• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Book I
 Book II
 Book III
 Book IV
 Advertising
 Back Cover
 Spine














Group Title: Boy's Froissart, being Sir John Froissart's Chronicles of Advnture battle and custom in England, France, Spain etc.
Title: The boy's Froissart
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078662/00001
 Material Information
Title: The boy's Froissart being Sir John Froissart's chronicles of adventure, battle and custom in England, France, Spain
Uniform Title: Chroniques
Physical Description: xxix, 1, 422, 32 p., 12 leaves of plates : ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Froissart, Jean, 1338?-1410?
Lanier, Sidney, 1842-1881 ( Editor )
Kappes, Alfred, 1850-1894 ( Illustrator )
Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington ( Publisher )
Publisher: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, limited
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1890
 Subjects
Subject: Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Death -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Chivalry -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Knights and knighthood -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Hundred Years' War, 1339-1453 -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain -- Medieval period, 1066-1485   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- France -- Medieval period, 987-1515   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1890   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1890
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: edited for boys with an introduction by Sidney Lanier, illustrated by Alfred Kappes.
General Note: Title page printed in red and black.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078662
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002230014
notis - ALH0355
oclc - 180989079

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Frontispiece
        Page ii-a
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Table of Contents
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
    List of Illustrations
        Page xxx
    Book I
        Page 1
        How Earl Thomas of Lancaster, and twenty-two of the greatest nobles in England, were beheaded
            Page 2
            Page 3
        The queen of England goes to complain of Sir Hugh Spencer to her brother, the King of France
            Page 4
        Sir Hugh Spencer causes the queen Isabella to be sent out of France
            Page 5
        The Queen Isabella leaves France, and goes to Germany
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Queen Isabella arrives in England with Sir John de Hainault
            Page 10
        The queen of England besieges her husband in the city of Bristol
            Page 11
            Page 12
        The king of England and Sir Hugh Spencer are taken at sea as they are endeavoring to escape from the caste of Bristol
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
        The coronation of King Edward the third
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Robert Bruce, king of Scotland, defies King Edward
            Page 18
            Page 19
        A dissension between the archers of England and the Hainaulters
            Page 20
            Page 21
        How the fight between the archers and the Hainaulters ended
            Page 22
            Page 23
        How the king and his army marched to Durham
            Page 24
        Of the manners of the Scots, and how they carry on war
            Page 25
        King Edward's first expedition against the Scots
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        King Edward marries the Lady Philippa of Hainault
            Page 40
            Page 41
        Douglas is killed fighting for the heart of king Robert
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 44a
            Page 45
        Philip of Valois crowned king of France
            Page 46
        King Edward is advised by his council to make war against king Philip of France. He effects great alliances in Germany, and is made Vicar of the Empire
            Page 47
            Page 48
        King Edward and his allies send challenges to the king of France
            Page 49
        King Edward creates Sir Henry of Flanders a knight, and afterwards marches into Picardy
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
        The two kings retire from Vironfosse without giving battle
            Page 56
            Page 57
        The sea-fight between the king of England and the French, before Sluys
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
        The king fo England besieges the city of Tournay with a powerful army
            Page 62
            Page 63
        The Scots recover great part of their country during the siege of Tournay
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 66a
            Page 67
        Sir William de Bailleul and Sir Vauflart de la Croix make an excursion to Pont-à-Tressin
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
        The Earl of Hainault attacks the fortress of Mortagne in various manners
            Page 71
            Page 72
        The Earl of Hainault takes the town of St. Amand during the siege of Tournay
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
        Sir Charles de Montmorency and many others of the French, captured at Pont-à-Tressin
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
        The siege of Tournay raised by means of a truce
            Page 80
            Page 81
        King Edward institutes the order of St. George, at Windsor
            Page 82
        The king of England sets at liberty Sir Hervé de Léon
            Page 83
            Page 84
        The king of England sends the earl of Derby to make war in Gascony
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
        The earl of Derby conquers Bergerac
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
        The count de Lisle, lieutenant for the king of France, in Gascony, lays siege to the castle of Auberoche
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 94a
            Page 95
        The earl of Derby makes the count of Lisle and nine more counts and viscounts prisoners before Auberoche
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
        The earl of Derby takes different towns in Gascony, in his road toward la Réole
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
        The earl of Derby lays siege to la Réole, which surrenders to him
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
        Sir Walter Manny finds in la Réole the sepulchre of his father
            Page 106
            Page 107
        The earl of Derby conquers the castle of la Réole
            Page 108
            Page 109
        The earl of Derby takes Castel Moron, and afterwards Villefranche, in Perigord
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
        Jacob von Artaveld is murdered at Ghent
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 114a
            Page 115
            Page 116
        Sir John of Hainault quits the alliance of England for that of France
            Page 117
            Page 118
        Sir John Norwich escapes from Angouleme, when that town surrenders to the French
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
        The duke of Normandy lays siege with a hundred thousand men
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
        The king of England marches into Normandy with his army in three battalions
            Page 129
            Page 130
        The king of France collects a large force to oppose the king of England
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
        The battle of Carn - The English take the town
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
        The English commit great depredations in Normandy - Sir Godfrey de Harcourt encounters the men at arms of Amiens, on their way to Paris, and king Edward marches into Picardy
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
        The king of France pursues the king of England, in the country of Beauvais
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
        The battle of Blanchetque, between the king of England and Sir Godémar du Fay
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
        The order of battle of the English at Crecy, who were drawn up in three battaloins on foot
            Page 148
            Page 148a
            Page 149
        The order of the French army at Crecy
            Page 150
            Page 151
        The battle of Crecy, between the king of France and of England
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 154a
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
        The English on the morrow again defeat the French
            Page 166
        The English number the dead slain at the battle of Crecy
            Page 167
            Page 168
        The king of England lays siege to Calais - The poorer sort of the inhabitants are sent out of it
            Page 169
        The duke of Normandy raises the siege of Aiguillon
            Page 170
            Page 171
        Sir Walter Manny, by means of a passport, rides through France from Aiguillon to Calais
            Page 172
            Page 173
        The king of Scotland, during the siege of Calais, invades England
            Page 174
            Page 175
        The battle of Neville's cross
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
        John Copeland takes the king of Scotland prisoner, and receives great advantages from it
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
        The young earl of Flanders is betrothed, though the constraint of the Flemings, to the daughter of the king of England - He escapes to France in a subtle manner
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
        The king of England prevents the approach of the French army to raise the siege of Calais, and the town surrenders
            Page 190
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 196a
            Page 197
        The king of England re-peoples Calais
            Page 198
            Page 199
        A robber of the name of Bacon does much mischief in Languedoc, and a page of the name of Croquart turns robber
            Page 200
            Page 201
            Page 202
        Sir Aymery de Pavie plots with Sir Geoffry de Chargny to sell the town of Calais
            Page 203
        The battle of Calais, between the king of England, under the banner of Sir Walter Manny, with Sir Geoffry de Chargny and the French
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 207
            Page 208
        The king of England presents a chaplet of pearls to Sir Eustace de Ribeaumont
            Page 209
        The sea-fight off sluys (from the manuscript of the Hafod library)
            Page 210
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
        The death of king Philip, and coronation of his son King John
            Page 217
        The king of France issues out a summons for assembling an army to combat the prince of Wales, who was overrunning the province of Derby
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
        The prince of Wales takes the castle of Romorantin
            Page 221
            Page 222
        The king of France leads a great army to the battle of poitiers
            Page 223
            Page 224
            Page 225
        The disposition of the French before the battle of Poitiers
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 229
        The cardinal de Perigord endeavors to make peace between the king of France and the prince of Wales, previous to the battle of Poitiers
            Page 230
            Page 231
            Page 232
        The battle of Poitiers, between the prince of Wales and the king of France
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
            Page 238
            Page 239
            Page 240
            Page 241
        Two Frenchmen, running away from the battle of Poitiers, are pursued by two Englishmen, who are themselves made prisoners
            Page 242
            Page 243
        The manner in which king John was taken prisoner at the battle of Poiters
            Page 244
            Page 244a
            Page 245
            Page 246
            Page 247
        The prince of Wales makes a handsome present to the lord James Audley, after the battle of Poitiers
            Page 248
            Page 249
        The prince of Wales entertains the king of France at supper, the evening after the battle
            Page 250
            Page 251
        The prince of Wales returns to Bordeaux, after the battle of Poitiers
            Page 252
            Page 253
            Page 254
            Page 255
        The prince of Wales conducts the king of France from Bordeaux to England
            Page 256
            Page 257
        The Archpriest assembles a company of men at arms - He is much honored at Avignon
            Page 258
        A Welshman, of the name of Ruffin, commands a troop of the free companies
            Page 259
        The provost of the merchants of Paris kills three knights in the apartment of the prince
            Page 260
            Page 261
        The commencement of the infamous Jacquerie of Beauvoisis
            Page 262
            Page 263
        The battle of Meaux in Brie, where the villains are discomfited by the earl of Foix and the captal of Buch
            Page 264
            Page 265
    Book II
        Page 266
        Page 267
        A combat between an English and a French squire
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
            Page 272
            Page 273
        The populace of England rebel against the nobility
            Page 274
            Page 275
            Page 276
            Page 277
        The populace of England commit many cruelties on those in official situations - They send a knight as ambassador to the king
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
            Page 281
            Page 282
            Page 283
        The nobles of England are in great danger of being destroyed - Three of the principal leaders of the rebels are punished, and the rest are sent back to their homes
            Page 284
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
        The earl of Flanders again lays siege to Ghent
            Page 296
            Page 297
        The earl of Flanders sends a harsh answer to those who wished to mediate a peace between him and Ghent
            Page 298
            Page 299
        The citizens of Ghent, after having heard from Philip von Artaveld the terms of peace which he had brought from the conferences at Tournay, march out, to the number of five thousand, to attack the earl of Flanders in Pruges
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
        The order of battle of the Ghent men - They defeat the earl of Flanders and the men of Bruges - The means by which this was brought about
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
        Bruges is taken by the Ghent army - The Earl of Flanders saves himself in the house of a poor woman
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
        The earl of Flanders quits Bruges, and returns to Lille, whither some of his people had already retreated
            Page 314
        The duke of Burgundy instigates his Nephew King Charles to make war on Ghent and its allies, as well in revenge for the burnt villages as to assist in the recovery of Flanders for the earl, who was his vassal
            Page 315
            Page 316
        Charles the sixth, king of France, from a dream, chooses a flying hart for his device
            Page 317
            Page 318
        King Charles, at the instigation of the earl of Flanders, who was present, assembles his army in Aetois against the Flemmings - Philip von Artaveld guards the passes into Flanders
            Page 319
            Page 320
        Several knights of the party of the earl of Flanders, having passed Pont-Amenin, are defeated and killed on their attempt to repass it, at the Flemings having broken down the bridge - Philip, hearing this news when at Ypres, makes use of it to encourage the inhabitants
            Page 321
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
        The order of the French army in its march to Flanders, after they had heard the bridges were broken and guarded
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
        Some few of the French, not being able to cross the Lis at the bridge of Commines, find means of doing so by boats and other craft, unknown to the Flemings
            Page 330
            Page 331
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
        A small body of French, having crossed the Lis, draw up in battle-array before the Flemings
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
        The French who had crossed the Lis defeat, with great slaughter, Peter du Bois and the Flemings - The vanguard of the French army repair and pass over the bridge of commines
            Page 339
            Page 340
            Page 341
            Page 342
            Page 343
        The king of France crosses the Lis at the bridge of Commines - The town of the Ypres surrenders to him - The king of France lodges in Ypres - Peter du Bois prevents Bruges from surrendering to the king - Philip von Artaveld assembles his forces to combat the French
            Page 344
            Page 345
            Page 346
        Philip von Artaveld, having entertained his captains at supper, gives them instructions how they are to act on the morrow at the battle of Rosebecque
            Page 347
            Page 348
            Page 349
            Page 350
        Philip von Artaveld and his Flemings quit the strong position they had taken in the morning, to encamp on Mont d'Or, near to Ypres - The constable and admiral of France, with Sir William of Poitiers, set out to reconnoitre their situation
            Page 351
            Page 352
            Page 353
            Page 353
        The battle of Rosebecque, between the French and Flemings - Philip von Artaveld is slain, and his whole army defeated
            Page 354
            Page 355
            Page 356
            Page 357
            Page 358
        The number of slain at the battle of Rosebecque, and pursuit afterwards - Philip von Artaveld is hanged after he was dead
            Page 359
            Page 360
    Book III
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Sir John Froissart, in his journey toward Béarn, is accompanied by a knight attatched to the court de Foix, who relates to him how the Garrison of Lourde took Ortingas and Le Padlier, on the renewal of the war in Guyenne, after the rupture of the peace of Bretigny
            Page 363
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
        Froissart continues his journey - In travelling from Tournay to Tarbes, the knight relates to him how the Garrison of Lourde had a sharp rencounter with the French from the adjacent garrisons
            Page 367
            Page 368
            Page 369
            Page 370
            Page 370a
            Page 371
        Sir John Froissart arrives at Orthes - An old squire relates to him the cruel death of the only son of the count de Foix
            Page 372
            Page 373
            Page 374
            Page 375
            Page 376
            Page 377
            Page 378
            Page 379
            Page 380
            Page 381
    Book IV
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        The Christian lords weigh anchor, and leave the island of Comino, in order to lay siege to the town of Africa - The manner in which they conduct themselves
            Page 387
            Page 388
            Page 389
            Page 390
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        The conduct of the Saracens during the siege of the town of Africa - They send to demand from the French the cause of their making war against them
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        Some miracles are shown to the Saracens as they attempt to attack the camp of the Christians - Several skirmishes during the siege - The climate becomes unwholesome, and other accidents befall the besiegers
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Full Text







. .711


2" ,


'*.k-


The Monk Sir Froissart in the Breach of the Monastery Wall.


n -
--H,


-
:,


;; I







THE


BoY's FROISSART


BEING


SIRJOHN FROISSART'S CHRONICLES

OF

Adventure Battle and Custom in
England France Spain etc.


EDITED FOR BOYS WITH AN INTRODUCTION

BY

SIDNEY LANIER
EDITOR OF "THE BOY'S KING ARTHUR"

Illustrated by Alfred Kafies





LONDON
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, & RIVINGTON
Limited
St. munstan's l1ouze
FETTER LANE, FLEET STREET, E.C.
1890










































PRESSWORK BY BERWICK & SMITH, BOSTON,
U.S.A.














INTRODUCTION.


PERHAPS no boy will deny that to find the world still
reading a book which was written five hundred years
ago is a very wonderful business. For the world grows, -
faster than a boy; and when you remember how it is only
about ten years since you were reading Jack the Giant-
killer, and how you are infinitely beyond all that now, -you
know, -you readily see that it must be a very manful man
indeed who can make a book so strong and so all-time like
as to go on giving delight through the ages, spite of prodi-
gious revolutions in customs, in governments, and in ideas.
Now, Froissart sets the boy's mind upon manhood and
the man's mind upon boyhood. In reading him the young
soul sifts out for itself the splendor, the hardihood, the dar-
ing, the valor, the generosity, the boundless conflict and
unhindered action, which make up the boy's early ideal of
the man; while a more mature reader goes at once to his
simplicity, his gayety, his passion for deeds of arms, his
freedom from consciousness and from all internal debate-
in short, his boyishness. Thus Froissart helps youth for-
ward and age backward.
With this enchanting quality, by which he not only
defies, but even reverses, the passage of time, our fine Sir
John has always had and will long have readers, both old
and young; and if it were not for some peculiarities of







vi Introduction.

his manner, growing mainly out of the habits of his time,
there would be no need of any special edition of him for
boys. But the latter sort find many halting-places and
many skipping-places in him, by reason of his long dia-
logues, his tranquil way of telling all the particulars, and
his gay habit of often relating events in chapter fifty which
happened before those in chapter forty. The first two of
these faults were virtues in Froissart's day, when the
longer a story the better it helped to pass the time be-
tween battles; and the last one probably arose from the
manner in which he collected many of his facts, which
was as follows.
You must know that in the year 1357 this lively young
Hainaulter, being at that time but about twenty years old,
was asked by the Count Robert de Namur to write a his-
tory of the wars of those times. The idea tickled his
fancy, and he went straightway to work.
If any of you should set about writing a history, you
would most likely go up into the library, take down a great
many books, pamphlets, and manuscripts, and pore and
peer and scribble, until after a while when your back was
aching and your eyes burning you would look at your
watch and say, "Bless me! it's two o'clock in the morn-
ing," and so to bed; and such would be your day's work
until the history was finished. But not so with our young
Froissart. Instead of painfully burrowing among dusty
books, he saddled his horse, strapped on his portman-
teau behind, and cantered off along the road through the
bright French air, with his faithful greyhound following.*

Froissart's own cunning little poem of Le Dbat dou Cheval et dou Lev-
rier, recently printed for the first time by M. Buchon, gives such a picture of
himself :-
"Froissars d'Escoce revenoit
Sus un cheval qui gris estoit;
Un blanc levrier menoit en lasuse.








Introduction. vii

Presently he was pretty sure to overtake or be over-
taken by some knight or esquire: whereupon Froissart
would salute him, politely inquire his name, and ply him
with artful questions as to the battles he had fought, the
lords he had served, the negotiations he had conducted or
assisted in, the events he had witnessed or heard of; and
thus the two would converse by the way, the horses mean-
time embracing the opportunity to slacken pace, and the
greyhound taking his chance to nose about here and there
on each side the road. When the inn or friendly castle
would be reached where lodgment was to be had in the
evening, Froissart would jot down notes of all that he had
learned from fellow-travellers during the day. Sometimes
such a journey would terminate in a long visit at the castle
of a great man, -as when he went to see the Count of
Foix, referred to in the Third Book of these Chronicles;
and then in the long evenings he would learn, either from
the actors themselves or from knights or attendants about
their persons, the deeds and events with which they had
been connected.
Although from Hainault, he was much in England. He
loved the society of the great, and was often in it. He
was at different times attached to the households of King
Edward III. of England, and of King John of France;
and became an especial favorite of his countrywoman
Queen Philippa, wife to Edward III., who made him the
Clerk of her Chamber. He had various offices and pre-
ferments, but is most commonly associated with the
Church of Chimay in France, of which he was canon.
He knew how to please his powerful friends: when he
visited the Count of Fo' ,- who loved dogs, and had six-
teen hundred of them about him, -he carried four grey-
hounds as a present to that nobleman; he bore a beautiful







viii Introduction.

copy of his love-poem Meliador" to Richard II. of Eng-
land; he presented the earlier portions of his Chronicles
to Queen Philippa, who was fond of letters.
He was romantic and poetical. It would seem that he
began his travels early, in order to escape the torments of '
an unfortunate love for a certain lady which had attacked
him when a mere boy, and which endured with more or
less strength for some time. He was engaged in writing
his Chronicles from the year 1357 certainly to the year
1400, for they include events up to the latter date. With-
out burdening my young readers' minds, there are three
names of great Englishmen which I cannot forbear beg-
ging them to associate with this period. These are, the
names of Geoffrey Chaucer, who wrote the "Canterbury
Tales" and many other works; of William Langland, or
Langley, who probably wrote the wonderful "Book con-
cerning Piers the Plowman ;" and of John Wyclif, who did
the greatest service both for our religion and our language
by giving forth the first complete translation of the Bible
into English. Three large and beautiful souls; so large
and beautiful, that one could scarcely frame a finer wish
for any boy than that he should make friends with them,
and live with them when he becomes a man.
Froissart did not confine himself to history: he wrote
many poems, -rondeaus, virelays, pastorals, romances.
He lived a bright, genial, active, fruitful, and happy life;
and died after the year 1400.
As you read of the fair knights and the foul knights, -
for Froissart tells of both, it cannot but occur to you
that somehow it seems harder to be a good knight nowa-
days than it was then. This is because we have so many
more ways of fighting now than in King Edward the
Third's time. A good deal of what is really combat now-






Introduction. ix

adays is not called combat. Many struggles, instead of
taking the form of sword and armor, will present them
selves to you after a few years in the following shapes:
the strict payment of debts; the utmost delicacy of na-
tional honor; the greatest openness of party discussion,
and the most respectful courtesy towards political :ppo-
nents; the purity of the ballot-box; the sacred and liberal
guaranty of all rights to all citizens; the holiness of mar-
riage; the lofty contempt for what is small, knowing,
and gossipy; and the like. Nevertheless the same qual-
ities which made a manful fighter then make one now.
To speak the very truth; to perform a promise to the
uttermost; to reverence all women; to maintain right and
honesty; to help the weak; to treat high and low with
courtesy; to be constant to one love; to be fair to a bit.
ter foe; to despise luxury; to preserve simplicity, mod-
esty, and gentleness in heart and bearing: this was in
the oath of the young knight who took the stroke upon
him in the fourteenth century, and this is still the way to
win love and glory in the nineteenth.
You will find all these elements of knighthood which I
have just named particularly puzzling in many affairs con-
nected with money. This was always so: indeed, I can-
not help somewhat sadly reminding you that as you read
along in these Chronicles of Froissart's you will here and
there perceive how money is already creeping into the
beautiful institution of knighthood in the fourteenth cen-
tury and corrupting it. After each battle related in this
book, Froissart is pretty apt to say something about the
great wealth acquired by this or that fighter through the
ransom paid him by or for such prisoners as he took. In
other words, war is becoming a trade; and in succeeding
centuries of European history the young student will






x Introduction.

quickly notice that the great organized armies were no
whit less thieves and rascals than the rogues who com-
posed the Free Companies about whom Froissart will pres-
ently speak. The fair ideal of the knight-errant, as he
who goes forth in the world to help every one that may
need him, and who despises wealth and personal ease
whenever they interfere with this great object-an ideal
which is presented to us in Sir Lancelot, and, less finely,
in other knights of the Round Table -grows dim.
And here I could do no better service to the American
boy of the present day than by calling his attention to a
certain curious and interesting connection between these
present Chronicles of Froissart and Sir Thomas Malory's
History of King Arthur and the knights of the Round
Table, which was written in the following century and
which must some day come to be known more widely than
now as one of the sweetest and strongest books in our
language.
The connection I mean is this: that Froissart's Chroni-
cle is, in a grave and important sense, a sort of contin-
uation of Malory's novel. For Malory's book is, at bot-
tom, a picture of knighthood in the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries; while Froissart's is a picture of knighthood
in the fourteenth century. It is true that Malory's King
Arthur is a personage, if not fabulous, at least unhistori
cal, while Froissart's Edward III. is actual flesh and blood,
and is almost in sight; it is true that Froissart gives us
real events occurring in definite localities during the last
three-quarters of the fourteenth century, while Malory
drags Joseph of Arimathea alongside of Merlin the Magi-
cian, and sets Briton, Saxon, Roman, Frenchman, Scotch-
man, Irishman, Welshman, and Saracen face to face in
scenes which often defy place and time: yet it is no less






Introduction. xt

true that Froissart's work is a continuation of Malory's,
since what Malory gives us is substantially a view of life
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, which Froissart
follows with a view of life in the fourteenth century. A
boy who reflects that Sir Thomas Malory wrote a hundred
years later than Froissart will be puzzled to know how he
comes to give a picture of chivalry a hundred years earlier,
until certain facts appear which show in what manner Sir
Thomas Malory's book was made, and what were the habits
of the writers whom he followed.
About the year 1147 all England was delighted with a
narration which was published by Geoffrey of Monmouth,
concerning the deeds of a glorious man whom Geoffrey
declared to have been an old king of that country, and
whose name he gave as Arthur. Geoffrey, who was a
Welsh priest living in England at that time, declared
that he had found this account of King Arthur in a Welsh
book, and gave it as true history. Whether history or
fable, -upon this modern opinion is divided, -his story
of the great knight Arthur so charmed the people that
the poets and prose-writers, not only of England, but of
France, straightway took hold of it, turned it into verse,
amplified it, added to it, retold it in long prose tales, and
in various ways spread it abroad, until there came to be
what is called a cycle-that is, a connected ring-of
Arthurian romances. In this cycle all the prominent
characters of the modern story made their appearance:
besides King Arthur, the fascinated wcrld read of Sir
Lancelot du Lake, of Queen Guenever, of Sir Tristram,
of Queen Isolde, of Merlin, of Sir Gawaine, of the Lady
of the Lake, of Sir Galahad, and of the wonderful search
for the Holy Cup called the Saint Graal," which was said
to have received the blood that flowed from the wounds of
our Saviour when he hung on the cross.






xii Introduction.

I hope that every boy will hereafter become acquainted
with the names of many of these old writers who contrib-
uted to the collection of romances that make up the
Arthurian cycle; but for the present, without perplexing
young minds with a long list, I wish to impress four of
these names upon your memories. They are Wace, Laya-
mon, De Borron, and Walter Map. I should wish particu-
larly that my young readers would remember the name of
Layamon, because he wrote his account of King Arthur
in English, and is therefore to be reverenced as the sturdy
poet who made a great stand for our native tongue after
William the Conqueror had imposed his French dialect
upon us.
But now to come to Sir Thomas Malory. These stories
of King Arthur, and Sir Lancelot, and Sir Tristram, and
Merlin, written by Wace, and Layamon, and Map, and
others, were, as I said, carried about and read with great
delight through England and France during the thirteenth
and fourteenth centuries; and the important point to
remember here is that the writers who developed them
from the original stock furnished by Geoffrey of Mon-
mouth, although professing to tell of things which hap-
pened in the early centuries of our era, really did nothing
more than present a picture of their own times -that is,
of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in which nothing
was ancient but the names of the figures. This was a
notable custom of all the middle-age artists, not only of
the artists in words--the poets and prose tale-tellers-
but even of the later artists who drew and painted actual
pictures. Just as an old picture-maker would represent
King Solomon in a costume of the ninth century; or as
the old writer of Arthurian romances speaks of the Bib-
lical Joshua as Duke Joshua, thus bringing the old Jew







Introduction. xiii

before us with.a title some thousands of years younger
than his name: so these twelfth and thirteenth century
writers merely took the characters of Geoffrey of Mon-
mouth's story and clothed them as medieval knights and
ladies, while they re-arranged the events similarly into
such relations as accorded with their own times. Now,
in the fifteenth century, Sir Thomas Malory re-arranged
this series of stories about King Arthur, Sir Lancelot, Sir
Tristram, the Round Table, and the Holy Cup, which had
been written in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and
which were really pictures of life in those centuries, though
grouped about legendary figures; while Sir John Frois-
sart wrote chronicles which present us pictures of life
grouped about the historic characters of his own four-
teenth century.
But though, as I said, the ideal of knighthood begins to
be lowered in Froissart by the temptations of ransom-
money, there are still many beautiful features of it which
come out with perfect colors in these following chroni-
cles. The kingliness of Edward III.; the stern lessons
of hardihood, of self-help, and of perseverance unto the
end, which he teaches his son Edward in refusing to
send him re-enforcements when he is so dreadfully bested
before Crecy; the beautiful courtesy and modesty with
which this same young Edward attends upon King John
of France at supper in his own tent on the night after he
had taken the king prisoner and routed his army at Poic-
tiers; the pious reverence with which Sir Walter Manny
seeks out the grave of his father; the energy with which
the stout abbot of Hennecourt hews, whacks, and pulls
the blooded knights about; the frequent expostulations
of generous gentlemen against the harsh treatment of
prisoners; the prayer of the queen in favor of the citizens







Introdlctiown.


of Calais, and King Edward's knightly concession to her
ladyhood; the splendor and liberality of the Count de
Foix; the unconquerable loyalty of Sir Robert Salle, who
prefers a brave death at the hands of Wat Tyler's rebels,
to the leadership of their army; the dash and gallantry of
the young Saracen Agadinquor Oliferne, who flies about
like a meteor before the besieging crusaders round about
the town of Africa: these, and many fine things of like
sort, will not fail to strike the most inexperienced eyes.
My main task in editing this book for you has been to
choose connected stories which would show you as many
of the historic figures in Froissart as possible; though
I have tried to preserve at the same time the charm which
lies in his very rambling manner. I have not altered his
language at all. Every word in this book is Froissart's;
except of course that he wrote in French, and his words
are here translated into English. A very noble translation
was made in the time of King Henry the Eighth, by Lord
Berners, whose name I hope you will remember. I should
have greatly preferred to give you his Froissart for the
present edition: it is beautiful English, and infinitely
stronger, brighter, and more picturesque, than the transla-
tion here used; but it would have been difficult for you to
read. Yet, in order that you might see what the English
of King Henry the Eighth's time looks like, I have given a
chapter of Lord Berners', on the battle of Crecy, without
alteration; and, believing that many of my young readers
who may be studying French might be curious to read a
little of that language in one of its earlier stages, I have
added the same chapter in French from the manuscripts
printed by Buchon. For similar reasons, at the chapter
describing the battle of Neville's Cross, I have added an
old English ballad upon the same fight, giving it unaltered







Introduction. xv

from Messrs. Hales and Furnivall's edition of Bishop
Percy's Manuscript.
Again, when the Chronicle reaches King Richard II.,
I have embraced the opportunity to show you the kind of
English which was spoken in Froissart's time, by adding
to one of the chapters the robust "Ballad sent to King
Richard" by Geoffrey Chaucer,- begging you to believe
that our time cries out to every young American man, as
Chaucer to his prince, to

Do law, love truth and worthiness,
And wed thy folk again to steadfastness."

Finally, do not think that to read this book is to exhaust
Froissart. Only about one-ninth of his Chronicle could
be got into the space here assigned; and you have the
comfort of knowing that there is a great deal more.
To him, then; and I envy every one of you !
"For herein," -as old William Caxton, the first Eng-
lish printer, says in his Prologue to Sir Thomas Malory's
history of King Arthur, "for herein may be seen chy-
valrye, curtosye, humanyte, frendlynesse, hardynesse, love,
frendshyp, cowardyse, murdre, hate, vertue, synne. Doo
after the good, and leve the evil, and it shall bring you to
good fame and renommee."
SIDNEY LANIER.
BALTIMORE, MD., x87.














CONTENTS.





BOOK I.

CHAPTER I.
Tar OCCASION or THE WARS BETWEEN THE KINGS OF FRANCE
AND ENGLAND .

CHAPTER II.
How EARL THOMAS OF LANCASTER, AND TWENTY-TWO OF THE
GREATEST NOBLES IN ENGLAND, WERE BEHEADED 2

CHAPTER III.
THE QUEEN OF ENGLAND GOES TO COMPLAIN OF SIR HUGH SPENCER
TO HER BROTHER, THE KING OF FRANCE 4

CHAPTER IV.
SIR HUGH SPENCER CAUSES THE QUEEN ISABELLA TO BE SENT OUT
OF FRANCE .

CHAPTER V.
THE QUEEN ISABELLA LEAVES FRANCE, AND GOES TO GERMANY 6

CHAPTER VI.
QUEEN ISABELLA ARRIVES IN ENGLAND WITH SIR JOHN DE HAI-
NAULT 10

CHAPTER VII.
THa QUEEN OF ENGLAND BESIEGES HER HUSBAND IN THE CITY OF
BRISTOL. .. I...

CHAPTER VIII.
THm KING OF ENGLAND AND SIR HUGH SPENCER ARE TAKEN AT
SEA AS THEY ARE ENDEAVORING TO ESCAPE FROM THE CASTLE

Ivl








cviii Contents.


CHAPTER IX.
THE CORONATION OF KING EDWARD THE THIRD 6. 6

CHAPTER X.
ROBERT BRUCE, KING oF SCOTLAND, DEFIES KING EDWARD 18

CHAPTER XI.
A DISSENSION BETWEEN THE ARCHERS OF ENGLAND AND THE
HAINAULTERS 20

CHAPTER XII.
How THE FIGHT BETWEEN THE ARCHERS AND THE HAINAULTEM
ENDED 22

CHAPTER XIII.
How THE KING AND HIS ARMY MARCHED TO DURHAM 24

CHAPTER XIV.
OF THE MANNERS OF THE SCOTS, AND HOW THEY CARRY ON WAR 25

CHAPTER XV.
KING EDWARD'S FIRST EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SCOTS 26

CHAPTER XVI.
KING EDWARD MARRIES THE LADY PHILIPPA OF HAINAULT 40

CHAPTER XVII.
DOUGLAS IS KILLED FIGHTING FOR THE HEART OF KING ROBERT 42

CHAPTER XVIII.
'HILIP OF VALOIS CROWNED KING OF FRANCE 46

CHAPTER XIX.
KING EDWARD IS ADVISED BY HIS COUNCIL TO MAKE WAR AGAINST
KING PHILIP OF FRANCE. HE EFFECTS GREAT ALLIANCES IN
GERMANY, AND IS MADE VICAR OF THE EMPIRE 47

CHAPTER XX.
KING EDWARD AND HIS ALLIES SEND CHALLENGES TO THE KING
OF FRANCE 49








Contents. xix


CHAPTER XXI.
PAGE.
KING EDWARD CREATES SIR HENRY OF FLANDERS A KNIGHT, AND
AFTERWARDS MARCHES INTO PICARDY 50

CHAPTER XXII.
THE TWO KINGS RETIRE FROM VIRONFOSSE WITHOUT GIVING BATTLE 56

CHAPTER XXIII.
THE SEA-FIGHT BETWEEN THE KING OF ENGLAND AND THE FRENCH,
BEFORE SLUYS 58

CHAPTER XXIV.
THE KING OF ENGLAND BESIEGES THE CITY OF TOURNAY WITH A
POWERFUL ARMY 62

CHAPTER XXV.
THE SCOTS RECOVER GREAT PART OF THEIR COUNTRY DURING THE
SIEGE OF TOURNAY. 64

CHAPTER XXVI.
SIR WILLIAM DE BAILLEUL AND SIR VAUFLART DE LA CROIX MAKE
AN EXCURSION TO PONT-A-TRESSIN 68

CHAPTER XXVII.
THE EARL OF HAINAULT ATTACKS THE FORTRESS OF MORTAGNE IN
VARIOUS MANNERS 71

CHAPTER XXVIII.
THE EARL OF HAINAULT TAKES THE TOWN OF ST. AMAND DURING
THE SIEGE OF TOURNAY. .73

CHAPTER XXIX.
SiR CHARLES DE MONTMORENCY, AND MANY OTHERS OF THE
FRENCH, CAPTURED AT PONT-A-TRESSIN 77

CHAPTER XXX.
THE SIEGE OF TOURNAY RAISED BY MEANS OF A TRUCE 80

CHAPTER XXXI.
KING EDWARD INSTITUTES THE ORDER OF ST. GEORGE, A' WINDSOR 82







xx Contents.


CHAPTER XXXII.
THE KING OF ENGLAND SETS AT LIBERTY SIR HERVE DE LEON 83

CHAPTER XXXIII.
THE KING OF ENGLAND SENDS THE EARL OF DERBY TO MAKE
WAR IN GASCONY .85

CHAPTER XXXIV.
THE EARL OF DERBY CONQUERS BERGERAC 88

CHAPTER XXXV.
THE COUNT DE LISLE, LIEUTENANT FOR THE KING OF FRANCE, IN
GASCONY, LAYS SIEGE TO THE CASTLE OF AUBEROCHE 93

CHAPTER XXXVI.
THE EARL OF DERBY MAKES THE COUNT OF LISLE AND NINE MORE
COUNTS AND VISCOUNTS PRISONERS BEFORE AUBEROCHE 96

CHAPTER XXXVII.
THE EARL OF DERBY TAKES DIFFERENT TOWNS.IN GASCONY, IN
HIS ROAD TOWARD LA ROLE 99

CHAPTER XXXVIII.
THE EARL OF DERBY LAYS SIEGE TO LA RiOLE, WHICH SURRENDERS
TO HIM 103

CHAPTER XXXIX.
SIR WALTER MANNY FINrS IN LA ROLE THE SEPULCHRE OF HIS
FATHER 106

CHAPTER XL
THE EARL OF DERBY CONQUERS THE CASTLE OF LA RIOLE Io8

CHAPTER XLI.
THE EARL OF DERBY TAKES CASTEL MORON, AND AFTERWARDS
VILLEFRANCHE, IN PERIGORD. 110

CHAPTER XLII.
JACOB VON ARTAVELD IS MURDERED AT GHENT I1








Contents. xxi


CHAPTER XLIII.
PAGE.
SIR JOHN OF HAINAULT QUITS THE ALLIANCE OF ENGLAND FOR
THAT OF FRANCE 1

CHAPTER XLIV.
THE DUKE OF NORMANDY MARCHES WITH A GREAT ARMY INTO
GASCONY, AGAINST THE EARL OF DERBY 117

CHAPTER XLV.
SIR JOHN NORWICH ESCAPES FROM ANGOULAME, WHEN THAT TOWN
SURRENDERS TO THE FRENCH 119

CHAPTER XLVI.
THE DUKE OF NORMANDY LAYS SIEGE TO AIGUILLON WITH A
HUNDRED THOUSAND MEN 122

CHAPTER XLVII.
THE KING OF ENGLAND MARCHES INTO NORMANDY WITH HIS ARMY
IN THREE BATTALIONS I9

CHAPTER XLVIII.
THE KING OF FRANCE COLLECTS A LARGE FORCE TO OPPOSE THE
KING OF ENGLAND 131

CHAPTER XLIX.
THE BATTLE OF CAEN.- THE ENGLISH TAKE THE TOWN 134

CHAPTER L.
THE ENGLISH COMMIT GREAT DEPREDATIONS IN NORMANDY.- SIR
GODFREY DR HARCOURT ENCOUNTERS THE MEN AT ARMS OF
AMIENS, ON THEIR WAY TO PARIS, AND KING EDWARD MARCHES
INTO PICARDY 137

CHAPTER LI.
THE KING OF FRANCE PURSUES THE KING OF ENGLAND, IN THE
COUNTRY OF BEAUVAIS 141

CHAPTER LII.
THE BATTLE OF BLANCHETAQUE, BETWEEN THE KING'OF ENGLAND
AND SIR GODEMAR DU FAY 144








xxii Contents.


CHAPTER LIII.
PAGE
THE ORDER OF BATTLE OF THE ENGLISH AT CRECY, WHO WERE
DRAWN UP IN THREE BATTALIONS ON FOOT 148

CHAPTER LIV.
THE ORDER OF THE FRENCH ARMY AT CRECY I

CHAPTER LV.
THE BATTLE OF CRECY, BETWEEN THE KINGS OF FRANCE AND OF
ENGLAND 152

CHAPTER LVI.
THE ENGLISH ON THE MORROW AGAIN DEFEAT THE FRENCH. 166

CHAPTER LVII.
THE ENGLISH NUMBER THE DEAD SLAIN AT THE BATTLE OF CRECY 167

CHAPTER LVIII.
THE KING OF ENGLAND LAYS SIEGE TO CALAIS. -THE POORER
SORT OF THE INHABITANTS ARE SENT OUT OF IT .69

CHAPTER LIX.
THE DUKE OF NORMANDY RAISES THE SIEGE OF AIGUILLON I70

CHAPTER LX.
SIR WALTER MANNY, BY MEANS OF A PASSPORT, RIDES THROUGH
FRANCE FROM AIGUILLON TO CALAIS 172

CHAPTER LXI.
THE KING OF SCOTLAND, DURING THE SIEGE OF CALAIS, INVADES
ENGLAND .. 174

CHAPTER LXII.
THE BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS 176

CHAPTER LXIII.
JOHN COPELAND TAKES THE KING OF SCOTLANU PRISONER, AND
RECEIVES GREAT ADVANTAGES FROM IT 183









Contents. xxiii


CHAPTER LXIV.
PAGE.
THE YOUNG EARL OF FLANDERS IS BETROTHED, THROUGH THE CON-rG
STRAINT OF TIE FLEMINGS, TO THE DAUGHTER OF THE KING
OF ENGLAND. HE ESCAPES TO FRANCE IN A SUBTLE MANNER 186

CHAPTER LXV.
FltE KING OF ENGLAND PREVENTS THE APPROACH OF THE FRENCH
ARMY TO RAISE THE SIEGE OF CALAIS, AND THE TOWN SUR-
RENDERS 190

CHAPTER LXVI.
THE KING OF ENGLAND RE-PEOPLES CALAIS 198

CHAPTER LXVII.
A ROBBER OF THE NAME OF BACON DOES MUCH MISCHIEF IN
LANGUEDOC, AND A PAGE OF THE NAME OF CROQUART TURNS
ROBBER 200

CHAPTER LXVIII.
SIR AYMERY DE PAVIE PLOTS WITH SIR GEOFFRY DE CHARGNY TO
SELL THE TOWN OF CALAIS 203

CHAPTER LXIX.
THE BATTLE OF CALAIS, BETWEEN THE KING OF ENGLAND, UNDER
THE BANNER OF SIR WALTER MANNY, WITH SIR GEOFFRY DE
CHARGNY AND THE FRENCH 204

CHAPTER LXX.
THE KING OF ENGLAND PRESENTS A CHAPLET OF PEARLS TO SIR
EUSTACE DE RIBEAUMONT 209

CHAPTER LXXI.
THE SEA-FIGHT OFF SLUYS. (FROM THE MANUSCRIPT IN THE
HAFOD LIBRARY) 210

CHAPTER LXXII.
THE DEATH OF KING PHILIP, AND CORONATION OP HIS SON KING
JOHN 217

CHAPTER LXXIII.
THE KING OF FRANCE ISSUES OUT A SUMMONS FOR ASSEMBLING AN
ARMY TO COMBAT THE PRINCE OF WALES, WHO WAS OVER-
RUNNING THE PROVINCE OF DERBY 21








xxiv


Contents.


CHAPTER LXXIV.
THE PRINCE OF WALES TAKES THE CASTLE OF ROMORANTIN. 221

CHAPTER LXXV.
THE KING OF FRANCE LEADS A GREAT ARMY TO THE BATTLE OF
POITIERS 223

CHAPTER LXXVI.
THE DISPOSITION OF THE FRENCH BEFORE THE BATTLE OF POITIERS 226

CHAPTER LXXVII.
THE CARDINAL DE PERIGORD ENDEAVORS TO MAKE PEACE BETWEEN
THE KING OF FRANCE AND THE PRINCE OF WALES, PREVIOUS
TO THE BATTLE OF POITIERS. 230

CHAPTER LXXVIII.
THE BATTLE OF POITIERS, BETWEEN THE PRINCE OF WALES AND
THE KING OF FRANCE 233

CHAPTER LXXIX.
TWO FRENCHMEN, RUNNING AWAY FROM THE BATTLE OF POITIERS,
ARE PURSUED BY TWO ENGLISHMEN, WHO ARE THEMSELVES
MADE PRISONERS 242

CHAPTER LXXX.
THE MANNER IN WHICH KING JOHN WAS TAKEN PRISONER AT
THE BATTLE OF POITIERS 244

CHAPTER LXXXI.
THE PRINCE OF WALES MAKES A HANDSOME PRESENT TO THE
LORD JAMES AUDLEY, AFTER THE BATTLE OF POITIERS 248

CHAPTER LXXXII.
THE PRINCE OF WALES ENTERTAINS THE KING OF FRANCE AT
SUPPER, THE EVENING AFTER THE BATTLE. 250

CHAPTER LXXXIII.
THE PRINCE OF WALES RETURNS TO BORDEAUX, AFTER THE BATTLE
OF POITIERS 2S2

CHAPTER LXXXIV.
THE PRINCE OF WALES CONDUCTS THE KING OF FRANCE FROM
BORDEAUX TO ENGLAND 23S








Contents. xxv


CHAPTER LXXXV.
PAGr
THE ARCHPRIEST ASSEMBLES A COMPANY OF MEN AT ARMS. HE
IS MUCH HONORED AT AVIGNON 28

CHAPTER LXXXVI.
A WELSHMAN, OF THE NAME OF RUFFIN, COMMANDS A TROOP OF
THE FREE COMPANIES 259

CHAPTER LXXXVII.
THE PROVOST OF THE MERCHANTS OF PARIS KILLS THREE KNIGHTS
IN THE APARTMENT OF THE PRINCE 260

CHAPTER LXXXVIII.
THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE INFAMOUS JACQUERIE OF BEAUVOISIS 262

CHAPTER LXXXIX.
THE BATTLE OF MEAUX IN BRIE, WHERE THE VILLAINS ARE DIS-
COMFITED BY THE EARL OF FOIX AND THE CAPITAL OF BUCH. 264



BOOK II.

CHAPTER I.
CORONATION OF KING CHARLES OF FRANCE 26

CHAPTER II.
A COMBAT BETWEEN AN ENGLISH AND A FRENCH SQUIRE 268

CHAPTER III.
THE POPULACE OF ENGLAND REBEL AGAINST THE NOBILITY 274

CHAPTER IV.
THE POPULACE OF ENGLAND COMMIT MANY CRUELTIES ON THOSE
IN OFFICIAL SITUATIONS.-THEY SEND A KNIGHT AS AMBAS-
SADOR TO THE KING 2S

CHAPTER V.
THE NOBLES OF ENGLAND ARE IN GREAT DANGER OF BEING
DESTROYED. THREE OF THE PRINCIPAL LEADERS OF THE
REBELS ARE PUNISHED, AND THE REST SENT BACK TO THEIR
HOMES 284








xxvi Contents.


CHAPTER VI.
THE EARL OF FLANDERS AGAIN LAYS SIEGE TO GHENT 296

CHAPTER VII.
TIHE EARL OF FLANDERS SENDS A HARSH ANSWER TO THOSE WHO
WISHED TO MEDIATE A PEACE BETWEEN HIM AND GHENT 298

CHAPTER VIII.
THE CITIZENS OF GHENT, AFTER HAVING HEARD FROM PHILIP VON
ARTAVELD THE TERMS OF PEACE WHICH HE HAD BROUGHT
FROM THE CONFERENCES AT TOURNAY, MARCH OUT, TO THE
NUMBER OF FIVE THOUSAND, TO ATTACK THE EARL OF FLAN-
DERS IN BRUGES 300

CHAPTER IX.
THE ORDER OF BATTLE OF THE GHENT MEN. THEY DEFEAT THE
EARL OF FLANDERS AND THE MEN OF BRUGES. THE MEANS
BY WHICH THIS WAS BROUGHT ABOUT 303

CHAPTER X.
BRUGES IS TAKEN BY THE GHENT ARMY. THE EARL OF FLANDERS
SAVES HIMSELF IN THE HOUSE OF A POOR WOMAN 309

CHAPTER XI.
THE EARL OF FLANDERS QUITS BRUGES, AND RETURNS TO LILLE,
WHITHER SOME OF HIS PEOPLE HAD ALREADY RETREATED 314

CHAPTER XII.
THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY INSTIGATES HIS NEPHEW KING CHARLES
TO MAKE WAR ON GHENT AND ITS ALLIES, AS WELL IN REVENGE
FOR THE BURNT VILLAGES AS TO ASSIST IN THE RECOVERY OF
FLANDERS FOR THE EARL, WHO WAS HIS VASSAL 315

CHAPTER XIII.
CHARLES THE SIXTH, KING OF FRANCE, FROM A DREAM, CHOOSES
A FLYING HART FOR HIS DEVICE . 317

CHAPTER XIV.
KING CHARLES, AT THE INSTIGATION OF THE EARL OF FLANDERS,
WHO WAS PRESENT, ASSEMBLES HIS ARMY IN ARTOIS AGAINST
THE FLEMINGS.-PHILIP VON ARTAVELD GUARDS THE PASSES
INTO FLANDERS 319









Contents. xxvi:


CHAPTER XV.
I PAGE. :
SEVERAL KNIGHTS OF THE PARTY OF THE EARL OF FLANDERS,
HAVING PASSED PONT-AMENIN, ARE DEFEATED AND KILLED ON
THEIR ATTEMPT TO REPASS IT, THE FLEMINGS HAVING BROKEN
DOWN THE BRIDGE.-PHILIP, HEARING THIS NEWS WHEN AT
YPRES, MAKES USE OF IT TO ENCOURAGE THE INHABITANTS 321


CHAPTER XVI.
THE ORDER OF THE FRENCH ARMY IN ITS MARCH TO FLANDERS,
AFTER THEY HAD HEARD THE BRIDGES WERE BROKEN AND
GUARDED 325

CHAPTER XVII.
SOME FEW OF THE FRENCH, NOT BEING ABLE TO CROSS THE LIS
AT THE BRIDGE OF COMMINES, FIND MEANS OF DOING SO BY
BOATS AND OTHER CRAFT, UNKNOWN TO THE FLEMINGS 330


CHAPTER XVIII.
A SMALL BODY OF FRENCH, HAVING CROSSED THE LIS, DRAW UP
IN BATTLE-ARRAY BEFORE THE FLEMINGS 335

CHAPTER XIX.
THE FRENCH WHO HAD CROSSED THE LIS DEFEAT, WITH GREAT
SLAUGHTER, PETER DU BOIS AND THE FLEMINGS. THE VAN-
GUARD OF THE FRENCH ARMY REPAIR AND PASS OVER THE
BRIDGE OF COMMINES 339

CHAPTER XX.
TDl KING OF FRANCE CROSSES THE LIS AT THE BRIDGE OF COM-
MINES.- THE TOWN OF YPRES SURRENDERS TO HIM. THE
KING OF FRANCE LODGES IN YPRES. PETER DU BOIS PRE-
VENTS BRUGES FROM SURRENDERING TO THE KING. -PHILIP
VON ARTAVELD ASSEMBLES HIS FORCES TO COMBAT THE
FRENCH 344

CHAPTER XXI.
PHILIP VON ARTAVELD, HAVING ENTERTAINED HIS CAPTAINS AT
SUPPER, GIVES THEM INSTRUCTIONS HOW THEY ARE TO ACT ON
THE MORROW AT THE BATTLE OF ROSEBECQUE 34









xxviii Contents.


CHAPTER XXII.
rAGIK
PHILIP VON ARTAVELD AND HIS FLEMINGS QUIT THE STRONG
POSITION THEY HAD TAKEN IN THE MORNING, TO ENCAMP ON
MONT D'OR, NEAR TO YPRES.--THE CONSTABLE AND ADMIRAL
OF FRANCE, WITH SIR WILLIAM OF POITIERS, SET OUT TO RE-
CONNOITRE THEIR SITUATION. 351

CHAPTER XXIII.
THE BATTLE OF ROSEBECQUE, BETWEEN THE FRENCH AND FLEM-
INGS. PHILIP VON ARTAVELD IS SLAIN, AND HIS WHOLE ARMY
DEFEATED. . 354

CHAPTER XXIV.
THE NUMBER OF SLAIN AT THE BATTLE OF ROSEBECQUE, AND
PURSUIT AFTERWARDS.-- PHILIP VON ARTAVELD IS HANGED
AFTER HE WAS DEAD 359




BOOK III.

CHAPTER I.
FROISSART SETS OUT ON JOURNEY TO BARN TO SEEK ADMISSION
TO THE HOUSEHOLD OF THE COUNT DE FOIX 361

CHAPTER II.
SIR JOHN FROISSART, IN HIS JOURNEY TOWARD BARN, IS ACCOM-
PANIED BY A KNIGHT ATTACHED TO THE COUNT DE FOIX, WHO
RELATES TO HIM HOW THE GARRISON OF LOURDE TOOK ORTINGAS
AND LE PALLIER, ON THE RENEWAL OF THE WAR IN GUYENNE,
AFTER THE RUPTURE OF THE PEACE OF BRETIGNY 363

CHAPTER III.
FROISSART CONTINUES HIS JOURNEY. -IN TRAVELLING FROM TOUR-
NAY TO TARBES, THE KNIGHT RELATES TO HIM HOW THE GAR-
RISON OF LOURDE HAD A SHARP ENCOUNTER WITH THE
FRENCH FROM THE ADJACENT GARRISONS 367

CHAPTER IV.
SIR JOHN FROISSART ARRIVES AT ORTHS. -AN OLD SQUIRE RB.
LATES TO HIM THE CRUEL DEATH OF THE ONLY SON OF THE
COUNT DE FOIX 37








Contents.


xxix


BOOK IV.

CHAPTER I.
PMGA
THE DUKE OF BOURBON IS APPOINTED CHIEF OF AN EXPEDITION
TO AFRICA, THAT IS UNDERTAKEN BY SEVERAL KNIGHTS OF
FRANCE AND ENGLAND AT THE SOLICITATION OF THE GENOESE 382

CHAPTER II.
THE CHRISTIAN LORDS WEIGH ANCHOR, AND LEAVE THE ISLAND OF
COMING, IN ORDER TO LAY SIEGE TO THE TOWN OF AFRICA. -
THE MANNER IN WHICH THEY CONDUCT THEMSELVES 387

CHAPTER III.
THE CONDUCT OF THE SARACENS DURING THE SIEGE OF THE TOWN
OF AFRICA.- THEY SEND TO DEMAND FROM THE FRENCH THE
CAUSE OF THEIR MAKING WAR AGAINST THEM 398

CHAPTER IV.
SOME MIRACLES ARE SHOWN TO THE SARACENS AS THEY ATTEMPT
TO ATTACK THE CAMP OF THE CHRISTIANS.-SEVERAL SKIR-
MISHES DURING THE SIEGE. -THE CLIMATE BECOMES UNWHOLE-
SOME, AND OTHER ACCIDENTS BEFALL THE BESIEGERS 403

CHAPTER V.
A CHALLENGE IS SENT BY THE SARACENS TO OFFER COMBAT OF TEN
AGAINST TEN CHRISTIANS.-THE SARACENS FAIL IN THEIR EN-
GAGEMENT. -THE TOWN OF AFRICA IS STORMED, BUT UNSUC-
CESSFULLY, AND WITH THE LOSS OF MANY WORTHY MEN 407

CHAPTER VI.
THE SIEGE OF AFRICA IS RAISED. THE CAUSE OF IT. -TH
KNGHTS AND SQUIRES RETURN TO THEIR OWN COUNTRIES 414

CHAPTER VII.
DxuT AND BURIAL OF KING RICHARD IL ar














LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PAGS
THE MONK SIR FROISSART IN THE BREACH OF THE MONAS-
TERY WALL Frontispiece.
LORD JAMES DOUGLAS THROWING THE HEART OF BRUCE
AMONG THE SARACENS 45
How SIR WILLIAM DOUGLAS AND HIS COMPANIONS CAP-
TURED THE CASTLE OF EDINBURGH BY STRATAGEM .67
How THE FRENCH FLUNG A SERVANT OVER THE WALLS
INTO AUBEROCHE. 95
THE DEATH OF JACOB VON ARTAVELD 115
KING EDWARD III. PRAYING IN HIS TENT THE NIGHT BE-
FORE THE BATTLE OF CRECY 149
THE BLIND KING OF BOHEMIA DEAD ON THE BATTLE-FIELD
OF CRECY 155
How THE SIX CITIZENS OF CALAIS DELIVERED THEMSELVES
UP TO THE ENGLISH KING. 197
THE SURRENDER OF KING JOHN OF FRANCE. 245
THE THREE KNIGHTS RECONNOITRING THE FLEMINGS IN THE
MIST 353
HOW THE BOURG D'ESPAIGN FED THE FIRE IN THE GREAT
FIRE-PLACE OF THE COUNT OF FOIX 371
How A WONDERFUL APPARITION TERRIFIED THE SARA-
CENS 403















THE CHRONICLES OF ENGLAND,
FRANCE, SPAIN, &c.




BOOK I.*

CHAPTER I.

THE OCCASION OF THE WARS BETWEEN THE KINGS OF FRANCE AND
ENGLAND.
H ISTORY tells us that Philip, King of France, sur-
named the Fair, had three sons, besides his beauti-
ful daughter Isabella married to the King of England.
These three sons were very handsome. The eldest, Lewis,
King of Navarre during the lifetime of his father, was
called Lewis Hutin; the second was named Philip the
Great, or the Long; and the third, Charles. All these

Froissart's Chronicles were written in four volumes, or books. The
parts I have taken from the first book cover a period of about thirty years,
counting from the coronation of the young King Edward the Third of Eng-
land in the year 1326 to the battle of Poitiers in the year 1356. The times
covered by the other three books will be given as we come to them.
I have thought that the young readers of Froissart would care to know
exactly how it was that such a wonderful amount of fighting had to be done
during the fourteenth century, in England, France, and Flanders, as is de-
scribed in this book; and I have therefore devoted the first forty or fifty
pages to such extracts as would inform them upon the causes of these terri
ble and long-continued wars. ED.







2 Froissart's Chronicles.

were kings of France after their father Philip by legiti-
mate succession, one after the other, without having any
male heirs: yet on the death of the last king, Charles,
the twelve peers and barons of France did not give the
kingdom to Isabella the sister, who was Queen of Eng-
land, because they maintained, and do still insist, that
the kingdom of France is too noble to go to a woman,
consequently either to Isabella, or to her son the King of
England; for they hold that the son of a woman cannot
claim any right of succession where that woman has none
herself. For these reasons the twelve peers and barons of
France unanimously gave the kingdom of France to the
Lord Philip of Valois, nephew to King Philip; and so put
aside the Queen of England, who was sister to Charles,
the late King of France, and her son. Thus, as it seemed
to many people, the succession went out of the right line,
which has been the occasion of the most destructive wars
and devastations of countries in France and elsewhere, as
you will learn hereafter: the real object of this history
being to relate the grand enterprises and deeds of arms
achieved in these great wars; for, from the time of good
Charlemagne, King of France, never were such feats per-
formed.



CHAPTER II.

Hfow EARL THOMAS OF LANCASTER, AND TWENTY-TWO OF THE GREATEST
NOBLES IN ENGLAND, WERE BEHEADED.

KING EDWARD THE SECOND, father to the noble
King Edward the Third of whom our history speaks,
governed his kingdom very indifferently by the advice of







Froissart's Chronicles.


Sir Hugh Spencer, who had been brought up with him
from his youth.
This Sir Hugh had managed matters so that his father
and himself were the great masters of the realm, and were
ambitious to surpass all the other great barons in Eng-
land; for which reason, after the great defeat at Stirling,
the barons and nobles, and even the council of the king,
murmured much, particularly against Sir Hugh Spencer,
to whom they imputed their defeat on account of his par-
tiality for the King of Scotland. The barons had many
meetings on this matter to consult what was to be done.
The chief of them was Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, uncle
to the king. Sir Hugh soon found it would be necessary
for him to check them; and he was so well beloved by the
king, and so continually in his presence, that he was sure
of gaining belief, whatever he said. He soon took an
opportunity of informing the king that these lords had
entered into an alliance against him, and that, if he did not
take proper measures, they would drive him out of the
kingdom; and thus operated so powerfully on the king's
mind, that his malicious intentions had their full effect.
The king caused all these lords to be arrested on a certain
day when they were met together, and without delay
ordered the heads of twenty-two of the greatest barons
to be struck off, without assigning any cause or reason.
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, suffered the first. The hatred
against Sir Hugh Spencer was increased by this deed,
particularly that of the queen, and of the Earl of Kent,
brother to the king; which when he perceived, he fomented
such a discord between the king and the queen, 'hat the
king would not see the queen, or come to any place where
she was. This quarrel lasted some time: when the queen
and the Ear: of Kent were secretly informed, that, if they







4 Froissart's Chronicles.

did not speedily quit the court, they would repent it; for
Sir Hugh was endeavoring to stir up much mischief
against them. Then the queen, having made preparations
for passing secretly to France, set out as if to go on a
pilgrimage to St. Thomas of Canterbury; whence she
went to Winchelsea, and that night embarked on board
a vessel prepared for her reception, accompanied by her
young son Edward, the Earl of Kent, and Sir Roger Mor-
timer. Another vessel was loaded with luggage, &c.; and,
having a fair wind, they landed the next morning at
Boulogne.


CHAPTER III.

THE QUEEN OF ENGLAND GOES TO COMPLAIN OF SIR HUGH SPENCER
TO HER BROTHER, THE KING OF FRANCE.

WHEN the Queen Isabella landed at Boulogne with
her son and her brother-in-law the Earl of Kent,
the governor of the town and the abbot waited on her, and
conducted her to the abbey, where she and her suite were
joyfully received, and remained two days. On the third
she continued her route toward Paris.
King Charles, her brother, being informed of her coming,
sent some of the greatest lords at that time near his per-
son to meet her; among whom were Sir Robert d'Artois,
the Lord of Crucy, the Lord of Sully, and the Lord of Roy,
and many others, who honorably received and conducted
her to Paris to the king, her brother. When the king
perceived his sister (whom he had not seen for a long
time) entering his apartment, he rose to meet her, ana,
taking her in his arms, kissed her, and said, "You are
welcome, my fair sister, with my fine nephew, your son:"







Froissart's Chronicles. 5

then, taking one in each hand, he led them in. The queen,
who had no great joy in her heart except for being neat
her brother, would have knelt at his feet two or three
times; but the king would not suffer it, and, holding her
by the right hand, inquired very affectionately into her
business and affairs. Her answers were prudent and wise;
and she related to him all the injuries done to her by Sir
Hugh Spencer, and asked of him advice and assistance.
When the noble King Charles had heard the lamenta-
tions of his sister, who with many tears had stated her
distress, he said, "Fair sister, be appeased; for, by the
faith I owe to God and to St. Denis, I will provide a
remedy." The queen then kneeled down in spite of the
king, and said to him, "My dear lord and brother, I pray
God may second your intentions." The king then, taking
her by the hand, conducted her to another apartment,
which was richly furnished for her and her young son
Edward: he then left her, and ordered that every thing
should be provided, becoming the state of her and her son,
from his treasury.



CHAPTER IV.

SIR HUGH SPENCER CAUSES THE QUEEN ISABELLA TO BE SENT OUT O0
FRANCE.

T HE queen [had] made all her. preparations for her
expedition very secretly, but not so much so as to
prevent its coming to the knowledge of Sir Hugh Spencer,
who thought that his most prudent plan would be to win
over to his interest the King of France. For this purpose
he sent over trusty and secret messengers laden with gold,







0 Froissar's Chronicles.

silver, and rich jewels. These were distributed among
the king and his ministers with such effect, that the king
and his council were in a short time as cold toward the
cause of Isabella as they had before been warm.
Sir Hugh also endeavored to get the queen into his and
the king's power, and to this end made the king write an
affectionate letter to the pope, entreating him to order the
King of France to send back his wife. There were similar
letters written at the same time to the cardinals. The near-
est relations of the pope, and those most in his counsels,
managed the pope in such a manner, that he wrote to the
King of France to send back Isabella, Queen of England,
to her husband, under pain of excommunication. These
letters were carried to the King of France by the Bishop
of Xaintes, whom the pope sent thither as his legate.
The king, on receipt of them, caused his sister to be
acquainted with their contents (for he had held no conver-
sation with her for a long time), and commanded her to
leave the kingdom immediately, or he would make her
leave it with shame.



CHAPTER V.

THE QUEEN ISABELLA LEAVES FRANCE, AND GOES TO GERMANY.

W HEN the queen heard this account, she knew not
what to say, or what measures to adopt: for the
barons had already withdrawn themselves by the king's
command, and she had no resource or adviser left but
in her dear cousin, Robert of Artois; and he could only
advise and assist her in secret, as the king had forbidden
it. He well knew that the queen had been driven from







Froissart's Chronicles. 7

England through malice and ill-will: but he durst not
speak of it to the king; for he had heard the king say
and swear that whoever should speak to him in her
behalf should forfeit his land, and be banished the king-
dom. He was also informed that the king was not averse
to the seizure of the persons of the queen, her son Ed-
ward, the Earl of Kent, and Sir Roger Mortimer, and to
their being delivered into the hands of the King of Eng-
land and Sir Hugh Spencer. He therefore came in the
middle of the night to inform the queen of the peril she
was in. She was thunder-struck at the information; to
which he added, "I recommend you to set out for the
empire, where there are many noble lords who will greatly
assist you, particularly William, Earl of Hainault, and his
brother, who are both great lords, and wise and loyal men,
and much dreaded by their enemies."
The queen ordered her baggage to be made ready as
secretly as she could; and, having paid for every thing,
she quitted Paris, accompanied by her son, the Earl of
Kent, and all her company, and took the road to Hainault.
After some days she came into the country of Cambray.
When she found she was in the territories of the empire,
she was more at her ease; passed through Cambresis;.
entered L'Ostrevant in Hainault, and lodged at the house
of a poor knight called Eustace d'Ambreticourt, who
received her with great pleasure, and entertained her in
the best manner he could; insomuch that afterwards the
Queen of England and her son invited the knight, his
wife, and all his children, to England, and advanced their
fortunes in different ways.
The arrival of the queen in Hainault was soon known
in the house of the good Earl of Hainault, who was then
at Valenciennes. Sir John, his brother, was also informed







8 Froissart's Chronicles.

of the hour when she alighted at the house of the Lord of
Ambreticourt. This Sir John, being at that time very
young, and panting for glory like a knight-errant, mounted
his horse, and, accompanied by a few persons, set out from
Valenciennes for Ambreticourt, where he arrived in the
evening, and paid the queen every respect and honor.
The queen was at that time very dejected, and made a
very lamentable complaint to him of all her griefs; which
affected Sir John so much, that he mixed his own tears
with hers, and said, "Lady, see here your knight, who will
not fail to die for you, though every one else should desert
you: therefore will I do every thing in my power to con-
duct you and your son, and to restore you to your rank in
England, by the grace of God, and the assistance of your
friends in those parts. And I, and all those whom I can
influence, will risk our lives on the adventure, for your
sake; and we will have a sufficient armed force, if it
please God, without fearing any danger from the King of
France." The queen, who was sitting down, and Sir John
standing before her, rose, and would have cast herself at
his feet out of gratitude for the great favor he had just
offered her; but the gallant Sir John, rising up quickly,
caught her in his arms, and said, "God forbid that the
Queen of England should ever do such a thing! Madam,
be of good comfort to yourself and company; for I will
keep my promise: and you shall come and see my
brother, and the countess his wife, and all their fine chil-
dren, who will be rejoiced to see you; for I have heard
them say so." The queen answered, "Sir, I find in you
more kindness and comfort than in all the world besides;
and I give you five hundred thousand thanks for what you
have said and offered me. If you will keep what you have
promised me with so much courtesy, I and my son shall







Froissart's Chronicles. 9

be forever bound unto you; and we will put the kingdom
of England under your management, as in justice it ought
to be."
The queen set off, accompanied by Sir John, Lord of
Beaumont, who with joy and respect conducted her to
Valenciennes. Many of the citizens of the town came
out to meet her, and received her with great humility.
She was thus introduced to William, Earl of Hainault,
who, as well as the countess, received her very graciously.
Many great feasts were given on this occasion, as no one
knew better than the countess how to do the honors of
her house. This Earl William had at that time four
daughters, -Margaret, Philippa, Joan, and Isabella. The
young King Edward paid more court and attention to
Philippa than to any of the others; the young lady also
conversed more frequently with him, and sought his com-
pany oftener, than any of her sisters. The queen re-
mained at Valenciennes during eight days with the good
earl and countess Joan of Valois. In the mean time the
queen made every preparation for her departure; and Sir
John wrote very affectionate letters unto certain knights,
and those companions in whom he put the most confi-
dence, in Hainault, in Brabant, and Bohemia, beseeching
them, from all the friendship that was between them, that
they would accompany him in his expedition to England.
There were great numbers in these countries who were
willing to go with him from the love they bore him, and
many who refused, notwithstanding his request: and even
Sir John himself was much reproved by the earl his broth-
er, and by some of his council, because it seemed to them
that this enterprise was of much hazard, on account of the
great divisions and enmities which at that time subsisted
among the great barons and commons in England; and







Froissart's Chronicles.


also because the English are always very jealous of stran-
gers, which made them doubt whether Sir John de Hai-
nault and his companions would ever return. But, not-
withstanding all their blame and all their advice bestowed
upon him, the gallant knight would not change his pur-
pose; saying that he could die but once; that the time
was in the will of God; and that all true knights were
bound to aid, to the utmost of their power, all ladies and
damsels driven from their kingdoms comfortless and for-
lorn.


CHAPTER VI.

QUEEN ISABELLA ARRIVES IN ENGLAND WITH SIR JOHN DE HAINAULT.

T HE Queen of England took leave of the earl and
countess, thanking them much for the honor they
had shown her, and kissed them at her departure. The
queen, her son, and suite set off, accompanied by Sir John,
who with great difficulty had obtained his brother's per-
mission.
They travelled in such a manner as to arrive at Dor-
drecht by the time limited for their friends to meet them.
At that place they provided themselves with vessels of
different sizes; and having embarked their cavalry, bag-
gage, &c., they set sail, first recommending themselves to
the care of the Lord. When they left the harbor of Dor-
drecht, the fleet, considering the force, made a beautiful
appearance from its good order, and from the weather
being clear and temperate. They came opposite to the
dikes of Holland the first tide after their departure. The
next day they cast anchor, and furled their sails, intending
to follow the coast of Zealand, and to land at a port which







Froissart's Chronicles. 1

chey had described; but they were prevented by a violent
tempest, which drove them so far out of their course, that
for two days they knew not where they were. In this
God was very merciful to them; for, had they landed at
the port they intended, they would have fallen into the
hands of their enemies, whr, apprised of their coming,
waited for them at that place to put them to death. At
the end of two days the storm abated; and the sailors, de-
scrying England, made for it with great joy, and landed
upon the sands, having neither harbor nor safe port.
They remained there three days at a short allowance of
provisions, while they disembarked their cavalry, and
landed their baggage. They were ignorant in what part
of England they were, whether that part of the country
was friendly to them or not. The fourth day they began
their march, putting themselves under the protection of
God and St. George; having suffered much from cold and
hunger in addition to their late fears, of which they had
not yet divested themselves. They marched over hill and
dale until they came to some villages. Soon afterwards
they saw a large monastery of black friars, called St.
Hamons, where they refreshed themselves during three
days.


CHAPTER VII.

THE QUEEN OF ENGLAND BESIEGES HER HUSBAND IN THE CITY OF
BRISTOL.
SHE news of her arrival, being spread abroad, soon
came to the knowledge of those lords by whose ad
vice she had returned. They got themselves ready as soon
as possible to join her son, whom they wished to have for







12 Froissart's Chronicles.

their sovereign. The first who came was Henry, Earl
of Lancaster, surnamed Wryneck, brother to the Earl
Thomas who had been beheaded, and father of the Duke
of Lancaster who makes so conspicuous a figure in the
following history. This Earl Henry was attended by a
great number of men at arms. After him came, from dif-
ferent parts, earls, barons, knights, and esquires, with such
an armed force, that they no longer thought they had any
thing to apprehend. As they advanced, their forces were
still increased; so that a council was called to consider if
they should not march directly to Bristol, where the king
and the two Spencers then were.
Bristol was at that time a large town, well enclosed, and
situated on a good port. Its castle was very strong, and
surrounded by the sea. The queen, with all her com-
pany, the lords of Hainault, and their suite, took the short-
est road for that place. Their forces were augmenting
daily until they arrived at Bristol, which they besieged in
form. The king and the younger Spencer shut them-
selves up in the castle: old Sir Hugh and the Earl of
Arundel remained in the town.
When the citizens saw the queen's force, and the af-
fections of almost all England on her side, alarmed at
their own perilous situation, they determined to surrender
the town on condition that their lives and property should
be spared. They sent to treat with the queen on this
subject; but neither she nor her council would consent to
it unless Sir Hugh Spencer and the Earl of Arundel were
delivered up to her discretion, for she had come purposely
to destroy them.
The citizens, seeing they had no other means of saving
the town, their lives, and their fortunes, acceded to the
queen's terms, and opened their gates to her. She en-







Froissart's Chronicles. 13

tered the town accompanied by Sir John de Hainault, with
all her barons, knights, and esquires, who took their lodg-
ing therein: the others, for want of accommodation, re-
mained without. Sir Hugh Spencer and the Earl of
Arundel were delivered to the queen, to do with them as it
should please her. Her children were also brought to her,
-John and her two daughters, found there in the keep-
ing of Sir Hugh Spencer. As she had not seen them in
a long time, this gave her great joy as well as all her
party.
The king and the younger Spencer, shut up in the cas-
tle, were much grieved at what had passed, seeing the
whole country turned to the queen's party and to Edward,
the eldest son.


CHAPTER VIII.

THE KING OF. ENGLAND AND SIR HUGH SPENCER ARE TAKEN AT
SEA AS THEY ARE ENDEAVORING TO ESCAPE FROM THE CASTLE OF
BRISTOL.

THE king and Sir Hugh Spencer, seeing themselves
so closely pressed, and being ignorant whether any
succor was coming to them, embarked one morning with a
few followers- in a small boat behind the castle, intending,
if possible, to reach the principality of Wales. They were
eleven or twelve days in this small boat; and, notwith-
standing every effort to get forward, the winds proved so
contrary by the will of God, that once or twice a day they
were driven back within a quarter of a league of the cau.
tle whence they set out. At length Sir Henry Beaumont,
espying the vessel, embarked with some of his compan-
ions in a barge, and rowed so vigorously after it, that the







Froissart's Chronicles.


king's boatmen, unable to escape, were overtaken. The
king and Sir Hugh Spencer were brought back to Bristol,
and delivered to the queen and her son as prisoners.
Thus ended this bold and gallant enterprise of Sir John
de Hainault and his companions, who, when they em-
barked at Dordrecht, amounted to no more than three
hundred men at arms. By their means Queen Isabella
recovered her kingdom, and destroyed her enemies; at
which the whole nation, except some few who were at-
tached to the Spencers, was greatly rejoiced.
When the king and Sir Hugh Spencer were brought to
Bristol by Sir Henry Beaumont, the king was sent to
Berkeley Castle under a strong guard. Many attentions
were paid to him, and proper people were placed near his
person to take every care of him, but on no account to
suffer him to pass the bounds of the castle. Sir Hugh
Spencer was delivered up to Sir Thomas Wager, marshal
of the army.
The queen and all the army set "out for London, which
is the principal city in England. Sir Thomas Wager
caused Sir Hugh Spencer to be fastened on the poorest
and smallest horse he could find, clothed with a tabard
such as he was accustomed to wear. He led him thus in
derision, in the suite of the queen, through all the towns
they passed, where he was announced by trumpets and
cymbals by way of greater mockery, till they reached
Hereford, where she and her suite were respectfully and
joyfully received. The feast of All Saints was there cele-
brated with the greatest solemnity and magnificence, out
of affection to her son, and respect to the noble foreigners
that attended him.
When the feast was over, Sir Hugh was brought before
the queen and knights assembled. The charges were read







Froissart's Chronicles. 15

to him; to which he made no reply. The barons and
knights then passed sentence on him,-that he should
be drawn on a hurdle, attended by trumpets and clarions,
through all the streets in the city of Hereford, and then
conducted to the market-place, where all the people were
assembled: at that place he was to be bound upon a high
scaffold, in order that he might be more easily seen by
the people.
Afterwards his heart was thrown into the fire, because
it had been false and traitorous; since he, by his treason-
able counsels, so advised the king as to bring shame and
mischief on the land, and had caused some of the greatest
lords to be beheaded by whom the kingdom ought to
have been supported and defended. His head was cut
off, and sent to London.
After the execution, the queen and all the lords, with a
great number of common people, set out for London. As
they approached it great crowds came out to meet them,
and received both her and her son, as well as those who
accompanied her, with great reverence.
The citizens presented handsome gifts to the queen,
as well as to those of her suite where they thought them
best bestowed. After fifteen days passed in feasts and
rejoicings, the companions of Sir John de Hainault were
impatient to return home. When the queen and her
companions saw this, they addressed themselves to Sir
John de Hainault, and requested him to remain only until
after Christmas, and that he would detain as many of his
followers as possible. He detained as many of his com-
panions as he could; but small was the number, the
greater part refusing to stay on any account.
The queen ordered a large sum of money to be given
them for theii expenses, besides jewels of high price,







IO Froissart's Chronicles.

which she presented to each according to his rank; so
that all were perfectly satisfied. She also paid to each, in
ready money, the value of their horses that they chose to
leave behind, according to their own estimation, without
any demur.



CHAPTER IX.

THE CORONATION OF KING EDWARD THE THIRD.

MOST of the followers of Sir John de Hainault having
returned home, the queen gave leave to many of
her household to return to their country-seats, except
a few of the nobles, whom she kept with her as her coun-
cil, expressly ordering them to come back at Christ-
mas to a great court which at that time she intended to
hold. When Christmas came, she held the court above
mentioned; and it was very fully attended by all the nobles
and prelates of the realm, as well as by the principal
officers of the chief cities and towns. In this assembly it
was determined that the kingdom could no longer remain
without a sovereign; and when all the acts done by the
king, or having his consent, had been read, the chiefs of
the assembly consulted together, and agreeing that such
a man was not worthy to be a king, neither tD bear a
crown nor the title of king, they unanimously resolved
that his elder son and true heir, then present, should be
crowned instead of the father. They ordered that his
father should be kept a prisoner, having every attention
paid to his rank, as long as he should live.
The young King Edward, since so fortunate in arms,
was crowned with a royal diadem in the Palace of West-







Froissart's Chronicles. 17

minster on Christmas Day, 1326. He completed his six-
teenth year on the feast of the Conversion of St. Paul
following.
At this coronation Sir John de Hainault and all his
companions, noble or otherwise, were much feasted, and
many rich jewels were given to him and those that staid
w'th him. He and his friends remained during these
grand feasts, to the great satisfaction of the lords and
ladies that were there, until Twelfth Day; when he re-
ceived information that the King of Bohemia, the Earl of
Hainault his brother, and many great lords of France,
had ordered a tournament to be proclaimed at Conde. Sir
John, therefore, would no longer stay, notwithstanding
their entreaties, from the great desire he had to attend
this tournament to see his brother and the other princes,
especially that gallant and generous prince, Charles, King
of Bohemia.
When the young King Edward, his mother, and the
barons, saw that it was not possible to detain him any
longer, they gave him permission to depart, very much
against their will. The king, by the advice of the queen,
granted him an annuity of four hundred marks sterling,
nereditable rent, to be held of him in fee, payable in the
city of Bruges. He gave also to Philip de Chateaux, his
principal esquire and chief counsellor, a hundred marks
sterling of rent, to be paid at the same time and place.
He ordered many knights to accompany him to Dover,
and that his passage should be free of all cost. He pre-
sented the Countess de Garennes, sister to the Count de
Bar, and some other ladies who had accompanied the
queen to England, with many rich jewels, on their taking
leave.
Sir John and his company immediately embarked on







Froissart's Chronicles.


board the vessels prepared for them, to be in time for the
tournament. The king sent with him fifteen young and
hardy knights to attend him at this tournament, there to
try their skill, and to get acquainted with the lords and
knights that were to be there. Sir John and his company
paid them all the attention in their power, and on this
occasion tourneyed at Cond6.




CHAPTER X.

ROBERT BRUCE, KING OF SCOTLAND, DEFIES KING EDWARD.

AFTER the departure of Sir John de Hainault, King
Edward and his mother governed the kingdom by
the counsels of the good Earl of Kent and of Sir Roger
Mortimer. Both of them had been banished with the
queen. They also took the advice of Sir Thomas Wager,
and of others who were esteemed the wisest in the land.
This, however, created much envy, which never dies in
England, but reigns there as well as in other places.
Thus passed the winter and Lent in perfect peace until
Easter; when it happened that Robert, King of Scotland,
who, though brave, had suffered much in his wars with
England, having often been defeated by King Edward,
grandfather of the young king, being at this time very old
and afflicted with leprosy, hearing that the king had been
taken prisoner and deposed, and his counsellors put to
death, thought it a favorable opportunity to send a defi-
ance to the present king, as yet a youth, whose barons
were not on good terms with each other, and to attempt
the conquest of some part of England. About Easter,







Froissart's Chronicles. 19

1327, he sent a defiance to King Edward and all the coun-
try, informing them that he would enter the kingdom, and
burn it as far as he had done before after the defeat of
Stirling, in which the English suffered so much.
When the young king and his council received this
challenge, they published it throughout the kingdom, and
ordered that all the nobles and others should come prop-
erly accoutred and accompanied, according to their differ-
ent ranks, to York, the Day of Ascension following. He
also sent a considerable body of men at arms to guard the
frontiers of Scotland, and messengers to Sir John de Hai-
nault, begging him very affectionately to assist and accom-
pany him in this expedition, and to meet him at York on
Ascension Day with as many companions in arms as he
could bring with him.
Sir John and his company reached York by the appoint-
ed time, and were welcomed and magnificently entertained
by the king, queen, and all the barons. The handsomest
suburbs of the city were assigned them for their quarters,
and a monastery of white friars was allotted for him and
his household. In company with the knight came from
Hainault the Lord of Anghien (called Sir Walter), Sir
Henry, Lord of Antoing, the Lord of Seignoles, and the
following knights, Sir Fastres de Reu, Sir Robert de
Bailleul, Sir William de Bailleul his brother, the Lord of
Havereth (castellan of Mons), Sir Alart de Briseil, Sir
Michael de Ligne, Sir John de Montigny the younger, and
his brother Sir Sause de Boussac, Sir Percival de Severies,
the Lords of Gommegines, De Biaurien, and De Folion.
There came also from Flanders, first, Sir Hector de
Vilains, Sir John de Rhodes, Sir Vaufflat de Guistelle, Sir
James de Guistelle his brother, Sir Gossuin de la Muelle,
and the Lord of Tarces. Many came from Brabant; as






20 Froissart's Chronicles.

the Lord of Dusle, Sir Thierry de Vaucourt, Sir Rasses
de Gres, Sir John de Cassebegne, Sir John Pilestre, Sir
William de Courterelles, the three brothers De Harle-
beque, Sir Walter de Hautebergue, and several others.
Of the Bohemians were, Sir John de Libeaux, Henry his
brother, Sir Henry de la Chappelle, Sir Hugh de Hay, Sir
John de Limies, Sir Lambert des Prez, Sir Gilbert de
Hers. There came also other volunteer knights out of
Cambresis and Artois, in hopes of advancement; so that
Sir John had five hundred good men in his company, well
apparelled and richly mounted.



CHAPTER XI.

A DISSENSION BETWEEN THE ARCHERS OF ENGLAND AND THE HAI
NAULTERS.

T HE King of England, in order to entertain and feast
the strangers and their company, held a great court
on Trinity Sunday, at the house of the black friars, where
he and the queen were lodged, and where each kept their
household separate; the king with his knights, and the
queen with her ladies, whose numbers were considerable.
At this court the king had five hundred knights, and cre-
ated fifteen new ones. The queen gave her entertainment
in the dormitory, where at least sixty ladies, whom she had
invited to entertain Sir John de Hainault and his suite,
sat down at her table. There might be seen a numerous
nobility well served with plenty of strange dishes, so dis-
guised that it could not be known what they were. There
were also ladies most superbly dressed, who were expect-
ing with impatience the hour of the ball, or a longer con-







FRoissart's Chronicles.

tinuance of the feast: but it fell out otherwise; for, soon
after dinner, a violent affray happened between some of
the grooms of the Hainaulters and the English archers,
who were lodged with them in the suburbs. This in-.
creased so much that the archers collected together with
their bows strung, and shot at them so as to force them to
retreat to their lodgings. The greater part of the knights
and their masters, who were still at court, hearing of the
affray, hastened to their quarters. Those that could not
enter them were exposed to great danger; for the archers,
to the number of three thousand, aimed both at masters
and servants. It was supposed that this affray was oc-
casioned by the friends of the Spencers and the Earl of
Arundel, in revenge for their having been put to death
through the advice of Sir John de Hainault. The English
also, at whose houses the Hainaulters lodged, barricaded
their doors and windows, and would not suffer them to
enter: nevertheless some of them got admittance at the
back doors, and quickly armed themselves, but durst not
advance into the street, for fear of the arrows. The stran-
gers immediately sallied from behind their lodgings, break-
ing down the hedges and enclosures, until they came to a
square, where they halted, waiting for their companions,
till they amounted to a hundred under arms, and as many
without, who could not gain admittance to their lodgings.
United thus, they hastened to assist their friends, who
were defending their quarters in the great street in the
best manner they could: they passed through the hotel
of the Lord of Anghien, which had great gates before and
behind open into the street, where the archers were deal-
ing about their arrows in a furious manner. Many Hai.
naulters were wounded with them.







22 Froissart's Chroni les.


CHAPTER XII.

ITOW THE FIGHT BETWEEN THE ARCHERS AND THE HAINAULTERS ENDED

HERE we found the good knights, Sir Fastres de
Rue, Sir Percival de Severies, and Sir Sause de
Boussac, who, not getting admittance into their lodgings,
performed deeds equal to those that were armed. They
had in their hands great oaken staves, taken from the
house of a carter : they dealt their blows so successfully
that none durst approach them, and, being strong and
valiant knights, beat down, that evening, upward of sixty
men. At last the archers were discomfited and put to
flight. There remained on the ground dead three hun-
dred men, or thereabouts, who were all from the bishop-
ric of Lincoln. I believe that God never showed greater
grace or favor to any one than he did in that day to Sir
John de Hainault and his company; for these archers
certainly meant nothing less than to murder and rob
them, notwithstanding they were come upon the king's
business. These strangers were never in such great peril
as during the time they remained at York; nor were they
in perfect safety until their return to Wissan; for, during
their stay, the hatred of the archers was so greatly in-
creased against them; that some of the barons and prin-
cipal knights informed the lords of Hainault that the
archers and others of the commonalty of England, to the
number of six thousand, had entered into an agreement
to massacre and burn them and their followers in their
lodgings either by night or day, and there was no one on
the part of the king, or of the barons, that could venture







Trotssart's Chronicles. 23

to assist them. The Hainaulters, therefore, had nc other
resource left than to stand by each other, and to sell their
lives as dearly as possible. They made many prudent
regulations for their conduct, were frequently obliged to
lie on their arms, to confine themselves to their quarters,
and to have their armor ready, and their horses always
saddled. They were also obliged to keep detachments
continually on the watch in the fields and roads round
the city, and to send scouts to the distance of half a
league, to see if those people, of whom they had received
information, were coming; with orders, that, if they per-
ceived any bodies in motion advancing toward the town,
they were immediately to return to the detachments in
the fields, in order that they might be quickly mounted,
and collected together under their own banner, at an ap-
pointed alarm-post. They continued in the suburbs four
weeks in this distressing situation; and none except a
few of the great lords, who went to court to see the king
and his council, or to the entertainments to hear the
news, ventured to quit their quarters or their arms. If
this unfortunate quarrel had not happened, they would
have passed their time very pleasantly ; for there was
such plenty in the city and surrounding country, that
during more than six weeks, while the king and the lords
of England, with upward of forty thousand men at arms,
remained there, the provisions were not dearer; for as
much was to be bought for a penny as before their arri-
val. Good wines from Gascony, Alsace, and the Rhine
were in abundance, and reasonable; poultry and other
such provisions at a low price. Hay, oats, and straw, of
a good quality, and cheap, were delivered at their quarters.







Froissart's Chronicles.


CHAPTER XIII.

HOW THE KING AND HIS ARMY MARCHED TO DURHAM.

AFTER remaining three weeks from the time of this
affray, the king issued a proclamation by his in-r-
shals, that every one in the course of the ensuing week
should be provided with carts, tents, and every thing
necessary for their march toward Scotland. When every
one was properly equipped, the king and all his barons
marched out of the city, and encamped six leagues from
it. Sir John de Hainault and his company were encamped
near the king, as a mark of distinction, and to prevent the
archers from taking any advantage of him. The king and
this first division remained there two days and two nights,
waiting the arrival of money for his expenses, as well as
to examine whether any thing were wanting. On the third
day the army dislodged, and before daybreak marched till
they came to the city of Durham, a long day's journey, at
the entrance of a country called Northumberland, which
is wild, full of deserts and mountains, and poor in every
thing except cattle. The river Tyne runs through it, full
of flints and large stones. Upon this river is situated the
town called Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The lord marshal of
England was there, with a numerous army to guard the
country against the Scots. At Carlisle was a considerable
body of Welsh, under the command of Lord Hereford and
Lord Mowbray, to defend the passage of the Eden; for
the Scots could not eirter England without passing one of
these rivers. The English could get no certain informa.
tion of the Scots until they arrived at this place: they







Froissart's Chronicles. 25

had passed the river so privately, that neither those of
Carlisle nor those of Newcastle had the smallest know.
edge of it. These towns are said to be distant from each
other four and twenty English miles.




CHAPTER XIV.

OF THE MANNERS OF THE SCOTS, AND HOW THEY CARRY ON WAR.

T HE Scots are bold, hardy, and much inured to war.
When they make their invasions into England, they
march from twenty to four and twenty miles without halt-
ing, as well by night as day; for they are all on horse-
back, except the camp-followers, who are on foot. The
knights and esquires are well mounted on large bay
horses, the common people on little galloways. They
bring no carriages with them, on account of the moun-
tains they have to pass in Northumberland; neither do
they carry with them any provisions of bread or wine;
for their habits of sobriety are such, in time of war, that
they will live for a long time on flesh half sodden, with-
out bread, and drink the river-water without wine. They
have, therefore, no occasion for pots or pans: for they
dress the flesh of their cattle in the skins, after they have
taken them off; and, being sure to find plenty of them
in the country which they invade, they carry none with
them. Under the flaps of his saddle, each man carries a
broad plate of metal; behind the saddle, a little bag of
oatmeal: when they have eaten too much or the sodden
flesh, and their stomach appears weak and empty, they
place this plate .ver the fire, mix with water their oat-







26 Froissart's Chronicles.

meal, and, when the plate is heated, they put a little of
the paste upon it, and make a thin cake, like a cracknel
or biscuit, which they eat to warm their stomachs: it is
therefore no wonder that they perform a longer day's
march than other soldiers. In this manner the Scots
entered England, destroying and burning every thing as
they passed. They seized more cattle than they knew
what to do with. Their army consisted of four thousand
men at arms, knights and esquires, well mounted; besides
twenty thousand men, bold and hardy, armed after the
manner of their country, and mounted upon little hack-
neys, that are never tied up or dressed, but turned, imme-
diately after the day's march, to pasture on the heath or
in the fields. This army was commanded by two valiant
captains. The King of Scotland himself, who had been
very brave, yet being old, and laboring under a leprosy,
appointed for one that gallant prince, so renowned in
arms, the Earl of Moray, who bore upon his banner
argent three pillows gules; the other was Sir James
Douglas, esteemed the bravest and most enterprising
knight in the two kingdoms: he bore for arms azure on a
chef argent. These two lords were the greatest barons,
and most renowned for their prowess and other feats of
arms.


CHAPTER XV.

KING EDWARD'S FIRST EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SCOTS.

W HEN the English king and all his host had seen
the smoke of the fires which the Scots lad made,
the alarm was immediately sounded, and every one or.
dered to dislodge and to follow his banners: they all,







Froissart's Chronicles. 27

therefore, withdrew to the fields, armed for immediate
combat. Three battalions of infantry were formed; each
battalion having two wings, composed of five hundred
men at arms, who were to remain on horseback.
It was said that there were eight thousand men at arms,
knights and esquires, and thirty thousand men armed and
equipped, half of whom were mounted on small hackneys:
the other half were countrymen on foot, sent by the towns
and paid by them. There were also twenty-four thousand
archers on foot, besides all the crew of followers of the
army. Thus being drawn up, they marched in battle
array after the Scots, towards the place whence the
smoke came, until it was night. The army halted in a
wood, by the side of a small river, to rest themselves, and
to wait for their baggage and provisions.
And all that day the Scots had burnt and wasted and
pillaged the country about within five miles of the Eng-
lish host, but the Englishmen could not overtake them.
They could not approach near to the Scots, who went
wasting the country before them.
At daybreak the next morning every one was armed,
and with banners displayed marched in good order over
mountains and through valleys, but could never approach
the Scots; for there were so many marshes and danger-
ous places, that it was ordered, under pain of death, that
no one should quit his banner except the marshals. When
it drew toward night, the cavalry, and those who attended
the baggage, more especially the infantry, were so fatigued
that they could march no farther.
The king then ordered the marshals to encamp the
army there for the night, in order that they might con-
sider what was to be done the next day. The army lay in
a wood upon the banks of a small river, and the king was







Froissart's Chronicles.


lodged in a poor monastery hard by. When each had
chosen a spot of ground to encamp himself on, the lords
retired apart, to consider what would be the best method
to force the Scots, considering the situation of the country
in which they were. It appeared to them that the Scots
were sheering off to their own country, burning and pil-
laging as they went, and that it would be impossible to
fight with them in these mountains without a manifest
disadvantage, supposing they should overtake them, which
they could not; but, as they must repass the Tyne, it was
determined in full council, that, if they were to get them-
selves ready about midnight, and hasten their march next
day, they might cut off the passage of the river, and force
them to fight at a disadvantage, or remain shut up pris-
oners in England.
After this resolution had been entered into, each retired
to his quarters, to eat and drink what he could find there;
and they desired their companions to be silent, in order
that the trumpets might be heard: at the first sounding of
which, the horses were to be saddled and made ready; at
the second, every one was to arm himself without delay;
and, at the third, to mount their horses immediately, and
join their banners. Each was to take only one loaf of
bread with him, slung behind him, after the manner of
hunters. All unnecessary arms, harness, and baggage
were ordered to be left behind, as they thought they
should, for a certainty, give battle the next day, whatever
might be the consequences. As it had been ordered, so
was it executed; and all were mounted arid ready about
midnight. Some had but little rest, notwithstanding they
had labored hard the day before. Day began to appear,
as the battalions were assembled at their different posts.
The banner-bearers then hastened on, over heaths, moun







Froissart's Chronicles. 29

tains, valleys, rocks, and many dangerous places, without
meeting any level country. On the summits of the moun-
tains, and in the valleys, were large marshes and bogs,
and of such extent that it is a miracle many were not lost
in them; for each galloped forward without waiting for
either commander or companion. Those who fell into
them found difficulty in getting any one to help them.
Many banners remained there; and several baggage and
sumpter horses never came out again.
In the course of the day there were frequent cries of
alarm, as if the foremost ranks were engaged with the
enemy; which those behind believing to be true, they
hurried forward as fast as possible, over rocks and moun-
tains, sword in hand, with their helmets and shields pre-
pared for fighting, without waiting for father, brother, or
friend. When they had hastened about half a league
toward the place from which the noise came, they found
themselves disappointed, as the cries proceeded from some
herds of deer or other wild beasts, which abounded in
these heaths and desert places, and which fled before the
banners, pursued by the shouts of the army, which made
them imagine it was something else.
In this manner the young King of England, agreeably
to the advice of his council, rode all that day over moun-
tains and deserts, without keeping to any fixed road, or
finding any town. About vespers, and sorely fatigued,
they reached the Tyne, which the Scots nad already
crossed, though the English supposed they had it still to
repass. Accordingly they went over the ford, but ,vith
great difficulty, owing to the large stones that were in the
river.
When they had passed over, each took up his lodging
on its banks, as he could; and at this time the sun was







30 Froissart's Chronicles.

set. There were few among them that had any hatchets,
wedges, or other instruments, to cut down trees to make
themselves huts; many of them had lost their companions,
and even the foot had remained behind, not knowing what
road to ask for. They were forced to lie this night on
the banks of the river in their armor, and at the same
time hold their horses by their bridles, for there was not
any place where they could tie them. Thus the horses
had nothing to eat, neither oats nor any forage; and the
men had only their loaf that was tied behind them, which
was wetted by the sweat of the horses. They had no
other beverage but the water of the river, except some
great lords who had bottles among their L.a- ie; nor
had they any fire or light, not having any thing to make
them of, except some few lords who had some torches
which they had brought on sumpter-horses. In such a
melancholy manner did they pass the night, without taking
the saddles from off the horses, or disarming themselves.
And when the long-expected day appeared, when they
hoped to find some comfort for themselves and horses, or
to fight the Scots, which they very much wished for, to
get out of their disagreeable situation, it began to rain,
and continued all the day, insomuch that the river was so
increased by noon that no one could pass over, nor could
any one be sent to know where they were, or to get forage
and litter for their horses, or bread and wine for their own
sustenance: they were therefore obliged to fast another
night. The horses had nothing to subsist on but the
leaves of the trees, and grass. They cut down with their
swords young trees, and tied their horses to them. They
also cut down brushwood to make huts for themselves,
Having continued a whole week without hearing any
tidings of the Scots, who they imagined must pass that







Froissarl's Chronicles. 31

way, or very near it, on their return home, great murmurs
arose in the army; and many laid the fault on those who
had given such advice, adding that it was done in order
to betray the king and his host. Upon which, the lords
of council ordered the army to make ready to march, and
cross the river seven leagues higher up, where the ford
was better; and it was proclaimed, that every one was to
be in readiness to march the next day, and to follow his
banners. There was another" proclamation made, that
whoever chose to take pains and find out where the Scots
were, and should bring certain intelligence of it to the
king, the messenger of such news should have one hun-
dred pounds a year in land, and be made a knight by the
king himself. When this was made known among the
host, many knights and esquires, to the number of fifteen
or sixteen, eager to gain such rewards, passed the river
with much danger, ascended the mountains, and then
separated, each taking different routes.
The next day the army dislodged; marched tolerably
well, considering that they were but ill clothed; and ex-
erted themselves so much, that they repassed the river,
though with much danger from its being swollen by the
rains. Many were well washed, and many drowned. When
they had crossed over, they remained there for that night,
finding plenty of forage in the fields near to a small village,
which the Scots had burnt as they passed. The next day
they marched over hill and dale till about noon, when they
came to some burnt villages, and some fields where there
were corn and hay, so that the host remained there for
that night. The third day they marched in the same
manner; but many were ignorant where they were going,
nor had they any intelligence of the enemy.
They cor tinued their route the fourth day in this order;







Froissart's Chro~zicles.


when, about three o'clock, an esquire, galloping up hastily
to the king, said, "Sire, I bring you news of the Scots:
they are three leagues from this place, lodged on a moun
tain, where they have been this week, waiting for you.
They knew no more where you were than you did of
them: and you may depend on this as true; for I ap-
proached so near to them, that I was taken, and led a
prisoner to their army, before their chiefs. I informed
them where you were, and that you were seeking them to
give them battle. The lords gave me up my ransom, and
my liberty, when I informed them that you had promised
a hundred pounds a year to whoever should first bring in-
telligence of them, upon condition that he rested not until
he brought you this information; and I now tell you that
you will find them in the place I have mentioned, as eager
to meet you in battle as yourself can be." As soon as the
king heard this news he ordered his army to be prepared,
and turned his horses to feed in the fields, near to a mon
astery Df white monks, which had been burnt, and which
was called in King Arthur's time Blanche Land. Then
the king confessed himself, and each made his prepara-
tions according to his abilities. The king ordered plenty
of masses to be said, to house such as were devoutly
inclined. He assigned a hundred pounds' value of land,
yearly, to the esquire, according to his promise, and made
him a knight with his own hands, in the presence of the
whole army. When they had taken some repose, and
breakfasted, the trumpets sounded; and, all being mounted,
the banners advanced as the young knight led them on;
but each battalion marched by itself in regular array, over
hill and dale, keeping their ranks according to order.
Thus they continued marching, when about twelve o'clock
they came within sight of the Scots army.







Froissart's Chronicles. 33

As soon as the Scots perceived them, they issued forth
from their huts on foot, and formed three good battalions
upon the descent of the mountain on which they lodged.
A strong, rapid river ran at the foot of this mountain,
which was so full of large rocks and stones, that it was
dangerous to pass it in haste. If the English had passed
this river, there was not room between it and the moun-
tain for them to draw up their line of battle. The Scots
had formed their two first battalions on the two sides of
the mountain, and on the declivity of the rock, which was
not easy to climb to attack them : but they themselves
were posted so as to annoy them with stones, if they
crossed the river; which, if the English effected, they
would not be able to return,
When the English lords perceived the disposition of the
Scots, they ordered their men to dismount, take off their
spurs, and form three battalions as before. Many new
knights were made; and, when the battalions were formed,
some of the chief lords brought the young king on horse-
back along the lines, to encourage the men. The king
spoke most graciously to all, and besought them to take
every pains to do him honor and preserve their own. He
ordered, under pain of death, that no one should advance
before the banners of the marshals, or move without or-
ders. Shortly afterwards the battalions were commanded
to advance toward the enemy in slow time, keeping their
ranks. This was done; and each battalion moved on a
considerable space, and came to the ascent of the moun-
tain where the Scots were posted. This manoeuvre was
intended in order to see whether the enemy would retire,
or make any movement; but neither one nor other war
to be perceived, and the armies were so near each othei
that they could see the arms on their shields. The army,






34 Froissart's Chronicles.

was ordered to halt to consider what was to be done;
and some companions were mounted to skirmish with the
enemy, and to examine the passage of the ri ier and their
appearance more clearly. They sent heralds to make an
offer of retiring on the morrow, if they would pass the
river, and fight upon the plain; or, if the Scots would not
consent to this, that they would do the same.
When the Scots received this proposal, the chiefs retired
to counsel, and returned or' answer by the heralds, that
they would do neither the one nor the other; that the
king and his barons saw that they were in his kingdom,
and had burnt and pillaged wherever they had passed; and
that, if it displeased the king, he might come and amend
it, for they would tarry there as long as it pleased them.
When the council of the King of England heard the
answer, he ordered it to be proclaimed, that each should
take up his quarters where he was, without quitting the
ground or his arms : they therefore lay that night very
uncomfortably upon the hard ground, among rocks and
stones, with their armor on, nor could they get any stakes
for the purpose of tying their horses, or procure either
litter, or forage, or any bushes to make fires.
The Scots, seeing the English thus take up their quarters,
ordered part of the army to remain where the battalions
had been drawn up; and the remainder retired to their
huts, where they made marvellously great fires, and about
midnight such a blasting and noise with their horns, that
it seemed as if all the great devils from hell had been
come there. Thus were they lodged this night, which was
the night of the feast of St. Peter, the beginning of
August, 1327, until the next day, when the lords heard
mass; afterwards every one armed himself, and the bat-
.talions were formed as on the preceding day. When the







Froissart's Ch ronicles. 35

Scots saw this, they came and lodged themselves on the
same groun I they had done before; and the two armies
remained thus drawn up until noon, when the Scots made
no movement to come toward the English, nor did these
on their part make any advances, for they dared not to
attempt it with so great disadvantage. Several com-
panions passed the river on horseback, as did some n f the
foot, to skirmish with the Scots, who also quitted their
battalions to meet them; and many on each side were
killed, wounded, and taken prisoners. In the afternoon
the lords ordered every one to retire to their quarters, as
it seemed to them that they were drawn up to no purpose.
In this manner they remained for three days. The Scots,
on their side, never quitted the mountain ; but there were
continued skirmishes on both sides, and many killed and
taken prisoners. In the evenings they made large fires,
and great noises with their horns and with shouting.
The intention of the English lords was to keep the Scots
besieged there; for, as they could not well fight with them,
they hoped to starve them. They knew from the prison-
ers that they had neither bread, wine, salt, nor other pro-
vision, except cattle, of which they had plenty, that they
had seized in the country: of these they might eat, in-
deed, without bread, which would not be very palatable.
But they had some little flour to make such cakes as have
been before mentioned, and which some of the English
use on their inroads beyond the borders.
The fourth day, in the morning, the English looked for
the Scots on the mountain, but" saw none of them, for
they found they had decamped secretly at midnight.
Scouts of horse and of foot were immediately despatched
through the mountains to know what was become of them.
They found them, about four o'clock, posted upon another







36 Froissart's Chronicles.

mountain, much stronger than that they had left, upon the
same river, near a large wood, to be more concealed, and
in order more privately to advance or retreat at pleasure.
As soon as this was known, the English had orders to
dislodge, and to march in battle array toward the place
where the enemy was posted; and they encamped on a
mountain opposite. They formed their battalions, and
seemed as if they meant to advance to them. The Scots
no sooner perceived this, than they sallied out of their
quarters, and came and posted themselves by the side of
the river, directly in front; but they were unwilling to
advance or come nearer. The English could not attack
them in such a situation without great disadvantage and
loss. They remained full eighteen days in this situation
upon this mountain, whence the lords sent frequent heralds
to the Scots, to offer to give them full place of plain
ground to draw up their battalions, or else they would
accept the same from them; but they would not agree to
either of these proposals.
The two armies had little comfort during the time they
remained in this position. The first night that the Eng-
lish were posted on this second mountain, the Lord James
Douglas took with him about two hundred men at arms,
and at midnight crossed the river, at such a distance from
the camp that he was not noticed, and fell upon the Eng-
lish army most valiantly, shouting, "Douglas forever!
Ye shall die, ye thieves of England!" He and his com-
panions killed more than three hundred; and he galloped
up to the king's tent, and cut two or three of its cords,
crying, at the same time, "Douglas! Douglas foreverI"
when he set off; and in his retreat he lost some of his
followers, but not many: he returned to his friends on the
mountain. Nothing more of the sort was attempted from







Froissart's Chronicles.


that time; but the English in future kept a strong and
attentive guard, for they were fearful of another attack
from the Scots, and had placed sentinels and scouts to
give notice of the smallest movement of the enemy; the
chief lords also slept in their armor. There were frequent
skirmishes, and many lives lost on both sides. The
twenty-fourth day from the time they had received intelli-
gence of the enemy, a Scots knight was taken prisoner,
who, sore against his will, gave an account to the lords of
the state of the enemy. He was so closely examined, that
he owned his lords had given orders that morning for
every one to be armed by vespers, and follow the banner
of Lord James Douglas; that it was to be kept secret;
but he was not for a certainty acquainted with their inten-
tions further. Upon this the English lords held a council;
and they judged, from the information of the Scots knight,
that the enemy might perhaps come in full force at night
to attack them on both sides at once, and from their
sufferings by famine, which they could endure no longer,
make it a very bloody and doubtful combat. The English
formed into three battalions, and posted themselves before
their quarters, on three separate spots of ground. They
made large fires, in order to see better, and left their pages
in their quarters to take care of their horses. They re-
mained under arms all the night, and each was placed
under his own standard or banner.
Toward daybreak two Scots trumpeters fell in with one
of the patrols, who took them, and brought them before
the lords of the council, to whom they said, "My lords,
why do you watch here ? You are losing your time; for
we swear, by our heads, that the Scots are on their march
home since midnight, and are now four or five leagues off,
and they left us behind, that we might give you the infor-







38 Froissart's Chronzcles.

nation." The English said that it would be in vain to
follow them, as they could never overtake them; but,
fearing deceit, the lords ordered the trumpeters to close
confinement, and did not alter the position of the bat-
talions until four o'clock. When they saw that the Scots
were really gone, they gave permission for each to retire
to his quarters, and the lords held a council to consider
what was to be done. Some of the English, however,
mounted their horses, passed the river, and went to the
mountain which the Scots had quitted, and found more
than five hundred large cattle, which the enemy had killed,
as they were too heavy to carry with them, and too slow
to follow them, and they wished not to let them fall into
the hands of the English alive. They found there, also.
more than three hundred caldrons, made of leather with
the hair on the outside, which were hung on the fires full
of water and meat, ready for boiling. There were also
upward of a thousand spits with meat on them, prepared
for roasting; and more than ten thousand pairs of old
worn-out shoes, made of undressed leather, which the
Scots had left there. There were found five poor English
prisoners, whom the Scots had bound naked to the trees,
and some of them had their legs broken. They untied
them, and sent them away, and then returned to the army,
just as they were setting out on their march to England,
by orders from the king and council.
They followed all that day the banners of the marshals,
and halted at an early hour in a beautiful meadow, where
there was plenty of forage for their horses; and much
need was there of it, for they were so weakened by fam-
ine, that they could scarce move. The next day they de-
camped betimes, and took up their quarters still earlier, at
a large monastery within two leagues of Durham The







Froissart's Chronicles. 39

king lay there that night, and the army in the fields around
it, where they found plenty of grass, pulse, and corn.
They remained there quiet the next day; but the king and
lords went to see the church of Durham. The king paid
his homage to the church and the bishopric, which he had
not before done, and gave largesses to the citizens.
They found there all their carriages and baggage, which
they had left in a wood thirty-two days before at midnight,
as has been related. The inhabitants of Durham, finding
them there, had brought them away at their own cost, and
placed them in empty barns. Each carriage had a little
flag attached to it, that it might be known. The lords
were much pleased at finding them again.
The king and nobles reposed two days at Durham, and
the army in its environs, for there would not have been
sufficient room to lodge them in that city. They had all
their horses well shod, and set out on their march toward
York. They made such haste, that in three days they ar-
rived there, and found the queen mother, who received the
king and nobles with great joy, as did all the ladies of the
court and city. The king disbanded the army, and gave
permission for every one to return to his home, and made
many acknowledgments to the earls, barons, and knights
for the services they had rendered him by their advice and
prowess. The knights made out their accounts for horses
which had been ruined or lost, or had died, and gave them
in to the council; and also a statement of their own ex-
penses, which Sir John de Hainault took upon him as his
own debt toward his followers, for the king and his minis-
ters could not immediately collect such a sum as their
horses amounted to; but he gave them sufficient for
their own expenses, and to carry them back to their own
country.







40 Froissart's Chronicles.

When the Hainaulters had received their demand for
horses, they purchased small hackneys to ride more at
their ease, and sent their carriages, sumpter-horses, trunks,
and servants on board of two ships, which the king had
provided for them, and which landed them at Sluys, in
Flanders. They took leave of the king, queen, the earls
of Kent and Lancaster, and of all the barons, who naid
them many-honors; and the king had them escorted by
twelve knights and two hundred men at arms, for fear of
the archers, of whom they were not well assured, as they
must pass through the bishopric of Lincoln. Sir John
and all his company set out, escorted as above, and by
easy journeys came to Dover, where they embarked on
board vessels ready provided for them. The Hainaulters
arrived at Wissan, where they tarried two days in order
to deck out their horses and the remains of their armor;
during which time Sir John de Hainault and some other
knights went on a pilgrimage to Our Lady of Boulogne.
They returned together to Hainault, when they separated,
and each went to his own house : but Sir John went to his
brother, who was at that time at Valenciennes; he was
received by him with great joy, as he was much beloved
by him. The Lord of Beaumont then related to him all
the above-mentioned history.



CHAPTER XVI.

KING EDWARD MARRIES THE LADY PHILIPPA OF HAINAULT.

SHORTLY afterwards, the king, queen, the Earl of
Kent, his uncle, Earl Henry of Lancaster, the Earl
of Mortimer, and all the barons who were of the council,







Froissart's Chronicles. 41

sent a bishop, two knights bannerets, and two able clerks,
to Sir John de Hainault, to beg of him to be the means
that the young king, their lord, should marry; and that
the Count of Hainault and Holland would send over one
)f his daughters, for he would love her more dearly, on his
account, than any other lady. The count said he gave
many thanks to the king, queen, and the lords by whose
counsel they were sent thither to do him so much honor;
and that he most willingly complied with their request, if
the pope and the holy Church of Rome would agree.
They immediately despatched two of the knights and
the clerks to the pope at Avignon, to entreat his consent;
for without the pope's dispensation it could not be done,
on account of their near relationship; being in the third
degree connected, for their two mothers were cousins-
german, being the children of two brothers. As soon as
they came to Avignon their business was done, for the
pope and the college gave their consent most benig-
nantly.
When these gentlemen were returned to Valenciennes
from Avignon, with all their bulls, this marriage was di-
rectly settled and consented to on each side; and imme-
diate preparations were made for the dress and equipage
of such a lady, who was to be Queen of England.
She was then married, by virtue of a procuration which
the King of England had sent thither, and went on board
a ship at Wissan, and landed at Dover with all her suite,
Her uncle, Sir John de Hainault, conducted her to Lon-
don, where she was crowned; and there were great crowds
of the nobility, and feastings, tournaments, and sumptuous
entertainments every day, which lasted for three weeks.







Froissart's Chronicles.


CHAPTER XVII.

DOUGLAS IS KILLED FIGHTING FOR THE HEART OF KING POBERT.

A FTER the Scots had in the night quitted the moun-
tain where the young King Edward and the nobles
of England had held them besieged, as you have before
heard, they marched twenty-two miles without halting,
and crossed the Tyne pretty near to Carlisle, where by the
orders of the chiefs all disbanded and went to their own
homes. Shortly afterwards some of the lords and barons
so earnestly solicited the King of England, that a truce
was agreed on between the two kings for three years.
During this truce it happened that King Robert of Scot-
land, who had been a very valiant knight, waxed old, and
was attacked with so severe an illness that he saw his end
was approaching: he therefore summoned together all the
chiefs and barons in whom he most confided, and, after
having told them that he should never get the better of
this sickness, he commanded them upon their honor and
loyalty to keep faithfully the kingdom for his son David,
to crown him king when he was of a proper age, and to
marry him with a lady suitable to his station.
He after that called to him the gallant Lord James
Douglas, and said to him, in presence of the others, -
"My dear friend Lord James Douglas, you know that I
have had much to do, and have suffered many troubles, to
support the rights of my crown. At the time that I was
most occupied I made a vow, the non-accomplishment of
which gives me much uneasiness: I vowed, that, if I could
finish my wars in such a manner that I might have quiet






Froissart's Chronicles. 43

to govern peaceably, I would go and make war against the
enemies of our Lord Jesus Christ. To this point my heart
has always leaned; but our Lord gave me so much to do
in my lifetime, and this last expedition has delayed me so
long, followed by this heavy sickness, that, since my body
cannot accomplish what my heart wishes, I will send my
heart in the stead of my body to accomplish my vow.
"I will that as soon as I shall be dead you take my
heart from my body, ana have it well embalmed; you will
also take as much money from my treasury as will appear
to you sufficient to perform your journey, as well as for
all those whom you may choose to take with you in your
train: you will then deposit your charge at the Holy
Sepulchre of our Lord, where he was buried, since my
body cannot go there. You will not be sparing of expense;
and, wherever you pass, you will let it be known that you
bear the heart of King Robert of Scotland, which you are
carrying beyond seas by his command, since his body
cannot go thither."
All those present began bewailing bitterly; and, when
the Lord James could speak, he said, Gallant and noble
king, I return you a hundred thousand thanks for the high
honor you do me, and for the valuable and dear treasure
with which you intrust me; and I will most willingly do
all that you command me, with the utmost loyalty in my
power. Never doubt it, however I may feel unworthy of
such a high distinction."
The king replied, Gallant knight, I thank you. You
promise it me, then ?"
"Certainly, sir; most willingly," answered the knight.
He then gave his promise upon his knighthood.
The king said, "Thanks be to God! For I shall now
die in peace, since I know that the most valiant and ac-







44 Froissart's Chronicles.

complished knight of my kingdom will perform that for
me which I am unable to do for myself."
Soon afterwards the valiant Robert Bruce, King of
Scotland, departed this life. His heart was embalmed,
and his body buried in the monastery of Dunfermline.
Early in the spring the Lord James Douglas, having
made provision of every thing that was proper for his
expedition, embarked at the port of Montrose, and sailed
directly for Sluys in Flanders, in order to learn if any one
were going beyond the sea to Jerusalem, that he might
join companies. He remained there twelve days, and
would not set his foot on shore, but staid the whole time
on board, where he kept a magnificent table, with music
of trumpets and drums, as if he had been the King of
Scotland. His company consisted of one knight banneret,
and seven others, of the most valiant knights of Scotland,
without counting the rest of his household. His plate
was of gold and silver, consisting of pots, basins, por-
ringers, cups, bottles, barrels, and other such things. He
had likewise twenty-six young and gallant esquires of the
best families in Scotland to wait on him; and all those
who came to visit him were handsomely served with two
sorts of wine, and two sorts of spices, I mean those of
a certain rank. At last, after staying at Sluys twelve
days, he heard that Alphonso, King of Spain, was waging
war against the Saracen King of Grenada. He considered
that, if he should go thither, he should employ his time
and journey according to the late king's wishes; and, when
he should have finished there, he would proceed farther, to
complete that with which he was charged. He made sail
therefore toward Spain, and landed first at Valencia;
thence he went straight to the King of Spain, who was
with his army on the frontiers, very near the Saracen
King of Grenada.










































PALI.~'B






A



cr


Lord James Douglas throwing the Heart of Bruce among the Saracens.







Froissart's Chronicles. 45

It happened, soon after the arrival of the Lord James
Douglas, that the King of Spain issued forth into the
fields, to make his approaches nearer the enemy: the
King of Grenada did the same, and each king could easily
distinguish the other's banners; and they both began to
set their armies in array. The Lord James placed himself
and his company on one side, to make better work and a
more powerful effort. When he perceived that the bat-
talio.s on each side were fully arranged, and that of the
King of Spain in motion, he imagined they were about to
begin the onset; and, as he always wished to be among
the first rather than last on such occasions, he and all his
company struck their spurs into their horses, until they
were in the midst of the King of Grenada's battalion, and
made a furious attack on the Saracens. He thought that
he should be supported by the Spaniards; but in this he
was mistaken, for not one that day followed his example.
The gallant knight and all his companions were surrounded
by the enemy: they performed prodigies of valor, but
these were of no avail, as they were all killed.* It was a

The young readers of Froissart will be interested in some particulars of
this exploit not given by our author. When Douglas made his first impetu-
ous onset, it seemed as if he would be successful, even alone. The Saracens
retreated in confusion, and Douglas and his party were tempted into a hot
pursuit. "Taking the casket from his neck" (says Hailes, in the Annals of
Scotland), which contained the heart of Bruce," Douglas "threw it before
him, and cried, 'Now pass thou onward, as thou wast wont; and Douglas
will follow thee, or die.' Presently the Saracens rallied, and surrounded the
Scotch with overwhelming numbers. "Douglas fell while attempting to res-
cue Sir William Clare of Roslin, who shared his fate. Robert and Walter
Iogan, both of them knights, were slain with Douglas. His few surviv-
ing companions found his body in the field, together with the casket, and rev-
erently conveyed them to Scotland. The remains of Douglas were interred
in the sepulchre of his fathers, in the church of Douglas; and the heart of
Bruce was deposited at Melrose."







Froissart's Chronicles.


great misfortune that they were not assisted by the Span-
iards.
About this time many of the nobles and others, desirous
of a settled peace between the Scots and English, pro.
posed a marriage between the young King of Scotland
and the sister of the King of England. This marriage
was concluded and solemnized at Berwick, with great
feasts and rejoicings on both sides.



CHAPTER XVIII.

PHILIP OF VALOIS CROWNED KING OF FRANCE.

C HARLES, King of France, died without heirs male.
The twelve peers and barons of France assembled at
Paris without delay, and gave the kingdom with one con-
sent to Philip of Valois. They passed by the Queen of
England, and the king her son, although she was cousin-
german to the king last deceased; for they said that the
kingdom of France was of such great nobleness that it
ought not to fall by succession to a female. They crowned
the Lord Philip King of France, at Rhe;ms, the Trinity
Sunday following.







Froissart's Chronicles.


CHAPTER XIX.

KING EDWARD IS ADVISED BY HIS COUNCIL TO MAKE WAR AGAIN-;
KING PHILIP OF FRANCE. HE EFFECTS GREAT ALLIANCES IN GE
MANY, AND IS MADE VICAR OF THE EMPIRE.

T HE Lord Robert d'Artois* was in England very near
the king's person, whom he was continually advising
to make war upon the King of France, for wrongfully
withholding his inheritance. The king saw clearly that it
was impossible for him, and all the force he could bring
from his own country, to subdue such a great kingdom as
that of France, if he did not obtain powerful friends and
assistance in the empire, and in other parts, by means of
his money.
The King of England, when the winter was over, em-
barked, accompanied by many earls, barons, and knights,
and came to the city of Antwerp, which at that time was
held for the Duke of Brabant. He sent to the Duke
of Brabant, his cousin, his brother-in-law the Duke of
Gueldres, to the Marquis of Juliers, the Lord John of
Hainault, and to all those from whom he expected support
and assistance, that he should be happy to have some con-
versation with them.
When all the lords of the empire were assembled in the
city of Halle, they had long deliberations together, and
said to the King of England, "Dear sir, there is an ordi-
nance of a very old date, sealed, that no king of France

Who, although he had been the chief supporter of Philip for the crown,
had afterwards become the object of Philip's violent hatred, and had been
banished the kingf'om.







Froissart's Chronicles.


should take and keep possession of any thing that belongs
to the empire. Now, King Philip has gotten possession
of the castles of Crevecceur in Cambresis, and of Arleux
in Artois, as well as the city of Cambray; for which the
emperor has good grounds to challenge him through us, -
if you will have the goodness to obtain his consent, in
o der to save our honor." The King of England replied
that he would cheerfully conform himself to their advice.
It was then determined that the Marquis of Juliers
should go to the emperor, and with him knights and
counsellors from the king, and some from the Duke of
Gueldres; but the Duke of Brabant would not send any:
he lent, however, his castle of Louvain to the king for
his residence.
The Marquis of Juliers and his company returned from
the emperor about All Saints' Day; and, when he sent to
inform the king of this, he congratulated him on the good
success of his mission. The king wrote him for answer
that he should come to him on the feast of St. Martin, and
demanded of the Duke of Brabant to name the place where
he wished this conference to be holden; who replied, at
Arques, near to his own country. Upon this the king
gave notice of it, that all his allies might be there.
The town-hall of Arques was hung with. rich and fine
cloths, like to the presence-chamber of the king. His
Majesty was seated five feet higher than the rest of the
company, and had on his head a rich crown of gold. The
letters from the emperor to the king were publicly read,
by which the King of England was constituted and estab-
lished his vicar and lieutenant, and full powers granted to
him to do all the acts of law and justice to every one, in
his name, and also to coin money in gold and silver.
On this occasion an ancient statute was renewed and







Froissart's Chronicles.


confirmed, which had been made in former times at the
court of the emperor. It directed that any one meaning
to hurt or annoy another should send him a sufficient.
defiance three days before he committed any hostile act:
and that whoever should act otherwise should be degraded
as an evil-doer. When all this was completed, the lords
took their leave, and gave each other their mutual promises
to be fully equipped, without delay, three weeks after the
feast of St. John, to sit down before the city of Cambray;
which of right belonged to the emperor, but had turned to
the French.


CHAPTER XX.

KING EDWARD AND HIS ALLIES SEND CHALLENGES TO THE KING OP
FRANCE.

WINTER was now over, and the summer come, when,
the feast of St. John the Baptist approaching, the
lords of England and Germany made preparations for
undertaking their intended expedition. The King of
France also made his preparations to meet them; for he
was well acquainted with part of what they intended,
though he had not yet received any challenge. King Ed-
ward collected his stores in England, where he made his
armaments ready; and, as soon as St. John's Day was
passed, transported them across the sea to Vilvorde,
whither he went himself. He made all his people, on
their arrival, take houses in the town; and, when this was
full, he lodged them in tents and pavilions in the fine
meadows along the side of the river. He remained thus
from Magdalen Day until the feast of Our Lady in Sep-
tember, expecting week after wek'k the arrival of the lords







Froissart's Chronicles.


of the empire, especially the Duke of Brabant, for whom
all the others were waiting. When the King of England
saw that they came not, he caused them to be summoned
to be at the city of Mechlin on St. Giles's Day, according
to their promises, and give reasons for their delays.
The lords of Germany, in obedience to the summons,
came to Mechlin, where, after many debates, they agreed
that the king should be enabled to march in a fortnight,
when they would be quite ready; and, that their cause
might have a better appearance, they determined to send
challenges to King Philip. These challenges were written
and sealed by all except the Duke John of Brabant, who
said he would do his part at the proper time and place.
They were given in charge to the Bishop of Lincoln, who
carried them to Paris, and performed his errand so justly
ind well that he was blamed by no one. He had a pass-
port granted him to return to his lord, who, as said before,
was at Mechlin.



CHAPTER XXI.

KING EDWARD CREATES SIR HENRY OF FLANDERS A KNIGHT, AND
AFTERWARDS MARCHES INTO PICARDY.

AS soon as the King of England had passed the Scheld,
and had entered the kingdom of France, he called
to him the Lord Henry of Flanders, who was but a young
esquire, and knighted him; at the same time giving him
two hundred pounds sterling a year, properly secured in
England. The king was lodged in the abbey of Mont St.
Martin, where he remained two days. His troops were
scattered roui.d about in the country. The Duke of







Froissart's Chronicles. 51

Brabant was quartered at the monastery of Vaucelles.
When the King of France, who was at Compiegne, heard
this news, he increased his forces everywhere, and sent
the Earl of Eu and Guines, his constable, with a large
body of men at arms, to St. Quentin, to guard that town
and the frontiers against his enemies. He sent the Lords
of Coucy and of Ham to their castles, and a great number
of men at arms to Guise, Ribemont, Bouchain, and the
neighboring fortresses on the borders of his kingdom;
and came himself to Peronne, in the Vermandois. During
the time the King of England was at the abbey of Mont
St. Martin, his people overran the country as far as Ba-
paume, and very near to Peronne and St. Quentin: they
found it rich and plentiful, for there had not been any
wars in those parts.
Sir Henry of Flanders, to do credit to his newly acquired
knighthood, and to obtain honor, made one of a party of
knights, who were conducted by Sir John de Hainault.
There were among them the Lords of Fauquemont,
Bergues, Vaudresen, Lens, and many others, to the num-
ber of five hundred combatants. They had a design upon
a town in the neighborhood, called Hennecourt, whither
the greater number of the inhabitants of the country
had retired, who, confiding in the strength of this fortress,
had carried with them all their movables. Sir Arnold of
Bacqueghen and Sir William du Dunor had already been
there, but had done nothing; upon which all these lords
had collected together, and were desirous of going thither
to do their utmost to conquer it. There was an abbot
at that time in Hennecourt, of great courage and under-
standing, who ordered barriers to be made of woodwork
around the town, and likewise to be placed across the
street so that there was not more than half a foot from







52 Froissart's Chronicles.

one post to another: he then collected armed men, pro-
vided stones, quicklime, and such like instruments of
annoyance, to guard them. As soon as the lords above
mentioned came there, the abbot posted his people be-
tween the barriers and the gate, and flung the gate open.
The lords dismounted, and approached the barriers, which
were very strong, sword in hand; and great strokes were
given to those within, who defended themselves very
valiantly. Sir Abbot did not spare himself; but, having a
good leather jerkin on, dealt about his blows manfully,
and received as good in his turn. Many a gallant action
was performed; and those within the barriers flung upon
the assailants stones, logs, and pots full of lime, to annoy
them.
It chanced that Sir Henry of Flanders, who was. one of
the foremost, with his sword attached to his wrist, laid
about him at a great rate: he came too near the abbot,
who caught hold of his sword, and drew him to the barriers
with so much force, that his arm was dragged through the
grating, for he could not quit his sword with honor. The
abbot continued pulling; and, had the grating been wide
enough, he would have had him through, for his shoulder
had passed, and he kept his hold, to the knight's great dis-
comfort. On the other side, his brother knights were
endeavoring to draw him out of his hands; and this lasted
so long. that Sir Henry was sorely hurt: he was, however,
at last rescued, but his sword remained with the abbot.
And at the time I was writing this book, as I passed
through that town, the monks showed me this sword,
which was kept there, much ornamented. It was there
that I learnt all the truth of this assault. Hennecourt
was very vigorously attacked that day; and it lasted until
vespers. Many of the assailants were killed or wounded







Froissart's Chronicles.


Sir John of Hainault lost a knight from Holland, called
Sir Herman, who bore for arms a fess compone gules, and
in chief, three buckles azure. When the Flemings, Hai-
naulters, English, and Germans, who were there, saw the
courage of those within the town, and that, instead of
gaining any advantage, they were beaten down and
wounded, they retreated in the evening, carrying with
them to their quarters the wounded and bruised.
On the next morning the king departed from Mont St.
Martin, and ordered, under pain of death, that no damage
should be done to the abbey, which was observed. They
then entered the Vermandois, and at an early hour took
up their lodgings on Mont St. Quentin. They were in a
regular order of battle, and those of St. Quentin might
have encountered them had they chosen it; but they had
no desire to issue out of the town. The scouts of the
army went up to the barriers, and skirmished with those
who were there. The Constable of France and Sir Charles
le Blois drew up their people in order of battle before the
barriers; and when the Englishmen, among whom were
the Earl of Suffolk, the Earl of Northampton, Sir Regi-
nald Cobham, and many others, saw the manner in which
it was done, they retreated to the main army of the king,
which remained encamped on the hill until four o'clock
the next morning. A council was then held, to consider
whether they should march straight into France, or draw
toward Tierache, keeping near the borders of Hainault
By the advice of the Duke of Brabant, the latter plan was
followed, as from that country they drew all their provis-
ion; and they resolved, that if King Philip should follow
them with his army, as they supposed he would, they
would wait for him in the plains, and give him battle with-
out fail. They then set out from Mont St. Quentin.







54 Froissart's Chronices.

ranged in a regular order, in three battalions. The
marshals and the Germans led the van, the King of Eng-
land the centre, and the Duke of Brabant the rear. They
advanced not more than three or four leagues a day, halt-
ing early, but burning and pillaging all the country the)
passed through.
We must now speak of the expedition of Sir John of
Hainault, who had with him full five hundred fighting
men. He came first to Guise, which he burnt, and de-
stroyed the mills. In the fortress was the Lady Jane, his
daughter, wife of Lewis, Earl of Blois. She begged of her
father to spare the lands and heritage of his son-in-law;
but in vain, for Sir John would not depart until he had
completed the purpose of his expedition. He then re-
turned to the king, who was lodged in the abbey of Sar-
naques, while his people overran the country. The Lord
of Fauquemont led sixscore German lances to Lonnion,
in Tierache, a large level town; the inhabitants of which
had almost all retired with what they could carry off into
the woods, and there had fortified their position by cutting
down large trees. The Germans followed them, and, being
joined by Sir Arnold Bacqueghen and his company, they
attacked the people of Lonnion in the wood, who defended
themselves as well as they could; but they were over-
powered and obliged to flee. There were about forty
killed and wounded, and all they brought there plundered.
Thus was this country ruined without any hinderance; and
the English acted as they thought proper.
When the King of England had halted in the cham-
paign country of Tierache, he was informed that the King
of France was within two leagues of him, and eager to
give him battle. He therefore summoned the chiefs of his
army, and demanded of them the best method of preserve







Froissart's Chronicles. 55

ing his honor, as his intention was to accept the combat.
The lords looked at each other, and requested the Duke of
Brabant to give his opinion. The duke replied, that he
was for fighting, as they could not depart honorably with-
out it; and he advised that a herald should be sent to the
King of France, to offer him battle, and to fix the day.
A herald who belonged to the Duke of Gueldres, and
spoke French well, had this commission. After being
informed what he was to say, he rode to the French army,
and, coming to the king and his counsellors, told them
that the King of England, having halted in the plains,
demanded and required the combat of one army against
the other. To this King Philip answered willingly, and
appointed the Friday following for the day, this being
Wednesday. The herald returned back, well clothed with
handsome furred mantles, which the king and lords of
France had given him for the sake of the news he had
brought, and related the good cheer he had received. The
day being thus fixed, information of it was given to the
captains of either army, and every one made his prepara-
tions accordingly.
On the Thursday morning, two knights belonging to
the Earl of Hainault, the Lords of Faguinelles and Tu-
pegny, mounted their steeds; and these two, leaving their
own army, set out to view that of the English. They rode
on for some time boldly along the line of the English army;
when it chanced that the horse of the Lord of Faguinelles
took fright, ran off in spite of all the efforts of his master,
and carried him, whether he would or no, to the quarters
of the enemy. He fell into the hands of the Germans,
who, soon perceiving he did not belong to their party, sur-
rounded him and his horse, and took him prisoner. He
remained prisoner to five or six German gentlemen. who







Froissarl's Cr onicles.


immediately ransomed him. When they found out that
he was a Hainaulter, they asked him whether he knew Sir
John of Hainault; he replied, Yes, and begged of them,
for the love of God, to carry him to him, because he was
sure he would be security for his ransom. The Germans
were delighted at this, and carried him to Sir John, who
pledged himself for his ransom. The Lord of Faguinelles
thereupon returned to the army of Hainault, to his earl
and other lords. His steed was returned to him through
the entreaties of the Lord of Beaumont. Thus passed
that day without any other thing occurring worthy of
being recorded.



CHAPTER XXII.

THE TWO KINGS RETIRE FROM VIRONFOSSE WITHOUT GIVING BATTLE.

IT was a matter of much wonder, how two such fine
armies could separate without fighting. But the
French were of contrary opinions among themselves.
Some said it would be a great shame, and very blamable,
if the king did not give battle when he saw his enemies
so near him, and drawn up in his own kingdom in battle
array: others said it would exhibit a singular instance
of madness to fight, as they were not certain that some
treachery was not intended; besides, if fortune should be
unfavorable, the king would run a great risk of losing his
kingdom, and, if he should conquer his enemies, he would
not be the nearer to gain possession of England or of the
land of the allies. Thus the day passed until near twelve
o'clock in disputes and debates. About noon a hare was
started in the plain, and ran among the French army, who







Froissart's Chronicles. 5,

began to make a great shouting and noise, which caused
those in rear to imagine the combat was begun in front;
and many put on their helmets, and made ready their
swords. Several new knights were made, especially by
the Earl of Hainault, who knighted fourteen; and they
Nere after called knights of the hare.
In this situation the two armies remained all Friday.
In the midst of the debates of the council of the King of
Fiance, letters were brought from Robert, King of Sicily,
addressed to him and his council. This King Robert was,
as they said, a very great astrologer, and full of deep sci-
ence; he had often cast the nativities of the kings of
France and England, and had found by his astrology and
the influence of the stars, that, if the King of France
fought with the King of England in person, he would
surely be defeated; in consequence of which he, as a wise
king, and much fearing the danger and peril of his cousin
the King of France, had sent, long before, letters most
earnestly to request King Philip and his council never to
give battle to the English when King Edward should be
there in person. These doubts, and this letter from the
King of Sicily, made many of the lords of France sore
disheartened, of which the king was informed, who never-
theless was very eager for the combat; but he was so
strongly dissuaded from it, that the day passed quietly,
and each man retired to his quarters.
When the Earl of Hainault saw that there was no like-
lihood of a battle, he departed with all his people, and
returned to Quesnoy. The next day the Germans and
Brabanters took their leave, and returned to their homes.
The King of England went to Brabant with the duke, his
cousin. Thus ended this great expedition, and every mar
returned to his own house.







58 Froissart's Chronicles.

When the king's vessel was ready, he embarked with a
numerous attendance at Antwerp, and sailed for London,
where he arrived about St. Andrew's Day, and was joyfully
received by his subjects, who were anxious for his return.
Great complaints were made to him of the ravages which
the Normans, Picards, and Spaniards had committed at
Southampton; upon which he answered, that, whenever it
came to his turn, he would make them pay dearly for it -
and he kept his word before the end of that year.



CHAPTER XXIII.

THE SEA-FIGHT BETWEEN THE KING OF ENGLAND AND THE FRENCH,
BEFORE SLUYS.
T HE King of England embarked for Flanders, in
order to go to Hainault to assist his brother-in-law
in his war against France. He and his whole navy sailed
from the Thames, the day before the eve of St. John the
Baptist, 1340, and made straight for Sluys. Sir Hugh
Quiriel, Sir Peter Bahucet, and Barbenoire, were at that
time lying between Blanckenburgh and Sluys with upward
of one hundred and twenty large vessels, without counting
others: these were manned with about forty thousand
men, Genoese and Picards, including mariners. By the
orders of the King of France, they were there at anchor,
waiting the return of the King of England, to dispute his
passage.
When the king's fleet was almost got to Sluys, they saw
so many masts standing before it, that they looked like a
wood. The king asked the commander of his ship what
they could be; who answered, that he imagined they must








Froissart's Chronicles. 59

be that armament of Normans, which the King of France
kept at sea, and which had so frequently done him much
damage, had burnt his good town of Southampton, and
taken his large ship the Christopher." The king re-
plied, "I have for a long time wished to meet with them,
and now, please God and St. George, we will fight them;
for, in truth, they have done me so much mischief, that I
will be revenged on them if it be possible." The king
drew up all his vessels, placing the strongest in the front,
and. on the wings his archers. Between every two vessels
with archers there was one of men at arms. He stationed
some detached vessels as a reserve, full of archers, to
assist and help such as might be damaged. There were
in this fleet a great many ladies from England, countesses,
baronesses, and knights' and gentlemen's wives, who were
going to attend on the queen at Ghent: these the king
had guarded most carefully by three hundred men at arms
and five hundred archers. When the King of England
and his marshals had properly divided the fleet, they
hoisted their sails to have the wind on their quarter, as
the sun shone full in their faces, which they considered
might be of disadvantage to them, and stretched out a
little, so that at last they got the wind as they wished.
The Normans, who saw them tack, could not help wonder-
ing why they did so, and said they took good care to turn
about, for they were afraid of meddling with them. They
perceived, however, by his banner, that the king was on
board, which gave them great joy, as they were eager to
fight with him: so they put their vessels in proper order,
for they were expert and gallant men on the seas. They
filled the "Christopher," the large ship which they had
taken the year before from the English, with trumpets
and father warlike instruments, and ordered her to fall







Froissart's Chronicles.


upon the English. The battle then began very fiercely;
archers and crossbow-men shot with all their might at
each other, and the men at arms engaged hand to hand.
In order to be more successful, they had large grapnels,
and iron hooks with chains, which they flung from ship to
ship, to moor them to each other. There were many
valiant deeds performed, many prisoners made, and many
rescues. The "Christopher," which led the van, was re-
captured by the English, and all in her taken or killed.
There were then great shouts and cries, and the English
manned her again with archers, and sent her to fight
against the Genoese.
This battle was very murderous and horrible. Combats
at sea are more destructive and obstinate than upon the
land, for it is not possible to retreat or flee: every one
must abide his fortune, and exert his prowess and valor.
Sir Hugh Quiriel and his companions were bold and de-
termined men, had done much mischief to the English at
sea, and destroyed many of their ships. This combat,
therefore, lasted from early in the morning until noon;
and the English were hard pressed, for their enemies were
four to one, and the greater part men who had been used
to the sea. The king, who was in the flower of his youth,
showed himself on that day a gallant knight, as did the
Earls of Derby, Pembroke, Hereford, Huntingdon, North-
ampton, and Gloucester; the Lord Reginald Cobham, Lord
Felton, Lord Bradestan, Sir Richard Stafford, the Lord
Percy, Sir Walter Manny, Sir Henry de Flanders, Sir
John Beauchamp, Sir John Chandos, the Lord Delaware,
Lucie Lord Malton, and the Lord Robert d'Artois, now
called Earl of Richmond. I cannot remember all the
names of those who behaved so valiantly in the combat;
but they did so well, that, with some assistance flomn







Froissarl's Chronicles. 61

Bruges and those parts of the country, the French were
completely defeated, and all the Normans and the others
killed or drowned, so that not one of them escaped. This
was soon known all over Flanders; and, when it came to
the two armies before Thin-1'Eveque, the Hainaulters were
as much rejoiced as their enemies were dismayed.
After the king had gained this victory, which was on
the eve of St. John's Day, he remained all that night on
board of his ship before Sluys; and there were great
noises with trumpets, and all kinds of other instruments.
The Flemings came to wait on him, having heard of his
arrival, and wrat deeds he had performed. The king in-
quired of the citizens of Bruges after Jacob von Artaveld;
and they told him he was gone to the aid of the Earl of
Hainault with upward of sixty thousand men, against the
Duke of Normandy. On the morrow, which was Midsum-
mer Day, the king and his fleet entered the port. As soon
as they were landed, the king, attended by crowds of
knights, set out on foot on a pilgrimage to Our Lady of
Ardembourg, where he heard mass, and dined. He then
mounted his horse, and went that day to Ghent, where the
queen was, who received him with great joy and kindness.
The army and baggage, with the attendants of the king,
followed him by degrees to the same place.
The king had sent notice of his arrival to the lords that
were before Thin-1'Eveque, opposing the French; who, as
soon as they heard of it, and of his victory over the Nor.
mans, broke up their camp. The Earl of Hainault dis-
banded all his troops, except the principal lords, whom he
carried with him to Valenciennes, and treated most nobly,
especially the Duke of Brabant, and Jacob von Artaveid.
Jacob von Artaveld, in the full market-place, explained he
right King Edwa-d aad to the crown of France, to ll







62 Froissart's Chronides.

those lords that chose to hear him, and of what importance
it was to the three countries, that is to say, Flanders,
Brabant, and Hainault, when closely united. He spoke
so clearly, and with so much eloquence, that he was praised
by all, who agreed that he was worthy to exercise the dig-
nity of Earl of Flanders. These lords then took their
leave, and agreed to meet in eight days' time at Ghent, to
see the king. A day of conference was then appointed to
be held at Vilvorde.
It was then determined that the King of England
should move about Magdalen-tide, and lay siege to the city
of Tournay; and .all the lords present promised to be
there, as well as all the forces from the principal towns.
They then set off for their homes, to get ready, and pre-
pare themselves properly for the business.



CHAPTER XXIV.

THE KING OF ENGLAND BESIEGES THE CITY OF TOURNAY WITH A
POWERFUL ARMY.

K ING PHILIP, soon after the departure of these lords,
was informed of all that had passed, and how King
Edward was to come to Tournay: he therefore determined
to provide it su well with ammunition, &c., and with so
many good knights, that the city should be well served
and well advised. He sent directly to the city of Tournay
the flower of his chivalry, the Earl Raoul of Eu, Con-
stable of France; the young Earl of Guines, his son; the
Farl of Foix, and his brothers, the Earl of Aymery and
I.;. bonnee; the Lord Aymery of Poitiers; the Lord Geot.
fry of Chargny; the Lord Gerard of Montfaucon; his two







Froissart's C/ronicles.


marshals, the Lord Robert Bertrand, and Lord Matthew
de Trie; the Lord of Caieux, seneschal of Poitou; the
Lord of Chatillon; and Sir John of Landas, who had
with them many knights and esquires renowned 'n aims
The king entreated of them earnestly that they would pay
so much care and attention to Tournay, that nothing un-
fortunate might happen; which they all promised him.
They took leave of the King of France, left Arras, and ar-
rived at Tournay, where they found Sir God6mar du Fay,
who had been sent thither before them. He received them
joyfully, as did those of the town; and, after having well
examined the purveyances which were there, as well of
artillery as of provision, they ordered great quantities of
corn, oats, and other articles of food, to be brought into it
from the country round about, so that the city was in a
good state to hold out for a long time.
The King of England, when the time for being before
Tournay approached, and the corn was nearly ripe, set out
from Ghent, accompanied by seven earls from his own
country, two prelates, twenty-eight bannerets, two hundred
knights, four thousand men at arms, and nine thousand
archers, without counting the foot-soldiers. He passed
through the town of Oudenarde, crossed the Scheld, and
encamped before Tournay, near St. Martin's Gate, on the
road to Lisle anc Douay. Soon after came his cousin, the
Duke of Brabant, with upward of twenty thousand men,
knights and esquires, and the companies from the differ-
ent towns. The Brabanters were encamped at Pontaries
upon the Scheld, as you return from the fields by the gate
Valentinois. The Earl of Hainault came with the fine
cavalry of his country, with many Dutchmen and Zealand-
ers, who attended upon his person as their lord. The earl
was encamped between the King of England and the







Froissart's Chronicles.


Duke of Brabant. Jacob von Artaveld came next with
more than forty thousand Flemings, not reckoning those
from Ypres, Poperingue, Cassel, and Bruges, who were
ordered to another part, as you will hear presently. He
was quartered near the gate St. Fontaine, on both sides of
the Scheld, over which they had thrown a bridge of boats,
that they might have free intercourse. The Duke of
Gueldies, the Earl of Juliers, the Marquis of Blancken-
berg, the Marquis of Nuys, the Earl of Mons, the Earl of
Savines, the Lord of Fauquemont, Sir Arnold de Bacque-
ghen, and all the Germans, were stationed on the side
toward Hainault, so that the city of Tournay was very
completely surrounded. Each division of the army had
open communication with each other; and no one could
enter or come out of the city without permission, or with
out being seen.


CHAPTER XXV.

THE SCOTS RECOVER GREAT PART OF THEIR COUNTRY DURING THE
SIEGE OF TOURNAY.

FOR the present we must return to Scotland, and see
what is going on there during this siege of Tournay.
The reader should be informed that Sir William Doug-
las, son of the brother of Sir James Douglas, who was
killed in Spain, the Earl of Moray, the Earl Patrick of
Dunbar, the Earl of Sutherland, Sir Robert Keith, Sir
Simon Fraser, and Alexander Ramsay, had remained as
governors of the remnant of Scotland that was not in the
possession of the English. During the space of seven
years they had secreted themselves in the forest of Jed-
worth, in winter as veil as summer, and thence had car-







Froissarc s Chronicles. 6

ried on a war against all the towns and fortresses wherein
King Edward had placed any garrisons; in which many
perilous and gallant adventures befell them, and from
which they acquired much honor and renown. While
King Edward was beyond sea, before Tournay, the King
,f France sent over some forces to Scotland, which arrived
safe in the town of Perth; and he entreated the noblemen
above mentioned to carry on so bitter a war in England
that King Edward should be obliged to desist from his
present enterprise before Tournay, promising them every
aid and assistance: in consequence of which these lords
collected their forces, and made themselves ready. They
quitted the forest of Jedworth, traversed Scotland, retook
as many fortresses as they were able, passed by Berwick,
and, crossing the river Tyne, entered Northumberland,
which was formerly a kingdom of itself, where they found
plenty of fat cattle. Having wasted and burnt the whole
country as far as Durham, and even beyond it, they re-
entered Scotland, and gained all the fortresses which the
King of England held, except the good town of Berwick,
and three other castles which annoyed them much, and
which are so strong that you will scarcely find their equals
for strength in any country: one is called Stirling, the
other Roxburgh, and the third, which may be styled the
sovereign of Scotland, Edinburgh. This last is situate
upon a high rock, commanding a view of the country
round about; and the mountain has so steep an ascent,
that few can go up it without stopping twice or thrice.
The governor of it at that time was a gallant English
knight, called Sir Walter Limousin.
A bold thought came into Sir William Douglas's mind,
which he mentioned to his companions, the Earl of Dun-
bar, Sir Robert Fraser, who had been tutor to King David







66 Froissart's Chronicles.

of Scotland, and Alexander Ramsay, who all agreed to
try to execute it. They collected upward of two hundred
lances of Highlanders, went to sea, and purchased oats,
oatmeal, coal, and straw, and landed peaceably at a port
about three miles from the castle of Edinburgh, which
had made a stronger resistance than all the other castles.
When they had armed themselves, they issued forth in
the night-time; and having chosen ten or twelve from
among them, in whom they had the greatest confidence,
they dressed them in old, threadbare clothes, with torn
hats, like poor tradesmen, and loaded twelve small horses,
with a sack to each, filled with oats, meal, or coal; they
then placed the rest in ambuscade in an old abbey, that
was ruined and uninhabited, close to the foot of the moun-
tain on which the castle was situate. At daybreak these
merchants, who were privily armed, took the road with
their horses, the very best way they could, toward the
castle. When they had got about half-way up the hill,
Sir William Douglas and Sir Simon Fraser advanced be-
fore the others, whom they ordered to follow in silence,
and came to the porter's lodge. They informed him that
they had brought, with many risks and fears, coal, oats,
and meal; and, if there were any want of such articles, they
should be glad to dispose of them, and at a cheap rate.
The porter replied, that the garrison would thankfully
have them, but it was so early that he dared not awake
either the governor or his steward. At the same time he
told them to come forward, and he would open the other
gate. They all then passed quiet y through, and entered
with their loads to the gate of the barriers, which he
opened for them.
Sir William Douglas had remarked that the porter had
all the great keys of the castle-gates; and had, in an






















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How Sir William Douglas and his Companions captured the Castle of Edinburgh by Stratagem.


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Froissart's Chronicles. 67

apparently indifferent manner, inquired which opened the
great gate, and which the wicket. When the first gate
was opened, they turned in their nags, and flung off the
loads of two, which consisted of coal, directly upon the
sill of the gate, so that it could not be shut; and then
seized the porter, whom they slew so suddenly that he did
not utter a word. They then took the keys, and opened
all the gates, and Sir William Douglas gave a blast upon
his horn as a signal for his companions; they then flung
off their torn clothes, and placed all the remainder of the
coal between the gates, so that they could not be shut.
When those in the ambuscade heard the horn, they sallied
forth, and hastened forward to the castle. The noise of
the horn awakened the watch of the castle, at that time
asleep, who, seeing these armed men running up the
castle hill, blew lustily on his horn, and bawled out,
"Treason! treason! Arm yourselves, my masters, as fast
as you can; for here are men at arms advancing to our
fortress." They all roused themselves as quickly as they
could, and when armed came to the gate; but Sir William
and his twelve companions defended the gate, so that it
could not be shut. The combat then grew hotter; but
those from without maintained their ground with great
valor, until their ambuscade arrived. The garrison made
a very gallant defence, killing and wounding many of their
enemies; but Sir William and his party exerted them-
selves so much, that the fortress was taken, and all the
English killed, except the governor and six esquires, to
whom they showed mercy. The Scots remained in the
castle all that day, and appointed for governor a squire of
that country, called Sir Simon de Vesci, and left with him
many of his countrymen. This news was brought to the
King of England while he lay before Tournay.




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