Front Matter
 Title Page
 The isles of the west
 The West Indies
 List of Illustrations

Group Title: The red book of the West Indies : historical and descriptive, commercial and industrial, facts, figures, and resources.
Title: The red book of the West Indies
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078553/00001
 Material Information
Title: The red book of the West Indies historical and descriptive, commercial and industrial, facts, figures, & resources
Physical Description: 424 p. : illus. ;
Language: English
Creator: Macmillan, Allister
Publisher: W.H. & L. Collingridge
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1922
Subject: West Indies   ( lcsh )
Commerce -- West Indies   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078553
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329789
oclc - 23676423
notis - ABV9364

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    The isles of the west
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The West Indies
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
        Porto Rico
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
        The Bahama Islands
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
        Trinidad and Tobago
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 209
            Page 210
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
            Page 223
            Page 224
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 229
            Page 230
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
            Page 238
            Page 239
            Page 240
            Page 241
            Page 242
            Page 243
            Page 244
            Page 245
        St. Lucia
            Page 246
            Page 247
            Page 248
            Page 249
            Page 250
            Page 251
            Page 252
            Page 253
        British Guiana
            Page 254
            Page 255
            Page 256
            Page 257
            Page 258
            Page 259
            Page 260
            Page 261
            Page 262
            Page 263
            Page 264
            Page 265
            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
            Page 272
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
            Page 276
            Page 277
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
            Page 281
            Page 282
            Page 283
            Page 284
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
            Page 296
            Page 297
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 319
            Page 320
            Page 321
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
            Page 330
        Presidency of St. Kitts, Nevis, and Anguilla
            Page 331
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
            Page 339
            Page 340
            Page 341
            Page 342
            Page 343
            Page 344
            Page 345
            Page 346
            Page 347
            Page 348
            Page 349
            Page 350
            Page 351
            Page 352
            Page 353
            Page 354
            Page 355
            Page 356
            Page 357
            Page 358
            Page 359
            Page 360
            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
            Page 367
            Page 368
            Page 369
            Page 370
            Page 371
            Page 372
            Page 373
            Page 374
            Page 375
            Page 376
            Page 377
            Page 378
            Page 379
            Page 380
            Page 381
            Page 382
            Page 383
            Page 384
            Page 385
            Page 386
            Page 387
            Page 388
            Page 389
            Page 390
        The Virgin Islands of the United States of America
            Page 391
            Page 392
            Page 393
            Page 394
            Page 395
            Page 396
            Page 397
            Page 398
        The British Virgin Islands
            Page 399
            Page 400
            Page 401
            Page 402
            Page 403
            Page 404
            Page 405
            Page 406
            Page 407
            Page 408
            Page 409
            Page 410
            Page 411
            Page 412
        The Republics od Santo Domingo and Haiti
            Page 413
            Page 414
            Page 415
            Page 416
    List of Illustrations
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
Full Text

Obe )e6b nook of the

West 3TZ6les

'~eaber, let this little taste that 3 lbaue giuen thee of the Summer Slanbs
satisfie thee for tbe present: ere it be long thou salt baue a larger relation
thereof. castlee occasion of business botb make mee write somewhat 4astllie.
an8 leaue out many things whtic were fitted to be spoken of; wherefore against
my will 3 am rorceb to teaue my work. whtic 3 baue begunne. before 3 come
into tke mibbest of it: but 3 hope it will suffice you that are my friends to passe
it ouer in the best manner you can, for tbere is mucb broken Tngltsb of it anb
bably penned : regard 3 pray you the matter not the manner, the truth of the
store not the stile.
SJourdan, 1613.









[Photo : Cooper.



Printed by

THE remoteness of the West Indies from the East Indies has frequently led to speculations as to
how the former came by the name by which they have been distinguished since their discovery;
yet the matter is capable of ready and convincing, if not wholly satisfactory, explanation. At
the time when Christopher Columbus was layil.g his schemes for maritime exploration, the fact
that the world was of spherical formation had become generally recognized by him and other
geographers. It was reasoned, therefore, that by sailing across the unknown western seas an
alternative route to the East might be discovered. It did not, of course, enter into the calculations
of the navigators that their direct passage to eastern waters would be barred by the interposition
of a great and far-reaching continent. When, accordingly, Columbus had crossed the Atlantic
and sighted land, he concluded, not unnaturally, that he had at length reached the farther shores
of the (East) Indies. The newly-discovered lands were, therefore, named the West Indies; and
this erroneous title has, subject to subsequent divisional distinctions, remained their copyright
ever since, notwithstanding the fact that the discovery of the Pacific Ocean, and later additions
to the sum of geographical knowledge, showed that the newly-found land was separated by
thousands of miles from the Indies of the East. Moreover, at a later period the geographical
signification was extended until it included Guiana and, indeed, the whole of the north-western
portion of the South American continent, as well as the West Indian islands proper. Later still
this led to a good deal of confusion in the public mind, not only as to where the "Indies" left
off and the Brazils commenced, but as to the relative geographical positions of these with the
scenes of the Spanish conquests on the western side of South America, for, in 1627, a French
corporation, entitled in English The Company of the Islands of America," was established to
exploit the Islands of St. Christopher, Barbados, and others situated "at the entrance of Peru."
To-day the term West Indies embraces the islands in the Caribbean Sea and those between
it and the Atlantic Ocean. As explained on another page, British Guiana, owing to its
proximity on the mainland of South America, and the interests it has in common with the
islands, is generally considered an integral part of the British West Indies, which, during recent
years, have enjoyed prosperity unsurpassed in their history. Their recovery from the disastrous
effects of the European sugar bounties commenced in 1903, when the international agreement
of the Brussels Convention removed from the sugar industry of the islands the severe handicap
under which it had laboured since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Trade recipro-ity
between Canada and the British West Indies, initiated in 1898, improved in 1910, and made more
comprehensive in 1920, has also been very influential in the development of British West Indian
commerce and industry.
The prosperity of the West Indies during the war was extraordinary, and although they have,
like other parts of the world, suffered greatly from the trade depression which began in the latter
part of 1920, the worst appears to be over, and there is every indication of future welfare.
Notwithstanding the unsurpassed beauty of the West Indies comparatively little has been done to
make better known their many attractions, and especially their commercial and industrial conditions


and potentialities. This is due, in some measure, to the fact that the extensive area of the West
Indies embraces countries of different nationalities and languages, and that any volume at a
popular price and of a convenient size, dealing with all of them, can only give a brief summary
of each place, without anything like an adequate portrayal of the inexhaustible wealth of history
and romance, scenic charm, and natural phenomena with which they abound. In the following
pages an attempt has been made to convey, by photographic reproductions as well as by descriptive
letterpress, some of the more salient features of the lovely lands of the Caribbean Sea-the sea
where British naval supremacy was first established, where many impressive evidences still exist
of the former might and glory of Spain, where piracy attained its greatest development, and the
sea that has become of increased importance in every respect since the opening of the Panama
This volume is an enlargement of the one on the West Indies which, first issued by me
in 1909, met with very gratifying success, and ran into three editions. It had the distinction of
being then the largest and most profusely illustrated book on the territories dealt with, and the
first to present their business interests in the manner adopted herein. The articles in that
connection are intended to give an accurate idea of the commercial and industrial facilities and
resources of the principal British West-Indian possessions, to more fully familiarise the buyer
with the seller, and to be of particular utility to those desirous of ascertaining the nature and
extent of trade of the firms enumerated. They are the outcome of my personal observation and
investigation, rendered possible only by the kindness and courtesy of the principals of the concerns
detailed, to whom I desire to express my heartiest thanks and appreciation. Similar expressions
are also due to the gentlemen who rendered great assistance in the compilation of historical and
descriptive matter, notably Mr. Algernon Aspinall, C.M.G., Secretary of the West India
Committee, London; Mr. T. B. Jackson, Government Buildings, Port of Spain, Trinidad;
Mr. J. Van Sertima, formerly of the Demerara Argosy, now Town Clerk. of New Amsterdam,
British Guiana; Mr. A. R. F. Webber, Editor and Managing Director of The Daily Chronicle,
Georgetown, British Guiana, and Member of the Legislature of that colony; Mr. C. L. Chenery,
Editor of the Barbados Advocate; and Mr. A. Beeby Thompson, O.B.E., F.G.S., etc., the
celebrated oil expert. I am likewise greatly indebted to the various photographers who kindly
placed their views and services at my disposal.
The difficulty of securing uniformity in the latest statistics of the islands need not be
enlarged upon, and will be appreciated :by those familiar with the tardiness of the respective
Governments in the publication of their annual reports.
Finally, this work is dedicated to the warm-hearted West Indian people, whose kind welcome
and hospitality on many occasions will be memories ever treasured by their ardent well-wisher,

\ :' M W //,

1. Pottery Sellers. 2. Going to Market. 3. Postman. 4. French Creole. 5. Negro Girl. 6. Coolie Woman.
7. Native Hut. 8. Hat Sellers. Porto Rico.

Of all the beauty spots of Earth the fairest and the best
S'Si Are the jewels of the earibbean, the Islands of the West,
Where Nature in profusion great her choicest gifts bestows
In land and sky, in temperature, in everything that grows.
Th' e splendour of the sunsets there words never could convey;
The glory of each dawning day no artist could portray-
J j'D,, The soft chromatic harmony, the visions that suggest
S The loveliness of other worlds, the regions of the blest.
Verdant hills and singing rills, and woods of sweet perfume,
Balmy air and everywhere are wondrous flowers in bloom;
Zephyrs sigh through palm trees high and whisper peace and rest;
Enchanting lands with golden strands, dear Islands of the West.

The rustle of the sugar-cane is in my memory;
A ''swizzle" or "a planter's punch" would very welcome be.
I'm longing for the pleasant shores by laughing waves caressed -
The matchless archipelago, the Islands of the West.

Warm, favoured lands that never know the biting northern cold,
< Where endless summer ever reigns with glories manifold;
And through esch tempered shining day and mystic silver night
Si '" The bubbling wells of ife o'erflow in streams of deep delight.

SThe witchery and glamour when the constellations shine,
The quickening of the senses in the fructifying clime,
SThe music and the singing and the rhythm of the dance,
S The waiting for Mahana and the tropical romance.
The chorus of the crickets and the haunting mystery,
The jewelled things with flashing wings, and all the poetry,
The swapping of opinions in the roomy bungalow,
S The dolce far niente and the other things-you know
SThe busy ports, the laden wharves, the people in the way,
-T- ,i The schooners in the harbour and the steamers in the bay,
The stores with varied merchandise, the lively sights and sounds,
S lAnd all the interesting things with which each isle abounds.

Such are the western islands in a sunny, sapphire sea
With its flashing flying-fishes and its crooning lullaby,
As its billows, flowing ever from the vast infinity,
S Break on sloping sandy beaches in white foaming purity.

A strange and moving history these western isles unfold
SOf Christopher Columbus and his swarthy seamen bold,
S' Of earavels and floating hells the Caribs learned to dread,
Of Jire and sword, of deeds abhorred, and all the ruin spread.

. .A

-.'* --_-$..a -'- .-~
.= ,,,. .. --. .--

And faney sees the gallant ships of mariners of old-
Sir Walter Raleigh searching for the El Dorado gold;
Hawkins, Drake, and others, too, whose names are handed down
From age to age upon the page of glory and renown.

And here and there grim fortresses look out upon the sea;
Dismantled now these relies of the days that used to be.
And tere and there are places where great victories were won;
And lone, sequestered rendezvous where fearful deeds were done.

Long has the "Jolly Roger" ceased to flutter in the breeze;
Long have these waters now been safe, but still the faney sees
The stubborn fight, the pirates' might, the deeks with bloody stain,
The richly laden galleons that went no more to Spain.

Within the Caribbean Sea, encased in sand and slime,
Are vessels old with Indian gold and things of ancient time;
And buried deep where shadows creep in hidden spots ashore,
Are boxes filled with gold and gems that Aztee monarchs wore.

The richest and most vicious town the world had ever known,
Port Royal in its early days with buccaneers had grown;
There common sailors bathed in wine and clanked with jewellery;
The day was filled with fighting and the night with revelry.

A man had need to watch his words in its saloons of yore,
Where callous harlots danced among the corpses on the floor;
But where those dens of evil stood the white waves roll to-day;
Port Royal's ancient wickedness has long been washed away.

Off Dominica's leeward coast in 1782
The valiant Rodney fought a fight that Frenchmen ever rue-
A fight that made Great Britain jhief upon the seven seas;
Her naval power was, therefore, formed among the Caribbees.

Was formed by pain and sorrow and the lives of gallant men,
And grew by tribulation that was culminated when
The Union Jack of liberty flung back the challenge hurled
By Germany's proud battle strength across the stricken world.

Oh! fortunate for every isle within the ransomed West
That British seamanship withstood its unexampled test;
And fortunate that far-off things and fights of long ago
Evolved the skill and circumstance for German overthrow.

Perchance these isles were mountain tops, in dim antiquity,
Offabled great Atlantis lost by vast catastrophe;
And those of them that Britain owns need never fear a foo, -*
While that by which her Empire grew shall in her Councils show.



" The moon charms the watery world below,
Wakes the still seas, and makes them ebb a

IPhoto: Wm. Weiss & Co., Bermada.

nd flow."



HE WEST INDIES consist of a chain of islands, varying in size from Cuba with its 44,000
square miles, to small islets of only a few acres each in extent, and extend in the shape of the blade
of a sickle from Florida to the northern coast of South America. Beginning at the north-west with
the Bahamas, they end with Trinidad, which stretches two great arms towards Venezuela, enclosing
the Gulf of Paria. The huge slice of ocean within the chain is called the Caribbean Sea, after the
Charaibes or Caribs, the warlike race which peopled the smaller islands at the time of their
discovery. The land area of all the islands is nearly 1oo,ooo square miles, with an estimated population of
something more than 6,000,000, of which
number about two- -AR thirds are blacks, or
with African blood in their veins. The
total area of the British West Indian islands
amounts to 12,022 square miles, and the
population to about 2.200,000.
The British West Indies are now divided
into six groups of colonies, namely () the
Bahamas, (2) Barbados, (3) Jamaica, with her
dependencies, Turks s and Caicos, and the
Cayman Islands, (4) Trinidad and Tobago,
(5) the Windward Islands, including
Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the
Grenadines, and (6) the Leeward Islands, com-
prising Antigua with Barbuda and
Redonda, St. Kitts, Nevis and Anguilla,
Montserrat, Dominica and the Virgin Islands.
Owing to the proximity of British Guiana on
the mainland of South America it is generally
considered an integral part of the British West
Indies. The area of British Guiana is 90,277
square miles and its population 296,000, ex-
clusive of aboriginal ENGLISH WAR SHIPS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Indians and Negroes,
but including some i50,000 East Indians,
mostly coolies. The coast-line of British Guiana is about 270 miles in length.
When the West Indies were first discovered by Christopher Columbus, the great explorer thought that he had
actually succeeded in reaching the East Indies by a western route, which it was always his aim and ambition to
do, and to this circumstance is due their present name. They were also called the Antilles," a name based on
Antilla or Antiglia, the mythical land, which -was for centuries believed to exist in the far West. Jamaica, Cuba,
San Domingo and Porto Rico, the large islands to the north, are sometimes called the Greater Antilles, while the
smaller islands to the east, beginning -with St. Thomas, are styled the Lesser Antilles. The Spaniards knew these



smaller islands as the Islas de Paravento, or the Windward Islands, owing to their being exposed to the prevailing
north-easterly trade winds, and the Greater Antilles as the Islas de Sotavento, or Leeward Islands, from their
sheltered position. These terms, however, have fallen into desuetude and no longer hold good, the Windward and
Leeward Islands being two distinct groups of British islands.
Christopher Columbus was the discoverer of nearly all the islands during his four voyages made across the
Atlantic in 1492, 1494, 1498 and 1503. He first landed, in 1492, on one of the Bahama Islands, supposed to be
Watling's Island. It was on his second voyage that he discovered Jamaica and most of the Leeward Islands.
British Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Vincent were visited on the third voyage; and it was not
until 1502 that St. Lucia was raised from her obscurity. For many years after their discovery the islands remained
in the possession of Spain; and though they were occasionally visited by French and English vessels, the seven-
teenth century had already opened before the English, French, and Dutch began to form settlements in them.
The only island of importance which
Columbus does not seem to have visited
is Barbados, which h was first discovered by the
Portuguese in 1536. The earliest British
settlements were made in that island and in
St. Kitts, which is fairly entitled to he called
the Mother Colony of the West Indies, for
though HBarbados was visited in 16o5 by the
crew of the Olive Blossom," it was not
definitely settled until 1626, while St. Kitts
was colonised in 1623 by Sir Thomas Warner.
At the time of their discovery, the West
Indies were peopled by two distinct races of
savages, the Arawaks, who inhabited the larger
islands, to the north, including Jamaica, and
the Caribs, who occu- pied the smaller is-
lands. The Arawaks, who were of a peace-
able and gentle disposi- tion, were compelled
to work in the mines of Hispaniola (San
)onmingo), and were treated with such a
degree of cruelty that they were soon exter-
minated. 'The Caribs, on the other hand,
were a fierce and war- like race, and proved
for many a year an effective hindrance to
colonisation and a con- stant source of trouble.
Arriving in fleets of canoes they attacked
the colonists and drove them from their plan-
tations. At the time of the French Revolu-
tion, s t imulated by Victor Hugues, the
friend of Robespierre, they rose and assisted
the slaves, in what was called the Brigand War.
They %cre, however, finally defeated and re-
duced to subjection, after a long campaign,
by Sir Ralph Aber- cromby in 1795-
The fame of the West Indies soon spread
abroad. but it was not until the time of the
Civil Wars that the English white popula-
tion increased to any TIERRAI TIERRAI-LANDI LANDI extent. Then, Royalists
fled to the islands whichl remained loyal to the
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. months elapsed before
(rown: a n d m a n (From the Picture by S. J. Gullick. by permission. from the Engraving published months elapsed before
the Parliamentarian fleet by Henry Gravcs & Co., London.) was able to reduce Bar
Ihads to subjection. This having been ac
compllished, many political offenders were sent out to the plantations, and to this day their descendants
are to lbe seen in Barbados, where they are called "red-legs" or mean whites." After the lapse of
nearly two hundred and fifty years these people still maintain their separate identity, and do not intermarry with the
Negroes. The population was further increased by the stipulation that each slave owner should employ a certain
numnler of white servants, who were called militiamen," in proportion to the number of slaves he possessed.
The great struggle for sulpremacy in the West Indies reached its height in the eighteenth century. Many
of the islands changed hands again and again. The English finally obtained St. Kitts in 1623, Barbados in 1626,
Nevis in 1628. Anguilla in 165o, Jamaica and the Cayman Islands in 1655, Virgin Islands in i666, Antigua and
the Bahamas in 1667, Grenada (the Concepcion of Columbus), Dominica, and St. Vincent in 1783, Montserrat in
1784, Trinidad in 1797, Turks and Caicos Islands in 1799, Tobago and St. Lucia in 1803. British Guiana was
captured by the British in 1803, and definitely ceded to them in 1814.
For their romantic history and associations, no less than for their steadily growing commercial importance, the
\\'est Indies should al\\ays lbe treasured by those who call themselves British. The exploits of Benbow, Rodney,


Hood, Jervis and Nelson at sea, like those on land of Monckton, Abercromby, and
Sir John Moore-who survived a severe bout of fever in St. Lucia to meet his death
on the heights of Corunna in the hour of victory-will surely never be forgotten. They
are indissolubly connected with the very name "West Indies." No Englishman could fail
to experience emotion on visiting such historic scenes of battle as the anchorage of
Basseterre, St. Kitts, which Sir Samuel Hood, by a brilliant manceuvre executed in the
presence of countless onlookers from the slopes of Nevis, captured from de Grasse in
1782, or the waters where the gallant French Admiral was defeated by Rodney off the
"Saintes" on the i2th April in the same year, at a time when the fortunes of the
British had fallen to their lowest ebb, when island after island had yielded to the foe
and the outlook for the British Flag seemed desperate indeed. No Englishman could
remain unmoved on seeing English Harbour, that former hotbed of yellow fever, where
Nelson refitted his ships during his memorable pursuit of Villeneuve to the West Indies A SPANISH GALLEON.
and back before Trafalgar; that grim though now silent fortress, Brimstone Hill,
in St. Kitts, or again Diamond Rock off Martinique, which was garrisoned for four months by
Lieut. J. W. Maurice and the crew of the "Centaur," 120 men and boys, figuring the while on
the books of the Admiralty as H.M.S. "Diamond Rock." From
this commanding position the gal- lant little band harassed the French
ships as they ran between the rock and the Pointes de Diamant until
June 2nd, i805, when, through want of powder, they were com-
pelled to surrender to a French squadron of two seventy-fours, a
frigate, a corvette, a schooner and eleven gunboats. Beforethey yielded,
they inflicted a severe loss on the French, wounding seventy men
and destroying three gunboats, while they themselves lost only two
men killed and one wounded!
Nor can we be forgetful of such earlier heroes as Raleigh, Hawkins
and Drake, the great seafarers of the Elizabethan Age, whose deeds
of daring and endurance added lustre to the latter part of the
sixteenth century. It was in '595 that Raleigh sailed from Plymouth
in search of Manoa, the Imperial City of Guiana, which the Spaniards
call El Dorado." During a tem- porary retirement, following his cap-
tivity in the Tower, he had formu- lated a scheme for the discovery
and capture of this mythical city- as it afterwards proved to be. He
reached Trinidad towards the end of March, and after caulking his
ships at the pitch lake, the spot called by the naturals Piche and
by the Spaniards Tierra de Brea," he destroyed the newly formed
settlement of St. Josef. From the information which he succeeded in
obtaining from the Governor, Don Antonio Berreo, he was able to
ascend the mighty Orinoco River as far as its junction with the
Caroni. El Dorado proved to be a dream, but the voyage was not
made in vain, for literature was en- PHLIP II OF SPAIN. riched by Raleigh's "Discoverie
of Guiana." While Raleigh was (From the Portrait by Titian.)the coloniser, Hawkins was essen-
tially the trader who, by carrying a ro he P t b t cargo of three hundred Negroes
from the coast of Guinea to Hispaniola in 1562, laid the foundations of the great trade to which England owed to
no small extent her position in the West Indies. Sir Francis Drake accompanied him in 1568, and two years later,
commissioned by Queen Elizabeth, set out to the West Indies on his own account.
H After plundering and sacking towns and settlements, he returned with his frail
barques laden with treasure. It is true that the joint expedition of these two great
sailors to the West Indies in 1595 ended disastrously; but this failed to dim the
memory of their brilliant victory over the Invincible Armada," when the seaman-
ship and navigation which they had learnt in the West Indies and off the Spanish
Main served England in such good stead.
Then, again, there were the buccaneers. Who could tire of reading of the
doings of those heterogeneous gangs of freebooters whose desperate acts belied
their peaceable name, derived from the simple boucan used by hunters for drying
their meat ? Recruited from almost every race, they were united by the bond of
common hostility to Spain; and so great became their power that during the latter
part of the seventeenth century they maintained a perpetual state of war in the
West Indies and effectively crushed the Spanish trade in the Caribbean. Their
leaders belonged to nearly every nationality, and prominent among them were
Willis, an Englishman, L'Olonnois, a Frenchman, and Mansvelt, a Dutchman, who
was succeeded by the notorious Henry Morgan. Born in Wales, Morgan went to
sea at an early age, and was sold as a slave to the plantations. After working in
Barbados for a while he soon rose to power through his great personal courage
aided by his habits of thrift. He successfully embarked upon several marauding
SHIPS OF COLUMBUS. expeditions, during which he plundered and took Puerto del Principe in Cuba, and


Puerto Bello, one of the strongest positions in the New World,
succeeding at last in forcing his way across the Isthmus of Darien.
He subsequently settled in Jamaica and was three times Governor of
the island. Though they were lawless and recognized no government,
the buccaneers helped to make Jamaica great and prosperous, and Port
S\ Royal was reckoned the "finest town in the West Indies, and at that
\ time the richest spot in the universe."
Scarcely less famous than Morgan was John Teach, the mariner,
immortalised by Michael Scott in Tom Cringle's Log." Teach, other-
wise known as Blackbeard," was an unmitigated though a picturesque
scoundrel. It was recorded by Aaron Bang that :
He was the mildest mannered man
That ever scuttled ship, or cut a throat
With such true breeding of a gentleman,
You never could discern his real thought.
Pity he loved adventurous life's variety,
lie was so great a loss to good society."
Blackbeard" had fourteen wives; and one of his favourite amusements
was to take his comrades to the hold of his ship and half suffocate
them by kindling brimstone matches. He would also extinguish all the
a candles in his cabin and blaze away with his pistols at random. He
eventually died in a grimly fought encounter with the frigates Lime "
and Pearl." In St. Thomas, the castle alleged to have been the
scene of some of the orgies of this ruffian is still shown to visitors.
Truly may it be said that the West Indies are encircled by a halo of
romance which can never fade!
SIR JOHN HAWKINS. Many noble and distinguished English families can trace their
(From an old Print.) fortunes to the Golden Islands of the West-fortunes which were easily
amassed in the days when labour was cheap and the prices of sugar
ranged at anything between sixty to one hundred and twenty shillings a hogshead. It was in defence of the
manager of his father's estate, Vreed-en-Hoop, who had been accused of cruelty to his slaves, that Mr. Gladstone made
his maiden speech in the House of Commons in 1833. Many, too, can claim some kinsman who spilt his blood in securing
for the British Crown such jewels as St. Lucia, Tobago, and St. Kitts, to mention three of the islands for which the
struggle %"as most keen. The tombstones in the graveyards
and the tablets on the walls of the churches tell their tragic
story of the sacrifice of life which the acquisition of most
of the British West Indian possessions cost. These islands
gave Nelson his bride--the Nwidow Frances Herbert Nisbett
of Ncvis: they gave Napoleon his Empress, Josephine, the
Creole of Martinique, and America her great statesman
Alexander Hamilton, also of Nevis, who drafted the
Constitution of the United States. The elder Dlumas, too,
was a West Indian, and so also was the third Ladv
Hamilton, and Beckford, the eccentric author of Vathek,"
as well as many others distinguished in literature and art.
The present population of the West Indies is of a
decidedly cosmopolitan character, including as it does
Negroes, East Indians, Chinese, Corsicans, French, Spanish,
Portuguese, Syrians, and Americans. Speaking generally, the
bulk of the inhabitants are Negroes-the descendants of
the slaves imported from West Africa: but in British Guiana
East Indians form a larger proportion of the population
than any other race. In Trinidad, too, they are very
numerous. Except in Barbados, which has an abundant
populatiotn-indeed for its size that favoured island is more
densely crowded than China, having no fewer than I,Zoo
inhabitants to the square mile-the labour problem in the
West Indies has always been more or less acute ever since
the abolition of slavery. In 1838 an experiment was made
with the introduction of coolies from the East Indies, 4o6
of them being landed in British Guiana under agreement
to work as field labourers on sugar estates. In the following
year coolie immigration was stopped at the instance of the
Anti-Slavery Society; but in 1845 the introduction of coolies
into British Guiana under indenture was begun with the SIR FRANCIS DRAKE.
sanction .f the British and Indian Governments. Coolies were (After the Painting in Trinity House. London. by permission of the
Elder Brethren.)


first brought to Trinidad in 1845, and annual shipments were
received there without intermission from 1851 till 1917. Some
of the-other islands have also enjoyed occasional supplies of East
Indians, and these immigrants also work in the banana
plantations in Jamaica. The coolies were recruited in India by
an Immigration Agent-General, with headquarters at Calcutta.
They were distributed among the estates under indenture to
work for five years, and after ten years' residence in the
colony they are entitled to a return passage to India on paying
half the fare in the case of males and one-third in the case
of females, the balance being paid by the planters. But the
coolies find the conditions of life in the West so agreeable
that a large number avail themselves of grants of land in lieu
of their right to a return passage, while many of those who
do return to India find their way back to the West Indies again.
East Indian immigration under the indenture system was
terminated by the Indian Government in 1917, although
successive committees had reported in favour of it. In 1918
proposals were put forward by a delegation which came to
England from British Guiana for colonisation on a free basis, and
this proposal is to form the subject of an inquiry by a deputation
from India, which will visit British Guiana in the near future.
The principal exports of the British West Indies in their
order of importance are sugar and its products, cocoa,
bananas, petroleum and its products, coconuts and their
products, dyeing and tanning woods, coffee, spices (including
ginger), cotton, timber, limes and their products, balata, sponges,
rice, asphalt, and manjak. LORD HOOD.
Within the compass of this introduction it would not be (After the Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds.)
possible to deal exhaustively with the conditions and circum-
stances of the several West Indian industries; but the history
of these colonies has been so closely wrapped up with sugar that some account of the troubles through which this
industry has passed will not be out of place. The manufacture of sugar from the sugar-cane, which was practised by
the ancients in the East, was first introduced into the West Indies by the Spaniards, who became acquainted with the
process through the Moors. Under the influence of slavery, which owed its inception, so far as the British are con-
cerned, to Sir John Hawkins, in 1562, and to Sir Francis Drake, who followed him in 1568, the industry flourished
exceedingly in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when
immense fortunes were made out of it. At the end of the
eighteenth century 25,000 slaves were annually imported into
the plantations by British ships. For many years the system
continued unchecked, and it was not until 1776 that the first
motion against the slave trade was introduced into Parliament.
Commensurately with the development of the anti-slavery
agitation, the value of sugar estates, of course, declined. The
Society for the Suppression of the Slave Trade was founded
in 1787. In the succeeding years an active campaign was
conducted by Wilberforce, Clarkson, and others, and in 1807
the slave trade was abolished. This was the first serious blow
which sugar received, but slavery still continued, and the
situation was not yet desperate. In 1834, however, gradual
emancipation began, slavery being abolished by the memorable
Act passed on August 28th in the preceding year. The value
of the estates and the slaves was at that time estimated at
.219,000,000, and though -/i6,ooo,6oo was granted by
Parliament to compensate the slave owners, this sum proved
altogether inadequate to make good the losses incurred. For
many years later slavery continued in Cuba and other foreign
possessions; but a prohibitive duty was imposed on slave grown
sugar in the United Kingdom, and for a time British planters
were able to hold their own. In 1846, however, the differ-
ential duty was lowered, and a few years later the sugar duties
were equalised, slave-grown being admitted into the United
Kingdom on the same terms as free-grown sugar, with disastrous
results to British planters. Their hopes were raised by the abolition
of slavery in Cuba between 1879 and 1886; but no sooner was
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. this finally effected in the latter year than another crisis arose.
After the Painting by Zucchero.)

"I 1: I1


It was discovered that sugar could successfully be produced from beetroot
on the Continent. A beet-sugar industry was started in France in 18oo, and
Napoleon Buonaparte, determining that it should be paramount, inaugurated
the system of subsidies to beet sugar producers, which for so many years
disturbed the sugar markets of the world. Helped bythese pernicious bounties .
given by foreign powers, beet soon
became a serious competitor of
cane, the foreigner being able to
undersell the British producer in
S his own markets. The bounties
varied from ,i to about. 5 per
ton, and as long as they con-
tinued they exercised a blighting --
effect on the West Indian sugar
industry, and, one might add,
on cane-sugar producers through-
out the world also, many planters
being unable to raise the capital
necessary to enable them to keep
abreast of the times and to
improve their appliances. In
1897-8 these bounties were
supplemented by cartel bounties
in Germany and Austria, which
drove the price of sugar in
ie Great Britain far below the cost
THE GREAT PIRATE WHO BECAME of production. Owing to the
H SIR HENRY MORGAN, existence of protective tariffs,
SIR HENRY MORGAN, these cartels, or trusts, which BLACKBOARDD" THE PIRATE.
GOVERNOR OF JAMAICA. consisted of sugar producers and (JOHN TEACH.)
(From a contemporary Print.) manufacturers, were able to (From an old Print.)
cFarge the home consumer such
a: high price for his sugar that they were able to dump" the balance of their output at a loss and yet realise a
substantial profit from the transaction as a whole.
For over thirty years an active campaign was conducted against the bounty system. Several international
conferences were held on the subject, but all proved abortive until 1902. On March 5th in that year, at a
Conference held in Brussels, a Convention was signed by the principal sugar-producing States, by which they agreed
to abolish bounties from September ist, 1903, and to render the existence of cartels impossible by limiting the
difference between the Customs and Excise duties. A penal clause in the Convention provided that the High
Contractin g l States should impose a countervailing duty on or prohibit the importation into their territories of
sugars from countries which granted bounties either on production or export. Equality of opportunity was thus
restored to the \\est Indian producers. A fair field and no favour was all that they asked, and now that this has
been secured it has been demonstrated satisfactorily that cane is able successfully to compete with beet. It was
agreed that tIhe Convention should remain in force for five years, and should be continued thenceforward from year
to year, but the right was reserved to each of the Contracting States of withdrawing or notifying such intention
t\%elve months before the expiration of the Convention. It was generally believed that a Liberal Government
\Xoultd accordingly denounce the agreement, and in 1907 Sir Edward Grey announced that prohibition or the
imposition of countervailing duties was inconsistent with the declared policy of the British Government, and that

(From an old Print.)


they could not, therefore, con-
visions requiring them to penalize
they had no desire themselves
the revival of such bounties, and
be willing to exempt Great
enforce the penal provisions
would not be necessary. The
to Great Britain's terms; an
tion, containing the necessary
the Convention, fortunately for
to 1913.
During the war the West
almost unparalleled prosperity.
branches of industry and conm-
has had disastrous effects there
men were ruined when the
sugar and cocoa markets with
As the present conditions are
the statistics for 1920 are not
an idea of the character of
obtained by the report of
missioner, issued at the end of
prehensive document, the British
1919 was a disappointing one,
by nearly 24,000 tons. The
Guiana, and the scarcity of fer-
to have been chiefly responsible
exports of sugar (including
to about 267,300 tons, valued
ments from the various colonies
British Guiana, 83,140 tons, ;2,995,440.
St. Kitts-Nevis, 10,901 tons, 280,742.
St. Lucia, 3,661 tons, 112,946.
British Honduras, 702.

(After the Portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds.)
Barbados, 69,628 tons, 2,116,012.
Trinidad, 37,805 tons, '1,041,385.
St. Vincent, 570 tons, 10,761.
Dominica, 26.

tinue to give effect to the pro-
bounty-fed sugar. He added that
to give sugar bounties or to see
that iftheContractingStates would
Britain from the obligation to
of the Convention, withdrawal
High Contracting States agreed
additional Act to the Conven-
provisions, was adopted, and
the West Indies, was extended

Indies enjoyed a period of
The universal slump in all
merce which began in 1920
as elsewhere; and many wealthy
bottom dropped out of the
unexpected and tragic rapidity.
abnormal and world-wide, and
available at the time of writing,
West Indian trade is best
Mr.A.J.Pavitt, H. M.Trade Com-
1920. According to that com-
West Indian sugar crop in
and fell below the estimate
shortage of labour in British
tilisers in Trinidad, are stated
for the deficiency. The total
syrup and molasses) amounted
at 9,r39,135, and the ship-
were as follows :---
Jamaica, 43,000 tons, 2,241,7I7.
Antigua, 12,841 tons, 318,415.
Montserrat, 58 tons, 1,046.

it maV iLvLtt DL. Dt I lCJ. DCI WrL E N IIn DlKI ll AINUI I'KEt.INUTI
On the 12th of April, 1782, off Dominica. which secured to Great Britain her West Indian colonies and established her naval supremacy
(From an Engraving, by James Fittler. of the Painting by Richard Paton.)


The effect of the difference in methods adopted by the sugar industry in the various colonies is indicated by
the following table, in which the exports of rum, syrup and molasses and sugar are shown as percentage of the
total exports of the whole sugar group :
British Guiana, 16*4 rum; "5 syrup and molasses; 8z26 sugar.
Trinidad, 3"3 rum; 3-0 syrup and molasses; 93'7 sugar.
Barbados. -9 rum; 41'4 syrup and molasses; 57"7 sugar.
Thus British Guiana exported 4,342,769 gallons of rum, valued at t491,767; Trinidad shipped 162,830
gallons, valued at 34,774, and Barbados exported 49,862 gallons, valued at Z19,943. The average price of sugar
during the year was 28 los. compared with 57 f5s. at the close of 1918, 46 15s. in December, 1917,
29 at the close of 1915, and 14 in December, 1914. The high prices realized and the yet further advances in
prospect during the period under review gave every inducement to proprietors and farmers to increase production by
intensifying cultivation and sacrificing some of the usual staple crops in order to plant sugar.
Bv the Dominion Tariff Act of 1897, which came into force on August ist of the following year, a preference
of 25 per cent. was given to raw sugar from the British West Indies and to certain other British produce entering
Canada. From Julv Ist, 1900oo this was increased to 33 per cent., and extended to refined sugar of British growth and
manufacture: and on April ist, 1907, by the Tarn;, Act of the preceding year, changes were made which had the

(Alter a Portrait by .Millar.) (After a Portrait by Sir William Beechey.)

effect of raising the preference to 37" per cent. Until the bounties were abolished West Indian sugar found a
better market in the United States, the Government of which imposed a countervailing duty on bounty-fed sugar;
but after the abolition ot the bounties, and consequent on the United States giving the preference to Cuban
sugar, an I becoming minre and more self-supporting in regard to sugar supplies, West Indian sugar began to go to
Canada in increasing quantities. The full preference was, however, reduced by the permission given to the refiners
in 1907 of importing at the British preferential rates for a certain period two tons of beet sugar for every ton of
Canadian beet which they refined: and the further privilege was given to them in 1909 of importing foreign sugar
to the extent of 20 per cent. of their requirements at British preferential rates, it being alleged that West Indian
prodlu'crs were combining to raise prices to the refiners. Since 1904 British produced molasses entering Canada
has been duty free.
In 1909 a Royal Commission was appointed to inquire into the question of closer trade between Canada and
the \\Wet Indies; and as the outcome of its report a Conference between representatives of each of the West
Indian Colonies (Hermuda, Bahamas. British Honduras, Jamaica and Grenada excepted) and the Dominion of
Canada met in Ottawa on March 29th. 1912, and on April 9th an agreement was signed which provided for the
establishing of a reciprocal trade arrangement between the British W\est Indies and Canada for a period of ten
years. It proved so successful that at another Conference at Ottawa on June i8th, 1920, there was signed a fresh
and nmore extended agreement embodying more comprehensive reciprocal conditions.
Next in importance to sugar ranks the great cacao industry, which was also started by the Spaniards, who left
behind them many well-established cacao walks." The system on which the cacao estates are established is
interesting, the method usually adopted being as follows: the planter clears a spot for his house and homestead,
and himself works the immediately surrounding portions of the estate. The outlying lands are given out in lots of
two or thiee acres to "contractors," who pay no rent and receive no wages, but clear the land and plant, at


certain stated intervals, the cacao
trees and shade trees provided by
the proprietor, as well as under-
take to keep the land in good
condition and to protect the trees. .
In return the contractor has the
use of the land for five years,
producing vegetables for his own
use and sometimes for the market,
getting a little cacao during the
later years of the contract, and at
its expiration receiving from the
proprietor is. for every tree in
satisfactory condition. This system
has been found to work extremely
well in the West Indies.
According to the Trade Com-
missioner's Report for 1919, the
Trinidad cacao production, which
amounted to nearly 75 per cent.
of the output of the British West
Indies, failed, like sugar, to fulfil the
promise of a record year. The yield
fell off during the second half of
the year, and the total exports only bUGAK-CANE PLANTATION.
amounted to 60,743,283 lbs., which,
while over two million lbs. more than the I91S total, was ten million lbs. short of 1917, the record year. With the
removal of price restrictions in London, and an increasing demand from France, trade would have been diverted from
the United States of America but for the fact that during the year the exchange on sight drafts on New York reached
a premium of 25 per cent., which was equivalent to a bonus of 2d. on every pound of cocoa for the producer.
The United States took io,828 tons, valued at /_1,102,438; France o10,19 tons, valued at 6877,774, and the
United Kingdom 4,99 tons, valued at /490.971. Grenada, which is said to produce more cocoa than any other
territory of the same size, exported more than half her output to the United Kingdom. The total value of exports
for 1919 was Z3,539,846, distributed among the shipping colonies as follows:--
Trinidad, f2.593,462. Grenada. ,f539.940. Jamaica, /286,784.
St. Lucia, Z75,192. Dominica, ,37,326. St. Vincent, /C6,385.
British Guiana, /440. British Honduras, Zi85. Montserrat, Z132.
In the eighteenth century the West Indies were the principal source of the world's supply of cotton, but when
the cultivation of this product was extended in America and prices fell, planters found it more profitable to turn
their attention to sugar and other crops, with the result that at the end of the nineteenth century Carriacou, the
small dependency of Grenada, was
the only island which continued
to export cotton. Consequent upon
the cotton famines the industry was,
however, revived with a considerable
measure of success in 1902, thanks
to the combined efforts of the British
Cotton Growing Association and
the Imperial Department of Agri-
culture, an organisation which \\as
inaugurated under Sir Daniel Morris,
at the recommendation of the Royal
Commission which visited the West
Indies at the instance of Mr.
Chamberlain in 1897, and has
since done invaluable work for
the smaller islands. The variety
principally cultivated is Sea Island
cotton, which, as its scientific name
Gossypiurm Barbadense implies, is a
native of Barbados.
The advance in the price ot
cotton in 1917-i8 brought unpre-
cedented prosperity to St. Vincent
and Montserrat, and during i919
ORANGE TREE. the exports increased considerably.


In St. Kitts-Nevis, Barbados, and the other
producing colonies where sugar is the chief
industry, there was, on the contrary,
decreased exportation. The average price of
Sea Island cotton during 1978 and 19 9
was 4/- per lb., and practically the whole
crop was shipped to the United Kingdom.
The quantity of Sea Island cotton
exported from the West Indies for the
season 1st October, i918, to 3oth September,
1919, was 2,140,I31 lbs., valued at h326,367-
Towards these totals Montserrat contributed
595,734 lbs. in weight and 92,243 in value;
St. Vincent 431,586 lbs. and 67,555 ; St.
Kitts 442,681 lbs. and 66,402 ; and Nevis,
307,212 lbs. and 46,082 respectively.
In Jamaica the banana industry is
by far the most important. It was started
by an American, the late Captain Baker,
commander of a small schooner trading
between Jamaica and Boston. On each
homeward voyage he was in the habit of
St o taking a few bunches of bananas back to
ORGAN PALM. his native town, and he found that they
were so much appreciated and arrived in
such good condition that he decided to
ship the fruit on a larger scale. From these small beginnings has arisen the great American Trust now known as
the United Fruit Company, with ramifications in almost every part of the western tropics. In 1900oo the industry
received a further stimulus by the formation of the Imperial Direct West India Mail Service Company, which
was granted a subsidy of 40,000 per annum to purchase and convey 20,000 bunches of bananas every fortnight
from Jamaica to the United Kingdom. The banana grown in Jamaica is the variety known as the Gros Michel.
In Barbados an attempt was successfully made to grow the smaller and even more appreciated Canary banana
(Ilusa Cavendishii), but the enterprise has languished through lack of shipping facilities. Fruit proved the salvation
of Jamaica during the period when the sugar industry was threatened with extinction.
About ioo square miles are under banana cultivation in that colony, and the 1919 crop was a very large one.
The price, which stood at 7 ios. per Ioo bunches in September, rose to 16 before the end of the year. The
advance was accounted for partly by the decreased supplies from Central America, but largely by the high prices
offered to the growers by a company which opened in opposition to the two American concerns.
Further information regarding the products and trade of each island will be found in the respective sections of
this volume devoted thereto. The day has fortunately long passed when many West Indian agriculturists were
perhaps wont to lay themselves open to the charge that they were putting all their eggs into one basket; and a
brief perusal of the Blue-books and the
annual reports of the various colonies affords
convincing proof that a more enlightened
policy now prevails, and that planters are
not slow to seize such opportunities as
are afforded to them by climatic and market
conditions of developing and fostering sub-
sidiary industries.
Amongst the various schemes which h
have recently been suggested for dealing
with the British colonies was that of selling
them to the United States in order to
reduce Great Britain's war debt to that
country. Loyalty to the Mother Land has
ever been a characteristic of the British
\Vest Indian colonies, and throughout the
islands the proposal in question was received
with such vigorous opposition that it may
now be regarded as utterly moribund. It
was also received with disfavour in the
United States, where it is recognized that
although the territories mentioned have
commercial affinities with the great Republic.
their mixed population constitutes a difficult
problem; and the United States would PLAYING THE GAME.


--" ----- 7.- scarcely care to add another coloured area to her boundaries.
Union of the various colonies in one dominion, with a
S..Government like that of Canada or South Africa, was another
proposal, which was soon demonstrated impossible, because
the colonies are too scattered and, in many cases, isolated
from each other, and their inhabitants not yet ready for self-
The plan which has met with the greatest favour is to
appoint for all the West Indian colonies a Governor-General
with an efficient staff and an alert civil service. It is asserted
that the Governor-General, able to view the resources and
requirements of the entire territory as a whole, would
be able to co-ordinate all activities of improvement and
development, so that the smaller or more backward colonies
would benefit considerably by affiliation with their larger or
more progressive contemporaries.
In dealing with the West Indies generally it is imperative
that reference be made to their climate and scenery, which
may be counted among their most valuable assets. A voyage
to the West has long been shorn of its terrors and can now be
faced with impunity, even by confirmed sufferers from mal-de-mer,
so commodious and well-equipped are the steamers that con-
nect the islands with Europe, the United States, and Canada.
As to malaria and more serious forms of fever in the West
Indies, no qualms need now be felt by prospective visitors,
for these colonies, thanks to improved sanitation and to the
active prophylactic measures adopted against fever by the very
efficient medical service, have long ceased to be regarded with
suspicion. Indeed, taken as a whole, the climate is now
decidedly healthy; and though, as in other parts of the world,
TRAVELLERS' PALM. outbreaks of sickness may occasionally occur, the only sub-
stantial inconvenience resulting from them is due to the very
necessary quarantine regulations which they sometimes involve.
During the winter months the climate is particularly enjoyable, the
extreme heat of the tropical sun being tempered by the north-east
trade winds which blow with great regularity; and it is noteworthy
that sunstroke is practically unknown in the West Indies. The rainy
season sets in as a rule about June and lasts till December, with
a break in August or September, or later in the case of British
Guiana; but the days on which the sun does not shine at all are very
rare. Hurricanes are fortunately confined to a few months of the
year, as we are reminded by the old Negro adage which runs:
"June, too soon; July, stand by; August, come it must;
September, remember; October, all over.
As a matter of fact, hurricanes of any considerable degree of force
are of exceedingly rare occurrence. British Guiana and some of the
islands, such as Trinidad, Tobago, and Grenada, are free from them
altogether; and now that it has become possible to insure against loss
arising from such disasters, they have ceased to be dreaded to the
extent to which they were in former days. Earthquakes are happily
still less frequent, and need be no more apprehended than they are
in the Riviera or at Lisbon, which, in spite of calamities of this nature
in the past, are as thickly populated as ever they were, and are yearly
visited by large numbers of tourists ani others. The Americans first
"discovered" the West Indies as a winter resort. Every year they
and the Canadians flock to the islands in considerable numbers; but
they are now supplemented by an increasing number of visitors from
Great Britain who are desirous of escaping the rigorous winter in
higher latitudes. Abundant amusement is now provided for them in
the form of cricket, tennis, golf, croquet, fishing, etc., and the hotel
accommodation has undergone great improvement in recent years.
Then the scenery! For the exquisite and soft beauty of their scenery
the West Indies are unsurpassed. Mainly of volcanic origin, the
mountains and hills of these gorgeous isles have been clothed by
Nature with a wealth of tropical trees from valley to the very summit,
which give foothold to epiphytes, to lines which grow in tangled GARMENTS OF DISTINCTION.


confusion, and to orchids which would
he considered rare at home. Even Bar-
bados, the purely coral island, which has no
elevation higher than 1,105 feet, can boast
several gullies or ravines of exceptional
merit from a scenic point of view. Many
noble trees and palms deck their sides, while
at their base are clear crystal streamlets,
which in time of rain run down to the
sea roaring torrents. Barbados, too, can
boast such superb views as those from
St. John's and Hack- leton's Cliff, the Scot-
land district, and surf- beaten windwardcoast,
and from Bishop Rawle's tomb, as well
as of Codrington College surrounded by
the tall and stately cabbage palms (Oreo-
do.xa olracea),of which Kingsley wrote when
he first saw them in St. Kitts: "Grey
pillars which h seemed taller than the tallest
poplars, smooth and cylindrical as those of
a I)oric temple. It was not easy
to believe that these strange and noble
things were trees." It is, however, in
such islands as Jama- CARRYING BANANAS. ica,Trinidad,Grenada,
St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Dominica that
tropical scenery is at its best. The mountains in Switzerland are higher, Norway may be a close competitor, but
it is not too much to say that in the matter of scenery the West Indies can more than hold their own with any
part of the N\orld.




Al combat correr bayameses. No querais en cadenas vivir,
Que la patria os contempla orgullosa; En afrenta y oprobio sumidos;
No temals una muerte gloriosa, Del clarin escuchad los sonidos;
Que morir por la patria es ivivr. A las armas valientes corred
Comfiosed in 1S69 by Pedro Fi.g-rt'redo.
(Poet, mu.'ician, warrior and martyr.)


UBA, Pearl of the Antilles," and the largest of the West Indies, is named after an Indian maiden whose
identity is lost in legend. The island was discovered on October 28th, 1492, by Christopher Columbus;
and although in after years the struggles in the other colonies of the New World eclipsed its history,
Cuba has been for four hundred years the political and commercial pivot from which has swung the
pendulum of progress in all Latin America-the key to the heart of the great western hemisphere.
The landfall of Columbus, still a matter of dispute, was probably at Gibara or Nipe, on the north coast.
He returned to the south coast after he had colonised in Haiti, but did not establish a settlement, and died in
the belief that Cuba was a continent. The people whom the great explorer found inhabiting the island were
the Siboneys, whose ancestors, according to tradition, had emigrated in remote ages from Florida. They were
a comely, graceful people of medium height, active but not robust, with light, olive skins, good features, expressive
eyes, and long, straight black hair. They are described as living in a state of happy tranquillity among themselves,
and possessing a religion devoid of rites and ceremonies, but inculcating a belief in the existence of a great anl
beneficent Being, and in the immortality of the soul. Occasional raids of the bloodthirsty Caribs of the Lesser
Antilles alone disturbed the happiness of the Siboneys, who, although they banded against their common enemy,
were sometimes captured and carried off to grace the cannibal orgies of their savage neighbours. It has been
estimated that the Siboneys, at the time of their discovery by Columbus, numbered about half a million, nearly all
of whom succumbed to the cruelty of the conquerors within the next fifty years.
Cuba was first called Juana in honour of Prince John, son of Ferdinand and Isabella ; but after Ferdinand's
death it received the name of Fernandina. It was subsequently designated Santiago, from the patron saint of
Spain; and still later Ave Maria, in honour of the Virgin. Its present name is that by which it was known among
the natives at the time of its discovery.
In 1507 the Governor of Hispafiiola-Spain's first colony in the West Indies-sent Ocampo with two caravels
to explore Cuba. The expedition sailed along the entire north coast, touching at several points discovered by
Columbus, and ultimately doubled the Cape of San Antonio, whence the return voyage was made along the south
coast; the beautiful harbour of Cienfuegos being then found. The voyage of Ocampo took eight months, and
demonstrated the fact that Cuba was an island, and not part of the continent, as Columbus had believed.
In 1511 Don Diego Velasquez sailed from Santo Domingo for Cuba, along with Hernan Cortts, \who, later,
conquered Mexico. In order to Christianise and more quickly develop the island, colonies were rapidly established,
towns located, and vast tracts of land, with the requisite number of Indian slaves, were granted to important
personages throughout Cuba. The name of the Siboney native state was usually, although not always, given to the

1. Vol.int--Cuban Carriage. 2. Machine Wharf. Havana. 3. Typical Cuban Country Town. 4. Cuban Pedlar. 5. Central Park. Havana.
(. Cuban Soldiers. 7. American Club, Havana. 8. Diario a la Marin I, Havana. 9. O'Reilly Street, Havana. 10. Royal Palms of Cuba.
11. Malecon Bandstand, Havana.


new city. In this way Baracoa was founded in 1512; Bayamo, on the Yara, in 1513; Trinidad and Sancti Spiritus
in 1514. A little later the village of Santa Maria del Puerto del Principe was founded where Nuevitas is located
to-day. -Incursions from the crews of piratical craft, that soon after infested the West Indian seas, compelled the
people of this place to move their colony to the banks of the Caonoa River, whence it was afterwards transferred
to the point now known as Camagiiey. Santiago de Cuba was founded in 1515 on the shores of the most beautiful

[Photo: Harris Bros. Co.. Ilanana.

harbour of the southern coast of Oriente. The natural advantages of that place were such that most of the
colonists of Baracoa established themselves there; and the city was made the capital of Cuba.
bM.On the 25th July, 1515, Velasquez, on his arrival at the place where Batabano now stands, founded a village
which he called San Cristobal de la Habana-Habana being the Indian name of the state or province in which it
was located. Toward the close of the year 1519, however, the colonists, disapproving of Velasquez's selection,
moved their town across to the north coast of the island, locating it on the shores of a fine harbour then known


[Photo: Harris Bros. Co., Ilavana.

as Carenas, where it became the city of Havana, and, in 1556, the capital of Cuba-the rendezvous of all the
Spanish fleets in the New World as well as the key to the Occident.
Such was the auspicious beginning of Spanish civilisation in the Pearl of the Antilles "; and its romantic and
often spectacular struggles during four centuries provide some of the most fascinating pages in the history of
America. Although the quest for gold absorbed most of the industrial energies of the early colonists in Cuba, the
beautiful climate, rich soil, and free lands with slave labour, soon tempted some of the "stead er citizens" of the
various villas" into agriculture and grazing. Large circular tracts, from six to twelve miles in diameter, known
as hatos, were dedicated to the latter purpose.


Tobacco was indigenous, and, by the Indians, used for smoking, chewing, and as snuff at the time Columbus
discovered Cuba. Some peculiarity of soil and seed has placed it in a class by itself from the beginning of its use
by the white races, who took to it most kindly; and such was the demand in Europe that its cultivation soon
became quite profitable. Corn, or maize, yucca, sweet potatoes, pine-apples, mangoes, and many other fruits were
also indigenous, the first three being cultivated by the Siboneys. During the latter part of the sixteenth century the
cultivation of the sugar-cane, which had been introduced from Santo Domingo, began to attract attention; and as
the native Siboneys had become almost extinct through toil and suicide in the mines, African slavery was introduced
as a substitute.

LPhotos: Harris B.os. Co.. H:-vana.


Abnout the middle of the same century piracy began to develop enormously. The richly-laden galleons
bearing gold, silver, precious stones, and treasure of all kinds, stolen from the Aztec capital of Mexico, dragged
from the Toltec cities of Yucatan. and wrested from the rich valleys of Cuba, all touched at or took their
departure from Havana. The old Bahama Channel followed the north coast of Cuba for several hundred miles,
narrowing between Cavo Lobos and Cayo Confites to only four leagues, and along this natural highway between
Mexico and the broad Atlantic, the j lly, throat-cutting buccaneer" plied his trade most successfully, levying a
heavy tribute on Spain's shipping for some two hundred years. True, he had often to put up a hard fight for his
ill-gotten gains; but the frequent wars in which Spain found herself embroiled with both France and England
enabled him often to work in conjunction with her enemies; and thus it was that all foreign armed ships-and
most ships were armed in those days-were classed as pirates. \\'hen plundering vessels at sea became monotonous,



or the thrifty "hacendado" had accumulated some things of
value ashore, the black flag was nailed to a staff, and he
took himself to land, where he captured towns, besieged
cities, sacked cathedrals, stormed forts, and levied tribute
on governors, alcaldes, bishops, or anyone who came his
way. Were it not for the tragedies frequently enacted,
the caprices of those old-time marauders would be amusing
indeed. Nearly all the forts of Cuba, built previous to
the eighteenth century, were erected to protect her cities
against the incursions of powerful pirates. On entering
many of the magnificent harbours of Cuba, one is astonished
to find only a few worthless shacks at the landing, with
quite pretentious little towns back a league or so from
the water's edge. Many of these, built at first on the
shmre of the bay, were compelled, in self-protection, to
move back far enough so that the inhabitants might get
warning a few hours in advance, and hide their worldly
possessions from the gold-hungry horde of the sea. Thus
it is that we find Trinidad, Remedios, Sagua la Grande,
Mayari, Cabafias, Bahia Honda and many other would-be
coast towns not on the water.
Havana was surprised by a French corsair in the earlv
part of 1538, and before the people were in readiness for
defence, many of the homes, and cathedrals as well, had
been sacked and burned, the buccaneers escaping with a
great deal of spoil. In July of that year Fernando de Soto,
Governor of Cuba, afterwards famous for his invasion of
the "wilds of Florida and the Gulf States," during which
he discovered the Mississippi River, begged from the King
[Photo: HariP Bros. Co., Havana. of Spain four thousand dollars, with which to build La
CAVES OF BELLAMAR, MATANZAS. Fuerza, so that the people of Havana might have some
Remarkable for Stalactite and Stalagmite Formations. place of refuge and protection against piratical aggression.
In 1554 the French corsair, Jaques Sor6s, entered and
sacked Santiago de Cuba, and the following year took Havana, notwithstanding the heroic defence made by a few
people who had barricaded themselves in the newly-built La Fuerza, then at the north-east corner of the capital.
From 1574 to 1577 Trinidad, Baracoa, and Remedios were sacked, burned, and compelled to pay heavy
ransom. Again in 1586 the French corsair, Richard, burned both homes and temples in Santiago. Luring
the same year the celebrated Francis Drake threatened Havana, but withdrew on finding the garrison prepared
for a stubborn resistance. This constant preying upon the coast cities of Cuba by pirates and privateers, and
the heavy ransom frequently exacted, finally induced Spain to send several famous engineers to superintend the
construction of various fortifications in the West Indies, including El Morro and La Punta, at the entrance to
Havana harbour. The work, however, was not
begun until March, 1589.
During the early part of the seventeenth
century the fleets of Holland, together with
privateers fitted out by the Dutch West India "
Company, kept up a more or less continuous
blockade of Cuban ports. Every buccaneer
and pirate of the WVest Indies found in Cuba
a favourite hunting ground; and during the
middle of the seventeenth century the famous
English corsair, Henry Morgan, afterwards
Governor of Jamaica, paid his respects to several
Cuban cities, including Puerto Principe, now
Camagiiey. In 1688 he crossed the Caribbean
with twelve boats and seven hundred English
pirates, intending to attack Havana; but after-
wards changed his mind, and landing in the
Bay of Santa Maria, began his march on the
city of Puerto Principe. The inhabitants
made a desperate resistance, but were finally
compelled to surrender. During the sack of
the town many women and children were burned
to death in a church. Morgan finally retired
from Puerto Principe with fifty thousand dollars tLpoto: airri Bros. Co., Havana
and five hundred head of cattle. SUGAR LIGHTERS, SAN JUAN RIVER, MATANZAS.


Thus the continual struggle was main-
tained for two hundred years, during which Spain,
through her excessive taxation and the restric-
tions placed on all trade or communication -
with foreign countries, played the part of the
most persistent and commercially pernicious
pirate of them all. The Crown simply
Sfarmed out the island, selling privileges
to the highest bidder, regardless of the
damage done to Culn, and turned the
industries of the island over to monopolies
that bled the agricultural community to
death. Tlhe Government controlled the
production of tobacco and fixed the prices
of the weed to suit the desires of its agents.
Hence it \as that, although through the com-
bined efforts of several nations, piracy had
practically disappeared at the close of the seven-
tcenth century, the industrial condition of Cuba
\\as in a really deplorable state. Its population
tarelv reached one hundred and fifty thousand,
and the production of sugar amounted to only [Photo: Harris Bro Co. Havana.
half a million pounds; while Jamaica, captured CALLE OBRAPIA, HAVANA.
by Englgand in 16o5, produced seventy million
pounds, and the western half of Santo Domingo, or Haiti, ceded to France in 1697, boasted upwards of five hundred
plantatimns of sugar and coffee.
Continental court intrigues, combined with a natural rivalry for possession of territory in the New World, brought
about a series of conflicts between Great Britain and Spain, and Cuba was almost invariably the first point of
attack. In 1762 Havana was taken by an English fleet and army under Lord Albemarle, the former consisting ot
more than 200 vessels of all classes, and the latter of 14,o41 men, while.the Spanish army numbred 27,6ro men.
The defence was exceedingly obstinate. The English commenced operations on the 6th of June; but it was not
until tile 3oth of July that the Morro Castle surrendered; and on the 14th August the city capitulated. The spoil
divided among the captors amounted to .736,T85. This victory made the English masters of Cuba. Although
they exchanged it in the following year for Florida, the results of this brief Anglo-Saxon occupation were of great
importance to the commercial education of the people of Cuba. Up to the beginning of the English rule,
agriculture was comparatively dead, and foreign commerce was unknown. The British Governor at once threw the
port open to the world; and in less than a year more than nine hundred merchant ships entered and departed from
Havana, laden with cargoes for other countries. With the return of Spanish dominion all was changed, and the
regime of monol)oly and restriction was again installed. But the seed of commercial progress had been sown, and
thereafter there was always trouble brew ing. Discontent with the old order of things bred the spirit of rebellion;
and the success of Simon Bolivar in organising a movement that resulted in freeing South America from Spanish
rule had its effect on the people of Cuba.
There were a few notable exceptions to
the general run of incompetent, cruel, and
unscrupulous captains-general who were sent
to direct the destinies of Cuba. The adminis-
tration of Las Casas, who arrived as captain-
general in 1790, is represented by all Spanish
writers as a brilliant epoch in Cuban history.
He promoted with indefatigable perseverance a
series of public works of the first utility,
introduced the culture of indigo, extended the
commercial importance of the island by removing,
as far as his authority extended, the trammels
imposed upon it by the old system of privilege
and restriction, and made noble efforts to effect
the emancipation ot the enslaved native Indians.
By his judicious administration the tranquillity
of the island was maintained uninterrupted at
the time of the revolution in San Domingo;
although, as is generally believed, a conspiracy
was formed at the instigation of the French
among the free people of colour in Cuba.
[Photo: Harris Bros. Co.. Havana. Unfortunately the period of progress was all
PRESIDENT'S PALACE AND SENATE, PLAZA DE ARMAS, too short, and the efforts of the few worthy
HAVANA. men were soon lost in the idiotic blunders of


others whom Spain sent to succeed them. Monopoly, greed, and commercial stupidity again held sway. But
the inhabitants of the island had tasted the forbidden fruit of commercial freedom under the short rule of England.
They had watched the success of the American colonists to the north of them in their efforts to throw off an
oppressive yoke; while from across the Caribbean came the news of the liberating armies of Venezuela, Colombia,
Ecuador, and Peru under the leadership of Bolivar. The love, the longing, for liberty was being planted irn


the hearts of the people of Cuba. The resolve to obtain this priceless boon for themselves and their children
quickly followed.
Liberty, however, is seldom wrested from monarchy save through war; and the first whisperings of revolution
began with the entrance of the nineteenth century. Several secret societies were formed, all of whose members spread
secretly a propaganda of independence. A congress of liberty-lovers from the South and Central American Republics,
together with representatives from Cuba and Puerto Rico, was summoned to convene at Panama, in June, 1826, under
the auspices of General Bolivar. The attitude of the slave-holding sections of the United States, however, was so hostile


to this programme, which included the abolition ot slavery throughout the West Indies, that the meeting came to
On the i6th of March, 1826, Francisco Agiiero and Manuel Sanchez were arrested, tried, and garotted in Camagiiev
as emissaries of those pernicious advocates of Cuban independence resident abroad. They were the first martyrs
to the cause of liberty in the island. Their successors before the close of the century were numbered by thousands.
In 1833 the first railroad in the western hemisphere was built from Havana to Giiines, a distance of forty miles


The aqueduct, a notable piece of constructive engineering, bringing to the capital an abundance of fine water from
springs on the banks of the Almendares River, was also begun in this year.
In spite of sporadic improvement along industrial lines in various parts of the island, the general dissatisfaction
with the government imposed on the people of Cuba by Spain grew apace. The cultured, rich Cuban sugar planter
looked on the Spanish storekeeper with contempt; while the merchant from the mother country regarded the native
Cuban as a worthless ingrate, whose pride and conceit deserved to be rebuked and his purse emptied. The Spanish
office-holder looked on both as fit subjects for his purpose of aggrandisement, and usually saw that they were properly
plucked. And so the game of graft, plot, and counterplot went on. The fires of latent revolution continued to
shoulder and occasionally burst into flame.
Nothing contributed more to the feeling of discontent which afterwards, particularly among the educated
classes, increased to the point of desperation, than the systematic cruelty and continual tyranny practised by
General Tacon. and by O'Donnell, \\ho followed him in the Governor's chair. The persecution seemed especially
directed towards men of letters and all who favoured progress of any kind, political, commercial, or social. Hence
it was that conspiracies, sporadic outbreaks and ill-planned uprisings were of almost monthly occurrence, each
usually resulting in arrest, followed by drumhead trial and execution, or deportation to Ceuta, Africa.
The first serious effort at revolution through appeal to arms was started by General Narciso Lopez, who landed
at (ardenas on May 19th, i85o, with six hundred men, mostly Americans from New Orleans. Inside of a few

(Photo: Atonso. Santiago.

hours they had captured the Spanish garrison and made prisoners of Governor Cerrute with several officials. The
city w\is theirs, but, to the unspeakable chagrin of Lopez, only one man came to their side on Cuban soil. Before
nightfall, after defeating a column sent to oppose him, the disappointed revolutionist abandoned the city, and with
his followers embarked for Key West.
Returning, however, next August with 450 men, he was taken in battle and executed in Havana. Other
native leaders, however, rose to prominence, and in 1868 broke out the Ten Years' War, which raged in the island
with terrible ravage, and \\as finally brought to a close by the Treaty of Lanjon, February 12th, 1878. According
to the terms of that document, Cuba was promised many reforms, together with general amnesty and freedom from
military service to those who had formed the insurgent forces. All who chose were given free passports to foreign
countries; w while the Cuban Provincial Government's decree abolishing slavery was confirmed; and thus ended the
long war of Cuban aristocracy against Spanish misrule and oppression. Liberty, although not secured, had been
sensed. The seed of independence had been so\wn; and the exiles to foreign shores no sooner set foot on land
than they began a campaign of preparation and tuition for a greater struggle yet to come.
Seldom, if ever, were the qualities of mind so essential to leadership-courage, persistence, eloquence, and sublime
faith--more fortunately combined than in the personality of Jose Marti, who is justly termed "the Apostle of
Cuban Independence." Condemned, when a boy of sixteen, to penal servitude, with ball and chain, simply
because he acknowledged the authorship of several verses, impersonal odes to Liberty, he resolved to dedicate


his life to the freedom of his native land. Escaping from
Spain, he took himself to Mexico, where his ability as a
S, speaker, writer, and organiser was at once recognized by
President Diaz, who urged him to remain in that country. But
as soon as his propaganda for another revolution had been
started, he left for the United States, there to unite all the
various Cuban clubs into one grand revolutionary party, of
which he was elected chief. Marti began by teaching the
true import and meaning of the word liberty, its blessings and
responsibilities. He saw the weak point of the Ten Years'
War, and succeeded in making his campaign for the next
great struggle thoroughly democratic. Since the first requisite
of war is money, it was arranged that all Cuban employees
outside the island should contribute the amount of one day's
labour each week to the cause of liberty. From this source
was derived a large share of the funds which supported the
War of Independence.
Although one of the most thrilling and dramatic chapters
[Photo: Harris Bros. Co.. Havana. in the history of strategic warfare, there is not space
CLERKS' CLUB, HAVANA. to give even an outline of the War of Independence in
this brief sketch of Cuba. Suffice it to say that on the
22nd of October, 1895, General Maceo, in command of seventeen hundred men, left Mala Noche, near the Cauto
River, in Oriente, and on November 3rd, 1895, began what is known as the Invasion of the Occident," one of the most
daring, difficult, and marvellous campaigns ever planned and successfully carried out n the annals of war. A little
army of ill-fed, poorly-equipped men, probably never exceeding twenty thousand, each of whom could carry his
supply of ammunition in his vest pocket-if he had a vest!-forced its way successfully into and through the
enemy's territory, for a distance of six hundred miles against two hundred thousand trained troops, all well supplied
with ammunition, commanded by able generals, and aided by railroads, telegraph, and the various appurtenances of
modern warfare. And this, too, in an island of a width gradually decreasing to only about thirty miles in the
province of Havana, where General Gomez camped within sight of Morro Castle on the third day of the following
January. General Maceo crossed the famous Mariel trocha (trenchment) with his force on January 8th, ani carried
the revolution into Pinar del Rio to the extreme western limits. When at Mantua, on the 23rd, he presided
over a session of the Town Council and acted as godfather for all the babies in the district. After a year of
probably the hardest-fought battles of the war, Maceo left his force in command of General Riuz Rivera, and with
half-a-dozen companions, recrossed the trocha, to confer in person with General Gomez and other commanders of
the East.
On the following day, December 7th, shortly after he had joined a small Cuban force near Caimito, a Spanish
detachment was unexpectedly encountered, and in the engagement that followed, the greatest fighter Cuba ever
produced fell mortally wounded, with Panchito, son of General Gomez, at his side. The bodies of both were
recovered by the Cubans and secretly buried on a farm near Cacahual, only ten miles from Havana.
The death of Maceo was a serious blow to the revolution, and threw the friends of the movement abroad into
a state of momentary despair; but as if in answer to the predictions of Weyler, the Spanish captain-general, that
"the revolution was practically crushed," money began to
pour into the treasury of the Cuban Junta in New York.
Added to this came the substantial victories of General Garcia
in Oriente and Camagiey in 1897. With the aid of his
Chief-of-Staff, Mario Menocal, a vigorous campaign was main-
tained throughout the same year. Garcia was the man who
captured cities and held them," as he did Victoria de la
Tunas, Guaymaro and others of lesser note. Not only General
Garcia and his sons, Carlos and Justo, but many of his officers
spoke English; hence it was, perhaps, that more Americans
were under his command than that of an)y other chief in
the War of Independence. Nearly all his gunners were
Americans; among them was Frederick Funston, who was one
of the American Generals in the great European War. General
Garcia was a brave man, a good man, and a strong man. Had
he lived, the story of Cuba certainly would have been different.
The blowing up of the Maine in the spring of 1898
brought about the crisis resulting in a declaration of war
against Spain by the United States, with its crushing defeat
of King Alfonso's armies and navies in both hemispheres the
following summer.
The story of the War of Independence is one of heroism [Photo: Harris Bros. Co., Havana.
tainted by cowardice, of tragedy mingled with comedy, but CATHEDRAL, HAVANA.


above all, of self-sacrifice without complaint, of suffering untold,
of pathos beyond pen, and of patriotism above reproach.
Happily for all, the end came with the surrender of Santiago
de Cuba on the I7th July, 1898, followed by the treaty of Paris.
On November 5th. I9co, a convention met to decide
on a constitution, and on February 21st, 190o, a constitution
was adopted, under which the island has a republican form
of government. with a President, Vice-President, a Senate
and a House of Representatives. The United States legislature
passed a law authorising the President of the United States to
make over the Government of the island to the Cuban people
as soon as Cuba should undertake to make no treaty with any
foreign power endangering its independence, to contract no
debts for which the current revenue would not suffice, to
concede to the United States Government a right of inter-
vention for preserving the Cuban independence, and also to [Photo: Alonso, Santiago.
grant to it the use of naval stations. On June i8th, I9oi, these PLAZA AND CATHEDRAL, SANTIAGO.
conditions were accepted by necessity by Cuba, and on
lay 20th, 1902, the control of the island was formally
transferred to the new Cuban Government, with the late Seitor Palma as first President. Under treaties signed
July 2nd, 19o3, the United States has coaling stations in the Bay of Guantanamo and at Bahia Honda. The
connection between Cuba and the United States was rendered still closer by the Reciprocal Commercial Convention
which came into operation on December 27th, 1903. In August, 1906, an insurrection broke out and a United
States Commission undertook a provisional government. On January 28th, 19o9, the provisional government came
to an end, and the new President, Jose Miguel Gomez, assumed office.
It is impossible to set forth here what the Americans began to do for the social and industrial improvement
of the island. The establishment of a thorough public school system was accomplished, superintendents and
teachers being imported. Cuban prisons, in which more than 1,500 people were found who had never been tried,
were vastly improved. The cleansing of the cities was undertaken on a gigantic scale. The sanitation of Havana-
a plague spot which had long menaced the United States-was thoroughly studied and the city changed into one of
the cleanest in the world. Colonel (. E. Waring, America's ablest sanitary engineer, personally studied the sanitary
conditions of Cuba, and died of yellow fever contracted in that work. Not only were matters of public hygiene
carefully attended to, but the Surgeon-General of the Army established in Havana a corps of medical investigators,
who attacked the problem of the causes and dissemination of yellow fever with great energy. In the sumner of
19o0 they demonstrated by experimentation that the cause of the dissemination of the disease was the mosquito. The
death-rate of Havana decreased nearly one-half as a result of the sanitary measures which were taken, and yellow
fever, for the first time in the history of Havana, was not epidemic in x9oi. It had already become apparent that
the Army surgeons, through their sanitation and researches, had obliterated the conditions which once made Havana.
the focus and distributing centre of this disease in the New World. Postal and telegraphic communication was
greatly improved and placed upon a systematic basis. The rehabilitation of the fields and plantations was encouraged.
Seeds and animals were at first furnished, but
by i9o0 all agricultural industries were self-
sustaining, and the sugar and tobacco industries
had recovered the full development which
they possessed before the insurrection of
1895. From a political standpoint the acts
of the United States have been even more
munificent. The United States spent millions
of money and many lives in a war with
Spain for the sake of Cuba; sent aid
to its starving population; assumed payment
of all damages which American citizens
sustained during the revolution; and the
Cuban army was paid with money from the
Cuban treasury.
Fortunately for the Pearl of the Antilles,"
her natural sources of wealth are almost limitless,
beyond calculation. Her soil is as rich as
mother earth can be. Her climate is extremely
salubrious. Her harbours are large, deep,
protected, and more in number to length of
coast than those of any other island in the
world. Her coast line covers upwards of two
[Photo: Harris Bros. Co., Havana. thousand miles. Her location in the centre
CALLE OBISPO, HAVANA. of the entrance to the Great Gulf of Mexico,


S. which washes the shores of Florida, Alabama,
Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, as well as
Mexico, half-way between New York and the
Isthmus of Panama, is one that must always
play an important part in the commerce of the
world. Her forests of hard wood are still
mostly virgin; her mines of copper, iron,
d and manganese are as yet undeveloped; her
savannas support millions of cattle and horses;
but more than all, the seasons of her rainfall,
combined with the fertility of the soil, enable
her to make better cane-sugar at less cost
than any other country. Most sugar countries
have to plant every two years, and some of
u tthem every season ; but the average in Cuba
l is once in from seven to twelve years. The
d great development and prosperity of the island's
[Photo: Harris Bros. Co., Havana. sugar industry in the years immediately pre-
ceding the universal trade slump at the end
RAMPARTS OF EL MORRO, CABANA IN THE DISTANCE, of 1920 was unprecedented in the world's
HAVANA. annals. In 1912 the sugar output of the
island was upwards of i8,ooo,ooo tons, and
only about three per cent. of its available sugar lands were under cultivation. In 1920 the production was nearly
doubled and the prices more than quadrupled. It has been estimated that for that year the sugar crop of Cuba
would suffice to build a solid wall around the entire 2,000 miles of the island's coast line as high as an ordinary
dwelling, and thick enough for a file of four men to walk abreast on it. The sugar extracted from this cane would
load a fleet of steamers reaching from Havana to New York, with a ship for every mile of the 1,200 that stretch
between the two ports.
Cuban tobacco, since the days of Columbus, has been practically without rival in the markets of the world.
True, the districts in which the best grades may be produced are limited in extent; but with systematic or scientific
irrigation the yield may be greatly increased. The Cuban factories in 1919 produced 157,000,000 cigars for
export. Placed end to end, they would reach from the Straits of Magellan to Sitka, Alask4.
With the solving of the bolweevil problem, Cuba can easily contribute to the world's markets millions of bales
of the finest Sea Island cotton.
Both oranges and pineapples are indigenous; and although only since the advent of American horticulturists
has much attention been given to fruit growing for profit, some of the largest groves in the world are now bearing
in different sections of the island.
The highest part of the island is in the range extending in the south-east from the Punta de Maisi to Cape
Cruz, called the Sierra Maestra or Cobre, the summits of which are the Pico de Turquino, 7,670 feet, the highest
point of the whole island; Gran Piedra, 5,200
feet; Yunque and Ojo del Toro, 3,500 feet.
From this sierra a ridge of much smaller general
elevation follows nearly the central line of the
island westward throughout its extent, rising to
form a more marked range in the extreme west
of Cuba, on which the Pan de Guajaibon
attains 2,530 feet.
The length of Cuba, following a curved
line through its centre, is 730 miles, and its
average breadth is 80 miles. The area of the
island is 43,319 English square miles; the neigh-
bouring Isle of Pines, 1,214 square miles; and
the smaller coastal islands, 1,350 square miles-
in all 45,883 square miles. The coast of Cuba is
generally low and flat, and is surrounded by
numerous islands and reefs, which render the
approach both difficult and dangerous to those
not acquainted with the proper channels. The
low nature of the shore subjects it to frequent
floods and inundations; and especially on the
north side of the island there are many large
lagoons, from which a considerable quantity of salt
is obtained. No island, however, in proportion to [Photo Harris Bros. Co., lHaiar.
its size has, as we have already said, a greater number STREET IN SANTIAGO.


[Photo : Alonso. Santi.ao.
MORRO CASTLE, Entrance to Santiago Harbour.

[Photo: Hanris Bros. Cc., Havana.

[Photo: Harris Bros. Co.. Havana.

l'noio : Harris tiros. Co., Havana

[Photo: Harris Bros. Co., Havana.



of excellent harbou:s. Of these the chiet are the ports of Havana, Matanzas, Cardenas, Nuevitas, Bahia Honda,
Mariel and Nipe on the northern side, and Santiago de Cuba, Guantanamo, Cienfuegos and Casilda on the
The rivers are necessarily short, and flow toward the north and south. The largest is the Cauto, rising in the
Sierra del Cobre, and falling into the Bay of Buena Esperanza on the southern coast, after a course of fifty leagues,
for twenty of which it is navigable by boats, though at low water obstructed by bars.
AHnt Situated within and near the border of the northern tropical zone, the climate of the low coastlands of Cuba
is that of the torrid zone; but the higher interior of the island enjoys a more temperate atmosphere. The months
from the beginning of May to October are called the wet season, though rain falls in every month of the year.
With May spring begins in the island; rain and thunder are of almost daily occurrence, and the temperature
rises high with little daily variation. The period from November to April is called the dry season by contrast.
On a mean of seven years, the rainfall at Havana in the wet season has been observed to be 27.8 inches; of the
dry months 12.7, or 40.5 inches for the )ear. At Havana in the warmest months, those of July and August, the
average temperature is 820 Fahr., fluctuating between a maximum of 88 and a minimum of 76'; in the cooler
months of December and January the thermometer averages 72', the maximum being 780 and the minimum 58 ;
the, average temperature of the year at Havana, on a mean of seven years, is 77. But in the interior, at
elevations of over 300 feet above the sea, the thermometer occasionally falls to the freeing point in winter; hoar

IPhoto: Harris Bros. Co., Havana.

frost is not uncommon, and during north winds thin ice may form, though snow is unknown in any part of the
island. The prevailing wind is the easterly trade breeze, but from November to February cool north winds, rarely
lasting more than forty-eight hours, are experienced in the western portion of the island, to which they add a
third seasonal change. Hurricanes may occur from August to October, but are less frequent than in Jamaica or
Haiti. Slight shocks of earthquake are sometimes felt in Santiago. There are no diseases specially indigenous to
the island, and no yellow fever nor plague.
The Cuba Railroad Company, which opened its system for service on December 8th, 1902, is the most
important in Cuba. It serves the Republic's three largest provinces (Santa Clara, Camagiiey and Oriente), which
constitute about 73 per cent. of the total area of the island, although they contain but 50 per cent. of the
population. The Cuba Railroad maintains a daily passenger and freight service between Havana and Santiago de
Cuba. Its passenger trains carry first-class sleeping cars and fine observation coaches, which enable the traveller to
obtain comprehensive views of the country traversed. The scenery en route is not equalled elsewhere in the island.
Magnificent tropical forests of mahogany, cedar, ebony, and many other valuable hardwood trees, hung \\ith vines,
and millions of orchids; large cane and tobacco fields; immense cattle ranches, where herds of live stock fatten;
and busy little towns which have sprung into existence since the opening of the road, speed before the passenger's
eye in quick succession.
The United Railways of Havana, an extensive and magnificent system, is the oldest in Cuba, and one of the
oldest in the western hemisphere, having been first opened in 1837. Its great station, the "Terminal," is almost in
D 2


the heart of Havana. Its western branch, running to Guanajay, with extension to Bahia Honda, traverses a
typically picturesque country, passing through a rich tobacco region, dotted with royal palms, and one of the most
highly cultivated sections of the island.
'The Western Railway of Cuba gives access to all the western country. The scenery along this route is highly
pleasing, its special feature being tropical products, among which tobacco and coffee, palms and fruit trees predominate.

I j. Illm

TOTAL AREA, 45,883 square miles.

1899 ...... .. ... ... ...
1907 ... ...... ... ...
1919 ... ... ...... ...



... 1,572,797
... 2,048,980
... 2,889,004



Santa Clara ...
Camagiley ...

9,560 ...
10,500 ...
... 12,468 ...


Havana ... ..
Ciefuegos ...
Camaguey ...
Sanliago de Cuba
Sancti-Spiritus .
Guantanamo ..
Santa Clara ...

... 363,506
... 98,865
S 98,193
... 70,232
... 79,341
S 68,883
... 63,151

Matanzas ...
Pinar del Rio
Trinidad ..
Cardenas ...
Sagua la Grande

. 40,602

$297,622,215 1918
357,576,52 1919
524,471,279 1920

Gold ... ... ... ... $23,786,750
Silver ... ...... 8,413,143
Nickel ... .. 1,449,560

$33,649,450 (dollars).

Cuban Dollar= American Dollar.
Gold peso of 1*6718 grammes. (1-5046 grammes-fines).


1920. On December 31st, Foreign ...
Interior ...

.. $49,644,000
... $38,662,100

Total ... $88,306,100


Pilar del Rio
Havana ...
Matanzas ..

... 5,000
... 2,772
... 3,700

... 657,697
... 228,913
.. 730,909





AVANA, only a few hours' journey from the Florida coast, is one of the most interesting cities in the world.
Its name, Indian in origin, conjures up an historical panorama crowded with pathos, adventure, bold deeds,
cruel crimes, noble sacrifice, and portraying every phase of human life and effort. It suggests sounds that
alternately interest, thrill, frighten, and then again lull to rest with all the sweetness of tropical zephyrs laden
with the music of distant cathedral anthems. If the traveller gets his first glimpse of the "Paris of the West"
from the deck of an incoming vessel, he will see a crescent of blending colours thrown upon the background of
dull-grey and dark-green hills beyond, with long, soft lines of fleecy foam tossed by the ocean billows on to the

". -. ..


[Photo: Harris Bros. Co., Iln\ana.

jagged coral reefs in the foreground. On the left rises the stern, rugged bulk of Morro Castle, whose stubborn
resistance held the British fleet, under Albemarle, at bay for more than a month. Looking up at its heights, one
cannot but think of Velasco and his brave men, who went to death refusing to surrender the fort, even \when they
knew its walls were undermined, the powder laid, and the fuse lighted. Was it worth while? Evidently Velasco
thought so, and, therefore, his name became glorious among fighting men of the sea. Spain, that could boast of
none too many such heroes, did well to order that her navy should thereafter always have one ship called Velasco."
Squatting close to the right is La Punta, the guns of which, answering the British fleet in 1763. were silenced
only when Morro, in the enemy's hands, turned her batteries on her companion across the narrow channel. Running
from La Punta out along the shore is the new Malecon -the fashionable, seaside drive of Havana; and extending
back towards the south is the beautiful avenue of wealth and fashion known as The Prado, once, as the name
suggests, merely a meadow, or grassy stretch, which skirted the old walls, begun in 1663, and completed by slaves
in 1797. At the junction of these two drives, within the shadow of the old fortress, have occurred half the
tragedies and most of the festivities of the gay capital of the Greater Antilles. It was here that Narciso Lopez paid
the death penalty by garotte in 1851. On almost the same spot, too, a group of eight schoolboys, students in the
University of Havana, innocent of any crime, were lined up and shot to death on the 27th November, 1871, to
appease the blood-hunger of the Spanish Volunteers. Soft, green lawns, royal palms and bright flowers cover the


place to-day; while sweet strains from the
municipal band float out over the water from
the Malecon, as though to drown the echoes
Which the memory of even the present genera-
tion recalls as coming from Cabana across
a the bay, when the shooting squad sent
patriotic souls to their last resting-place every
S day.
The Bay of Havana makes one of the
finest harbours in the world. It is easy of
access, spacious enough to contain about I,ooo
vessels, deep enough to allow them to come
[Photo: Harris Bros Co.. Havana. close up to the wharves, and well protected
THE MALECON, HAVANA. on all sides. The entrance is 980 feet wide
and 4,200 feet long. Within, the bay breaks
up into three distinct arms, named respectively Marimalefia or Regla Bay, Guanabacoa, and Bay of Atares.
Havana is not only a beautiful city but a truly fascinating one. Her houses, thick-walled and ponderous, are
built entirely of stone, brick, or concrete. The walls, inside and out, are plastered with the smoothest possible
finish, and then tinted with many colours-shell-pink, cream, gaslight green, lilac and magenta predominating. The
colours seldom clash, and they lend to the city a subdued and agreeable brightness quite in contrast with the long,
sombre rows of buildings which mar many residential avenues in the North. Houses of two storeys, with eighteen
or twenty-feet ceilings, and flat roofs, with ornamental parapets, are almost everywhere in the city. The windows, as
well as the doors, are tall and wide, extending to the floor, and are protected from intrusion by beautiful iron work
of many patterns. The lavish use of white marble in the decoration of both shops and houses is one of the
peculiarities of popular taste. The Vedado borough, with its magnificent mansions and avenues, is exceptionally
It is not, however, beauty of design or decoration that gives to Havana her chief charm. It is rather in that
delightful mingling of a semi-oriental present, lavish in its scheme of form and chromatic effect, with the quaint,
medieval nooks and corners, huge, thick, polished mahogany doors, large enough, when fully opened, to admit a
coach and four-in-hand, its grim, grey, picturesque forts of the sixteenth century, its bits of old wall, turreted and
anpped as in days of old, when men donned their coats of mail to repel the invader. To the individual not
absolutely devoid of imagination, there is hardly a turn in old Havana-the section within the original walls-that
does not cause a thrill of romance and deep historical interest, as the fancy sees even the vaguest picture of how it
all must have looked and seemed to the Havanese riding in escort beside the volante which bore the lady of his
choice. As Froude has written, "Havana is a city of palaces, a city of streets and plazas, of colonnades and
towers, of churches and monasteries. The Spzaniards built as they built in Castile, with the same material, the white
lime-stone, which they found in the New World as in the Old. The palaces of the nobles in Havana, the residence
of the Governor, the convents and the cathedral, are a reproduction of Burgos or Valladolid, as if by some Aladdin's
lamp a Castillian city had been taken up and set down unaltered on the shores of the Caribbean." True, there are
many beautiful modern structures, such as the Lonja de Viveres (Stock Exchange) and the Banco Nacional de Cuba,
the new Presidential Palace, the National Theatre, Central Station, and many private mansions; but close by
even these architectural evidences of the present are found the old thick-walled, one-storey buildings, with their
criolla-tiled floor and carved mahogany rafters, stili occupied and landmarks of former centuries.
A plicturesque example of sixteenth century military architecture is La Fuerza, the oldest inhabited building of
anyl kind in the New World. It was built in 1538 as a fort and place of refuge for the inhabitants of Havana
when attacked by pirates From the quaint little stone tower
that crowns the south-west angle of the fort, still hangs the bell
that used to sound its warnings of danger when hostile sails
hove in sight. In this same turret, barricaded, the brave Lobera
with sixteen men, after the doors of La Fuerza had been burned
and battered in by a heavy force under command of the French
c',rsair, Jaques Sor5s, held off the enemy for two days. It is
said that the corsair's admiration of Lobera's heroic defence led
hi.n to include the liberation of the captured women and
children as a condition of the turret's surrender.
More pathetic, however, is the picture of D)oila Isabel de
Boabdilla, who, in 1539, on the drawbridge of La Fuerza, in
which they lived, bade her husband, Fernando de Soto, adieu,
as with his army of 9oo men and 350o horses he set out for the
conquest of Florida and all the territory that might lie beyond."
DI)av after day for more than two years this faithful wife walked
the paralpet of the fort, straining her eves to see his flag rise
above the horizon of the Gulf. And when at last some storm-
beaten harque brought back a few survivors of the expedition
\\hose leader had hoped to rival, if not surpass, the conquest of [Photo: Harris Bros. Co., Havana.
Cortr~s in Me\ico, or Pizarro in Pleru, to tell her that her lord STUDENTS' MEMORIAL, HAVANA.


and lover would return no more, that even
his body could never be rescued from its
grave in-the yellow waters of the Mississippi,
her soul soon joined his on the further
The dark dungeons of La Fuerza have
held hundreds of Cuban patriots until death
or deportation to Africa brought release. One
of them was the gifted poet, Juan Clemente
Zenea, who was shot in spite of the fact that
he had a passport granted by the Spanish
Ambassador at Washington. The old stone
steps descending to the level of the moat, or
ground floor, have been norn into veritable
pockets by the tramp of feet during a con-
tinual occupancy of nearly four hundred
years. La Fuerza, commanding the approach
to the President's Palace, the Senate Chamber,
and the Treasury Buildings, still has a
strategic value. Within its walls, in 90o6, a Photo: Harris Bros.-Co., Havana.
battery of the "Machine Gun Corps," com- EL MORRO FORTRESS, HAVANA, AT NIGHT.
posed mostly of resident Americans, "made
it possible," as Mr. Palma said, "for a President of the Cuban Republic to sleep in safety from threatened
assassination by his own people." During the last Government of Intervention, the upper part of the fort
was occupied by Major Ladd and several officers of the U.S. Army. To-day it shelters a detachment of the
Not a hundred yards away, in front of the cathedral which, until the Spanish evacuation in 900oo, held bones
claimed to be those of Christopher Columbus, is a quaint, old, two-storey building, with carved rafters and tiled
roof, that forms one of the most ancient landmarks in all Havana. A landmark, indeed, since the square ot
ground between it and the cathedral was covered by sea water when this building was erected; and now below the
level of present earth may be observed the old bronze and iron ring bolts used for making small boats fast in olden
The buildings now occupied by La Discussion, Havana's aristocratic, afternoon daily newspaper, have been
converted by Sefior Coronado into a veritable museum of art and antiquities, and in it is the finest collection of
oil portraits of Cuba's scholars, statesmen, poets, writers, and military heroes. In one of the rooms of this building
in ancient times some thirty citizens of Havana, failing to reach La Fuerza, sought refuge from pirates. After three
days' siege, the pirate chief promised them protection and peace if they would surrender. The terms were finally
accepted, as ammunition was running low; but as they filed out of the front door they were told that peace was
only to be found in Heaven, and each one was killed.
Rapid strides have been made within the last decade in newspaper enterprise in Havana. Among her dailies
which are offered to the citizen with his coffee each morning are El Mundo, under the progressive direction of
Senior Manuel Govin and a very able staff, and
Diario de la Mfarinar, which, although not sold
on the streets, has a large circulation among
the better-class people. The lazana -'ost,
under the successful management of Mr. H. M.
Bradt, is the only daily newspaper in Havana
printed entirely in English. La Discussion, al-
ready alluded to, is a very influential director
of public opinion; while La Luchr, for the
sentiments of which Sefior San Miguel holds
himself responsible, boasts a page in English as
well as some eight pages in Spanish-good
Spanish, too, because Sefior Juan (ualberto
sees to it. There are several bright weekly
illustrated papers and magazines, of which El
Figaro has long held the lead as a magazine of
information, holding the mirror of fashion up
to Havana's feminine four hundred." There
are many other important newspapers, like
Heraldo de Cuba, El iriunfoi, ZIa iVacion, El
Dia, El Comercio and El Alerc'urio. Among
the principal reviews are the Cuba Coltemporanea,
Social v Bohemia.
[Photo: Harris Bros. Co.. Havana Havana has quite a number of theatres, of
CUBAN CARNIVAL. which the National, formerly called the Tacon,


facing Central Park, is the principal. It has accommodation for about 3,000 people, and is the third largest theatre
in the world. Built in 1837 at a cost of $500,000, by the celebrated Marti, it was sold to the Government in 1905 for
the same amount. A season of grand opera is held in this theatre during January and February. Some years ago the
National theatre was rebuilt, and in this very handsome building the late Caruso sang during the winter of 1919-20.
Cafes, restaurants, and casinos are exceedingly numerous in the city and largely frequented, forming a good
indication of that apparent absence of domestic life among the white population which surprises the European visitor.
Among the most pleasant features of Havana are the parks and plazas with which it abounds, to the eminent
gain of its social life. Most of these are embellished with fine examples of sculpture. In tlhe centre of the city is
the Plaza de Armas, tastefully laid out with flower-bordered walks and tropical vegetation Around it are many
interesting buildings, including El Teniplete (the memorial chapel in honour of Columbus), also the palace, which,
for three-quarters of a century, represented the rule of Spain, and where, on January ist, 1899, Cuba was yielded
to the United States. On May 20th, 1902, occurred on the same spot the no less momentous ceremony which
converted Cuba into a republic.
Just off the Plaza de Armas are Obispo and O'Reilly Streets, the chief shopping thoroughfares. These interesting
streets are very old and narrow, and their picturesqueness is increased by the overhanging balconies as well as by
the a\\nings which, spread from wall to wall, catch the rays of the sun and temper the light most agreeably.
Havana has many mutual benefit associations, of which the largest are the Clerks of Commerce and the
Asturian Society, each having a membership of about 30,000. The Clerks of Commerce building is one of the
finest structures in the city. Other clubs are the Spanish Casino, the Union Club, which is the local Jockey Club,
the American Club, and the Yacht Club.
Cuba's National Library is located in the Maestranza Building, on the Chacon Street side, between Cuba and
San Ignacio Streets. It contains a very fine collection of books, some on American and West Indian history being
particularly valuable. It is open every day, Sundays included, from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.

LPhoto: liaris Bros. Co., Havana.

'The Hlavana Electric Company has covered the city with a network of street car lines, which now extend for
many miles into the country. The city has also an excellent public carriage service, and the increase in its motor
vehicles during recent years has been remarkable.
If one finds a surieit of the picturesque or the antique in the city, he has only to call a taxicab and go for a spin ot
many miles between lines of laurel, almonds, and royal palms, past fields of sugar-cane, bananas, pine-apples and tobacco,
and groves of oranges, lemons, and other citrus fruit. The panorama constantly changes from level stretch to steep hill
and high tableland ; while below are broad valleys, such as that of Mariel, and the famous Yumari of which Humboldt
wrote so eloquently, with mountains or open sea always in the background. Chauffeurs, at the time of the international
automobile races, stated frankly that there were no roads either in America or Europe excelling those of Cuba.
Before the traveller says "adios" to Havana, let him leave the terminus of the Principe electric line, and ascend
the hill to the "Castillo." The climb is easy and the reward found in the magnificent view of the city and its
environs. If one forgets it, it will be because Havana's beautiful women haunt the memory and crowd out all else; for
there are, pro rata, more superbly beautiful women in Cuba's capital than in any other city on earth. Although they
are mostly of one type, the Andalusian, Savilla itself cannot show such a galaxy, because there is a subtle something
in Cuba that has softened, illuminated, intensified, and rendered even more enchanting this Criolla strain of the
half-Spanish, half-Moorish original. Do not ask, you who have seen them on Obispo or driving down the Prado, if
it be in the glorious eyes, the even teeth, the smooth skin, the graceful figure, or in the finely-chiselled features. No
man can tell, because he loses his head and with it his judgment. A woman may, if she will. But, at any rate, the
beauty of the Havanese lady will stay with you-in memory-when other impressions of the city have faded
She is part of Havana, and Havana has no rival in her class.

The great Creator, shaping sun and star, The Maker smiled. At his divine behest
Heard an Archangel speaking thus: I dreamed i The Angel's dream, like some blush rose, uncurled,
I saw another Paradise, afar; To bloom for ever on the warm sea's breast.
And all about it sapphire waters gleamed." The beautiful Jamaica of the world.
IElla I 'heeler I ilcox.



SITUATED to the southward of the eastern extremity of Cuba, from which it is distant only 90 miles,
within N. lat. 17Q 42' 201 and 8IO 32' 30", and W. long. 760 11' 55" and 78 23' 35", Jamaica is the
largest island of the British West Indies, its extreme length being 144 miles and its greatest width 49 miles.
The strategic importance of Barbados as guardian of the Caribbean was completely altered by the
introduction of the steamship, and is now vested in Jamaica, which is only 400 miles distant from the
nearest part of the American Continent. Owing to the War and the consequent upset of shipping as well as
commercial and industrial conditions throughout the world, the results of the completion of the Panama Canal have
not yet had time for development, but are certain to exert great influence in the future of Jamaica, the island
lying in the line of ocean traffic through the great waterway, and Colon being only 554 miles from Kingston.
It is related of Columbus that, when asked by the King of Spain to furnish a description of Jamaica, he
carelessly crumpled a bit of paper and tossed it on a table as a miniature of the new-found land. A more vivid
representation he could hardly have supplied to his sovereign. It may be that the island was formed in the distant
ages when Nature was in one of her most petulant moods. Set in a framework of blue sea and bluer sky,
it presents a marvellous picture of sharp contrasts, unbroken beauty and remarkable grandeur. As one approaches
the island the charm begins. Slowly, beautifully, majestically, the panorama unfolds itself. High up, almost hugging
the clouds, are the serrated edges of mountain outlines, stretching down to the furrowed slope of purple hills.
Nearer at hand are the waving palms, acres upon acres of green banana fields. Frequently the vista is broken by
silvery streams winding their way, tortuously and serpent-like, around stately mountains, down fertile valleys and into
the sea.
Thus has Nature provided most bountifully for the wealth and the comfort of those whose fate is cast in this
brilliant Paradise of the West. As agricultural activity advances great inroads are made upon the forest reserves, of
which Jamaica was once especially proud. This incursion, however, will never be able to rob the towering mountains
of the grandeur that endears them to every visitor. Rearing its head proudly above them all is the Blue Mountain,
a constant temptation to the adventurous tourist. The summit of the peak is 7,423 feet above sea level. The
temperature fluctuates between 400 and 500 during the period from sunset to sunrise almost the whole year through.
It is the coldest spot in all Jamaica. The ascent to the peak is frequently made by pleasure parties.
Jamaica has a great diversity of climate. From a tropical temperature of So0 to 86 at the sea coast the
thermometer falls to 450 and 500 on the tops of the highest mountains, and with a dryness of atmosphere that
renders the climate of the mountains of Jamaica particularly delightful and suitable to the most delicate constitution.
The midland parts of the island are the highest. Through the county of Surrey, and partly through Middlesex.
there runs the great central chain, which trends generally in an east and west direction, the highest part of which
is the Blue Mountain Peak.
From this range subordinate ridges or spurs run northerly to the north side of the island and southerly to the
south side; these ridges in their turn are the parents of other smaller ridges, which branch off in every direction
with considerable regularity and method; and they again throw off other ridges, until the whole surface of the country
is cut up into a series of ridges, with intervening gullies.


The island is divided into three counties and fourteen parishes, namely:-
Sq. Mis. Sq. Mis. Sq. Mis.
Kingston ... ... 7 St. Catherine ... ... 470 St. Elizabeth ... ... 462
St. Andrew 166 St. Mary .. ... 249 Trelawny ... 333
St. Thomans .. 274 Clarendon ... 474 St. James ... 234
Portland ... 285 St. Ann 476 Hanover ... ... 167
Manchester ... ... 302 Westmoreland ... ... 308
Total ... 732 1,971 1,504

giving a total of 4,207 square miles, equal to 2,692,587 acres, cf which, approximately, 646 square miles, or
413,440 acres, are flit. consisting of alluvium, marl and swamps.
There are numerous rivers and streams, from which Jamaica derived its aboriginal Arawak name of Xaymaca,
which is supposed to imply an overflowing abundance of rivers. The majority have a rapid fall and are not, to
a;y extent, navigable.
'There are many mineral springs in Jamaica, some of them possessing valuable qualities for the cure of various
diseases and infirmities of the body. The two principal are, the spring at Bath, in St. Thomas in the East, and
the spring at Milk River in Clarendon.
The island is intersected by a system of good water-bound macadam roads. They are divided into two classes:
(a) main ro:ds. of a total kngth of 2,226 miles, which are maintained from the general revenue of the colony;
and (b) parochial roads amounting to 3,300 miles, of which 1,230 miles are suitable for motor traffic, and
2,070 niles which may be described as cart or bridle roads. The latter class of roads is maintained by the
Parochial lIoards from funds derived from local rates.
D)urinz 1919-20 the main roads were maintained at an average cost of 42 per mile, but on account of
h large increase in traffic generally, and more particularly to the large number of heavy mechanically-propelled
vehicles now operating on the roads, the cost of maintenance will in future be very much greater. With few
exceptions these roads were originally constructed without any proper foundation, and are therefore suitable only
for light wheeled traffic; but this type of construction is totally inadequate to meet the increased traffic
requirements of the present day. Many new roads are being constructed and existing roads improved, with a
view to develop the industrial and natural resources of the island.
Jamaica has no navigable canals. There is, however, a system of canals which convey water from the Rio
Cobre River to the plains of the Parish of St. Catherine for irrigation purposes. The main canal carries 18,ooo
cubic yards per hour, and is approximately six miles long; subsidiary channels, of which there is a total length of
42 miles, convey the water over an area of 50,000 acres, of which about 20,000 acres are now under irrigation.
In the Parish of Clarendon an irrigation scheme has recently been constructed. Water is pumped from the
Cockpit River to a height of 70 feet and discharged into channels which convey the water by gravity to
irrigate the various sugar estates. The main channel carries 5,00o cubic yards per hour, but is capable of being
extenldl to, carry ro,ooo cubic yards per hour.




THE history of Jamaica, as we know it, begins with its discovery, on May 3, 1494, by Christopher Columbus
whilst on his second voyage to the New World. For two centuries afterwards the island became the scene of
remarkable conflicts and considerable bloodshed. Those were the
days when nations fought fiercely for every point of vantage, when
colonising (as we now understand it) was in its infancy, and when
the West Indies were the centre of envy, war, and turmoil. Held
by Spain and colonised by Spaniards, Jamaica (Xavamaca, to be
strictly accurate) for 16o years was the centre of frightful atrocities.
In this period commenced the reign of misrule which was destined
to complete the doom, 400 years later, of Spanish dominion in the
West Indies. The Spaniards waged war, ceaselessly and ruthlessly,
on the peaceful body of aboriginal Arawaks, in whose possession
Colombus found the island. So terrible was this persecution, and so
complete the campaign of the Spaniards, that within the comparatively
short period of 16o years upwards of 6o,ooo of the natives were
put to death. The annihilation was thorough, and thereafter no
trace remained of the original unoffending inhabitants. The barbarous
rule of the Spaniard came to an end with the arrival, early in 1655,
of an English fleet of 38 ships under Admiral Penn, a body of 8,ooo
troops being under the command of General Venables. On May Ii,
a day after the landing of the troops, the Spaniards surrendered.
One year later England declared war against Spain.
At -this time Cromwell was the supreme power in England, and
within six months of the English conquest of Jamaica he sent out
Major-General Sedgwick to conduct the civil government. Sedgwick
arrived in October, 1655, and at once established a local Council on
broad and liberal lines, Colonel Edward D'Oyley being the president.
Then England began to give of her brawn and muscle, the men
whose names are intimately bound up with the fortunes (and mis-
fortunes) of this sparkling gem of the Caribbean Sea. Cromwell, in his
Council of State, on October 1o, i655, issued a proclamation reciting
the conditions under which England entered upon the occupation of
the "Island of Jamaica in America," which had fallen, "by the
providence of God, into the hands and possession of this State." In Photo: Elliott and Fry. Ltd., London
part, the proclamation ran: The enemy being fled into the mountains HIS EXCELLENCY
with an intention to escape into other parties, save such as do daily SIR LESLIE PROBYN, K.C.M.G.
render themselves to our Commander-in-Chiefe, there to be disposed Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief, Jamaica.
of by him, and wee being satisfied of the goodness, fertility, and
commodiousness for trade and commerce of that island, and have resolved, by the blessing of God, to use our best
endeavours to secure and plant the same, for which end and purpose wee have thought it necessary to publish and
make known unto the people of this Commonwealth, and especially to those of the English Island Plantations and
Colonies in America, Our Resolutions and Intentions on that behalf, as also to declare unto them the encouragement
which wee have thought fit to give unto such as shall remove themselves and their habitations into the aforesaid
island of Jamaica. Concerning the securing thereof against the enemy, wee have already upon the island, which
landed there in May last, above six thousand soldiers, and the beginning of July after wee sent from here a
Regiment of eight hundred more drawne out of Our old Regiments in England, with eight ships of Warr, besides
victuallers. to be added to twelve others that were left there by General Penn, under the command of Captaine
William Goodson, all of which are appointed to remain in these Seas for the defence of the said island, and wee
shall, from tyme to tyme, take care to send thither other both land and sea forces, that wee may have always in
those parts such a strength as may be able, through the blessing of God, to defend and secure it against any attempt
of the enemy."
In June, 1656, Colonel William Brayne was sent out to succeed General Sedgwick as Commissioner, the latter
having become a victim to a severe attack of dysentery, which at that time was one of the chief scourges of the island
and a great enemy of Europeans going thither to share in the bountiful wealth that proved so sore a temptation.
B'rayne took with him i,ooo English troops to render more secure England's hold on the island. He was followed
almost immediately by 1,500 settlers (mostly English) from New England, Bermuda, Barbados, -nd Nevis. Next
came I,ooo girls and an equal number of young men from Ireland ; and of these a long line of descendants may
he traced even to the present day.
A year later Brayne died, and D'Oyley assumed the Government. During his administration the Spaniards
made a valiant attempt to regain their lost glory and recapture the island. Don Arnold Sasi, an old Governor
under Spanish rule, was chosen to lead an invasion. In i658, with a force of I,ooo men, he effected a landing
on the north coast of the island at a place called Rio Nuevo. He built a fort near the river and made all


preparations for a determined attack. Colonel D'Oyley, however, brooked no delay. With a force of 750 men he
made a detour by sea and effected a landing within sight of the Spanish tort. Immediately on landing he led a
brilliant attack on the invaders. By means of scaling ladders the interior of the fort was gained and a memorable
conflict occurred. In the desperate hand-to-hand struggle 450 of the Spaniards were slain and upwards of ioo made
prisoners. Some of the hapless band promptly escaped to Cuba. Don Sasi, however, rallied a few of his men,
and, gaining the support of some of the old Spanish slaves, retreated to the mountains, and maintained an irritating
guerilla campaign during the following year. Emboldened by many small and unimportant successes, the Spanish
invaders, mustering a force of 150 men, ventured out of their mountain fastness and encamped in the picturesque
district of Ocho Rios, planting their guns on a commanding eminence. D'Oyley took the field once more. This
time he attacked from the land, and not by sea, as the foe evidently expected he would. The attack was a
complete surprise. Again the Spaniards were superior in number, the attacking force consisting of only eighty men.
Inside of an hour Don Sasi had been so far routed that the English troops were able to turn the enemy's own artillery
on his miserable band, killing fifty of them. Hopelessly defeated, Don Sasi and the remnant of his force made
tracks for the coast and escaped to Cuba, the point from which he put off being known to this day as Runaway

[Photo supplied by C. N. Witney. Kingston.

Bay, so named in memory of the last flight of the Spaniards. For his splendid service D'Oyley was promoted to
the rank of General and appointed Governor of Jamaica. He was the first to be honoured with this title, which
\\as instituted by Charles II. He was authorised by the King to establish a council, or legislature, of twelve
persons, and to pass Acts for the security and prosperity of the island."
So far had the island advanced that in 1062, when Lord Windsor was appointed Governor, one of his first acts
was the disbandment of the five regiments of militia which formed the army. Lord Windsor retired the same year,
and Sir Charles Lyttelton assumed the government as Deputy-Governor. He set himself the task of permanently
conciliating the Maroons (the African slaves left in the island by the Spaniards), who were fierce, determined, and
'xarlike. -He made them grants of land to recompense them for the great assistance they had rendered the English
in the final conquest of the island, and in addition they were given by special proclamation all rights, liberties and
privileges of Englishmen. To him also fell the distinction of issuing writs for the first election to be held in the
island. The result of this election was the establishment of the General Assembly (or Legislature), which met in
the capital of the island, St. Jago de la Vega, on January 20th, 1664. So far the island had made marked progress.
In May, 1664, Sir Charles Lyttelton was relieved of the government by Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Lynch,
ill health having compelled Sir Charles to return to England. Colonel Lynch acted as Governor for a short time


only, being succeeded by Colonel Edward Morgan. It was an era of rapid changes. Morgan's term was phenomen-
ally brief, as after a month's administration he was superseded by Sir Thomas Modyford, who brought with
him from Barbados I,ooo settlers to further provide "for the peace and prosperity" of Jamaica. Then followed
a period of disputes and unrest. Modyford was "a law unto himself," and his high-handed actions served to
start the long series of quarrels between the Governors and General Assemblies that are so remarkable a feature
in the island's early history. The era was most amazing. A competent student of the island's life story thus
correctly summarizes the position: "The advent of the English was not marked by depredations against the
Arawaks, for they were dead; but the role of Ishmael was more in line with their idea of good government.
At that time Sir Thomas Modyford, who succeeded Colonel Edward Morgan, gave commissions and letters of
marque in the name of the King to pirates and buccaneers, whose hands truly 'were against every man,' to
despoil the Spanish Main or wherever booty worth bringing to Port Royal could be found; and it is written
in the chronicles that the rule of Modyford brought the island to its greatest perfection The most notorious of
the freebooters was Henry Morgan. The story of his life on the high seas is a catalogue of colossal barbarities and
unexampled cruelties; but he never sailed without a commission from the authorities, so that he might be termed a
'very gentlemanly buccaneer.' His expeditions of pillage and rapine were courteously styled by the powers that
were as 'naval encounters and invasions.'" In 1668 Morgan sacked Porto Bello, securing considerable plunder; in
1670 he attacked Panama, which then possessed great wealth. His army of 1,200 men, supported by a strong fleet,

[Duperly Photo.

played havoc with the little township, and the sacking of it lasted only a few hours. Over a hundred and seventy
mule loads of gold and silver were secured. Of this enormous loot Morgan appropriated quite .'25,000 to
himself. This caused great dissatisfaction amongst the men, and they openly mutinied, whereupon the intrepid
Morgan rolled up his tent like an Arab and silently stole away."
Continues the historical student already referred to: "Among the many anomalies recorded in history, none
appears more grotesque than the fact that, while Sir Thomas Modyford was ordered back to England, practically
a prisoner, to answer for the offence of having exceeded his authority in commissioning Morgan, this same
Henry Morgan was knighted as a mark of the King's appreciation of the exploit of Panama. Six years later
Sir Henry Morgan, the 'wealtny planter, the foe of pirates and the friend of law and order,' was appointed
Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica, which position he occupied until 1680."
At last the curtain was rung down on "pirate industry" when, in March, 168o, Lord Vaughan superseded
Morgan as Governor of the island. Vaughan's remedy was the very drastic but effective process of hanging
the ringleaders of the pirates at Gallow's Point, off Port Royal, and the sight of some hardy buccaneer's body
dangling in the air had a most salutary effect on the remaining marauders: thus was the highly lucrative
business crushed out of existence.
As an example of the lavish display and keen jealousy of early Jamaican history, it is interesting to record that,
in 1528, Charles I., King of Spain, ordered a sum to be expended from the Royal Treasury in the building of a
church in Jamaica, to equal in all respects one which the abbot, Peter Martier, might cause to be erected at


3evilla Nueva. Two years later the same
ruler donated Ioo,oo0 maravedis to be
used in the establishment of a hospital
at St. Jago, the capital of Jamaica at
that time; but an early historian observes
that "as there were no sick, the money
was used to build a church."
During the administration of Lord
Vaughan was laid the foundation of
Jamaica's fame as a sugar-producing
country. One of the first steps in this
direction was the settlement of I,2oo
inhabitants of Surinam, which place had
iCt just been given to the Dutch by England
Sin exchange for New Amsterdam (New
York). The Surinam immigrants were
located in the extensive district now known
as Westmoreland. From the start they
settled down to cane cultivation in a
vigorous and eminently satisfactory style.
-The methods they introduced were attended
Sby considerable success. Other inhabi-
tants of Jamaica followed the fine example
[Duperly Photo. of the Surinam men, and step by step,
GOING TO MARKET, Reckfort Road, Kingston. day by day, the fame of the island grew
greatly as the best and most fertile of
all the English colonial possessions.
Those were the days when cane was king, when the planters (or plantation owners, to be more correct) rejoiced
in the possession of great wealth, and revelled recklessly in insatiable dissipation. To have been a Jamaica planter
then was to have been a remarkably envied personage.
The next fifteen years passed with few incidents of note. There was a deepening of the dispute between
succs-sive Governors and the Legislative Assemblies. During this period the island was governed by these
administrators respectively: Earl of Carlisle, Sir Thomas Lynch (a second term), Sir Hender Molesworth, Duke of
Albenarle, Sir Francis Watson, and the Earl of Inchiquin. The Earl of Carlisle was sent out especially to introduce
into Jamaica the form of legislation that had been prescribed for Ireland by Poyning's law. Failing in his attempt
to force the unwelcome measure on the island, he left on May 27, 168o, two years after his arrival.
The first post-office for a foreign and inland letter service was established on October 6, 1683.
In the meantime French ships of war made frequent descents on the coast of Jamaica, chiefly for purposes of
loot. In an era of privateering this naturally led to measures of reprisal, and the coast became the scene of many
a terrible fight.
()n June 7, 1692, came the awful earth-
quake which demolished Port Royal, the
headquarters of the buccaneers and the
chief seat of the shameful profligacy which h
c:haractenrised this period of Jamaican history.
Of three thousand houses in the town, fewer
than two hundred with one of the forts
escaped injury. This overwhelming disaster
ultimately led to the settlement of Kingston.
The story of the tragedy is more completely
told in another chapter.
In the midst of the stress and turmoil
created by this visitation, Sir William Beeston
arrived to assume the government. He took
steps to further the settlement of Kingston
and the abandonment of Port Royal.
The following year a French fleet, largely -
supported by soldiery, made an attack on
the south-eastern coast. Detachments were
landed, and for a time systematic raiding
progressed on a large scale. The French-
men did extensive damage; and, for a
short time, the success of their operations
seriously threatened to weaken England's
hold on the island. At this critical juncture [Duperly Photo.
occurred 'what is, perhaps, the most glorious BLUE POOL, ST. ANN'S.

&dANAICA. 47

incident in the annals of Jamaica under
British rule. The Colonial Militia, properly
re-organised, went out to meet the French
invaders. The enemy was encountered at
Carlisle Bay, on the southern coast, and in
a decisive engagement the Frenchmen were
defeated and put to flight, the local militia
acting with remarkable gallantry through-
A naval battle of great importance took
place in the following year (1702), when the
British Admiral Benbow sailed out of Port
Royal to meet the French fleet, under Admiral
Du Casse, which was then swooping down on
the West Indies, following the declaration of
war by England against France and Spain.
The French fleet was encountered off Santa
Martha. After a sharp engagement. the
British were defeated, and the ill-starred
Benbow returned to Port Royal, where he
succumbed to the wounds he had received
in battle. His body was interred in the L[Duprly Photo.
Kingston Parish Church, and his tombstone JUBILEE MARKET, KINGSTON.
may be seen with the simple inscription:
"Here lyeth interred the body of John Benbow, Esq., Admiral of the White, a true pattern of English courage,
who lost his life in defence of his Queen and country November ye 4th, 1702, in ye 52nd year of his age, by a wound
in his legge received in an engagement with Mons. Du Casse. Much lamented."
The memory of the gallant old sea-dog is worthy of greater recognition than is provided in the unpretentious
slab worn by the passing feet of thousands of worshippers.
Twenty years followed without incident of any importance, save, perhaps, the continued growth of the animosity
between Governors and Legislature, due particularly to the latter's disinclination to hearken to the pleadings of the
motherland for an amelioration of the condition of the unhappy slaves, the burden-bearers of the planters. These
fruitless squabbles went a long way in delaying the progress of the colony. The Governors who successively held
office during those years had to combat difficulties of a most perplexing character. Soon after the death of the
Duke of Portland there came, however, one whose knowledge,
wisdom and tact had the effect of greatly propitiating the
Legislature. This was Major-General Robert Hunter. So
eminently successful was his administration that the Legislature
./ increased his salary to 6.ooo a year, at which figure the
S/ Governor's emolument remained until i9oo, when it was
reduced to 5,000.
During Hunter's administration (in I728) was introduced
the first coffee plants, which %%ere laid out at a place called
Temple Hall, on the Blue Mountain range.
Meanwhile a party of Scotsmen had formed a settle-
ment at Darien which had greatly angered the E.nglish
sovereign; and a proclamation was issued by William III.
forbidding any trade between Jamaica and the Scots. The
settlement made little progress, the Scotsmen encountering
innumerable obstacles created chiefly by the jealousy of England.
Consequently, they abandoned the Darien project, and a large
number of them came to settle in Jamaica.
In 1711, while Lord Archibald Hamilton was Governor,
occurred one of the most severe storms in the colony's early
history. It did considerable damage in Westmoreland, %which
was still the chief centre of agricultural effort after the coming
of the Surinam settlers.
During the administration of Peter Heywood, a planter
who was appointed Governor in 1716, with the hope of
conciliating the Legislature, a law was passed legalising the
mutilation and dismembernment of slaves for certain serious
In 1728 there were signs of growing unrest amongst the
Maroons, and prompt steps were taken to safeguard the colony.
In consequence of the \warlike attitude of these free Africans,
COFFEE TREE. [Duperly Photo. two regiments of foot were transported from Gibraltar, arriving


in Jamaica in 1730. Four years later a formidable
expedition was sent against the Maroons, who
were well protected in their mountain strong-
holds. Strong as it was, the Government force
was entrapped and surrounded, and escaped
annihilation with the utmost difficulty. The
Government troops then changed their tactics,
and after some hard fighting succeeded in
dispersing one of the principal Maroon bands
at a place known as Nanny To~wn, an old
African stronghold.
Governor Trelawny arrived in 1738, and at
once sought to perfect terms of peace with the
hardy and courageous mountaineers. It was
mutually agreed that 2,500 acres of land should
be ceded, along with absolute freedom to them
and all their descendants, the Maroons engaging
to assist the Government at all times to repel
invasion and quell rebellion. To this day many
NEWCASTLE. IDupirly Photo. descendants of the Maroons hold the lands
which were granted to their forefathers by the
In 1739 Jamaica fitted out a large expedition to attack the American possessions of Spain, against which
country England had again declared war. The expedition achieved some unimportant successes, but on
the whole it ended in failure.
An era of peace and gradual progress ensued until 1778, when war broke out between France and England,
and a powerful French fleet set sail for the West Indies. Martial law was proclaimed in Jamaica, and great
preparations made to resist the enemy. Spain joined France, and as a result of this the Governor of Jamaica,
Sir Edward Trela%\ny, organised an expedition against Nicaragua. San Juan was captured, but disease broke out
in the camp of the invaders, and the consequent ravages were terrible. Of the large invading force only a
miserable remnant, headed by the famous Nelson, returned to Port Royal.
In 1782 Rodney gained his ever-memorable victory over the French fleet under De Grasse, who was on
his way to join the Spanish fleet. The people of Jamaica, who were in great dread of the threatened attack on
the island, went wild with joy on receipt of the news of Rodney's success.
Once again Jamaica figured prominently in an independent
expedition on behalf of England. The Governor then adminis-
tering the affairs of the colony received orders from the home
Government to send a military force to Santo Domingo to
"accept terms of capitulation from the inhabitants of such
parts of the island as solicited the protection of the British
governmentt. The expedition succeeded in capturing several
towns on the coast; but disease again proved more formidable
than the enemy being operated against, and notwithstanding the
extraordinary efforts made to subdue the island, the invaders
had to be satisfied 'with the conclusion of a treaty, in 1798,
x ith Toussaint l'Ouverture, the remnant of the force returning
to Jamaica.
In the meantime the slaves began to chafe under the
severe restrictions imposed upon them. Echoes of the stirring
appeals made on the,r behalf in England began to reach them
in some mysterious way. Their sullen discontent came to a
climax when, in 1760, an extensive uprising took place in
the parish of St. Mary. Order %\as restored after much loss
of life.
The island was thro, n into a state of general alarm in
T795 by the outbreak of the second Maroon war, far more
serious than the rising of 1734. Expert in the craft of mountain
warfare, the sturdy African hosts more than held their own at
the tbginning of the campaign. The troops sent against them
frequently fell into ambuscades, and lost heavily. In this, as
in other disturbances, the local militia proved of considerable
value. On this occasion they \\ere assisted by the Maroons
of Accoml)ong, who remained loyal to the Govf-rnment throughout
the difficult period. The insurrection lasted one year, and when
it was quelled about 500 men, women and children of the lawless [Attewell Photo.
and turbulent band \\ere deported to Nova Scotia, whence CEIBA COTTON TREE.


they were sent to Sierra Leone, West Africa.
Jamaica continued to grow enormously
rich, internal disturbances notwithstanding. It
is recorded that "' not less than one million
pounds were voluntarily subscribed to help
England against revolutionary France in 1798,"
and when war broke out with France and
Spain in 1804, extensive preparations were
made by Jamaica for its own defence. The
war is memorable in West Indian history
particularly because of the brilliant victory
gained by the British over the French fleet
near Santo Domingo. The captured French 4o
prizes were brought to Port Royal, which

operations, being the chief entrepot, or dis- t' et
tributing station.
In 1807 Sir Eyre Coote arrived from
England with the intelligence that the Parlia-
ment of England had abolished the slave trade
without compensation to the planters. There [D operly lhoto.
were then in Jamaica 319,351 slaves. WAG WATER RIVER, CASTLETON.
The Duke of Manchester assumed the
government on March 26th, 18o8, and for a time there was deep depression and distress in consequence of the
war with France and with the United States; also because of the losses caused by severe storms in 18r3, 1Si5
and I8r8. An outstanding feature of Manchester's administration was the opening of the bitter controversy
between the English Parliament and the Jamaica Assembly with regard to the Slave Code. In 1823 the local
Assembly was requested to carry into immediate effect the Parliamentary resolution of IMr. Canning for ameliorating
the condition of the slaves. The Assembly refused not only to adopt the measures recommended, but also repudiated
the right of the Imperial Parliament to interfere with the internal management of the island. The dispute simmered
until 1829, when the Earl of Belmore (Manchester's successor) repeated the demand of Parliament for a modification
of the Slave Code. An unsatisfactory compromise was reached, and slight amendments of the Code accepted.
The English Government, not yet fully satisfied, made further proposals for improving the condition of the
slaves, and the Assembly offered a strenuous, if not violent, resistance," the members declining to consider
any more measures not directly emanating from themselves. The antagonism of the Assembly and the slave
owners towards the Imperial Government became so pronounced that the former threatened to "transfer their
allegiance to the United States, or even to assert their independence after the manner of their Continental neighbours."
Intense hostility of this character naturally had a direct influence on the slaves themselves. Aware of what
was passing, they organised an outbreak in 1831. The burning of a mansion and sugar works in St. James was
the signal for the uprising, and within a few hours sixteen incendiary fires were destroying valuable sugar estates
in the same neighbourhood. The outbreak was suppressed by the militia, after damage had been done to the
extent of 666,977 sterling. A large share
of the responsibility for this outbreak with
such serious results was cast on the Imperial
authorities, and the British Government, in
commiseration of the deplorable state to
which the proprietors were reduced," granted
them a loan of /200,000 to enable them to
re-establish their plantations.
Again, in 1832, M\hen the Earl of Mulgrave
arrived as Governor, the Assembly was called
upon to give effect to the Canning resolution
of 1823. TheAssembly maintained its objection
firmly and had it put upon record that, %while
recognizing the supremacy of the Sovereign,
it could not admit "tile supremacy of one
portion of His Majesty's subjects in the
Parent State over another portion of his
subjects in Jamaica."
Then came the passing of the Emanci-
pation Act by the English Parliament, and
in 1833 it \was laid before the Jamaica
Assembly. There was no alternative left the
planters and slave-owners, and the Assembly
er noo. had to accept the edict, causing strong pro-
JAMAICAN RIVER SCENE. tests to be entered on the records nevertheless.


In accordance with the Imperial Act, slavery was abolished on August ist, 1834, and an apprenticeship
system established in its stead. The English Government paid compensation for 225,290 slaves, the amount
awarded to the owners being .5,853,975 sterling. The apprenticeship system, a mild form of slavery in itself,
was abolished by Parliament in 1838, having been in existence only four years; and on August ist, 1838, absolute
freedom was conferred on the entire Negro population. Intense rejoicing prevailed for many days, the simple
Negroes revelling in their new-found liberty. Thus came to an end one of the most barbaric and revolting chapters
in the history of British rule in the West Indies. For I19 years slavery had brought untold wealth to
Government and planter alike; also anguish and travail to the poor Negro, stolen from his home, whipped and
coerced, shackled and penned as though he were only an animal. And when one looks to-day upon the peaceful
homes and fertile fields of the Jamaican peasant, one cannot help marvelling at the progress made by a people
whose forebears, much less than a hundred years ago-whose very fathers in many instances-wore the shackles of
the slave and bore the marks (emblems of woe) of the taskmaster's whipcord. Liberty and education have
been doing their work; and the standard of intelligence that now obtains is evidence incontestable of a
future full of promise. Industrial activity follows in the wake of education; and the farms of the peasants grow
more abundant, more prolific, as Time marches on.

LUuperly Photo.


There followed a long period of peace and moderate prosperity, although the evils of absentee-proprietorship
\ere beginning to be in evidence. There was a recrudescence of the old troubles between the Government and
the Legislature. This unfortunate animosity was so pronounced in 1862, when Mr. Edward John Eyre, then
Lieut.-Governor, and the Assembly came into violent collision, that the Assembly passed a resolution by a large
majority refusing to proceed to any further business with His Excellency." A period of great depression, caused
by a prolonged drought and the American civil war, had the effect of unsettling the population. Public meetings,
at which the members of the African race were recommended to assert themselves by publicly setting forth their
grievances, served to intensify the bitterness of the people. In October of the following year serious trouble
occurred in the parish of St. Thomas. Opinions differ widely as to the true nature of the difficulty, and the
responsibility for the bloody conflict. In view of the very conflicting reports of what actually occurred, it is perhaps
wisest to quote the semi-official version of the affair as it appears in the Jamaica Handbook." It reads:-
"On the ilth of October, 1865, a crowd of some hundreds of black people armed with cutlasses, bayonets,
sticks, and muskets, entered the square in front of the Court House at Morant Bay and declared for 'war.'
Their cry was Colour for colour; blood for blood.' The custos and magistrates of the parish were butchered
while holding the meeting for the transaction of business. The volunteers, who were drawn up in front of the
Court House, were stoned, and, although they fired, were overpowered. All the officers and many members of the


force were killed. Martial law was at once proclaimed, troops were despatched to the disaffected district, and the
outbreak vigorously quelled. The principal agitator, Mr. George William Gordon, who was mainly responsible, was
arrested, tried by court-martial, and hanged, while a number of the actual ringleaders among the insurgents were
similarly dealt with.
"On intelligence of the affair reaching England, Sir Henry Knight Storks was sent out to assume the govern
ment and act as president of a commission of enquiry, of which the other members were Mr. Russell Gurney, the
Recorder of London, and Mr. J. B. Maule, the Recorder of Leeds.
The conclusion at which the commission arrived was that the outbreak had been quelled with unnecessary
severity. They reported, however, that the 'disturbances had their origin in a planned resistance to lawful authority,
and that 'a principal object of the disturbers of order was the obtaining of land free of rent.'
"As a result of this finding Mr. Eyre was recalled by Her Majesty's Government, and left Jamaica." From
the unofficial chronicles we learn that Mr. Eyre was largely a victim of circumstances, discontent, born of adminis-
trative errors of the distant past, culminating at a rather awkward period. He died in retirement in England. His


successor was Sir John Peter Grant, a man of remarkable resource and strength of character. Immediately after his
arrival he set about, with a reconstituted Legislature, introducing a series of useful measures of reform. The whole
civil establishment was re-modelled, and a system of popular education introduced. Notwithstanding all these
improvements, the colony's revenue increased largely, and, instead of the large deficits of the past, each year found
a substantial surplus in the Treasury. As illustrative of the character of Sir John, it is related in the records that
during a memorable debate in the Assembly he was told by the Attorney-General that a certain course which he
advocated was contrary to law. "I am the law!" shouted Sir John, as he brought his fist on the table \\ith an
energetic thud.
The administration of Sir John Peter Grant is also remarkable because of the case of La Havre," which
at one time threatened to develop international difficulty of a serious nature. The vessel was captured at
sea by a Spanish ship of war, and towed to Port Royal. Her papers showed that she was bound for Jamaica.
Sir J. P. Grant, on the advice of the Attorney-General, Mr. Hislop, detained the cargo on the strength of a local
statute, which provided for the forfeiture of munitions of war shipped at a foreign port and imported into Jamaica.
Actions to recover damages were laid against the Governor by the owners of the vessel and of the cargo. The
amount claimed was 35,ooo00. The first case was decided against the Governor; and a compromise was then


effected, the Governor giving his promissory
note payable in six months, for 7,920,
with interest at 8 per cent., and restoring
the seized property. The promissory note
was redeemed by the Legislature, and on the
colony making strong representation to the
Imperial Government that the seizure was
in pursuance of British international policy, the
money was refunded.
Mus : -, An almost similar case, but one fraught
with graver consequences to the colony,
occurred in July, I88i, when two actions
were filed in the local courts by General
Pulido against the Governor of Jamaica, Sir
Anthony Musgrave, for the detention in 1877
of the schooner "Florence" and her cargo
of arms and ammunition. Damages were
# 4 assessed in the two cases at Z8,ooo. The
vessel, on arrival at Port Royal, reported
herself in distress and she was permitted to
land her cargo of war munitions at Fort
Augusta and proceed into the harbour for repairs.
.? When these repairs had been effected, on the
iAttewell Photo. advice of the Attorney-General, Mr. O'Malley,
LLANDOVERY FALLS. the Governor required the captain to enter
into security to proceed directly to the island
of St. Thomas, her port of destination. A thousand pounds had been lodged in the Treasury on behalf
of the captain, and on the production of a certificate from the British Consul at St. Thomas of the ship's
arrival there, this amount was refunded. It was because of the delay and inconvenience caused generally that
damages were sought. The plaintiffs gained a verdict in both cases, damages being assessed at 6,700.
The Governor obtained an advance from the Treasury and promptly paid the amount with all costs "in
order to avoid the indignity of having his property levied upon and sold to satisfy the judgment." The
(;Governor expressed his readiness to refund the amount to the colony in case the Imperial authorities should
be dissatisfied with the course he had pursued. Soon afterwards the Governor was instructed to invite the
lamaica Legislature to pass a vote covering the expenditure, the official members of the Council being
ordered to support the vote. In consequence of this extraordinary order the Auditor-General, Mr. J. C. MacGlashan,
and the ,Crown Solicitor, Mr. S. C. Burke, immediately resigned their seats in the Council, the first-named
declaring that the "acts of the Governor in reference to the vessel were regarded by the Colonial and Foreign
Secretaries as questions of Imperial and international duty," and Mr. Burke on the ground that "the
damages and costs were incurred solely in pursuance of Imperial policy and objects." The incident created
considerable public feeling; and whilst the matter was being considered by a select committee of the Legisla-
ture, public meetings were held all over the
island to protest against the Imperial edict.
The committee reported that the "Council _J7
would not be justified in sanctioning the vote,
as the deLention of the vessel was made
entirely to protect Imperial interests, and in
no way could this island derive any benefit
therefrom." Numerous petitions were pIresented
against the suggested procedure, and the un-
official members of the Council succeeded in
passing a resolution supporting these petitions.
Whereupon the Governor informed the Secretary
of State for the (Colonies of "the utter
impossibility that the question at issue could
be decided in favour of the Government with the
present majority of unofficial members." Ulti-
mately the Imperial Government paid half of the
amount in dispute, the Legislature being directed
to vote the remainder. On the motion for this
vote being lput, eight official members and the
Commander of the Imperial Forces voted for
it. The six unofficial members who were pre-
sent voted against the payment, and soon after
they, along, \with two colleagues who were tLuperly noto.
absent in England, sent in their resignations. TOM CRINGLE'S COTTON TREE, Spanish Town Road.


One of the direct results of the agitation
which followed this incident was the granting
of a new constitution to the colony on more
liberal lines, a semi-representative system
replacing the method of Crown Government,
concerning which the old Legislature passed
a resolution declaring that the expenditure
of the island during the fifteen years just
elapsed had been in excess in the aggregate
to the extent of Z2,ooo,ooo over any similar
period in the history of the colony without,
in the opinion of the Council, any adequate
advantages being derived therefrom." The
important change took effect in 1884, when,
in opening the first session of the reconstituted
Legislature, the Governor, Sir Henry Norman,
congratulated the members on "the restora-
tion, as some would call it, or the commence-
ment, as others would say, of representative
institutions in the colony."
In 1891, an exhibition on a large scale
was held. It was opened by Prince George
of Wales (now His Majesty King George V.),
who visited Jamaica incommand of squadron
for that special purpose. The exhibition was
a great success. It lasted from January 27
to May 2, and the attendance is stated to
tourist trade which has become so important


have been 302,831. In this way was laid the
a part of the colony's domestic economy.

[Duperly Photo

foundation of the

The history of Jamaica furnishes record of two great and devastating earthquakes. The first one destroyed
Port Royal and completely altered the trend of the island's trade. Prior to this catastrophe, Port Royal, the
stronghold of the buccaneers and an emporium of the West Indian trade, was, as it is recorded in the colony's
annals, the finest town in the West Indies," and, at that time, the richest spot in the universe. The
headquarters of Morgan and his merry thieves, the town revelled in a long period of debauchery. In the
midst of a wild orgy, on the morning of June 7, 1692, the earth was considerably shaken and it heaved
tremendously." The rector of the town, at the time, supplied a very graphic account of what actually occurred.
This is what he wrote: Whole streets, with their inhabitants, were swallowed up by the opening of the earth,
which, when shut upon them, squeezed the people to death, and in that manner several uere left with their
heads above ground, and others covered
w ith dust and earth by the people x\ho
remained in the place. It was a sad sight
,. to see the harbour covered with dead bodies
of people of all conditions floating up and
down without burial, for the burial-place was
destroyed by the earthquake, which dashed
to pieces tombs, and the sea x\ashed out
of their graves the carcases of those xwho
had been buried."
At Green Bay, near to the quarantine
station, may still be seen the tomb of Lewis
Galdy, with this remarkable inscription :
Lewis Galdy was swallowed up by
the earthquake, and, by the providence of
God was, by another shock, thrown into the
sea. and miraculously saved by swimming
until a boat took him up; he lived many
years after in great reputation, beloved by
all who knew him, and much lamented at
his death."
A considerable part of the town sank, so
that what remained was merely a miniature
of the whole as it existed before. The
[Duperly Photo. system of privateering which then prevailed
CASTLETON GARDENS. continued to flourish, and soon wealth \\as


again pouring into the stricken town. After a comparatively short time the terror inspired by the earthquake
commenced to subside, and the town became overcrowded with merchants, tradesmen, and adventurers, amongst
the freebooters being many criminals, who had been sent to the island from England for the purpose ot colonising.
The place, after a time, could not retain its largely growing population, and plans were prepared for laying out
the city of Kingston. Sir William Beeston, who was then Governor, took a prominent part in establishing the
new settlement, and a street bears his name as a memorial of his good work.
In 1703 fire destroyed the whole of Port Royal, only the forts and magazines escaping without injury. Once
again the population of the unfortunate town took up the task of rebuilding. Their efforts progressed well, and
the place had been almost entirely restored, when, in August, 1722, a severe storm wrecked the town, sweeping
many of the houses into the sea, and killing a large number of the inhabitants. At the time of the storm there
were at Port Royal fifty vessels, of which only four ships of war and two merchantmen escaped destruction, and
these had their masts and booms carried away. Still once more the people with great fortitude set about rebuilding
the city, which had been so often and completely overwhelmed by natural convulsions and fire. The war in
which England was then engaged brought considerable trade to Port Royal, and this, no doubt, was a potent factor


in the resettling of the town. Another disastrous fire, however, decided the fate of the buccaneer stronghold. With
the doom of Port Royal utterly sealed, Kingston began to arise as a city of great importance. Repeated calamities
had done more than all else to bring to fruition the cherished plans of Sir William Beeston, promulgated in
1703, when, as an encouragement to the settlement of the new town, he had a law exempting from taxation, for
seven years, all houses constructed in Kingston within the year. Some time afterwards a law was passed declaring
Kingston to be the chief seat of trade, and the head port of entry for the island. The new town continued to
grow, and so satisfactory was its advance that, in 1713, it was provided by law that the city should "for-ever be
taken and esteemed as an entire and distinct parish, with all the powers of any other parish."
Kingston grew in size and wealth until May 16, 1780, when fire, which lasted a whole day, destroyed a
large portion of the town. Yet another conflagration in 1843 did much damage, and ro,ooo had to be
distributed to alleviate the gleat distress which followed.
In the meantime the establishment of direct steam communication between Europe and Spanish-America
diverted the wealth which had flown steadily into Jamaica. Thus-yanished the glamour and the opulence of the
past- and much romance also, streaked throughout with tragedy.
In March, 1862, another fire destroyed a very large section of the business centre of Kingston. Of the
J'90,ooo of damage done only ,9,400 w\as covered by insurance.


The fourth important conflagration in
Kingston occurred in 1882, when a con-
siderable portion of the commercial district
was again devastated. Some 570 houses were
burned, and 6,ooo persons were left homeless;
one estimate places the damage at 220,000.
After 1882 the island enjoyed immunity
from serious disaster until August 1I, 1903,
when a disastrous hurricane did great damage
to the crops and buildings. The banana
industry sustained a great set-back. Pimento
also suffered severely, the whole of the ciop
being swept away, and fully 50 per cent. of
the trees uprooted and blown down. Altogether
the damage to crops alone was estimated at
several millions of pounds sterling. To this
disaster may be directly traced the develop-
ment that has taken place in the Costa Rica
banana trade with England and America. The
impossibility of obtaining fruit in Jamaica
drove the companies to search out fresh
fields Costa Rica had already made a start
in banana growing, and soon the industry
began to advance to a considerable extent,
PLUM POINT LIGHTHOUSE. [Duperly Photo. most of the labour on the plantations being
Jamaican. To-day Costa Rica is Jamaica's
most serious rival in the fruit business.
The terrible earthquake of recent times is the last of the island's most memorable calamities. The 14th day
of January, 1907, will long be renrembered in the history of Jamaica. It is a frightful story, terrible even in the
telling of it. None who passed through those thirty-five seconds of woe and agony can ever forget the horror
of it all.
The sun rose in the morning over a city that was looking its brightest amidst great preparations for an event
that was calculated to usher in a new era of awakened agricultural prosperity. It passed over the western horizon
that night a livid reflection of a ruined city in the grasp of all-devouring flames
The West Indian Agricultural Conference (an annual fixture) was being held in Jamaica for the first time, and
Kingston had taken a holiday in honour of the happy event. The tourist season was at its height. Thousands of
visitors from England and the United States were in the island, most of them being in Kingston and Port Antonio
at the time of the catastrophe. In addition, the late Sir Alfred Jones (to whose enterprise Jamaica owes much)
had brought out a distinguished party from England, including the Earl of Dudley, the late Rt. Hon. Arnold Forster,
Mr. Henniker Heaton, Mr. Jesse Collings,
and several members of the Cotton Associa-
tion. From all the other West Indian colonies
and British Guiana had come also distinguished
officials and agriculturists as delegates to the
Conference. -
T.ke several parties arrived in Jamaica
-ofi January II, and, in company with the
leading officials and planters of the island,
they indulged in rounds of gaiety. enjoying
to the full the lavish hospitality provided by
a grateful, hopeful people.
On Monday, January 14, all the delegates
and almost all the distinguished visitors
gathered in the Mico Building to inaugurate
the Conference. The spacious room was
crowded; and the Governor, Sir Alexander
Swettenham, in a brief speech welcomed to
Jamaica all the visitors, from far and near.
He declared the Conference open. Then Sir
Daniel Morris (late head of the Imperial
Department of Agriculture in the West Indies)
delivered an opening address explaining the
position of the several West Indian industries,
and outlining the programme to be discussed.
There was a brief adjournment for luncheon, [Duper I Photo.
and at 2.45 p.m. the Conference was resumed. BANYAN TREE,.iPARADE GARDENS, KINGSTON.


The Hon. F. J. Clarke, Speaker of the House of Assembly, Barbados, in a forcible speech, moved an address of loyalty to
the throne and person of the Sovereign. It was fitting, he said, at such an important assemblage of representatives
of England's West Indian possessions, that expression should be given to their loyalty and devotion to the Throne.
" \e have had our periods of prosperity and our times of adversity,' he continued; but never at any time has our
loyalty ever wavered."
The enthusiastic applause that followed the unanimous adoption of this address had just passed away when a
loud. low, rumbling noise was heard. The floor of the Conference hall began to rise, to tremble and to heave.
Then the whole building commenced to shake violently. The breaking of the ceiling and the gaping of the walls struck
terror into the hearts of many of those assembled. For a moment panic threatened, and an attempt was made to
rush for the doorway. But clear above the din rose the strong, resonant voice of the late Dr. Nuttall, Archbishop
,f the West Indies. The delegates paused and turned to listen. Kneeling, with his right arm upraised as though
pronouncing the benediction, the Archbishop said, without a tremor of fear, Gentlemen, let there be no panic.
Rather, let us turn our thoughts to Almighty God."
it was a thrilling, dramatic moment. The effect of the calm, deliberate utterance was instantaneous. After
that every man kept his place until the earth had ceased its terrible writhing. Thus passed thirty-five seconds of
most intense agony. As the shock ceased all quietly left the building.

[Duperly Photo.
KING STREET, KINGSTON, before the Earthquake of 1907.

In the nlmantime Kingston had been shaken to its very foundation. The city heaved and trembled like a ship
in the grip of a storm. Hundreds of buildings were overturned and wrecked, and thousands of others were
damaged more or less seriously. In a minute the streets were littered with broken roofs and walls and other debris;
and from every side came agonising shrieks for help. Terror-stricken, battered and wounded, those who were
engaged in business within the commercial area ran wildly in search of their houses and families. Dead bodies,
horribly mangled and mutilated, laid amidst the debris on the principal thoroughfares, and almost every building
that fell claimed its victim.
Soon a fresh terror was added to the turmoil, confusion, and distress. A fire, that had started in King Street,
commenced to complete the havoc wrought by the earthquake, and, as it swept relentlessly over the centre of the
ruined city, it brought a cruel death to scores of men and women who had been injured or pinned down beneath the
wreckage. The work of rescue was unorganised, and the flames moved southwards so speedily that comparatively
few of the injured were saved from the fire.
Thus the damage done by the earthquake was greatly augmented by fire. The conflagration extended from the
sea front to the south side of the Parade, and completely destroyed all the buildings within the commercial area,
including the Colonial Bank (English) and the Bank of Nova Scotia (Canadian).
The loss of life from earthquake and fire is estimated at between I,ooo and 1,2oo. The loss of property is set
down at from i,ooo,ooo to Z1,500,ooo. Over fifty acres of buildings were destroyed by the fire.

_ _


On January 17 a General Relief Committee was formed, under the chairmanship of the Archbishop of the
West Indies. Steps were promptly taken to provide food, shelter, and raiment for thousands of homeless and
destitute people who were encamped on the race-course and on other open spaces, whither they had fled,
terror-stricken, after the earthquake.
As the result of representations by the local Legislature and by the West India Committee, and a largely-signed
petition sent to the Imperial Parliament, a grant of 6150,000 from the Imperial Treasury was made to the sufferers
by the double disaster, in addition to the contributions provided by the Lord Mayor of London's Fund and
donations from the British colonies and foreign countries. These grants were administered by a responsible
committee under Government supervision. A loan of 80oo,ooo was also authorised by Parliament to provide funds,
at a low rate of interest, in order to facilitate the rebuilding of the ruined city. These provisions have been
judiciously applied, and to-day all the wrecked and damaged buildings have been restored in the commercial
centre, the new structures being of a substantial type, chiefly of steel framework with reinforced concrete. Since
the catastrophe a comprehensive building law has been passed by the Legislature, under which only buildings of a
substantial, earthquake-resisting nature may be erected in the City of Kingston. The litigation that ensued in
connection with the fire resulted in the various insurance companies paying 85 per cent. of the claims, plus all
the costs, the total amount being close on 1,ooo,ooo.
Like the other British West Indian colonies, Jamaica during the war proved eminently worthy of its relationship
to the Mother Country. Many patriotic and philanthropic activities were started, and a gift of sugar to the value
of 650,000 was voted. In April, 1915, Mr. William Wilson initiated a fund with a view of paying the expenses of


[I)Duperly P'hoto.

those who wished to join the British Army, and later the Legislature voted for their maintenance upon a war footing
Z6o,ooo per annum for forty years. The first contingent sailed from Jamaica cn November 8th, 1915, and was
,followed by three others during the ensuing year, the whole totalling about 0o,ooo troops, or eleven battalions of the
newl\y raised British West India Regiment, which, after training in camps in England, rendered noble service in the
capture of Palestine. In Jamaica large sums of money were raised for various war funds.

The original Constitution granted by Charles II., in 1662, which, after existing for 204 years, was
lirrendered in 1866, was a representative one, consisting of a Governor, a Privy Council, a Legislative Council, and
an Assembly of 47 elected members. The depression caused by the abolition of slavery led to a grave constitutional
crisis the Assembly refusing to vote supplies, and endeavouring to enforce sweeping reductions in establishments,
without compensation to the displaced officers. Lord Melbourne's Government, in 1839, actually introduced a Bill
into Parliament for the suspension of the constitution, but was defeated; and it was not till 1854 that, by a
change in the constitution of the Council, harmony was temporarily restored.
After the suppression of the rebellion in 1865, Governor Eyre, at the meeting of the Legislature. urged the
unsuitability of the then existing form of Government to meet the circumstances of the community, and the necessity
of making some sweeping change by which a strong Government might be created. The Legislature willingly
responded, abrogated all the existing machinery of legislation, and left it to Her Majesty's Government to substitute
any other form of Government which might be better suited to the altered circumstances of the colony.


In 1869 a Legislative Council was established, consisting of such numbers of official and unofficial members a
Her Majesty might think fit. The numbers of each were six until 1878, when they were enlarged to eight, and ;
ninth was added in 1881.
By Order in Council dated 19th May, 1884, and Amending Order of 3rd October, 1895, the constitution wat
fixed in the following manner:-
The Council to consist of the Governor (with only a casting vote) and five ex oficio members, viz., the Seniol
Military Officer, the Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, Director of Public Works, and Collector-General, and suct
other persons, not exceeding ten in number, as Her Majesty may from time to time appoint, or as the Governoi
may from time to time provisionally appoint, and fourteen persons to be elected as therein provided. The Counci
shall be dissolved at the end of five years from the last preceding general election, if it shall not have beer
previously dissolved.
There is also a Privy Council, with the usual powers and functions of an Executive Council. It consists oi
the Lieutenant-Governor, if any, the Senior Military Officer in command, the Colonial Secretary, and Attorney.

1. York Houne. 2. Gordon Hall. 3. Parish Church. 4. Church of Up-Park Camp. 5. Portion of Premises of Arnold Malabre & Co.

General and such other persons as may be named by the King, or provisionally appointed by the Governor subject
to the approval of His Majesty, but the number of members is not to exceed eight. The Governor is to preside
at each meeting, and the Governor and two members form a quorum.

There are elective Parochial Boards in the City of Kingston and 14 other parishes, under Laws 13 o
1900 and 17 of i901, with jurisdiction over roads, markets, sanitation, poor relief, waterworks, and pounds.
The parish is the unit of local government, and each parish has its own parochial institutions, viz., poor
houses, etc., etc., managed hy the Parochial Board of the parish, the members of which are elected by thi
persons entitled to vote for the election of members of the Legislative Council. The administration of poo
relief by the Parochial Boards is controlled by a Board of Supervision. The several direct taxes received ot.
property, horses, carriages, etc., etc., are devoted mainly to the parish in which they are collected, with th,


exception of a few minor items, and a tax of 8d. in every 1io in Kingston and is. in every iro in the
other parishes of the gross value of the property, which go to the credit of the general revenue of the colony.
There is a Supreme Court of Judicature, together with Resident Magistrate Courts and Petty Sessions of
Justices of the Peace throughout the island. The Resident Magistrates, besides holding courts of their own,
preside in the Courts of Petty Sessions.
An "Island medical service," under the control of a superintending medical officer, was established in
1870. The several medical practitioners, who receive a retaining fee or salary from the Government, are designated
district medical officers." They are located throughout the island, and for the fixed salary paid by Government
they have to attend sick paupers, parochial hospitals and almshouses, the constabulary officers and men, and prisons.

Elementary education is provided for from public funds, and during recent years o07 Government
undenominationall) elementary schools have been established. The number of schools is 693, with 45,941
scholars in average attendance; no fees are charged. The Government maintains a system of inspection, and for
women teachers provides a training college, which is mainly supported from public funds, besides largely assisting



the Mico undenominational training college for men, and two denominational colleges for women teachers. By a
law passed in 1892 a Board of Education was constituted. Parish and District School Boards have taken up duties
delegated to them; the District School Boards manage the Government schools, some of which are held 'in
government t buildings, others in rented buildings. ,mi-.
Provision was made in 1892 for the opening of Government secondary schools where required; there are two
secondary schools receiving aid from public funds. Secondary education is also provided for by ten other endowed
schools, under local governing bodies controlled by the Jamaica Schools Commission, and a number of private
schools A beginning has been made in providing from public funds for technical education. There are three
scholarships (one for girls) tenable at English universities or elsewhere within the British Empire. One Rhodes
scholarshipp is annually awarded in Jamaica. The following examinations are held :--London University, Cambridge
Locals, Oxford and Cambridge Joint Board, Associated Board of the Royal Academy of Music and the Royal
College of Music, Royal Drawing Society.
In the Institute of Jamaica (in Kingston) is a Public Library with 19,000 books, of which 5,00oo form a
West India Reference Library; a Natural History Museum, and a Jamaica History Gallery.



The agricultural and industrial history of Jamaica dates back to the sixteenth century, when 1,200 settlers
arrived from Surinam, Dutch Guiana, and commenced the systematic cultivation of cane in the parish of
Westmoreland. Upon this firm foundation was built up a sugar industry that grew with such rapid strides as to
promise almost endless possibilities. The products of the estates were shipped to Europe, and brought considerable
wealth to the planters. For many years the industry continued to advance steadily. In 1805 the exports reached
the high total of 105,246 tons. Undoubtedly the slavery system had a great influence on the situation As long
as slavery lasted, and high prices obtained in the markets abroad, the planters were content to lead a life of
reckless extravagance. The period was one of wild profligacy; and of restraining influence there was none. Even
before the abolition of slavery the condition of the estate owners is described as having been "exceedingly
precarious." With the slavery system ended, large numbers of the planters left the colony to reside in England,
thus initiating the era of absenteeism which did so much to ruin the once prosperous industry. Machinery was
seldom, if ever, renewed; and when Continental beetroot entered into a struggle for a command of the world's
markets, the estates of Jamaica were slenderly equipped for the fight. And it is here that the colonies have a
genuine grievance against the fiscal policy of England. Whilst the Continental Governments were doing everything in



their power to foster and develop the beet industry, the English Government persistently declined to grant the
prayers of the West Indies for the imposition of such an import duty on the beetroot product as might at least
(offt-t the advantages derived from the pernicious system of bounties which enabled Austrian, German and Russian
sugar to be sold in England at less than the cost of production.
Facing such fearful odds, little wonder it is that the sugar industry of Jamaica declined steadily. The selfish
and short-sighted policy of the English statesmen of the time did far more harm than the abolition of slavery, which
was. after all, merely an act of justice long deferred. The industry fell into such a parlous state that in 1897 the
Imperial Government sent out a Commission, of which an Ex-Governor, Sir Henry Norman, was chairman, and the
then Governor of Jamaica, Sir Sydney Olivier, was secretary. This Commission made a series of recommendations.
including an Imperial grant, to assist in bringing the estates more into line with modern conditions, and also the
establishment of direct steam communication between the Mother Country and the West Indies. The Imperial grant
was voted by Parliament, and distributed amongst the several West Indian colonies. Jamaica's share (Io,ooc) was
appropriated for the establishment of a sugar experiment station.



In the meantime, however, the sugar-producing colonies of Spain had fallen into the hands of the United States
as the reward of her victory over Spain. Special tariff inducements were offered to Porto Rico, the Philippines and
Cuba. The result of this was the practical closing of the American market to Jamaica sugar. This intensified the
situation so much that, as a last resort, Mr. Chamberlain (when Secretary of State for the Colonies) induced
Parliament to take steps which led to the abolition of the Continental bounty system. The effect of this agreement
was almost instantly perceivable in Jamaica.
With the abolition of the bounties in accordance with the International Agreement, known as the Brussels
Convention," confidence was renewed to some extent in the sugar industry. During the war it attained remarkable
prosperity. The latest figures available at the time of writing are those for 1919, and that year marked the
greatest revival in the industrial progress of Jamaica during the past century. This is indicated by the record of
exports, which show an increase of more than ioo per cent. in value over those of the previous year. Agriculturally
the year was one of low rainfall. Large areas of land suffered from drought in the summer months and from inadequate
autumnal rains. Despite these disadvantages the export of sugar was 38,000 tons in comparison with the 20,820
tons in 1914. The general trend is towards centralisation, resulting in large central factories with the most modern
machinery being established in many localities, and many of the smaller estates dismantling their machinery and
becoming cane farms to feed the centrals. The developments now in hand should eventually result in an increased
production of about 1oo,ooo tons of sugar per annum.
The great impulse accorded to sugar growing and manufacture by the high prices resulting from war
conditions has led to the erection of several large new sugar factories. Amongst these is the one now being

constructed on the estate of the Grays Inn Sugar Factory Co., Ltd., Annotto Bay, which is expected to be working
for the 1923 crop. The engineers carrying out the contract are Messrs. George Fletcher and Co., Ltd., the
greatest sugar-mill machinery specialists and manufacturers in the world, at whose Masson and Atlas Works,
Derby, operated entirely by electricity, about I,ooo men are employed. Thlir business has been established for
about eighty years, and was formed into a limited liability company in 19io. Messrs. George Fletcher and Co.'s
trade and connections extend throughout the world. Their West Indian interests are the special care of
-Mr. James Peet, who has been connected with the business since 1871, and has probably had more experience of
West Indian sugar manufacture than any one alive. He was for some years chief engineer of the great Madeline
Usine in Trinidad, and became a director of Messrs. George Fletcher and Co., Ltd., in 1915. Mr. Peet makes
periodical visits to the West Indies, and has been very influential in bringing the sugar factories there into line
with the most modern scientific and mechanical development.
Equally noteworthy are the rapid strides made in the development of the export of rum. The output of tliis
valuable by-product of the sugar industry in 1914 was 13,788 puncheons. In 1919 it was 18,415 puncheons.

Fruit proved the salvation of Jamaica during the period when the sugar industry was threatened with extinction.
I rom the humble beginning made about 1870 by two men of enterprise, both deceased, whose names are honoured all
,ver Jamaica-John E. Kerr (Jamaica-born and a Crimean veteran), and Lorenzo Dow Baker (a Massachusetts
sailor)-the fruit trade has grown to its present colossal dimensions. Schooners demonstrated the possibilities of
the industry, and soon steamers took their place. To-day nearly one hundred specially constructed steamers are
regularly employed in the transportation of fruit, which exceeds i6,ooc,ooo bunches of bananas annually. The bulk
of the trade is in the hands of the United Fruit Company, an American organisation, whilst the English branch is
dominated by Elders and Fyffes, Ltd., who came into the field as a direct result of the contract executed in 900o


with Elder, Dempster and Co., Ltd., for the establishment of the Imperial Direct West India Mail Service, furnishing a
direct fortnightly (now weekly) steam service between Bristol and Jamaica.
The large coffee plantations are mainly on the Blue Mountain Range. Comparatively few of the large
plantations remain, however, and the great bulk of the coffee exported is grown by small landowners on the
limestone formation, which is the principal geological area. The great fruit-growing districts are in St. Mary,
with Port Maria, Annotto Bay, and St. Catherine, with Kingston for its outlet. Sugar is largely grown in Westmore-
land and in the district of Vere Clarendon parish, and in the seaward parts of St. James and Trelawney, where
the best rum in the world is produced. The cattle-raising districts are in St. Ann's, and in Hanover and
Westmoreland and the western part of St. James. The uplands of Manchester parish are rich in coffee and fruit.
St. Elizabeth parish grows a large quantity of logwood and other dyewoods, as well as maize and fine pasture for horses.
The cultivation of cotton has recently been undertaken. There are forty-three acres now under cultivation.

From U.K.
S 1,112,535
... 1,291,923
... 1,333,352
... 1,038,309
... 1,008,702
... 623,887
S 542,030
... 1,012,576

To U.K.
... 530,031
... 358,516
... 529,803
S 849,261
... 1,225,721
... 1,112,116
... 1,347,998
... 3,567,103

1918 ...

From Colonies.
... 239,695
... 286,878
... 331,948
... 308,228
... 262,455
... 271,103
S 529,346
To Colonies.
... 256,531
... 212,121
... 971,475
... 446,750
... 500,614
... 470,852

From Elsewhere.
... 2,350,138
... 3,399,036

To Elsewhere.
... 1,736,594
... 2,194,787
... 2,131,613
S 1,167,282

3,797,273 1919


1 9r.


1912 13
1917 18

. 444,470 1918-19 ... 434,588 1919-20


Expend ture.
S 1,169,991
... 1,235,667
... 1,284,838

2,614 943




British Tonnage.

*These and subsequent shipping figures are for the calendar year.

Total Tonnage.




According to the census the population of the island on the night of April 24th, 192 r, was 857,921, being an
increase of 26,538, or about 3.2 per cent. on the figures returned by the census of 19tr. At the time of going to
press the census details had not been completely ascertained, and the only available figures were of the counties
and parishes, as follows:-

Portland ...
St. Thomas ...
St. Andrew ..
,, (special sl
Port Royal ...
St. Mary
St. Ann
St. Catherine
Manchester ..
St. James
Trelawney ..
St. Elizabeth

1921. 1911.
.. ... 4S,970 49,360
42,511 39,330
54,592 52,773
62,562 57,379
ipping) 612 1,027
.1,004 1,268
71,404 72,956
70,922 70,651
96,501 88,104
2,455 73,914
63,942 65,194
S 38,360 37,432
41,862 41,376
34,602 35,463
79,381 78,700
68,853 66,456

Port Antonio
Morant Bay
Kingston ...
Port Royal

Port Maria
St. Ann's Bay
Spanish Town
May Pen ...
Mandeville ...
Mcitego Bay
Black River

... ... 1,984

.. ... 57,379

... 2,833
... 2,592

. .. ... 1,198
... 1,447
... 6,616
... 2,288
... 1,262
... 3,400

L-uplel ) riroio.


The railway extends from Kingston to Montego Bay, in the parish of St. James, a distance of 112'69 miles,
.nd to Ewarton, in the parish of St. Catherine, in the other direction, by a branch line from Spanish Town of
7'i6 miles; and to Port Antonio by a branch line from Bogwalk, on the Ewarton branch, of 54-18 miles, and by
i branch line from May Pen to Chapelton, 13'"5 miles. The total length of line open is 197-08 miles. The
!.il\ay was purchased by an American syndicate, who, under agreement, extended it to Port Antonio on the north-
-,tst, and to Montego Bay on the north-west, but the company having failed, the Government resumed possession of
'he line on 16th August, 1900.
The Government Island Postal Telegraph System was inaugurated in 1879, there being I,o091 miles of lines,
Smith a complement of 47 offices.
There are now 1,1141 miles of telegraph and 9041 miles of telephone lines, with 66 and 60 offices respectively.
Telegraphic communication between Europe and Jamaica is complete. The island is the first British possession in
:c West Indies at which the two cables from Cuba touch, whence they branch away, via St. Thomas, to
,)tmerara, and in the opposite direction to the Isthmus of Panama. On 31st January, 1898, the Direct \est
lia Cable Company established communication between Jamaica and Halifax via Bermuda and Turks Island.
There are two wireless stations in the island, one of which is situated at Christiana, and is owned and
strolled by the Royal Navy. This station does not communicate with merchant shipping, and handles traffic for
British Honduras, Nassau, and British Guiana only.
The second Wireless Station is situated in Kingston, and is owned and controlled by the Direct West India
cable Company, Ltd., under Government licences. This station communicates with merchant shipping on a 600
metre wave. It is understood that the company contemplates increasing the plant in order to communicate with
shipping at a much greater distance than at present.








FRED L. MYERS and SON, Wholesale Wine and Spirit (Rum, etc.), Sugar, Provision, Export and
Commission Merchants, The Sugar Wharf."
'I'T: position of Jamaica in the world's trade is eloquently demonstrated by the things seen and done in that section
of Kingston which the extensive and ever-developing business of Messrs. Fred L. Myers and Son has appropriated
and transformed into a panorama of enterprising activity, so characteristic of the commerce and industry of the island
that it has been repeatedly filmed by cinematograph operators. It is called "The Sugar Wharf," but it means a
district, with its own great pier--recently completely rebuilt-and its own sea-wall, where
ships can berth in perfect safety. The vessels that load and unload at The Sugar
Wharf" are many and varied, from the picturesque island schooners and sloops to the great
steamers carrying the Myers' merchandise to all parts of the world, and bringing in return
provisions, choice wines, and other things from famous sources of supply overseas. "The
Sugar Wharf" has its own railway, which is a branch of the railway system of the island.
The obtaining of that connection involved a heavy outlay, but the initial expense and cost
of upkeep are expected to be balanced by the facilities it affords to the firm and those who
use their wharf. A business paying also for its own post and telegraph office is certainly
unique, especially in the West Indies. That further resource of "The Sugar Wharf" is
a sidelight on the swift and sure methods adopted by Messrs. Fred L. Myers and Son,
whose transactions affect markets near and far.
The designation of The Sugar \harf indicates in some measure the prominence and
importance of the firm in connection with Jamaican produce. Sugar is their primary
commodity, and they handle it in thousands of tons, as is impressively manifested at their
many\ large warehouses for its accommodation, one of them being equipped with a sugar-
curing plant.
Hon. HORACE V. MYERS, As distillers and exporters of rum the fame of Messrs. Fred L. Myers and Son has
J.P., O.B.E. gone throughout the world, aided by a publicity department cleverly operated by long study
and experience of the psychology of advertising in all its most successful aspects. Sugar
and ruin are, therefore, as inseparably associated with the Myers firm as genuine wine is with Messrs. W. and A. Gilbey
and as mustard is with Messrs. J. and J. Colman. The firm's great specialisation in rum is regulated by ancient
traditions of process and result that make Jamaica pre-eminent in the production of the spirit from the cane. In
other colonies of the West Indies where rum is made everything is sacrificed for the sake of the output of the
sugar house The molasses are boiled three times over to remove all the sweets therefrom, and are either thrown
away or, as in I)emerara, are sent to the still-house, where, subjected to rapid fermentation, they are converted into
a form of alcohol in a patent still, which further eliminates much of the character of rum it would otherwise possess.
But that repellent spirit is no more like Jamaica rum than skimmed milk is like cream. The Myers rum is evolved
by the slow fermentation of specially prepared wash" in the old-fashioned pot-still, which is the process in operation
in the island, and the one by which the genuine Jamaica rum with its higher percentages of ethers is produced.
Messrs. Fred I,. Myers and Son ship the choicest quality in luncheons and casks from current crop to rum twenty-
live years old; and their brands of Jamaica rum have been awarded gold medals and other honours at various
Ilhibltions. 'Thev are also exporters of coffee, cocoa, ginger, pimento or allspice, honey and beeswax, goat-skins, etc.
Mre white rice is imported by Messrs. Fred L. Myers and Son than by any other firm in the island. Coarse salt
is another commodity in Nwhich they transact a large trade; and they bring it in their own vessels from the Bahamas

and Turks Island Amongst their agencies are W. and A. Gilbey's Wines and Spirits; Moet and Chandon's
(Champlagne; iciinessy's Brandy; Schweppe's Ginger Ale, Ginger Beer, and Soda Water; M. B. Foster's Bugle Brand
tf Bass and (Guinness; Vulcan (Swedish) Safety Matches; J. and J. Colman's Mustard, Starch and Blue; and Riise
St. Thoimnas Hay Rum.
One do the most noteworthy of the many departments of the business is the large establishment known as the
West Indian Saw Mills, where wood is fashioned into all forms by powerful band and circular saws and other
machinery, the motive force being generated by a gas-engine of 65 horse power. That concern has also its own
railway siding, and was acquired by the firm in 1919.
The business of Messrs. Fred L. Myers and Son was started in 1879 by the late Mr. Fred L. Myers, and
steradily developed to an extent that rendered inadequate its premises in Port Royal Street, Harbour Street, and
Orange Street. Then occurred the great fire and earthquake of 1907, which destroyed the former city and with it
the firm's buildings and an enormous portion of their stock of merchandise. On the resumption of trade after the
historic disaster they were the first to offer to the public new goods at old prices. They then established themselves
on a tract of land bordered on one side by the sea. To the ordinary person the position seemed unattractive and
of much less value than if more centrally situated. But Messrs. Fred L. Myers and Son have never been in the
category of the commonplace, and they utilised the earthquake debris about their premises and vicinity for the furtherance
of a scheme for reclaiming from the sea an extensive stretch of new land, on which they constructed their sea wall
and erected many buildings.
Mr. Fred I,. Myers, who died in 1915, was one of the most notable and respected men in the island, with the
welfare of which he had always been actively connected. His son, the Hon. Horace V. Myers, O.B E., is now the sole
proprietor of the business, which to that able and zealous gentleman is more like a hobby because of the keen



MERS Mk~ail r~uc



mitrrcst and fd,:iiurvII h, lindi ;

and Di rect-prr ifl niam -fI
the local ci~onipme%.C~ thc HI~n.

his qurliniln a qualitici and i.
acti\ .e ciotitl cn aar, e~crr %.
thin. p rumunlll.r 1, I.) III,-- A~~~
7 li onnI 11. rrCt1-11
for 'u-;Lj- th,

~ij~l I~k ~ ~n I~rr\ClPracc for Kinlll-lion. :t I

r~G Britiih EmpireI~




T'H great development which has been attained during recent years in the tobacco industry of Jamaica is shown by
the extensive business of the Jamaica Tobacco Co., Ltd, which has in the island 1,200 acres of land under cultivation.
The processes by which the company's celebrated cigars and cigarettes are made are long and complicated.
They commence on the plantations with the tobacco seed,
and continue through the cultivation, the curing, the
fermentation, and the grading of the tobacco, about nine
months elapsing from the time the leaves are plucked until
they are ready for transport to the Kingston factory. The
company employ on their plantations specially trained experts,
who exert constant vigilance in watching and reporting on the
varying conditions of each field; and the elaborate care with
which the tobacco is cultivated results in a uniformity that
would otherwise be impossible. So delicate are some of the
stages of the fermentation that a door left open in one of the
buildings would, by lowering the temperature, chill the leaves,
with deteriorating effects.
The company's factory in Kingston, constructed of solid
steel with reinforced concrete walls, was erected soon after the
earthquake of 1907. It is two storeys high, occupies an area
of close on io,ooo square feet, and gives employment to about
[Photo: J. B. \alde., Kingston. 500 persons. Connected with it are various buildings that
FACTORY OF THE have been added from time to time with the expansion of the
When the leaves arrive at the factory they are damped in
order to render them manipulative, stripped of their midribs, and sorted into different grades for cigars and
cigarettes. A cigar, as everyone knows, consists of a core or central mass of fillers, enveloped in an inner and an
outer wrapper. It is necessary that the fillers or inner contents be of a uniform quality, and so packed and
distributed in a longitudinal direction that the tobacco may burn uniformly and that the smoke may be drawn freely
from end to end. For the inner cover whole leaf of the same quality as the fillers is used; but for the outer
wrapper the company import from Sumatra specially selected tobacco leaves of the finest quality and colour, free
from all injury. These Sumatra leaves are very carefully kept and prepared. After being damped they are cut to the
proper size and shape with a sharp knife, and smoothed and pressed by hand. All the operatives engaged in the
production of the higher grades of cigars are men; and the extensive section where many scores of them, with their
numerous rows of benches, busily exemplify the remarkable dexterity that accrues only by years of specialised
practice, is like a huge schoolroom. Each rolls together a sufficient quantity of material to form the filling of one
cigar. experience enabling the worker to select very uniform quantities. Each quantity is wrapped in the inner cover,
which is an oblong piece of leaf the length of the cigar to be made, and of width sufficient to enclose the whole
material. The cigar is then rolled in the hand to consolidate the tobacco and bring it into proper shape, after
which it is wrapped in the Sumatra outer cover, which is shaped to enclose the whole in a spiral manner, beginning
at the thick end of the cigar and working down to the pointed end that is dexterously finished by twisting to a fine
point between the fingers. The high-grade cigars require much greater skill in their formation than the cheaper
kinds, and the number produced daily )by each man varies from w25 to 250. The men are allowed to smoke as
many cigars as they please while at work; they are paid daily by piecework, and each is permitted to take away
five cigars of his own manufacture at the close of the day.
The outer wrappers for the less expensive cigars and cheroots are cut by females, whose work is greatly simplified
by an ingenious system of changeable air-suction plates of sizes varying according to the cigars required. These
plates are flush with the cutting boards, and the tobacco wrappers, when placed thereon, are by the air suction
through the perforated holes in the plates, held securely in position for the cutting process, and also for the smoothing
and pressing. The wrappers are then placed around the cigars in the manner already described.
An interesting department is the one where in a maximum of north light all the cigars are graded according
to their colours by experts, the terms indicative of their different strength being Claro, Colarado-Claro, Colarado,
CGolarado-faiduiw, and Maduro, the latter being the strongest. Finally, the cigars are labelled, pressed, and packed
inti, dlainty cedar-wood boxes of various sizes. The wood for the boxes is imported in the form of shook" ; and
in a department above the company's Montpelier Cigar Store in King Street the names and numbers of th,
respective cigars are printed on the "shooks," which are then nailed together. Mellow and fragrant, the "Golofina'
cigars of the Jamaica Tobacco Co.. Ltd., embody all the cardinal virtues to which tobacco in its best form can la
claim, and are especially in demand in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, the West Indies, Central an(
South America, to which countries they are shipped in great quantities.
The manufacture of the company's well-known Lily," "Comet," and Rosebud" cigarettes entails also
careful and elaborate sequence of tobacco selection and preparation that cannot be detailed in this necessarily brief
sketch. No appliances in the factory are more wonderful than the three great English Bonsack "cigarette machines.
The tobacco enters each of these in fine loose condition, and emerges in the form of completed cigarettes, with
their names printed on them, at the rate of about 300 a minute per machine. Each of the cigarettes, like the
cigars, is subjected to minute inspection, and any not absolutely perfect are discarded.


Resources of great magnitude are presented in the stores devoted to the accommodation of cigar labels, cigarette
papers, and packing materials of all kinds, including lead and tin for the lining of the large cases in which the
consignments abroad are despatched.
The nucleus of the business was formed about 1894 as an agency of the well known English tobacco firm of
Lambert and Butler. It gave place in 1904 to the Jamaica Tobacco Co., which in the following year amalgamated
with the Montpelier Cigar Factory, and in 1919 was incorporated as a limited liability company.

LASCELLES DE MERCADO and CO., Limited, General Merchants and Commission Agents, etc,
Port Royal Street.

KINGSTON provides vast contrasts between the old and the new, and in no direction are these contrasts better
manifested than in its business houses, which demonstrate every degree of development and every department
of mercantile endeavour. Amid the great changes that have been created by the evolution of the modern city
from the ruins of 1907, the extensive business indicated above preserves its old-time prominence and importance.
It is one of the oldest concerns in the island, and the actual date of its inception is lost in the mists of
antiquity; but it was incorporated as a limited liability company in 1914.
The history of the firm is intimately associated with the development of the sugar industry of Jamaica,
which owes much to their fostering care and enterprise in everything pertaining to its welfare. To them belongs
the credit for the erection of the central factory of the Vere Estates Co., Ltd., in which they are largely interested.
They are very large exporters of sugar, rum, coffee, cocoa, and every description of the island's produce.
Amongst the many interests which they control is the Jamaica Manufacturing Co., Ltd., whose match factory
in Sligue Pen Road, Kingston, employs a permanent inside staff of 130 persons, and is equipped with a powerful
and up-to-date plant of the wonderful machinery operating in contemporary establishments in Great Britain and
America. The wood used for the manufacture of the matches and boxes is native birch, which arrives at the
factory in the form of logs; and the remarkable processes which convert these logs into the finished products are
amongst the most interesting examples of mechanical ingenuity and achievement. The weekly output of the matches
-well-known by the names of Excelsior," "Railway," "Industrial," etc.-is about 2,000 dozen gross boxes, and
for general excellence they are comparable to the best foreign makes.
As general merchants and commission agents the activities of Messrs. Lascelles de Mercado and Co., Ltd.,
are conducted on a very wide scale; and for the reception and despatch of the huge consignments handled
by them their big premises, giving employment to a permanent staff of forty persons, are well adapted, including
as they do wharves where two of the largest steamers trading to Jamaica can berth simultaneously.
The Jamaica Biscuit Co., Ltd., whose factory is described on page 73, is another undertaking under the
control of this influential firm. Its Chairman is Mr. Lionel de Mercado, Managing Director of Messrs. Lascelles
de Mercado and Co., Ltd., and The Gleaner Co., Ltd.; member of the Council of the Imperial Association; and
Justice of the Peace for the Parish of Kingston. Actively engaged with him in the management of the firm's
affairs is his co-Director Mr. A. H. Da Costa, who is also a Director of the Jamaica Mutual Life Assurance
Society, Ltd.; the Jamaica Manufacturing Co., Ltd. ; Jamaica Biscuit Co., Ltd.; and a member of the Marine
Messrs. Lascelles de Mercado and Co., Ltd., are representatives of the following: Royal Dutch West India
Mail Steamship Co., Ltd.; James Nourse steamers between Calcutta and the West Indies; Tropical Steamship
Corporation between New York and Jamaica; the Nestle and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Co. (for Nestl6's Milk,
Chocolates, etc.); the Ogilvie Flour Mills Co.. Ltd.; the Royal Typewriter Co., Inc.; the Welch Grape Juice Co.;
Gerhard Mennen Chemical Co.; James Baird, Ltd.; the Jamaica Biscuit Co., Ltd.; the Jamaica Manufacturing
'., Ltd.


all the fruits of the earth surely there is none more useful than the banana, the culture and export of which
tributee so much to the welfare of Jamaica. It is, therefore, very gratifying to find that, notwithstanding the
petition of the big foreign companies, local enterprise is making itself felt in the fruit and shipping activity of the
and, as is evident by the progress of the Jamaica Fruit and Shipping Co., Ltd.
This business was founded in June, 19g1, by Capt. S. ). List and Mr. C. E. Johnston, who at first encountered
'iuch opposition and difficulties of no mean order in their endeavours to establish a concern that would devote
iinmary consideration to the interests of the planters. However, their tenacity of purpose and their minute knowledge
f everything relating to the undertaking on which they had ventured bore such potentialities that further interests
,nd capital were introduced, and the business was incorporated as a limited liability company in the following October.
aince then it has developed very considerably, and is meeting with high appreciation and support throughout
the island.
F 2


GRACE, Limited, General Exporters and Importers, etc.

No commercial concern in Jamaica has greater potentialities nor more extensive connections and resources than
that of Messrs. Grace, I.td.-a subsidiary of the vast and renowned Grace organisation that influences markets
in all parts of the world. Vessels on every ocean carry Grace cargoes. In the utmost corners of the earth experts
in the fluctuations of demand and supply, and in the qualities of merchandise of every description, buy and sell
for the Grace firm. All languages are made subservient to the multifarious activities of the great Grace
combination, which has about 200 commercial centres throughout the world. About eighty of these are in South
America, where, as well as in India, China, Sumatra, Japan, Straits Settlements, Europe, West Africa, and the
West Indies, the ramifications of the enormous undertaking permeates all branches of commerce and industry.
such as banking, shipow\ning, the export and import of goods of all kinds, the management and control of
cotton and woollen mills, sugar factories, nitrate and mineral works, and businesses of every description. At
New York Messrs. Grace have a large educational establishment devoted to the thorough training of the many
young men and women who seek to qualify for the responsible and well-paid positions offered by the huge and
scicllilically organized business; and every month the New York House issues a large and beautifully illustrated
magazine, entitled THi GRACE LO;." full of interesting and instructive information for their numerous employees
throughout the glolbe.
Mr. James Grace, a native of Ireland, laid the foundations of the Grace organisation in 1851 at Callao,
Peru. There his son. Mr. W. R. Grace, became a partner in the firm of John Bryce and Co., which developed
trading branches at all the principal cities of Peru. That firm was eventually absorbed by the undertaking
which thenceforth became known as Grace Bros. and Co., and which expanded enormously. It owned the
chief shipping agencies in Peru, and its exclusive American trade was greatly enhanced by its connection with
the relative firm of \V. R. Grace and Co., New York. Furthermore, as sole agent for the Government of Peru,
it controlled the entire shipments of nitrate of soda.
In 189o the firm opened in London under the style of M. P. Grace and Co., which was changed later to
W. R. Grace and Co. The title was again altered when the firm was incorporated as Grace Bros. and Co., Limited,
with a capital of 500,0oo which was afterwards increased to ,,ooo,ooc,. To-day the capital of the entire Grace
organisation is estimated at upwards of 15,000,000. The financial operations for which the London office was
first established led to the formation of such great achievements as the Peruvian Corporation, the Ingersoll Sergeant
l)rill Co. (now the Ingersoll Rand), the Chilian Transandine Railway, the Empresas Electricas Asociados of Lima,
and various loans and credits for the Peruvian Government and the Banco de la Nacion Boliviana.
The Jamaica branch, incorporated in the island under the style of Grace, Limited, in 1917, took over the
general merchandise business of Messrs. Wessels Bros. which had been established for about twenty years. The
extensive premises between Olivier Place and Orange Street, purchased by the new company, proved inadequate for
the rapid development of their trade, and accordingly a larger and more suitable site was secured, extending from
Harbour Street to the sea-a distance of about 800 yards, where big warehouses, offices, and other buildings have
been erected, to which the firm have recently removed. The new premises have a wharf running 550 feet out into
the sea, where the Grace steamers and other vessels can discharge and receive their cargoes. The firm have the
largest warehouse accommodation in Jamaica; the handling of their great and diversified stocks of merchandise
is facilitated by a tramway system throughout the premises and a motor transport service that goes to all parts of
the island. Very interesting are the departments devoted to the products of Jamaica; they are under the super-
vision of experts with exhaustive knowledge and experience of the respective commodities; and throughout the
relative processes nothing is lacking that can enhance the quality of the output in keeping with the high reputation
and prominence of the Grace firm in the markets of the world.
'There are large branches of the business at Brown's To\\n, Montego Bay, and St. Ann's Bay-the firm having
excellent wharves at the latter two places.
Since their advent in Jamaica Messrs. Grace, Ltd., have developed their activities enormously, and these are
still being continually extended. In i921 they acquired the large works of The Jamaica Shoe and Leather Co.
in Windward Road, Rockfort District. That establishment is the chief of its kind in the island, and is equipped
with an up-to date plant of machinery and appliances pertaining to the tanning industry, the magnificent series of
tanning pits and every detail of the factory being well fitted to sustain a very large production. The processes
through which the hides and skins go before they are converted into leather occupy about three months. The
output of this factory has been sent in large quantities to England, and is highly commendable for its finish and
general excellence.
Messrs. Grace, Ltd., have a controlling interest in the Motor Car and Supplies, Ltd., described in the following article,
and, as already indicated, are ever extending their sphere of operations with every opportunity that presents itself.
The founder of the Grace business in Jamaica was Mr. MI. S. Grace, and after his death in January, 1920,
I)r. J. J. Grace, nephew of Mr. \V. R. Grace already referred to, became Managing Director.
Tlhe Manager is Mr. F. \V. Kennedy, who has been in the business since its inception in the island, and
was previously for twenty-one years with the United Fruit Co.
The Secretary is Mr. Thomas Kemp, a Scotsman with forty year)' experience of West Indian trade, who was
for many year, associated with the Grace organisation in Hayti.


Messrs. Grace, Ltd., are correspondents for the various Grace houses throughout the world, and are agents
for the following :-
The G. H. Hammond Co., Chicago. Meat Packers. Philip W. Heyman, Copenhagen. Butter Packer.
Libby. McNeill and Libby, New York. Canners. Scandinavian Products Co., Stockholm.
The Kehlor Flour Mills Co., St. Louis. Flour. Pollock and Schwartz, Holland. Essences.
Bernet, Craft and Kauffman, St. Louis. Flour. Lever Bros. and Co., Ltd. So.ps, etc.
Eberle, Albrecht Flour Mills Co., St. Louis. Flour. Hodgson and Simpson. Soaps.
New York and West Indies Trading Corporation. Vinolia Company. Soaps and Perfumeries.
The Liberty Oil Company, New Orleans. Oils, etc. Blondeau and Co. Soaps and Perfumeries.
Pennsylvania Tyre and Rubber Co. Manufacturers of Motor Watford Manufacturing Co. Confectionery.
Car and Bicycle Tyres. J. and D. Hamilton, Ltd., Glasgow. Oils, Paints, Varnishes.
The Peterborough Cereal Co., Canada. Cereals. The Jamaica Biscuit Company, Jamaica. Joint Selling Agents.
Job Bros. and Co., Ltd., Newfoundland. Fish Merchants. MotorCarand Supplies, Ltd.,Jamaica. Sole Purchasing Agents.

MOTOR CAR and SUPPLIES, Limited, Harbour and Hanover Streets.

THE most noteworthy feature of the business activity of Kingston
is the great development which has taken place during recent
a years in the motor car trade. An example of this is afforded
by the extensive undertaking of the Motor Car and Supplies,
Limited, which is probably the largest and most complete
garage and supply company in the West Indies. Their premises
form two big conterminous blocks--one in Hanover Street
and the other in Harbour Street, almost opposite to the Myrtle
.c, aBank Hotel.
The huge workshop in Hanover Street is equipped in
the most up-to-date manner with everything that scientific
knowledge and engineering skill can suggest as necessary for
the manufacture and repair of the articles dealt with in the
business. It has 13 repairing pits in its cement floor, and
its powerful plant of machinery is operated by electricity.
Amongst the appliances is a Wellman-Seaver-Morgan hydraulic
HARBOUR STREET PREMISES OF MOTOR CAR press, built for the Goodyear Tyre Co., which, with a pressure
AND SUPPLIES, LTD. of 200 tons, removes old tyres from car wheels and places
new ones on them. In that busy place may be seen motor
trucks and trailers, as well as cars of all kinds, undergoing
repairs of a character that might not have been thought
possible of achievement in Jamaica. Metal and wood
working, upholstery, and every branch of subsidiary work are
there performed with noteworthy ability, including a perfection
in painting and enamelling that is certainly unsurpassed by
contemporary production in Europe or America.
In the store rooms in Harbour Street is an enormous
rock of accessories and spare parts of every description.
Contiguous thereto is the garage for the many cars which
lle company let out on hire. At one of its entrances are two
underground tanks, each to contain 500 gallons of gasolene,
:;ie spirit being obtained therefrom by a self-registering pump
dhich automatically records each gallon utilised. Close
:,-side them are the tanks for lubricating oils. The inflation
tyres is performed by a pump driven by an electrical
The company are agents for the celebrated Cadillac, MOTOR CAR AND SUPPLIES, LTD.
quick, and Oakland cars, Federal trucks, Cleveland tractors,
highway and Fruehauf trailers. Federal trucks carrying a load up to four tons are of invaluable utility throughout
ie island, and are largely used by the Public Works Department. The company are likewise agents for Matthews'
automaticc Light Plant, which is the latest and most effective apparatus for lighting country houses, the current
ieing automatically switched off when each battery is full.
The company was incorporated in 1918. The expansion which the business has since sustained has been very
,reat, and the demands made upon the company's services and supplies are continually increasing.
The Managing Director is Dr. J. J. Grace, to whom reference is made in our review of Messrs. Grace, Ltd.
The Manager is the Hon. L. J. Bertram, C.M.G., formerly Auditor-General of Jamaica, who retired in i920 on
pension from the Government service.


LINDO BROS. and CO., 50, Port Royal Street, Kingston; San Jose, Costa Rica,
and i, Broadway, New York.
MANY natives of Jamaica have acquired wealth and fame in all branches of activity; but throughout its
history none have attained greater commercial and industrial distinction than the principals of the great business
house indicated above, viz., Messrs. C. V., Percy, and Stanley Lindo. The surname is essentially Jamaican, and
old musty Government records and the title deeds of many an old property bear witness to the long period
that has elapsed since the first Lindo settled in the island.
The father of the three brothers referred to, Mr. Frederick Lindo, who had been for many years one of
the leading merchants in Kingston, died in 1882. The capital which he had bequeathed to his family was
invested in plantations, which, however, were destroyed by hurricanes. The disaster did not daunt the three
young sons, who determined to retrieve the fortunes of the family; and the extent to which they have succeeded
provides an example of commercial enterprise and ability to which their fellow-countrymen may well refer with pride
\\hen allusion is made to the achievements of other notable men in the greater lands beyond the sea. At the
beginning of the last decade of the nineteenth century Jamaica afforded to ambitious youths no opportunities beyond
those bounded by the well-defined limits of ordinary procedure and possibility. So the brothers Lindo made their
way to Costa Rica, and, starting in business as general merchants, soon began to exert an influence that later
permeated all branches of commerce and industry in the Republic. Every year saw a great development of their affairs.
Pioneers of agriculture, they became owners of vast sugar, coffee, cocoa, and banana estates, and eventually
sold to the United Fruit Company 15,000 acres of banana plantations. They established and operated all the
breweries in Costa Rica, and their numerous undertakings included almost all the local ice-making and aerated
water factories. As general merchants their exports and imports assumed colossal figures. Throughout their
multifarious activities was manifested a financial genius that took cognizance of details past, present, and future;
and the remarkable prosperity of Costa Rica was contributed to in no small measure by the ubiquity of the
Lindo interests and the able manner in which they were directed.
Zealous ever for the welfare of Jamaica, Messrs. Lindo Bros. in due course turned their attention towards
the development of the resources and potentialities of the island, where they now possess enormous interests
that are continually being augmented. Bernard Lodge, Spanish Town, the first modern central sugar factory in
Jamaica, with a manufacturing capacity of about 20.000 tons per season, was erected by them under the name
of the Central Factory. Ltd. They are owners of the extensive Moneymusk sugar estates in the Clarendon
district, the Appleton estates in St. Elizabeth; and they hold a controlling interest in the Phoenix Fruit Co.,
I.td. Altogether the firm's plantation interests in Jamaica run into about 24,000 acres, and their imports are
co(immensurately great.
In 1916 Messrs. .indo Bros. and Co. purchased for 200,000o the business conducted under the name of
J. Wray and Nephew, which forms the subject of our next sketch.

J. WRAY and NEPHEW, Rum Distillers, Wholesale and Retail Wine and Spirit Merchants,
Port Royal Street, etc.
lTHI well-kno\\n business is the oldest and largest of its kind in Jamaica. It was founded in 1825 by
Mr. J. Wray, under whose name it was carried on until it assumed its present designation through the admittance
into partnership of Mr. Wray's nephew, the late Col. C. J. Ward, C.M.G. The earthquake of 1907 completely
destroyed the firm's former premises in Port Royal Street, together with most of the forty branches established at
that time throughout the city and lower St. Andrew. Temporary premises were thereupon requisitioned in which
the business was conducted until it was transferred into its present headquarters, which form a two-storied structure
of reinforced concrete 140 feet square, in Port Royal Street. In that large and aromatic establishment the
celebrated Jamaica rum is blended and bottled on a scale unsurpassed by any contemporary undertaking, and the
methods by which the work is performed are the results of the relative knowledge and experience that have
accumulated throughout the development of this old and noteworthy concern. Indeed, the fame of Jamaica rum
has been enhanced very considerably by the highly specialised operations that have always been associated with the
house of J. Wray and Nephew, whose average rum output is about 200,000 gallons per annum. The years of
production of the firm's various current brands extend back to 189 ; and besides the huge stock in their premises,
they have an enormous quantity in the Government bonded warehouse. They are also manufacturers of all
kinds of native wines and cordials.
Great care is devoted to the cleansing of the bottles, which is effected by machinery with rapidly revolving
spiral brushes that enter the bottles and wash them thoroughly at the rate of about 60 gross per day. The dual
operations of bottling and corking are performed by a remarkable machine made by Lumley and Co., Ltd., London,
and has a capacity of filling and corking 150 dozen bottles per hour.
The firm transact a considerable export trade, and the finished products, that are so well known throughout
the world, and have won many medals and diplomas of merit at European and local Exhibitions, are despatched
in neat and strong wooden cases, the latter being imported from England in the form of "shooks," and put
together on the premises.
Apart from their manufacturing operations Messrs. J. Wray and Nephew are very extensive importers of all
kinds of foreign wines, spirits, and malt liquors. They employ about 160 people in their Kingston factory, and
have thirty branches in the city and suburbs, besides a large number throughout the island.
In 1916 the business was purchased by Messrs. Lindo Bros. and Co., as indicated in the preceding article on that firm.


HENRIQUES BROS, Marine and Estate Engineers, Iron and Brass Founders, Builders and Contractors,

MESSRS. HENRIQUES -BROS. have made, and are making, an indelible impression on Jamaica, and are exerting in the
development of the island an influence that is far-reaching and comprehensive. The wide sphere of their operations
is tangible in almost every phase of modern economic progress; and the things they have already accomplished are
fraught with the potentiality of still greater achievements.
They began business in 1907 as builders and contractors immediately after the earthquake which converted

Exterior View of the Premises. Corner of Showroom.

Kingston into a wilderness of brick heaps and debris, and most of the concrete structures, reinforced with steel, in
the new city--well calculated to withstand any seismic disturbance-including the Ward Theatre and many buildings
throughout the island, have been designed and erected by them. No review, therefore, of local business activity would
be complete without reference to them and their engineering works and motor garage that are indicative of the
expansion which has taken place in the industrial facilities and resources of Jamaica during the past decade.


The Kingston Industrial Works give employment to a permanent staff of about 300 persons. The main building
covers 31,500 square feet; but as the land occupied is ten acres, there is ample room for very extensive development.
It is admirably situated near the railway station, and arrangements are being made for the construction of a branch
line into the works. So many and varied are the operations conducted in this busy centre of highly skilled
production that a separate volume would be necessary for an adequate description of what is done there. Thoughts
are things, and nowhere in the island are conceptions more strikingly materialised than in this influential and utilitarian
establishment, that gives to Kingston a prominent place in all matters pertaining to West Indian engineering science
and the manipulation of iron and steel, brass and copper. The perspective of the interior is one of belts and wheels,
of cunningly contrived material force, manual dexterity, and energy, enterprise, and intelligence, demonstrating the
ingenuity of modern mechanical adaptation to every purpose and requirement. Travelling, as required, from end
to end of the great central interior space are three steel cranes, each capable of carrying weights up to ten tons.
On both sides of their wide and long path are mighty lathes and intricate machines, whereby metal is wrought into
innumerable things with a precision that extends to the minutest measurements. In the impressive perspective gleam
forges, where the loud clang of the blacksmiths' hammers mingles with the sharper ring of smaller implements and
the diapason of ponderous appliances, interpolated by the loud exultation of circular and band sa\\s laying bare the
secret channels where life once flowed in forest trees.
Carefully planned and located throughout the premises are many departments, all related to each other by a
specialised organisation that eliminates unnecessary expenditure of time and action, and concentrates on the minute
of perfect control beyond the peradventure of error or uncertainty. In contemporary establishments in Europe and
America work is turned out in vast uniformity, and is, therefore, a matter of mere routine, many men spending
their lives in the monotonous repetition of a task that, after mastery, calls for no further skill nor intelligence. In
the Kingston works the operations are not so stereotyped, but are made subservient to contingencies of every
description in connection with all kinds of power plants and metal working. Thus may often be seen forming there
pieces of machinery and other articles not at all likely to be duplicated, and the firm's large stock of patterns includes
many unique designs from which castings have been made that testified eloquently to their remarkable versatility in
meeting the most uncommon requirements. Another point worthy of consideration is the fact that, unlike their
foreign competitors, they have no unlimited supply of skilled labour to draw upon, but have to recruit their staff


from the native men of the island, and subject them to a long and thorough training before they develop the skill
necessary tor the positions to which, when qualified, they are duly promoted.
]very material thing is merely the outward expression of the invisible spiritual reality, and the first manifestation
of the materialising forces of the clever brains sustaining the activities of the Kingston Industrial Works begins in
the drawing office, where the outlines and specifications of the work to be done are drawn on paper The drawings
are passed to the pattern-makers, who make the requisite wooden models with the greatest care and accuracy, as the
slightest deviation from specified measurement may result in a casting that may not reveal its inaccuracy until forming
part of some complicated machinery that probably cannot be rectified without great loss and inconvenience. So the
pattern-makers are ever alert to "the little more and how much it is, and the little less and what worlds away."
The wooden patterns go to the moulders, who fashion with them in soft black sand corresponding cavities
and shapes, into which is poured the molten metal that quickly solidifies into the desired articles, ranging in weight
from a few ounces up to ten tons. The sugar industry of Jamaica is well catered for in the Kingston Works, and
special attention is devoted there to the equipment and repair of mills. The firm are likewise highly skilled in
repairs of all kinds to steamship machinery; and many a harassed commander has had difficulties that seemed
insurmountable solved by their service and supply. In this connection the firm played an important part in the
overthrow of Germany, and were highly appreciated by the British Admiralty for the repair of warships, submarines,
and vessels of all kinds, as well as for the production of gun mountings. Amongst the noteworthy ships repaired
hI them was the Sydney after her first encounter with the famous Emden." It is certainly surprising that in
view of the important geographical position of Jamaica, lying as it is in the direct route of vessels plying between
the Pacific and the Atlantic, there is no slipway nor floating dock anywhere at the island; but the absence of such
facilitir-s is minimised considerably by the Kingston Industrial Works, which includes in its equipment a portable
electric \\elding machine that has proved invaluable in many a difficult marine job.

The Kingston Industrial Garage is another impressive and eloquent illustration of the enterprise and ability with
which Messrs. Henriques Bros. conduct their affairs. The premises, massively built and with a concrete floor
throughout, occupies an area of 34,200 square feet, and has upwards of fifty persons on its permanent staff. It is
one of the largest and best appointed establishments of the kind in the West Indies, and embraces in its equipment
everything essential for the perfection of process and result in the building and repair of motor vehicles of all kinds.
lTherein is seen all phases of the power and beauty of motor adaptability, complete from the assembling of the many
parts into the finished cars in all their glory of shining enamel and electro-plate, and their proven engines instantly
responsive like living things to the touch of the master hand. To this great garage also come, in the last stages of
dissolution, cars that, when dealt with by the skilled men there, go forth again recreated, and stronger and better
suited to the climate and roads of the island than ever before. In the Kingston Industrial Garage may be received
lany object lessons of the havoc wrought by the climate on the wooden parts of cars that were built for use in
colder climes and sent to the firm for repair. The timber used by Messrs. Henriques Bros. for such work, and also
for the construction of the powerful motor lorries that contribute so much to the produce trade of the island, is
the native hardwood, which is impervious to the rot that soon ruins foreign wood.
The lirm are sole agents in Jamaica for the Ford motor cars, of which they have introduced about 2,000 into
the island. They are also sole agents for the General Motors Export Co., United States Rubber Export Co., and
1'airbanks, Morse and Co. Resources of great magnitude are presented in the departments devoted to spare parts
and accessories of every description.
Rarely may be found a family possessing such capabilities as the brothers Henriques. Those actively employed
in the business are all comparatively young men, and qualified abroad by long study and practical experience for the
,ri-ponsible positions which they now fill so ably and commendably. Each is a specialist in one or other branch of
clfort, and together they form a combination of talent equal to any problem that may present itself in the wide
range over which their activities extend. Mr. Vernon Henriques is works manager; Mr. Rudolph Henriques is an
authoritative architect and draftsman, and withal an artist whose expression of the superlative is minute and profound.
On Mr. EmanueIl Henriques devolves the responsibility of outside constructional work. Mr. Owen Karl Henriques
is vested with the administrative details of the firm's affairs and the supervision of the garage; while Mr. Fabian
Hlenrique is assistant works manager.

THE TEMPLE OF FASHION, Limited, King Street.
EI I-.C.;AxNC and utility are pleasingly blended in "The Temple of Fashion," and its extensive display of apparel for
ladies and gentlemen reflects the decrees of the fashion centres of the world. It has also a well-equipped printing office
and a section for books and stationery.
The establishment is worthy of its contents. Built in 1908 of reinforced concrete, supposed to be earthquake-proot
and fireproof, it has since been considerably altered and enlarged. Its handsome frontage is a triumph of plate-glass
and effective window dressing, and the interior is of the most modern type. The pillars which support the upper storey
are encased in beautiful mirrors, by which the brilliance of the scene is strikingly enhanced.
The conterminous outfitting establishment known as "The Arcade also belongs to The Temple of Fashion, Ltd.


JAMAICA BISCUIT CO., Limited, Church Street.
THE large and splendidly equipped factory of the Jamaica Biscuit Co., Ltd., is one of the most notable industrial
undertakings in the island, and its machinery illustrates the perfection which has been attained in the manufacture
of biscuits. In no department of food production is cleanliness more a sine qua non than in the making of such
staple commodities as biscuits; and in the factory under notice the various processes are carried out entirely by
machinery, the advantages of which are so apparent in a tropical country like Jamaica that comment thereon would
be superfluous.
The high-grade flour from America and Canada is placed in a powerful mixing machine, in which, with the
addition of water and the distinguishing flavouring ingredients as required for fancy biscuits, it is converted into a
uniformly mixed dough by a series of spiral blades revolving on a shaft in the interior. The dough is then rolled
and kneaded by machinery, after which it passes under sets of rollers which extend it to continuous sheets of the
prepared thickness for biscuits. Thereafter these sheets of dough pass under stamping or cutting-out presses, in which
small stamping knives are so arranged that by one movement they cut out of the dough about twelve biscuits bearing
whatever name or design it may be desired to give them, the designs varying according to the stamps used. One
of the stamping machines turns out in this way, per day of eight hours, goo,000 crackers, or 300 barrels of them.
Another produces fancy biscuits at the rate of 560,000 per day, the entire manufacturing capacity of the factory
being 500 barrels of biscuits daily.
After the biscuits are fashioned by the stamping presses they are ready for the great reel ovens, inside each of
which is an enormous revolving wheel with twelve shelves that always remain in a horizontal position, on which
trays full of biscuits are placed. The revolving wheel is controlled automatically, and the speed of each revolution
is regulated to suit the heat of the oven; but on an average about six minutes is the time taken before each tray
returns to the mouth of the oven with its contents perfectly baked. The biscuits are then taken to the packing
departments, where experts are kept busy filling with remarkable dexterity the barrels and tin boxes in which the
delicious biscuits are despatched to nourish people in all parts of Jamaica as well as in other West Indian Islands.
The biscuits keep fresh and crisp for many months, and during our tour of the premises there was submitted to our
inspection a sample of "shortening" which, although two years old, was as sweet and wholesome as though it had
been newly made. The company make their own tins and barrels, and the motive force of the machinery is derived
from its own gas plant generating 55 horse power.
The factory, which gives employment to about 100 persons, is under the personal supervision of the managing
director, Mr. John Crook, through whose enterprise and ability the business came into existence. Mr. Crook is a
native of the British Islands, and served for many years as an expert with the National Biscuit Co. of the United
States. While at New York he was struck with the great need in Jamaica of a biscuit factory on modern lines. Drawing
up plans and designs, he succeeded in securing the necessary financial interest, and the Jamaica Biscuit Co., Ltd.,
was incorporated in 1911. In the same year the factory was erected according to Mr. Crook's specifications and
under his supervision, and the success which has attended the business since its inception proves how well he realized
the potentialities of his efforts in the island.
Mr. Crook's fondness for machinery and his enterprise and ability are also illustrated in the excellent motor
garages which he established in Kingston in 1920.

CANADIAN AGENCIES, Limited, Manufacturers' Representatives, 6, King Street.

TRADE relations between Canada and the Vest Indies have undergone enormous development; and an example
of what is being accomplished in that direction in Jamaica is afforded by the service and supplies of the business
carried on under the name of the Canadian Agencies, Ltd., which was incorporated in October, 1919. The nucleus
of the concern was formed, however, in 1913 by its able president and general manager, Capt. K. M. Cocking, who
in that year started in business on his own account as a general merchant, and was making excellent progress until
the war called him to France, and Flanders, and Italy, where he served for three years as an officer of the British
\est India Regiment, and was mentioned in despatches. After his demobilisation he proceeded to Canada for the
purpose of arranging Jamaica agencies of a number of well-known firms in the Dominion, and the success of his
efforts in that connection led to the formation of the Canadian Agencies, Ltd., which, under his capable and
energetic direction, is making its influence felt in many ways in the island. One of Capt. Cocking's first achievements
as president of the new company was his sale to the Government of Jamaica of ten Canadian locomotives and other
rolling stock amounting to $1,250,000, which, but for his enterprise, would have been ordered from America.
Capt. Cocking is a zealous advocate and supporter of the promotion of British trade within the Empire. The sphere of
his activities as a manufacturers' representative is exceedingly comprehensive, embracing goods of every description;
and with the resources at his command he is in a position to carry through to a successful issue any commissions,
no matter how large or intricate they may be. Amongst the firms represented by the Canadian Agencies, Ltd., are
the following:--Canadian Locomotive Co., Kingston, Ontario; National Steel Car Corporation, Hamilton, Ontario:
E. F. Jones Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Ontario; Gutta Percha and Rubber Co., Ltd., Toronto; James Pender and
Sons, Ltd., St. John, New Brunswick; J. Eveleigh and Co., Ltd., Montreal; Diarsenol Co., Ltd., Toronto; Consumers'
Cordage Co., Ltd., Halifax.


EDWIN CHARLEY, Sugar Planter, Rum Distiller, Blender and Exporter, King Street.

JAMAICA is famous for its scenery and climate, its fruits and earthquakes, but famous most
of all for its rum, the grand old spirit for which it is unsurpassed. Jamaica rum! The
term is redolent of the times of the buccaneers and the slaves, the rum which the pirates
of the Spanish Main drank, and with which the Jacobean dandies in the taverns of old
London pledged the king "over the water"; the rum that went to the utmost corners of
the world in the gallant sailing ships of English adventurers; the liquor unequalled for desperate
enterprises and the chilling blasts of the cold white North; the official beverage on which
the British Navy has been reared and fought and guarded civilisation from catastrophe for
hundreds of years; it is still made, as it has ever been in Jamaica, in the old way that
takes no cognizance of the patent still, nor has any approximation to the raw, fierce
alcoholic concoction produced as rum in lands less favoured than the island of the Blue
Mountains and perpetual summer.
In Jamaica the sugar-canes still absorb the riches and subtleties of soil and atmosphere
as did those that first established the island's reputation for its rum ; and the vast number
of horseless vehicles on the two thousand miles of motor roads throughout this beautiful
land bear witness to the great changes that have taken place since that far-off time.
EDWIN CHARLEY. Centuries have passed; dynasties have risen and fallen; mighty upheavals have altered the
political and economic conditions of the world, and knowledge and invention have utterly
metiamiorphosed commerce and industry: but Jamaica rum, made by the old-fashioned pot still, has continued
impiregLnable against the assaults of time and circumstance.
Where there is rum there must be sugar, and both commodities sustain the extensive business of Mr. Edwin
Charley. \h]ose shipments of rum during 1919 and i920 were the largest from the island. An idea of the
magnittudc of his export trade may be gathered by the fact that during the writer's stay in Jamaica two shipments
were made by Mr. Charley in one week-one of 300 puncheons to Glasgow and another of 429 puncheons to
L.ndon, making a total of 729 l)ncheons, amounting in value to more than ,30,0o0.
Unlike many rum merchants in Jamaica, Mr. Charley is not merely a buyer and seller of rum-he is a distiller
of it. controlling its quality from the cultivation of the sugar-cane to exportation. He specialises in the Wedderburn
brands, and controls most of the best-known brands.
Mr. Charley is at the time of writing erecting on an estate of upwards of 3,000 acres, at Inns Wood, in
St. Catherine. a new sugar factory capable of producing about 6,ooo tons of sugar and 3,000 puncheons of rum per
annum. Canes are brought to it from all parts of the Government railway, which has a siding running right into
the establishment. The sugar is loaded on railw\a cars and conveyed direct to the pier at Kingston for shipment,
and the rum is taken to the Government bonded warehouses, also in Kingston.
Besides his extensive business in bulk rums Mr. Charley operates a large bottling factory, which occupies an
area of about 17,000 square feet in King Street, the main thoroughfare of the city. Mellow old rums of several
grades are there put up, notably "Royal Reserve,' "V. S. 0.," and "Red Label," these being the principal in
demand for export.
duringg inspection of the bottling factory the writer, noticing a pile of I,ooo cases addressed to Messrs. Law,
Young and Co., Montreal, who are Mr. Charley's Canadian agents, remarked that it seemed strange so much should
be exported in bottle at considerably higher price than if in bulk. The answer was that it was not altogether a
question of price, but partly because people were becoming more fastidious about the things they consumed. As
an example, reference was made to Jamaica, where a bottle of sherry must carry with it the assurance that it was
bottled in Spain, and port that it was bottled in Portugal. The difference in the age of Jamaica rums is another
factor that must be considered-nearly all the rums that are shipped in bulk are from three months to three years
old, whilst Mr. Charley's bottled rum first matures from five to fifteen years in wood.


lying at No. 2 Pier, Kingston, awaiting shipment per
S.S. "Oritani" to Glasgow, Jan. 27th, 1921.


The famous old Charley establishment is also putting out a few native wines, for which there is a growing
demand abroad, especially for Kola Wine, Prune Wine, and the firm's unsurpassed Ginger Wine. Finally, the
organisation of the business is a triumph of careful
attention to detail and- the adoption of everything that can
enhance the quality of the supplies and the efficiency of
the service at the disposal of the firm's continually
expanding clientele.

where Charley's Rum is ripened under Government per S.S. "Conway" to London, Jan. 21st, 1921.

B. and J. B. MACHADO, Limited, Cigar and Cigarette Manufacturers,
"La Tropical" Factory.
AN Indian cheroot, a cheap Manila, or the product of some obscure factory in the cold, grey North may do for
an ordinary smoke; but La Tropical" cigars are reserved for the hours of relaxation and pleasure, when their
exquisite odour may be enjoyed not only by the smoker but also by those in his vicinity. In clubs connoisseurs
select them with keen discrimination ; their fragrance enhances the pleasure of many a festive occasion ; and their
soothing effect mitigates care and anxiety. Their influence in environment tense with primeval possibilities and in
circumstances heavy with the monotony of the unchangeable appeals irresistibly to the imagination. The sweet
incense of La Tropical" cigars is burnt in ever-changing scenes throughout the world, and in their aromatic smoke
thoughts have been created that have materialised into great achievements and events of history. What cigar smoker
is not familiar with the celebrated brands, of which there are twenty-six varieties, and who has not looked apprecia-
tively at their dainty boxes in all the glory of their artistic labelling? The numerous gold medals which they have
won in open competition at Exhibitions throughout the world testify more eloquently to their merit than columns of
printed eulogy.
Jamaica owes the fame she has gained by "La Tropical" cigars to the war of 1868 in Cuba, when two
brothers and patriots of that country, Messrs. B. and J. B. Machado, fled from Spanish oppression to the
neighboring British island, where in 1875 they laid the foundation of the great business that is still carried on
under their joint names. It was incorporated in 1918 as a limited liability company, and the managing director is
Mr. P. R. Machado, a native of Cuba and son and nephew respectively of the founders.
Messrs. B. and J. B. Machado's original premises, comprising five buildings in Harbour Street, were completely
destroyed by the earthquake of 1907, and a large number of the employees lost their lives by that calamity. Two
weeks afterwards the firm resumed operations in premises in Victoria Avenue, which were gradually improved and
enlarged until the completion of the present extensive and splendidly equipped factory in 1920.
The company have in Jamaica about 8oo acres of specially selected land, where is grown the choice tobacco
from which their famous productions are made. All the processes of cultivation, curing, grading, and blending are
conducted by Cuban experts, and nothing is left undone that can enhance the quality of the tobacco, which is of a
mild nature but with a distinctive flavour and aroma that appeal to the critical taste.
In "La Tropical" factory some hundreds of persons are employed, including many experts who know tobacco
as they know nothing else. They were born in tobacco environment; they were reared in it; it permeates their
entire outlook and existence; and to watch the selectors choosing with ready but unerring judgment the leaves for
the different grades, as well as the skilful manipulation of those who fashion the cigars, is an object lesson in
specialised training. Indeed, specialisation is the dominant feature of the factory, and characterises all the operations
from the commencement of the tobacco cultivation to the sealing of the cigar boxes.
The same remark applies also to the firm's manufacture of cigarettes-" Black Seal" in Pectoral paper,
"White Seal" in Algodon (cotton) paper, "Ascots" and "G.S.O." corked tipped and plain. The sections of
the factory for that branch of manufacture are equipped with the latest machinery pertaining thereto. The cigarette
machines are amongst the most wonderful contrivances human ingenuity has produced, the tobacco entering loose
at one end and coming out at the other in the finished articles at the rate of about 300 a minute.
The firm's very handsome offices in King Street were opened in 1910, and at the entrance they have an
attractive retail store, where are sold not only their own productions, but also a large variety of imported cigarettes.


LINDSAY, SWAN, HUNTER, Limited, Salvage Contractors, Marine and Estate Engineers,
Union Engineering Works, Harbour Street.
Ar the entrance to the harbour of Kingston-one of the finest in the world -is a small islet, on which is erected a
large black signboard bearing in white letters the name of a firm intimately connected with the sea, viz., Messrs.
Lindsay, Swan, Hunter, Ltd. That noteworthy designation is the first intimation received, on incoming vessels, of
the engineering facilities of the historic city lying in the distance across the shimmering water, with the serried range
of mountains forming a background of great beauty. In the vicinity of the tiny islet referred to stood Port Royal,
the renowned rendezvous that was enriched beyond computation by the spoils brought to it by the buccaneers of
olden time. Port Royal of the past, with its wealth and wickedness, now lies under the sea that still takes its toll
on shipping amongst the emerald islands of the West; and because of this toll the well-known firm of Messrs.
Lindsay, Swan, Hunter, Ltd., have a swift and powerful organisation extending over a radius of a thousand miles
from Jamaica, for the salvage of vessels of every description. Their numerous employees include a staff of qualified
salvage operators and divers, and they possess salvage steamers fitted with the most complete equipment for meeting
every contingency and difficulty that may arise in the connection indicated.
'The business of Messrs. Lindsay, Swan, Hunter, Ltd., is one of the many subsidiary concerns of Messrs. Swan,
Hunter and Wigham Richardson, Ltd., Wallsend-on-Tyne, whose great connections in various parts of the world
give employment to many thousands of men, and have produced vessels sailing on every ocean. To them the
British mercantile marine owes much indeed; and their activities during the war, and the service they rendered in
the cause of humanity, were of an importance to which ordinary encomiums are inadequately applicable. It is not
our purpose here, however, to expatiate thereon, but to refer in brief terms to the manner in which Messrs. Lindsay,
Swan, HIunter, Ltd., became established in Jamaica, and the good work they are performing there. The Managing
Director, Captain George Lindsay, formerly partner in the firm of Lindsay Carverhill, Ltd., which amalgamated with
Swan, I-Hnter and Wigham Richardson, had long been a believer in the great opportunity afforded in Jamaica for
a salvage and engineering business conducted on up-to-date lines; and accordingly through his enterprise and ability
was founded the firm of Messrs. Lindsay, Swan, Hunter, Ltd. It was started immediately before the war, and during
the long years of the conflict proved invaluable for the repair of all kinds of marine and other machinery. In
IHarbour Street the firm took over the Union Engineering Works; but that establishment became too small for the
rapid development of their business, and in the early part of 1921 they removed into much larger premises which
they had built at the eastern extremity of the same thoroughfare. Fitted with electric cranes and powerful machinery
of every kind required, the operations there include everything pertaining to general marine and estate engineering,
iron and brass founding, etc. The firm are contractors to the British Admiralty, War Office, India Office, Crown
Agents for the Colonies, Russian and French Governments, etc.

LEVIEN and SHERLOCK, Preserved Turtle Factory, etc., 72j, Harbour Street.
T'I'urI.: is the piece de resistance of the epicure, and the relative highly-prized soup is essential, of course, to the
completeness of every banquet. The greatest home of the turtle in the West Indies is the Cayman Islands, and
the inhabitants of that dependency of Jamaica live entirely by turtle fishing. Thence come the turtles that sustain
the well-known and interesting business of Messrs. Levien and Sherlock, who have in Kingston harbour a coral for
the accoimmniodation of the animals until they are taken to the factory to be converted into the firm's delectable
preparatiolns-dried turtle, turtle soup in canisters, turtle tablets, green turtle fat, dried calipee and calipash, etc.
The firm's factory has no duplicate in Jamaica, and is equipped with a new plant of up-to-date machinery,
great boiling pans, and everything that can expedite the work and enhance the quality of the output. The
canisters are imported from America, and one of the notable machines hermetically fixes the lids on them without
any solder and with remarkable rapidity-its capacity being 5,000 canisters per day. When the canisters are filled
and closed they are immersed for forty minutes in steam of a temperature of 240 degrees in order to absolutely
sterilise the contents, which, being previously perfectly cooked, are, when placed on the market, immediately
available for domestic use, and especially so for invalids, to whom, on account of their high nutritive quality, they
are peculiarly adapted.
In the factory, which has been visited by many prominent people from all parts of the world, are also made
Jamaica fruit preserves and pickles and West Indian condiments of every description, which, being put up in
hermetically sealed bottles and tins, can be kept in the finest condition in any climate indefinitely. The firm's
clientele. including Royalty, is a great one indeed; and a very large number of testimonials have been received at
the factory from all parts of the world eulogising its unrivalled products, which gained the only Diploma of Honour
at the Great International Fisheries Exhibition, London, in 1882; Commemorative Medal at the Colonial and Indian
Exhibition, London, in S886; Certificate with Honour at the International Exhibition, Jamaica, in 1891; Gold
Medal and Diploma at the British and Colonial Industrial Exhibition, Manchester, in 1894; Gold Medal at
the Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto, in 1910; a Silver Medal at the Canadian National Exhibition,
Toronto. in 1912, and Diploma in 1914.
The business was started upwards of seventy years ago at Montego Biy by Mr. Sidney Levien, and was transferred
by him to Kingston in i866. After his death in 1895 it was taken over by his daughter, Mrs. Sherlock, who had
assisted her father in its management for a quarter of a century. On the death of that lady in 1914 it came into
the possession of the founder's grandson, Mr. J. Martinez, and Miss Levien, since when the premises have been
enlarged, new machinery installed, the methods of operation improved, and the business extended very considerably.
The firm's New York agents are Messrs.. McTaggert and Co., 296, Broadway; and the London agents,
Messrs. I). Q. Henriques and Co., 21, Finsbury Pavement, E.C.


SHERLOCK and SMITH, Wholesale and Retail General Drapers and Outfitters, 81, King Street.
THE visitor to Kingston cannot fail to be agreeably impressed with the handsome and extensive character of some
of the local stores, which are stocked with outfitting goods equal to the best that can be obtained anywhere.
Prominent amongst these establishments is the one belonging to Messrs. Sherlock and Smith; and the artistic displays
in its large plate-glass windows are not the least appreciable features of attraction in the King Street promenade
The ensemble of the interior is in thorough keeping with all
the pleasing characteristics of a modern fashionable shopping
resort, and throughout it is observable a harmonious combination
of elegance and utility in appointments and service that speaks
much for the attention which the firm pay to specialisation in
ways and means and the best methods of accommodating and
displaying their goods. Indeed, the extent of the stock, having
an average value of 50,000, is remarkable in view of the
comparatively small size of the city and the keen competition
already existing there in all branches of the dry goods trade.
But, of course, it is not alone the upper class of Kingston
society that sustains the firm's large trade, for their clientele
extends throughout the island. The great development of
Jamaica during recent years as a tourist resort also accounts
for the exceptionally fine goods dealt in by this firm; and as
S... -- the thousands of visitors to the island include many of the
wealthiest and most fashionable people of the United States,
PREMISES OF SHERLOCK AND SMITH. with whom price is a secondary matter in coml)arison with
quality, Messrs. Sherlock and Smith reach out to the leading
sources of supply for absolutely the best productions, so that the choice goods in their various departments may
be regarded as an epitome of the highest achievements of the industries they represent. The many assortments of
apparel held by the firm exemplify the latest fashions in every detail. There are dresses that are dreams of
loveliness in silk and lace, in satin and muslin, and all the fabrics that twentieth century ideals demand;
charming costumes specially adapted for holiday ventures on sea and land; beautiful lingerie trimmed and finished
as daintily as the most fastidious tastes may desire, and millinery rivalling Nature in its profusion of chromatic
beauty and in life-like imitation of its floral abundance ; while the shapes of the hats are as varied as the materials
of which they are made. Messrs. Sherlock and Smith devote special attention to millinery and dressmaking, and
in these departments employ experts whose execution of orders is characterized by a clever interpretation of every
style that fashion may decree or fancy may suggest.
The firm are also noteworthy for their exposition of male outfitting as well as for general drapery of every
description, and the great stock of Manchester and other goods in their wholesale departments indicates the extent
to which they operate in that direction.
The business is essentially English in every respect, and it is from the United Kingdom that most of its
importations are obtained. Mr. J. R. Smith, the elder of the two partners, was trained in all branches of his trade by the
well-known firm of Marshall and Snelgrove, Oxford Street, London. He went to Kingston in the employ of Messrs.
Nathan, Sherlock and Co., Ltd., with whom he remained eighteen years, during which time he acted for six years
as manager of their Bee Hive" branch, and eventually became managing director of the firm's entire business.
In 90o6 he launched out on his own account in Harbour Street, where his premises and stock were destroyed by
the fire and earthquake of 1907. By that terrible disaster Mr. C. M. Sherlock, of Nathan, Sherlock and Co., Ltd.,
lost his life; and his interests having been bought out, his son, Mr. A. M. Sherlock, joined in partnership with
Mr. Smith-his brother-in-law-and in May, i907, they opened their present handsome premises, which have,
however, since then undergone many improvements, and the trade of which has developed very greatly.
Mr. A. M. Sherlock was one of the first business men of Kingston to volunteer for the war. Joining the
British West India Regiment, he was attached to the Royal Field Artillery, with which he served in Ftrance,
Belgium, and Italy, and retired with the rank of Captain.

ROBERTS ENGINEERING CO., 92, Harbour Street.
THE range of operations embraced by the business of the Roberts Engineering Co. is extremely wide and varied,
and includes everything pertaining to electrical and mechanical engineering and jobbing as well as marine work. In
no branch of activity are skilled workmanship and good quality of material more important than in such an under-
taking; and it is the aim of the Roberts Engineering Co. to exemplify by their service and supply superlative
attainment in the infinity of things to which they devote their attention. Amongst these supplies are lighting plants,
motors and engines, Westinghouse bulbs and fans, lubricating oils and greases, belting, Hopkinson's valves, engine
packing, and Algor boiler compound, auto supplies, bulbs, oils and greases, tyres, etc.
The business was established about 1907 by Mr. Allan 1). Roberts, from whom it takes its name. In 190o it
came into the possession of its present proprietor, Mr. O. Chris Uber, an Englishman.
The firm's cable address is Roballan," Jamaica.


ISAACS and BRANDON, LIMITED, Wholesale Dry Goods Merchants, Harbour Street.
ONE of the largest wholesale dry goods concerns in Jamaica is that of Messrs. Isaacs and Brandon, Ltd., the
interior of whose extensive establishment in Harbour Street provides an impressive vista of textile fabrics of
every description. The local market for such goods is very different from that which obtains in Great Britain
and the United States. The styles and patterns popular in Jamaica are upheld by different classes of people,
whose tastes are in many ways extremely diverse. Not only have these to be taken into consideration, but
the climate must also be reckoned with when selections of clothing are made that are intended to appeal to
the Jamaican public. Accordingly there are found in the huge stock of Messrs. Isaacs and Brandon, Ltd., many
patterns that would be unsaleable in the colder North, but which are in demand everywhere in this island. There are, of
course, the latest novelties as well as standard goods, and fashion insinuates itself throughout the firm's great assortment
of dress materials in a bewildering variety of design and colour impossible of realisation except by actual inspection.
The business was established in 19o9 by the gentlemen whose names it bears, and in I911 was incorporated
as a limited company, of which Mr. William Wilson, J.P., O.B.E, is the President. Everything undertaken by
that able and well-known individual seems to undergo great prosperous development; a notable illustration of which
is the expansion attained by the business of Messrs. Isaacs and Brandon, Ltd., under his administration.

DANIEL FINZ[ and CO., Limited, Rum Merchants, 30, 32, 34, Port Royal Street.
R| .:Iu.l:x.c\.; to Jamaica rum is synonymous with reference to Messrs. Daniel Finzi and Co., Ltd., whose extensive
operations in sustaining and enhancing the high and unsurpassed quality of the island spirit have contributed very
materially to its fame since the foundation of their business in 1843. Rum is the one great speciality of this
notable firm-rum, old and mellow, rich and nutritious, fragrant and delicious, and vastly different from the crude
and abhorrent foreign imitations. Four causes are attributed for the great superiority of
-- Jamaica rum: first, soil and water; second, rich molasses ; third, the manner in which
S --AO Uthe wash is set up for fermentation and the preparation of the ingredients employed;
fourth, the use of the old-fashioned pot-still and retort-the only method of operation
.. v, in the island. Besides these, the subtleties of blending, as performed by Messrs.
Daniel Finzi and Co., Ltd., are of no ordinary procedure, but the outcome of great
0. knowledge and experience concentrated intensely on details of exquisite fineness that
are perceptible only to faculties specially trained to the work. No wonder the rum
and West Indian cordials produced by Messrs. Daniel Finzi and Co., Ltd., have
always been awarded the highest honours (ten gold medals) at every Exhibition where
they have been competitively shown. For liquor of such superlative merit there must not
be any possibility of accidental deterioration; consequently the firm are exceedingly
vigilant and painstaking in all the operations in their factory. An example of this is
afforded by the unusual attention which they bestow to the sterilisation of the bottles
in which their fragrant liquors are contained. The soaking of the bottles for eleven
minutes in a strong caustic solution is a feature of the cleansing process not usually
observed in contemporary West Indian establishments. The bottling operations include
THE LABEL OF every accessory which can contribute to the perfection of process and result; and the bottles
DANIEL FINZI AND with their distinctive seals and handsome labels go forth to all parts of the world to
CO., LTD. benefit and gladden by their superb contents, to which Jamaica owes her chief fame.
The founder of the business, Mr. Daniel Finzi, died in 1900, and he was
succeeded in its ownership and control by his son, Mr. Eugene Finzi, than whom there is probably no greater rum
expert extant. The firm suffered severely through the destruction of their premises and stock by the fire and earthquake
of 1907; but their present premises of reinforced concrete cement, and with walls eighteen inches thick, were the first to be
built after the great disaster ; and certainly nothing seems to have been omitted that could make them more adaptable to
the work therein performed. Mr. Finzi is one of the most influential and prominent men of Jamaica, where he has
very extensive properties. He is the senior Justice of the Peace of Kingston, and has always rendered great but
unostentatious service, financial and otherwise, in assisting local institutions and in furthering everything pertaining
to the welfare of the people.
In 1916 Mr. Finzi converted the business into a limited liability company, the secretary of which is his
brother-in law, Mr. R. W. Cushman, a very capable American gentleman, who supervises all the details of the factory,
wherein a lar e number of persons are employed.

THE necessities of the marine and estate interests of Jamaica are excellently catered for by the various engineering
establishments in Kingston. Amongst these is the General Engineering Works in Harbour Street, where a large staff
of skilled men, aided by a powerful plant of electrically driven machinery of an up-to-date character, are engaged
in the wide sphere of activities pertaining to general mechanics and engineering, blacksmiths, coppersmiths, iron and
brass founders, automobile and gas engineers, etc. The firm devote special attention to repairs of sugar mill and
steamship machinery, and their equipment includes an apparatus for oxy-acetylene welding. In the foundry castings
up to one ton and a half are made.
Started in August, 1919, the business has undergone extensive development, thanks to the able manner in which
all its details are organized and controlled. The partners are Messrs. F. E. Bawn, W. P. Livingston, and C. Katon,
each of whom is a skilled engineer and engaged in the practical supervision of the works.


KINGSTON is unsurpassed in the West Indies for its motor garages. One of the largest of them is that of the
Mutual Motor and Carriage Co., Ltd., which is equipped with all kinds of machinery and contrivances for the
expedition and perfection of the work involved, including the re-charging of electric batteries and the re-magnetising
of magnetos; also a hydraulic press which, with a pressure of 150 tons to the square inch, removes old tyres

[Photo: Cleary & Elliott, Kingston.

and replaces new ones on car wheels at one operation. In the machine shop any part of a motor car can be made
with precision and dexterity that might not have been thought possible in Jamaica. In the wood-working departments
may be seen in the course of construction, amongst other vehicles, great motor trucks for the conveyance of very
heavy loads; and in the upholstering and enamelling departments work is performed that is comparable to the best
from overseas. The company's stock of accessories and spare parts is exceedingly large and varied. In one of the
store-rooms are 144 feet of wooden fixtures, io feet high, containing 3,000 separate compartments. Above each
compartment is a numbered card-protected by a transparent mica covering-indicating the contents, the whole
being operated by a card index system, which enables the storekeeper to tell instantly the exact quantity there is in
stock of any particular class of goods. The company are agents for the celebrated Overland," Hudson,"
" Studebaker," and Willys-Knight" cars, also for the Garford trucks, which played so important a part in America,
France, Russia, and the United Kingdom during the war. At one of the entrances to the garage is an underground
tank capable of holding 250 gallons of gasoline; and the purity and cool temperature of the spirit is ensured by a
hydraulic arrangement of a further 250 gallons of water, ro parts of the water displacing 17 parts of the gasoline.
The establishment gives employment to upwards of ioo skilled men, and is in a process of continual expansion
by the company's acquisition of adjoining premises whenever such opportunity presents itself. The President of the
company is Mr. William Wilson, J.P., O.B.E., the General Manager Mr. E. L Delgado, the Secretary Mr. O. L. Delgado,
and the Assistant Secretary Mr. H. O. L. Delgado.

C. E. BURTON, Wholesale and Commission Merchant and Shipping Agent, 52, Port Royal Street.
A LARGE amount of the business of Kingston is sustained by the activities of wholesale and commission merchants
and shipping agents that afford no scope for descriptive
writing. Amongst the most noteworthy of these is
Mr. C. E. Burton, whose commodious establishment at
52, Port Royal Street is a well-known source of supply for
all manner of provisions and ships' stores, and imparts, in
the largeness of its stocks and general ensemble, some
indication of the importance and prominence of the
Mr. Burton, who is agent for the whiskies of Archibald
Lauder, Glasgow, and also for the Rea-Patterson Milling Co.,
Coffeyville, Kansas, has been established since 1904, and
has been in his present premises since 1909. He is a
contractor to Government institutions and H.M. War
Department, and is Consul for Chile. He specialises in
the exportation of rum, sugar, coffee, cocoa, pimento, and
other native produce, and will be pleased to reply to all
enquiries relating thereto. His cable address is Burton,


WILLIAM WILSON, Limited, Commission Merchants and Manufacturers' Agents,
83, King Street.
MESSRS. WIISON AND STAFFORD, LTD., Hat Manufacturers, of Atherstone, England, were awarded a gold medal
and diploma at the Jamaica Exhibition of 1891 for the high quality of their productions, and Mr. William Wilson,
third son of one of the partners, proceeded to the island to fix up some matters relating thereto. In 1899 he
started in Kingston as a commission merchant and manufacturers' agent, and his business developed so greatly
that in 1909 it was incorporated as William Wilson. Ltd. It has now ramifications throughout
the British West Indies, and a branch office at Barbados supervised by Mr. Percy Wilson,
brother of the Chairman and Managing Director, Mr. William Wilson.
The historic insurance litigation that followed the fire and earthquake which destroyed
Kingston in 1907 was set in motion by Mr. William Wilson, who met the initial financial
outlay in securing the services of learned counsel. He it was too who formed the combination
that evolved as the Jamaica Policy Holders' Association, which secured from the insurance
companies the payment of 857o, or about i,ooo,ooo, on behalf of the claimants. Mr. Wilson's
efforts in that connection were all the more praiseworthy in view of the fact that not a penny
S of the insurance money could be forthcoming to himself, as his own policies had lapsed on
the day of the disaster, and were destroyed when his premises came tumbling down upon
him, and he escaped death by taking refuge under a strong table.
No one in Jamaica rendered greater services during the war than Mr. William Wilson, and
his recruiting activities led to the raising of the first contingent of the British West India
Regiment. His Majesty the King expressed his recognition of Mr. Wilson's war services by
conferring upon him, in March, 1918, the Order of the British Empire.
Mr. Wilson owns extensive banana and sugar plantations in the island; and under his
WILLIAM WILSON, control is a vast amount of the business transacted in Kingston. Three of the various companies
J.P., O.B.E. of which he is Chairman, viz., The Mutual Motor and Carriage Co., Ltd.; Isaacs and
Brandon, Ltd.; and The Temple of Fashion, Ltd., are described separately in these pages.
'The Palace \Amusements. Ltd., of which he is also Chairman, controls all the cinematographs in Jamaica. In his
office is a picture gallery of illuminated addresses (including one eloquent of his work for the Jamaica Policy
Holders' Association) which have been presented to him at various times, as well as photos of social, philanthropic,
and sporting events in which he took a prominent part. Conterminous with the office is the magnificent large
saimple-room of Messrs. Wilson, Ltd. probably the finest of the kind in the West Indies.
Mr. William Wilson is a Justice of the Peace for the parish of Kingston, Trustee of the Jamaica War Trust
Fund. Member of the Executive Committee of the Jamaica Imperial Association, Pensions and Allowances Committee,
and the committeee of the Baden-Powell Boys' Scouts for Jamaica. Lithe, tall, and straight as a guardsman, he
finds recreation in all kinds of sports, and one would deem his year of birth much later than 1871.

JAMES B. STIVEN, Furniture and Hardware Merchant, "The Colosseum," 13-17, Orange Street.
T'1in: large establishment known as [he Colosseum is entirely lacking in artistic embellishment. It is strictly
utilitarian and in keeping with the busy commercial district in which h it is located. To run such a large business
in, s:iy, more fashionable King Street would entail very great additional expense; so that Mr. Stiven is in a better
position to sell at lower prices than would otherwise be possible.
The stock in The Colosseum" is exceedingly varied and interesting. Indeed, nothing is included in it that
does not fulfil some requirement in a specialised way. Furniture of all kinds predominates, including up-to-date
porch furniture, hammocks and shades. Particularly noteworthy are the large assortments of sterling silver goods
and Parisian wall papeIrs of the most charming and artistic designs.
Mr. Stiven deals also very extensively in plantation supplies-agricultural implements, dairy appliances, saddlery
and harness. wire of all kinds, rope, rock salt. compressed air sprayers and bee supplies, paints and oils, etc. The
wide range of his activities is also indicated by the well-known firms for whom he is agent, including the following:
James Company, Motor and Pedal Cycles, Birmingham; Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Co., Pittsburg, U.S.A;
lMacf.rlane and Co., Saracen Foundry, Glasgow; Sutton and Sons, Seed Growers, Reading; United States Steel
Products Export Co.: R. G. Shaw and Co., Manufacturers of Hessian Bags, Dundee; Shaw, Wallace and Co.,
MI:nulfacturers of Hlessian Bags, Calcutta.
Mr. Stiven is a genial and popular Scotsman, who has travelled extensively, and his business capacity and
enterprise have been well demonstrated in Kingston. The business of which he is sole proprietor was established
about thirty years ago, and was formerly carried on under the name of W\. H. Johnson and Co., Ltd., until the
destruction of that firm's premises The Colosseum," in Harbour Street, and their hardware store in King Street
by the earthquake of 1907. Mr. Stiven, \\ho had been assistant manager of the business, resuscitated "The
Colosseum" in its present premises, which h had formerly been a lock-up store of Messrs. W. H. Johnson and Co., Ltd.
lie is Kingston agent for Mr. J. W. Edward, at whose Shettlewood and Montpelier pens the breeding of
Indian cattle is conducted with much success along scientific lines. These pens are practically the only places in
the \Vest Indies or South America where the pure Mysore cattle are bred. Mr. Stiven is a keen cricketer, golfer,
tennis player, and all round sportsman.


H. MACAULAY ORRETT, Shipping and Coaling Agent, Port Royal Street.
THE geographical position of Jamaica makes it the best base for salvage operations in the West Indies. The firm
longest associated with that work at the island is the large and well-known Merrit and Chapman Derrick and
Wrecking Co., of 17, Battery Place, New York, 71, Plune Street, Norfolk, Virginia, and Key West, Florida, who
possess great facilities and resources, and employ many skilled divers and operators for saving from the sea everything
that may meet with mishap upon it. One of the company's
wrecking steamers was located at Kingston harbour almost
continuously from 1900 until the time when the station had to
be closed owing to the United States going into the war and
taking over the company's equipment. After the cessation of
hostilities the company got back their steamers, and at the end
of 1920 resumed their operations in the West Indies by
re-establishing at Kingston their powerful wrecking steamer /
"Relief," which is fitted with the most up-to-date appliances,
and always held in readiness for salvage calls anywhere about
the Caribbean. The company's agent at Kingston is Mr. H.
Macaulay Orrett, who is one of the prominent business men of
the city, and has been connected with the local shipping and
coaling activity throughout his entire career.
He is also agent for Messrs. Pickford and Black, Ltd.,
Halifax, Nova Scotia, whose familiar cargo steamers have been
running between Halifax, Cuba, and Jamaica ever since the service
was taken over by that firm from the Cunard line upwards of THE SALVAGE STEAMER "RELIEF."
thirty years ago. The Pickford and Black line-one of the few
that were not suspended during the great war-rendered invaluable assistance in bringing foodstuffs to Jamaica in
a very trying time, and enabled growers to send away their produce.
Another of Mr. Macaulay Orrett's agencies is that of the Caribbean Steamship Co., Ltd., of 8 and io, Bridge
Street, New York, the Vice-president and General Manager of which is Mr. M. Gomez Casseres, who was born in
Jamaica. This is a comparatively young company, but is developing rapidly, and recently inaugurated a service
between New Orleans, Colombian, and Venezuelan ports and Cura'ao, in addition to their regular New York-Jamaica-
Colombia service. Some of the steamers also call at Trinidad.
Other agencies held by Mr. Macaulay Orrett are those of the Houston line of steamers between England, the
Argentine, Jamaica, and Cuba; and the Yorkshire Insurance Co., Ltd.
Mr. Macaulay Orrett's (able address is Hemorrett," Jamaica, and the codes used by him are Scott's loth edition,
Watkin's, A.B.C. 5th and improved edition, Western Union, and General Telegraph. He is a Justice of the Peace
for Kingston, Director of the Sailors' Home, Member of the Royal Jamaica Yacht Club and St. Andrew Club, and
Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute.

No conception of the unsurpassed loveliness of Jamaica can be obtained without actual sight of the sublimity of
its mountains, the grandeur of its valleys, and the beauty of its rivers, waterfalls, and seascapes. Jamaica can no
more be judged by the appearance of Kingston than can the physical aspect of any country be determined by
the aspect of its capital. Kingston is probably the least attractive portion of this summerland of delight; and
certainly visitors can have little, if any, excuse for not seeing some of the island's exquisite interior and coast line
in view of that praiseworthy and very serviceable business known as Bolton's Motor Service, which is organized
and equipped with a specialisation that meets every requirement of the tourist so far as sight-seeing is concerned.
Mr. Harold E. Bolton, the enterprising proprietor, has been serving the public in the direction indicated for
upwards of half a century. He began, of course, \with horse vehicles, and had extensive livery stables until the
dawn of the motor car era, when he was one of the first to take advantage of the greater utility afforded by
mechanical transport. Mr. Bolton still has horses and carriages for the use of people whose tastes cleave thereto.
His stud includes mountain ponies, hardy and of great endurance, specially trained to the carrying of riders over
the thrilling mountain tracks, where, far from the motor highways, are visioned scenes which no pen can adequately
delineate. The ponies are kept at his branch establishment at Gordon Town, which is the centre for horseback
riding in the glorious Port Royal and Blue Mountains.
Mr. Bolton has been transport contractor to His Majesty's War Department practically since he commenced
business, and motor-mail contractor to the Government of Jamaica for about eight years. His mail service between
Kingston and Port Antonio is the most noteworthy transport achievement in the island. Thus, his large motor
omnibus, carrying passengers as well as mails, leaves the Post Office, Kingston, daily at two o'clock in the
afternoon, and arrives at Port Antonio, distant seventy two miles, at half-past eleven. Punctually at midnight it starts
on the return journey, carrying replies to the letters received in Port Antonio by the evening train, and arrives at
Kingston in time for the letters to be distributed by the first post delivery throughout the city.
At his extensive garage at 34, Duke Street Mr. Bolton has always available numerous cars for special
excursions throughout the island, for any period, and at moderate charges. The chauffeurs employed by him
are specially selected for their skill and absolute trustworthiness; so that the resulting confidence in them enables
the tourist to enjoy the panorama of the island, and especially of the remarkable mountain roads, withoutt the
nervousness that would otherwise be justified and spoil the pleasure of the tour.


JOHN CROOK, Importer of Dodge Motor Cars, etc., Motor Garages, Harbour Street.
THE writer's tours in a Dodge motor car over the thrilling roads of the highlands of Jamaica revealed the remarkable
capability and smooth running of that famous and superb automobile. To praise the Dodge is like painting the lily.
It was the Dodge car which the American Government chose for its army service on both sides of the Atlantic,
and the work it performed, and the glory that accrued to it on many a historic battle front, will live perennially
in the annals of motor achievement. No wonder the Dodge Bros. Motor Co. of Detroit, Michigan, are overwhelmed
with demands from all parts of the world for their celebrated and unsurpassed productions, and no wonder the
magnificence of Jamaica scenery is being revealed to delighted tourists ensconced luxuriously in these envy-creating
vehicles that glide comparatively noiselessly over the amazing mountain roads of the island like the magic of dreams.
First introduced into Jamaica in April, 1920, by Mr. John Crook, they are now to be found everywhere in the island,
where they arrive from the Dodge Bros.' factory complete in every detail and ready for immediate use.
Mr. Crook has in Harbour Street two excellent garages, where the service of highly skilled workmen, aided by
the latest American machinery relative to the trade, is brought to bear on every possible contingency or demand.
The stock of accessories and spare parts available there is also of the most comprehensive description.
Further reference to Mr. Crook's activities will be found in the article on the Jamaica Biscuit Co., Ltd., on page 73.

ADOLPH LEVY and BRO., Commission Merchants, South Street.

IF in former times it was thought that an overseas merchant required to be not only a good man of business but
also a statesman, it is evident that all the higher faculties of the mercantile profession must still more be called
into requisition \\hen imports and exports are reckoned by hundreds of millions instead of fives or tens of millions,
when markets are so much larger and more numerous, competition so much keener and more varied, the problems
to Ile solved so much more complex, and the whole range of affairs so immensely widened. In a large wholesale
business like that of Messrs. Adolph Levy and Bro., who handle merchandise of almost every description, but especially
foodstuffs, there is ample scope for the application of discriminating knowledge in the selection of such commodities
as long experience has proved eminently suitable to the individualised requirements of the retail merchants in Jamaica.
The influence of this flourishing concern permeates all parts of the island, and, unlike the more concrete
miiterialis tion of the big shopping resorts, is more felt than seen. It is associated with the large business of
Messrs. C'. ;. Johnston and Co., of Port Antonio. which became affiliated to it in 1905. The commissions undertaken by
Messrs. Ad )lph L,:vy and Bro. contribute considerably to the imports of Jamaica, and the development of their business
to its present m iunitude has been the natural result of the steadfast principles and the enterprise and ability that have
always characterised it since its inception in 1893. The personnel of the firm comprises Mr. Adolph Levy, his brother
Mr. Ellis Levy. andl Mr. C. E. Johnston already referred to.
The firm's cable address is "'Adolph," Jamaica, and they use the A.B.C, Bentinck's, Lieber's, and Western Union
codes. They are agents for Win. Gossage and Sons, Ltd Lipton, Ltd., Bernese Alps Milk Co., Quaker Oats Co.,
(Gulf Refining Co.. Cudahy Packing Co., Western Canada Flour Mills Co., South Western Milling Co., Texas Star Flour
.Mills, Corn Pr ilucts Relining Co., Haig and Haig Five Star Whiskey, H. W. Johns-Manville Co., National Biscuit Co.

BRYDEN and EVELYN, Manufacturers' Agents, 54, King Street.

N, THIaN has been of greater influence in the great changes and development of business during recent decades
than the science of advertising. But side by side with the era of printed publicity has been a corresponding growth
in the recognition of the personal equation ; and it is doubtful whether any device, literary, mechanical or otherwise,
will be evolved to supplant the personal factor in commercial undertakings. The practical application of that principle
is one of the distinctive features of the West Indian trade of to-day, and throughout the extensive territory are to
bI found many commercial travellers and agents of European and American firms. The practical recognition of the
personal equation is the foundation of the very large business connections of Messrs. Bryden and Evelyn, whose
rc repsentatives travel periodically throughout the West Indies and afford to merchants there facilities for the importation
of the best that the w orld can offer in merchandise of all kinds.
This well kno\n and influential business was started about a quarter of a century ago by Mr. A. S. Bryden in
a small office in Orange Street, and the extent to which it has developed is indicated in some measure by the
imposiing offices and sample rooms now occupied by the firm in King Street, where a large clerical staff is employed.
In 1910 Mr. Bryden was joined in partnership by Mr. T. P. Evelyn, and the present designation of the business was
tir-n assumed. In Barbados the firm have another large establishment, which is supervised by Mr. Bryden under
thei name of A. S. Bryden and Son, the Kingston business being under the charge of Mr. Evelyn.
While demand and supply are the two weights that keep the balance of trade at a proper and workable level,
the aim of modern business methods is to create a demand where none exists, and the most efficacious way of
effec ting it is by the introduction of improvements in standard articles as well as new inventions of greater utility.
\B their activities in that way Messrs. Bryden and Evelyn have contributed greatly to West Indian commerce, and
the fact that they are agents for about fifty English and American concerns is sufficient to indicate the wide range
of their operations.


ARNOLD L. MALABRE and CO., Steamship Agents, Ship Brokers, Coal Contractors, and
Commission Agents, South Street.
THE large and well-known business of Messrs. Arnold L. Malabre and Co. is one of the few remaining old-time
concerns in Kingston. As a matter of fact, it is probably the oldest in the city. Its historical connections date
back to 1826, when the nucleus was formed under the style of William Titley and Co.-Mr. William Titley
becoming in his day one of the most influential of the local merchants. In due time he was succeeded by his son
William, who followed ably in his father's footsteps. Meanwhile, a worthy Frenchman, Charles Malabre, had fled
from his native city of Bordeaux to the asylum which England afforded in those times of political unrest in France.
His son, after a college education in England, became attached to the Jamaica business of Messrs. William
Titley and Co. in 1842, marrying soon after into a French family from Nantes that had settled in Jamaica. He
rose by his ability and integrity so highly in the esteem of his employer that when the latter retired in 1856 the
business became known as Arnold L. Malabre and Co.-the designation which it has retained to the present day,
and one which has always been synonymous with commercial uprightness and capability wherever the firm's dealings
have extended.
Mr. Malabre, seeing the greater possibilities of general hardware and lumber in the local market, changed the
entire character of the business, so that, instead of piles and bales of dry goods, the firm's premises eventually
became stocked with the wider and more utilitarian range of supplies. After many years of successful trading he
died in 1879, and was succeeded by his son, Mr. Charles Arnold Malabre, the present senior partner, who
continued the business in copartnership with the late Mr. Bernard Hall, the then Mayor of Liverpool.
Mr. Charles Arnold Malabre was educated at one of England's most celebrated and exclusive colleges--
Stonyhurst, where he had for classmates such famous men as Sir Conan Doyle, Bernard Partridge, Father Bernard
Vaughan (the famous London preacher), Lord Petre, and others. Mr. Malabre succeeded his father as Consul for
France, which office he held continuously for thirty years until he was compelled to relinquish it owing to the
pressure of other affairs. Mr. Malabre is one of the most prominent and esteemed citizens, and is assisted in the
business by his two sons, Arnold Louis and Herbert Clement, and also by Mr. I. Louis Narcisse.
The firm suffered immense loss by the great fire and earthquake of 1907, which destroyed their extensive
stores and stock-probably the largest at that time in the West Indies. With characteristic enterprise and ability
they, however, retrieved their misfortune: but, in so doing, they altered considerably the character of their business;
and although still dealing in general hardware, they have developed their activities very greatly as steamship agents,
ship brokers, coal contractors, and commission merchants, with correspondents practically all over the world.
Their offices in South Street are attached to the Leyland pier, 500 feet in length; and the large yard and
warehouse area is the scene of the most continuous shipping activity in Kingston, the busy wharf being rarely if
ever without a steamer loading, discharging, or bunkering. This is due to the fact that the firm are agents for
the Leyland and Harrison Lines; White Star and Red Star Lines; Ward Line; Compagnie G6enrale Transatlantique;
New Zealand Shipping Co., Ltd.; Shaw, Savill and Albion, and Federal Lines; Albion Line, Ltd.; Nantilus
Steam-shipping Co.; British and Foreign S.S. Co., Ltd.; and several others. They also represent Lambert Brothers, Ltd.,
London, contractors to the Admiralty, and leading steamship lines.
In view of their many and varied interests Messrs. Arnold L. Malabre and Co.'s offices are open night and day.
Their day telephone is No. 446; their telephone number at night is 202; their cable address is Malabre," Jamaica;
and the codes used by them are Scott's ioth, A.B.C. 5th, and Watkins.

WOOD and CARMAN, Accountants and Auditors, 4, Duke Street.

NOTHING is more important to any business than accurate accounting; and many a concern that would otherwise
have been very successful has failed ignobly simply and solely through faulty book-keeping. The intricacies of modern
commerce and income tax adjustments have developed to such an extent that only highly specialised knowledge and
experience can solve the problems presented in many commercial houses, whose ramifications and connections permeate
foreign markets and exchanges and frequently evolve complications beyond the ability of the ordinary book-keeper to
unravel and adjust for the balance sheet to which all transaction records are made subservient. Our reviews of the
commercial interests of Kingston must, therefore, include reference to the well-known firm of Messrs. Wood and
Carman, experts in everything pertaining to accountancy and auditing, and on whom devolve the balance sheets of
many of the concerns in the city and elsewhere in the island.
The nucleus of their business was formed in 1908, when Mr. James Wood, a skilled Scottish accountant, started
business for himself in the new city that was arising from the ruins of the earthquake of the preceding year. Mr. Wood
had had extensive experience of his profession in his native city of Montrose and afterwards in London, and soon
established a connection that grew to an extent beyond his power to manage without equally skilled assistance.
Accordingly in 1915 he was joined in partnership by Mr. Ralph Carman, an Associate of the Society of Incorporated
Accountants and Auditors, London, and under their mutual direction their business occupies a prominent and influential
position in its particular branch of activity.


E. HAUGHTON SANGUINETTI, Wine and Spirit Merchant, 159, Harbour Street.
No spirit is more nutritive than the celebrated rum of Jamaica, which is vastly different from the spurious imitations
produced elsewhere in patent stills. Before the advent of the latter most rums were sold to the trade with a true
account of their country of origin. But the product of the patent still opened up an alluring vista to the wholesale
man in the liquor trade. to whom it became clear that by purchasing say ten puncheons of Demerara or other
spirits and blending the same with one puncheon of Jamaica
rum, and then putting the concoction on the market as
Jamaica rum, the profit thereby secured would be considerable.
One of the most noteworthy suppliers of the genuine
Jamaica product is Mr. E. Haughton Sanguinetti, whose rum
is made by the old pot still and retort, which is and has ever
been the only method of distillation in the island. What
Mr. Sanguinetti does not know about the relative qualities of
rum may well be regarded as negligible, for his entire business
career has been spent in the odour of rum and kindred liquors.
He was for a quarter of a century employed in the business of
Messrs. J. Wray and Nephew, and the extent to which that
concern developed was contributed to in no small measure by
the knowledge and ability which he brought to bear on its
.. management, with which he was entrusted for many years.
--- --..- aa iAfter the death of the principal, Col. C. J. Ward, C.Ms.G., the
business was sold, and Mr. Sanguinetti, who had been appointed
PREMISES OF E. HAUGHTON SANGUINETTI. by the colonel's will as one of the executors of the estate,
launched out on his own account in 1917 on the same lines as
those in which he had been so long engaged. By great good fortune the large and excellent premises in which he
is installed ocre at that time for sale, and perceiving how admirably adapted they were for his new undertaking,
Mr. Sanmginetti immie,liately purchased them at a price far below their present value, and converted them into an
impresisive establishllment, where all the processes of blending and bottling of rum, as well as the manufacture of
native wines and cordials, are performed with marked ability and attention to detail. Mr. Sanguinetti conducts a large
export trade, especially with Europe; and besides his activities in connection with the choice liquors that are making
his name so xe\ll known, lie is all extensive imorter of all kinds of foreign wines and spirits, including the celebrated
pridiluctions of the following firms, for whom he is sole agent in Jamaica:-Veuve Clicquot, Champagne; Sir John
Por and Son. ILtd., Irish W hisky: Boll and I)unlop, Holland Gin; Calvet and Co., Clarets, Burgundies, etc.;
W\... .R ess and Hro.. Ltd., Guilness' Stout (G;t. Auk's Head Brand); Autard and Co., (Epernay), Champagne;
P'errier. Jouet and (Co, (Champagne; Macdonald, Greenlees and Williams, Ltd., Scotch \Vhiskv.
lr. Sanguin,'tti is correspondent for the New York Board of Underwriters, and his European agents are
Messrs. .l. luminlv and Co.. Ltd Ib'ndon. His cable address is "Sanguine," Jamaica, and he uses the 5th edition
of their .\.I.C. code.

CECIL DE CORDOVA and CO., Commission Merchants and Manufacturers' Agents, 48, Port Royal Street.
M.xx d of the largest and most influential firms in the \West Indies are commission merchants-a sphere of activity
essential to c mmlunities situated far from the great centres of the world's industry and commerce. Wholesale
buying. and selling is an integral part of local business enterprise, and much of it is done on behalf of people
resiTdent overseas. 'These conditions call for the services of trade experts-men with more than the average amount
of knowl,- dg and experience of international commercial transactions, and possessed of reputation for integrity as
\ell as financial resources that may inspire the utmost confidence. Such are Messrs. Cecil de Cordova and Co.,
whose activities contribute materially to the commerce of Kingston: and their lofty and extensive premises in
lPort Rox al Street, filled with great stocks of foodstuffs, wines and spirits, etc., testify eloquently to the prominence
and influence of the firm in the island's trade. It would not be easy to demarcate the limits of mercantile
eMlleaour in which Mlesrs. Cecil de (Cordo va and Co. are not prepared to operate; and their facilities and
org.ani ition enable then to carry through the largest undertakings with the experience and ability of specialists
alive tio every cintingncy and possibility in the fluctuations of demand and supply. They are exporters of produce
of all kindls and amongst the largest shippers of sugar.
Established in 1900oo, the business has undergone an evolutionary process of expansion notwithstanding all the
v\icisitudes of fires. earthllluakes, hurricanes. and wars. The firm's initial premises were at the corner of King and
Poprt Rmiyal Streets, and \\ere completely destroyed by the great earthquake of 1907.
'The partners are Mr. Cecil de Cordova, founder of the business, who supervises it in Kingston, and
Mr. A. II. Selhxvn. who manages the firm's branch that was established in 1913 at 25, \Vhitehall Street, New York,
under the name mof Chas. H. Watts Co. Inc.
Mlessrs. Cecil de Cordmva and Co.'s cable address is Soldec," and the codes used by them are the A.B.C.
,5th edition. i.ichier's, and ,entlex's. They are agents for Robin, Jones and Whitman, Ltd., Halifax; Wilson and Co.,
Chicago: Lever Bros., .td., for lia/clhirst and Sons, I.td., A. and F. Pears, Ltd., Liverpool; and other subsidiary
companies; Joseph Travers and Sons. Ltd., L.ondon : and Greenlees Brothers, Glasgow and London.


"THE BEE HIVE," corner of King and Harbour Streets.
THERE is no better nr more elegantly appointed store in Kingston than The Bee Hive," and its numerous electric fans
make shopping there cool and pleasant. Occupying the north-eastern corner site at the junction of King and Harbour
Streets, where all the cars stop, its proximity to the wharves makes it one of the first of the large stores to be noticed
by tourists, to whose requirements it is specially devoted. The brains behind "The Bee Hive" understand the
importance of first impressions, and the artistic displays and comparisons in the extensive plate-glass windows form a
continually varied exhibition of allurements and suggestions as well as of current fashions in ladies' and gentlemen's clothing
that are substantiated to the fullest extent in the pleasant and interesting interior. Amongst its displays are splendid
assortments of picture postcards and unmounted photos of Jamaica, also pretty souvenirs in the celebrated Goss china,
for which "The Bee Hive" is the sole agency in the island.
The business was established about fifty years ago, and was eventually acquired by one of the founders of Messrs.
Nathan and Co., Ltd., viz., Mr. A. M. Nathan, who was killed by the earthquake of 1907. The first Bee Hive stood at
the corner of Church and Harbour Streets, and after its destruction in the great disaster mentioned, the business was resumed
in temporary premises until the erection of the present handsome store in 1908. The Bee Hive" is the principal retail
branch of Messrs. Nathan and Co., Ltd., and has been since 1912 under the capable direction of Mr. G. T. Webb.

ASTON W. GARDNER and CO., Booksellers, Stationers, Printers, etc., Harbour Street.
THIS is the oldest book and stationery business in the island. It was established about 1850, and known at that
time as The Government Printers." In 1881 it was taken over by a Scotsman, Mr. George Henderson, who conducted
it under the name of George Henderson and Co.; but it was generally known as Henderson's Book Room." In course
of time Mr. Henderson obtained from England a young assistant, Mr. Aston \\. Gardner, who, about 1887, became
proprietor of the business, and thereafter carried it on under the title of Aston W. Gardner and Co.
The great lack of an up-to-date restaurant in Kingston led to the formation of a limited liability company, whose
directors comprised the leading ladies of local society, each of whom undertook in turn the supervision of The
Oleanders" restaurant which was opened by the company in Harbour Street in 1889. In 1907 the restaurant was taken
over by Mr. Gardner, and the destruction of his premises by the fire and earthquake of 1907 led to the erection of the
large building in which the business is now located.
Mr. Gardner died in 1916, and the business was purchased in November, 1918, by Mr. S. M. Jacobsen, who
thereupon resigned the position he had occupied as manager of the business of the Jamaica Times, Ltd., and inaugurated
the development that has since transformed the activities so long carried on under the name of Aston W. Gardner and Co.
The Oleanders" restaurant, containing dining accommodation for ninety persons, occupies one-half of the extensive
interior of the firm's premises, and the excellent meals and refreshments of all kinds, with the exception of alcoholic
liquors, nicely served there explain its great popularity.
One of the latest examples of Mr. Jacobsen's successful and ambitious administration is the well-equipped bakery
which he has started in connection with "The Oleanders."
The other half of the interior of the main premises is devoted to all kinds of stationery, books, periodicals, silver and
fancy articles, picture postcards, tennis and photographic goods, etc. At the back of the building, in Water Lane, is a
section for printing, bookbinding, machine ruling, and the manufacture of account books of every description.
The popularity of the entire business with ladies led Mr. Jacobsen, in partnership with Mrs. Kilbur, to cater further
for their requirements by establishing on the upper floor the now well-known Vanity Fair." Under the management of
Mrs. Kilbur this department has become a leader of fashion for its clever exemplification of millinery and dressmaking;
and besides the alluring materials associated with these arts, the stock in Vanity Fair includes a wide range in notions,
novelties, and baby-linen.
Mr. Jacobsen's versatile energy is also demonstrated by his association with the exportations of fruit by the Tangley
Fruit Co., and also by his activities as agent for Messrs. Thomas Cook and Sons.
Mr. Jacobsen was born in Jamaica in 1889, educated at Edinburgh, has travelled extensively, and makes a trip once
a year to Europe in connection with his business.

WILLIAMSON BROS., Wholesale and Retail Grocers and Provision Merchants,
"The Model Grocery," 9 and it, King Street.
DIETETIC preparations have now increased to such an extent that it would seem difficult to add to their number:
yet new foods and staple commodities, prepared in new ways, are continually augmenting the innumerable productions
of the European and American manufacturers; and while in former years due attention was paid to the packing and
general get-up, that attention was in its results far inferior to the elaboration and utility now observable in the multiplicity of
such commodities as form the stock in Messrs. Williamson Bros.' premises, where the attractive character of the receptacles
in which the viands are contained, as imported from overseas, may be taken as a fairly accurate index of their intrinsic
merits. The comprehensive assortment of goods well substantiates the title of the establishment as The Model Grocery."
It is divided into two sections, one for retail and the other for wholesale trade, and the prominent position it occupies in
local commerce may be indicated by the fact that it gives employment to about forty persons.
The firm are also importers of foreign liquors, and are agents for Birch's Black Bottle" and Haig and Haig
whiskies, also for the Netherlands Fire Insurance Co.
The business was established about thirty-five years ago, and was conducted in premises in Port Royal Street
until they were destroyed by the earthquake of 1907. The firm thereafter occupied temporary quarters on the
Parade for two years until they removed into their present premises, which were specially built for them.
Mr. S. L. Williamson, one of the founders, died in 1919, and the concern is now owned and managed by his
step-sons, Messrs. Sydney and Louis Barton, who have been identified with it throughout their business career.


THE GLEANER CO., Limited, Printers, Bookbinders, Account Book Manufacturers, etc.,
148-152, Harbour Street.
JAIMAic has the distinction of possessing in The Gleaner the most up-to-date daily newspaper and, in the establishment
where it is produced, the most complete printing place in the West Indies. The Gleaner was founded in 1834,
and has outlived the birth and death of many contemporaries in Kingston. Some years ago there were two other
daily newspapers in the city ; but they have passed away, and The Gleaner is now the only daily newspaper in the
island, where, by its extensive circulation, its excellent news service, and the high character of its leading articles,
it exerts great influence amongst all classes of the people. Its editor for many years has been and is Mr. H. G.
de Lisser, C.M.G., who is well known as a novelist as well as a journalist, and is one of the ablest writers the West
Indies have produced.
The Gleaner Co., Ltd., execute printing of every description, and specialise in the typographical requirements
of estates. An example of the up-to-date character and completeness of the service placed at the disposal of the
public by this alert firm is afforded by their monthly Bulletin of advertising blocks. These blocks are sent to Thr
(;/eaner monthly from New York, and are the same blocks which are used by the large daily papers there in
illustrating the advertisements of the great department stores. The company also make half-tone blocks to order.
Their work as bookbinders and account book manufacturers is on a par with the best procurable anywhere.
Indeed, whether it bie in materials or workmanship, or the machinery by which their extensive output is made
possible, The Gleaner Co., Ltd., occupy a very prominent position amongst their West Indian contemporaries.

G. EUSTACE BURKE and BRO., Limited, Wine, Rum, Spirit, Provision and General
Commission Merchants, King and Port Royal Streets.
Tli great fame of Jamaica for its rum has been contributed to by Messrs. G. Eustace Burke and Bro., Ltd.,
who have specialised in rum and native wines since the commencement of their business in 1885. The fine old
rum exported by this well-known firm to all parts of the world is thoroughly in keeping with the island's
reputation in that connection, and unsurpassed by other brands. They are also extensive importers of foreign
wines and spirits. Another branch of their activities is the manufacture of the celebrated La Paloma" cigars,
which are made of the finest tobacco grown in Jamaica wrapped in the renowned Sumatra leaves. These excellent
cigars appeal to the taste of all who can really appreciate a thoroughly good smoke, and are exported in
considerable quantity, especially to South Africa, where they are exceedingly popular.
Mlessrs. G. Eustace Burke and Bro., Ltd., are likewise large wholesale provision and general commission
merchants, and have various retail liquor branches throughout the city.
The gentlemen who founded the business are both deceased. Mr. G. Eustace Burke died in 1907, and his
brother, Mr. T. M. Burke, in 1914. The business was converted into a limited liability company in 1905. The
MIanaging Director is Mri. O. McBean Le Ray, and the Secretary Mr. E. F. D'Aguillar.

NATHAN and CO., Limited, "Metropolitan House," King Street.
The business of Messrs. Nathan and Co., Ltd., is the largest of the kind in the island. The opening of the
l Metropolitan House," as their establishment is called, on November loth, 1908, was an occasion of great public
interest. and the ceremony was performed by the then Governor of the island in the presence of a vast concourse
of peop")l. The building was the first of the noteworthy structures of the new city that arose from the ruins created
bv th, e illrtih ak' of the preceding year. Formed of concrete reinforced with steel, and supported by seventy
columnns, it \\as made as earthquake proof as possible. The Metropolitan House" has two storeys. The retail
delpartments on the ground fl >or hIive 300 feet of continuous counters, occupy an area of 7,500 square feet,
and are a succession of individualised sections overflowing with goods that are expressions of the latest styles
in the apparelling of ladies and gentlemen. The upper floor is devoted to wholesale requirements, and its
enormous stock of textile fabrics of every description indicates in some measure the extent of the firm's trade
with the retail shopkeepers throughout the island. An adjoining building serves as a bonded store for the firm's
goods. The well-known contemporary stores called "The Beehive," "The People's Mart," and "Cavendish
House," in Kingston are branches of the Metropolitan House." Other branches are established at Montego Bay,
Port Maria, Savanna-la-Mar, and May Pen.
The history of the business dates back to 1882, when its nucleus was formed by Mr. A. M. Nathan,
\who was born in Jamaica in 1851, took a very prominent part in the public life of the island, and was
killed by the collapse of the former Metropolitan House" through the earthquake of 1907. Before that
disaster the firm had become known as Nathan, Sherlock and Co., Ltd., as the founder had taken into
partnership with him his chief assistant, Mr. C. M. Sherlock; and a London office was established at 25, Moor
Lane, E C. In 1908 the firm's title was changed to Nathan and Co., Ltd. The founder's interests are vested
in his son, Major A. .Nathan. Mr. J. A. Scott is Permanent Director; the Secretary is Mr. J. Tapley;
and the other Directors are Messrs. W. E. Eggins, G. T. Webb, H. H. Dunn, and G. B. Russell, each of
whom is actively engaged in the supervision of the business in Kingston.


THE JAMAICA IMPORT AND EXPORT CO., f 22-28, Orange Street.

ORANGE STREET proclaims eloquently the character of the island's trade, and, unlike the fashionable shopping
promenade of King Street with handsome retail stores, its business houses are principally devoted to wholesale trade
in foodstuffs, cotton goods, and produce. They are of every degree of development, from the small nondescript
establishments of unfledged ventures to the great premises of firms whose operations exert
considerable influence in the commerce of the island. The warehouses in the thoroughfare
in question manifest no modern artistic display nor the subtleties of advertising embellish-
ment, for such expedients are apparently unnecessary in that highway of utilitarian aspect and
throbbing activity.
It is in Orange Street that are situated the very commodious and substantial premises
of the Jamaica Import and Export Co., and the big stocks accommodated therein comprise
sugar, honey, coffee, cocoa, pimento, ginger cuttings, annotto seed, orange oil (sweet and bitter),
sarsaparilla, goat-skins and hides, of which the firm are extensive exporters. They are also
importers of foodstuffs and cotton piece goods. Established so recently as 1919, the business
is but one of the various undertakings of Mr. J. Stephen Miller, its proprietor, who is one of
Jamaica's most enterprising and successful merchants. Born at Christiana in the parish of
Manchester, he gained, during many years of service with various firms in the island, a
thorough knowledge and experience of all branches of its commerce, with the result that in
1907 he launched out in business for himself as a general merchant in Manchester
parish, where he has extensive interests, and is the principal of the concern carried on
there under the name of the Williams Field Trading Co. He is a Justice of the Peace for
Clarendon and Manchester, and is agent for Samuel Dobree and Sons, Halifax, Nova Scotia, JAMES STEPHEN
and Smith and Nessle, Inc., New York. MILLER.


EVERY country has its own idiosyncrasies in furniture expression, just as it has in sartorial distinction and other forms
in which its individuality is proclaimed. To this Jamaica is no exception, for there is a uniformity in its household
embellishments that can only be appreciated by those familiar with the subtleties and necessities engendered by climate
and custom, and the ever ubiquitous influence cf the vicissitudes of cause and effect. British substantiality and
conservatism and the more enterprising delineations of American
output equally mark the lares el penates of the Jamaica people;
but throughout them all is observable a combination of utility
with simplicity which is ever the happiest procedure in home
equipment, more especially in tropical and sub-tropical lands.
Reference to furniture in this connection is synonymous
with reference to the Arthur Hendriks Furniture Co., in whose
large, two-storied establishment in Port Royal Street may be found
a stock of goods that is indicative of what the people of the
island best approve in the furnishing and adornment of their
homes. Glittering glassware and crockery of artistic shapes, lamps
of every kind, cooking utensils well calculated to withstand the
roughest usage, cutlery of the finest steel, and table services to
grace all occasions appeal powerfully to everyone with require-
ments in those directions; while the assortments of dining-room,
drawing-room, and bedroom suites, bedsteads and mattresses
designed for the maximum of comfort and repose, writing tables
FURNITURE CO., KINGSTON. and desks, and other things too numerous to me.ition, illustrate
the completeness of this firm's service and supply.
Apart from their large importations of foreign goods, the firm specialise in the manufacture of furniture from
native wood impervious to the ravages of the climate, and their facilities and resources in that respect enable them
to produce furniture to customers' own specifications with the utmost rapidity and with skill that leaves nothing to
be desired. Nor are they lacking in the artistic proficiency associated with upholstery in all its most pleasing for:ns.
The Arthur Hendriks Furniture Co. are furnishers from the cradle to the coffin, which means that they are also
undertakers, and, as such, are justly entitled to every encomium for their sympathetic and decorous methods of
operation. Their funereal equipment embrace everything suitable to persons of small means as well as to those wxho
desire to render every homage of respect to departed friends unhampered by any considerations of economy.
The principal of the business is Mr. Arthur Hendriks, a highly respected Jamaica gentleman, who established it
in x196, and who personally supervises all its departments.


ROBERTSON, STOTT and CO., General Hardware Merchants, 40, Port Royal Street.
MIssls. Roi.ER'rsoN, STOTT and Co. have only been established in the hardware trade of Jamaica since 1919, but
they have within that comparatively short period developed a business that is making its influence felt. In their
establishment at 40, Port Royal Street may be seen articles of utility of the most comprehensive description at
prices that please. There are no productions of modern manufacture in which the survival of the fittest is better
demonstrated than in the articles sustaining the general hardware trade. Throughout the world mechanical
ingenuity is unceasingly directed towards perfection in ways and means. That which was regarded as the highest
possible achievement last year is eclipsed by the improvement of this year; and so goes on the evolution that is
continually producing better things and better facilities, of which Messrs. Roberson, Stott and Co.'s stock is full of
many indications, being, as it ever is, a reflection of the latest novelties and improvements in shopkeepers'
hardware, estate and plantation supplies, shoemakers' requisites, ship chandlery, paints, oils, etc.
The firm are owners of extensive plantations, on which are grown coffee, sugar and other Jamaican products.
They are agents for a number of leading British and American manufacturers. Their cable address is
Robstotson," Kingston, and the codes used by them are the A.B.C. 5th and 6th editions, Western Union,
and Bentley's.

N. C. HENRIQUES, Limited, Wholesale Dry Goods Merchants and Commission Agents,
Harbour Street.
I. no vocation is there greater competition than in the dry goods trade. Ever) centre of population throughout
the civilised world illustrates this fact, and yet it is probable that in no sphere of activity can be found a larger
number of examples of successful commercial enterprise than in the supply of dress materials and household
fabrics. Kingston is no exception to this, and the number of dry goods stores which the local demand upholds is
one of the outstanding features of the business activity of the city. Occupying a leading position in the wholesale
dry goods trade are Messrs. N. C. Henriques, Ltd., whose business, founded in the early part of the present
century by the gentleman whose name it bears, was incorporated as a limited liability company in September, 1919.
The firm's extensive premises in Harbour Street comprise large adjoining two-storeyed establishments in which is
manifested a highly specialised organisation that is the result of long experience and exhaustive knowledge of every
idiosyncracy and every requirement in the multiplicity of goods handled. In one of the extensive stores wholesale
trade, under the supervision of the founder of the business and managing director, Mr. N. C. Henriques, is
conducted on a big scale; and the great assortments reveal not only the bewildering variety of patterns and
qualities produced by the textile factories of the world, but also the designs and colours most popular with the
people of Jamaica. In colder climes clothing is reduced to a dull, drab monotony in comparison with the bright
hues and light garments worn throughout the year by the inhabitants of this favoured island. Consequently, the
stock of Messrs. N. C. Henriques, Ltd., is a study in chromatic effects and in materials not primarily for warmth
but for comfort and the expression of every taste and requirement in clothing. Whether the order be for rich
silk or lace, light durable tweeds, the finest linen, the cheapest cotton prints, or anything pertaining to the wide
range of materials in which they deal, they have the goods to please the most exacting at prices admitting a
liberal profit to retail merchants because of the advantages accruing through direct importation in extensive
consignments from the various sources of supply.
Mr. V. C. McCormack, who was for many years with Mr. N. C. Henriques before the incorporation of the
present company, of which he is the secretary and treasurer, supervises the activities conducted in the other
equally large establishment, which is devoted to the representation of many well-known foreign manufacturers,
samples of whose productions in boots and shoes, dress materials, and general fancy goods are there displayed in a
variety that forms an interesting and instructive exhibition of a large proportion of the imports of Jamaica. The
firm's operations as manufacturers' representatives and commission agents are on an extensive scale. They are
established at Georgetown. British Guiana, whence they supply Trinidad, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, Martinique,
Guadeloupe, Antigua, St. Kitts, and St. Thomas, owing to the absence of shipping facilities between these places
and Jamaica.
In such a business the utilisation of cheap assistance would be greatly derogatory from its standing and
influence, and accordingly in the choice of their employees Messrs. N. C. Henriques, Ltd., are rightly fastidious
in obtaining only persons whose experience and capabilities are in keeping with the reputation of the firm for the
highest efficiency of service and the best traditions of commercial procedure.

WEST INDIAN STEAMSHIP COMPANY, Limited, 73, Orange Street.
Su1111'IN(; facilities throughout the West Indies are at present deplorable, and Jamaica is practically isolated from the
other lBitish islands. In order to remedy this state of affairs and provide opportunities for cheaper transportation
of passengci.s and cargo even beyond the Caribbean, a number of patriotic and enterprising Jamaicans formed in
lebiruiar, 1920, the \est Indian Steamship Co., Ltd., incorporated under the laws of Jamaica ; and it is to be hoped
their praiseworthy efforts will be followed by well-merited success. The company's activities are primarily directed to
the establishment of their own line of vessels between Jamaica, Cuba, Haiti, Panama, New York, and England;
the capital, according to the prospectus, being 50,000o, divided into 1o,ooo Ordinary shares of /i each, and 40,000
So Preference shares of ,r. The president is Mr. C. A. Campbell, the vice-president Mr. W. M. Cochran, the treasurer
I r. R. A. Logan, and the secretary Miss Victoria Smith.



IN the early seventies of the I9th century the sailing ship still carried most of the world's sea-borne merchandise;
and many a square-rigged clipper and many a swift schooner held their own with the less picturesque but more
utilitarian steamers that were robbing the ocean of much of its glamour and romance. One of the best-known
captains in those days amongst the West Indian Islands was L. D. Baker, who evolved an idea about bananas that
has materialised into the largest fruit business on earth. Capt. Baker started taking bananas in his schooner to
American ports, and so highly appreciated was the valuable fruit there that the great demand for it led to a rapid
development of his trade and the formation of the firm of L. D. Baker aid Co., which had its headquarters at
Port Antonio, and plantations in the parish of Portland, Jamaica. Steamers succeeded the primitive schooners in
the conveyance of the bananas to the cold grey North; and into the now enormously expanding business came
Mr. A. W. Preston (President of the United Fruit Co.) and Capt. Jesse Freeman, through whose enterprise the
firm of Messrs. L. D. Baker and Co. became merged in the Boston Fruit Co., which was incorporated with a
capital of $500,000. In 1900 that concern was developed into the United Fruit Co., incorporated with a capital of
$50,000,000, which has since been increased to $roo,ooo,ooo, with headquarters at Boston, offices at all the
principal cities of the United States, and agencies throughout the Old World as well as the New.
To describe the activities of the United Fruit Co., and all it has accomplished for the commercial and
industrial development of Jamaica and Central America, would necessitate a separate volume. This gigantic
undertaking gives employment to about 50,000 people, 1o,000 of whom are in Jamaica, in which island it
owns about 45,000 acres of land, 40 farms, 30 wharf premises and numerous other properties, besides controlling
about 20,000 more acres and other interests there. The Myrtle Bank Hotel, Kingston, and the Hotel Titchfield,
Port Antonio, are owned and operated by the United Fruit Co.
Jamaica is, however, only a small portion of the range of its operations, which extend throughout North,
Central and South America, and include railways, sugar factories, lumber concessions, fruit plantations, ware-
houses, hotels, and most of the wireless stations in the Caribbean. Besides its huge exportation of sugar the
company is the largest grower and shipper of bananas in the world-twice as large, in fact, as all the other
contemporary concerns combined, and agent for Messrs. Elders and Fyffes, Ltd, whose steamers are loaded with
bananas for England by the United Fruit Co.
Wherever the United Fruit Co. has established its activities in the Central American Republics, improved
sanitary and hygienic conditions have followed as a matter of course. Throughout the great territories where its
business is located the company has splendidly equipped hospitals, which are under the direction of its highly
specialised medical board at New York.
"The Great White Fleet" of the United Fruit Co. comprises upwards of thirty handsomely and comfortably
appointed steamers of about 121,000 total tonnage. They run from New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston,
New Orleans, and Mobile to the ports of Jamaica, Cuba, Panama, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras,
and British Honduras.

JAMAICA TIMES, Limited, Printers, Bookbinders, Booksellers, Stationers, etc., King Street.

ONE of the best contributors to Kingston's chief
thoroughfare is the extensive store of the Jamaica Times, Ltd.,
the largest establishment of its kind in the city. The
articles obtainable there are of a very interesting and compre-
hensive character, embracing all kinds of books, magazines
and other periodicals, stationery, picture postcards, toys, per-
fumery, fancy goods, etc. Upstairs are departments where
many assistants are employed; and amongst the stock held
there is what is probably the most extensive assortment in
Jamaica of electrical goods for illumination and power plants,
including the celebrated Delco Light Co.'s outfits, for which
the firm are agents. National Cash Registers, Remington
and Corona Typewriters are also amongst their agencies.
The firm specialise in the supply of office equipment
such as cabinets, card index systems, and all contrivances
that save time and labour and enhance the accuracy and PREMISES OF THE JAMAICA TIMES, LTD.
smooth working of general office routine. They are also
first-class printers, bookbinders, and machine rulers, and the up-to-date means and methods in their various depart-
ments in that connection testify to the efficiency with which their activities are conducted. The company are
printers, publishers, and proprietors of The Jamaica Times, which was founded in I898, and is the only weekly
newspaper in the island.
The inception of the business was on a very small scale, and the great development to which it has attained,
and which is still increasing, is the natural result of the enterprise and ability manifested in all its details. The
Managing Director is Mr. W. R. Durie, and the Editor of The Times is Mr. T. H. McD)ermott.


THE element of chance enters into all business, and indeed into all human affairs. One may be as certain as
possible about market conditions, about demand and supply, about qualities and costs, but everyone knows by
experience that accidents will happen, and how unforeseen changes take place that completely alter plans and
prospects. Because of this mutability in all commercial affairs there is in every business community the necessity
for reliable representatives "'on the spot," to act with good judgment and decision at the most opportune moments;
hence the large number of those who follow the vocation of the general commission agent. It is in that direction,
as well as in all shipping affairs, that the Jacobs Commercial and Shipping Agency operates. Representing many
large and well-known American and Newfoundland concerns, it is continually putting through transactions in
everything connected with the trade of the island. Long experience, thorough acquaintance with local conditions
and potentialities, and enterprising utilisation thereof have built up for the Agency a reputation of the highest
character that is demonstrated by its influential connections and the confidence reposed in all its affairs.
The principal of the business is Mr. A. I). Jacobs, an Englishman, who has been about fifty years in Jamaica.
Before he established the Agency in 1912 he had developed on the north side of the island a very extensive
general merchandise and produce business, which was entirely ruined by a hurricane; and amongst the many firms
in whose interests he exerts himself so well are those in Montego Bay and elsewhere, with whom he had formerly

L. A. HENRIQUES, The Favourite Jewellery Store," 70, King Street.
WVHEN Mr. L. .\. Henriques opened in May, 1918, his handsome store he established a standard of elegance and
colmpleteness which no one in the jewellery trade in Jamaica has surpassed. The admiration of the visitor to "The
Favorite Je\ellery Store," as his premises are called, will be divided between the elaborate character of its appoint-
ments and the wealth and variety of the beautiful goods therein displayed. The mere collection of such choice articles
of utility and adornment could not be a guarantee of success
without commensurate knowledge, ability, and rectitude; and a
connoisseur thoroughly versed in intrinsic values, and in the
merits of designs and materials, will find that Mr. L. A. Henriques
is not only an expert at his business, but one also whose
knowledge and experience of the trade does not lead him to
take advantage of the purchaser unable to differentiate between
mediocrity and genuine excellence. In view of the completeness
and variety of his assortments it is difficult to select any for
special mention. The variety of modern jewellery, for instance,
finds eloquent testimony in Mr. Henriques' glittering display.
Here may be seen all kinds of precious stones tastefully and
artistically mounted in gold designs of the most charming and
novel character. Great skill and experience are necessary for
Sthe proper setting of stones of high value in order to bring
i out the maximum of brilliancy and colour. The angle at which
a diamond, for instance, should be set in order that the light
SECTION OF STORE OF may penetrate at the proper point to bring out the "spark" or
L. A. HENRIQUES, KINGSTON. flash," is a subject of grave consideration to the setter. Stones
set in a haphazard, slovenly manner, however brilliant they
Imay Ie. look coinionplace beside skilfully mounted gems of much less colour or water. Those which Mr. Henriques
sells illutrate high phaes of workmanshipl. They are designed with reference to the quality of the gems selected,
and the beautiful effects thus produced are distinctly individual in character.
\\atc hs anid clocks, dining and toilet requisites, and articles too numerous to be mentioned, imported from
leading sources of luropean production, are held in abundance. Visitors to the island will be specially interested
In tht, line stock of Jamaica souvenirs in the form of native jewellery and tortoise-shell work. The Sonora talking
im:hincs, for which h Mr. Henriques is local agent, figure also in the supplies.
Tl'acnty-eight people are employed in the business, including men highly trained in repairs, engraving, etc., etc.,
V host WIolkroolns are Ion the upper floor.

THEODORE NUNES, Tailor and Outfitter, 77d, Harbour Street.
P'Ie.( sii. are judged by their appearance, and appearance cannot be ignored by anyone desirous of creating good
impressions or with any ambition to succeed. Good appearance means good clothes like those which Mr. Theodore
Nunes is always busy producing for men who know exactly what they want, and will not be satisfied with inferiority
in material or style. Mr. Nunes makes sure of his suits being perfect in fit and fashion by attending to the cutting
of them himself; and w\\hat he does not know about cutting may be safely ignored, for he has spent his entire business
career in the \ytlding of the scissors and the chalk. His training in the United States embraced years of experience
there as a skilled worker, and he began business for himself in Kingston in 90io, since when he has built up an
extensive connct tion that includes many of the leading people in the island. In his commodious and well-appointed
establishment at 77d, Harbour Street, not far from the Myrtle Bank Hotel, may be seen an excellent assortment of
the best English tweeds, woollens, series, flannels, etc., together with other articles of male attire.


D. C. HYLTON, Wholesale and Retail Gro:er and Provision Merchant,
24 and 25, West Parade.
THE aim of every enterprising merchant is to do something distinctive-to make his business stand out in bold
relief. The dead level of mediocrity is the easier course, and to follow continually the line of most resistance is
very difficult. To get out of the common rut, to rise
above the ordinary, to make the business conspicuous to
the buying public-these are the prime essentials for the
merchant who hopes to sell more goods than his competitors.
When a business is altogether in staple goods the problem
is more perplexing. Staple commodities marketed against
strong competition are but units amongst the many.
Groceries and provisions, for instance, are prosaic articles
in all conscience, and the man who would build up a
flourishing business in them in Kingston is confronted with
a proposition of considerable difficulty because of the keen
competition existing in that direction in the city. Never-
theless, it has been successfully accomplished by Mr. D. C.
Hylton. The two large stores comprising his West Parade
premises are not distinguished by ornamental features nor
elaboration of display. Utility is their dominant characteristic,
and the continual ingress and egress of the many people PREMISES OF D. C. HYLTON.
who obtain their supplies there indicate how well the
business stands in public estimation. In former times the luxuries within the reach of the wealthiest were extremely
limited compared to those which the poorest members of the community may now enjoy at prices only possible
through the increase of industrial, commercial, and shipping facilities. All parts of the world contribute to the
stock in any up-to-date grocery and provision store, and the goods in Mr. Hylton's Kingston premises as well
as in his branches in various parts of Jamaica can always be relied upon for freshness and purity, being, as
they are, imported at frequent intervals from the best sources of supply.
Mr. Hylton's thorough knowledge of his trade has been gained by twenty-two years' practical experience of it
in all its phases. His present business was taken over by him in 1913, previous to which he had been manager
of the contemporary concern that had been conducted on a less extensive scale in the same premises under a
different name.

THIS important concern occupies ten acres of land in a position admirably adapted to its requirements, including
its own wharf for the reception of the hides and the despatch of the excellent leather into which they are manu-
factured. Inferior leather is the result of bad hides and bad tanning-tanning, that is to say, by inferior chemical
agencies or in too great haste. Hides so tanned are entirely unable to resist those influences to which in their
natural condition they are subject, and are also devoid of the
new properties and qualities which good tanning develops.
In Thorburn's factory the materials used for the tanning
operations are mangrove bark and divi divi, and from these
an extract is made that is highly prized in England, whence
it is shipped in considerable quantity. The installation of the
elaborate equipment by which this extract is produced cost
T7,000. The tanning occupies about three months, and
necessitates a series of forty large cement pits filled with
solutions of varied potentiality, through which the hides pass
during their slow evolution into leather. The factory is equipped
with all kinds of machinery incidental to the trade. including a
rolling machine, which, with a pressure of five tons, i\,ecs to
the leather its final polish. The motive force of the works is
generated by a steam-engine of ioo horse power. The weekly
,'- manufacturing capacity of the establishment is 4,000 lbs. of
THORBURN'S LEATHER FACTORY, leather of high quality, which is not only sold throughout
KINGSTON. Jamaica but is also sent to England, where also are shipped
from this factory untanned hides.
Anyone versed in leather manufacture inspecting the establishment cannot fail to be impressed with the
perfection of its organisation and every detail of its equipment. It was entirely planned and erected Mr. E. WV.
Thorburn--probably the ablest tanner that Jamaica has ever produced. First a student of chemistry in his native
island, Mr. Thorburn was trained in leather tanning at the Jersey Laboratory under Professor Yocum, and there-
after enlarged his knowledge by practical experience and inspection of tanneries in Canada and the United States.
The factory of the Jamaica Leather Co., Ltd., was also erected under his supervision to his owxn specifications, and ht
was the manager of it until 1912, when he started his present undertaking with the financial assistance of hi.
partners Messrs. W. M. Garsia and E. Nuttall.


MORTIMER C. DeSOUZA and CO., Printers, Stationers, and Bookbinders, 139-145, Harbour Street.
Wi\\'llI: the remarkable achievements of European and American printers have not yet been equalled by their West
Indian conte.n praries, Kiigston p assessess in Messrs. M.ortimer C. DeSouza and Co. a firm whose work in the ordinary
processes is equal in every respect to anything of a similar character imported. The equipment of their premises,
which l\-e employment to about lifty people. would surprise those with erroneous ideas regarding local typographical
capability. The excellent electric plant is of the most modern description, and includes a monotype machine, which
does work equal to that of five compositors. It is manipulated like a typewriter, and when the operator, with his
manuscript before him. presses the letters on the keyboard, the contents of the manuscript are evolved into new
virgin type ready for printing, formed front the molten lead bubbling in the intricacies of the remarkable contrivance.
For commercial anl display \\ork the firm are unsurpassed, and they do all the printing for the United Fruit Co.,
including their extensive tabulating. The organisation of Messrs. Mortimer C. DeSouza and Co.'s business has for
its objcct the perfection of process and result. The service 1 which they place at the disposal of their customers
coniits of trained men able t', make and carry out suggestions for the improvement of all kinds of printing. In the
realism tion of these aims they are aided by their very large assortment of type, borders, and ornaments. They are
printers anl publishers of the Journal of the Jamaica Agricultural Society, which has sometimes an issue of about
8.000 copies. They also cater to the requirements of the tobacco industry by printing on the wood used for
cigar boxes.
MIachine ruling and bookbinding are very n teworthy departments in which special attention is devoted to the
mianiuftactre of all kinds of account and estate books and planters' requisites. Resources of considerable magnitude
are shown in the various store-rooms for paper and all accessories of the trade, the greatness of the stock, which
includes stationery and writing materials of every description, being always maintained in view of any unforeseen
contilnencies or difficulties that may arise in procuring supplies from abroad.
The business, which is the oldest of the kind in Kingston, was founded in 1882 by Mr. Mortimer C. DeSouza,
\\hI died in .\August, r918. Since then it h:s been carried on by the gentleman with whom he had entered into
Iarnership i in oa05, Mr. L. M. Mordecai, who, however, had been identified with it long before that time. As a
matter of flat, NMr. lordecai h is been actively engaged in the printing trade of Jamaica for forty-four years.

W. CLARK GREER, Sanitary Engineer and Plumber, 13, Church Street.
MIR. \. CIARK GR:KR is a native of Paisley, and was trained in all branches of his profession during many years
service with Messrs. I). and R. Fulton, the well-known sanitary engineers of Glasgow. When he arrived in Kingston
a quarter of a century a.go as sanitary engineer for the Kingston Improvement Commissioners, the city was very
different fr m what it is to-day, different especially in its then primitive methods of sanitation. There was, therefore,
great scope for Mr. Clark Greer in those now distant years, and the things he has
accomplished and the great service he has rendered the community are testified to by the
vast improvement which has been effected in local sanitation through his skilled activities,
which embrace everything pertaining to sanitary engineering and plumbing. Defective work
in this connection permits the entrance into a house of sewer gas bearing germs of contagious
disease. It should be remembered that sewer-gas is not necessarily generated in sewers, and
that it is quite as frequently created by the plumbing system within the building itself This
is invariably the case if there are any obstructions or uneven surfaces in the pipes where
filth may collect. The most dangerous of sewer-gases are often inodorous, and are, therefore,
not discovered until ill-health renders necessary an examination of the existing sanitary
conditions, but often too late to repair the damage done. Mr. Clark Greer is the principal
plumber in Jamaica. and the methods by which he operates are directed towards the
elimiination of any possibility in the connection indicated. He resigned his official appointment
inl 1910 in order to commence his present business, and he is a contractor to the Railway
I department The construction of septic tanks, country house sewerage and water supplies,
and installations of acetylene gas and hydraulic rams are performed by him in all parts of
the island. His versatility is certainly great, as is also shown by his construction of the
W. CLARK GREER. waterworks at Annotto Bay and St. Mary's, and his extensive operations as agent for the
C. B. Blake Coal Co. of Cincinnati and New York.

H. C. CANTON, Manufacturer of Underclothing, 22, Temple Lane.
I'lr. I.i\.\v. is a quiet thoroughfare, through which not much of the rushing traffic of Kingston flows. At the
l irrv Street end of it, a minute's walk from King Street, is situated an unostentatious two-storied establishment not
readihl noticed owing to its somewhat secluded position. The building to which we refer is Mr. H. C. Canton's
tfctory. which is unique in Jamaica because of the extensive manufacture therein of men's, ladies', and
children's underwear under the registered trade mark The O.K." In busy seasons as many as 120 persons
are emi)loed there. The factory is well equipped with a large number of sewing machines, and the huge
quantities of materials which pass through it indicate the important part it plays in local trade.
The business was established in 1916 by Mr. Canton, an American citizen, who has spent all his
1onunercial career in the industry represented, and has had extensive experience of it in various parts of the


THE DORIC HOTEL, 94. East Street.
THE comfort of a hotel is not determined by its size, and many people find that a large establishment has many
disadvantages which are entirely lacking in an attractive little
place like the Doric, at 94, East Street. The Doric is the
greatest Scotch rendezvous in Jamaica, and is specially
popular amongst planters, who find it a real home from
home when they come into the city. The Doric is a
synonym for comfort, good food, and cleanliness. Its
bedrooms and reception rooms are large, airy, well lighted
and furnished with every convenience, and its verandah
facing north is a delightful place in which to while away
an hour of leisure. The Doric is equipped with all modern
sanitary arrangements and baths, has a garden and garage;
and its moderate charges are in striking contrast to the
high cost of living in the big hotels in Jamaica. It is
under the personal supervision of its proprietors, Mr. and TE D H E
Mrs. R. Hendry, who are unsparing in their efforts on behalf i THE DORIC HOTEL.
of the comfort and satisfaction of their guests. They were for many years proprietors of Montague House
Hotel in North Street, and owing to the expiry of their lease of that establishment they opened the Doric at
the beginning of 1921.

M. M. ALEXANDER, General Importer, 1o6, Harbour Street.
THE desire to possess a home upholds a large proportion of the world's industrial activity. A house-furnishing store
contains the embryo of many homes, for there can be no home without furniture, and there are many potentialities
in that direction in the extensive establishment of Mr. M. M. Alexander. It is an ideal place for young people
contemplating housekeeping, for its large variety of goods includes many that have a special charm for those in the
springtime of life--those who want art and beauty manifested in lares el penates which will be a pleasure to show to
admiring friends. To people also who seek specially strong furniture that will withstand the rough usage of children
and provide the maximum of comfort and economy, it has equal attractions. Everything pertaining to the equipment
of the modern home is found there in abundance, including enamelled ware, plated ware, glass\\are, crockery, lamps,
cutlery, etc., etc. The premises comprise two large stores of two storeys each, and uncommon indeed must the
household equipment be which cannot be met by the extensive stock.
Mr. Alexander is one of the oldest and most prominent merchants of Kingston, where he has been established
in business for about forty-six years. He is a Director of the Victoria Mutual Building Society, Jamaica Telephone
Co., Ltd., West India Aerated Mineral Co., Ltd., People's Discount and Deposit Co., Ltd., Motor Car and Supplies, Ltd.,
Jamaica Marine Insurance Co., Ltd., Rialto Picture Palace Co., Ltd., and Vice-President of the Charity Organisation,
City Dispensary, and Model Dwellings, Ltd. Mr. Alexander is also one of the Trustees for the Verney Home, a
member of the Committee of the St. Andrew Club and the Linnea Club, and Justice of the Peace for the parish
of Kingston and St. Andrew.

H. M. BRANDON and CO., "The Grain Store," 44, Orange Street.
NOTHING more important has ever been achieved than the redemption of land for the cultivation or grain, and the
spectacle afforded by the great modern flour mills, equipped with every mechanical device xhich can contribute to the
quality of the product or the cheapness of the operation, throbbing and thrilling with industrial life. Contrast them
with the poor, fitful windmills of the black-bread age, with their meagre equipment of machinery, and some idea is
gained of the progress that has been made in the matter of flour making. Contrast, too, a modern field of wheat
just ready for the harvest-thousands of acres given over exclusively to wheat raising, stretching in every direction
as far as the eye can see-with the little patch of doubtful grain, brought from the soil by arduous, intermittent,
unintelligent labour, dwarfed, insignificant, harried and threatened, yet pathetically precious to the peasant wheat-
grower of the black-bread period. By that contrast the tale of wheat is told in some measure, each chapter marking
an upward step in human progress, an advance in knowledge, science and civilisation; finally to triumph in a
brotherhood of man wherein the East may be hungry but the West will not let her starve.
These remarks are called forth by contemplation of the business of Messrs. H. NM. Brandon and Co., the only
firm in Kingston who specialise almost entirely in flour, meal, and general grain; hence the designation of their
premises, The Grain Store," built for perfect adaptation to the important branch of commerce it represents so well.
In this large grain store ot' Kingston is an epitome of the world's cereal production, particularly that of Canada and
America, whence most of the firm's importations are derived. Jamaica is pre-eminent amongst the islands of the
West Indies for horse and cattle breeding, and the requirements pertaining thereto in oats, hay, and other live-stock
food are well met by Messrs. H. M. Brandon and Co., whose supplies are equal to all demands.
The business was founded about a quarter of a century ago by MIr. Edgar de Cordova, and after he was killed
by the earthquake of 1907, it was carried on by Mr. H. M. Brandon, the present principal, who had been identified
with its management for many years, and whose name was given to it in 1911. Mr. Brandon has, therefore, been
engaged in the grain trade all his business career.
The firm are sole agents for the following :--Canadian Cereal and Flour Mills; International Stock Food Co.;
Geo. P. Plant Milling Co. Flours (Superior) (I.a Crema) and (Gold l)ust); Kimball Milling Co, Imperial Corn
Meal; Langenberg Hay and Grain Co.; Proctor and Gamblis "Crisco"; Louisiana State Rice Milling Co.;
Cadbury Bros., Ltd., Cocoa and Chocolates; Marsh, Vick and Co. (Bags) Coffee and Pimento, Iondon.


D. HENDERSON and CO., Wholesale and Retail Hardware and Lumber Merchants,
Corner of King and Harbour Streets.
THE premises of Messrs. I). Henderson and Co., of which we give an illustration, form the north-west corner of
the busiest traffic centre in the British West Indies; and in that territory their business, specialised entirely in
general hardware and lumber, is the oldest and largest of its kind. Throughout the three floors of the handsome
and palatial establishment in question is an enormous variety of goods that include everything associated with
general ironmongery and hardware, and reflect the improvements
w--- which are being constantly effected in such supplies. Tiny
screws and agricultural implements, glittering cutlery and
metal fittings, household utensils and tools of all kinds, paints
Sand oils and carriage-building accessories, bedsteads and ship
chandlery-everything, in fact, from a needle to an anchor,
is obtainable from Messrs. D. Henderson and Co. Although the
stock is so large and varied, the methodical system in which
it is arranged enables any article to be obtained without any
-as delay or uncertainty as to whether or not it is procurable.
Messrs. D. Henderson and Co. have also large lumber
yards and a wharf; and their transactions in lumber are very
The business, which gives employment to about fifty
S .p -n- persons, was established upwards of a hundred years ago, and
.. -p- o carried on under the name of Briscoe Brothers until 1882,
PREMISES OF D. HENDERSON AND CO., \hen it was taken over by Mr. David Henderson, a native
KINGSTON. of Glenisia, Perthshire, Scotland, who had been its manager
for many years. Since then, under its present designation, it
has developed very considerably. In partnership with Mr. Henderson are his sons James and Alexander, by whom
the administration of the business is chiefly conducted.

E. A. ISSA and BROS., Wholesale General Merchants, 135, Harbour Street.
Tl Ii: various branches of o nmercial activity in almost every city eventually become localised in districts that
take on their impress. Kingston provides no exception to this characteristic, and the district around the
ewstern section of H-arhour Street is where a large proportion of the wholesale dry goods trade is conducted.
)nre of the oldest established concerns of that kind there is that of Messrs. E. A. Issa and Bros., which has
fir" upwards of a quarter of a century been a highly appreciated source of supply for dress materials, boots
and shoes, and n tions" to retail shopkeepers in all parts of the island. Fashions have indeed changed
since the time \Vhmu1 the business was founded; but throughout all the varied patterns and designs which
ealh year ihas since seen in textile production, the firm have ever been to the fore in providing assortments
rellectmn the latest habilitorv decrees and novelties of Europe and America. The extensive piles of materials
onI the she-lves of their commodious two-storied premises at 135, Harbour Street, and various lock-up stores, can
alkavs he relied on as indicative of the prevailing modes; and while all articles pertaining to the dry goods
tr .le are there in abindanrce. the large assortment of Manchester cotton piece goods is particularly noteworthy,
or the firm specialise in the latter with the kno, ledge and experience that have been gained during the long
time they have been so intimately associated with their supply in Jamaica.
The business was commenced in 1894 in Orange Street, and afterwards removed to Harbour Street
premises, which were destroyed by the earthquake in 1907. Temporary quarters in Barry and Pechon Streets
s:trved the lirm until they settled in their present establishment in 1911. The business was founded by three
brothers, .Messrs. lE.A.. ..A.. and i A. A. Issa; but in 1916 the partnership was dissolved, and the sole
principal since then has been Mr. E. A. Issa.

BONITTO BROS., Commission Merchants and Manufacturers' Agents, Temple Lane.
TH.Ia. name of lionitto has long been associated with the business activity of Kingston, and in 1916 there passed
anaV onle of its oldest merchants. viz., Mr. John Bonitto, who had been in business in the city for about fifty years.
In 190o his three sons. IMessrs. Isaac L., Rudolph E.. and Raphael E. Bonitto, joined in partnership and opened
in liar omr Street a general outititting store entitled The Fashion House," which was destroyed by the earthquake
(i 1907. The firm then resumed operations in temporary quarters in King Street, and in the following July Mr.
Islaac .. Hiitto died. In November. 19o8, the "Tlemple of Fashion" in King Street was established by the
remaining brothers, who, however, retired a few years later from retail trade and confined their attention to their
activities is commission merchants and manufacturers' agents. The terrible influenza epidemic of 1918 included
amongst its victims M1r. Rudolph E. Bonitto, who had but a short time previously established the excellent and
popular restaurant in Harbour Street kno\n as "The Cabin"; so that Mr. Raphael E. Bonitto is now the sole
survivor of the lirln of Bonitto Bros. Amongst his agencies is that of the Lancashire Insurance Co. (merged in
the Royal Insurance Co., Ltd.), which had been represented by his father for forty years. Mr. Bonitto undertakes
commissions of every description. He is agent for the Kolynos Co., of Newhaven, U.S.A., whose dental cream is
so popular in Jamaica.


"THE SPORTS," Proprietor, A. E. DA COSTA, Gentlemen's Outfitter, Tailor, Boot and
Shoe Merchant, 27, King Street.
THE handsome and elaborate fittings of the establishment known as "The Sports" were specially selected by its
proprietor, Mr. A. E. Da Costa, in England and America, and the general aspect of the elegant interior is in keeping with
the high-class character of the stock of gentlemen's outfitting goods displayed there so charmingly and effectively. The
fact that the assortment of boots and shoes, for instance, is of an average value of 0io,ooo will help to indicate how
thoroughly Mr. Da Costa caters to public requirements. His great variety includes the best productions of English and
American manufacturers, and amongst them are the celebrated goods of the Hamilton-Brown Shoe Co. of Boston and
the "American Gentleman Special," for which he is sole agent in Jamaica.
"The Sports" has two storeys, and its coolness and airiness are enhanced by a large central space in the upper
floor in the form of a gallery.
Mr. Da Costa started his business in 1908, immediately on completion of the building after the earthquake of the
preceding year, and the demands made upon his resources have developed steadily year after year notwithstanding
all the adverse circumstances that have occurred since then. He is one of the most prominent and esteemed of
the local merchants, a member of the City Council, Chairman of the Ward Theatre, and a member of the West India
Committee and Club. For his services during the war Mr. Da Costa, while in London, was made a Member of the
Order of the British Empire.
The manager of "The Sports" is another worthy and able gentleman, Mr. D. J. Sasso, who has been in that
position since the inception of the business.

I. C. SOLOMON, Consulting Optician, 116, Harbour Street.
PARTLY because modern. conditions severely tax our eyes and tend to injure them, and partly because optical science
has become more exact, and therefore more widely useful, more spectacles are worn now than formerly. The first
function of glasses is to help the wearer to see clearly, but this is not all. Glasses are now worn by thousands of people
who could see fairly well without them, but who were found to be suffering from eye strain, which was seriously
affecting their health. The great danger of eye-strain lies in the fact that those affected only rarely suspect their eyes.
Yet a great tax is imposed on the nervous system by the eyes having to strain to overcome defects in the effort to
yield clear vision.
Optical science is excellently represented in Kingston, but by none better than by Mr. I. C. Solomon, ).B.O.A.,
F.I.O. (Lond.), in whose premises at 116, Harbour Street, all the work pertaining to the profession is carried on with
skill equal to that obtaining in any contemporary London establishment. The sight-testing room has been devised
with more than usual care for the perfection of process and result, and its excellent coolness and ventilation are not the
least of its commendable features. The laboratory is very interesting, equipped as it is with remarkably delicate
machinery for the manufacture of lenses of every description. The machine for grinding curvatures is the highest
achievement that has yet been made possible in that connection, and is so perfectly operated and free from vibration that
a shilling balanced on the top of its piston whilst working at full speed will not tumble off.
Mr. Solomon makes glasses to suit every idiosyncracy of sight, and supplies also all kinds of coloured glasses
as well as the Flemos and Sir William Crooks lenses.
Mr. Solomon was born in Jamaica in 1887, and all his studies were prosecuted towards optical science, in which
his knowledge was greatly extended by practical experience in the employ of Mr. G. W. Hodd, Finsbury Pavement,
London, E.C. Mr. Solomon qualified by examination Dioptrician of the British Optical Association, London, and is
also a Fellow of the Institute of Ophthalmic Opticians, London. He has been in practice at Kingston on his own
account since 19rI.
J. H. G. MAPP, Commission Merchant and Manufacturers' Agent,
83, Barry Street.
ONE of the most potent commercial laws is that of supply and demand, which are the two weights that keel) the
balance of trade at a proper and workable level, and adjust the scales of commerce in such a manner as to enable
the people to reap the benefits by their enjoying a fairly even level of prices for the various commodities that are
required by them. This law is part of our political economy, expressing the relation between production and
consumption, the supply of goods by those who have them to sell, and the demand of purchasers for the goods.
In the many ramifications of demand and supply the business of the commission merchant and manufacturers' agent
is amongst the most noteworthy departments of commercial activity in Jamaica and the other Vest Indian Islands.
A prominent representative of it in Kingston is Mr. J. H. G. Mapp, who has been established there on his own
account since 1908, and was previously with a firm in a similar line of activity for many years, so that his entire
career since he was seventeen years of age has been spent in the vocation of which he is so capable and experienced
an exponent.
Mr. Mapp, who is a native of Barbados, travels throughout the West Indies and Central America, and his
knowledge of market conditions and other potentialities in that extensive territory stands him in good stead in the
many undertakings with which he is entrusted. Mr. Mapp's telegraphic address is "' Penam," Kingston, and amongst
the firms for whom he is agent are the following :
E. and T. Pink, Ltd., London, Pickl -s, Jams and Confectionery. Cluett, Peabody and Co., New York, I igh-class Shirts and Collars.
Blyth and Platt, Watford, "Cobra" Boot Polishes. Bay Shoe Co., New Orleans and Boston.
H. A. Coombs, 10, Farringlon Avenue, London, E.C., Writing Bristol-Myers Co., Brooklyn, Saline Preparations.
Materials and General Card Goods. Telfer Biscuit Co., Ltd., Toronto, Canada.
D. Henderson and Sons, Ltd., Leicester, Ladies' Boots and Shoes. Cowan Co., Ltd., Toronto, Canada.


HURCOMB and SOLLAS, General Drapers and Outfitters, "The Linen Store,"
Corner of King and Harbour Streets.

NOWHERE in the British West Indies is there a busier place than where King and Harbour Streets intersect each
other. It is the I'iccadilly Circus of Kingston; and at the south-east corner of it are situated the premises of Messrs.
Hurcomb and Sollas, general drapers and outfitters. "The Linen Store," as their popular establishment is called,
appeals to the public in no uncertain manner, for while the vagaries of fashion in all the habiliments for both ladies.
and gentlemen are displayed in chromatic harmonies and allurements of the most diverse character, adherence to the
lowest possible prices commensurate with commercial security is the outstanding feature with which the supplies of
this emporium are ended. The wisdom of this policy is amply vindicated by the large number of people to be found
availing themselves of its bargains throughout all the shopping hours. While providing, as already indicated, everything
pertaining to general outfitting and drapery, Messrs. Hurcomb and Sollas devote special attention to linen, hence the
designation of their store; and their choice linen assortments are well calculated to lead to more extensive purchases
than lma:y he intended by the customer when first entering. Rich and dainty in its immaculate whiteness, the linen
obtainable there for every household requirement or personal wear is representative of the finest productions on the
market as well as of qualities that the most limited exchequers can encompass.
Messrs. Hurcomb and Soilas are also tailors, who exemplify in their work all the important details of cut and
finish that lift the making of clothes from the confines of utility to the most pleasing expressions of sartorial perfection.
Their business \was started in 1892 under the style of Hurcomb and Co., which was, on the death of
Mr. (. A. Hurcomb in 1911. changed to its present form, and has been conducted since by the remaining partner
and present sole principal, Mr. David M. Sollas.

T'ItRo,(;tclou all the ages the attention of mankind has ever been directed to the discovery of cures for physical ills;
and although modern scientific knowledge has resulted in the production of countless panaceas of more or less
cflica cy, it is an indisputable fact that the people who lived closer to nature, when the world was younger, found and
utilised, like many of their unlettered contemporaries in the inaccessible parts of the earth to-day, simple products of
leaf and bark which, for the alleviation of pain and the healing of disease, were and are greatly superior to many
of the widely advertised patent concoctions with which the world is now flooded. The islands of the West Indies,
and lamaic:a in particular, are rich in materials which nature has provided in abundance for the remedy of disordered
physical conditions; but many of the keys to that inexhaustible store of treasure have been lost, and others are in
desuetude through ignorance or prejudice. The P. Benjamin Mfg. Company have apparently, in their celebrated
1iiaicanI Hlealing Oil. one that unlocks many gateways to the temple of health, judging by the extent of its manufacture
anl( sale and the innumerable testimonials received regarding its wonderful properties, which include the cure of
rhleumaltismi, neuralgia, bronchitis, asthma, coughs, colds, sore throats, loss ot voice, croup, swellings, piles, cuts, bruises,
burns. stings of insects, sprains, corns, earache, diarrhea and dysentery, eczema, etc., etc. It is also claimed to be
eq lually efficacious for the cure of many ailments pertaining to horses and cattle.
But the famous healing oil is, however. only one of a great number of medicinal, toilet, and other preparations
11maniiufaictured by this Ibeneficial company, whose business was established upwards of a quarter of a century ago by the
gentlemaiin designated by its name. In 1900 Mr. P.. A. benjamin was joined in partnership by Mr. H. de Bruess Escala.

"THE OASIS" Millinery and Dressmaking Shop, 22, Church Street.
()O cannot (1(ceive art of any kind without its individuality of expression, nor a world with everyone alike.
Inldiiduxality is, for instance, the most potent charm of feminine apparel, for similarity of pattern and design would
tirn and depress. The woman of discernment and artistic perceptions seeks ever to manifest by her garments the
irresistible ,y,:hilgy of thie sulerlative and the new, blended by her own personality that has no duplicate in the
inexhaustibleh infinity of life. To such Mrs. (ertrude Evelyn Quin's highly specialised establishment at 22, Church
Sireet m()t strongly alIpeal. as an oasis of delightful millinery, that is as full of visions of beauty and effect as the
desert phlenIomenon indicated by its name. The great outstanding feature of this alluring business is the fact that it
is operated on the principle of providing distinctive millinery that is not duplicated, and that is made solely and only
for the larticular customer by whom it is ordered. lany ladies know by experience the disappointment aroused by
the ldiscove'ry of one or more replicas of a new dress or hat that \\as selected in the belief of its being unique.
' The Oasis exists to prevent any disappointment in that way, and to impart to each of its customers the knowledge
that the hat obtainable there is not a copy of any existing model. but absolutely created for herself. Each of the
ieauitiful hats is. therefore, different; :nd apart from the assortment ready for immediate wear, there is a large variety
,t trillmings anIl component materials of millinery for the choice of customers, who have the benefit, if desired, of
being guided to suitability of style and chromatic effect by the clever suggestions of Mrs. Quin and her assistant,
Mr. John Hill, both of \\11him are experts in the art of millinery in all its most subtle and most pleasing aspects.
Mr. Hill is the only man milliner in Jamaica. He is still quite young, and at an early age manifested remarkable
genius anld predilection for the fashioning of ladies' hats.


HAROLD COCKING, Printer, Stationer, Bookseller, etc., 21, Church Street.
THE literature in Cocking's Book Room is exceedingly varied and interesting. Books grave and gay, amusing and
instructive, in beautiful gold-emblazoned binding eminently suitable as gifts, or in cheaper covers for the tourist to
discard after perusal; there they are, stirring romances of all lands, full of excitement, and laughter, and tears, packed
with emotion, and thoughts new and old, and humour that scintillates, and philosophy that delves deep into the
heart of things. Then there is more evanescent literature-magazines and newspapers from both hemispheres by every
mail; and such is the service of this well-organised business that the humble journal of the little village or township,
however remote, or in whatever country you may have been born, will be delivered to you faithfully and regularly
if you place an order accordingly with the management.
Are you fastidious about your writing materials-one of the discerning who like to express their appreciation of
the superlative in texture and style of notepaper? Cocking's Book Room" exists to make writing a pleasure to
you; and if you are fond of fishing, for instance, the versatility of its supplies includes an extensive selection in gear.
Its utility is certainly noteworthy, for its proprietor, Mr. Harold Cocking, is agent for Messrs. Neale and Wilkinson,
Ltd., and Sutton and Co., the well-known carriers to all parts of the world; and so, if you have a parcel that cannot be
posted, or a houseful of furniture that you wish transported across the sea, or anything else, the Cocking despatch
service is both local and universal, and directed with care that ensures faithful delivery anywhere on earth.
If you wander into Cocking's Book Room for a picture postcard or an illustrated paper, and are looking through
more than you intend to buy, the busy hum you may hear proceeding from the regions beyond or the upper floor, is
caused by great printing machines; for the establishment is one of the best printing places in Jamaica, and includes
in its outfit three monotype machines and the entire plant of The Chronicle, which Mr. Cocking purchased after
the cessation of that journal in 1916. The manufacture of all kinds of account books and commercial stationery is an
important section of the work done on the premises.
Mr. Cocking is a native of Lincolnshire, and went to Jamaica in 1892 as manager of the Wesleyan Book Room,
in which position he continued until 1900, when he became a partner in the business known as Solas and Cocking.
That partnership was dissolved after the earthquake, and Mr. Cocking, continuing the business under his own name,
has developed it to its present magnitude.

JOHN FINDLAY, Manufacturers' Representative, 51, West Street.
A GREAT amount of the commerce of Kingston is not apparent by large and imposing premises nor by any
outward manifestation. Throughout the busy city are numerous manufacturers' agents, who, by their representation
of great sources of production in Europe and America, put through continually transactions of considerable
magnitude, and exert potent influence in local trade. Amongst the most noteworthy of these is Mr. John Findlay,
who left his native country, Scotland, in 1907 for service with the Bank of Nova Scotia, and was transferred
to the Kingston branch. Realising the greater prospects of his present line of activity, he resigned his position
with the Bank and started business on his own account in 1909, building up an extensive connection throughout
the island. In 1915 he went to the war, and took part in many of the fearful battles in France. Demobilised
after the Armistice, he returned to Jamaica and resumed his former operations, which include the importation of
foodstuffs and general merchandise and the exportation of the citrus fruits of Jamaica. Amongst the firms
represented by him are Baine, Johnson and Co., Newfoundland ; George Vipond and Co., Montreal, citrus fruits:
and Samuel Dobree and Son, Bankers and Commission Merchants, 7, Moorgate Street, London, E.C.

YUEN TAI and CO., "The Chinese Bazaar," 56, King Street.
THE arts of the Far East, and especially those of China
and Japan, are excellently illustrated by the choice assortment
of beautiful and serviceable goods displayed in great variety
in The Chinese Bazaar" of Messrs. Yuen Tai and Co.,
at 56, King Street. Indeed, there is no establishment in
Kingston where tourists are provided with a more unique- '
selection of articles for souvenirs or gifts than this interesting
emporium with its wealth of lovely and interesting things, which
have behind their production long ages of specialised knowledge
and skill, and processes of.manufacture unknown to western
craftsmanship. Exquisite objects in porcelain and satsumu
ware, ivory, gold and silver, silk, linen, embroideries, and drawn
thread work, with charming details that multiply exceedingly
by prolonged inspection, call irresistibly for appropriation; and
besides these are the more familiar imports from Europe and
America, the whole forming a stock that should be seen by every
visitor to Kingston.
As the name indicates, the firm are Chinese, and have been "THE CHINESE BAZAAR"
established in their present premises since 1918. (YUEN TAI and CO.), KINGSTON.


THE GORE COMPANY, Wholesale and Retail Grocers and Provision Merchants, 58, King Street.
THI principal of this prominent concern, Mr. J. F. Gore, was born in Jamaica in 1887, and spent most of his
business career in the United States. He began operations in Kingston as a wholesale and retail grocer and
provision merchant in 1916, and met with immediate success. A year later his business, which had developed
greatly, was transferred into its present fine premises right in the centre of the city's shopping area, and since
then the expansion has continued unabatedly. In 1919 Mr. Gore held all the principal contracts for the
supply of food products to the military canteens, etc., these being now taken over by the Admiralty. Flourishing
branches of the business have been established at Morant's Bay and St. Ann's Bay, and between these branches
Mr. Gore has running a very popular service of motor vehicles for the conveyance of both goods and passengers.
At Morant's Bay he has opened a cinema with seating accommodation for 600 people.
An inspection of the stock in his King Street premises reveals the significant fact that it does not include any
form of alcoholic liquor. The comestibles displayed so nicely there are of a very comprehensive description, and
represent the most famous food products from England and America. Behind the public section are stores for
reserve stock. Mr. Gore is also largely engaged in the exportation of Jamaica produce, chiefly coconuts.

CLEARY and ELLIOTT, Photographers, 89, King Street.
THE very fact of amateur photography having obtained so general a vogue amongst all classes has had immense
influence in improving the work of professional practitioners, and this has led to numerous developments in
photographic science, which, in turn, have increased the scope of those manufacturing industries upon which
both the amateur and the professional depend. But although the numerous accessories invented during recent
years for simplifying photography enable people ignorant of even the first principles of the art to produce
pictures, there is between mediocrity and excellence a great barrier that can only be surmounted by laborious
study and practice; otherwise, such excellent productions as those emanating, for instance, from the studio of
Messrs. Cleary and Elliott would provide no standard to which aspiring amateurs might direct their efforts.
Photography in its highest phases emerges from the plane of mechanical operation into a realm of art far
beyond the commonplace of ordinary achievement, and it is the aim of Messrs. Cleary and Elliott to exemplify
in their portraiture all those pleasing details which, \\hilst apparently casual, are the outcome of long experience
and close study of the best means and methods for securing superlative results. The charming examples of
their art displayed in their premises demonstrate that they are adepts in the judgment of light and shade, and
in determining the psychological moment when to snap the shutter of the camera so as to secure the most pleasing
expression of the sitter.
Tl'e firm are clever exponents of all branches of photography, including colour work, and have an unusually
fine mechanical equipment, including an Eastman projecting printer, which is the latest contrivance for the perfection
of enlargements. Portraiture on buttons is an interesting item of their productions, and during the war they issued
50.000 of these button pictures in connection with the local Red Cross Fund, which, by their sale, secured 2,ooo.
Messrs. Cleary and Elliott devote special attention to the developing and printing of amateurs' plates and films, and
keep in stock photographic goods of all kinds, including those of Marion and Co., London, the Eastman Kodak Co.
Collins and Globe Photo Mounts Co., and the Gem Dry Plate Co., for whom they are agents.
The business was started about thirty-five )ears ago by Mr. J. W. Cleary, who was joined in partnership in

1906 by Mr. E. \\. Elliott, both of whom are actively engaged in its supervision.

ASTLEY CLERK, "The Cowen Music Roams," 14, King Street.
lTHl. artistic value of a piano or an organ is not determined by the size of the factory in which it is made, nor the quantity
of its annual output. Rather the contrary; for to impart to one of these instruments that subtle musical personality
which effects its value requires the conscientious and affectionate interest of its makers. Each instrument is composed
of several hundred parts, many of which are exceedingly small, and yet each has an important place in the construction.
If any one of these little elements is not properly made and correctly fitted, the instrument will be lacking in
responsiveness of action, or deficient in tone, or both. There are many pianos and organs with a vast difference
in quality and capacity; and when Mr. Astley Clerk started business on his own account in Kingston in 1909, the
extensive knowledge and experience h had already gained of musical merchandise during nearly a quarter of a century
spent in the trade led him to take up the representation of the following well-known pianos and organs as being those best
calculated to withstand the effects of the local climate, as well as to give the greatest satisfaction to the people of the
island :-Milton, Schubert, and Cramer pianos; Swan, Bell, White Baby, Goderich White Portable, and Cornish Organs.
Besides its supplies of these fine instruments, Mr. Clerk's establishment, named The Cowen Music Rooms." after
Sir Frederick Co, en, who was born in the island, is noteworthy also for its comprehensive assortment of musical
instruments, music, and accessories of all kinds, including the productions of the National Music String Co., Morris
and Bendien (art pictures), Devoe and Raynolds (artists' materials), Decca portable gramophones, The Vanophone Co.,
Emerson records (American). Winner records (English), and the "Republic" and "Q.R.S." rolls.
Throughout his long association with the musical interests of Jamaica Mr. Astley Clerk has left his impress in
many directions relative thereto. In 1895 he instituted the choral competitions, which are still carried on by the
choristeis of the island. He is the composer of a very popular book of Jamaica school songs, and also of "The Island
Anthemi" \which was first published in 1887.
Mr. Clerk is also a great stamp collector, and specialises in the stamps of Jamaica.


B. W. BOYD, Underwriters' Representative, 18a, Duke Street.

No city in the world has been more prominently associated with insurance matters than Kingston, and no individual
there is more influential and active in that connection than Mr. B. W. Boyd, an insurance expert and underwriters'
representative, who specialises in the subject in all its phases, from accidents to annuities, and from haphazard ventures
to great established interests. He represents the following large and well-known companies :-The World Marine and
General Insurance Co., Ltd. (Marine); The World Auxiliary Insurance Corporation, Ltd. (Fire); The Palatine
Insurance Co., Ltd. (Fire); London and Provincial Marine and General Insurance Co., Ltd. (Accident).
The World Marine and General Insurance Co., Ltd., was the first English company to operate on an extensive scale
on modern English principles in Jamaica. An outstanding feature of the policies or contracts undertaken by this
company is the very comprehensive nature of the risks covered, which include, for instance, every description of
produce, beginning with the growing crop, continuing through the manufacturing operations and shipment until its
reception by the purchasers overseas. In this direction it is understood that the company in question are, through
Mr. Boyd, the largest insurance operators in Jamaica. Mr. Boyd has a very extensive clientele throughout the island,
and his busy activities exemplify an efficiency in management and service, and in the prompt and liberal settlement
of claims, that is highly appreciated and well taken advantage of.

FITZGERALD and BLACK, Agents for the Jones Sewing Machine, 66, Orange Street.

PROBABLY no invention has exerted greater influence in domestic economy, as well as in sartorial production, than the
sewing machine, which solves in almost every home problems that would otherwise be in the category of the impossible.
Amongst the best makes of machines in the world are the celebrated ones made by Messrs. Jones of Guydebridge,
near Manchester, England. Simple, durable, and reliable, and supplied to Her Majesty the Queen, Her Majesty
Queen Alexandra, and the principal educational authorities in Great Britain, the Jones machines are unsurpassed for
plain sewing, ruffling, tucking, hemming (all widths), darning, braiding, quilting, on the finest silks or the heaviest
materials. They are to be found everywhere in Jamaica, and were introduced into the island in 1908 by Messrs.
Fitzgerald and Black, who have built up a flourishing business as agents for these popular machines. This firm also
execute repairs of every description to all kinds of sewing machines, and are second to none for their knowledge and
skill in that direction.
Mr. Fitzgerald, an American citizen, retired from the business in 1915, leaving as sole proprietor Mr. H A. Black,
a native of Bedford, England.

DESNOES and GEDDES, Limited, Manufacturers of Aerated Waters, Native Wines and Cordials,
29-31, Orange Street.

KINGSTON water supply, obtained from the mountains overlooking the city, is exceedingly good, and this fact is
of special importance in the manufacture of aerated waters, in which branch of industry the well-known firm of
Messrs. Desnoes and Geddes, Ltd., operate with a specialisation that has behind it exhaustive knowledge and long
practical experience of everything pertaining thereto.
The equipment of their large and busy factory, which gives employment to about 50o persons, is in keeping
with the high reputation which the firm have secured for the excellence of their productions, and no effort is spared
by them in ways or means that can enhance the delightful beverages which they produce at the rate of about
one thousand dozen bottles daily.
The first of the various processes in this noteworthy establishment is the careful filtration of the water; and the
rigid attention bestowed to absolute purity and cleanliness of all the details is also manifested in the thorough
sterilisation of the bottles by the latest machinery designed for that purpose. Only the finest flavouring essences and
other ingredients are used, and the excellent installation of centrifugal refining pans for the preparation of the sugar
indicates the completeness with which the business is operated. The aerating plant is also on the latest and most
approved scientific principles, and without duplicate in Jamaica. Equal encomiums apply to the bottling machines,
and afford in their power and safety a vast contrast to the old-fashioned kind that entailed great risk to the employees
through the bursting of the bottles.
The firm also manufacture all kinds of delicious native wines and cordials-Orange, Ginger, Cherry, Kola, etc.,
for which there is a large demand in the island, the daily average consumption of such liquors being about 800
dozen. The productions of Messrs. Desnoes and Geddes, I.td., are popular not only throughout Jamaica but also in
other islands of the West Indies, and are comparable with the best imported.
The name of Desnoes has been associated with the manufacture of aerated waters and native wines in Jamaica
since r90o, in which year Mr. Eugene Desnoes started business on his own account in that direction. In 1916 he
amalgamated with Mr. Thomas H. Geddes, who had a similar business in Kingston, and in 1918 their united interests
were incorporated as a limited liability company under its present designation.


LOUIS WINKLER and SON, Importers of Musical Merchandise, "The Quality Store," 18, King Street.
IN Jamaica music is the one great recreation of the people, and it is not surprising, therefore, to find in Kingston
uuc(h a large and magnificently stocked establishment as that of Messrs. Louis Winkler and Son, which occupies a
central position in King Street, the principal shopping thoroughfare of the city. In "The Quality Store," as their
exceedingly popular and useful emporium is designated, there is demonstrated, by wonderful instruments, magic of a
far greater and higher order than that of professional prestigiation. Nothing, for instance, has ever been invented
surpassing in marvel the celebrated "Victor" talking machines (His Master's Voice), for which the firm are sole
distributors in the island. Considered from the point of view of its remarkable scientific application of natural laws,
or from its illimitable musical and artistic side, the "Victor" talking machine is by its versatility and power the
nearest equivalent to the human mind, ear, and voice, and affords a vast contrast to the crude and raucous things
that repelled and appalled when gramophones had not evolved to their present perfection. The firm's stock of
records of all kinds is very extensive, and they have a series of rooms where customers may test any record before
Equally interesting is the splendid display of tropically prepared pianos and organs of all kinds, including such
\\ell-known makes as the Kohler and Campbell, Lester. Leonard, Biddle, and Howard. A very large selection is also
afforded by the firm in music roils for the automatically playing instruments, one of the latter being the Pianista,"
made by the Auto-Piano Co., New York, with a novel gramophone attachment. While on the subject of pianos, it may
be. remarked that the British manufacturers are losing much foreign trade by embodying in their instruments the flat
scale, or upright stringing, which is entirely superseded in America by the much better system of overstringing.
Messrs. Louis Winkler and Son import some English pianos, notably the Brinsmead," but the bulk of their trade
is in American goods.
The premises extend from King Street to Temple Lane, and comprise workshops where a staff of skilled men
are engaged in repairs of all kinds to musical instruments of every description. The Quality Store is, we may
add, tile sole distributing centre in Jamaica for the artists' supplies of the well-known English firm of Winsor and
The business was established in 1884 by Mr. Louis Winkler, who had been for many years in the music trade
in New York. He is now in retirement, and his son, Mr. L. B. \Winkler, supervises all the interests of The Quality
Store with manifest enterprise and ability.

JUSTIN McCARTHY, Stationer, Bookseller, Toy and Fancy Dealer, 22, King Street.
K\owwI.,I;.;: is useless without expression, and the greater the knowledge the greater the expression. When primeval
man began to express his consciousness by means other than vocal, he made marks and signs on stones and wood
and other things by flints and bones. These were the world's writing materials, and between them and modern
stationery what vast development is recorded : But probably the intelligence that will evolve in the far-distant future
ages will look back upon our present methods of material expression as we do upon the primary efforts of humanity
\wlien it emerged slowly and laboriously from the beginnings of its life.
Buit what have these philosophical musings to do with Mr. Justin McCarthy's establishment ? Certainly nothing
to the unreflective, to whom it is merely an ordinary stationery and book store. But to those who see beyond the
ordinary it is full of interest, as to them common things always are. In it are stepping-stones to knowledge and
expressions. A chihl must begin with childish things, and in the establishment in question juvenile educational
recquisit.e are found in copy books and exercise books: and these are followed by writing materials and other things
fur more advanced requirements ull to such articles whereby adult intelligence and experience are expressed,
as ac count books and note-paper. The literature also obtainable there helps in securing oblivion from cares and
trouibles, andl changes for a time unpleasant environment and tedium into absorbing interest of other lands and other
( il'llllsl t:luncrs.
Iicsid!s these supplies are toys and general fanc y goods. The firm also caters to the body as well as to the
muinl, for amOngst its varied stock are the homeopathic medicines of Ashton and Parson, for whom the firm is agent, as
\wll as for Ward. Lo.(k and Co.'s publications.
'li thliusinicss was established about 1877 by Mr. Justin McCarthy, who died in 1904. It was thereafter carried
on Iby tlh manager. r. I. Ronimer, in conjunction with Mrs. McCarthy, and since the death of the latter in 195.
lMr. Roiorro 1has conductedd it o(n Ihehal f (t IIther members of thle family.

V. C. ALEXANDER, Auctioneer, Real Estate and Commission Agent,
50, Port Royal Street.
T1'( b useful is to fullii tle law (f being. The greater the utility the greater the development. To nothing is the
apllhorism IllOre alpplicalble than to business undertakings. 'I here are standards of usefulness in all callings, and amongst
the m1s()t notew IIrthy lf the many represented in Kingston is the business of Mr. V. C. Alexander, the man of varied
activities, who helps so much in the solution of ways and means \\hen the necessity arises for the immediate conversion
into cash (f goodss and chattels :and properties of every description. The possessions that come under his hammer at his
auction sales range throughout the entire gamut of human requirements, with results satisfactory to all concerned.
Mr. Alexander I s been established in his present occupation since r908, and has the distinction of conducting the
largest sales in Jamaica. Amongst his many notable transactions may be mentioned the sale to Messrs. Lindo Bros.
of the business of Messrs. J. Wray and Nephew for 200,000, and the Pusey Hall Estate for 65,000.
Sugar broking is another direction in which the influence of Mr. Alexander's operations is felt considerably, and
he is agent for Messrs. A. R. O'Neil and Co., Inc., New York.


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