Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Summary and evaluation
 Africa programs
 Asia programs
 Latin America and Caribbean...
 Near East programs
 Population programs
 Back Cover

Group Title: Report on women in development : submitted to the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate and the Speaker, U.S. House of Representatives in fulfillment of section 113(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 as amended, August 3, 1977.
Title: Report on women in development
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078684/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report on women in development submitted to the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate and the Speaker, U.S. House of Representatives in fulfillment of section 113(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 as amended, August 3, 1977
Physical Description: 206, 32 p. : 2 maps ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: Office of Women in Development, U.S. Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: [1978]
Subject: Women   ( lcsh )
Women's employment -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographies.
General Note: "August 1978."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078684
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001249174
oclc - 05134288
notis - AFZ9724
lccn - 82601691

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Letter of transmittal
        Page i
        Page ii
    Summary and evaluation
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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    Africa programs
        Page 30
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    Asia programs
        Page 57
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    Latin America and Caribbean programs
        Page 82
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    Near East programs
        Page 123
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        Page 130
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        Page 136
    Population programs
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
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        Page 143
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        Page A-1
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    Back Cover
        Page A-23
Full Text

Submitted to the Committee on Foreign Relations,
United States Senate
and The Speaker of the House of Representatives
In fulfillment of Section 113(b) of the
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 as amended, August 3, 1977

Office of Women in Development
Agency for International Development
Department of State Room 3243
Washington, D.C. 20523
August 1978

on WOMEN in


Submitted To

The Committee on Foreign Relations,
U.S. Senate
The Speaker
U.S. House of Representatives

In Fulfillment of Section 113(b)
of the Foreign Assistance Act of
1961 as amended, August 3, 1977

Office of Women in Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
Room 3243, New State Building
Washington, D.C. 20523
August 1978


I Letter of Transmittal

II Summary and Evaluation 1

III Introduction 20

IV Projects 29

Africa 30
Asia 57
Latin America 82
Near East 123
Population 137

V Activities 147

VI Data 159

VII Appendices




AUG 2 1978

Honorable John Sparkman
Chairman, Committee on Foreign Relations
United States Senate
Washington, D.C. 20510

Dear Mr. Chairman:

In accordance with Section 113 of the Foreign Assistance
Act of 1961 as amended, I am pleased to transmit herewith
a Report on the impact of development programs, projects,
and activities on the integration of women into the
developing economies of countries receiving assistance.

The Report is submitted in five parts. A summary and
evaluation section provides an overview for those who have
limited time to study the Report. The body of the Report
includes an introduction, a section listing projects parti-
cularly affecting women and a description of activities
of the Agency in the area of women in development, followed
by a section on data.

The Report will be a useful tool for the Agency. We intend
to use it as a compendium of good ideas and as a base on
which to build more and better projects to help move women
into equal partnership with men in the process of development.
We hope it will be a useful source of information to the
Congress as well.

Sincerely yours,



AUG 2 1978

Honorable Thomas P. O'Neill, Speaker
United States House of Representatives
Washington, D.C. 20515

Dear Mr. Speaker:

In accordance with Section 113 of the Foreign Assistance
Act of 1961 as amended, I am pleased to transmit.herewith
a Report on the impact of development programs, projects,
and activities on the integration of women into the
developing economies of countries receiving assistance.

The Report is submitted in five parts. A summary and
evaluation section provides an overview for those who have
limited time to study the Report. The body of the Report
includes an introduction, a section listing projects parti-
cularly affecting women and a description of activities
of the Agency in the area of women in development, followed
by a section on data.

The Report will be a useful tool for the Agency. We intend
to use it as a compendium of good ideas and as a base on
which to build more and better projects to help move women
into equal partnership with men in the process of development.
We hope it will be a useful source of information to the
Congress as well.

Sincerely yours,


In 1973, the U.S. Congress added the following provisions to the
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended:
In recognition of the. act that women in developing countAies
play a significant otZe in economic production, family
support, and the oveAatZ development process, U.S. aid
S shatt be administeAed so as to give particular attention to
those ptogrtams, projects and activities which tend to
integrate women into the national economies oJ developing
counties, thuL improving theit. status and abisting the
total development effoat.

Section 113, the "PeAcy Amendment"

In 1974 the Women in Development Office was established in A.I.D.
and Policy Determination 60, which spelled out A.I.D.'s response
to the Congressional mandate, was promulgated and sent to the field.
Women in development officers were appointed in many missions and
materials on integrating women were published and distributed.

Most of the projects and activities listed in this Report began
after International Women's Year, 1975. With its subthemes of
equality, development, and peace, International Women's Year and
the World Plan of Action for the Decade for Women (1976-85),
approved at the IWY Conference in Mexico City, focused attention
on women in development and laid out a five-year minimum program
which complements at many points A.I.D.'s women in development

There is a long lead time between development of an idea, its
presentation to the Agency in a Project Identification Document
and the time when that project is fully designed, formally
approved and implemented in the host country. Therefore, it is
not surprising that almost half (45%) of the projects listed in
this Report are either only now getting started or are not yet
underway. Many are scheduled for implementation in FY 1978 or
later. Thus, an evaluation of the effectiveness of those projects
is not yet possible.
As noted in the letter of transmittal, the four sections of the
Report that follow include an introduction and separate sections
on projects, activities and data. The data section is based on
a report by Dr. Mary Blomquist of Biocentric, Inc. on women and
data completed under contract to the Office of Women in Development.

Blomquist's report has been supplemented by information from the
Agency's bureaus and offices. Her conclusions are presented at the
end of this Summary.

The project section of this Report was more difficult. First,
women in development project work at the mission level did not begin
until after International Women's Year. Second, a definition of
what constitutes a women in development project became necessary.
Following the first draft of this document it became evident there
was no consensus on what a "women in development project" is. A
four-way distinction among activities has been adopted for purposes
of this Report.

1. Impact Statements

The requirement that each project and activity be examined
in terms of its effects on women can be, but often is not,
an indication that consideration of women has been a major
factor in designing the project. Unless it was evident
that there had been a conscious concern to involve women
and that women, in fact, were involved, projects were not
included in this Report. Merely because the Project Paper
contains an impact statement does not make the project a
women in development project. We sometimes call this the
/ "women walk on roads" syndrome. A road project does not
become a women in development project simply because women
walk on the roads. However, it might become one if special
account were taken of women's needs for travel or
Transportation (see No. 3 below).

2. Women-Specific Projects

Women-specific projects are needed in certain places for
certain periods to help women "catch up," to make them
equal partners in the development process. Women-specific
projects are designed to help close the gap between women
and men--for example, to help women learn skills men already
have or build up their capacity to act for their own or
society's development. Women often are neglected if their
specific needs--educational, economic, political--are not
explicitly addressed.

For purposes of this Report, those projects which involve
women as major participants are included as well as those
which, unexpectedly, turned out to be "women-specific."
Examples are the Yemen chicken and the Philippines rabbit
and swine projects. The designers did not have women
specifically in mind, but each turned into a women in

development project--in Yemen because chicken and egg
production are female responsibilities in that country,
and in the Philippines because most of the men worked in
the cities during the week. This experience illustrates
that projects can and do change their focus and explicitly
expand their purpose in midstream.

3. Women's Components
In some projects a definite, deliberate women's component
is included as an integral part of the project. For
example, in an agricultural project, we may look at the
women's role in food production or in cash cropping, and
devise women's components to make sure that women who raise
food are not displaced; that they benefit from training
programs; that extension workers deal with women as well
as men, and that appropriate technology, agricultural
inputs and credit also reach women.

To use the road example again, a women's component in a
road project might take the form of a deliberate action to
make the project meet the needs of women in the community.
For example, if the road is a new one from a rural area to
market town or city, and if women traditionally have taken
goods to market on foot (and probably will continue to do
so after the road is built), then either the road should be
widened to accommodate the walkers, or a path built beside
the road to keep walkers out of vehicular traffic.

Another example might be specific attention to women's
health needs and women's role in health education within
the family as a component of a larger health project. It
should be noted that women have dual health needs which may
impact on development--general health needs much like men's
and maternal health needs. Both need to be addressed.

4. Integrated Projects

In most of the countries where A.I.D. is active it is not
yet possible to put together a large, integrated develop-
ment project which would take into account all the roles
women play and how their situation can be improved through
several interrelated activities. Such projects take a
long time to design and a long time to carry out. They
require intimate knowledge of the political, social and
economic factors in the country and the community and the
delineation of a set of goals and criteria for evaluation.

In the long run, there appears to be fundamental agreement
among most of the development community that the end goal
is full incorporation of women as equal partners in the
development process:in overall policymaking, in project
design and implementation, and as beneficiaries of develop-
ment. In the short run "women-specific" and "women's
component" projects are required. These two kinds of women
in development projects and activities form the bulk of this
Included in the Projects Section are efforts already underway or
expected to begin in the near future. A variety of activities is
represented. For example, an $8,000,000 integrated rural develop-
ment project which includes training for six women may be placed
next to a $15,000 women-only project. It is neither possible nor
useful to compare project funding levels. In this Report only for
the women-specific projects (designated by ***) are funding totals
provided. Dollar amounts are not assigned to projects with a
women's component because only in rare cases have the costs of that
component been identified by the designers of the project or by
the regional bureaus or missions. Assigning a dollar value to that
women's component, if it should be done at all, must await an on-site
evaluation of the implemented project to determine the actual extent
of women's participation or benefit and the amounts spent to obtain
the results affecting women.
SIn the Activities Section of the Report we explain our view that
smaller activities that interest and train people in the women in
development concept must precede project design. Ideas stimulated
through activities and interpersonal contact frequently develop
into projects or components of projects. The sheer activity of
International Women's Year is an example. As a result of the world
meeting in Mexico City, its resulting World Plan of Action and
participation in the Decade for Women there is now a growing
recognition on the part of donors, host governments and international
organizations that women are a factor in development and that their
concerns and needs must be addressed.

The 1976 World Employment Conference report, Employment Growth
and Basic Needs: A One-World Problem, includes women as an important
factor in development and describes two tracks or two facets of a
women in development strategy:

Even more than men, the great majority of women in
developing countAie.s atre engaged in activities o6 a
tAaditiona2 nature, mainly in wuawt area.. Their
contribution to the satisfaction of the basic needs od
the household is as great as, if not geater than, that
o4 men .... TheiA household activities ate compteteZy
ignored in the statistics o6 nationaJ product....

ThAe. ate thuz two facets to a baic-needs attategy
fot women in developing counties. One iz to enable
them to contribute moae effectivety to the s fatisaction
of theiat amilies' basic needs, within the. framework
o6 their& traditional treponibilities. The otheA,
which is a fundamental need o6 the women themselves, Zi
to ease their. wotk bwuden whtie ruAthexing theit
economic independence and their moae equitable
integration into the community, beyond the natrow cicte.
o6 the family.
These two facets of a women in development strategy--looking at
woman as wife and mother and as an individual human being who can
and does contribute to development--are illustrated in this Report
by the projects and activities described. At this stage in A.I.D.'s
project development many of the cases cited still look at woman as
wife and mother only, and too few consider her as an individual
contributor to development.
Health and nutrition projects abound. Mothers are being taught how
to raise and feed healthy children. They are encouraged to breast-
feed which contributes to the children's health and their chances
for survival, which in turn may convince the mother that she need
not have so many children in order to have sbme of them survive to
adulthood. Some women are being trained as midwives, nurses and
health workers. Yet only when women are designing and managing
health and nutrition projects and only when women's general health
needs are being pursued as assiduously as their maternal health
needs will we have maximum success in integrated health projects.

Population projects present similar challenges. As with health
programs directed toward pregnant or lactating mothers and projects
designed to encourage women to breastfeed their infants during
the first crucial year of life, family planning services are
important aspects of the Agency's total development effort, but
they are not women in development projects in the strict sense of
the term. The Report gives a resume of the A.I.D. population
program's contributions toward fertility control, but highlights
projects which include something extra beyond family planning as an
important component.

A new effort underway in the Agency attempts to bridge the gap
between women's roles as mother and as person. Section 104(d) of
the Foreign Assistance Act enjoins A.I.D. to "give particular
attention to the interrelationships between (a) population growth,
and (b) development and overall improvements in living standards
in developing countries, and to the impact of all programs, projects,
and activities on population growth." Among the major factors which
are believed to have a significant impact on fertility are those

having to do with women's-opportunities and alternatives to early
marriage and early and prolonged childbearing. These include such
factors as access for girls to education, especially primary school
education; opportunities for women to receive training that will
lead to employment, as well as health and social services to assist
women in the many tasks they assume in their dual identity as
wife/mother and citizen. Section 104(d) provides a second important
justification for giving priority attention to programs that seek
to integrate women into their country's economy.

Designing development programs with a view to their likely impact
on population growth requires a great deal of country-specific
and sector-specific information which often is not available. For
instance, is employment per se correlated with reduced fertility,
or is smaller family size associated with only certain types of
female employment? Is the amount of income a factor, either in
absolute terms or relative to the total family income? What level
or mix of formal and non-formal education programs are most likely
to influence the number of children a couple wants? Research
findings to date have not demonstrated conclusively the direction
of the causal linkage between reduced fertility and increased
opportunities for women. Since the relationships are admittedly
complex, Section 104(d) calls for efforts to apply the current
usable knowledge on determinants of fertility to the design of
development programs, and to support studies that will more clearly
and usefully define the causal relationships in ways that help
A.I.D. to focus its programs in health, agriculture, education and
rural development more effectively on fertility reduction.

Among the projects and activities listed, many are in education
and training; however, when projects are judged for their expected
impact on the literacy of women, they fall short. Most of the
projects listed involve training for adult women, an important
and valuable activity, but there seems to be little concern for the
future of young girls. It should be noted, in this context, that
the Agency currently is reviewing its education policy and efforts
are being made to look seriously at the education of women and

SWhat seems to be lacking in general is a recognition that educating
women is an essential ingredient of long-term development. Studies
have shown that just a few years of schooling can make a difference
in the number of children a woman has. Furthermore, an educated
mother is more likely to see that her children are educated and
will, in fact, be able to pass on to those children more useful
information and training simply because her own horizons and
expectations have been expanded. In addition, a literate, trained
or informed person is more likely to be an active contributor to

economic, social and political development than an ignorant,
illiterate person. Access to knowledge and information is a basic
condition for growth both for nations and individuals. Denying
access to education to certain segments of a population clearly was
a mistake in this country and there is little to prove that it is a
wise policy internationally. On the other hand, the education and
training of children and youth is intimately associated with national
as well as with parental aspirations, and the influence or
interference of outsiders often is resented or spurned. Thus,
while assistance in education may be fraught with problems it is a
vital aspect of development and deserves higher priority.

Attention to the needs of poor, rural women also is a high priority.
The message that women are a force in the rural economy has been
heard. However, what to do to assess and improve the situation of
women and girls in rural areas and on farms is less clear. The
Africa Bureau's interregional women's project may indicate one way
to program relatively small amounts more quickly as part of a
larger "umbrella" effort. Certainly some of the Upper Volta projects
show great promise. Many rural development projects do consider
women as integral to development. Evaluation of these projects as
they proceed through the implementation process should provide the
Agency with valuable lessons or models.

Income-generating projects such as those to promote handicrafts are
important, but marketing, credit and quality controls are factors in
their success. Women's unpaid labor in the production, storage and
processing of food may, in the short run, prove more important to
overall development than income-generation or employment projects for
women. We are aware that if what women do is measured in terms of cash
earned rather than in terms of productivity, we may not calculate
accurately what a women's component would contribute to a rural develop-
ment or agriculture project. Attention should be directed to women's
role in meeting a family's basic human needs for food, clean water and
education--and not only to cash incomes of individual family members.
Access to land and credit also is a major concern to rural women as it
affects their ability to function as individuals as well as heads or
partners in a family situation.

Finally, insufficient attention has been paid to designing projects
which aim directly at increasing women's participation as equal part-
ners in the development process. This is a serious gap in the
Agency's women in development activity because unless there are
female role models and unless women are integrated at all levels,
women cannot become equal partners in their national or community
development. Also, while women may share common goals and objectives
with men, only when both men and women participate can women's
concerns and needs be adequately met. If women are left behind,
bound by old cultural constraings, while men move into a modern
economy, full development of the society will be held back.

Several steps can be taken. We can use female technical assistants
drawn from among U.S. women with overseas experience and applicable
expertise. Also needed are more linkages with women's organizations
which can carry out projects and bring indigenous women into the
mainstream of development. LDC indigenous and international women's
organizations have historically played a role in development.
However, too little'attention has been paid to them as development
resources either in LDCs, internationally or at A.I.D. When women
work together, they learn that they have control over their own
destinies and that there is support in groups. Capacity and
confidence are built through work in organizations which have
purpose, direction, leadership and resources. Some people learn
occupational or other useful skills through participation in
organizations. Others learn management and leadership skills. Some
organizations have specific training programs for their members or
program participants.

Organizations are also important vehicles for distribution or ex-
change of materials, information and project ideas. They can
publish or distribute a variety of materials, including research
and evaluation results. Many women's organizations are already
doing small projects but they need either small amounts of money,
goods or technical assistance for their projects to flourish.
Women also need to build networks on an organization-to-organization
basis or through international institutions for cross-cultural
exchanges which build knowledge and capacity to enhance development.
International networks provide a training gound for leadership and
professional development, a place for identification of talent
and a forum for policy planning. International organizations and
international networks also create systems which provide support
for indigenous organization, for further training, research,
publications and public policy formulation. They can also provide
the nucleus and support for new and expanded institutions and
networks, skills training, information dissemination and technical

At the 1980 Mid-Term World Conference of the UN Decade for Women
meeting in Tehran to discuss women in development (especially in
terms of education, employment and health) attention will be
focused on women's needs and concerns in the developing world.
International agencies in the UN system as well as national govern-
ments will be asked to report on projects and activities related
to the main and subthemes of the conference. This World Conference
can be expected to provide new impetus for women in development

So far as data on women are concerned, several key questions are
posed at the beginning of the data section. They concern the
progress made in the four years since the Agency set concrete goals
for establishing an information and data base illuminating the role,
status and economic contributions of women in developing countries.

In brief, in the improvement of national statistics on women in the
developing countries a small beginning has been made with support
for such exercises as the World Fertility Survey. In gathering
better data on women for designing and evaluating A.I.D. programs
and projects some progress has been made through efforts of A.I.D.
regional bureaus to produce Profiles on Women in each A.I.D.-recipient
country. These need to be regularly increased, expanded and updated.

There has been, however, little or no systematic effort to supply
A.I.D./Washington with information about effective projects and
general progress on integrating women into the development process.
The Agency should pursue the potential benefits not only from
gathering and cataloguing experience and lore concerning women in
development but also in assessing or evaluating progress early in
the project implementation stage to assure that women and women's
concerns are included in all projects. The use of women technical
assistants on project design teams might help to guarantee that
women and women's concerns were included. Later, mid-term evalua-
tions could assess whether the integration of women was, in fact,
happening. If, somehow, the women's component was not effective,
the evaluation could recommend steps to rectify the problem.
Finally as evaluation of experience in women in development projects
is fed into Agency data systems, integration of women in the
development process should proceed at an accelerating rate.
National statistics on women in developing countries are still a
problem. Enhancement of women's economic roles is not a major
priority for development planners and as such does not receive the
effort and resources needed to develop a useful data base for
program planning and monitoring. The lack of information and
analysis of the roles of target populations in A.I.D.-recipient
countries frequently causes some programs to miss their mark. it
is in the economic interest of both the host country and A.I.D. to
identify clearly the respective participation of men and women in
the economies of countries in order to design the most appropriate
and effective technology transfer and development program. This
is particularly true of agricultural and marketing systems.

International development organizations, as well as A.I.D., have
developed data collection and monitoring systems to evaluate
economic performance. Sources of data that may shed light on social
and personal economic progress are frequently aggregated to relate
only to the economic system and not the individual components.

To expect meaningful progress from women in development and human
rights initiatives, special efforts must be undertaken to institute
quantitative measures of social status equal in nature and content
to economic statistics.

A.I.D. has established contact with international data collection
and monitoring programs to insure the initiation and maintenance
of a data program that clearly identifies the progress toward
increased participation goals by women. The first steps have been
taken to identify those key indicators which already are being
measured and reported by various data collection programs, but
aggregated to eliminate sex differentiation. Efforts are being
made to expand the A.I.D. data base to include these parameters for
men and women, as well as for the population as a whole.

Simultaneously, collaboration will continue on developing indicators
for less common but sometimes more revealing and sensitive indicators
of women's role in and contribution to the national economies
leading to a program of multi-country measuring of these indicators.

A quantitative and qualitative data base on women must not only be
available but it must be consistently used. Therefore, it is
planned that information on women not be in a separate data file, to
be called up only for designing women's projects. Just as women
must finally be integrated into mainstream Agency projects, so
data on women are to be fully integrated into Agency data systems.

In conclusion, we can point to some solid, if small, beginnings in
our women in development effort. In comparison with most other
international agencies, A.I.D. and the Congress have been leaders
in the effort. In proportion to overall Agency programs, however,
we honestly recognize that more attention and resources should be
devoted to making women full participants in development.

This summary, and indeed, the entire exercise of putting together
this Report has been instructive to us. While it may be too early
to make any detailed evaluation of individual projects, we still
need to come to some tentative conclusions about what we have
learned from the past several years and the steps we intend to
take to measure how we are doing in the next few years. Finally,
it is appropriate to summarize the direction which we believe the
Agency's women in development program should go.

Programmatically, it is most crucial to support those activities
which improve women's capacity to participate in development and
those which enhance women's already major contributions to
productivity, particularly their predominant role in the production,
marketing, processing and storage of food. Particularly promising
avenues to pursue include training in life skills for adults; formal
and non-formal education, especially primary education for girls,
and particularly in rural areas; projects which enable women to
earn income, whether or not this involves employment in the formal
labor market; credit, agricultural inputs and extension services
which benefit women as well as men, and opportunity to gain title
to land if women are the principal providers for their families;
full participation in shelter, credit, skills training and other
development programs in the urban sector, especially for women who
head their own households; the development of simple, labor-saving
technologies for poor people which will directly benefit women--
such as electric or solar-powered water pumps, grinding mills, ovens
and cookers.

Closely allied to these efforts are support for women's organizations
and community groups, formal and informal, which already function
in many places to enable women to share work and child care. Such
groups may also be used to extend credit and technical assistance
through cooperative activity; to teach skills that improve income
and enable women to manage their own enterprises and enhance the
quality of life in their own households; and to instruct women
about their legal rights, so that they may participate more actively
as citizens in local and national political life.
Increasingly we will be giving our attention to an appraisal of
A.I.D.'s effectiveness in helping bring women into the mainstream
of their societies and economies. This means, first of all,
special attention during the early stages of program design as
well as better reporting from the field.

In order to carry out these and other programming emphases and their
evaluation, the following steps appear essential. A vigorous
program of information dissemination is needed, not only from
A.I.D./Washington to the field, with general guidance, data,
research results and materials, but also thiroug'h eneratin' a
cross-fertilization among the four A.I.D. regions in sharing
successes in their programming for women. A program to make avail-
able long- and short-term technical assistance to A.I.D. missions
through providing women in development experts, both from the U.S.
and from developing countries, appears especially promising because
initial efforts in this direction have been successful. Also
promising is the plan to support women's organizations in A.I.D.-
recipient countries which have developmental goals, as well as

enabling U.S.-based women's groups to develop their potential for
collaborative sharing and learning with counterpart women's groups
in the LDCs.

We have begun a women in development program. We shall now move on
with the knowledge that women already contribute greatly to the
development enterprise. If their efforts are enhanced, then women
will be a positive force in development and we will proceed that
much more quickly towards the goal of more equitable, just and
human societies in the third world.






Latin America

iNear East





















*Several Near East projects are just getting underway in FY 1978-79.











Africa Regionala




1 (8)


















1 (8)

4 (732)

3 (25)





TABLE I-A (cont.)



Sierra Leone







3 (405)

1 (110)






Upper Volta







aEconomic Commission for Africa, Training and Resource Center for
Women. The 8 subprojects and funding for the Bureau's WID regional
"umbrella" project are listed by country totals: 3 in Chad, 1 in
Ghana, 3 in Senegal and 1 in Sierra Leone with the amount of
funding in parenthesis.
bOne general project with a women's component of $1.2 million.

cDescriptions not included.




Asia Regionala


New Guinea






Sri Lanka


aEconomic and Social Commission
for Women in Development. The
listed in country totals: 1 in
in New Guinea, the Philippines

for Asia and the Pacific, Centre
6 women-related subprojects are
Indonesia, 2 in Korea, and 1 each
and Thailand.








Latin America



Costa Rica















Dominican Republic


El Salvador






































Near East Regional























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1. Women in Development at A.I.D.



In 1973, the Congress of the United States,
recognizing the fact that "women in developing
countries play a significant role in economic
production, family support and the overall
development process," called for United
States bilateral assistance to "be admin-
istered so as to give particular attention to
those programs, projects and activities which
tend to integrate women into the national
economies of foreign countries, thus
improving their status and assisting the
total development effort." (Section 113 of
the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 as
amended, the "Percy Amendment.")

In September 1974, the Agency for Inter-
national Development directed all its
central and regional bureaus, as well as its
overseas missions, to incorporate a
"conscious concern" for women in all
programming processes from concept and
design, through review, implementation and
final evaluation. (Policy Determination 60,
September 16, 1974. See Annex A.)
Among the principles included in the Agency's
statement are the following:

- programs and activities responding to the
Percy Amendment are to be a responsibility
resting with field missions and with all
offices and bureaus in A.I.D./Washington

women are to be integrated as both agents
and beneficiaries in the mainstream of
Agency programming

inclusion of women in development must be
a conscious concern




- the mandate affects all sectors and all
activities within these sectors

In October 1974, the Agency established an
Office for Women in Development. The Office
was charged with the responsibility for
implementing Agency policy on women in
development and given the authority to plan
and execute supporting activities in
coordination with the geographic bureaus and
other central offices (Progress Report to
the Senior Operations Group, June 1976).

For the first 22 months of its existence,
the Women in Development Office was part of
the Agency's Equal Opportunity Programs (EOP)
Office. In August 1976, the Office was
bureaucratically separated from EOP with an
acting coordinator. In April 1977, Arvonne
Fraser became Coordinator, and the staff was
physically separated from EOP and moved to
its present location. Under the 1977 Agency
reorganization, the Office became part of
the Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination.

2. Purpose and Scope of This Report

In 1977, an amendment was added to Section 113
of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 as
amended, reaffirming that "A.I.D. give
particular attention to implementing those
programs, projects and activities which tend
to integrate women into the economies of
developing countries."

This amendment also added new subsection
113(b) to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961
as amended, requiring the President to sub-
mit, within one year (by August 3, 1978) a
"Report on the impact of development programs
on the integration of women into the national
economies of countries receiving assistance."
The Congress intended this Report to provide
comprehensive information on which legislators
can more adequately review and evaluate

A.I.D.'s efforts and plans to implement
the policy of revised Section 113.

It is in fulfillment of this requirement
that the present Report is hereby respect-
fully submitted to the Speaker of the House
and to the Senate Foreign Relations
Committee. Following the legislation, the
Report is divided into three main sections
which contain detailed information in three
broad categories:

- an evaluation of progress toward developing
an adequate data base on the role of women
in the national economies of recipient
- a specific description of programs, projects
and activities undertaken by A.I.D. in its
efforts to carry out the provisions of
Section 113, and

- an evaluation of the effectiveness of these
efforts, including but not limited to an
evaluation of the impact of the programs,
projects and activities described on the
incomes, productivity, and literacy of
women, and the level or extent of their
participation in the development process.

This Report to the Congress is designed, as
the Congressional mandate cited above
directs, to describe and evaluate Agency
programs undertaken to fulfill Section 113.
However, the Percy Amendment responded to
what was already a growing worldwide
interest in the crucial role women could
play in their own national development.

The United Nations Commission on the Status
of Women had been instrumental in establish-
ing 1975 as International Women's Year. In
July 1975, a world conference on women was
held in Mexico City with over 100 governments
represented and over 6,000 women attending.
At this World Conference on International
Women's Year, a World Plan of Action for the
Decade for Women was adopted unanimously
(see page 27 below for details of the Plan).



In December 1975, the UN General Assembly
proclaimed 1976-85 as the Decade for Women
with three themes: equality, development
and peace.

The realization of women's potential in
development is growing in the donor community
as well, evidenced by the proliferation of
women in development offices, committees and
programs initiated by national governments.
Three donor meetings have been held--two
sponsored by the Development Assistance
Committee of the Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development and one by Canada.
The UN system, the European Economic
Community, private voluntary agencies and
international development groups all are taking
the women in development issue into account.
A.I.D. can claim a modest share of credit in
having been first in such an effort when it
created its Office for Women in Development
and in having set an example for others to

3. Poor Women: What Do We Know?

What is the situation of the world's poor
women? What kinds of programs and projects
will help them? A landmark in the analysis
of women's role in the economics of the
Third World is Ester Boserup's Women's Role
in Economic Development, published in 1970.
The Danish economist makes clear that through-
out history, particularly in agricultural
regions of what are today considered developing
countries, women have been major, and often
predominant, contributors to the basic
productivity of their communities.

In Asia, Africa and Latin America, with few
exceptions, women's position under European
colonialism, 20th century transculturation
and modernization did not improve and, in
some cases, worsened. Westernization of the
Third World has broken down traditional





landholding patterns, imposed new legal
systems and introduced technological
innovations which often are available only
to the male. Developers have defined
productivity strictly in terms of money,
limited the importance of women's economic
contribution and reserved political partici-
pation and decision-making to men. In the
development process the conditions and
personal possibilities of the female half of
the Third World's population frequently have

Over most of the world women lag far behind
in literacy. In most developing countries,
a girl's chance at formal education or
specialized training is less than a boy's
--no matter what the laws say.

Whether mother or daughter, a poor woman's
day is filled with drudgery. She may walk
miles to gather firewood, carry water,
launder clothes or carry goods to market.
She may spend hours processing and storing
food. Her day may also include a long
stint at planting, weeding or harvesting
since women in many countries grow from 40
to 80% of the domestic food supply. Yet
she will often not get the calories she
needs--whether or not she is nursing a child--
because she eats last.

In most places, women have limited
opportunities to earn cash. Yet their need
to supplement the family budget or to support
children if there is no adult male present
may be critical. As more and more men
migrate to mines, oil fields, plantations or
cities in search of jobs, women who stay
behind in the rural areas become de facto
heads of household, as do widows. Yet
financial affairs customarily remain in the
hands of men. Women often cannot gain title
to land, obtain credit, or inherit property.

Many women who migrate to the cities are not
much better off. They tend to cluster at
the lowest levels of the traditional labor



market--typically domestic service, streets
selling or (in Asia) casual unskilled
construction work. Studies show women from
the countryside have less job mobility than
male migrants. Often they are women alone,
principal providers for dependent children
whom they must also take along to the job
site or set to work.

All this is not to imply that men of the poor
majority have no needs or lead lives of happy
indolence. Nor would informed observers
assert that women everywhere are uniformly
oppressed. Women's position varies from
country to country and even from region to
region, depending upon social class, education,
religion, cultural heritage and level of

In countries where trained persons still are
scarce, for example, many educated women
rise to positions of influence surpassing
those occupied by women in societies
considered to be "developed." There is
evidence, too, that women in tribal and
peasant cultures often are accorded a more
equal status than their more modern sisters
because their economic contribution to the
household is recognized as vital to the
family's survival.

Yet many studies now demonstrate that in all
societies, including our own, women and men
have differential access to power and
resources. In theory, at least, few any
longer dispute that the gaps between men and
women's options must close so that they may
become truly equal partners in the development

4. Towards Solutions

Boserup's book challenged the Western myopia
of developers by documenting women's
importance as economic actors. But the
biases and misconceptions about women have
caused ambivalence and delay within the
developmental agencies of the world. As

Irene Tinker, editor of Women and World
Development, observes:

development has had a negative effect
on women because planning has erred in
one or more of the following ways

(a) by omission that is, by failing
to notice and utilize the traditional
productive roles which women are playing

(b) by reinforcement of values already
in existence in the society which restrict
women's activities to household, child-
bearing and child-rearing tasks, and

(c) by addition that is, by superimposing
Western values of what is appropriate work
for women in modern society on developing

Only recently has there been a concerted
effort to develop theory and technology
aimed at mobilizing the huge human resource
in the Third World represented by women.

One of the first hurdles is to perceive women
not only as childbearers and homemakers, but
also as a productive force in their nation's
economy--a force not conveniently measured in
terms of wages but crucial to the output of
the primary sector. Failure to recognize
what women contribute to food production,
for example, leads to a marked tendency to
confine development activities for women to
social welfare and health measures of benefit
to pregnant and lactating mothers.

Another obstacle to understanding is the
failure to recognize that many women are
interested in earning cash income not only
by choice but by necessity. In many parts
of the developing world, one out of three
households is female headed or female based,
that is, women are the principal providers
in the absence of an adult male--although
such women may also be obliged to put older
children to work.



Another barrier to effective planning is
the temptation to see women as an
undifferentiated bloc. Women are at least
as diverse in their needs, constraints,
responses and potential contributions to
development as are men.

With the aim of improving women's condition
in economic, social, cultural and participa-
tory terms, the World Plan of Action spells
out major areas for national effort for the
Decade (1976 to 1985) and sets forth specific
minimum goals with the recognition that some
of the objectives "have already been
achieved in some countries, while in others
they may only be accomplished progressively."

The minimum goals are:

(a) Marked increase in literacy and civic
education of women, especially in rural

(b) The extension of co-educational technical
and vocational training in basic skills to
women and men in the industrial and agri-
cultural sectors;

(c) Equal access at every level of education,
compulsory primary school education, and the
measures necessary to prevent school dropouts;

(d) Increased employment opportunities for
women, reduction of unemployment and increased
efforts to eliminate discrimination in the
terms and conditions of employment;

(e) The establishment and increase of the
infrastructural services required in both
rural and urban areas;

(f) The enactment of legislation on voting
and eligibility for selection on equal terms
with men, equal opportunity and conditions
of employment including remuneration, and on
equality in legal capacity and the exercise

(g) Encouragement of a greater participation
of women in policy-making positions at the
local, national and international levels;
(h) Increased provision for comprehensive
measures for health education and services,
sanitation, nutrition, family education,
family planning, and other welfare services;

(i) Provision for parity in the exercise of
civil, social and political rights such as
those pertaining to marriage, citizenship and

(j) Recognition of the economic value of
women's work in the home in domestic food
production and marketing and voluntary
activities not remunerated;

(k) The direction of formal, non-formal and
life-long education towards the re-evaluation
of the man and woman, in order to ensure
their full realization as an individual in
the family and in society;

(1) The promotion of women's organizations
as an interim measure within workers'
organizations and educational, economic and
professional institutions;

(m) The development of modern rural technology,
cottage industry, pre-school day centers,
time-and-energy-saving devices so as to help
reduce the heavy work load of women,
particularly those living in rural sectors
and for the urban poor and thus facilitate
the full participation of women in community,
national and international affairs;

(n) The establishment of interdisciplinary
and multisectoral machinery within the govern-
ment for accelerating the achievement of equal
opportunities for women and their full
integration into national life.

A Mid-Term Conference on the Decade has been
set for 1980 in Iran to assess country by
country, agency by agency, progress toward
meeting these goals. Regional meetings are
anticipated preceding the world conference.


A Note on Project and Activity Sections

The Project and Activity Reports Sections following are based upon
information provided by A.I.D. Regional and Central Bureaus. The
Sections include both approved projects and activities or those
which the Agency is seriously considering. Those reporting were
asked to include only projects in which consideration of women was
a major factor in project design, i.e., where a conscious concern
to involve women was evident and where women were, in fact,
significantly involved.

Such projects include:

Women-Specific or "women-only" projects, i.e., those
designed specifically to help women close the gap--for
example, to help women learn skills men already have
or build up their capacity to act for their own or
their society's development. Women often are overlooked
if their need to "catch up"--educationally, economically,
politically--is not explicitly addressed. Such projects
are needed in certain places for certain periods.

Women-Specific Projects in this Report are
starred (***)

Women's Component or "women-inclusive" projects, those
with a definite, deliberate women's component which is
included as an integral part of the project. For example,
in an agricultural project, we may look at the women's
role in food production or cash cropping, and devise
women's components to make sure that women who raise food
are not displaced, that they benefit from training
programs in their countries as well as in the U.S.; that
extension workers deal with women as well as men, and
that appropriate technology, agricultural inputs and
credit also reach women.

Women-Inclusive Projects in this Report are
not assigned a dollar amount; in only rare
cases is the women's component broken out
in dollar figures, and it is impossible to
estimate with any degree of accuracy.

It should also be noted that nearly one-half (about 45%) of the
projects are new, having only just gotten underway this year or
scheduled to begin in FY 1979-80--a fact which in most cases pre-
cludes evaluation of results. In a few cases, some projects may
have been disapproved after the submission deadline for this Report.



Integrating women into developing countries is now among the
principal objectives of the Africa Bureau's projects and programs.
While some projects are explicitly designed to include women, in
others women's participation is more implicit.

In developing a strategy and action recommendations for integrating
women into development, the Africa Bureau has made a conscious
attempt to make its proposals responsive to African governments'
development priorities and to take into account the various
traditional and cultural practices of each country.

In April 1974, six months before the adoption of agency-wide Policy
Determination 60 on the integration of women into national economies,
A.I.D. Missions, ADOs and REDSGs received special instructions
from the Assistant Administrator which set forth a strategy for
making the Percy Amendment an integral part of the Africa Bureau's
programming process. The following guidelines were proposed:

That research be an initial emphasis in order to identify
for Missions the specifics of women's roles in individual countries
and, subsequently, to serve as a basis for revising projects or
designing new activities.

That where research or existing Mission knowledge identifies
specific projects which aim solely at integrating women or
expanding their economic contributions, the Bureaus review them
on the same basis as all other project proposals.

That, rather than projects to benefit only women, the
Bureau emphasize building into new projects and revised projects
those activities which will enable both sexes to contribute to,
and benefit from, development. However, the benefits accruing to
women must be identifiable, not inferred.

That the Bureau's main programming focus for implementing
Section 113 be in the agriculture sector in recognition of the
extent of women's participation and of the priority the Bureau
already attaches to increasing food production. This recommendation,
however, does not mean that other priority programs in education
and health, including nutrition and family planning, are to be
exempted from consideration in implementation of the Percy

That in addition to program considerations A.I.D. Missions
also extend the same equal employment opportunities to female host
country nationals as they are supposed to apply to American
personnel when filling both professional and clerical positions.

To aid in the implementation of this strategy the field missions
were also requested to describe the role of women in their
countries as they know it, pinpointing information gaps and
identifying opportunities for better integration of women into
ongoing and future activities.
Agricultural Development

The country profiles from the field were of particular interest
owing to the diversity of each particular country as well as
among most regions within countries. What has emerged from the
initial response and subsequent field reports since 1974 is the
urgent need for training of women at all levels. Food production
raised a particular challenge since an estimated 60-80% of all
the food production in Africa is carried out by women. Therefore,
in August 1977 missions were asked specific questions to explore
the linkage between women and expanding small farmer production.
The knowledge gained from these responses will be used as a basis
for consideration of future policy, design procedures and
programming initiatives to integrate women more fully into the
bureau's agricultural development strategy.

Regional Programs

Several African regional programs have special components that will
help women benefit from development or become active agents of
change. Among these are continued support for the Training and
Research Center of the Economic Commission for Africa, the
Pan-African Women's Center, the Accelerated Rural Learning project,
and various education and human resource development projects.
The African Women in Development Project, begun in FY 1976,
provides funds for Chad, Ghana, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Upper
Volta for activities as diverse as instruction in hygiene,
nutrition and gardening, assistance in management and marketing,
canning vegetable cooperatives, and training.

Country Programs

Health, nutrition and population activities were under way before
passage of the legislation on women. Emphasis is increasing on
rural women now that their role in agriculture and in livestock
production is more fully recognized. There is greater focus on

There are components in regular projects that directly or
indirectly affect rural women, and these are being strengthened.
Examples are found in the majority of countries.

Among the "women only" projects, the multi-disciplinary program
for rural women, a cluster of mini-projects in Upper Volta -- is
of particular interest. Some projects are relatively modest but
the larger ones also had modest beginnings.
Future Plans

In the last four years, one of the Africa Bureau's main purposes
was to sensitize the field, as well as staff, by illustrating the
variety of activities that were being or could be carried out.
The bureau is steadily working toward a goal where women as
beneficiaries and contributors will automatically be included in
all project activities.



Beneficiaries: Rural women.

Relevance to Women: The project aims to increase the income,
productivity and welfare of rural women in Africa by
expanding their capability as contributors to development.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The project provides
A.I.D. field posts with a means to respond quickly to
government requests to assist women engaged in innovative
subprojects in development-oriented areas of health,
nutrition, family planning, skills training and farm
production. To be selected, subprojects must be of an
innovative, experimental nature; emphasize A.I.D. and host
government priorities; help rural women who are low income
farmers, artisans or service workers; involve women in the
identification of their own needs; and be potentially

Duration: FY 75-80 A.I.D. Funding: $1,357,000

The subptojects listed below, ranging in costs from $6,000 to
$150,000, have been approved.


Village Women
(training, nutrition, health)
Through'a specially developed curriculum designed for female
students, this project provides up to 8 hours a week
training to approximately 500 female students from the 8
villages. Initially the program has been grounded in
instruction in semi-traditional disciplines, i.e., hygiene,
child rearing, nutrition and gardening.

Results: The village women have learned to purify polluted
water, acquired a better understanding of domestic and
personal hygiene and better nutrition using locally grown
food. A woman extension worker .has constructed a "double
burner" stove to save scarce wood for cooking purposes.

A.I.D. Funding: $147,000


Chad, cont.

Earning While Learning
(employment, handicrafts)

The project objective is to raise the productivity and
improve the quality of goods which women traditionally
produce by hand through the addition of special handicraft
branches for seven training centers where women are
taught fundamentals of hygiene, nutrition, literacy and
simple mathematics.
Results: Five Peace Corps volunteers, added to each of the
educational centers are teaching and supervising handicraft
instruction. In addition, A.I.D. provided two consultants
who have several years of experience in teaching handicraft
at private centers. The trainees are taught elementary
literacy and arithmetic and participate in the accounting
procedures. Each center should be able to train 400 women

A.I.D. Funding: $176,400

Training of Women Farmers For
Increased Agricultural Production
(training, agriculture)

The project establishes female training branches at five
agricultural training centers where to date women spend only
a few hours weekly in co-educational training. A Chadian
woman directs female farmer training and Peace Corps
Volunteers and Chadian extension workers, all female, teach
farming, nutrition, hygiene, child-care, management of
cooperatives, sewing and functional literacy.
Results: Around 1,000 women farmers will be trained in a
two-year residential program, returning afterwards to their
A.I.D. Funding: $232,000



Ghana YWCA Day Care Center
(training, employment)

In two rural villages, girls have been chosen and trained at
the Y's day care center in Accra. The YWCA employs two
experienced older women in each village to supervise the day
care center attendants on a part time basis. An educational
program for the women also is a feature of each center and
health services are provided.

Results: Day care centers in operation.

A.I.D. Funding: $25,000

Economic and Social Development Project for Women
(employment, cooperatives)
The purpose of the project is to provide remunerative
economic activity to girls and young women, encouraging them
to remain in the rural areas rather than migrate to cities
where jobs are scarce. The program is built around women's
cooperatives for vegetable production and marketing. The
plan was initiated two years ago by a young Senegalese
woman agronomist. In each of the villages about five acres
suitable for vegetable production have been set aside for the
use of the women. Marketing is assured through contracts
made with the growing number of tourist hotels in the area,
schools, hospitals and other organizations. As well, the
project is designed to add more vegetables to the diets of
the villagers.

Results: Eight of the pre-cooperatives have been created;
19 of 28 wells constructed; irrigated vegetable gardening
under way in seven villages; and training in functional
literacy for project participation initiated.

A.I.D. Funding: $170,000


Senegal, cont.

Women in Development Kassack Nord
(cooperatives, women's organizations)

The Kassack Nord project will create an Association of Rural
Interest (AIR), a pre-cooperative village organization of
women that will provide a framework for collective social and
economic activities. Within two years, the organization can
be chartered as a cooperative and benefit from government
support through credit availability and technical assistance.
Activity managers are selected from among project partici-
pants to supervise operation of the nine project activities:
rice production, vegetable production, poultry, fabric
dyeing, literacy training, health, maternity, wood gathering,
and operation of a grain mill. Two men were assigned by the
village chief to organize men's support when required.
Results: A total of 300 women, all those in Kassack Nord
over 18 years of age, are involved.
A.I.D. Funding: $25,000

Tivaouane Women's Project
(women's organizations, agriculture)

A.I.D. will support six different activity components for
rural women in four women's associations. Various project
activities include millet mill/decorticators, manioc/neibe
fields, sheep pens and village pharmacies, village wells
and village wood lots.
Results: It is expected that the Tivaouane Project will
alleviate the heavy burden of daily tasks performed by village
women, offer as work alternatives a variety of economic and
social activities within a pre-cooperative structure and
improve the quality of village life through a program which
increases women's economic incomes and promotes their role
in rural development.
A.I.D. Funding: $210,000


Sierra Leone

Gara Cloth Industry***
(employment, handicrafts)

A.I.D. has provided assistance to support the development of
the Gara Women's industry, including funding a marketing
consultant who analyzed the cloth industry in terms of
product diversification, export potential, and promotion and
marketing channels. In Phase II, the consultant helped
organize women gara cloth producers throughout the country,
implemented the marketing program, conducted in-country
workshops, and selected three association members for a four-
month course in marketing, retailing, textiles, accounting,
and dyeing at the Philadelphia College of Textiles and
Science. This course was augmented by a one-week intensive
workshop in screen printing and by participation in the
Atlanta Merchandise Mart International Trade Fair, where the
members displayed and sold gara cloth and clothing. A
resident management-design consultant has spent six months
helping to set up and organize an export office-workroom,
run by one of the trainees who has specialized in management
and accounting. The gara women's association has joined with
other craftsmen and women including tailors and embroiderers,
to form a registered cooperative society under the Department
of Cooperatives of the Ministry of Trade and Industry.

Results: In addition to the above accomplishments over 50
samples of gara cloth, clothing and other craft items have
been sent to the United States and orders are being received.
Several new local outlets have been established, and bulk
buying of fabric and dyes has been initiated.

A.I.D. Funding: $109,919

UN Economic Commission for Africa/Training
and Research Center for Women"*
(training, research)

Beneficiaries: Rural and urban African women.

Relevance to Women: The Agency's Office of Labor Affairs (OLAB)
and other donors aim to assist the Economic Commission for


Africa's Training and Research Center for Women in providing
education and training to further the integration of women
in the labor force.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Most of the activities
take place in the countries of the region rather than in the
Center itself. International team visits, itinerant training
courses, data collection, in-service training, organization
of the African Women's Development Task Force are among some
of the programs. OLAB is particularly interested in Center
activities focused on integration of women in the labor force,
and research projects related to employment and training
opportunities for women, and pilot loan funds to rural and
urban poor women for developing income generating activities.

Duration: FY 78 A.I.D. Funding: $100,000

Other Sponsors: Various European nations, Ford and Rockefeller


(education) #677-0005

Beneficiaries: Approximately 1,600 rural Chadians (men and women).

Relevance to Women: Special emphasis will be placed on the "women
in development" component of the composite project. A women's
consultant will be responsible for helping rural women learn
new skills and attitudes to enhance their future roles in
their communities. Training will be offered in hygiene,
child rearing, nutrition and gardening.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Chad's progress hinges
in part on more suitable educational curriculum to spur
socio-economic growth. This project will utilize pilot
schools designated by the Chadian Division for Educational
Reform. Experts under contract with A.I.D. will prepare
programs and curricula in cooperation with these officials.
The educational reform will emphasize vocational, artisan
and academic instruction to prepare the population for active
participation in Chad's development efforts.

Results: Too early to evaluate.

Duration: FY 78-82 A.I.D. Funding: $1,015,000

Other Sponsors: CARE

(health) #677-0022

Beneficiaries: Approximately 150,000 rural Chadians.

Relevance to Women: In addition to improving the health of the
village population, women will now save numerous hours
spent in fetching water.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Installation and
maintenance of 500 tube wells while training Chadians to
install, maintain and repair them independently after 5
years. Improvement in health will depend also on health

CHAD, cont.

education and sanitation. According to a World Bank paper,
however, "the provision of a safe and convenient water supply
is the single most important and cost-effective activity that
could be undertaken to improve the health of the village
Results: Installation of wells not anticipated before May 1979.

Duration: FY 78-82 A.I.D. Funding: $3,009,000

Other Sponsors: Peace Corps

(health, training) #677-0034

Beneficiaries: Village agents and rural nurses.

Relevance to Women: Eighty-five nurses will be given additional
education to act as trainers and supervisors of volunteer
village health workers. Midwives who will be retrained to
employ more sanitary delivery techniques and to expand their
roles to include prenatal and child health services.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Chad's rural health
system is burdened by the prevalence of inadequately trained
nurses, dilapidated buildings and equipment, chronic shortage
of medicines, a low level of supervisory capacity and lack
of funds. Curative care, availability of pharmaceuticals
at village levels through a good distribution system and
services of professional and trained volunteer health
personnel to refer serious cases will be provided by this
project. In addition to training nurses and village health
workers, the project will assist in repairing and
re-equipping medical facilities; stocking village pharmacies
and creating village health committees.

Results: Too early to assess.
Duration: FY 79-83 A.I.D. Funding: $4,250,000


(home economics, agriculture) #663-0181

Beneficiaries: Lower income farmers and women.

Relevance to Women: The project has a home economics component;
women members of peasant associations also will benefit.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The home economics staff,
all women, consists of six professionals who staff the central
office and 72 agents and supervisors who serve in the field.
They disseminate information on food and nutrition, mother
and child care, maintenance of clothing, home improvement,
personal hygiene, sanitation and environmental protection.
Results: Anticipated results are better health, nutrition and
improved living conditions for all members of the farm family.

A.I.D. Funding:

$1,200,000 (for the
home economics program)

(nutrition, health) #663-0193

Beneficiaries: Rural population in drought-prone areas.

Relevance to Women: Major emphasis will be placed on the role of
women in development.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: An integrated rural
development program designed to strengthen the capacity of
local organizations to create replicable, low-cost,labor-
intensive and sustainable rural development activities
through a process of decentralized authority. The project
will include roads, health clinics, schools, wells, storage,
and similar activities. Technical assistance and funds
will be provided to assist local administration and peasant
associations in planning and implementing local projects.


FY 77-80


Results: The development of local water systems will relieve women
from the tasks of fetching water from a distance (2-5 kms
each way) and nutrition and health services will raise the
health standard of their families.

Duration: FY 79-80 A.I.D. Funding: $3,270,000

(nonformal education, women's organization)

Beneficiaries: Approximately 1,500 rural and urban adults
(predominantly women).

Relevance to Women: The project's aim is to enable the Ethiopian
Women's Association (EWA) to develop a training capacity in
nonformal education for grassroots level adults. The
training will enable local government leaders and other
development agency personnel to more effectively involve
adults in the process of their own social and economic
development, assisting women and men to identify some of
their urgent problems and become involved in seeking and
implementing solutions.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The project builds upon,
extends and modifies a training program designed for the
Integrated Family Life Project, a nonformal education effort
now involving approximately 1,500 adults in 8
semi-urban, and rural sites. About 35 Integrated Family
Life Education staff members have been trained by World
Education, a private voluntary organization, and have
assisted in designing, implementing and evaluation of
education programs.
Results: Evaluation of the project has clearly demonstrated that
the EWA is meeting its experimental objectives and has
produced an outstanding series of teaching aids for rural

Duration: FY 78-82 A.I.D. Funding: $1,205,263

Other Sponsors: World Education and the Ethiopian Women's


(women's organizations) #641-0083

Beneficiaries: Rural and urban poor women.

Relevance to Women: Project supports both public and private
initiatives aimed at advancing the socio-economic status of
Ghanaian women and thereby increasing their ability to
contribute to national development.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The National Council on
Women and Development, established by the Government of Ghana,
will be the implementing agent in the public sector. The
Council will conduct research designed to provide a data base
for policy makers, document the contributions of women to the
economy, and identify the barriers to their participation.
An indicative "women power" plan will detail areas of
income-earning opportunities for women in both the formal
and informal sectors over the next decade and make recommen-
dations on the educational, financial and technical services
women will require to take advantage of these opportunities.
Women's private voluntary organizations (PVOs) will
participate principally through the Ghana Assembly of Women
(GAW) and its 23 affiliated organizations. The GAW will
create a nationwide network of women's PVOs to assist rural
and urban poor women in articulating their needs and in
designing approaches, mobilizing resources and directing
projects to address the development problems of women.
Mini-grants will be provided for pilot activities to test
approaches, develop the affiliates' confidence and admini-
strative ability and to fund leadership and management

Results: Findings of one study have resulted in a request for
funds to initiate a small-scale industry in five villages.

Duration: FY 76-78 A.I.D. Funding: $500,000

GHANA, cont.

(employment, technical assistance)

Beneficiaries: Primarily rural women producers.

Relevance to Women: Project proposes to increase the income of
rural producers, primarily women, by involving them on an
experimental basis in village-level, small-scale industries
and by making available to them better health and educational

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The project will focus
initially on potash production (extraction of ashes from
burned local crop wastes) for use by rural soapmakers and on
cassava processing into "gari" or dehydrated cassava. The
introduction of low-cost technology appropriate to local
conditions will raise the productivity and incomes of rural

Results: The expected results of the project are a potash
production and marketing facility, three cassava-to-gari
processing associations utilizing intermediate technology and
a small-scale industrial development unit within the National
Council for Women and Development. The project also aims to
increase potash production by 50% and gari production by 40%.

Duration: FY 78-79 A.I.D. Funding: $300,000


(agriculture, cooperatives) #615-01/1

Beneficiaries: Smallholder farmers.
Relevance to Women: Female farmers head about 25% and/or provide
the primary productive labor in the majority of the target
households. Traditionally, Kenyan farm women have been
excluded from credit, cooperative membership, access to new
technologies, etc. This project acknowledges that women
constitute a sizeable proportion of clients and sets as an
appropriate goal that women be provided with services in
proportion to their numbers.

Channel and/or Method of Implementation: To institutionalize
smallholder support within the cooperative system by providing
project components aimed at strengthening cooperative manage-
ment and the effectiveness of the extension/input delivery
system. The target farmers are food crop producers with
sufficient land resources to move into commercial or
semi-commercial crop production if they receive credit and
other services.

Results: Results have been mixed. Although one-half of the
farmers trained the first year were women, participation rates
were affected by the difficulty of leaving household respon-
sibilities to spend a week at training sites. U.S.A.I.D.
will urge that in the future training be modified to deal with
this problem. A second problem has been the male extension
workers reluctance to work with women farmers and extension
services have been weak under this project. The more general
extension problem has precluded dealing with the problem of
female discrimination in extension services. Renewed efforts
will be undertaken in this area as plans are developed for the
next crop season.

Duration: FY 75-82 A.I.D. Funding: $13,500,000


(women's organizations, appropriate technology)

Beneficiaries: Rural women in 44 villages.

Relevance to Women: A.I.D. will provide funds for the purchase of
small labor-saving machinery to be rented or loaned to the
local community (particularly rural women). The plan will
generate needed funds, reduce the time spent by Malian women
on menial tasks, and enhance their role in community
development. Proceeds will be used to finance other needs
identified by the women in the community.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Each of the project's
four six-month phases will be opened by training courses for
managing and maintaining the machinery, followed by an
evaluation on the use of equipment and funds. In the first
year, funds will be used to provide equipment to 2 women's
clubs for use in 6-10 villages; 22 clubs will receive
equipment during the second year. At the project's end,
there will be equipment functioning in 44 villages.
Equipment to be purchased will be useful to the entire
community, i.e., flour mills, peanut hullers, irrigation
pumps, and garden tools.
Results: An improved life for rural women through increasing the
capability of the local women's clubs to help Malian women
upgrade their working conditions and increase their role in

Duration: FY 77-79 A.I.D. Funding: $200,000

(rural development, training) #668-0207

Beneficiaries: Grassroots level agricultural personnel.
Relevance to Women: Forty women will be trained as junior level
agricultural technicians. Training for men and women will be
integrated during the first two years of the program; a

MALI, cont.

French-speaking home economist/rural development consultant
will organize a special third-year program for the women, as
well as study the status of women within the Ministry of
Rural Development.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The project will finance
the construction and improvement of two agricultural
apprenticeship centers and provide appropriate technical
assistance. These centers are expected to supply 160 well-
trained graduates per year who will serve as junior-level
technicians directly responsible for the implementation of
agricultural development projects. Plans provide 20 places
for women trainees at each of the 2 centers.

Results: An increased number of women junior-level technicians
serving in grassroots level agricultural development projects.
Duration: FY 77-80 A.I.D. Funding: $5,000,000

Other Sponsors: IBRD, UNILO, and the Government of Mali.

(agriculture) #688-0206

Beneficiaries: Approximately 25,000 poor farm families in the
7th Region of Mali.

Relevance to Women: In the region selected, 48% of persons active
in agriculture are women. The project will introduce
technology to relieve women of certain laborious tasks such
as land preparation with hoes and the eradication of rice-eating
fish. Women constitute 15% of the participants in this project.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The project will improve
rice production in two areas through the introduction of
improved seeds and better agricultural practices; the in-
stallation of water control gates and fish screens; the
construction and preparation of dikes, and installation of a
field research station for the introduction of improved
techniques in use of fertilizers, animal traction and
oxen-drawn water-lifting wheels on a pilot basis.

MALI, cont.


FY 79

Other Sponsors:
of Mali.

A.I.D. Funding: $3,528,000

African Development Fund, IBRD, and the Government

(health, training)



Rural poor in 120 selected villages.

Relevance to Women: Of the 240 village health workers to be
trained an estimated 80 will be women. Trainers of the
village health workers will be professional health workers in
the Ministry of Health. Of the 60 trainers, an estimated
12 will be women.

Channel and/or Method of Implementation: The project activities
will include (1) recruitment, selection, and training of
public health workers at various levels within demonstration
zones in three regions; (2) "community diagnosis," a data
profile of health and related information which defines the
health problems and resources of a community; (3) implementa-
tion of simple diagnostic/curative health services in the
demonstration areas; and (4) provision of medicine and
equipment necessary for the functioning of the low-cost
rural health services system.

Results: The installation of a demonstration health delivery
system which the Government of Mali can adopt as the basis
for a national rural health services system.

A.I.D. Funding: $3,890,000

Duration: FY 77-80


(agriculture, nutrition) #682-0204

Beneficiaries: 3,000 farm families in the 3rd, 5th and 6th regions
of Mauritania and 11 government officials who will receive
training under the project.

Relevance to Women: Many newly settled people do not know how to
prepare the vegetables they grow and end up feeding them to
animals. Under this project a nutritionist and female Peace
Corps Volunteers (home economists) will train women from local
villages in vegetable food preparation techniques. Comple-
mentary to the food preparation component, the home economists
with the guidance of the A.I.D. staff sociologist in Nouakchott,
will also collect data on women's role in vegetable production.
Results: The vegetable preparation techniques component may be
expanded to include preparation of weaning foods, food
preservation and processing, infant feeding or other aspects
of nutrition education. Female counterparts will be identified
to work with the home economists to insure continuation of
this educational process once the project ends. By the end
of the project, it is expected that Mauritania will have the
necessary technical, economic, marketing and nutrition
information required to expand small-scale vegetable production.

Duration: FY 78-81 A.I.D. Funding: $1,470,000

Other Sponsors: Peace Corps


(nutrition, health, training) #906-0001

Beneficiaries: Rural women in two villages.
Relevance to Women: To increase women's awareness of their potential
to improve the quality of their own lives as well as the lives
of their families, and'to encourage women's local participation
in planning, implementing and evaluating development projects.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Message tapes will be
produced in the villages cooperatively by the adult education
officer, nutrition and health extension personnel and the
interviewers. The tapes will be given to individuals or
small groups of women to keep and listen to for one day,
record questions and comments on blank tapes provided to them
and pass on to the users who will follow the same procedure.
The tapes will circulate for a week and will be returned for
editing of feedback tapes. Visual materials and demonstra-
tions will be incorporated as an integral part of the

Results: Expected results will be improved health and nutrition
practices among the rural population in the project area
and increased participation of women in local development

Duration: FY 78-79 A.I.D. Funding: $38,000/WID Office


(non-formal education, technical assistance) #686-0226

Beneficiaries: A minimum of 1,500 village women in northeast Upper

Relevance to Women: Female Sahel-based extension agents will be
trained in techniques of organizing and motivating village
women through non-formal training to invest in, administer,
and implement labor-saving activities, income-generating
mini-projects, health and hygiene programs and literacy
instruction. Activities will be offered to women on both a
self-help and loan basis (the latter through the establishment
of revolving loan funds). A minimum of 15 female extension
workers will be recruited, trained and placed in 5 town
centers. In turn, they will each train 2 women per village
as paraprofessional workers. In each village (50 in all),
this 3-person team will organize women to identify and carry
out activities of their own choosing.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The grant will be
administered by the staff of the Education Ministry's Project
for Equal Access to Education of Women and Girls ongoing in
three areas of Upper Volta for ten years. The project
concentrated on literacy at first, and secondarily on
organizing and motivating women to carry out labor-saving
and income-generating activities. Reversal of these priorities
in 1974 signalled the activities for villagers, prior to
introduction of literacy education. Eliciting women's
involvement is likelier if male villagers take part in
associated activities so the project will not limit partici-
pation to women. The organizers hope to undertake women's
activities in several additional villages to complement
assistance offered to men with help from the European
Development Fund, and to work closely with French CIDR and
American Save The Children Federation projects in Gorom-Gorom
and Dori.

Results: Results of the U.S.A.I.D.-financed economic study of
women's roles in the Sahel, carried out by the Voltaic Center
for Scientific Research were available in May to the design
team in Ouagadougou. It is anticipated that a project
agreement will be signed with the Ministry of Education before
the end of FY 1978with implementation commencing immediately.


!Duration: FY 78-83 A.I.D. Funding: $1,200,000

Other Sponsors: European Development Fund (anticipated)

(appropriate technology) #698-0410.12

Beneficiaries: Rural poor.

Relevance to Women: Heavy emphasis will be given to technologies
which benefit women, such as peanut oil presses, devices for
extraction of oil from shea nuts, and solar food-dryers.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The project will be
implemented by the Rural Artisan Training Center (RATC),
Ministry of Labor, in collaboration with the African Society
for Research and Development. A research workshop will be
built in Ouagadougou where conceptualizing, designing,
building and testing prototypes which respond to local needs
will be undertaken. The prototype will be introduced through
artisan training centers and RATC's mobile advisory service.

Results: In addition to the research workshops, 12 issues of an
appropriate technology newsletter will be distributed; at
least 4 prototypes will be developed; and, on-the-job
training of approximately 10 Voltaics will be undertaken.

Duration: FY 78-80 A.I.D. Funding: $495,000

Other Sponsors: VITA


(rural development, agriculture, appropriate technology,
credit, employment) #686-211

Beneficiaries: Rural women in at least 60 villages in 4 culturally
distinct geographic regions where female extension agents work.

Relevance to Women: Tasks within the non-market economy --
including production for household consumption, household
management and human resource development -- often are so
burdensome that women find it difficult to do anything else.
Introduction of work-reducing/time-saving intermediate
technologies allows women to increase their effectiveness
within the non-monetary economy and/or to engage in production
for the cash economy.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The overall project goal
is to increase the economic well-being of the people in at
least 60 villages through improvement of family incomes, health
and nutrition, individual and group capability to solve prob-
lemsand equitable distribution of project benefits. There
are only 110 female extension agents plus 9 coordinators in
the country. In contrast, the male field extension service
totals about 1,500 employees. "Micro-projects" in villages
where extension agents work are financed by a revolving loan
fund. The village women are fully involved in the decision-
making and implementation of such initiatives as collec-
tively-owned fields. An information system which includes
research, monitoring and evaluation is an integral feature of
the project. Training forms another important component.

Results: Under the traditional system, Voltaic women have
difficulty in acquiring seed, fertilizer and other agricultural
and technological inputs. The fact that the project depends
upon a female extension agent trained in credit and production
activities (as well as in traditional home economics) means
that women now more easily gain access to the knowledge and
technology they need. It is anticipated that at least 85
viable micro-projects will be established in the 60 villages by
the end of 1980. During this period the 60 extension agents
will be receiving training in organization and technical skills;
an information system will provide feedback for continual
evaluation and planning, and training materials such as posters
and slides will be developed. The project appears to have
regional applicability as well as the potential for affecting
foreign donor policies and programs.

Duration: FY 77-80 A.I.D. Funding: $1,056,000


(women's organizations, participation, training) #625-0926

Beneficiaries: Volta women, development policy makers, the
Federation of Volta Women.

Relevance to Women: The project provided a forum for Volta women
to consider their changing social and economic roles and
status and discuss responsible participation in the develop-
ment process.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Volta development efforts
tend to withhold from women training, tools and inputs
necessary for modern agricultural production, as well as
transportation, mobility, education, and resources for entry
into modern commerce or industry. Women in high
decision-making positions described the situation of Volta
women in the first phase, after which information was collected
from documents, statistics, interviews with experts and with
women in the lower socio-economic groups. This material was
synthesized into background papers for two seminars on active
and responsible participation of Volta women in the national
economy and in national social development. The 53
participants included representatives from phase one, the
Federation of Volta Women, and governmental ministries. This
project was implemented by the Societe Africaine d'Etudes et de

Results: The women reported the seminars gave them a chance to
share ideas and formulate programs. They have formed ongoing
commissions to study several questions raised, including a
national woman's council for continued input of women's ideas
in forming national policy.

Duration: FY 77-78 A.I.D. Funding: $15,300


(appropriate technology)

Beneficiaries: Rural women residing in developing countries with
abundant sunshine.
Relevance to Women: The tasks of grain grinding and water pumping
are done primarily by women, in addition to their other
household responsibilities including wood gathering and
agricultural production. Often they perform these activities
without mechanization and even draft animals are not used.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: In the village of
Tangaye, Upper Volta, the project will test the effects of
mechanization on the people who perform certain arduous tasks.
A solar unit will be installed by NASA Energy Programs
Division, linked to a grain mill apparatus and also to a
water pump/water storage and dispensing facility. A prior
field study is being conducted by an anthropologist to
determine how much time is spent in food processing and water
carrying. This baseline data will be used in a follow up
survey to determine just how much time was saved by the
mechanization and how this additional time was channeled into
developmental activities by the women.

Results: A managerial structure, ideally a stockholders group,
will be formed by the users to determine access, set fees,
distribute profits or decide on mutually beneficial projects.
It is anticipated that women will reduce time spent on daily
tasks, and will have free time (and economic benefits from
the mill profits) to take a more active part in the economic
development of the community.

Duration: FY 76-79 A.I.D. Funding: $80,000/DSB-OST


(rural development, agriculture) #660-0059

Beneficiaries: Rural farmers especially women, including animators
and agricultural extension workers.

Relevance to Women: Improved seeds, farming practices and small
tools are made available to women through the extension and
intermediate technology subsystem of the project. As planting
is primarily the work of women, information is directed to
them particularly on planting methods, seed selection,
planting dates, soil fertility augmentation and cultivation.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The project will develop
parallel operational systems, one aimed at men, the other at
women. The activities being developed for women involve all
aspects of food production, including marketing, storing and

Results: Some of the possibilities foreseen are group purchase
of a hand flour mill and palm oil press, as well as operation
of a corn milling process by village women and formation of
a women's credit and savings cooperative to facilitate
capital accumulation among women. It is hoped that by
concentrating some resources in one sub-sector of the project
area, sound and replicable pilot activities will allow for an
efficient extension of resources to women in other areas of
the project.

Duration: FY 77-81 A.I.D. Funding: $200,000



At first glance it may appear that East Asia is well in advance of
many other regions in the role occupied by women. Literacy
rates, while lower than for men have been improving in East Asia
and more women are receiving longer periods of education.









Women Men

56.2% 64.1%
69.5% 74.2%
82.2% 84.6%




Total School
Population (000) % Women




Total School
Population (000)






*UN Statistical Yearbook of 1976.

(It must be noted that the urban/rural dichotomy is marked with the
educated women being concentrated in urban areas.)

% Women

In contrast, the role occupied by women in South Asia is below most
LDCs. This is because of their much lower literacy and education

Women Men

Bangladesh 12.2% 20.2%
India 18.4% 39.5%
Nepal 3.66% 24.72%
Pakistan 5.7% 13.2%
Sri Lanka 70.7% 85.2%

Primary University
Total School Total School
Population (000) % Women Population (000) % Women

Bangladesh 7,750 34.6 183 10.4
India 66,000 9.1 2,230 25.4
Nepal 401 17.2 22 neg
Pakistan 5,166 28.5 112 23.2
Sri Lanka 1,368 47.2 15 33.3
(Again, it must be noted that the urban/rural dichotomy is marked
with the educated women being concentrated in urban areas.)

Given the cultural and religious constraints in South Asia, the
challenge becomes developing the best techniques to involve women.
In Nepal, for example, there is a project not considered WID-oriented
enough to be included in this report in spite of the fact that
women are doing most of the farm work in the A.I.D.-supported
Integrated Cereals Project.

By virtue of their farm work the women undergo a weak form of
on-the-job training. They will not, however, attend training
sessions when the program is explained. Instead, they are
represented by male members of the family. The Nepal Department of
Agriculture, hoping to gain women's attendance, authorized the
employment of a local female Agricultural Assistant to work on the
program,but there were no female eighth grade graduates in the area
of the training site who could be hired for the purpose.
The Nepal Department of Agriculture is now looking into the
possibility of training the wives of junior technicians and junior

technical assistants to work with the women in the same villages as
their husbands work. It is hoped that this program can get started
in 1979 as a part of the Farming Systems work of the Integrated
Cereals project. If it is successful, it may have replication
possibilities for other projects in Nepal as well as for other
countries of South Asia.

In addition to the projects described in this section, the Asia
Bureau will continue to focus on an increase of formal training
for women.



Beneficiaries: Low income groups of Asia.

Relevance to Women: Several of the projects listed below either
are directed particularly at women or include them

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The number of U.S.
Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs) receiving operational
program grants has grown from approximately 8 in FY 1976 to
a projected 24 by the end of FY 1978. Several local PVOs
jointly with U.S. groups have implemented activities in
Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Nepal, New
Guinea, Maldives, Fiji and Sri Lanka. Proposals for
activities in Pakistan and India during FY 1978 are under

Results: Most of the earliest subprojects under this grant were
for three-year periods and still are underway. However,
there is evidence that these developmental projects are
valuable and that the technical assistance given will result
in economic progress.
Duration: FY 76-79 A.I.D. Funding: Approximately $20,000,000

Other Sponsors: Local communities and PVOs: Approximately

The Asia BuAeau has approved grants ort organizations such as the
AgAicuttutat Development Councit, Cooperative League o{ the U.S.A.,
Cathotic Relie. Services, CARE, Conmunity Development Counci,
the Asia Foundation and the YMCA. Among the projects are the



The Asia Foundation
(technical assistance)
This program aims to develop the institutional capability of
the Foundation for a Prosperous Indonesia (YIS) to plan,
design, direct and evaluate health, nutrition, family planning
and community development projects. Among several concrete
results of YIS' efforts are the design and field testing of
a nutrition weight chart, adopted by the Ministry of Health
and UNICEF for national programs; participation in a forum
called by the national development planning agency and the
Ministry of Health to formulate health and nutrition
strategies for the next five-year development plan, and
development of a program with the Government of Central Java
to deliver simple nutritional programs through the network
of Village Women's organizations in the province.

A.I.D. Funding: $220,350


YWCA of Korea/Assistance to Young and Disadvantaged Women***
This development program is designed to improve the employment
status of women by establishing two pilot training centers in
occupations traditionally filled by men. The areas of
concentration are wallpapering, tile laying and painting.
Beyond the training of 600 women, the project also is intended
to demonstrate to the Korean Government and the private
sector the YWCA's ability to train women.
A.I.D. Funding: $171,300

Other Sponsors: $97,700

American Kor-Asia Foundation***
(rural development, training)
Designed to train a cadre of female 4-H movement leaders to
expand leadership and participation of Korean women in the


Korea, cont.

rural development process, this project selected 150 4-H
women from 75 villages for concentrated two-week training
in rural development, including leadership activities,
pilot project planning,livestock and cash crop production.
Subsequently trainees went back to their villages where
small-scale income producing projects, i.e., animal and
silkworm raising, were introduced. The results have been
increased incomes for the women and demonstrated leadership
to successfully plan and implement projects for rural
A.I.D. Funding: $19,523

Other Sponsors: $7,500

New Guinea

Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific
(rural development, training, cooperatives)
The project entails efforts to assist six indigenous
institutions located in different areas of the country
with rural and human development programs for the majority.
Two of the programs are primarily women's programs; three
deal with building and strengthening local cooperatives,
and the sixth is a training program. The Lorengau
community resource centers include activities for women's
affairs, nutritional training and child care; the Kuman
Yanopela Didiman (women farmer clubs) program aims to
increase production and marketing of local crops as well as
the participation of women in economic and social activities.
The Manas Atahah Weskos Asosiesin program is designed to
assist the Manus Island cooperatives in their programs for
recovering abandoned lands and developing an adequate
marketing structure. The Hohola Youth Development assistance
program provides vocational skills training for youth in
vegetable gardening, automotive maintenance and carpentry.
The Tutukuwal Farmers Association program provides technical
and managerial training for the members of the Association,
develops a cooperative for cottage industries and for
agriculture/livestock programs. Finally, YMCA Farm Program
trains homeless urban children to work in commercial
agriculture operations.



Heifer Project, International
(agriculture, nutrition)

A development program designed to increase the availability
of protein in family diets and supplement family incomes of
impoverished relocated families in Catite Province. The
techniques used are the distribution of rabbits and swine.
coupled with training in their care and feeding. The
project recipients were originally expected to be men.
However, most of the men were in larger cities during the
week. Women of the household, therefore, received the
training. The results have been a development of self-pride
among the women as well as increased income for their use
and better food for their children.
A.I.D. Funding: $55,650


Asia Foundation Girl Guides Association of Thailand**

A development program designed to train girls and young women
of poorer villages in home economics, nutrition, handicrafts
and other skills. Leadership training and assistance in the
development of self-help projects are also an integral part
of the program.
A.I.D. Funding: $55,000

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific/
Asian and Pacific Centre for Women and Development***
(training, research)

Beneficiaries: Rural and urban women in Asia and the Pacific.
Relevance to Women: The Agency's Office of Labor Affairs has
provided seed money to support the creation of the Centre,
as well as to develop methodology for employment planning


and for the Asian Plan to integrate women in the development
process. The Centre will identify those issues relevant to
the formulation of national policies for women in the labor
force, actual and potential, organized and unorganized,
agricultural, rural non-agricultural, industrial and service.
It should be noted that the Economic and Social Commission
also will share in a $500,000 allocation reserved for each
of the four regional commissions, part of the $3,000,000
which the United States announced at a pledging conference
on the Voluntary Fund for the United Nations Decade for
Women at the UN General Assembly in November 1977.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The Centre sponsors
workshops, training programs, consultations, research,
advisory and technical services.
Duration: FY 78 A.I.D. Funding: $50,000/OLAB

Other Sponsors: Government of Iran, Netherlands, and ESCAP
member countries.


(training) #388-0028

Beneficiaries: Rural women 15 to 50 years of age who are seeking
to improve the economic status of their families.

Relevance to Women: The project will bring functional education
to women who have missed out on formal education because of a
lack of facilities in rural areas and conservative parental
attitudes on educating daughters. Training will also upgrade
women's income-generating skills. The implementing agency
for this project is the National Women's Organization,
completely run by women. The Organization has branches at
the county and village levels which will supervise the
activities. Women trained at the Academy for village work
will become full-time salaried employees of the project.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The National Women's
Development Academy (NWDA), located in Dacca, already has
been created to combine vocational training with functional
non-formal education. A.I.D. assistance is directed at
training approximately 1,400 rural women as change agents
who will return to their home areas to provide motivation
and skills training, needed to enable local rural women to
become economically productive. Courses include family
health, nutrition, family planning, home management,
cooperative principles, motivation and leadership training,
and adult literacy.

Results: The project has just begun with the enrollment of 100
trainees in functional educational courses.

Duration: FY 77-79 A.I.D. Funding: $300,000

Other Sponsors: NORAD, FPIA, IPPF, Government of Bangladesh

(health) #388-0038

Beneficiaries: 500 Family Welfare Centres each bringing health
services to about 3,000 rural families not now having access
to health care.


Relevance to Women: Maternal/child health and family planning are
two of the main services to be provided at the Centres. Such
services have not been readily available. The planned
staffing pattern of each Centre includes one female Family
Welfare Visitor who will also supervise one male and three
female family planning workers at the union(township) level.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: A.I.D. will assist the
Bangladesh Government with the construction of 500 Centres
which will provide a minimal infrastructure at the union
level. Health and family paramedics will offer comprehensive
services both in the Centres and through outreach programs
through linkages with village health volunteers who receive
training, commodities and nominal supervision from the Centre

Duration: FY 79-85 A.I.D. Funding: $14,500,000

Other Sponsors: The Bangladesh Government will furnish, equip,
supply and staff the Centres to be constructed under the A.I.D.
grant. World Bank will provide approximately 1,000 Centres;
Netherlands approximately 100 Centres.

(rural development, employment)

Beneficiaries: Unemployed rural poor.

Relevance to Women: In 1976, the project aided the construction of
531 labor-intensive rural earthwork efforts. Without formal
encouragement, a few women came forward; their number and
background unknown. Last year, the Bangladesh Government
explicitly directed greater participation by women in the 1,027
projects carried out in 19 districts.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: A tripartite arrangement
with A.I.D., CARE, and the Bangladesh Government to implement
labor-intensive rural earthwork projects, including cleaning
canals and water storage ponds and construction of embankments.


Results: Total number of women working was 5,140 or 16.24% of the
total labor force. Women of every age group participated;
they averaged 3.7 dependents each, and 46.9% of the women
were themselves the chief income earner for their families.
Although there is considerable experience in Bangladesh with
rural work programs, the participation of women is a new
phenomenon. Based on studies of the 1977 season, the 1978
season will be better publicized and women will be provided
equal opportunities for employment. A separate work norm
(40 cft or 6 hours) will be adopted for women; separate types
of activities will be set aside for women, and food for child
care will be arranged at each site.
Duration: FY 76-81 A.I.D. Funding: $1,200,000 (estimated)

Other Sponsors: Australia, Libya and World Food Program

(training, handicrafts) #388-0010

Beneficiaries: Managers and workers in handicrafts.

Relevance to Women: The overall project goal was to establish a
fully self-sufficient profit-making handicrafts training and
sales center in Dacca. During the project 217 women were
trained in 7 courses at the main YWCA Center, and an additional
160 at an extension center.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Establishment of proper
accounting procedures, stock records, costing methods and
production incentive systems; installation of workshop,
storage, packing and export sections; development of manage-
ment and handicraft training capabilities.

Results: A fully functioning handicraft center is in operation
with no outside assistance required, and high quality
handicrafts are being produced. Since the project began,
export sales of handicrafts from Bangladesh have increased
by about 80%. Forty of those trained work in YWCA or other
projects; the remainder in their own homes.

Duration: FY 76-77 A.I.D. Funding: $42,000
Other Sponsors: World YWCA


(agriculture, cooperatives) #388-0010

Beneficiaries: Farmers in varied small cooperative enterprises.

Relevance to Women: The overall project purpose is to establish
functioning cooperatives in six thanks (villages). Although
they were not planned in the original proposal, special
cooperatives for women have evolved in all six districts.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Technical assistance to
establish systems of maintaining financial accounts as well
as expanding extension services, training and assistance
to farmers.

Results: Women are working in sericulture, poultry, domestic
animal raising, cotton weaving and kitchen gardening
cooperatives. A proposal is now being.written by CARE for
the further development of these women's cooperatives with
their own funding.

Duration: FY 76-78 A.I.D. Funding: $422,176

Other Sponsors: CARE

(health, rural development) #388-0010

Beneficiaries: Rural people in the Kamalganj Thana of Sylhet

Relevance to Women: The overall project purpose is to establish
an integrated low-cost health and rural development project.
Aspects of the project having an impact on women include the
operation of maternal and child health clinics; the training
and fielding of female village paramedics for preventive
and curative services and the retraining and field extension
training of two categories of female workers in the family
planning program of the Bangladesh Government.

Duration: FY 76-78 A.I.D. Funding: $109,000


(nutrition, health) #388-0010

Beneficiaries: Rural people in the Kotwali Thana of Sylhet

Relevance to Women: The first International Voluntary Services
(IVS) project for community development included several
activities which have had an impact on women in the district's
12 villages.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Among the activities
carried out are nutrition training, improved kitchen gardens,
improved home sanitation through installation of tubewells
and latrines, a mobile clinic which provides vitamin and
mineral supplements to mothers and children, and family
planning education and motivation.
Results: These first project activities have led to the inclusion
of specific objectives related to women in development for a
second follow-on project. The new proposal specifically
mentions increasing the range and extent of participation of
village women through new economic activities, adopting
better practices in areas of health, nutrition, sanitation
and family planning, and making use of the resources provided
by the government for women.
Duration: FY 75-78 A.I.D. Funding: $290,000

(employment, credit) #388-0025

Beneficiaries: Rural dwellers over age 18, male or female, earning
less than Taka 3,000 ($200) per year, having a net worth of
less than Taka 5,000 ($333) and cultivating 2 acres of land
or less.
Relevance to Women: Two of the nine experiments which have the
greatest potential for impact on women call for lending to
informal village level groups and cooperatives of marginal
farmers, sharecroppers and landless, including women's groups.


Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The identification of
one or more replicable systems) to meet the financial needs
of the productive and potentially productive rural poor.
The project will undertake a series of experiments, each
testing a proposed method for extending credit to and
recovering it from the project's beneficiary groups. The
proposals, which have been planned by Bangladeshi credit
institutions, may be further refined as project planning
advances. Credit will be provided to small farmers and
landless laborers to finance activities which increase
production and supplement income, e.g., improved farming,
paddy processing, animal raising, rickshaw business, net
making, fisheries.

Results: Plans are to begin the loan program in FY 1978.
Duration: FY 78-81 A.I.D. Funding: $7,000,000

(technical assistance) #388-0027

Beneficiaries: Small landholders, sharecroppers, landless laborers
and women.

Relevance to Women: Project funds have been designated to impact
especially on women in the areas of training and research.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The purpose of this
project is to improve the Bangladesh Government's ability to
plan, implement and evaluate high priority development
activities. The project will establish in key agencies
improved capabilities in the area of policy-related research,
project development, short-term technical assistance and
training of program managers with emphasis focused on the
problems of the rural poor and women.
Results: The project is not yet underway. However, Bangladeshi
performance in the areas of development problems analysis,
program and project development and project implementation
and evaluation has improved as a result of prior A.I.D. grants,
and it is anticipated that this grant will contribute to
continued improvement.

Duration: FY 78-82 A.I.D. Funding: $5,000,000


(technical assistance) #497-0237

Beneficiaries: Officials and technicians of the Kabupaten
(subprovince) governments.
Relevance to Women: Women play only a minor role in the admini-
stration of provincial and local governments. However, the
Badan Diklat, the agency responsible to train for local
government agencies, has a good record of including women in
its training. The professional staff of Badan-Diklat consists
of approximately 10% women, and about 5% of the students in
its training academies and Central Institute are women.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The purpose of this
project is to develop and introduce at the Kabutapen (sub-
province) level techniques for quickly and accurately
defining the needs of the rural poor and responding through
the existing governmental structure and programs, and to
increase the effectiveness of the Kabupaten planning and
administrative machinery. Emphasis on the development of a
master training plan.
Results: Some women attend practically every training course, and
the Badan Diklat continues to encourage women officials to

Duration: FY 76-78 A.I.D. Funding: $470,000

(technical assistance, nutrition, health,
women's organizations) #497-0225

Beneficiaries: About 250,000 rural Indonesians.

Relevance to Women: As beneficiaries, women have profited from
all 42 of the Private Voluntary Organizations (PVO) sub-projects,
but about 12 have tended to specifically favor women,
especially those focused on nutrition and health education.


Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: During the first 4 years
of this project, 42 sub-projects have been co-financed with
7 U.S. PVOs and various local government and community
organization. These sub-projects are in fields such as
nutrition, rural public works, rural and community development,
public health, agriculture, animal husbandry, credit union and
cooperatives training, transmigration, and appropriate

Results: The 12 nutrition/health projects have directly increased
the effectiveness of women in 'carrying out their more
traditional roles in Indonesian society. Three of the
sub-projects have installed village clean water systems,
alleviating the time spent by rural women in hauling water.
As participants, women have been less affected by the first
years of the project, but by making co-financing assistance
available to private women's organizations in Indonesia, it
is planned to institutionalize a more conscious concern for
women as agents, as well as beneficiaries, in development.
Added ingredients are the active Indonesian Women's Congress
and the appointment of a new Minister of Women's Affairs in
the national government.

Duration: FY 74-81 A.I.D. Funding: $5,782,000


(education, leadership training, participation)

Beneficiaries: Highly educated women who, in turn, serve women
among the urban and rural poor.

Relevance to Women: The grants are to Ewha Woman's University,
a ten-college complex where over one-half the administrative
and teaching staff are women.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: In 1976, the Office of
Women in Development awarded a three-year research grant to
the Korean Cultural Research Institute at the University.
Education and leadership training are viewed as one way in
which highly-educated women can help bridge the gap between
educated elites and the poor. The project's purpose is to
design a curriculum model for both university and basic
education programs, and to implement a women in development
education and leadership training. Through non-formal
education programs, the University proposes to reinforce
emergent community leadership among poor urban and rural
women. In turn women leaders in the University may then take
more part in decision-making and administration of develop-
ment programs. The project also works through an information
center, development of instructional materials, extension
service programs, conference and workshops.

Results: The first exploratory phase of the project is completed,
and a follow-on grant was awarded for implementation and
application of the research and curriculum model.

Duration: FY 76-79 A.I.D. Funding: $85,000/WID


(education) #367-0124

Beneficiaries: Nepalese education specialists and ultimately,
children in rural schools.

Relevance to Women: The purpose of this project is to increase
the ability of the Ministry of Education and the supporting
structures to manage a cost effective education system.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The project gives
training in improved planning and financing procedures,
improved methods for identifying and testing innovative and
cheaper alternatives for expanding educational opportunities,
and a more rational system for testing and evaluation of
students. Since the goal of the national education plan is
to increase participation in education by girls, the project
will affect females more than males.

Results: The government is encouraging the recruitment of women
into teacher training positions, and has elevated a few women
to positions of prestige in education-related posts. This
project will endeavor to recruit women into the training

Duration: FY 76-80 A.I.D. Funding: $1,003,000


(health) #492-0291

Beneficiaries: Rural people in Barangay water system areas.

Relevance to Women: Participation of women of all four pilot
systems of the Barangay water project is happening naturally.
Women occupy either first or second most influential
positions on the board of directors numbering from five to
nine persons, with women holding an average of three positions
on each board.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Waterborne diseases are
a major health problem in the rural areas of the Philippines
because community water systems are either non-existent,
inadequate or unsafe. This project is designed to develop
the provincial government's staff capability to plan, design,
organize and install functional cooperative water systems
in the rural Barangay (village) that will help eliminate the
problem. This project also is consistent with the Govern-
ment's objectives of strengthening the capacity of local
government bodies in order to upgrade the quality of life of
the rural poor.

Duration: FY 78-79 A.I.D. Funding: $3,184,000

(agriculture, health, nutrition)

Beneficiaries: 1,230 small-scale farm families.

Relevance to Women: The project is located in an area of the
Philippines characterized by physical isolation and declining
agricultural productivity incomes. The Bula project
recognizes the key role played by female members of house-
holds in improving family nutrition, marketing produce,
raising health standards and contributing to productivity
through tending of backyard gardens and small-scale livestock


Channel and/or Method of Implementation: The project is designed
to provide for construction of irrigation facilities and for
redistribution of land; construction of community homesites, a
multi-purpose building and a schoolhouse; organization of
farmer and rural improvement clubs; training in improved
health, sanitation, nutrition and family planning practices,
and improvement of links with the market center.

Results: The last three project objectives are designed to
enhance the woman's role in family decision making and the
household economy, as well as,in decision making through
community-based organizations.

Duration: FY 77-82 A.I.D. Funding: $3,000,000

(rural development, employment) #492-0248

Beneficiaries: Rural poor.

Relevance to Women: Women are well-represented at all levels of
the cooperative program. In the National Electrification
Administration itself, 5 women have top posts, and others
head one-quarter of the 115 divisions and sections. Women
are managing small-industry cooperatives, undertaking
electrification of barrio schoolhouses, reviewing electric
system designs and advising on tariffs and financing plans.
There are a limited number of women on cooperative boards
and on cooperative staffs. Electricity makes one major
contribution to the economic opportunities for women -- it
equalizes the physical strength differences between the male
and female. Data covering 3 coop areas on industrial and
commercial employment patterns by sex reveal that before
electrification, males and females employed were 647 and 465
respectively; afterwards, women increased to 1,417 employed
and males only to 651.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The rural electrification
program is a massive undertaking with impacts ranging from the
direct benefits to the rural poor from household connections
to increased employment and productivity, better education


opportunities and improved medical care. Additionally,
farmer productivity is increased through the use of
electric motor driven water pumps, while increases in food
production open employment opportunities.

Duration: FY 68-80

A.I.D. Funding: $2,687,000


(agriculture) #383-0042

Beneficiaries: 15,000 agricultural families to be settled on
106,000 acres in the Mahaweli Ganga basin.

Relevance to Women: 49.4% of those employed in agriculture,
forestry and fisheries in Sri Lanka are women, while in 1975,
women were 28% of students in agricultural and veterinary
sciences. In Mahaweli Ganga, the majority of women are
members of farm households, and provisions of agricultural
land, irrigation water and extension services directly affect
them. Half the adult labor on each 2.5 acre cultivation
will be provided by women.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: A.I.D. is participating
in Stage III of the project (with power station, diversion
dam and major canals already in place), providing not only
for construction of irrigation, drainage and road systems,
but also for production support in the form of clearing of
jungle and preparing the land for cultivation; farm equipment,
marketing, transport and processing facilities; improved
agricultural extension services and.social infrastructure;
village wells, schools, medical and community development

Duration: FY 77-82 A.I.D. Funding: $5,200,000 loan and
$800,000 grant

Other Sponsors: IBRD, United Kingdom, Netherlands and Canada.

(agriculture) #493-0271

Beneficiaries: 1,500 farm families in 10 self-help land settlement
areas of Northeast Thailand.

Relevance to Women: Sericulture is a labor intensive pursuit of
women who are receiving training and extension services. They
are learning to manage a substantial family investment.
Three out of 10 on-site sericulture managers provided by the
Ministry of Agriculture are women.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The project is
introducing a relatively modern sericulture technology to a
group of farm families representing about 10,000 people,
resulting in higher productivity and a higher quality product.
Activities are being carried out under the management of the
Public Welfare Department of the Ministry of Interior with
technical support from the Sericulture Division of the
Ministry of Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives.
Participating farm families are establishing 4 rai of mulberry
plantations (improved varieties) and constructing and
equipping silk worm rearing houses on the farm. The coop in
each settlement area provides facilities and equipment for
cocoon processing and marketing.

Results: Since women are responsible for the success or failure
of the activity, women engaged in sericulture have gained in
prestige and self-esteem. The Thai press has given the
women's work considerable favorable publicity, and project
is a model for replication in other areas such as the Lam
Nam Oon Integrated Rural Development project. The goal is
to increase the annual net cash farm incomes over 50% in a
5-year period.
Duration: FY 76-81 A.I.D. Funding: $2,600,000


(agriculture, health, participation) #493-0272

Beneficiaries: 10,000 poor farm families in northeast Thailand.

Relevance to Women: Female members of selected farm families will
play key roles as trainees and subsequently as trainers in
upgrading the skills of women members of their village groups.
The project planning and design teams of the Kasetsart
University had equal numbers of men and women. In project
implementation, 70% of the district health center staff and
90% of the Tambon Health Center staff are women, mostly
from the local area. Other activities will include female
specialists in the development of women and youth groups,
nutrition activities and child care centers.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Through construction of
an irrigation system and a road network for irrigation
system maintenance which doubles as a feeder road for
farmers; operation of an on-farm water supply system; an
integrated program of community development, agricultural
research and extension, provision of farm inputs, marketing,
health, and family planning services, and adult education.
Project activity such as the community-based Family
Planning Services, the Thai Home Economics Association, a
Boy Scout fish propagation program, etc., will also train
family members.

Results: The project has not been operational for a year so no
discussion of results are available. Evaluation of project
progress will be held annually beginning January 1979.

Duration: FY 77-82 A.I.D. Funding: $4,500,000 loan and
$100,000 grant

(agriculture, training) #493-0280

Beneficiaries: 2.2 million farm families (60% of Thailand's
rural population that also till 54% of the land) and
personnel of the Department of Agricultural Extension.


Relevance to Women: 15% of Thai landholder farmers are women;
this ratio will be maintained in the selection of model
farmers for the project. There are over 300 women
extension officers (non-clerical) and 32 of the 160
professionals in the headquarters staff of the Agricultural
Extension are women. It is anticipated that 20% of the 266
new specialist positions and 15% of the 2,500 new extension
agent positions will be filled by women.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: At least one unpaid
model farmer will be selected per village. Their farms will
be focal points for the activities of the Tambon extension
agent: new cropping practice demonstrations, on-farm research
trials, farmer training, etc. Approximately 29,000 model
farmers will be selected and their farms will be used to
demonstrate the benefits of new cropping techniques. At
least one agent will be placed at the next highest admini-
strative level, the Tambon. Priority will be given to those
graduates with agricultural backgrounds, who are from the
area to which they will be assigned and have the ability to
relate to farmers; many of the graduates are women.

Results: Since the project has recently gotten underway, no
thorough analysis of the project's impact can yet be made.
A $100,000 development grant to fund evaluation services
has been authorized as a part of the project. Major
evaluations are planned in late 1978 and in 1980.

Duration: FY 76-80 A.I.D. Funding: $3,000,000
Other Sponsors: IBRD



A.I.D. missions in the region, with the support and assistance
of Washington staff, have made a conscious effort to discover
more about women's roles in development, and to use the knowledge
to design programs which will make maximum use of valuable human

The strategy of the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) Bureau
in implementing Sec. 113 continues to stress the need to

-- consider the role of women as an integral part of planning
and implementation of A.I.D. programs developed in collaboration
with host governments to respond to country-specific developmental

-- maximize participation of women as both agents and
beneficiaries of all programs in A.I.D.'s key sectors, rather
than to emphasize separate women's programs

-- carefully study the legal, social, political and economic
situation of women in each country to determine where opportunities
exist or may be created to promote greater or more meaningful
involvement of women in the development process

-- seek ways to expand women's participation into non-traditional
fields, while continuing to recognize their value and enhance their
status in traditional roles

-- encourage greater involvement of women in political and
economic life at all levels, from employment in responsible and
influential positions in national and local governments to
increasing their participation in community organization.

LAC missions recognize the importance of collecting, along with
other socio-economic data, adequate and reliable data about women,
and the extent to which LAC missions include data on women's roles
at every stage of the programming cycle (beginning with sector
assessments and progressing through design, review, implementation
and evaluation of individual projects) is steadily increasing.

The projects and activities undertaken in Latin America and the
Caribbean are numerous and varied in nature and scope. The LAC
Bureau has given priority to encouraging maximum participation of

women in "mainstream" sectoral programs, rather than in
developing women-specific projects. Women predominate in health,
family planning and education programs, not only as principal
beneficiaries but also in roles which are essential to carrying
out the projects. Fewer women have been reached by agriculture
programs, but new projects (such as the regional educational
media project aimed at improving women's understanding of
agricultural and marketing processes) will seek to correct this
imbalance. A 1977 LAC Bureau directive that at least half of
the funds available for grants to private voluntary organiza-
tions (PVOs) be allocated to local PVOs has contributed to a
recent rise in women-specific projects, a natural outcome of
women's high participation in volunteerism in the region.

Training is an obviously important means of increasing the
participation of women in key development roles. Although the
total number of participants sent from Latin America and the
Caribbean for training in the U.S. has declined sharply in recent
years, the proportion of female participants in U.S. or third
country A.I.D.-funded training programs has risen noticeably --
from 8.6% in FY 1974; to 19% in FY 1975; to 21% in FY 1976; to
approximately 23% in FY 1977. Some participant training programs
in individual countries show even sharper increases. In Peru,
36.3% of all participants in FY 1977 were female, representing
a 30% increase over the previous year. In Bolivia 38.9% were
women, an increase over FY 1976 of 14.8%. Ecuador's ratio rose
from 19% in FY 1976 to 24% in FY 1977. Women comprised 29% of
last year's participants from the Dominican Republic, 35.4% from
Colombia, and 50% from Nicaragua. These women have received
training in such fields as health, nutrition, family planning,
education and labor, including some less traditional areas such
*as labor economics, communications techniques, regional development
planning, animal nutrition and public administration. The single
greatest constraint to significant increases in the number of
Latin American women trained in the U.S. is the requirement for
their competency in the English language. LAC missions repeatedly
urge that more training be offered in Spanish or indigenous
languages in border to reach women of varying incomes and
educational levels who are prevented from studying in the U.S. by
the language barrier.


(education, agriculture, women's organizations) #598-0574

Beneficiaries: Latin American women of lower income groups
rural and urban, via various communications media.

Relevance to Women: The project's objectives are 1) to improve
women's understanding of agricultural and marketing
processes; 2) to enlarge conceptualization of women's
role in family and in society; and, 3) to stimulate
interest in the formation of action-oriented groups. The
programs offered will center around agricultural-technical
information regarding practices within the scope of the
food producer; socio-economic information about the roles
of every family member and the implications of these roles;
market information and ways to improve shipment, storage
and selling of goods; credit options and possibilities for
organizing, and referrals to services available to women
through public and private agencies.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The project will
develop and test mixed media methods for dissemination of
information to rural women which can be used to enhance the
economic well-being of these women and their families. One
country will be identified in each sub-region (South America,
Central America and the Caribbean) to serve as test sites.
Results: It is estimated that as many as 3 million women in the
three test countries will be reached by the project. Later
replication in other countries will multiply the number of

Duration: FY 78-80 A.I.D. Funding: $845,000

Other Sponsors: Cost of radio and television time will be borne
by host countries.



Beneficiaries: Women in the labor force in the Americas.

Relevance to Women: Three separate but related projects,
supported by A.I.D.'s Office of Labor Affairs (OLAB),
along with other donors, aim to help increase women's
capacity to compete in the labor market.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: In Project No. 1, the
Inter-American Center of Research and Documentation on
Vocational Training (CINTERFOR) carries out studies to
gather information on vocational training for women, as well
as trends in female employment. CINTERFOR collaborates with
labor ministries in organizing and expanding Women's
Bureaus, giving counseling to vocational institutions, and
in conducting and evaluating programs for working women.
Through Project No. 2, OLAB encourages women through its
trade union programs to take a realistic view of their work
lives and participate in self-improvement programs and skills
training. OLAB also assists, in a third project, the Inter-
American Commission of Women (IACW) in efforts to provide
education and training to urban and rural women workers.
The IACW program includes workshops, training programs,
consultations, as well as research, advisory and technical

Results: Through its programs, OLAB has expanded opportunities
for education, training and guidance of women workers,
particularly those who are emerging as labor leaders.

Duration: FY 77-78 A.I.D. Funding: Project 1, $25,000;
Project 2, $25,000; Project 3, $35,000/OLAB

Other Sponsors: Includes Organization of American States and
International Labor Office (CINTERFOR project terminated in


(employment, credit)

Beneficiaries: Women entrepreneurs in three Eastern Caribbean

Relevance to Women: Women in Development, Inc., a U.S. Private
Voluntary Organization based in Santo Domingo and Barbados,
will promote and train groups of women to organize small
productive enterprises.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Women in Development
will collaborate with a local business organization (Barbados
Institute of Management and Productivity) which will manage
the credit fund and provide some technical assistance to the
women's enterprises, and with the University of the West
Indies, which will provide technical advice. Initial
activities will be in Barbados.

Results: Credit is being given to assist initial production.
Two other islands among the Windward-Leeward group are
slated to receive services in the second year.

Duration: FY 78-79 A.I.D. Funding: $99,000


(agriculture, cooperatives) #511-0452

Beneficiaries: 11,000 small farmer families in small farm
cooperatives, associations and rural enterprises.

Relevance to Women: The project presently funds a full-time
advisor to the Division of Promotion of Campesina Women
in the Ministry of Agriculture's National Community
Development Service to assist specifically with the
integration of women into NCD's activities. The Women's
Promotion Division of NCDS was refocussed from traditional
home economics activities to an emphasis on income-producing
projects, involving intensive in-service training of the 76
NCDS women specialists and promoters. The promoters are
peasant women who have been trained within the institution.
Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Activities organizing
women include income generating projects, using the
projects as the basis for training; training women in
specific skills, along with the men, so they are not isolated
from new organizational and technical developments; helping
women as a group to produce and manage their own capital
so they can participate in rural cooperative and collective
organizations on an equal basis with men; lightening
household tasks through time-saving techniques so that
more time can be spent on community activities.

Results: Women have become directly involved on an equal basis
with men in the Valle Alto Integral Cooperative and to a
lesser extent in the Pampas de Lequesana Cooperative.
Efforts at convincing NCDS employees of the importance of
the integration of women have been successful in the field.
At the Central Office level, top management has adopted the
appropriate policies but has yet to demonstrate full
Based on an overall evaluation of the project in 1977, the
Promotion Division developed an action plan for 1978 which
specifies the types of activities to be carried out for
women by level of organization of the community. The
program lends assistance to 2,100 women in 110 communities
through 140 short courses and'18,800 orientation discussions.
A total of 69 income-generating projects are being undertaken
by the women. In addition, NCDS personnel are gathering
data on the economic activities of the family, which

BOLIVIA, cont.

specifically analyze the relative production and consumption
roles of both males and females. USAID continues to finance
the advisor to the Promotion Division as well as training
courses for female and male promoters.
Duration: FY 76-80 A.I.D. Funding $2,290,000


Beneficiaries: Professionals in the school system, and, indirectly,
rural youth and adults in non-formal education programs.

Relevance to Women: A.I.D.'s education projects, by their very
nature, continue to have a high impact on the women of
Bolivia. The Rural Education Coordination Office, Ministry
of Education, currently estimates the percentage of women
in various levels of Bolivian Rural Education to be: primary
teacher, 50%; school principals, 15%; district supervisors,
30%; and normal school teachers, 40%. The primary objective
of the Education Management project is to strengthen the
administrative systems of the Ministry of Education to
provide improved managerial infrastructure to maximize the
impact of the rural education program. Under this project,
increased employment of women at district educational
development centers will be encouraged; curriculum development
includes special consideration of female student learning
needs and barriers.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Project related
training consisting of two groups sent to the University of
New Mexico in 1976-77 involved 23 women, about 40% of the
trainees sent. In Rural Education I, at least half of the
over 400 rural teachers attending two-week in-service
sessions during November and December 1977 were women.
Plans for building workshops at 21 central primary schools
include facilities for a home economics teacher whose
duties include community work related to promoting the
role of the rural women and forming mothers' clubs. In the
Rural Education II project, which is just beginning, an

BOLIVIA, cont.

effort will be made to include women in teaching training
projects in proportion to their numbers in the nation, i.e.,
about 50%. In addition to the above training programs, one
woman was a delegate to an A.I.D.-sponsored Bilingual Education
Conference in Peru during January 1978.

Duration: A.I.D. Funding:
Rural Ed. I, FY 76-80 $4,924,000
Rural Ed. II, FY 77-81 $7,500,000
Ed. Mgmt., FY 74-79 $2,000,000

(health, training) #511-483

Beneficiaries: About 2 million rural people; 400,000 persons will
directly benefit from improved health services focused
on pregnant and lactating mothers.

Relevance to Women: The project's purpose is to develop and
implement effective health programs in rural areas. In
terms of services, the programs are focused on the family.
Women have been critical in making the programs work --
identifying health problems and supporting their treatment,
as well as managing financial arrangements at the community
and other levels. In terms of training, more than half the
health trainees have been women. Research and information
components of the system have baseline data on families
(women, children and men), and several critical evaluation
measures focus on women.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Training, advisory
services, information systems, survey design, manpower
analysis and logistical support systems.

Results: Since December 1976, the project has trained some 365
persons at all levels of the health system -- 192 were women
trained in-country, except for three who received long-term
training out of country. Of these women, one has an A.I.D.-
sponsored master's degree and coordinates national health
planning; one is a professional in charge of national
auxiliary nurse training; 14 are professional teaching
nurses and auxiliary school directors; 10 are physicians
and social workers: 18 are rural teachers: 36 are nursing

POLIVIA, cont.

auxiliaries; 15 are community health promoters and 82 are
members of community health committees (3 are presidents and
all hold positions on the committees). Virtually, all of
these women work in the project area or in project-related
activities at the central level. Other women also work with
the project: two accountant-administrators; one sectoral
planner; one health educator; and one public health supervisor.
Also the Bolivian project manager is a woman.

Duration: FY 76-79 A.I.D. Funding: $5,400,000

Other Sponsor: Government of Britain.

(employment, credit handicrafts) #511-0461

Beneficiaries: Women in poorer Indian communities of Altiplano.

Relevance to Women: This grant to AMERINDIA, a system of local
cooperatives, seeks to provide a constant market, at
reasonable prices, for the weaving produced by women.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Funds will be provided'
to create a revolving credit fund to purchase weavings and
handicrafts at stable prices, thus providing production
incentives and increased income to the women crafts producers.

Duration: FY 78-80 A.I.D. Funding: $100,000


(education) #514-0187

Beneficiaries: Teachers in rural schools.

Relevance to Women: The project was designed to improve the
quality of elementary education in one-teacher rural schools.
Most of the teachers trained have been women; the national
project coordinator is a woman.

Duration: FY 76-79 A.I.D. Funding: $279,000

(nutrition, health) #514-0082

Beneficiaries: Rural and urban poor.

Relevance to Women: This project was implemented to support the
development of a comprehensive national nutrition plan aimed
at dealing with the problem of malnutrition prevalent among
Colombia's rural and urban poor. Priority activities within
the plan are designed to improve the diets of the principal
beneficiaries -- pregnant and lactating mothers and pre-school

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: The loan supports
selected cost-effective programs to improve food supply,
processing, distribution and consumption, which include
nutrition education at the grassroots level by health exten-
sion agents (many of whom are women); regional workshops;
a mass communications program using radio, posters and
booklets, reinforced by interpersonal communications; food
processing and fortification of foods consumed by low-income
groups; development of a low-cost weaning food for infants.

Results: An evaluation will be conducted in the near future
which will provide detailed information on the impact of
this loan on women.

Duration: FY 76-78 A.I.D. Funding: $6,000,000


(agriculture, trailing) #514-0081

Beneficiaries: Small farmers.

Relevance to Women: The purpose of this project is to provide
practical, job-related skills training to'the agricultural
work force in order to increase potential for income genera-
tion and greater agricultural production. The principal
agent, Accidn Cultural Popular (ACPO), a Colombian private
voluntary organization, realized the need for equal stress
in training programs for men and women long before its
present involvement with A.I.D. While many of its rural
programs are directed to women in their specialized roles
of wives and mothers, greater emphasis is being given to
the importance of the rural women in agricultural production
and economic development. The key leadership training
of ACPO is shared almost equally between men and women and
gives equal stress to the roles of both sexes.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Using mobile training
units of the Government of Colombia's National Training
Service (SENA) and the facilities of ACPO courses are offered
on-site in rural areas in skills categories such as crop
and livestock production, rural construction and mechanics,
farm administration and basic bookkeeping, rural industry
and home economics.

Duration: FY 76-79 A.I.D. Funding: $4,000,000

(credit, employment) #514-0074

Beneficiaries: Small entrepreneurs.

Relevance to Women: The Small Industry Loan is designed to
stimulate development of small and medium industry by
increasing the availability of credit to marginal rural
industrialists or artisans, professionals and technicians,
and to cooperative or other community groups which


initiate or expand small enterprises. Female borrowers
number approximately 280 and represent about 10% of the
total available credits.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Credit is available
through the Corporaci6n Financiera Popular. Loans are
accompanied by technical assistance (provided by the
National Training Office) to serve the recipients of credit.
Results: About $25 million Colombian pesos (37.5 pesos = U.S. $1)
have been loaned to women who might otherwise not have had
the opportunity to develop their enterprises and provide
income-generating employment to others. Although this figure
may seem small, the Mission sees it as a significant step
in encouraging.the development of female entrepreneurs.

Duration: FY 75-78 A.I.D. Funding: $5,000,000

(health, training) #514-0075

Beneficiaries: Population in the rural areas.

Relevance to Women: USAID/Colombia's nearly completed health
sector loan has included, as one of its principal elements,
support for preventive approaches to priority health problems
such as maternal and child health. In delivery health
services to rural areas, the project has trained female health
"promotoras" and health auxiliary technicians.

Results: A national inventory of health workers, health education
facilities and position tasks is underway which should
provide information on the utilization of those trained
thus far and the need for further and increased training in
this area. Female health workers trained over 7,000.

Duration: FY 75-79 A.I.D. Funding: $17,300,000

COLOmIA, cont.

(rural development, education) #514-0210

Beneficiaries: Rural women.

Relevance to Women: Save the Children Foundation (SCF), a U.S.
PVO, includes the development of women as a component of its
integrated rural development model. SCF incorporates women
in the planning, design and management of its community
development activities.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Under an OPG, SCF
carries out rural education projects for women in traditionally
female-oriented fields such as family health, nutrition,
home improvement and child care. Classes are also given in
agricultural and handicraft production and marketing,
cooperative enterprises and community leadership.

Results: Women are being encouraged and are encouraging others,
to seek vocational training in income-producing fields outside
the home.

Duration: FY 77-78 A.I.D. Funding: $113,000


(employment, women's organizations) #515-0140

Beneficiaries: Women in marginal neighborhoods in San Jose.

Relevance to Women: This grant to the Overseas Education Fund
and FOV (Federacidn de Organizaciones Voluntarias), a local
federation of women's volunteer organizations, seeks to enable
women in the economically-active age group in the capital
to participate more fully in employment, housing and other
socio-economic programs.

Channel and/or Manner of Implementation: Training and group
activities within employment and housing programs, offered
by both public and private agencies, help these women to
be mutually supportive and to identify workable solutions
to obstacles now restricting their participation. Volunteer
workers are trained to provide motivational and adaptation
training to low-income urban women. Drawings, films,
cassettes, planning sheets, flip charts and group dynamics
are used.

Duration: FY 77-79 A.I.D. Funding: $370,000***

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