• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Dedication
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Introduction
 Criteria for evaluation of development...
 Six sample projects
 Analysis
 Afterword
 Case presentation of Save the Children...
 Application of criteria to Save...
 Bibliography
 Members of sub-committee on women...
 Notes
 Response form
 Back Cover














Title: Criteria for evaluation of development projects involving women
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078685/00001
 Material Information
Title: Criteria for evaluation of development projects involving women
Physical Description: 44 p. : ; 23 x 11 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service -- Committee on Development Assistance. -- Subcommittee on Women in Development
Publisher: Technical Assistance Information Clearing House, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service
Place of Publication: New York N.Y
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Technical assistance -- Evaluation   ( lcsh )
Economic development projects -- Evaluation   ( lcsh )
Women -- Social conditions -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 35-37).
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by Subcommittee on Women in Development of the Committee on Development Assistance, ACVAFS.
General Note: "December 1975."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078685
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 06071086

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Dedication
        Dedication
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Preface 1
        Preface 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Foreword
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Criteria for evaluation of development projects involving women
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Six sample projects
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Analysis
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Afterword
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Case presentation of Save the Children Federation/Community Development Foundation
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Application of criteria to Save the Children Federation/Community Development Foundation Rosquillas Project
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Bibliography
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Members of sub-committee on women in development
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Notes
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Response form
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Back Cover
        Page 48
Full Text

CRITERIA FOR
EVALUATION OF
DEVELOPMENT
PROJECTS
INVOLVING
WOMEN
Subcommittee onWomen in Development/
Committee on DevelopmentAssistance, ACVAFS








Te nicl Asss ce K on tion Clearing House
AmenricanCmuncidlofIihryAgenciesforFeign5Service,kc.














This booklet is dedicated to women-


in recognition

of the contributions they have quietly made
to achieve a better life;


in anticipation

of fuller benefits for humankind which can
come by enabling their


equal participation in development













International Women's Year
1975













CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION
OF DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
INVOLVING WOMEN







Prepared by


Subcommittee on Women in Development
of the
Committee on Development Assistance, ACVAFS









Technical Assistance Information Clearing House
American Council of Voluntary Agencies
for Foreign Service, Inc.
200 Park Avenue South,
New York, New York 10003


December 1975





THE AMERICAN COUNCIL OF VOLUNTARY
AGENCIES FOR FOREIGN SERVICE (ACVAFS)
was established in 1944 to provide its mem-
ber agencies a means for consultation, pro-
gram planning and at times, coordination, and
to assure the maximum effective use of contri-
butions by the American community for the
assistance of people overseas. Through the
ACVAFS, 42 United States based voluntary
agencies (including 2 consortia with a combined
membership of 45 agencies) operating humani-
tarian and development assistance programs
overseas cooperate in their plans and activities
both at home and abroad, not only among them-
selves, but also with non-member agencies and
governmental, inter-governmental and inter-
national organizations. The work of the ACVAFS
is carried on primarily through the functioning of
its established committees dealing with areas of
concern to its members, namely development
assistance, material aid and refugee resettlement.
THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN DEVELOP-
MENT of the Committee on- Development Assist-
ance was formed in February 1975 in recognition
of the invaluable contribution of women to the
daily livelihood of the peoples of the developing
countries. The members of the Subcommittee, as
representatives of several operating agencies,
therefore decided to pool their knowledge and
experience to improve significantly agency pro-
grams involving women in order to increase their
participation in the development process, thereby
raising their status in their community and
society.
THE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE INFORMATION
CLEARING HOUSE, operated since 1955 by the
ACVAFS under contract with the U.S. Agency for
International Development, serves as a center of
information on the socio-economic development
programs of U.S. non-profit organizations. Through
publications and the maintenance of an inquiry
service, it makes available information about
development assistance with particular reference
to the private, non-profit sector.





ACVAFS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE


HONORARY CHAIRMEN:
Edward E. Swanstrom
Frank L. Goffio
Bernard A. Confer
Paul Bernick
James MacCracken

CHAIRMAN:
James J. Norris

VICE CHAIRMEN:
Julliet N. Benjamin
Samuel L. Haber
Gaynor I. Jacobson
Andrew P. Landi
Paul F. McCleary

SECRETARY:
Charles Sternberg

TREASURER:
Herbert Katzki
Delmer J. Dooley
David L. Guyer
Gottlieb Hammer
Stanley W. Hosie
Irving Kessler
Frank C. Kiehne
John E. McCarthy
Rosalie V. Oakes
Robert F. O'Brien
Jan Papanek
Tatiana Schaufuss

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR:
Leon O. Marion


List of members of Subcommittee on Women in
Development is on pages 38-40.











TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page

Foreword....................... 1

Introduction ................... .. 3

Criteria for Evaluation of Development
Projects Involving Women .. . .. 5

Six Sample Projects................ 7

Response Form . . . ... Centerfold

Analysis ....................... 13

Afterword ...................... 25

Appendix A Case Presentation of Save
the Children Federation/
Community Development
Foundation . . .. 27

Appendix B Suggested Reading ..... 35

Members of the Subcommittee on
Women in Development . .... 38





FOREWORD


The end of nineteen seventy-five, Inter-
national Women's Year (IWY), also marks the
beginning of the U.N. Decade for Women and
Development. During the years 1976 to 1985
special efforts will be made to reach the goals
outlined in the World Plan of Action adopted at
the World Conference of the IWY in Mexico City,
June 19 July 2, 1975. At the end of the
Decade, progress toward those goals will be
measured and evaluated.
As members of the Subcommittee on Women in
Development, the representatives of several U.S.
voluntary agencies which work in developing
countries have devised criteria by which to
examine critically their programs involving
women. The criteria are conceived as a tool
intended for use with all development programs,
not only those targeted mainly to women; they
should be used in conjunction with standard
program criteria. Since the only value of a tool
lies in its use, the American Council wishes to
share the criteria with all who work in the field
of development.
The criteria may be used for:
1) On-the-job application during project de-
sign, field implementation, evaluation and
follow-up:
a) The criteria may be used as the basis
for formulating specific indicators
which will allow both planners and pro-
ject participants to measure progress in
a particular project;
b) The criteria may be used to assess a
project's likely social and economic
impact on women.
2) Training courses for national and inter-
national development planners, within all
fields of specialty and at every grade of
responsibility.
3) Task forces on the integration of women
into the development process, and scholars





researching the impact of development
activities on women and men.
4) Public information for groups interested in
world development, and in the necessity
that women assume an equitable share of
the responsibilities for and involvement in
development planning and execution at
every level--family, community, national,
regional and international.
We intend to improve this tool and to modify
it according to the body of experience we are
able to collect. It is hoped that through this
booklet and the Response Form (centerfold) we
may gain your assistance in enlarging the cur-
rently limited body of information on and enhanc-
ing the participation of women in development.





INTRODUCTION


A host -of problems confronted the Subcom-
mittee on Women in Development when it began
discussing how voluntary agencies could assist
in improving the situation of women in the de-
veloping world. How can we deal with cultural
differences which often impose various con-
straints? How can we choose among the wide
variety of needs of women? What are the
priorities? How can we tell if the programs are
really effective and make sure that the right
combination of economic and social program
elements is achieved?
Such questions prompted another: What do
we know about WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT? It
was agreed that much is known, but not enough
to make across-the-board program recommenda-
tions. We know the magnitude of women's con-
tribution to the nourishment, health, welfare and
education of the population of developing nations.
Women are heavily burdened and need help in
increasing their efficiency and productivity, in
lightening their workload and in obtaining more
free time. We realize that helping women will
help development, but that sometimes foreign
assistance unintentionally has made conditions
worse for them. As outside change agents, we
might misinterpret another culture, or initiate
changes which would bring about negative con-
sequences. We therefore recognize the need to
be sensitive to ethnocentric views of other
peoples' societal goals. For instance, the
society in question may have role assignments
that are amply fulfilling to both women and men.
Our concern is not appearances, but realities,
and the practical aspects of life as viewed by
the particular society or individuals. Not enough
is known about how these realities affect women
in developing societies.
Therefore, it was concluded that a project
designed to improve or change the status of
women in developing countries must evolve out
of an indigenous perception of the goals, of the





suitability of the means to achieve them and of
the pace at which changes should occur. The
Criteria for Evaluation of Development Projects
Involving Women are based on this conclusion,
and revolve around the participation of women in
the development process and in the particular
project itself.
Six projects were examined by the Subcom-
mittee to: (1) test the validity of the proposed
criteria; (2) generate information about suc-
cessful types of programs; and (3) indicate
areas for improvement.





CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION
OF DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
INVOLVING WOMEN

1) INITIATION AND LEADERSHIP: Are women
involved in initiation? Number of women?
Who? Status? Role? Indigenous? Are they
responsible and responsive to project
participants?

2) PARTICIPATIOi -AND CONTROL: Do women
participate in the direction of the project?
How? Characterize the structure (if any;
formal/informal) for participation and feed-
back. What is the participant's role? Will
this experience change women's roles?

3) BENEFITS: What are the benefits of this pro-
ject to women? Direct? Indirect? How
are they measured? Do the participants per-
ceive them as benefits in key areas in their
lives? Is the project structured so that, hav-
ing attained one objective, the participants
can move on to others? Does the project
contribute to increasing women's access to
knowledge, resources, the power structure?

4) SOCIAL CHANGE: Does this project increase
women's options, raise their status? What
are the political, economic and cultural impli-
cations of the project? Does the project
create dislocations? Does it reinforce
structures of exploitation? Have these effects
been anticipated? What provisions are there
to deal with them?

5) PROCESS: Does the project treat development
as a process? How does it relate to a larger
plan? Does it stimulate a broader base for
continuing development? Is the project flex-
ible enough to adjust its course to changes
identified as desirable? Does the project
treat women as an integral part of the family
and of the community?






























































6






SIX SAMPLE PROJECTS


The following projects were selected by the
participants in the Subcommittee on Women in
Development as examples of outstanding pro-
jects or interesting approaches to integrating
women into the development process. Not all
the samples are "women only" projects. We
consider all development projects within the
scope of "projects involving women," as they
inevitably involve--at least indirectly--a group
which constitutes half of the population.
The sample projects were discussed from
three perspectives: (1) we wanted to see whether
the criteria were valid when applied to them;
(2) we wanted to learn more about the anatomy
and dynamics of a "good" project; and (3) it was
important to learn how to improve continuing
projects as well as how to design more effective
ones aimed at improving women's status and
participation in development.
The criteria stood the test fairly well, although
we found that in no instance was there sufficient
information available to answer all the questions
in depth. Some valuable feedback from the
Community Development Foundation and CARE
overseas staffs helped shape the final version of
the criteria.
In the future we hope to examine the projects
as in-depth case studies. At that time the prob-
lem of converting the criteria into measurable
indicators must be confronted. We hope to gather
examples of such indicators from a wide variety
of sources; you are invited to participate via the
Response Form in the center of the booklet.
Perhaps one of the reasons that we lacked
pertinent information is that we are breaking new
ground. In fact, some of the people with whom
the criteria were shared felt that the task is so
formidable that one hardly knows where or how
to begin. It was our experience that the criteria
suggested areas for improvement in each project
in our sample. Therefore we believe the best
way to begin is to review current projects to see






how they can be improved. For those projects in
design stages, the criteria can be used, at the
very least, to signal areas where project inter-
vention may have an adverse impact on women.
At best, we hope the criteria can help integrate
women into the development process in ways
they perceive useful and valuable to themselves.
The project descriptions are brief and there-
fore not comprehensive. Their only purpose is to
provide background so that application of the
criteria can be illustrated. In each case both
the U.S. voluntary agency and the local sponsor-
ing or cooperating agency are listed.


Nurses' Training
CARE/MEDICO Afghanistan Program

A 12-year program of assistance to theMinistry
of Health in training resident physicians for
service in the provincial hospitals led to a
Nurses' Training Program at the undergraduate,
in-service and postgraduate levels. This training
now is being offered to women in a society where
traditionally nursing has been considered princi-
pally a male pursuit, and virtually all nurses in
the provinces have been male. What little health
care is available outside the capital city reaches
disproportionately fewer women and children be-
cause there are social and cultural barriers to
women being attended by men. The goal is to
improve rural health care by building local
capability to train nurses, including women, and
to draw more people into health work by improv-
ing attitudes toward locally-trained personnel
through increased competence and professionalism.


CATHOLIC Housewives'
RELIEF Clubs (Clubes
SERVICES/ Honduras de Amas
CARITAS de Casa)
This program has as its primary goal support
of an indigenously operated and financed organi-
zation of campesino women, which seeks to





enhance women's dignity, their effectiveness as
homemakers and mothers, and their contribution
to the development process equally with men.
The first Club was begun in 1967 in southern
Honduras by a coordinator of the Radiophonic
Schools and his wife. The Clubs spread some-
what spontaneously through the interest of rural
women, but also were promoted by the Radio-
phonic Schools. In June, 1968, Caritas and
Catholic Relief Services (CRS) initiated a milk
distribution program for children which was run
by the Housewives' Clubs. A Department of
Nutrition was created in Caritas to provide
nutrition education to the Clubs. The House-
wives' Clubs eventually reached a stage of
activity which necessitated national level
assistance in providing organizational and
technical assistance and various material re-
sources to the individual Clubs. Therefore, in
1971 Caritas and CRS designed this project to
provide resources in a systematic way, to pro-
vide linkages among the Clubs (which now
number near 800), and to enable them to move
toward a self-directed, independent existence.
Various activities of the Clubs include nutrition
education, community improvement projects,
income-producing projects, and social events.


CHURCH WORLD Pan African
SERVICE/MINDOLO Advanced
ECUMENICAL Zambia Women's Leader-
FOUNDATION ship Course
The Mindolo Ecumenical Foundation, a church-
sponsored adult education center in Kitwe, has
been training women since 1958 in leadership
skills, homemaking, and domestic science. Since
1967 it has been using a mobile teaching unit to
reach outlying areas with home economics in-
struction. Since 1975 an advanced course has
been offered to women from all over Africa with
previous leadership experience. Participants are
sponsored by an organization engaged in women's
training and are guaranteed employment by that





organization as women's organizers/trainers
upon completion of the course. Six months are
devoted to training and field work in Zambia,
and the next six months to supervised appren-
ticeship in the home country of each participant.
Content is divided into nine subject units such
as community leadership and development, and
nine practical units including agriculture.


THE FOUNDATION
FOR THE PEOPLES
OF THE SOUTH Women's
PACIFIC/WESTERN Western Agribusiness
SAMOA NATIONAL Samoa Program
COUNCIL OF
WOMEN (WSNCW)
The Western Samoa National Council of Women
was founded in 1953. The Council raised funds
locally to build a Women's Center in Apia, which
serves as a central training facility for home
science and community education. The Agri-
business Project is a response of the 10,000
member WSNCW to a 1974 food crisis caused by
a severe drought which reduced food production
to near-zero. The women started a village plant-
ing program of taro, bananas, breadfruit and
vegetables with a government loan. Each village
now has a women's council which decides how
many plots the village can begin and maintain,
and each participating village agrees to in-
spection from WSNCW staff. The project is
planned and implemented totally by women. The
second phase will be a food marketing program
in which the truck drivers also will be women.


SAVE THE CHILDREN
FEDERATION/ Rosuias
COMMUNITY Honduras Project
DEVELOPMENT
FOUNDATION
The village of Esquimay (population 1,000) in
southern Honduras has a Housewives' Club






(Club de Amas de Casa)*. One of the leaders,
Lucinda, heard that the Community Development
Foundation (CDF) was working in the area and
asked for their assistance. At the suggestion of
CDF the Club organized a community committee
of 40 women and 20 men. Lucinda became the
secretary and the other officers elected were
men. With the help of CDF, the committee de-
cided that their first project would be to increase
the production of rosquillas, hard biscuits of
corn and cheese, which was the primary source
of income for the village. Although women had
been working all day preparing the rosquillas
and marketing them in nearby villages, they had
not been able to meet the demand because of the
long hours spent grinding corn by hand. The
committee decided that a motor-driven corn mill
would overcome this major obstacle to increased
production. Milling fees are deposited in the
community treasury to repay the purchase loan
and to provide for a new machine in the future.
The production of rosquillas has been increased
significantly so that the women now have time
for other activities. The community currently is
undertaking other projects such as a cooperative
store.


WORLD YWCA/ Nutrition
YWCA OF GHANA; Ghana; Kenya Program
YWCA of KENYA (Proposed)

Since 1971 the YWCA of Ghana has trained
Youth Leaders who take up projects in the rural
areas during vacation. Youth Leaders working in
the village of Bawaleshie have found that the
village wants a day care center so that women
can leave their children there while working in
the fields. The Chief and his people support the
project, and each adult is donating one cedi
(approximately U.S. $.95) for equipment. An


*This is one of the 800 Housewives' Clubs to
which Catholic Relief Services/CARITAS pro-
vided national level assistance. (See page 9.)





unoccupied building has been set aside and the
fee will be 20p (100p = 1 cedi) per day per child.
After the center has been started, a Parents'
Association will- be formed, nutrition classes
will begin, and Agricultural Development Officers
will help to start a model farm to introduce
nutritious foods at the center which could be
grown later on the farms of the parents.
The YWCA of Kenya operates a Vocational
Training School at Limuru which includes train-
ing in health education. Their plan* is to add an
expert in nutrition to the staff to improve the
present curriculum, using vegetable gardening
and the raising of poultry and other farm animals
as pilot projects at the school. The nutrition ex-
pert would hold short courses for women farmers
at the school and also in agricultural districts in
cooperation with the Government Department of
Maendeleo Ya Wanawake (Progress of Women),
as well as in districts not covered by the
Department.



*Still in a very early stage as of December 1975.





ANALYSIS


Quotations are from written agency presentations
at meetings of the Subcommittee on Women in
Development.


I. INITIATION AND LEADERSHIP: Are women
involved in initiation? Number of women?
Who? Status? Role? Indigenous? Are they
responsible and responsive to project
participants?

The two Honduras projects (CRS and CDF)
were initiated by individual women from the com-
munity, one with the help of her husband: "The
first Housewives' Club was created in 1967 in
El Papalon, in the south of Honduras, by a coordi-
nator of the Radiophonic Schools and his wife,
who had obtained some leaflets on mothers'
clubs in El Salvador. The clubs spread somewhat
spontaneously through the interest of rural
women, but were also promoted by the Radio-
phonic Schools..."[CRS] "Women involved in
Amas de Casa, a housewives' club, were the
initiators of the project. Led by Lucinda, a local
village woman, the women approached CDF for
assistance for their village." [CDF]

The FPSP and YWCA projects were initiated by
indigenous national women's organizations the
Western Samoa National Council of Women and
the YWCA's of Ghana and of Kenya. "In the face
of a crisis of hunger and of poverty, the Western
Samoa National Council of Women met in Decem-
ber, 1974 to discuss an action program."
[FPSP] "Bawaleshie, a village near Dodowah
[Ghana], has been one of the places where the
Youth Leaders have worked. In their reports,
they mentioned the cooperative spirit of the
women who are mostly farmers. The entire vil-
lage of Bawaleshie had expressed 'the wish that
if they had somewhere to leave their toddlers
they would prefer to have them cared for while
they go to work on their farms." [YWCA]





Both the CARE and CWS cases are training
courses, one in nursing and the other in leader-
ship. Though the sponsoring institutions are
local, the objective of training women was in-
spired by interaction of the local institutions
and the foreign voluntary agency.
All six sample projects yielded insufficient
information for a thorough application of this
criterion.

II. PARTICIPATION AND CONTROL: Do women
participate in the direction of the project?
How? Characterize the structure (if any;
formal/informal) for participation and feed-
back. What is the participant's role? Will
this experience change women's roles?
This category, participation and control, is
perhaps the key category of the criteria. It may
serve us to keep in mind the meaning of par-
ticipation-"sharing in common with others."
It is important to look at the nature of the par-
ticipation, since it may well be passive. We
added the word, "control," to emphasize the
point that women should have the opportunity to
"exercise direction, guiding, or restraining
power" over the project.
Outstanding for total participation and con-
trol by women is the FPSP/WSNCW Women's
Agribusiness Program. It evidently grew out of
successful experiences within the National
Council of Women since its beginning in 1953.
"In 1967, after years of grass-roots fund-raising
throughout Samoa, they began their Women's
Center building in Apia. Much of the work on
this building was done by women in an amazing
example of initiative, drive and self-help.
Equally astounding was the success of the women
in raising funds locally to pay for the building,
completed in 1969 at a cost of $200,000. The
building contains various training facilities-
a demonstration urban kitchen, two demonstra-
tion village kitchens, a nutrition program, a
village health and hygiene program, a tailoring
program. The demonstration kitchens serve a
public cafeteria, with low-cost meals for workers





in the town of Apia." There are also village-
level training programs in leadership, a cottage
industries business, and a family planning
program.
An important factor in the planning of the
FPSP/WSNCW project by the women was the 1974
food crisis. The women agreed unanimously that:
"(a) the men of Western Samoa had not prepared
for the crisis; (b) the men of Western Samoa
were not coping with the crisis with a practical
program; (c) the crisis demanded an immediate
food planting program; (d) a food planting pro-
gram must be followed by a food marketing pro-
gram; (e) the women of Western Samoa could and
would tackle this program in all its phases."
The structure for participation and feedback
is formal: "Each village has a women's council
which decides how many...plots the village can
begin and maintain. Participating villages agree
to inspection from NCW staff to insure that each
village is carrying out its commitments to the
program."
In the beginning the Honduras Housewives'
Clubs (CRS) involved women as participants
with men. Women promotores* were at first
selected by parish priests. As they developed,
the Clubs came closer to total participation by
women. "The Housewives' Clubs project is now
directed, almost in its entirety, by women.
Women promotores, ... service the Clubs and pro-
vide the linkage between the individual Clubs
and the regional and national structures." In the
CDF project, a community committee of 40women
and 20 men was formed at the instance of CDF.
The officers were men, with the exception of
Lucinda, who was elected secretary. When the
first committee meeting was called, "as ex-
pected, the men were somewhat resentful of
women being included, but they seemed to accept
it provisionally probably because they realized
that it was a Housewife's Club that had invited
CDF there, and because they were interested in
what would happen."
*Equivalent to community development agent or
animateur.





Yet a different sort of participation is evident
in the CARE Nurses' Training Program. "Women
participate directly in the project by: (a) up-
grading nursing care; (b) attending in-service
classes, both formal and informal; (c) writing
the hospital procedure manual; (d) implementing
national plans for nursing and improving the
curriculum and teaching methods." (The Nursing
Director of the Ministry of Health and the nursing
team are women.)
We must ask whether participation results in
the ability to make critical choices and/or to
control the course of the project. Such positive
direction by the project participants is evident
in the Western Samoa and Honduras projects. It
may also be the case in the other sample projects,
but our information is incomplete. The formula-
tors of the criteria recognize their bias in favor
of equal participation-a bias toward democracy-
and the likelihood that it may be valued dif-
ferently in other societies or may be a new
experience. "...participation is often hampered
by the operation of the Housewives' Clubs at the
grassroots. There is often the belief by the
members that the officers are the Club-and
democratic decision-making is not clearly under-
stood, although this varies from Club to Club."
[CRS] It is evident that we must also ask if the
participation in making important decisions is
distributed evenly among the group.



III. BENEFITS: What are the benefits of this
project to women? Direct? Indirect?
How are they measured? Do the partici-
pants perceive them as benefits in key areas
in their lives? Is the project structured so
that, having attained one objective, the
participants can move on to others? Does
the project contribute to increasing women's
access to knowledge, resources, the power
structure?
As external development agents the voluntary
agencies recognize that their perceptions of





benefits may differ from the ideas of the "bene-
ficiaries." Such differing views have caused
some projects to fail, and have conditioned
people to respond in certain ways to voluntary
agencies and their own governments when asked
what they want/need. One way of insuring that
the project group views the proposed project as
desirable is to require their material participa-
tion in the project, i.e., that they agree to con-
tribute funds, materials, labor and/or service
before the project is undertaken. This is an
improvement, but not necessarily the perfect
solution. The best means of insuring that the
project participants really benefit, in perceived,
critical ways, seems to be through introducing
and strengthening a process of critical thinking
which the group can use to plan, manage and
evaluate their activities. (See the CDF sample
project in Appendix A for a detailed look at the
process in action.) Of course, this knowledge
and skill must be coupled with the ability to act.
Blocks occur when the group is, or perceives
itself to be, powerless.
In the Western Samoa project women identi-
fied a key need food production. They went
further and structured the project so that it fit
into an already existing nutrition and food
preservation program to be followed by a market-
ing component. As a result of this project,
women will have increased access to resources-
both food and the income from its sale. Develop-
ments indicate that the women are learning how
power is gained through control of production
and through the acquisition of skills, for example,
in transportation, marketing and export of food.
On a national level, the Housewives' Clubs
of Honduras include the members in surveys and
evaluation reviews. However, "the setting of
objectives is one of the weakest areas of Club
activity at the moment. On an organizational
level, the directors have identified a series of
objectives which they feel have been met in
part. These include: (1) changing structures;
(2) a reinstatement of currently denied rights;




(3) personal formation; (4) participation in the
construction of a new society; (5) technical
training; (6) services which respond to group
needs; and (7) family integration. However, at
the individual Club level, objectives for which
members can plan activities often are not identi-
fied. Many raise money with no clear concept
of what they will use it for, and without estab-
lishing minimum work standards which will allow
them to achieve their goals." [CRS]

IV. SOCIAL CHANGE: Does this project in-
crease women's options, raise their status?
What are the political, economic and cultural
implications? Does the project create dis-
locations? Reinforce structures of exploita-
tion? Have these effects been anticipated?
What provisions are there to deal with them?
All of the sample projects indicate an in-
crease in the options available to women, rang-
ing froin entry into a profession previously closed
to them (nursing in Afghanistan) to an econom-
ically important activity not hitherto under their
organizational control (food production and mar-
keting in Western Samoa). Similarly, the sample
projects have brought about a change (for the
better) in the way women view themselves, and
in men's attitude toward them. Women feel able
to -cope with a famine (Western Samoa); the men
recognize the importance of women's contribu-
tions and the need for lightening their burden so
that the whole society can advance (day care
center in Ghana and Rosquillas Project in Hon-
duras). It might be inferred that the greatest
potential for increasing status may be in projects
where women generate and/or control income.
This may account for the fact that Western Samoan
women did not stop at producing food, but also
planned a marketing component. It may also
account for the disparity between the activities
undertaken by the members of Housewives' Clubs
and the goals of their national-level promoters.
"In terms of activities undertaken, the majority
of the Clubs prefer raffles, dances, parties and






sales, primarily because of the fund-raising
factor." [CRS]
In none of the sample projects did we find
that the project created dislocations or rein-
forced structures of exploitation. However, there
were insufficient data available on which to base
conclusive findings. Some of the agency com-
ments on this point are interesting. "It (House-
wives' Clubs) has not created dislocations be-
cause the Clubs have developed in areas where
the men have already been active in the develop-
ment process-through the radio schools, farmers'
clubs, patronatos, etc. These organizations and
others like them create an environment favorable
to the women's movement-they incorporate the
clubs into a general channeling of internal and
external resources for community development
and at the same time mobilize an important human
resource. It should be noted that if there is
conflict rather than cooperation between the
Clubs and other groups, the Club nearly always
dies out due to the women's submission to their
husbands' wills." [CRS] In the Western Samoa
Agribusiness Project "there is not really danger
of immediate dislocation since the gap between
'famine' and competitive surplus is so great that
women could not be considered a threat- to the
men in the existing power structure." [FPSP]
Obviously the whole area of social change
and the impact-both positive and negative-of
projects geared to improve women's participation
in development require much more attention.


V. PROCESS: Does the project treat develop-
ment as a process? How does it relate to a
larger plan? Does it stimulate a broader
base for continuing development? Is the
project flexible enough to adjust its course
to changes identified as desirable? Does
the project treat women as an integral part
of the family and of the community?
Process is a continuing development, involv-
ing many changes. In each of the six sample
projects there was evidence of process, such as





the accomplishments of the Western Samoa
National Council of Women since its organization
in 1953 (see Participation and Control), and the
evolution within the twelve-year CARE program
to train medical personnel in Afghanistan. "The
project initially was considered a residency
training program designed to improve the com-
petence of physicians scheduled to serve in the
outlying provincial hospitals. Nursing and other
paramedical training were considered as ancillary
to the residency training program and were looked
upon as support necessary for a good residency
program. Gradually over the years there de-
veloped the recognition that there was a need for
training of nurses and other paramedical person-
nel apart from simply support of the residency
program. What has evolved is a specialized
sub-project directed toward the Afghan Nurses'
Training Program with particular emphasis on the
training of female nurses." [CARE]
Flexibility, or the conscious provision for
change, occurs in all the sample projects to
varying degrees. It includes modifying training
according to feedback such as in the Pan-African
Advanced Women's Leadership Course. "Using
the 'action-training' approach, trainees will be
engaged from the start of the course in practical
work, in reflexion upon it, and, in developing
those theoretical understandings which will make
their leadership more effective." [CWS]
Most of the samples related project activities
to a larger plan, or at least to other activities.
The Western Samoa Agribusiness Project-con-
cerned with growing and marketing food-fit into
other programs in nutrition, health and hygiene,
family planning, leadership training and handi-
crafts. It looked forward to future activities,
providing a base for continuing development
which related to its past activities. "Thewomen
of Western Samoa, having successfully launched
a program to cope with a shortage of their own
traditional foods, see the possibility of expand-
ing the production of other foods, of flax (for
mats, baskets and many household purposes in
Western Samoan culture) and for increasing





plantings of mulberry trees-source of the im-
portant tapa cloth industry." [FPSP]
It might be said that there is a natural anti-
pathy between relating the project to a larger
plan, and ensuring sufficient flexibility for mid-
course adjustments. The answer seems to lie in
the acceptance of development as a process by
all participants-outside assistance agents and
project participants themselves. There is built-in
flexibility, within the context of a larger plan,
in approaches to development based on the par-
ticipants' formulating their objectives, setting
priorities, and seeking their own solutions. (See
especially CDF project, Appendix A.) Where
this does not occur, problems arise, such as
those seen in the CRS Housewives' Clubs pro-
ject. The Honduran Caritas promotores had a
better understanding of development as a
process than did the individual Clubs or their
membership, and so a conflict arose concerning
objectives. "Motivation for the first group of
activities (raffles, dances, parties and sales)
comes primarily from the members' ideas of what
the Clubs' purpose should be (recreation, com-
munity improvement) and for the second (nutrition
programs, courses, talks and clothing sales)
from what Caritas considers it to be (education,
feminine solidarity)." It remained for another
agency, CDF, to provide the villagers with a
better understanding of process. "The community
was asked to identify their first development
objective, and their reply was not what planners
had expected. They said that they wanted to
build a new school for their children, because
the building they had, with a government-
supplied teacher, was in poor condition. This
might have been what they thought a voluntary
agency would like to hear, that their prime con-
cern was making their children happy through
education, that education alone superceded
all other priorities in their minds. Nevertheless,
CDF planners were not there to reject their
priorities, but to get the community to sys-
tematically think through its conclusions, and
evaluate them in terms of maximum community





benefits. Will this money for a school building
replenish itself? No, it disappears when spent.
Then how would you raise that much money if
you were to finance this project yourselves?"
(See Appendix A for the full text.)
If development is viewed as a process, and if
the participants set definite objectives for them-
selves, they will be able to provide the feedback
to either make the project more effective in
reaching the objectives, or to choose another
alternative. A successful process experience
will stimulate a broader base for continuing the
process of development. "The very process of
selecting appropriate small technology for the
[Rosquillas Project] and [of] operating it for
common benefit has greatly increased this vil-
lage's initiative in planning other endeavors. .
All these advances have come as a result of. .
women becoming involved in charting the eco-
nomic course that the community was to take."
[CDF]
Taking the long-range, comprehensive view
and building in flexibility is nowhere so im-
portant as in programs aimed at changing tradi-
tions and attitudes adversely affecting women's
participation in development. The Afghanistan
and Honduras projects illustrate this point well.
It becomes a matter of individual cases whether
the choice is made to design a "women only"
project, to design one for the entire group, or to
modify an existing activity to include women in
it. In any case, it is necessary to the success
of the project to treat women as an integral part
of the family and of the community. Where a
"women only" project is needed to help women
"catch up," to gain the skills and confidence of
achievement needed to participate equally with
men, there should be methods for involving men,
at least in the knowledge that changes are
occurring which will benefit them as part of the
family and community. The Honduras projects
provide an interesting study. The CRS House-
wives' Clubs were begun in places where other
development promotion had taken place,. and





where men were being exposed to new ideas in a
number of organizations such as the radio
schools, farmers' clubs, patronatos, etc. "These
organizations and others like them create an
environment favorable to the women's movement-
they incorporate the clubs into a general chan-
neling of internal and external resources for
community development and at the same time
mobilize an important human resource." If the
organization of Housewives' Clubs had not been
formed, it is doubtful that the village of Esquimay
would have embarked on the CDF Rosquillas
Project; certainly it would have been much more
difficult to involve the women in charting the
economic course of the community.



























































24





AFTERWORD


We have seen from our six sample projects
that:
1) the criteria seem to be valid, that is, the
"good" projects involving women fulfill the
requisites of the criteria;
but that
2) none of the projects yielded enough infor-
mation to answer all the questions posed by the
criteria-perhaps because we were too removed
from the project environment, perhaps because
these questions had not been asked before.
Therefore, much remains to be done, especially
in generating information about successful types
of programs, and in using the criteria to improve
programs involving women.

Where do we go from here? The Subcommittee
on Women in Development will continue its work,
focussing on the "how to" (and sometimes, as
one field person requested, the "how not to").
We really can't do much without your help,
though. In New York we are a long way from the
realities of development. We have found that
the pieces of paper in our files are not adequate
pictures of an exciting, dynamic liberation that
is in progress. We sometimes resort to the occas-
ional anecdote, picked up during a field trip,
which only tantalizes us by suggesting the rich-
ness of what we don't know. And we need to
know, so that we can be of better service, so
that we can grow and develop, too.
You can help reach the women of developing
countries to ask them what they think, what they
care about, what their dreams are, what burdens
them, and how we can help. Until they have
been reached and can participate, the criteria
won't work.
Please join with us. Use the criteria, at
least on one project. If you share your exper-
ience with us by means of the Response Form,
we will do our very best to reciprocate. Perhaps
we can come together to talk; perhaps we can
correspond; perhaps we can publish the results.


























































26





APPENDIX A


CASE PRESENTATION OF SAVE THE
CHILDREN FEDERATION/COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION

Honduras: "We Won't Be Here Forever"

South Honduras is the most impoverished area
in one of the poorest countries in the Western
Hemisphere. Three-quarters of the rural popu-
lation hold but one-tenth of all cultivated land.
Over 70% live in settlements of less than 2000
people.
When the Community Development Foundation
came to the remote village of Esquimay, they
found it situated on a plateau, surrounded by
dry, hilly terrain that afforded one harvest a year
for sorghum, beans and corn. Vegetable garden-
ing simply did not exist. Men would return from
long, hot hours in the fields listless and
exhausted.
The primary source of income for Esquimay
was the sale of rosquillas, hard biscuits made
from corn and cheese. Women would have to
rise at four a.m. to grind the corn and prepare
the dough. Grinding itself would consume such
a tremendous amount of time that the supply
could only satisfy part of the demand. That de-
mand was in the hills and towns, some of which
were 17 kilometers away. The women would do
all the marketing themselves, making the long
journey only after they had baked enough
rosquillas. Quite early in life, the very young
would become the very old.
What is the relationship between the planner
and a community such as this? CDF assistance
had been requested by a housewive's club, led
by a young woman named Lucinda who had heard
that the agency was working with other villages
in the area. After hearing a description of the
village's economic situation by the club, CDF
staff surmised that the community might identify
its key development issue as increased income
through better rosquilla production. However,





they realized that first the whole community,
men and women together, would have to recognize
itself as an economic unit. Then, it could realize
its potential as a decision-making unit, and
collaborate on economic objectives and plans of
action. A community meeting in the village
church was called at CDF request to determine
how this process would best work. As expected,
the men were somewhat resentful of women being
included, but they seemed to accept it pro-
visionally, probably because they realized that
it was a housewive's club that had invited CDF
there, and because they were interested in what
would happen. CDF staff realized that for both
men and women this was to be a strange, new
bilateral planning process, and that it would be
thoughtful but not excessive guidance that would
put people at ease with it.


The community was asked to identify their
first development objective, and their reply was
not what planners had expected. They said that
they wanted to build a new school for their
children, because the building they had, with a
government-supplied teacher, was in poor con-
dition. This might have been what they thought
a voluntary agency would like to hear...that their
prime concern was making their children happy
through education, and that education alone
superceded all other priorities in their minds.
Nevertheless, CDF planners were not there to
reject their priorities, but to get the community
to systematically think through its conclusions,
and evaluate them in terms of maximum com-
munity benefit. Will this money for a school
building replenish itself? No, it disappears
when spent. Then how would you raise that
much money if you were to finance this project
yourselves? Through an exploratory discussion
they revealed that their only source of income
came through the sale of rosquillas, and that
they had a good market but poor production
capacity. Now they were considering means of
increasing output to augment their income.





However, before CDF would discuss any
labor-saving technology, the community had to
identify the major obstacle to full production,
and for this the women's role had to be con-
sidered carefully. In addition to producing and
selling rosquillas, women were responsible for
household duties and for caring for their child-
ren. Washing clothes and drawing water were
endless chores, especially when coupled with
the steep climb from the stream back to the
village. It was becoming apparent to the com-
munity that these responsibilities in themselves
were very extensive and that when combined
with the rosquilla trade they left the women no
free time. How would increased corn production
through intermediate farming technology boost
rosquilla output when women already were over-
loaded with work? It was obvious that any labor-
saving device would have to alleviate the
women's hardships.
The community reasoned that the long hours
required to grind the corn caused the most severe
strain and also was the major obstacle to in-
creased production. CDF therefore donated the
down payment and made a loan of the first in-
stallment for a motor-driven mill which grinds
corn in a matter of seconds. Women pay the mill
operator a small fee per pound, which is de-
posited in the community treasury. Budgeting
with CDF, the community has estimated that the
$1000 cost can be repaid within a year and a
half. In fact, the treasury will have sufficient
funds for a new mill long before the end of this
mill's ten year life span.
Esquimay's accounts show that rosquilla
production now could exceed 10,000 per day. Yet
women's work in this area has decreased appre-
ciably, and they are free to become involved in
other activities of their own choosing. Further-
more, the process of selecting appropriate small
technology and operating it for common benefit
has greatly increased this village's initiative
in planning other endeavors. For instance, at
community request, the president and other mem-
bers of the committee have been building an





extension to the community center. With CDF
assistance, they began a small cooperative store
inside, and now they are ready to expand it. The
construction work is being completed without
remuneration, and all store profits are deposited
in a community fund which exists in part to en-
sure the children's educational expenses.
One of the greatest concerns in Esquimay is
child nutrition and health. Due to the heavy use
of corn in making rosquillas, the severely
limited amount of other grains and vegetables
available, and the scarcity of good meat, protein
deficiency can pose a big problem. Having fore-
seen that increased economic activity in Esquimay
would show substantial results only after a
period of months, planners have decided to offer
immediate services in the area of nutrition. They
have arranged for a child lunch-feeding program
with soy protein meal obtained through CARE.
Women in the village volunteer to prepare enough
soup and pancakes to feed several hundred child-
ren who line up impatiently outside the com-
munity center. Following a health and nutrition
feasibility study two community members will be
trained as paramedics and the children and their
parents will have their first real access to
health care. Meanwhile, the old school building
has been renovated by several volunteers.
All of these advances have come as a result
of the women caring enough for their community
to come forward and request CDF assistance,
and then becoming involved in charting the
economic course. To enhance the economic
future of the community CDF has arranged for 25
child sponsorships through its affiliate, Save
the Children Federation. Sponsors contribute
$180 per child per year. The community has de-
cided to utilize a portion of these funds for the
children's welfare, and the balance for other
community development activities. Regular com-
munity meetings have resulted in the design of
budgetary objectives and plans not only for pro-
duction, but for education and health facilities
as well.





Esquimay is well aware of the fact that CDF's
presence could, for any number of reasons,
terminate in the near future. However, the recent
improvements that the community has imple-
mented on its own behalf have given it confidence
in its own planning capabilities.
Some will say that sex roles have not under-
gone revolutionary changes here, but it must be
recognized that the community definitely has
come to some eye-opening realizations: the
people realize that both men and women share
an economic stake in the betterment of their
lives; and they know that there must be com-
munication between them before any planning
can occur. Through their own assessment, the
people have seen that the roles of men and
women must be equalized both in workload and
in decision-making authority. They know that as
a community they not only have hope but in-
fluence in their children's future.
It has been said that the best planner is one
who can pack his bags and leave the people
saying: "We did it ourselves"; "We can con-
trol the course of our lives"; "We can deal with
any hardships, in our own way."


This case study was prepared by Chris Srinivasan.





Application of Criteria to
Save the Children Federation/Community
Development Foundation
Rosquillas Project

Purpose: To increase women's economic produc-
tivity which ultimately benefits the economic
status of the entire community. The single
source of income for Esquimay is the sale of
rosquillas, hard biscuits made from corn and
cheese. The production of the rosquillas was
taking a considerable amount of time yet the
supply could only satisfy part of the demand.
The project aims to help women and men realize
the vital role that each must play in working
toward a goal.
Model Description: The project site is located
in the village of Esquimay in Pespire Valley,
Honduras. The village population is approxi-
mately 1,000, half of whom are children.
SCF/CDF contributed $2,250 to the village of
Esquimay in FY 1974 and FY 1975 projections
indicate an increase to $4,000.
A. INITIATION AND LEADERSHIP:
Women involved in Amas de Casa, a house-
wives' club, were the initiators of the
Rosquillas Project. Led by Lucinda, a local
village woman, the women approached CDF
for assistance for their village.
B. PARTICIPATION AND CONTROL:
At the request of CDF the Amas de Casa
organized the community to begin working
together. A community committee was formed
with a membership of 60, 40 women and 20
men. The elected officers of the committee
are all male with the exception of the secre-
tary, Lucinda.
C. BENEFITS:
The most significant direct benefit for women
is the reduction in work load, and thus the
acquisition of free time. The indirect bene-
fits include the opportunity for women to
participate in the community committee.





Through this participation the women are
able to develop new skills which can enable
them to contribute more fully to the com-
munity's development. In addition, the men
in the village have the opportunity to see
women participate and contribute in a new
manner.
D. SOCIAL CHANGE:
There have been opportunities for the women
to be involved in new situations. This in-
volvement permits the women themselves and
the men to realize the importance of each
other's capabilities. Slowly the attitude and
image of women may change, and this could
be a first step.
E. PROCESS:
The nature of the committee is such that the
people are encouraged to think of long-range
goals. After the purchase of the mill, plans
were developed to build a community center
with a cooperative store. Renovations on the
school have been completed. In the future it
is hoped that paramedics can be trained to
allow the villagers access to better health
care.






QUESTIONS RAISED BY HEADQUARTERS AFTER
REVIEW OF ROSQUILLAS PROJECT

1. What is role of housewive's club in
Esquimay?
2. Is Lucinda a designated leader? elected?
3. Was the decision to approach CDF a con-
sensus? Or was Lucinda the sole motivator?
4. What happened to housewive's club after
CDF's committee was formed? Did the
leadership become all male?
5. What was the women's role in leadership and
planning in the CDF committee?





. 6. Are women involved in the finances and
treasury of the mill? Are they being taught
new skills, e.g., simple bookkeeping, bud-
geting, etc.?
7. Who controls the additional income from the
rosquillas?
8. What do the women do in their extra time?
Specific activities?
9. Has this project increased women's status?
10. Are women involved in the initiation of
projects?
11. Has the mill increased the individual/family
income? If not, why not? If so, by what
percentage? If additional revenue is going
into the community fund to pay the install-
ment and the loan on the mill, at what point
do you think benefits can be realized by the
individual/family?





APPENDIX B


SUGGESTED READING

Accion International/AITEC.
Causes and Consequences of the Changing
Status of Women in Venezuela and Latin
America.
The Effects of Employment and Education on
the Status of Women in Venezuela., Both
publications are available in Spanish only.
(Available from: Private Agencies Collabor-
ating Together, Inc., 777 United Nations
Plaza, New York, New York 10017).
These publications are the result of research
conducted by AITEC and Centro de Estudios
Sociales (CES) in Venezuela during the last
three years.

American Council of Voluntary Agencies for
Foreign Service, Inc. Technical Assistance In-
formation Clearing House.
Women A Bibliography Spring 1975.
This is a 20-page, four-part annotated listing
of recent materials on women in the TAICH
library. The original listing was published in
March 1975; the fourth addendum was added
in January 1976.

Boserup, Ester and Christina Liljencrantz.
Integration of Women in Development Why
When How. United Nations Development
Program. May 1975. Also available in French
and Spanish.

Buvinic, Mayra.
Women and World Development: An Annotated
Bibliography. Prepared under the auspices of
the American Association for the Advancement
of Science. Published by the Overseas De-
velopment Council, Washington, D.C. (Publi-
cation date, February 1976; this is Volume II
of a set priced at $5.00).





Development Alternatives, Inc.
A Seven Country Survey on the Roles of
Women in Rural Development. (A report pre-
pared for the Agency for International De-
velopment) Washington, D.C. December 1974.

Tinker, Irene and Michele Bo Bransen, eds.
Women and World Development. Prepared under
the auspices of the American Association for
the Advancement of Science. Published by
the Overseas Development Council, Wash-
ington, D.C. (Publication date, February 1976;
this is Volume I of a set priced at $5.00).

United Nations Centre for Economic and Social
Information.
Meeting in Mexico, The Story of the World
Conference of the International Women's Year,
Mexico City, 19 June 2 July 1975. Issued
for the International Women's Year Secretariat
by the Centre for Economic and Social Infor-
mation/OPI, United Nations, New York, New
York 10017. December 1975. Pub. #CESI.E30.

United Nations Development Programme.
Women in Development. (Available from:
Ms. E. Inocencio, United Nations Development
Programme, Division of Information, New York,
New York 10017.)
This multi-media packet includes: two 16mm
color films; six 35mm color slide albums with
audio-cassettes in English; texts in English,
French and Spanish, and background reports
and study guides. The materials examine
local planning efforts and can be used for
orientation and training of workers in areas
such as public health, community organiza-
tion, retailing, and financing and credit for
rural women. The packet was produced by
UNDP in cooperation with the UN Secretariat
for International Women's Year and non-
governmental organizations.

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
Women of Africa: Today and Tomorrow. 1975.





United States Agency for International Develop-
ment.
A Plan of Action, for AID Implementation of
the Percy Amendment... (Report of the Percy
Amendment Working Committee) 1974.

World Bank.
Integrating Women into Development. (World
Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
20433) August 1975.







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RESPONSE FORM


INSTRUCTIONS

Please tell us how you think the criteria can be improved in PART A.

IF YOU WISH, to apply the criteria to a project in any stage of design, implementation or
evaluation, you may also respond to PART B.

,WW*** ,, ** *.* ,,,*,** *****************@ % @


Please mail to:

American Council of Voluntary Agencies
for Foreign Service, Inc.
200 Park Avenue South
New York, New York 10003 USA


From:

Name:

Organization:


Address:


PART A


1) How do you plan to use the criteria?


2) What suggestions do you have for improvement of-the criteria?




3) Would you introduce the criteria to other people for their use? To whom?


4) Would you like to participate in further refinement of the criteria?






RESPONSE FORM


PART B

If you used the criteria on a project, please tell us something about the project and comment on how the
project met the criteria, under the five headings.

PROJECT TITLE:

LOCATION:

PURPOSE:

PARTICIPATING
ORGANIZATIONS:

1) INITIATION AND LEADERSHIP: How did the project fit these criteria? Give specific examples.




2) PARTICIPATION AND CONTROL:




3) BENEFITS:




4) SOCIAL CHANGE:




5) PROCESS:






A) After looking at this project against the criteria, what specific area of the project do you think should
be improved?

B) What indicators (measurable, verifiable ways) do you have to evaluate any of the criteria in the project?
(e.g., what changes in behavior have you noticed?)







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