA
IFAS Extension


1. This document has been extracted from 4H FOM 10 (section 5 of 11 sections) which
supercedes 4H-480, one of a series of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation for 4-H
Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Date reprinted October 1990. Please visit the
FAIRS Website at http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu.

2. Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School of Forest Resources and Conservation,
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, 32611.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
Christine Taylor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further
the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, age, sex, handicap or national origin. The
information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is
available from Publications Distribution Center, University of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about
alternate formats is available from Educational Media and Services, University of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810.
This information was published as 4H FOM 10, which supercedes 4H-480, Florida Cooperative Extension Service.




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