Front Cover
 On pines and needles
 Record section

Title: What's a tree to me? : member's manual
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078695/00002
 Material Information
Title: What's a tree to me? : member's manual
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Florida 4-H Youth Development, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Publisher: Florida 4-H Youth Development, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078695
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 3
    On pines and needles
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Record section
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida


4H FOM 10




What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


This educational material has been adapted for use in Florida by Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School
of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, in cooperation with Florida 4-H.

The material was originally prepared for 4-H use by the Department of Education, New York State College of
Agriculture and Life Sciences, through a special grant from the International Paper Company Foundation.
Administration of the grant was by Cornell Cooperative Extension Service New York City 4-H office. Original
publication was through the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815.


Mr. B.J. Allen, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Miss Linda L. Dearmin, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Dr. Suzanne G. Fisher, Assistant Dean and Chairperson, 4-H and Other Youth Programs

Dr. D. Mitchell Flinchum, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry Specialist, School of Forest Resources and

Mr. Anthony S. Jensen, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry and Wildlife Specialist, School of Forest
Resources and Conservation

Dr. Wayne R. Marion, Associate Professor and Extension Wildlife Ecology Specialist, School of Forest Resources
and Conservation

Dr. Nancy Pywell, Assistant Professor of Natural Resources Education, School of Forest Resources

October 1990

Page 2

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


Mrs. Joyce M. Lottinville, Illustrator, and Dr. Nancy Pywell, School of Forest Resources and Conservation

ne day a very old man left his house early in the
morning and returned several hours later with a
sapling. The sapling was half as tall as you are and
as thin as a wooden pencil. The old man began
planting it at the roadside in front of his house. He
worked slowly because he was old and because he
enjoyed the work. As he planted, a neighbor came
by and looked at the tiny sapling.

"Why you silly old man," the neighbor laughed, "you're wasting your time planting such a small sapling!
You'll be gone before it grows large enough to fill this space with beauty and shade."

"You are correct," the old man calmly replied as he continued planting. "But, I am not planting this tree for
myself. All my life I have had fine trees to look at and walk under because when I was young, old people planted
trees. Now, I plant trees -- for those to come!"

What's a Tree to Me? was developed to teach you more about trees their importance, value, usefulness, and the
pleasure they give. If you live in the city, the suburbs, or the country, trees are an important part of your life. What
would your neighborhood be like without trees?

You will learn how trees grow, what trees do for people and the environment, and how you can help trees. There
are many exciting activities and opportunities to invite guest speakers to your meetings. You can also learn about
careers that deal with trees. The more effort you put into this project, the more benefits you will receive from it.
Have a TREEmendous time!

October 1990

Page 3


Suppose you drew a leaf of a tree. What would it look like?

This? Or this? Or this?

Would you think to draw one that looks like this? --

It is a tree leaf too. It is the leaf of apine tree.

Pine trees have leaves, just as maple trees do. But their leaves are long and slender. They are called needles.

The needles of pine trees are always wrapped in bundles, orfascicles. Look at the needles of a pine branch -
closely. Can you see that each fascicle is wrapped at the base? Pick off one fascicle and count the needles in it.
How many are there? Are there the same number in all the fascicles on that tree?

Some people call pines evergreens. That is because they never seem to lose all their leaves (needles). They never
get bare in winter as deciduous trees do.

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What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

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October 1990

Page 5

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

But there are always needles under a pine tree. Why? The secret is in the twigs. Look closely at the twigs of a
pine tree...

Can you see that there are needles on the first or outermost part of the twig? (That is the part that grew this past
year.) And can you see needles on the next section (that grew before)? But are there needles on the third section
(that grew three years ago)?

Needles stay on pine twigs for two years, and then drop off. So a pine tree has last year's needles while it is
growing this year's needles. That makes it look as if it never loses any. But the ground beneath a pine tree shows
you that it does!

What do you think a deciduous tree would look like if its leaves stayed on for two years?

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/ JL -i ir-j ..^w wU --.- c i *ii.'" .


October 1990

Page 6

-- --


What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

Not all trees that have needles are pines. Some trees with needles are not pines. But if they aren't pines, then their
needles aren't in bundles, either; they grow singly. And the trees that aren't pines usually have shorter needles than
pines. So it's wrong to call any tree with needles a "pine."

It might be




Or it might even be another kind. But there is something that almost all trees with needles have cones.






Different kinds of trees have different cones. But on one tree, the cones are pretty much alike. Because most trees
that have needles also have cones, they are called conifers. That means "cone-bearing."

October 1990

Page 7

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

The seeds of conifers are formed between the scales of the cone. If you look down on the top of a scale, you may
see where the seeds lie if they haven't dropped out. If they have fallen out, you will see a lighter area on the cone
scale, which is the seed scar.

Conifers usually have a bud at the tip of the twig, with several more clustered around it. Each of these buds can
become a branch. There is a new cluster of buds each year. So each year, on some conifers, there is a new ring of
branches to mark where the buds were. You can often tell the approximate age of conifers by counting these
whorls or rings of branches.

At Christmas time, look at some of the trees
for sale. Can you pick out the pines (needles
in fascicles)? The spruces (needles short,
single, and prickly)? The firs (needles flat,
not prickly, and just a spot where the needles
drop off)?

Conifers include some of our most valuable
IF- ... a p, ? .. trees -- for lumber, for paper, for wind breaks,
pl. ', C I i E + for animal food and shelter, for beauty in
"i'-. o% ,, forests, parks, and around homes. Try to find
S, .. out the names of some conifers in your

The key on the next page will help. Start with number one. Read the first description on the left side of the page.
If this description fits the tree you are looking at, read the directions on the same line on the rlght.slde of the page.
Follow the directions. If the description does not fit the tree you are looking at, drop down to the next line in
number one. In time, the key will give you a name instead of a number. But remember: the key works only for the
trees listed on it. It won't work for other trees.


October 1990

Page 8

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

Table 1. Key to Some Common Florida Conifers

1 Leaves over 1.5" long, needle-like go to step 2

Leaves less than 1" long, linear or scale-like go to step 8

2 Needles in clusters of 2, or in clusters of 2 and 3 on the same tree go to step 3

Needles in clusters of 3 or occasionally 3 and 4 go to step 6

3 Needles in clusters of 2 go to step 4

Needles in clusters of 2 and 3 go to step 5

4 Cones 1" to 2" long; needles twisted; soil moist spruce pine

Cones 2" to 3.5" long; needles not twisted; soil dry sand pine

5 Needles 3" to 5" long shortleaf pine

Needles 7" to 12" long slash pine

6 Buds silvery white; needles 8" to 18" long longleaf pine

Buds reddish-brown; needles 4" to 10" long go to step 8

7 Cones 2" to 3" long, nearly globular pond pine

Cones 3" to 6" long, conical loblolly pine

8 Leaves deciduous, 3/8" or more long; cones 1" in diameter go to step 9

Leaves evergreen, less than 3/4" long; cones less than 1/2" in diameter go to step 10

9 Leaves linear, spreading on twigs bald cypress

Leaves nearly scale-like, flat against the twigs pond cypress

10 Cones woody, brown; foliage in flattened, fan-like sprays Atlantic white-cedar

11 Cones berry-like, blue; foliage in rounded cord-like sprays Southern red-cedar

* linear: several times longer than it is wide, usually with parallel sides

Key constructed by Larry Rabinowitz

October 1990

Page 9

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual

Record Section

Project Requirements


1) What are the needles of a pine tree wrapped in?

2) What is the difference between an evergreen tree and a deciduous tree?

3) Define conifer.

4) How long do needles stay on pine trees before they drop off?

5) Where are the seeds of a conifer formed?

6) How do people use conifers?

October 1990

Page 10

What's A Tree To Me? Member's Manual


1) Identify at least three different kinds of conifers in your town or city, using the key at the end of the
chapter. Record where you found them and any distinguishing characteristics they have.

2) Collect cones from as many different conifers as you can find. Identify each tree you get a cone from.
Arrange the cones in a bowl to be used as a centerpiece.

3) Make a conifer seed collection. Place the seeds in a small plastic bag, and staple the bag to a display board.
Above each bag place a label with your name, the type of tree from which the seed was taken, where it was
found, and the date it was found.


Include what you learned, problems you had, and what was the most fun.


October 1990

Page 11



County: 4-H Club:

Years in 4-H work: School:

Leader's Name: Do you live in the City?


IFAS Extension

1. This document has been extracted from 4H FOM 10 (section 2 of 11 sections) and supercedes
4H-480, one of a series of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation for 4-H Youth
Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Date reprinted October 1990. Please visit the
FAIRS Website at http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu.
2. Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School of Forest Resources and Conservation,
Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, 32611.

Christine Taylor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further
the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, age, sex, handicap or national origin. The
information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is
available from Publications Distribution Center, University of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about
alternate formats is available from Educational Media and Services, University of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810.
This information was published as 4H FOM 10, which supercedes 4H-480, Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

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