• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Introduction
 Geography and physical feature...
 Climate and health
 Natural history
 Discovery and settlement
 Departments and distribution of...
 Constitution and government
 Finance
 Social conditions
 Inland communication and trans...
 Harbours and ports
 Forests and forest products
 Agriculture
 Mining and minerals
 Manufactures and minor industries:...
 Import and export trade
 List of important towns
 Appendix A. List of steamship lines...
 Appendix B. Colombian currency
 Appendix C. Weights and measur...
 Appendix D. Posts and telegrap...
 Appendix E. Diplomatic and consular...
 Appendix F. Denouncement and allotment...
 Appendix G. Conventions and...
 Index






Group Title: South American handbooks
Title: Colombia
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078507/00001
 Material Information
Title: Colombia physical features, natural resources, means of communication, manufactures and industrial development
Series Title: South American handbooks
Physical Description: xii, 220 p. : front., plates, maps (part fold.) fold. tables. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lévine, V
Publisher: D. Appleton & company
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1914
 Subjects
Subject: Colombia   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by V. Lévine, with introduction by B. Sanin Cano.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078507
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001514130
oclc - 27857284
notis - AHC7137

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Geography and physical features
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Climate and health
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Natural history
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Discovery and settlement
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
        Page 18b
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Departments and distribution of population
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Constitution and government
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 46a
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 49
    Finance
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Social conditions
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 62a
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
        Page 73
    Inland communication and transport
        Page 74
        Page 74a
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 84a
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 88a
        Page 89
    Harbours and ports
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Forests and forest products
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Agriculture
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 108a
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Mining and minerals
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Manufactures and minor industries: Present developments and future possibilities
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 128a
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Import and export trade
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 146a
        Page 147
    List of important towns
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    Appendix A. List of steamship lines and river services
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 186a
    Appendix B. Colombian currency
        Page 187
    Appendix C. Weights and measures
        Page 188
    Appendix D. Posts and telegraphs
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
    Appendix E. Diplomatic and consular services
        Page 192
    Appendix F. Denouncement and allotment of public lands
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    Appendix G. Conventions and treaties
        Page 209
        Page 210
    Index
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 218a
        Page 219
        Page 220
Full Text






SOUTH AMERICAN HANDBOOKS




COLOMBIA
PHYSICAL FEATURES, NATURAL RESOURCES,
MEANS OF COMMUNICATION, MANUFACTURES
AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT



BY

V. LEVINE

WITH INTRODUCTION BY
B. SANIN CANO











NEW YORK
D. APPLETON & COMPANY
MCMXI.


































PRINTED BY
SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LTD., LONDON, ENGLAND














CONTENTS


CHAP.


INTRODUCTION BY B. SANIN CANO IX
GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL FEATURES 1
CLIMATE AND HEALTH 5
NATURAL HISTORY 9
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT 13
DEPARTMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF
POPULATION 23
CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT 45
FINANCE 50
SOCIAL CONDITIONS 59
INLAND COMMUNICATION 74
HARBOURS AND PORTS 90
FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS 97
AGRICULTURE 102
MINING AND MINERALS 112
MANUFACTURES AND MINOR INDUSTRIES .126
IMPORT AND EXPORT TRADE 135
LIST OF IMPORTANT TOWNS 148
APPENDICES :
(A) LIST OF STEAMSHIP LINES AND RIVER
SERVICES 185
(B) MONEY AND COLOMBIAN CURRENCY .187
(C) WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 188
(D) POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS 189
(E) DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR 192
(F) DENOUNCEMENT AND ALLOTMENT OF
PUBLIC LANDS 193
(G) CONVENTIONS AND TREATIES 209
INDEX 211


C1 VI.
VII.

VIII.
IX.
X
x.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.


















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


MAP OF COLOMBIA Frontispiece.
BRIDGE OF THE LIBERATOR, NEAR BOGOTA facing
THE CHURCH OF VERA CRUZ, MEDELLIN
AVENIDA COLON, MEDELLIN
THE CHURCH OF SAN FRANCISCO, BOGOTA
THE CAPITOL, BOGOTA
INNER COURT OF CAPITOL, BOGOTA
A MODERN PRIVATE HOUSE, MEDELLIN
SKETCH MAP OF RAILWAYS AND WATERWAYS
RIVER MAGDALENA STERN-WHEEL STEAMER
"CALDAS"
THE PORT OF GIRARDOT, ON THE MAGDALENA
A METHOD OF TRANSPORT, MOUNTAIN DISTRICTS
OPEN AND COVERED MARKETS, BOGOTA
A COTTON STORE
A MULETEER
MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA













INTRODUCTION

THE opening of the Panama Canal this year means the
beginning of a new commercial era for Colombia, which
is one of the nations most favoured by this inter-oceanic
highway. The sea journey between Buenaventura and
Cartagena, which to-day occupies three months, will
be reduced to four days. The opening of the Canal and
the extension of the Pacific railway to the capital of the
Republic will give to the country the full advantages
of her geographical position, making her importance in
the Pacific more than equal to that in the Caribbean Sea.
The Pacific coast of Colombia is at present but little
known. The valley of the Cauca, the basin of the
Atrato, the territories watered by the San Juan and the
Patia will now attract the capital, which has up to the
present only been invested with much hesitation.
It is not difficult to find the reason why Colombia has
been less known than other South American nations:
the principal reason has been the frequent change of
name. The foreign capitalist was confronted with the
difficulty of the name. When he wished to study the
country with the idea of investing in it his own money
or that of others, there was a sense of insecurity.
The disturbances in New Granada had a bad effect
on the development of the United States of Colombia;
and when the Republic came to assume the name of
Colombia, the name caused difficulties owing to its
somewhat common occurrence.
ix









COLOMBIA


The coast is hot, and it has been assumed, therefore,
in days past, that the same temperature prevails over the
rest of the country. In this book the reader will learn
that the regions most densely populated and offering the
greatest opportunities enjoy a climate as benign to the
white race as the southern countries of Europe.
As a result of the increased facilities of communica-
tion, the publication of trade returns, and the interest
taken by President Reyes in making the country known,
attention will now be strongly attracted by the natural
resources of Colombia.
The administrations that have been in power since 1903
have principally devoted themselves to keeping the
peace, and their efforts have had the effect of enabling
the country to settle all questions by civilised methods.
Colombia has just given an example to the world. The
most difficult problem in American democracies, namely,
that of securing the liberty of the voter, and the policy
of electoral methods, appears to be finally settled in this
country. In the elections that have just taken place,
the result of which has been the election of Dr. Jose V.
Concha as President, the parties interested in the struggle
had for their chief object the general good of the country
rather than the triumph of a particular candidate.
Dr. Concha will enter on the government of the country
under the best auspices. He is not an inexperienced
man; he has been Minister on various occasions, and
has had to settle during his term of office the most
serious questions. He has represented his country in the
United States and in France, and has had to study
during his residence in Europe the most complicated









INTRODUCTION


side of Colombian finance. The nation has a right to
expect years of peace and the harmonious development
of all forms of culture during his administration.
It is of the greatest importance at the present
time that Colombia should be better known. The
economical conditions of certain industrial centres in
South America, in Africa, and Australasia are not at
the present moment the most satisfactory for foreign
capital. Moreover, the prosperity of some of those
countries has resulted in their being able to raise the
capital required for their own development. Australia
Argentina, and South Africa will soon be in a condition
to provide for themselves. Argentina, on emerging from
the present crisis, may, perhaps, be casting her eyes on
other South American countries, in order to instil in them
the result of her own brilliant economical development.
Colombia has so far consistently refused to advertise
her natural resources, and the logical development of
events has now placed this work in disinterested hands.
This volume affords the means not only of learning
the past history of the country, but also of interpreting
something of its future. For the capitalist, the explorer,
the tourist, the commercial traveller, there is information
of a practical kind which cannot fail to be useful. The
Author has made use of the latest official publications
and has taken advantage of valuable data contained in
many works which are not easily procurable.
CANAL ZONE TREATY. While this book was passing
through the Press news is to hand from Bogota that a
treaty of amity has been signed between the sister
Republics of Colombia and the United States of America.









xii COLOMBIA

By this treaty the United States agrees, within six months
of the signing thereof, to pay to Colombia a sum of
5,000,000 as compensation for the acquisition of the
Panama Canal Zone; also to grant certain privileges for
Colombian trade passing through the Canal, and free use
for Colombian Government vessels. This not only closes
the controversy on the subject, but also places the
Colombian nation in a very favourable position. It
will be seen on referring to the chapter on National
Finance that another result contingent on this payment
will be the allotment to the Foreign Bondholders of the
Republic of the balance of the old arrears of interest, as
arranged by the late Lord Avebury.
B. SANIN CANO.














COLOMBIA


CHAPTER I
GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL FEATURES
THE Republic of Colombia, formerly known as New
Granada, occupies the north-west of the continent of
South America. It lies between Lat. 120 24' N., and
40 17' S., and between Long. 66 7' and 79 W. It is
bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea; on the east
by Venezuela and Brazil; on the South by Peru and
Ecuador; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean and
Panama. The boundaries with Peru, Ecuador, and
Panama are still in dispute, and the area is therefore
uncertain. According to the census of 1912 the total
area is 461,606 square miles and the population 5,476,604
(about 30,000 uncivilised Indians being excluded from
this total).
The area included in Colombia falls into two approx-
imately equal parts of totally dissimilar character. The
more populous and better known portion, that of the
north and west, is divided longitudinally by a series of
mountain ranges, enclosing great river valleys. The
south-east which lies beyond the mountains, consists
of great well-watered plains or sabanas, 300 to 500 ft.
above sea. The northern portion of this division belongs
geologically to the llano open pasture lands--draining
north-east to the Orinoco, while the southern part is
I









COLOMBIA


covered with dense tropical forest, and drains south-east
to the Amazon basin.
The MOUNTAIN RANGES run, roughly speaking, north
and south, in a line parallel with the Pacific coast; and
the flow of the more important rivers is from south to
north, emptying into the Caribbean Sea. Close to the
coast, along the whole length of the intendencia of Choco,
runs a river range, known as the Baudo range, belonging
to the Antilles system of Panama. To the east of this
range flow the rivers Atrato, which runs north to the
gulf of Uraba, and San Juan (149 miles), which runs
south, and enters the Pacific by several mouths at the
south of the department.
The Andes of Ecuador enter Colombia at Los Pastos
in Narifio. The Western branch continues north as the
Western Cordillera of Colombia, or Cordillera de Choco.
It is cut by the tremendous precipitous gorge of the
river Patia (1,676 ft. deep), and then runs north to the
department of Bolivar. As it dies down into the plain,
one branch, the San Jeronimo range, divides the river
Sinis from the San Jorge, and another, the Ayapel,
divides the San Jorge from the Cauca. Along nearly the
whole eastern side of the range runs the great river
Cauca (496 miles), with numerous small tributaries,
entering the Magdalena in Bolivar. The summits of the
Cordillera rise to heights ranging from 9,000 to 18,000 ft.,
and include Cayambe (13,710 ft.), Chiles (16,912 ft.), and
Cumbal (17,076 ft.).
At the paramo1 of Las Papas the eastern Andes
x Paramos-high, wind-swept plateaux, covered with scanty,
low vegetation








GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL FEATURES 3

subdivide into the Central and the Eastern Cordilleras.
The Central Cordillera, of volcanic origin, forms the
watershed between the Cauca and the still greater
Magdalena, and terminates near Morales on the latter
river. This is the highest range, and includes Tolinia ,
(18,400 ft.), Huila (17,700 ft.), Santa Isabel (16,700 ft.),
Coconucos (15,000 ft.), Purace (16,821 ft.), Las Papas
(13,800 ft.), Ruiz (18,300 ft.), El Quindio (17,000 ft.),
and El Buey (13,860 ft.).
The Eastern Cordillera, or Cordillera de Bogota, is
of cretaceous and tertiary formation. It runs north-east
from Las Papas to the northern part of the department
of Boyaca. Here there is another subdivision. One
branch runs north to the peninsula of Goajira, and as
the Sierra de Perija forms the boundary between the
department of Magdalena and Venezuela; as it ap-
proaches the coast it is joined on the west by the Sierra
Nevada de Santa Marta, which runs parallel with the
coast. The other branch passes north-east into Venezuela,
where it is known as the Cordillera de MWrida. The two
ranges enclose the great basin of Maracaibo. The highest
parts are in the Chita range and at Sumapaz, while
the paramo of Santurban is 13,000 ft. above sea-level.
The highest peaks of the Santa Marta range, not yet
ascended, reach probably over 18,000 ft.
The mountains, as they die down in the north in the
departments of Magdalena and Bolivar, are succeeded
by an extensive plain, watered by the lower Magdalena
and its tributaries, and by smaller rivers flowing into the
Caribbean Sea. This plain, described as the Atlantic plain,
was called by the early Spanish conquerors, New Andalusia.









COLOMBIA


A great part of the Choco, watered by the Atrato and
the San Juan, is flat also. The lowest zone is subject to
periodical inundation, and the higher ground is covered
with forest.
The llano" country extends almost without undula-
tion from the foot of the Cordillera in Boyaca as far as
the Orinoco. It is watered by the Arauca, the Capa-
naparo, the Meta, the Vichada, the Guaviare, and the
Inirida, together with their numerous tributaries. In
San Martin, to the south-west, and in the south, the
ground is slightly higher, and the rivers drain to the Rio
Negro and the Amazon. The chief of these, from the
west to the east, are the Napo (the boundary with
Ecuador), the Putumayo or Iza, the Caqueta or Yapura,
the Apaporis, and the Vaupes. This country is covered
with forest and inhabited only by uncivilised Indians.
It is practically unknown and unexplored, but doubtless
possesses the usual forest products of the Amazon basin.
The southern portion lies on the equator.













CHAPTER II


CLIMATE AND HEALTH
WHILE geographically Colombia is a tropical country,
it presents great diversity of climate. On the coast
and the low lying river basins the climate is what might
be expected in those regions, but owing to the immense
range in the elevation above sea-level and the curious
configuration of the mountain chains, the climate becomes
a matter of locality. Broadly speaking five zones may
be distinguished: (1) The tierra ardiente, limited to a few
districts, such as the lower parts of the Magdalena,
where often the stones are so hot that they cannot be
touched. (2) The hot region (tierras caliente) up to
about 3,000 ft. This includes the plains of the north,
west and south-east and such great river valleys as of the
Magdalena, Meta and Putumayo. (3) The temperate
region (tierra templada), from 3,000 to 6,500 ft. (4) The
cold region (tierra fria), from 6,500 to 10,000 ft. These
last two regions range from the higher valleys to the
foot-hills of the upper plateaux ; they have a fine, healthy
climate, and contain the bulk of the population, more
especially near Bogota, in the eastern Cordillera. (5) The
higher plateaux and mountain slopes. These elevated
uplands are extremely stormy and inclement, being
exposed not only to heavy mists but to biting, violent
winds. The passes crossing from west to east, by which
alone direct communication can be made, are frequently
so swampy as to be almost impracticable.
2-(2248) 5









COLOMBIA


The coast towns, such as Santa Marta, Cartagena,
Barranquilla, belong to the hot region; Medellin, Cartago,
Guaduas, Ibagu6, and Popayan to the temperate;
Bogotd, Pasto, and Tunja to the cold region.
SEASONS.-In different parts of the country the
seasons vary. In certain districts of the centre and the
South, and in the Cordilleras, between 840 and 10,000 ft.
above sea-level, there are two rainy seasons, the so-called
winters, from April to June and September to December,
being separated by two periods of dry weather; else-
where, and above 10,000 ft., there is a wet season of
rather over six months (June to December), and a dry
season (January to June). Hence summer below
10,000 ft. may be contemporaneous with violent rain,
hail and storms in the higher plateaux.
Local conditions, however, often intervene making
generalisation rather dangerous. For instance, while
on the north, or Atlantic, coast the climate is intensely
hot and damp, frequent breezes help to make it tolerable;
on the west, or Pacific coast, there is heat with almost
constant rain, only varied by occasional violent tempests.
In many of the valleys the damp heat is excessive,
bottled up, as it were, and is little modified by air currents.
Then in the montafia or forest districts, during the rainy
season the day temperature may rise as high as 1000 F.
and fall to 720 at night. In the Magdalena valley,
from the coast up to say Girardot, the daily temperature
is about 950 F.; in the Cauca valley with two wet and
two dry seasons, the average is only 760 F., with a range
from 64 to 840. On the other hand, Bogota, 40 N. of
the equator, which is classed in the cold zone, has an































Bridge o/ the Liberator, near Bogotd


~' '"`4~IT~









CLIMATE AND HEALTH


equable climate, the temperature ranging from 54 F.
to 640 F., with a rainfall of 43 in. The rain generally
comes in the afternoon. Here the only inconvenience
felt is from the rarity of the air, which makes breathing
to the unaccustomed visitor something of a conscious
effort, decidedly trying to those with weak hearts or lungs.
While the tropical low lying lands and valleys are un-
suited to the permanent residence of white people,
malarious fevers of varying degrees of malignity being
endemic, on the whole Colombia is a healthy country.
There is a certain amount of yellow fever, and possibly
also pellagra, but these diseases, together with malaria,
will doubtless be rendered almost innocuous when sanitary
measures have been more generally adopted. Colombians
have not been unobservant of what has been accomplished
in Panama, especially within the Canal Zone, and hopes
are entertained that in time effective warfare by means
of hygienic precautions may be waged against the winged
carriers of various diseases. When the municipalities
have carried out their programmes of civic sanitation-
water-supply, sewerage and so on-which are now in
hand, the danger of epidemics will have been largely
removed.
It has been observed that there is a marked difference
in those districts watered by rivers having aguas negras
and those with aguas claras. The former, while limpid
enough, appear intensely black in mass, even when the
river is in flood; wherever these black waters are found,
mosquitos are absent, the district is free from malaria
and generally healthy. So far these phenomena have
not been scientifically investigated, but there may be









8 COLOMBIA

the possibility of a great discovery for some synthetically-
minded researcher.
Finally, it may be said that outside of the character-
istically hot and damp tropical districts, visitors and
settlers will experience little inconvenience if observing
ordinary precautions as regards clothing and diet. The
necessity for such precautions may be seen by observing
the Indians, who in the lower forest regions go, like the
negroes, almost naked, but in the cold mountain districts
are clothed in heavy woollen garments.














CHAPTER III
NATURAL HISTORY
FOR several reasons the flora and fauna of Colombia are
of remarkable variety and interest. The whole country
is tropical, the south lying on the equator itself. As
in Peru there is a series of climatic zones, ranging from
sea-level to far above the line of perpetual snow. The
boundaries of the country connect its natural history not
only with the abundant products of its South American
neighbours, but also in the north-west with those of Central
America and the West Indies.
FLORA.-From the point of view of vegetation,
Colombia may be divided into three zones-hot,
temperate, and cold.
The hot zone includes the coasts, eastern plains and
river-valleys, up to a height of about 3,500 ft. The
wooded country produces abundant timber trees, dye-
woods, and medicinal plants, which are particularised
in the chapter on Forest Products. Large bamboo
thickets are found (guaduas) ; but the most characteristic
feature is the palm trees. It is stated that twenty-five
species are found in a district of ten square leagues
in the territory of San Martin. In addition to their
beauty many of these trees have valuable economic
products; the coco-nut palm, the Tagua or Vegetable
Ivory, the Royal Palm, and the Wax-palm may be
instanced.
The cultivated crops include the cacao, sugar-cane,
9









COLOMBIA


tobacco, maize, indigo, cotton, and vanilla; and the
fruits the banana, orange, lemon, pineapple, mango,
papaya, alligator-pear, water-melon, strawberry, and
sapodilla. The botanical collector finds numerous plants,
such as orchids, of very considerable value for export
to European and other horticulturists; Cattleya and
odontoglossum crispum may be mentioned.
The temperate zone includes the land from about 3,500
to 8,500 ft. above sea-level. Much of the flora above
mentioned is also found in this zone, but a gradual
difference is perceptible. The palms are replaced
generally by tree-ferns, though the Wax-palm is found
throughout the temperate zone. Dates and Wamannias
appear, and also the Cinchona, from which Peruvian or
Jesuits' bark is obtained. Orchids and other epiphytes,
moss, and lichen grow on the tree trunks. Coffee is
added to the list of crops. The Maguey or American
Agave is one of the most useful plants of this zone, the
Indians using stem, leaves, fruit and fibre for different
purposes; it furnishes food, drink, tow, and fibre for
making sacks and ropes.
The cultivation of maize continues and that of wheat
begins.
In the cold zone maize is still found, though smaller
than in the temperate. Potatoes and all the vegetable
and cereal crops of Europe grow abundantly, and the
gardens produce all the usual flowers and fruits. The
wax-palm is still found in the forests, together with
walnuts and pines, but trees cease to grow at about
10,000 ft. The paramos however produce the flowering
and resinous shrubs called "frailejons" (including









NATURAL HISTORY


Espeletia and Culcitium) and grasses similar to the
"ichu grass of Peru. About 13,000 ft. all vegetation,
but lichens and alpine plants ceases, and bare rock leads
up to perpetual snow.
FAUNA.-The Fauna may be classified as (a) imported,
(b) indigenous. Many domesticated animals have been
introduced from Europe, e.g., the horse, mule, donkey,
ox, etc. These have become acclimatised and adapted
to their new environment. The indigenous animals
represent practically all the genera characteristic of
South America. The carnivora include the puma
(cougar) and jaguar : two kinds of bears, a black variety
in the lowlands, and one with white face in the eastern
Cordillera; and the skunk, valuable for its fur, an
animal which is now being fast exterminated. The Pachy-
dermata are represented by the tapir and two other
species. The tapir, inhabiting the paramos, is of shy,
nocturnal habit; its hide is valued for making saddles
and harness, and its flesh is palatable. The Edentata
include two varieties of armadillo, and two ant-eaters
(the ant-bear and the scaly ant-eater). The sloth is
found in the forests; the skin is used for covering
saddles. The opossum, the cave rat, and the yapok
or water rat, with valuable fur, belong to the Marsupials.
The Capybary is the largest of the rodents, 4 ft. long
by 2 ft. high; it has no tail, and is largely aquatic in
habit; the flesh is palatable. Ruminants are repre-
sented by the common deer, the Peruvian white deer,
and other species; rodents by the Capybary, and many
species of hare, rabbit, and rat; Quadrumana by both
large and small monkeys, of which seventeen species









COLOMBIA


have been distinguished; Cheiroptera by many varieties
of bats and vampires.
Birds are found in great variety, from the Condor, the
white and royal eagles, and other birds of prey to smaller
varieties distinguished for their brilliant plumage or
remarkable powers of song. Few of these, however,
are peculiar to Colombia, and the species are so numerous
that it would be impossible to catalogue them. One may
mention the parrots, the toucan, the rosy heron of the
lower Magdalena, the cerraja (a brilliant Trochilus or
humming-bird, believed to be peculiar to the country),
the sauci, with a song like that of the canary, and the
campanero, whose bell-like note can be heard for a distance
of half-a-mile.
Among the reptiles are the great Caymans, many
species of tortoise, lizards, and snakes (the boa-constrictor,
found especially in the south-east; venomous snakes,
such as the talla, particularly characteristic of the Choc6,
but not found above 6,000 ft. above sea-level). Frogs
and toads grow to a great size.
The sea and rivers are stocked with abundant supplies
of fish food. Among characteristic products are the
manatee or sea-cow, which grows to a length of 6 to 8 ft. ;
turtles on the Atlantic coast; and pearls, found in
Buenaventura Bay.
Finally, the tropical insect life is overwhelming-
locusts, beetles, ants, butterflies and moths, mosquitoes,
grasshoppers, lice, fleas, etc.; in many districts they
amount to a veritable plague.













CHAPTER IV
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT
IN order to be able to appreciate the future possibilities
of Colombia, it is necessary to know something of its
history. When we look upon its territorial magnitude,
its felicitous position as regards geographical situation
and climatic conditions, and its vast potential wealth,
the material advance so far made is disappointing; con-
fidence will be restored, however, if we but reflect upon
its troubled past, with all its wrongs and oppressions.
The early and middle history will explain, if not indeed
excuse, the constant upheavals and turmoils which were
so soon to follow the glorious hopes awakened by the
War of Independence. Only long and painful travail
could overcome the inheritance of suppression and
suspicion which was the outcome of the old regime.
But the time of probation having passed, the true
genius of the Colombian people has had opportunity of
manifesting itself, and a new era of well-directed activity
has been opened up.
At the time of the Spanish Conquest (1533-1560)
the majority of the numerous Indian tribes inhabiting
what is now known as Colombia were uncivilized, being
in a state of perpetual warfare, and supplying their
wants by their skill in hunting and fishing; yet there
were a group of tribes which seemed to form a link
in that wonderful chain of native civilizations, which,
commencing with the Aztecs of Mexico, ended with the









COLOMBIA


Incas of Peru. These tribes, the Chibchas, or Muiscas,
and the Quimbayas, like the other advanced nations of
Central and Southern America, inhabited high and moun-
tainous plateaux. The Chibchas dwelt on the sabana
of Bogota, making their headquarters in the neighbour-
hood of Tunja; the Quimbayas inhabited an extensive
territory lying between the rivers Chinchina, Cauca,
Patia, and the Central Cordillera. According to Spanish
chronicles, the Chibchas believed in a Supreme Being,
Chiminiguagua, though they also worshipped the sun,
moon, stars, lakes and streams. Tradition held that
their civilization was the gift of a "white man," the
reforming Bochica. That they had advanced far is
testified not only by the interesting accounts of their
civil and economical organisation, but also by the
numerous examples discovered in their tombs of their
skill in working gold and copper, as well as their
mastery of the arts of the potter and weaver. Cultiva-
tion of the soil was not neglected: they grew maize,
potatoes, certain fruits, and cotton. Side by side with
these labours was a systematic training in the practice
ot warfare. Under their chief Cacique, Tisquesusha, they
offered a stubborn resistance to the Spaniards before
they could be suppressed and enslaved. The Quimbayas,
perhaps with more politic enlightenment, though ulti-
mately with little better result, received the conquerors
with open arms and became their allies.
Actually the first discoverer of the country was Alonzo
de Ojeda, who visited Cape Vela in 1499. He was fol-
lowed, in 1501, by Rodrigo Bastida, who explored the
coast from the Rio Hacha to the Isthmus of Panama.









DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT


Between 1510 and 1533 practically the whole of the
Colombian coast had been explored; the discovery of
the Pacific in September, 1513, was made by Vasco
Nufiez de Balboa.
It was not until his fourth voyage, in 1502, that
Colombus, following the example of his lieutenants, made
determined attempts to explore the mainland. He
landed on the Isthmus of Panama, and visited the mines
of Veraguas, whence his descendants derived the title
of Dukes of Veragua; but, disappointed in his aim
to discover a passage to the East Indies, he merely
established a few stations and once more set sail.
Others, however, were despatched to make good the
formality of taking possession. In 1510, San Sebastian
de Uraba and Santa Maria la Antigua were founded
respectively by Ojeda and the Bachelor Enciso. Other
settlements followed rapidly, some to disappear for a
time, others to struggle on into importance. Among
the principal of these was the town of Panama, founded
in 1519; Santa Marta in 1525; and Cartagena in 1533.
This last, founded by Pedro de Heredia, who later made
his daring raids into the golden regions of the Sinu and
San Jorge, quickly rose to importance. It was destined
to become the chief gate for the imports and exports
of the country, the storehouse of gold and treasures
intended for shipment to Spain, the seat of powerful
governors and of the dreaded and paralysing Inquisi-
tion, the object of buccaneers' ambitions, and the hope
alternately of the Imperial and the Liberationist
parties. It was also the starting-point of many expedi-
tions in search of the ever-receding fastnesses of El









COLOMBIA


Dorado. The land had been gradually mapped out in
a rough form as persevering adventurers made their
way across the country from various directions. Herrera
ascended the Orinoco and discovered the river Meta;
Pedro de Heredia opened up the gold regions of the Sinu
and San Jorge: while Francisco Cesar, Vadillo, and
Robledo were the forerunners of settlers in Antioquia
and Cauca. But far more important than all of these
was the expedition undertaken by Gonzalo Jimenez
de Quesada on the orders of Don Pedro Fernandez de
Lugo, governor of Santa Marta. In August, 1536,
Quesada left Cartagena at the head of some 700 foot
and eighty horse with the definite instructions to penetrate
the interior and establish posts in the captured districts.
He was two years making his way through forests, across
mountain ranges and difficult streams, fighting fierce
native tribes, before he reached the high sabanas
round about Tunja. He made his headquarters at the
conquered town of Bacata and called it Santa F6 de
Bogota. Hardly had he settled down to map out this
domain, to which he had given the title of Kingdom of
New Granada, when he was startled by the irruption of
white invaders from two opposite directions. Federmann,
lieutenant of Georg von Speyer, governor of the pro-
vince of Venezuela (which had been given to certain
Augsbourg bankers, the Welsers, as an hereditary fief by
Charles V), had taken three years to traverse a distance
of 1,500 kilometres, striking almost due South from Cape
Vela, ascending the Apur6 and Meta, crossing high ranges
of mountains. On the other hand Belalcazar, after
assisting Pizarro to conquer Peru, had seized the Kingdom









DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT


of Quito north-east through Cauca and Tolima, and
thence marched to BogotA. So jealous were these con-
quistadores of their glory, that a sanguinary quarrel was
but narrowly averted. Finally, however, the trio reached
terms, leaving a sufficient garrison to maintain the towns
and administration organised by Quesada, while the
three doughty explorers returned to the coast and sailed
for Spain. All three gained little by their exertions,
ending their days miserably; but Spain profited by the
work of these and many others.
Well before the middle of the sixteenth century,
Spanish dominion was firmly established. Unfortunately
it was essentially an imperialistic rule, the true centre of
government being kept in Spain, though perforce great
latitude and enormous powers had to be delegated to
the local representative of his Most Catholic Majesty.
Jealousy and distrust were the ruling forces of the
government. Lieutenants were sent out surrounded
by regal pomp, but were often called back to answer
accusations, or to allay offence given by some unwise
act of ostentation or authority. All important posts
were filled by men sent out from Spain; foreigners
were forbidden to set foot in or trade with South America ;
and the civil power, aided by the Inquisition at Lima
and Cartagena, kept the country in severe fetters. While
towns sprang up, the natives were speedily almost ex-
terminated as the result not so much of warfare as of
forced labour in the mines and fields, and, according to
some contemporary writers, of the diseases spread by
contact with the Spaniards. As a result, the importation
of black slave labour from Africa was authorised.









COLOMBIA


New Granada was early divided into provinces. On
the Isthmus were Panama and Veragua, dependent
on the city of Panama. On the continent, Santa Marta,
Cartagena, Popayan and the New Kingdoms were
governed from Bogota, and the whole of the provinces
were subject to the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1564 New
Granada became a Presidency, to be erected into a
Viceroyalty in 1719 ; again, from 1724 to 1740, it became
a Presidency; finally the Viceroyalty was restored
in the latter year and lasted to the end of the Spanish
dominion. All this was symptomatic of a policy directed
by the narrowest views of home interests, which
necessarily engendered repression and distrust. As a
rule efforts were chiefly directed towards the extraction
of as much gold, silver and precious stones and valuable
woods as possible from the country, little being done to
further either its material or intellectual development.
The plethora of office holders from Spain, and the grow-
ing influence and wealth of ecclesiastical orders, ended in
arousing much local dissatisfaction. In 1767 the Jesuits,
in pursuance of a wider policy, were expelled from
the land; but for a time, at all events, this appears
to have made matters worse. For it is pointed out by
historians that the Jesuits were the chief movers in the
engineering of independence. In 1781 occurred the
revolt of the Comuneros of Socorro, only overcome by
treachery. This was followed by the turmoil of the
French Revolution, echoes of which were spre. d in Colom-
bia by Antonio Narifio and others. Although Narifio
was suppressed, the result of his propaganda was seen
in the expedition of Francisco de Miranda in 1801 to






















































(Church o/ Ilh' ~lne (ross, Mllcdc//ini


































A Vcnida ('u/un, M'deLluin









DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT


free Venezuela. The ferment thus set up finally
culminated in a proclamation of independence being
declared on 20th July, 1810, at BogotA. For nine years
the colonies fought against the levies of Spain which
were poured into the land. Finally, the imperial power
was broken by Simon Bolivar at the battle of Boyaca,
fought on 7th August, 1819. Bolivar, who had been
acclaimed as Liberator, was elected President by the
Congress of Angustura (now Ciudad Bolivar). He at
once set about forming the confederation of the Captain
Generalcy of Venezuela, the Viceroyalty of New Granada
and the Presidency of Quito, into the Republic of
Colombia. It was scarcely to be expected that after
such a political education as the country had had the
course of government should run smoothly. Unfor-
tunately the very constitution of the Republic contained
the seeds of disintegration. The country having been
divided into the three departments of Cundinamarca or
Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador, Francisco de Paula
Santander was elected Vice-president at Bogota. Now,
Santander, a statesman of probity and splendid organising
powers, was a man of ideas, and a strong advocate of
federal administration, thus coming into immediate
conflict with Bolivar, who as a conquering soldier
was a vehement partisan of centralisation. Bolivar's
successes at the Battle of Carabobo (1821), which assured
the independence of Venezuela, and before Cartagena
and a few other towns which had held out for the King of
Spain, smoothed over matters for a time, allowing much
useful work to be done, such as the abolition of the
Inquisition and the emancipation of slaves. But









COLOMBIA


provincialism was at work. In 1830 Venezuela, under the
leadership of General Paez, declared itself free. Ecuador
broke away, and Peru was in open revolt, although
subdued for a time by General Sucre at the battle of
Tarqui (1829). Thereupon the government was recon-
stituted as the Republic of New Granada, with Santander
as President. Curiously enough his rule was essentially
that of centralisation, and proved eminently successful
and tranquillising for a time. Then came a period of
unrest, with open revolt. In 1858 the Constitution of the
22nd of May united the then existing eight departments
into the Confederaci6n Granadina. Conflicts continued,
however, and Tomas Cipriano Mosquera, who had been
President in 1841, having organised a revolution against
President Aspina, gained the upper hand; whereupon he
called a conference at Rionegro, and in September, 1861,
a Law was signed, seven States confederating as the
United States of Colombia. Mosquera was elected for
his second term as President in 1867, and should be
mentioned as one of the best and most progressive
of Colombian rulers. He established Steam Navigation
in the Magdalena River, secularised the communities,
began the erection of the national Capitol and under his
auspices Colombia was given the most liberal constitution
framed for civilised countries. Under this constitution
Colombia made great headway towards liberty and
enlightenment. But as the outcome of the Rionegro
Conference, a further move demanding decentralisation
was made; for in 1863 eight departments, including
Panama, were erected into Sovereign States, with a
Federal District. In practice it was found that this









DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT


fostering of the provincial sentiment did not conduce to
local or general prosperity. Conflicts were numerous,
often degenerating into armed risings. As a kind of
compromise Dr. Rafael Nufiez was elected President
in 1879, and was followed by another moderate liberal;
then on re-election he had to face an open revolution of
the extreme liberals. Nufiez suppressed the opposition
and as the result a new constitution, abolishing the
sovereignty of the States, and calling into being the
centralised Republic of Colombia, was promulgated.
Nufiez, elected for a third term, was succeeded by
Sanclemente, under whose rule civil war once more
broke out, directed by General Rafael Uribe-Uribe (1899-
1902). Naturally these continually renewed disturbances
were detrimental to the country at home and abroad.
Debts were piled up, national credit sank, and while
industrial and social progress was retarded, differences
arose abroad. The most noteworthy and deeply felt of
these was the revolt of the department of Panama, aided
by the United States of America, and the establishment
by that power of the Canal Zone. But under General
Rafael Reyes, with his national prestige as a great
explorer in the district of Putumayo and as commander
of the Government forces in the revolution of 1885, the
country made giant strides, and foreign confidence was
to a large extent restored. Steps were taken to develop
the country by the construction of railways and
roads; and a policy of education adopted. He was
too much identified with old conflicts to meet with
universal acceptance among his own people; but he
undoubtedly prepared the way for the enlightened and
3-(9248)










COLOMBIA


successful rule of his latest successor, Sr. Carlo S. E.
Restrepo.
Everything happily points to the fact that Colombia
has now settled down to an orderly development of its
material, intellectual and political activities under a
fairly liberal constitution, which recognizes the liberty
of the individual, subject to the interests of the whole
community. While the division of the country into
departments and provinces allows the necessary latitude
for local efforts, the centralised form of the government,
once firmly established, prevents sectional conflicts, and
gives the country strength to meet its own problems
and authority to face the world as a really united power,
anxious and ready to take its due place in the march of
civilisation.
Since the new constitution the following have been
chiefs of the executive-
1886-7. Campo Serrano (Designado)
1887-8. Payan (vice-president)
1887-8. Rafael Nufiez
1888-92. Carlos Holguin
1892-96. Caro (vice-president)
1896- Quintero (Designado)
1896-98. Caro
1898- Marroquin (vice-president)
1898-1900. Sanclemente
1900-4. Marroquin
1904-8. Rafael Reyes
1908-9. de Angulo (Designado)
1909- Rafael Reyes
1909- Jorge Holguin (Designado)
1909- Rafael Reyes
1909- Holguin (Designado)
1909-10. Valencia
1910. Carlos E. Restrepo













CHAPTER V


DEPARTMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
COLOMBIA of to-day, with its 461,000 square miles and
its population of 5,472,604, is divided into fifteen Depart-
ments, two Intendencias and seven Comisarias Especiales,
these latter two classes of division being practically
colonial districts. It is to be noted that this enumeration
includes Panama, which although de facto a Sovereign
Republic, is still claimed by the Colombian government
as forming part of its national territory.
As already shown in the brief historical review, the
administrative divisions of the country have undergone
frequent changes, notably so since the Declaration of
Independence. This was inevitable, for quite apart
from political changes, the gradual exploration and
development of the country necessitated amalgamation
in some directions, division and sub-division in others.
Thus, while a law of 1908 created thirty-five departments,
another of 1909 re-established the divisions of 1905,
when there were ten departments, supplemented by four
Intendencias. The following year four more departments
were brought into being. No doubt with further settle-
ment the Intendencias and Comisarias will be further
divided and raised to the rank of Departments.
In spite of all this re-manipulation, however, the
divisions are still very unequal as regards area, population
and relative importance. We will deal with them here
in alphabetical order.










COLOMBIA


As regards the growth of population, it was estimated
to be 2,000,000 in 1800, but ten years later the figure
was given as 1,400,000, and at the declaration of
Independence as 1,223,598. Part of the discrepancy,
no doubt, was due to the enumeration of slaves and wild
Indians under the old regime, and the more restricted
counting of heads at a later period. In 1905, however,
a fairly accurate census was taken, the figures recorded
being 4,533,777. To-day Colombia is the third most
populous country in South America, only being exceeded
by Brazil and Argentina.
Population is densest in Cundinamarca, Atlantico
and Caldas, and least so in Magdalena. The disparity
of sexes varies considerably; while there are 170,495
men to 170,703 women in Caldas, there are only 357,302
men to 383,635 women in Antioquia. It should be ex-
plained that this last named department, like Tolima,
has an enterprising population, strongly given to
emigration to the less developed districts of the Republic,
where all kinds of opportunities offer themselves to
hardworking, resourceful men. It is found, too, that
here as in other parts of the world, the large towns have
an undue proportion of female inhabitants; for instance,
in Bogota there are 50,557 men to 70,700 women, yet the
excess of females over males for the whole of the
Department of Cundinamarca is only 37,024.
ANTIOQUIA.-This department is bounded on the north
by the Atlantic Ocean and Bolivar, on the east by San-
tander, on the south by Boyacd, Tolima and Caldas,
and on the west by the Choco, and has an area given as
approximately 34,401 square miles, with a population









DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION


of 741,000. About 5,221,167 acres are State waste and
forest lands and 943,283 acres belong to the department.
Its physical character is extremely varied. On the
north the coastal belt, and on the east the slope down
to the valley of the Magdalena is hot and humid, possessing
fairly good soil. Towards the interior, the country is
largely mountainous, split up by numerous valleys and
rivers, the soil here is rather cold and even somewhat
arid. But ever since the discovery of the country
in 1541 by Jeronimo Luis Tojelo, who ascended a charming
valley, called by the natives Yamesies, which the
Spaniards named San Bartolem6 (now known as the
Medellin), the country has been peopled by a hard-
working, steady and prolific population, who have made
the department one of the richest in the Republic.
Several of its rivers are practicable for steamers; the
Magdalena forms the Eastern boundary, the Cauca
traverses the department from the south to the north,
and its affluent, the Nechi, passing by Zaragoza, taps the
country to the east; on the west is the Atrato, which
runs into the Gulf of Darien. Other rivers navigable
by canoes and rafts are the Nare, San Bartolem6, Arquid,
Sucio and Murri. There are four main roads, the Santa
Domingo, or North Road, 34 miles long; the Caldas,
which runs into Medellin, 151 miles; the Envigado,
9 miles; and La Quiebra, 12 miles. Considerable attention
is being paid by the Government to the construction of
roads and bridges, the works being carried on by local
road boards under the direction of the Minister of Public
Works. Although some of these roads are available for
wheeled traffic, it is felt that some better organisation is









COLOMBIA


required for keeping the highways in repair after con-
struction. Medellin, capital of the department, is
connected with the Magdalena by railway to Puerto
Berrio, some 500 miles from Barranquilla, and with
Cauca river by the Amaga railway of which about 20 miles
are open to traffic.
Agriculture and mining are the chief industries. Land
is generally cultivated in small holdings, which accounts
for the excellent results achieved with coffee, the principal
crop. In 1911 the production was estimated as follows :
coffee 13,592,960 lb., cocoa 717,650 lb., rice 459,800 lb.,
sugar-cane 23,371,460 lb., bananas 6,167,100 lb., plantains
66,586,400 lb., ground nuts 3,905,700 lb., beans 6,656,800
lb., maize 19,425,000 lb., yucca 47,494,800 lb., cotton
274,400 lb., tobacco 932,800 lb. Cattle fattening is
carried on to a small extent, but is capable of very large
extension. There is a small export trade in timber
(cedar, mahogany, hard woods) and forest rubber. So
far the regular cultivation of rubber has not been taken
up. Antioquia has long been celebrated for its mineral
wealth. In 1739 there were 12,728 mines being worked,
almost solely for the extraction of gold and silver. In
1911 the value of the export of gold bullion was 490,967,
gold dust 259,359, platinum 69,179. Both quartz
and placer mining is carried on. A large number of the
rivers have rich auriferous alluvia ; among these are the
Nechi, Porce, Riogrande, Guadalpe, Nare, Nus, San
Bartolom6, San Juan, Guadualejo, Quebradonda, Barroso,
Atrato, ArquiA, Murri, Sucio and the Murindo. Platinum
is found in the watersheds of the San Juan and Atrato.
Coal is found as far apart as Amaga and Caceres and









DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION


Zaragoza. Iron is also mined and manufactured into
rails, mills, etc. There are many indications of copper
and other metals. Industrial development is remarkably
progressive, being specially concentrated at Medellin.
The principal towns are Medellin the capital, founded
in 1675, population 71,000; Antioquia, the old capital,
founded in 1541, population 10,610; Sonson, population
293,050; Yarumal, population 21,284.
The departmental income is about 1,433,000 dollars
gold, and the expenditure rather more, of which 433,320
dollars gold are devoted to education. The eighty-seven
municipalities have a total income of about 620,000
dollars gold. This department has no provinces, the
prefecturas, or chief offices of the provinces, having been
suppressed in the department, except in the district of
Uraba.
ATLANTICO, the smallest of the departments, is a wedge-
shaped coastal district, bounded on the north by the
Atlantic, on the east by the Magdalena river, which
cuts it off from the department of that name, and on the
south and west by Bolivar. It has an area of 1,082
square miles, with a population of 114,887. It is a flat
land, sloping to the sea or the Magdalena, with a tropical
climate, rather trying to white people, especially in the
low-lying portions when inundated after the rainy season,
which lasts from May to November. Transport is good,
thanks to the Magdalena running along the greater
length of the department, the railway from Barranquilla
to Puerto Colombia (164 miles), and the highway between
Barranquilla and Usiacuri (10 miles). Cultivation of
the soil is carried out on a fairly large scale, the principal









COLOMBIA


crops being sugar-cane, cocoa, and tobacco; there is
also a considerable industry in fattening cattle on the
plains round about Sabanalarga. Barranquilla, the
capital (population 48,907), is still the chief fluvial port
of the Republic with its harbour at Puerto Colombia.
The other important towns are Sabanalarga (population
16,042), Soledad (8,200), Repelon (2,900), Baranoa
(5,300), and Campo de la Cruz (2,600). The two
provinces are Barranquilla and Sabanalarga. Out
of a departmental income of 217,560 dollars gold,
34,830 dollars are devoted to education, to which the
Municipality of Barranquilla adds 14,000 dollars.
BOLIVAR, a coastal department, is bounded on the north
by the Atlantic and the Department of Atlantico, on the
east by the Magdalena river and department, on the
south by Antioquia, and the west by Antioquia and the
Atlantic. It has an area of 23,938 square miles and a
population of 420,890. The land is mostly low lying,
with slopes towards the coast and the valley of the
Magdalena, and has a tropical climate, except in the high-
lands, in that part which forms a southerly wedge into
Antioquia. It is well watered by the navigable water-
ways of the Magdalena, Sinu and Cauca and their
numerous tributaries. To supplement these natural
channels of traffic, a railway has been constructed between
Cartagena and Calamar on the Magdalena, and roads
for wheeled vehicles are either in course of construction
or are projected between Barranquilla and Turbaco,
between Monteria and Magangu6, and others. Much
attention is paid to agriculture, maize, rice, bananas,
coffee, cocoa, sugar, tobacco and cotton being raised









DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION


on a large scale, while cattle breeding and fattening
is a big and growing industry, a considerable export
trade with adjoining departments and Panama existing.
The breeding of horses, donkeys and mules is another
important branch of industry. From the forests timber
for building purposes and cabinet making, as well as
tanning materials, and dyewoods, resins and medicinal
plants, together with a little rubber are derived. Ten
gold mines are being worked. Industrial activity is
mostly centred at Cartagena (population, 36,632), the
capital. The departmental revenue is 526,580 dollars
gold, and that of the fifty-four municipalities 269,989
dollars gold.
The provinces are : (1) Cartagena, population 82,700;
(2) Carmen, 46,300; (3) Corozal, 39,500; Chinu, 50,200;
(4) Sincelejo, 44,400; (5) Sinu, capital Lorica, 81,600;
(6) Momp6s, 39,700; (7) Magangue, 31,200. Besides
these there are the West Indian islands of San Andr6 de
Providencia and Providencia, which may become of great
importance on the opening of the Panama Canal, with a
united population of 5,300, mostly English-speaking
negroes and mulattos.
BOYACA, a department of irregular shape, about 350
miles long by 150 broad, is bounded on the north by
Santander and the Republic of Venezuela, on the south
by Meta, on the west by Cundinamarca and Antioquia,
and contains 17,654 square miles, with a population of
586,499, mostly Indians and mestizos. It lies chiefly
on the elevated plateaux of the Eastern Cordillera,
with a narrow tongue of plains between Venezuela and
Meta. Its population is principally engaged in cultivating









COLOMBIA


the tierra fria, raising wheat, barley, maize, alfalfa,
potatoes, beans, garden vegetables, a very little coffee
and sugar, cattle and horses. The river Suarez is naviga-
ble between Chiquinquira (capital of the province Occi-
dente, population 14,500) and Lake Fuquene. There
are no railways, but probably the best road in the
Republic unites Tunja with Bogota, 104 miles long; a
branch road connects Duitama (population 9,900) with
Sogamoso, a very ancient and interesting town, formerly
the headquarters of the Chibchas priests, who dwelt
in palaces roofed with gold. A road is now in con-
struction which will unite the districts of Samaca
(population 2,127), Sachica (960), and Chiquinquira.
Mining is carried on in a small way over an extensive
area. There are eleven gold mines in working order,
twelve silver, ten copper, seven mixed, three quicksilver,
two marble quarries, while 157 emerald mines have been
" denounced," or pre-empted. Asphalte is being worked,
though in insignificant quantities, and there are salt
works at Chita, Muneque, Chameza, Pajarito, Recetoz,
Mongua, Pauto, Chaquipay and Pizarra. The industries
carried on are chiefly spinning and weaving of cotton
and wool, tanning, and milling. The capital is Tunja
(8,600 feet above sea-level, population 8,407), the ancient
northern capital of the Chibchas. At one time it almost
rivalled Bogota and still contains many fine old buildings,
including the Cathedral, Bishop's palace and the
University. There are three public libraries in the city,
and the department spends some 20,000 dollars gold
annually on education, yet the Boyacan population
is said to be both fanatical and illiterate. The









DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION


departmental income is 352,838 dollars gold, including a
subvention of 222,400 dollars from the Government.
The municipalities have a united income of 186,223
dollars gold.
The provinces are: (1) Centro (capital Tunja), popu-
lation 68,000; (2) Marquez (capital Ramiriqui, 10,765),
59,300; (3) Occidente (capital Chiquinquira, 68,300);
(4) Ricaurte (Moniquira, 10,800), 3,400; (5) Oriente
(Guateque, 7,000), 42,700; (6) Valderama (Jerico,
5,200), 25,600; (7) Norte (Soata, 10,700), 46,600; (8)
Gutierez (Cocuy, 7,700), 44,800; (9) Nunchia (Nunchia),
14,900; (10) Neira (Miraflores, 19,150), 55,300; (11)
Sugamuxi (Sogamoso, 14,700), 68,500; (12) Tundama
(Santa Rosa, 5,400), 56,900 ; and the territory of Vasquez,
1,800.
CALDAS, a central, mountainous district, bounded on
the north by Antioquia, from which it was only recently
separated, on the east by Cundinamarca, on the south
by Cauca and on the west by the territory of the Choco,
has an area of 7,915 square miles and a population of
345,000, almost entirely whites. The long range of the
Western Cordillera, with its perpetually snow-capped
peaks, shuts it off from the densely forested, damp and
intensely hot Choco, and on the opposite boundary
the land slopes down to the valley of the Magdalena,
where in the forests and plains the temperature ranges
between 240 and 300 centigrade. The river Cauca
traverses the district from south to north, almost
cutting it in two. Both the Magdalena and Cauca
are navigable by small steamers, and their tributaries,
La Vieja, the Risarada, and La Miel, are also used as









COLOMBIA


highways. Apart from this, the only means for
intercommunication is by means of a few mule tracks
and footpaths, recognized roads being non-existent.
The people who partake of the sturdy qualities of the
Antioquians, devote most of their energies to agriculture
and mining. Heavy and varied crops are raised. On
the slopes of the Cordilleras wheat, barley, maize and
potatoes are grown largely; on the lower slopes, pro-
tected by forests, coffee, yuca, plantains and ground
nuts receive most attention, while in the lower hot
valleys sugar-cane, tobacco, cocoa and pasturage
predominates.
Cattle raising is a growing industry. A considerable com-
merce exists in preparing palm straw and various fibres
for the manufacture of hats, sacking and cordage. Owing
to the recent separation of Caldas from Antioquia statis-
tics are deficient as to the exact position of mining,
but 2,610 mines have been pre-empted, and there are
extremely rich alluvium in most of the river valleys.
Manizales is the capital. The departmental revenue is
466,192 dollars gold, a considerable portion is derived
from the tax on alcohol.
The provinces are: (1) Manizales, population 74,753;
(2) Salamina, 62,842; (3) Riosucio, 78,731; (4) Pereira,
92,551; (5) Marulanda, 36,728.
CAUCA is bounded on the north by El Valle and Tolima,
on the east by the Huila and Caqueta, on the south by
Nariflo, and on the west by the Pacific; it has an area of
21,882 square miles and a population of 211,800, of whom
only a little over 25 per cent. are whites. Much of the
territory lies between the Western and Central Cordilleras,









DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION


and though the climate is cold on the highlands, in the
beautiful valley of the Cauca it is temperate to hot.
The whole country is fertile, even the volcanic slopes of
the higher peaks are covered by rich pastures, The
navigable rivers are the Cauca, the Micay, the Timbiqui
from the Pacific to the town of that name, the Saija
from the Pacific as far as Cupi, the Guapi, and for small
boats the Guaju, the Temuy, the Caqueta, the Orteguasa,
Palo, Hato, La Paila, Cagudn, Desbaratado and several
others. Mule and pack tracks are few and poor, but a
contract has been signed for the prolongation of the
Pacific Railway through the country to Popayan.
Agriculture is the chief industry, wheat, maize, yuca,
plantains, coffee, sugar-cane, potatoes, beans, cocoa and
tobacco being raised, while cattle is bred and fattened
on the pastures of Purac6, Timbio and other districts.
Mining is of some importance, gold and platinum being
exported. Between 1895 and 1912, 4,106 mines have
been "denounced." Much gold alluvium is to be
found in the valleys. The forests, in certain parts quite
dense, produce a little rubber. Popayan is the capital.
The departmental revenues amount to 155,298 dollars
gold, of which 41,312 dollars (together with 9,798 con-
tributed by municipalities) is devoted to education. The
twenty-nine municipalities have a united income of about
69,908 dollars gold.
There are five provinces : (1) Caldas (capital Bolivar,
population 17,800), population 47,800; (2) Camilo
Torres (capital Caloto, 8,600), 39,800; (3) Popayan,
67,800; (4) Santander (population of capital, 9,900),
24,700; (5) Silvia (capital of same name, 10,000), 31,800.









COLOMBIA


CUNDINAMARCA, a central district on the higher Andean
plateau, is bounded on the north by Boyaca, on the
east by Boyaca and Meta, on the south by Meta and
Huila, and on the west by Tolima and Caldas; it has an
area of 8,629 square miles, and a population of 714,000,
of whom slightly less than half are whites. While about
a third of the department is occupied by the higher
plateau, including the Sabana of Bogota, and its surround-
ing mountains, where the climate ranges from the cool
to the frigid regions of perpetual snow, two-thirds are
on the slopes and in the valley of the Magdalena and
the middle watershed of the Orinoco, where the climate
shades from the temperate to the tropical. Corresponding
with these changes of elevation and climate are great
diversities of physical features and vegetation. On one
hand we have the rugged and arid mountains, on the
other the dense vegetation of the tropics, interspersed
by grassy plains. Apart from the Magdalena, which is
navigable for steamers which ply between the ports of
Girardot (population 4,471), Guataqui (693), and Beltran
(941), there are few rivers of importance, most are mere
mountain torrents. The river Bogota, crossing the
sabana near the capital, forms the great Tequendama
fall of 450 ft. The population is fairly scattered, there
being 110 municipalities, in none of which, outside of
Bogota, do the inhabitants much exceed 6,000. While
the population is engaged in most branches of trade and
industry, agriculture absorbs the attention of the greater
number. The land round about Bogota and other
large towns is well cultivated, producing fruit and vege-
tables. The crops, however, cover almost the whole













If


i



aIIn r i t
S LO g






San FIrancis~o, Bo-oldi









DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION


range of the cultivated plants; wheat, barley, maize,
beans and potatoes in the higher regions; coffee of
renowned quality on the slopes ; sugar, cocoa, bananas,
tobacco and tropical fruits in the valleys; cattle graze
on the sabana and on the llanos of the Orinoco watershed,
and large herds of pigs are raised. Considerable attention
is paid to mining. Iron is mined in the provinces of
Facatativa and Zipaquira; gold and silver is found
widely distributed, as well as copper, lead, coal, jasper,
rock crystal and asphalt. Salt production is an import-
ant industry in four or more provinces. Although
there are considerable forest lands, the production
from these is not great. The department is served by
four railways: (1) The Northern, 39 miles long, uniting
Bogota with Chia, Cajica, Zipaquira and Nemocon;
(2) The Sabana Railway, 25 miles, uniting the capital
with Fontibon, Mosquera, Madrid and Facatativa;
(3) The Southern, 19 miles, running out to Bosa, Soacha
and Sibate; (4) The Girardot, running from Facatativa
through Zipacon, Anolaima, La Mesa, Anapoima, Tocaima
to Girardot.
Bogota, capital of the Republic and of the department
(altitude over 5,000 ft.), has a population of 121,000.
The departmental income amounts to 949,348 dollars
gold, of which 137,412 dollars are devoted to education.
The provinces are: (1) Bogota, population 165,400;
(2) Choconta (capital of same name, population 9,900),
45,700; (3) Guavio (Gacheta, 12,500), 44,200; (4)
Facatativa, 77,500; (5) Girardot (10,400), 22,200;
(6) Guaduas (10,600), 77,700; (7) Guatavita (6,300),
23,800; (8) Oriente (Caqueza, 10,000), 54,900; (9)









COLOMBIA


Tequendama (La Mesa, 11,200), 58,100; (10) Ubate
(9,600), 52,600; (11) Zipaquira (10,000), 60,900; (12)
Sumapaz (Fusagasuga 13,500), 31,200.
EL VALLE is bounded on the north by Caldas and the
Choco, on the east by Tolima, on the south by Cauca,
and on the west by the Pacific. It has an area of 4,179
square miles, and a population of 217,159, about 50 per
cent. of whom are white. The main stretch between the
Western and Central Cordilleras has a gentle slope down
to the Cauca river, with an altitude of from 3,000 to
5,500 ft. above sea-level, and enjoys an equable, warm
climate. It is well wooded and the vegetation luxurious,
all kinds of fruits of the temperate and warm zones
growing in large quantities and to wonderful size. On
the rich pastures cattle thrive amazingly. Cultivation
is carried far up the foot-hills, consequently the produce
varies, including rice, maize, potatoes, beans, coffee,
cocoa, tobacco, plantains, sugar-cane, etc. Mining is
destined to become an extensive industry. At present,
claims have been filed for 446 gold, 30 platinum, 165 gold
and silver mines, and one each of emery, talc, copper
and iron. Coal is also mined, and there are large
deposits of rock crystal. The Cauca, Vieja, Dagua,
Anchicaya, Raposo, Cajambre, Naya and Juramangui,
which are all more or less navigable, possess auriferous
alluviums. Cali is the capital.
The provinces are: Cali, population 48,582; Palmira
(capital of same name, 24,312), 46,632; Buga (capital
of same name, 11,578), 31,728; Tului (capital of same
name, 10,825), 27,077; Roldanillo (capital of same name,
9,196), 28,451; Cartago (capital of same name, 18,618),









DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION


24,115 ; and Buenaventura (capital of same name, 6,476),
10,574.
HUILA is bounded on the north by Cundinamarca,
on the east by Meta and Caqueta, on the south by Cauca,
on the west by Cauca and Tolima. It has an area of
8,687 square miles and a population of 158,191. Like
most of the central districts it enjoys marked differences
of physical features and climate. The low-lying parts
fringing the Magdalena and east of that river, are hot
and humid, and malaria is prevalent. On the foot-hills
the climate is pleasant, and higher up cold. Over half
of the area is Government forest and mountain land.
Cattle raising is well developed. Wheat, maize, rice,
coffee, sugar and tobacco crops are raised on a big scale.
Four quartz mines are worked in the Organos reigon,
while the auriferous deposits of the Magdalena, Yaguara,
Bach6 and Aipe also receive attention. A small beginning
has been made in spinning and weaving both cotton
and wool, but the manufacture of the so-called Panama
straw hats is a considerable industry. Neiva, the capital,
is at 1,479 feet above sea-level, has an even temperature
of 270 C. and a population of 21,852. It has a large
public market and is an important centre of commerce.
The departmental revenues amount to 152,400 dollars
gold, and those of the twenty-nine municipalities to
140,034 dollars.
The provinces are: Neiva, population 72,039;
Garzon (capital of same name, 10,787), 59,523; and La
Plata (capital of same name, 5,130), 26,627.
MAGDALENA, is bounded on the north by the Atlantic
Ocean, on the east by the Gulf and the Republic of
4-(2248)










COLOMBIA


Venezuela, on the south by Norte de Santander, and on
the west by Bolivar and the Atlantic. It has an area
of 20,463 square miles and a population of 149,547,
including the Comisaria of Goajira, 212,560. It is
mostly a low-lying alluvial country, watered by the
Magdalena, the Cesar and many other minor rivers, but
on the eastern border there are the foot-hills and the
heights of the Eastern Cordillera, and, shutting off the
Goajira Peninsula from the rest of the department,
the great mass of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta,
the snow-clad top to which the range owes its name, with
a base of some 5,000 square miles, and rising at one peak
to 19,000 ft. Apart from these higher districts, the
climate is hot and damp, in some parts of the Magdalena
valley reaching the tierra ardiente degree. Coffee, cocoa,
sugar and bananas are the principal crops raised, but
most other vegetables and fruits can be grown within the
borders. There is some mining in the mountains and
along the rivers. The capital is Santa Marta (population
5,348), the oldest city in Colombia, at one time a busy
port, now again rising into importance.
The provinces are Santa Marta, 70,903; Padilla
(capital Riohacha, 4,426), 20,250; Valledupar (7,301),
24,077; Banco, 20,141; Sur (capital Rio de Oro, 5,894),
13,776.
NARIEO is bounded on the north by Cauca, on the east
by Caqueta, on the south by the Putumayo and Ecuador,
and on the west by the Pacific ocean. It has an area of
10,039 square miles, and a population of 292,535. It
may be divided into three distinct zones: (1) lying
between the Western and Eastern Cordilleras, more or










DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION


less mountainous, occupying almost a third of the area,
and thickly populated, two-thirds of the people being
Indians or mestizos. This part is well watered by the
navigable Patia, the Mayo, Juanambu, Pasto and
Guaitara, and produces potatoes, barley, rice, cocoa,
sugar and rubber. (2) The Western slope down to the
Pacific, rather more than a third of the department,
which is dense forest, except for a small zone fringing
the road from the high plateaux to the coast. This
part is also well watered by the navigable rivers Patia,
Guapi, Iscuande, Telembi, Tapaje, Mira, Mataje, and
numerous other streams open to boats and canoes. (3)
The Eastern portion is composed of foot-hills and valleys,
with dense forests, wherein roam many wild Indian tribes.
There are few whites. Road-making has been carried
on with great energy in the department, and fair highways
or paths exist between Pasto and La Cruz, 56 miles;
Pasto and the Cauca, 49 miles; Pasto to Tuquerres,
49J miles; Pasto to Ipiales, 54J miles; Tuquerres to
Barbacoas, 99 miles; and Pasto to Mocoa, 72f miles.
Agriculture is the chief industry, but there are great
possibilities as regards mining ; 2,452 quartz and alluvial
mines have been "denounced," but only six are being
systematically worked, five of them being Colombian
companies. Pasto, the capital, lies 8,655 ft. above
sea-level. The departmental revenues amount to 738,325
dollars gold, and those of forty-eight municipalities
390,504 dollars.
The provinces are : Pasto, 74,425; Tuquerres (capital
of same name, 15,652), 58,742; Obando (capital Ipiales,
14,615), 64,387; Juanambu (capital La Union, 9,139),










COLOMBIA


26,633; La Cruz (capital of same name, 9,451), 28,192;
Barbacoas (capital of same name, 7,840), 17,833; and
Nufiez (capital Tumaco, 11,702), 22,341.
NORTE DE SANTANDER is bounded on the north and east
by Venezuela, on the south by Boyaca, on the west by
Santander and Magdalena. It has an area of 6,708
square miles, and a population of 204,381. It is traversed
by spurs of the Central and Eastern Cordilleras, the
temperature falling to 460 F. on the barren paramos of
Bagueche, Tamar, Tierranegra and Cachiri, and rising
to 890 F. in the valleys of Zulia, Catatumbo and Sarare.
As might be expected the crops, which are the leading
sources of wealth of the department, vary greatly, ranging
from potatoes and wheat to coffee and cocoa. Gold,
silver, copper, iron, lead and coal are mined, and petro-
leum wells also exist. The Zulia is navigable by steam
launches, and the Catatumbo and Tarra by boats. A
great northern road is in course of construction, and is
now open from the capital to Puente San Rafael. San
Jos6 de Cucuta (population 20,364), the capital, lies
984 ft. above sea-level, enjoys a mean temperature of
840 F., has wide, tree-shaded streets, and good markets.
It is united to Puerto Villamizar on the Zulia by a railway.
The departmental revenues are about 218,340 dollars
gold.
The provinces are: Ocafia (capital of same name,
16,814), 63,816; Pamplona (capital of same name,
14,834), 43,362; Cucuta (20,346), 97,203.
SANTANDER is bounded on the north by Magdalena
and Norte de Santander, on the east by Boyaca, on the
south by Boyaca, and on the west by Antioquia and









DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION


Bolivar. It has an area of 19,161 square miles and a
population of 400,084. Its physical features, climate
and agricultural conditions are much the same as those
of the Norte de Santander, though it has more extensive
low-lying plains watered by the Sogamoso and the
Suarez. The Sogamoso, Lebrija and Carare are navigable
by small boats. A good but short road is open between
Bucaramanga and Florida. Gold, silver, copper, talc and
asphalt are found in the district, the Rio de Oro having
rich auriferous deposits. Wheat, rice, coffee, sugar, cocoa
and tobacco are the principal crops. Bucaramanga
(population 19,735), the capital, lies in a valley, 3,153 ft.
above sea-level, with a variation of temperature
between 640 F. and 880 F.
This department has a revenue estimated at 312,940
dollars gold, which is insufficient to meet its expenditure.
The municipalities have revenues amounting to about
50,000 dollars.
The provinces are: Bucaramanga, 72,029; Charala
(capital of same name, 9,861), 24,943; Malaga (capital
of same name, 7,630), 42,500; Piedecuesta (8,076),
14,212; San Andres (12,721), 27,725; San Gil (9,965),
44,419; Socorro (11,427), 40,798; V6lez (8,637), 76,453;
Zapotoca (10,598), 57,073.
TOLIMA is bounded on the north by Antioquia, on the
east by Cundinamarca and Huila, and on the west by
Cauca and Valle. It has an area of 10,811 square miles
and a population of 282,426. This peculiarly long-shaped
district has the Central Cordillera for its western boundary,
the land then sloping eastward to the Magdalena. On
these lowlands the climate is rather warm, but the









COLOMBIA


plains lend themselves admirably to cattle farming, a
large head of cattle being raised, often many thousand
on one farm. On the foot-hills good cocoa, coffee and
tobacco is grown. The upper part of the Cordillera is
given over to agriculture, coffee and other crops being
grown. Mining is exceptionally well developed, some
sixty properties being worked for gold or silver. Most
of the rivers are auriferous. The department enjoys
the advantage of being tapped by the Dorada Railway;
the Magdalena; the Saldafia, open to steam launches;
the Ata and Cucuana rivers, open to small boats; and the
Quindio mule path. Tobacco, textile and hat factories
carry on a flourishing trade. Ibague, the capital, 4,262 ft.
high, with a population of 24,566, is the chief centre of
activity. The department have an income of 395,843
dollars gold, and the municipalities (of which there are
thirty-six), of 125,004 dollars.
The provinces are: Ibagu6, 54,776; Guadas (capital
Guamo, 15,345), 135,558; Honda (8,636), 23,980;
Libano (16,186), 43,935; and Ambalema (6,599), 24,127.
CHoco (Intendencia), is a comparatively narrow slip
bounded on the north by the Gulf of Darien, on the east
by Antioquia, Caldas and Valle, on the south by El Valle,
and on the west by the Comisaria of Jurado and Panama.
It is a densely forested slope down from the Western
Cordillera, and is intensely hot and very damp, for it
rains nearly all the year round. It has an area of 15,033
square miles and a population of 68,127, mostly negroes
and mulattoes. Its chief products are gold, platinum,
rubber, ivory nuts, dyewoods, timber, cocoa, and salted
fish. There is no doubt vast wealth in the forests, and








DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION


also in the auriferous rivers. Twenty mines are being
worked and 380 have been explored. Quibdo (popula-
tion, 15,756), the capital, lies inland, 138 ft. above sea-
level, surrounded by hills. The rapidity of its growth
is shown by the fact that in 1908 its population was
only 4,000. The provinces are Atrato and San Juan.
A few years ago a Comisaria was carved out of the
coastal strip from the frontier of Panama to the river
San Juan, and is named JURADO. This strip is coveted
by the neighboring Republic and, as it was a constant
cause of dispute, it was considered advisable to place it
directly under the jurisdiction of the executive at Bogota,
which is represented locally by a Comisario.
GOAJIRA (Comisaria), is a peninsula, almost entirely
surrounded by the Atlantic and the Gulf of Venezuela.
It has an area of 5,019 miles. Along the Gulf of Vene-
zuela there is a range of the foot of the Central Cordillera.
Most of the rest of the district is low-lying forest land,
inhabited chiefly by Indians, who gather forest products
and raise a useful breed of horses. The population of
the Comisaria is 53,013, its capital San Antonio. It
is divided into the districts (or Seccions) of Norte,
Occidente, and Sur.
META (Intendencia), a large track of country, 85,328
square miles in extent, bounded on the north by Boyacd
and Venezuela, on the east by Venezuela, on the south
by the territory of Caqueta and on the west by Huila
and Cundinamarca. It slopes from the Eastern Cordillera
foot-hills to the Guainia and Orinoco rivers. While the
western and southern parts are wooded, the remainder
are rolling llanos, covered with coarse and inferior grass.








COLOMBIA


A considerable amount of cattle is raised, but it is of poor
quality. Much of the land is still unexplored. Its
chief trade outlet is by the Meta, through Venezuela
to the Atlantic. It is divided into three provinces:
Villavicencio, population 4,774; San Martin, 3,444;
and Orocu6, 1,091. The number of uncivilised Indians
is estimated at 10,000.
CAQUETA is a vast territory of 187,258, administered
as a Comisaria, forming part of the great maze of eastern
mountain, forest and rolling plains. It is traversed
by the Yapura river, has a population estimated at
24,543, of which 2,034 inhabit the capital, Florencia.
The other Comisarias are ARAUCA, the western tongue
of marshy llanos lying between Boyaca, Meta and
Venezuela; VAUPES (capital Calamar, 545), population
5,545; URABA (capital Acaudi, 1,476), 6,476; JURADO
(capital Pizarro, 5,657), 8,207; and the much disputed
PUTUMAYO (capital Mocoa, 1,380), 31,380.













CHAPTER VI


CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT
BY the existing Constitution the government of the
country is divided into the Executive, the Legislative
and the Judiciary. It is the Executive which has the
predominant influence, in accordance with the political
tendency which substituted for the old federation of
Sovereign States a centralised form of rule.
(1) The Executive consists of a President and his
Council of Ministers. The President is elected by direct
popular vote for a term of four years. He may be elected
for a second, or even a third term, but these must not run
consecutively.
All Ministers are appointed by the President, and may
be removed from one office to another or dismissed
by him. They are, however, responsible to the
Legislature, in whose deliberations they join. There
are seven Ministers, who preside respectively over the
departments of State (Gobierno), Foreign Relations,
Hacienda (Revenues), Treasury (Expenditure), War,
Public Works and Education. They are essentially
Secretaries of State to the President and carry out his
policy.
Each of the territorial departments is administered
by a Governor, who is appointed and is removable by
the President. The Governor is assisted by a Depart-
mental Assembly, popularly elected at the rate of one
deputy for every 12,000 inhabitants, but possessing little
45








COLOMBIA


power of initiation or control. Governors designate
Prefects to administer the various provinces into which
their department are divided, who are appointed by the
President. Alcaldes presiding over municipalities are
nominated by the Governor or Prefect, and appointed
by the Government. Alcaldes are at once Executive
and Judicial officers, acting in the latter capacity prac-
tically as a Court of First Instance in both civil and
criminal cases. They preside over Consejos Municipales
(Municipal Councils), whose members are elected by
popular vote. These local councils are fairly active
bodies within their limited jurisdiction, and have con-
siderable local influence. They are aristocratic and
plutocratic rather than proletarian, representing the
landed and commercial interests.
Intendencias and Comisarias are governed by
Intendentes and Comisarios appointed by the President ;
they possess both executive and legislative functions,
subject solely to the control of the National Executive.
Posts and Telegraphs are under the Executive. Educa-
tion is under local control, though supervised through
the Minister of Education by the Executive.
DEFENCE.-The ultimate power of the Executive
rests on the forces controlled by the Minister for War.
The strength of the permanent army is fixed annually
by an act of Congress, and service is compulsory. The
artillery is divided into batteries and sections; the
cavalry into regiments of two or three squadrons; the
infantry into companies of 100 men, six companies
forming a battalion, two or more battalions a brigade,
two brigades a division, and two divisions a corps. The




































I--....


The (a/ilol, iuguoldi









CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT


total permanent force in 1913 amounted to 6,031. The
war footing is estimated at over 50,000 officers and men.
The navy consists of a fleet of five cruisers, three gunboats,
one troopship and a number of auxiliary vessels. The
Police force numbers 5,619.
(2) Legislative Power resides in Congress, consisting of
a Senate and a House of Representatives. The Senate
is composed of one member for every 120,000 inhabitants,
and one additional for any fraction exceeding 50,000.
These Senators are elected for a period of four years by
electoral colleges, whose members are chosen by the
Departmental Assemblies. Members of the House of
Representatives are elected for two years by direct vote,
in the proportion of one member for every 50,000
inhabitants.
The Intendencias each send a member, who is elected
by the Intendente, his secretary, and three electors
nominated by the Municipal Council of the local capital.
Sessions are annual, lasting ninety days, but the
President may call special sessions. He may even con-
voke a National Assembly in place of Congress, whenever
a fundamental law affecting the Constitution is in question.
Laws passed by both houses receive the Presidential
assent. The President possesses a limited power veto.
If he objects to a Bill, the Congress may overrule his
decision by securing a two-thirds majority in both
Houses. The President may still oppose, on the ground
that the law is contrary to the Constitution. Should
the Congress insist on passing the law, the final decision
is left to the Supreme Court.
Budgets are prepared by the President and his









COLOMBIA


advisers and voted by Congress. Subsidies for educa-
tional and other purposes are made to the departments,
whose Assemblies have delegated powers for raising local
revenues, while the municipalities also have restricted
powers of taxation. These limited powers include the
imposition of import (both customs and octroi) and
transit duties.
After every Presidential election Congress appoints a
first and second Designado, who act, consecutively, as
chief of the Executive in the event of the death or
resignation of the President.
(3) Judicial administration is divided into a Supreme
Court, a Superior Court for each department, Municipal
Courts and Commercial Courts. The Supreme Court
consists of nine Judges, of whom four are elected by the
Senate and five by the House of Representatives from a
Presidential list of nominees, and sit for five years. The
duties of the Supreme Court are to decide whether any
laws or executive decrees brought before them conform
to the Constitution; to act as a final appeal Court;
to appoint the Judges in the Superior Courts from
nominations made by the respective departmental
Assemblies. Judges in the Superior Courts sit for four
years, Municipal Judges are elected by two municipal
Councils. Alcaldes fulfil in a measure certain of the
duties of the French Juges de Paix and Juges
d'Instructions.
The Civil Code is based on the Code Napoleon, as is
the criminal Code. There are two Commercial Codes,
one devoted to Maritime Law, largely based on Spanish
practice. So far no Separate Commercial Courts have












:1

d ll,
4 ,


S.In.ier Cour oi Ca / il lT. ./
Iht 'r ( 'iirl ol ('a t'il~,l, Hlilhi


JFFI
L-~
i-Mi









CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT 49

been constituted, although provided for in the Con-
stitution. The codes are, of course, modified and
supplemented by Legislative Acts and Executive Degrees,
both of which, as stated, are subject to revision by the
Supreme Court.















CHAPTER VII
FINANCE
PUBLIC DEBT, INCOME AND EXPENDITURE, BANKING
ONE of the happiest and surest auguries for Colombia's
future prosperity is the steady recovery of both her
National and commercial credit. This recovery, made
possible by measures adopted under General Reyes, was
assured by those taken under the Government of
President Restrepo. When critics refer to the anomalous
fact that a national currency of paper is at a discount of
10,000 per cent. that is to say, a dollar note fetches only 1
per cent. gold on the open market, it must be remembered
that at one time the exchange had risen to 25,500 per
cent., with violent fluctuations, and that there had been
a long history of default in payment of interest on foreign
loans. All that has been altered. The exchange,
officially recognized at 10,000 per cent. discount, remains
round about that point on the open market; the issue
of paper money has been stopped and is being slowly
replaced by gold, silver and nickel coinage; interest,
together with commission on arrears, is being regularly
paid on the foreign debt and a sinking fund maintained.
PUBLIC DEBT.-It was probably inevitable with such
prolonged political unrest following upon the war of
independence that financial difficulties should have
supervened. Moreover, great financial disturbances were
created by the drawbacks attaching to borrowing at high
rates, with heavy commissions and brokerages, the









FINANCE


indiscriminate issue of paper money by the Central
Government and the departments in the time of the
last revolution (1899-1902). There was no forced
currency of paper before 1885, but the terrible commercial
slump which began in 1879, when the price of sulphate
of quinine quickly dropped from 16s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. per
ounce, killing the export trade of cinchona from Colombia,
while the fall in the price of coffee and tobacco crippled
the agriculture of the country and the national finances,
forced the Government to issue the unredeemable paper
currency. To these disasters legislative measures added
fresh horrors. Originally a bi-metallic basis of currency
was adopted, though private banks had the right to
issue notes not classed as legal tender. When as a
result of the commercial crisis both gold and silver
were drained out of the country, the banks, which
had scarcely exercised their privilege, threw a large
amount of notes on the market. So far had this
degeneracy gone that in 1886 Raphael Nufiez made the
paper dollar (or peso) of the National Bank the legal
monetary unit. This Banco Nacional, which had been
instituted in 1880 by Nufiez, although granted extra-
ordinary privileges had not won the confidence of the
country, and consequently the Government had to
subscribe for over 1,000,000 of its 2,500,000 dollar capital.
A year later its bills were made legal tender, which other
banks had to accept at their face value. Laws and
decrees issued in quick succession, all tending to secure the
monopoly of the National Bank, and in spite of the free
coinage of silver at -500 fine, the mass of paper money
accumulated. To stem this flood a law was passed in









COLOMBIA


1894 by which further issues were to be made only
in the event of foreign war or internal rebellion. Then
began the era of civil strife, the rapid growth of paper
dollar circulation and the phenomenal rise of exchange.
After the cessation of hostilities in 1903 the 10,000 per
cent. discount appeared to be adopted by general consent,
an improvement which was confirmed by the law of that
year fixing a gold standard, recognizing the right of all
contracting parties to stipulate payment in gold or paper,
permitting the free circulation of foreign money, and
establishing a Junta de Amortizaci6n. All this tended
to quiet matters, for the new Council of Redemption was
entrusted with the collection of certain revenues payable
in gold. This gold was put to auction on the exchange,
and the paper dollars received for it cancelled. Just
when the benefits of its work were beginning to be felt,
the Junta was dissolved by General Reyes, who once
more attempted to form a national bank. This time
it was the Banco Central, floated with a capital of
8,000,000 dollars, less than half of which was subscribed
for, and only about a fifth paid up. Granted great
privileges, it also had the beneficial duty of collecting
some of the government revenues and devoting from
25 to 50 per cent. of the proceeds to a sinking fund
for redemption of the paper money. The bank was also
strong enough to ensure the payment of interest on
foreign bonds and to reduce the general bank interest
from 7 to 2 per cent. per month. When General Reyes
resigned, the Government contract with the bank was
rescinded, but whatever evil effects this might have had
on exchange, were largely counteracted by a law which









FINANCE


fixed the legal value of paper and gold as 10,000 to 100
for the payment of taxes. Then in 1909 followed the
creation of the Junta de Conversi6n, whose duties are :
to exchange old bills for new 50, 100 and 1,000 dollar
notes (largely to minimise fraud), and for silver at -900
fine and nickel coins. There is also a surtax of 2 per cent.
on the amount of specific duty on imports (which produced
176,181 dollars in 1911), devoted to redemption of notes.
In 1910 the English sovereign was made legal lender,
the Government accepting payment of taxes in gold or
paper, the former at an exchange value of 9,900 per cent.
premium. Following upon this the Departmental
Government of Antioquia re-opened the Mint at Medellin,
and is now coining gold at the rate of about 60,000
monthly. These measures, together with the cancel-
lation of over 30,000,000 forged paper pesos, have greatly
steadied exchange and the money market generally, and
there is every prospect of still further improvement.
Even more unfortunate has been the history of Colom-
bia's foreign bonded debt. This debt was contracted
in war time, when not only was high interest promised,
but heavy commissions and discounts had to be allowed,
so that a large proportion of the nominal advance never
reached the country. Of the total foreign indebtedness
of La Gran Colombia, New Granada accepted responsi-
bility for 3,776,791. Payment of interest was very
faulty, so that by 1873 the capital and accrued interest
ran up to 6,630,000. It was recognized that there was
no hope of such an indebtedness being liquidated, and
after negotiations the bondholders accepted obligations
to the amount of 2,000,000. Again there was default,
5--(2248)









COLOMBIA


and after further negotiations the total debt of 3,514,442
was cut down to 2,700,000. As the result of non-pay-
ment of interest, the late Lord Avebury, representing the
bondholders, and Don Jorge Holguin, Financial Agent,
discussed the whole question and came to a formal
agreement, whereby the interest was reduced to 3 per
cent.; of the accrued interest amounting to j351,000,
70 per cent. was to be paid off, together with commission,
by annual drawings, and the further 30 per cent. is to be
discharged if and when the United States pays any
compensation for Colombia's Panama claim. As security
the bondholders were given a pledge of 12 per cent.
of the customs revenue, to be increased to 15 per
cent. should the sum received fall below 5,000,000
dollars gold. All these obligations have been faithfully
fulfilled.
Meanwhile the internal debt, which amounted to
24,719,541 dollars in 1910 was reduced to 1,315,781
dollars in 1912, and at the present average redemption
drawings, should be extinguished in less than two years,
So improved is the position that we are told by the
Special Commissioner of the Advisory Committee to the
Board of Trade on Commercial Intelligence who visited
Colombia on behalf of the British Government in 1911,
that an international group, represented by a British
Syndicate, actually submitted proposals for a loan of
5,000,000 to the Colombia Government. This was to be
applied to the unification of the external debts, the
repayment of certain railway mortgages and the ac-
quisition of the Sabana and Girardot Railways. On the
other hand. French capitalists have offered to form a










FINANCE 55

Mortgage Bank. Clearer evidence of restored confidence
could hardly be forthcoming.
This looks well for the future, for the total indebted-
ness per capital is extremely low, but it must be confessed
that at present the Government, Departmental and
Municipal revenues are very small, certainly insufficient
to meet the requirements of the work to be done.
INCOME AND EXPENDITURE.-By far the largest pro-
portion of the national revenue is obtained from import
duties. The budget for 1913 was made up as follows-
REVENUE Dollars,
gold.
Customs .. .. 8,250,000
Port dues .. .. .. .. 224,000
Surtax .. .. .. .. 167.000
Sanitary dues .. .. .. 8,500
Export dues .. .. 100,000
Consular fees .. .. 480,000
Hospital tax .. .. 90,000
Railways .. .. 120,000
Salt and Mine rents .. .. 1,636,000
Monopolies (cigars and matches) 65,000
Stamps and stamped paper .. 400,000
Intendencias .. .. .. 57,000
Magdalena canalisation tax .. 120,000
River navigation .. 100,000
Mines .. .. .. .. 24,500
Miscellaneous .. .. .. 248,000

12,500,000

EXPENDITURE
Ministry of the Interior .. .. 1,264,515
Foreign Affairs .. .. 329,677
Finance .. .. 1,070,591
War .. .. .. .. .. 2,661,279
Treasury .. .. .. 544,316
Public Debt .. .. .. 2,551,556
Posts and Telegraphs .. 1,029,681










56 COLOMBIA

EXPENDITURE-continued Dollars,
gold.
Justice .. .. .. .. 980,724
Pensions .. .. .. .. 284,206
Education .. .. .. .. 634,297
Public Works . .... 394,972
Fomento .. .. .. .. 754,086
Total .. .. 12,500,000

On referring to Chapter V some idea of local
administrative resources will be obtained.
BANKING.-While the sources of income are restricted,
looking to the country as a whole, it must be said that
even greater inconvenience is felt as the result of the
very limited currency fund which, counting paper at
the legal exchange, hardly amounts to 10s. per head
of the present population. A little relief is felt from
the fact that silver and nickel circulates on the
Venezuelan and the Panama frontiers and in the Choco,
while there is always a certain amount of foreign
money in circulation at the seaports. If exchange
can be kept steady, the coinage of gold at Medellin
will in time help matters. But the real hope for a
prosperous and unfettered commerce is the extension
of banking facilities. At present there is a great scarcity
of such facilities. As explained above, the Banco
Central was originally founded as a national bank of
issue. But its privileges were revoked and it now has
only the standing of any other bank. Its nominal
capital is 2,300,000 dollars, and in June, 1912, it had a
reserve of 309,906 dollars, and deposits amounting to
over 340,000 dollars; it pays a dividend of over 10 per
cent. Of the other three banks in Bogota the Banco de









FINANCE


Colombia has 12,000 shares, which are quoted on the
local market at 65 dollars (English gold), has over
2,710,000 dollars on deposit, and pays 3 dollars interest
per share. The shares of the Banco de Bogota are quoted
at a little over 2 dollars gold; it had in June, 1912, over
958,000 dollars on deposit. The Banco Hipotecario
has a capital of 500,000 dollars, all shares issued and
60 per cent. paid thereon; has a reserve of 90,300
dollars, and 214,221 dollars on deposit. Interest on
deposits varies from 3 to 6 per cent. according to
term of call, and all the banks-apart from the Banco
de Colombia-allow 3 per cent. per annum on the
minimum monthly balance on current account. At
Barranquilla there are two banks: the Banco Com-
mercial, which has a paid-up capital of about 180,000
dollars; and the Atlantico. According to the Census
report, they paid from 14 to 16 per cent. per annum.
At Medellin there are two banks, the Banco de Sucre
and the Banco Republicano, each with capitals of 600,000
dollars, the shares of the former being quoted at a premium
of 20 and of the second at 60 per cent. In this Depart-
ment of Antioquia there are two other banks, at Rionegro
and at Sonson. At Cartagena there are three banks:
Banco de Bolivar (paid-up capital 500,000 dollars,
deposits under 150,000), Banco de Cartagena (capital
100,000 dollars), Banco Union (capital 400,000 dollars).
At Tunja there is the Banco de Boyaci. At Manizeles,
the rapidly growing capital of Caldas, the Banco de
Manizeles, with a united paid-up capital and reserve of
over 110,000 dollars, has less than 100,000 dollars on
deposit. At Popayan the Banco de Popayan has a paid-up









COLOMBIA


capital of 20,000 dollars and deposits to over twice
that sum. At Cali the Banco Comercial has a paid-up
capital of about 100,000 dollars. At Pasto the Banco
del Sur, with a paid-up capital of about 66,000 dollars,
and deposits of about half as much, has managed to
pay 20 per cent. All these banks are doing well, few
pay less than 10 per cent., the average is probably over
12 per cent., in spite of the custom of paying high interest
on deposits and even on current account. It must be
remembered that most of the big mercantile houses
both at the seaports and in the interior, do a certain
amount of banking business, and some of them devote a
good deal of attention to selling exchanges, discounting
bills, making advances on bills of lading and at the same
time accepting deposits. Even taking this into account,
however, it would seem that Colombia offers a good
field for banking enterprise, especially if managed on
sound but not too conservative lines.
Law 57 of 1887 declares that in order to found a new
bank it is necessary to obtain the sanction of the Govern-
ment (Art. 54). Such banks may fix their rate of discount,
interest and commission, making these known by the
issue of printed notices. Variations may be made by
further printed notices after expiry of ninety days from
every such notice issued. Private banks may lend money
on land. By authority of 17 Act 120 of the Constitution,
the President may "exercise the right of necessary
inspection over banks of issue and other establishments
of credit, in conformity with the laws."














CHAPTER VIII


SOCIAL CONDITIONS
COST OF LIVING, TRAVELLING, POSITION OF
FOREIGNERS, COMMERCIAL LAWS
FROM the point of view of social conditions, Colombia
offers to the observant traveller most vivid contrasts.
In the capital of the Republic, in Medellin, in Barran-
quilla, Cartagena, Popayan and even in such small
towns as Rionegro (Antioquia), the habits and methods
of life of the inhabitants possess all the refinements
found in European centres, having due regard, of course,
to the limitations of any special locality and the wealth
of individual members and of a community collectively.
Bogotd, as becomes the capital, is an eminently social
and hospitable city, offering to visitors all kinds of attrac-
tions and ways of agreeably passing the time. The clubs,
of which the two leading examples are the Jockey Club
and the Gun Club, give periodical dances, celebrated
for the sumptuous setting and elegance which characterise
them. Private individuals receive their guests either in
splendid salons or modest drawing-rooms, but always
with the utmost urbanity. From the early Colonial
days, the BogotAnos have been justly noted for the
suavity and nobility of their manners.
Foreigners, who in other capitals of the South American
countries find difficulties in forming relations in good
society, experience no obstacles in Bogota if provided
with adequate introductions. Local society is very
59









COLOMBIA


accessible, frank and hospitable. The clubs have special
regulations to facilitate the admission of foreigners,
who, as temporary members, find every convenience
granted to them.
It is difficult to classify the hotels of Bogota, though
there are those that are good, those that are fairly good,
and those certainly not worthy of recommendation.
Nor is price the best indication. Strangers to the City
would do well to make cautious enquiries before finally
electing to take up their abodes. The houses are usually
well built and often most comfortably equipped. But
the old Spanish type with open patios are the rule, which
is perhaps not the best method of planning for so high a
situation. But BogotA, though some 8,000 ft. above
sea-level, does not strike one as a cold city, indeed the
temperature ranges between 580 and 60 F. ; while
there is the advantage of having close at hand, by means
of a four or five hours railway journey, a district basking
in a tropical temperature, somewhere about 860 F.
This makes it easy to procure all the produce from
both temperate and tropical zones. In the markets are
all the garden produce and vegetables, potatoes, peas,
wheat, and European fruit such as strawberries, apples,
pears, peaches fresh and wholesome, side by side with
pineapples, aligator-pears, bananas, chirimoya (Anona
Humboldtiana) the produce of a tropical region. On the
sabana surrounding the city, cattle of excellent quality
are raised in abundance. Beef, mutton and pork can be
obtained at the same price as in Europe, or, indeed, at
rather cheaper rates. For this reason strangers who
propose to make a lengthy stay in Bogota, or who come









SOCIAL CONDITIONS


with their families, are well advised in hiring their private
houses, rather than patronising hotels.
CosT OF LIVING.-Tariffs in the dearest hotels vary
from 12s. to 15s. per day. In other establishments it
is possible to secure temporary lodgings with meals at
much lower prices. However, owing to many difficulties,
living in Bogota cannot be said to be cheap. Though
compared with such places as Rio de Janeiro or Buenos
Aires, it is undeniably low; but the special conditions
created by the monetary system, the high Customs
tariffs and the difficulties of transport have combined to
produce a disproportionate rise in the cost of comfortable
and easy living.
Rent of houses and land has no relation to the cost
of other necessaries. This is partly due to the constant
variations in the exchange value of paper money and
partly to the scarcity of a circulating medium. The unit
of exchange in Colombia is the paper peso, or dollar,
equivalent to 4s. of English money. It has been legally
fixed that five Colombian pesos are equal to 1 sterling.
As a result of this, and moreover owing to the last three
prosperous years, English gold coins and Bank of England
notes, have entered largely into the local circulation.
So that visitors who have provided themselves with
English gold will find no difficulty in the matter of
exchange.
TRAVELLING.-To reach the capital from Europe
the most natural access is by way of the Atlantic coast.
There are three ports of entry, which we shall name in
the order of their commercial importance : Barranquilla,
which is united by rail to its place of disembarcation,









COLOMBIA


Puerto Colombia; Cartagena, whose bay is accessible
to the largest steamships; and Santa Marta. From
Barranquilla the interior of the Republic as far as La
Dorada is entered by way of the Magdalena river, a
journey of seven to eight days. At La Dorada passengers
take the train on the Dorada Railway to Beltran or
Ambalema, where they once more join the Magdalena,
taking smaller steamers as far as Girardot. Owing
to the stay of one night at Honda made by all trains, the
run from La Dorada to Ambalema, which by direct
route could be made in three or four hours, entails a
twenty hours' journey. At Girardot, which is reached in
another sixteen to twenty hours from Ambalema or
Beltran, travellers enter trains on another railway,
which transport them to Bogota in from eight to ten hours.
The cost of this journey, from the coast to the capital,
apart from expense of luggage transport and hotel charges
is between 12 and 14 for each person.
Barranquilla, which is well worth knowing, is pro-
gressing rapidly, and is an important social centre.
There are two clubs: the Club Barranquilla and the
German Club. There are several hotels. In the most
expensive the tariff is about 12s. per day. The town,
apart from its rather high temperature and inadequate
sewerage, may be considered fairly healthy. It is the
port through which the greater part of the export and
import trade of the country passes.
Cartagena, an ancient town, surrounded by the sub-
stantial Spanish walls, is also a great social centre, society
being very distinguished and somewhat ceremonious.
Travellers desiring to reach the capital from this port,

















































A Modern Private House, Mcdcllin









SOCIAL CONDITIONS


take train to Calamar, on the banks of the Magdalena,
there to join the steamers from Barranquilla. Living is
about as costly as it is at Barranquilla.
Santa Maria, which is also a very old Spanish town,
has prospered greatly of late, being favoured by the
rapid growth of the banana trade here and in its neigh-
bourhood. In order to reach the interior from this port,
it is necessary to go to Barranquilla, preferably by the
Santa Marta Railway, which unites the plains with the
Magdalena, and then by ferry across the river.
In order to reach Medellin travellers ascend the Mag-
dalena as far as Puerto Berrio, thence there is a railway
which leads into the interior of the Department of
Antioquia. This railway is not yet completed, and part
of the journey has to be made by means of coaches and
motor-cars.
POSITION OF FOREIGNERS.-The laws of the country
do not place foreigners under special disadvantages.
They are assured of ample protection, both as regards
personal liberty and property, and in time of war their
condition is even better than that of Colombians.
It is advisable for foreigners to provide themselves
with passports, because of the laws relating to anarchist
propaganda. Nevertheless, in the interior foreigners
run no risk of being incommoded by the authorities.
The highways are safe, and there are no records of any
foreigners having received personal injury while travelling.
As has been explained in another chapter, commercial
travellers may bring in samples for exhibition without
paying duty, by undertaking to re-export them at the
expiring of a given date, and to pay duty on any goods









COLOMBIA


not so re-exported. However, certain districts, such as
Manizales, Cartagena, Cali, and others impose a tax on
commercial travellers showing samples.
EDUCATION.-The people of Colombia have always
distinguished themselves by a love of study. It has
frequently been made a subject of reproach that the
interest shown in assimilating general ideas incapacitates
them from appreciating details and coldly registering
accomplished facts. Yet the interest taken in the study
of science has always corresponded with those periods
of enthusiasm manifested at certain stages of their his-
tory for various experiments in education. Even in the
Colonial days, under the auspices of the Church, an
Institute of Secondary Education had been founded in
Bogota. From that period (1652) dates the Colegio del
Rosario, also an institution of secondary instruction,
which has had extraordinary success, and through which
some of those Colombians most famous in science, in
literature and in politics have passed. This College is
still in existence and flourishing, giving courses in
literature and philosophy. The National University
of Bogota, founded in 1867, has Faculties of Medicine,
Law and Political Science, and to this institution are
associated the Schools of Engineering and of National
Sciences. The National Library, Astronomical Ob-
servatory, School of Fine Arts and the Academy of Music
are also incorporated in the University. There is also
in the capital a Seminary in which youths destined for
the priesthood are educated. The Colegio de San
Bartolom6, of ancient foundation, to-day under the
direction of the Jesuit Fathers, imparts instruction to









SOCIAL CONDITIONS


young boys. A free Institute of learning, enjoying a
good name in the country, and in which courses of
Literature and Philosophy are held, and comprising
Faculties of Law and Political Science, is the Universidad
Republican, which has withstood the assaults of political
enemies, and throughout a difficult period has kept pace
with the official seat of learning.
Elementary instruction, which attained a most
flourishing stage between 1870 and 1880, as the result
of the Government establishing Normal Schools with
German Professors in the capitals of all States, gradually
fell into evil days from 1886, owing to the precarious
condition created by the war and the frequent changes
of Government. Though the result of this inaction was
long felt, it has been succeeded by a new impulse in
favour of primary education. In certain departments,
as in Antioquia and Caldas, Bolivar and Cauca, the
Government's action in favour of elementary instruction
is effectively seconded by the initiative of parents. In
other regions, as in certain provinces of Cundinamarca
and Boyaca, the average attendance at school is far
below what might be expected from the census returns.
The good intentions of the present Government have
been nullified on the Constitutional law that education
shall be free but not compulsory.
Besides the higher educational institutions in the
capital of the Republic, there are Universities at Medellin,
with Faculties of Medicine and law; at Cartagena,
and at Popayan. The School of Mines at Medellin forms
part of National University.
LITERATURE.-Colombian literature already possesses









COLOMBIA


a history, and may justly pride itself on names which
are not only known all over the Continent, but even in
Europe. The Spanish language in the Republic is the
object of zealous study and the best Colombian writers
serve as examples to other nations of the Continent. As
the result of the natural inclination to letters, and owing
to the fact that in the country as a whole there is no
considerable immigration, the Spanish language has
preserved its purity better than in other nations.
THE PRESS.-The daily Press affords ample testimony
to the fact that Colombians are tenacious in their deter-
mination to keep their language free from foreign influ-
ences. The Press had a precarious life owing to the
rude political shocks before 1902. Few of the daily papers
were able to survive the violent political crises. Never-
theless, the period of peace inaugurated by President
Reyes has been favourable to the development of
periodical publications in Colombia. There are now
some dailies which appear definitely to constitute a
prosperous Press, and certain of these manifestly have
great influence in political life. In Bogota the oldest
paper is El Nuevo Tiempo, and the one with the best
news service is La Gaceta Republicano. Other prosperous
journals are El Republicano and El Tiempo. In Carta-
gena El Porvenir is published; it is one of the oldest
dailies in Colombia. In Barranquilla there are El
Rigolleto, El Comercio and El Liberal. In Medellin La
Prensa and the Espectador.
In Colombia the Press is absolutely free. Such laws
as relate to the subject are scarcely in force, because
the traditions of the Press have supplanted them. The









SOCIAL CONDITIONS


dailies treat all questions relating to the Administration,
to religious ideas, to habits and customs of the people,
with absolute liberty, and on occasions even bold effrontery.
Nevertheless such independence and liberty of criticism
is not aimless. Each paper has its policy, but it is a good
sign that often such policy is subordinated to the
criticism of facts or the examination of opposing ideas.
COMMERCIAL LAws.-According to the Colombian
Constitution anybody in the enjoyment of civil rights,
whether native born, naturalised or foreigners can take
proceedings against another person in the civil courts,
either personally or by attorney. A defendant may
demand that a plaintiff shall provide a fitting guarantor
for any costs that the plaintiff may be ordered to pay,
but in place of a guarantor the plaintiff can pay into
court such sum as the Judge may appoint. If this is
done, the plaintiff may demand a similar guarantee or
deposit from the defendant. Costs include postages;
Government stamped paper used for claims, evidence,
etc. ; fees of witnesses and experts; other expenses
incurred in the suit; legal charges of attorney or
advocate.
By Articles 307 and 322 of Law 105 of 1890, parties
may, even after proceedings at law have been commenced,
refer the matters in dispute to arbitration. If this is
agreed to the parties must execute a deed, on stamped
paper, bearing the signature of two witnesses, setting
forth: (1) The subject of dispute to be submitted to
arbitration. (2) Names and descriptions of three
arbitrators. (3) The nature of the award that the
arbitrators are to direct, setting forth whether the









COLOMBIA


arbitrators must condemn or acquit the parties, or
whether they may impose a compromise. The omission
of any of these essentials renders the document null
and void. The award is treated as the decision of a
Judge, and is therefore subject to appeal under given
conditions.
The Commercial Code (Law 57 of 1887) declares that
"every person who according to the common laws is
held capable to contract and bind himself is held equally
capable to carry on trade" (Clause 11). Minors may
under certain circumstances carry on trade (Clause 15),
but bankrupts cannot until they have obtained their
discharge (Clause 16). Every trader must (a) declare
to his creditors the winding-up of every partnership,
whether legally constituted or depending merely upon
agreement, in which they can intervene as parties; (b)
maintain a uniform and accurate system of accounts;
(c) preserve all correspondence having reference to his
business (Clause 24). Every wholesale trader must keep
a (a) daybook ; (b) ledger of current accounts ; (c) register
of assets and liabilities and balance sheet; (d) copying
letter book (Clause 27). And every retail trader must
keep a record of daily operations and a list of assets and
liabilities, together with balance sheet, prepared at least
every two years (Clause 28). Other books and records
are optional. Special rules are laid down regarding the
description of these books and of the entries to be made.
No erasures or alterations must be made, all rectifications
being made by separate entries (Clauses 37 and 38).
Merchants must preserve the books and papers of their
business until the termination at every point of the









SOCIAL CONDITIONS 69

winding-up of their business transactions. The same
obligation rests upon their heirs.
Brokers are persons capable of trading, but electing
to act as brokers or agents, and having their names
and addresses entered on a Register. They must observe
secrecy; cannot employ assistants, and must not trade,
directly or indirectly, in those matters in which they
usually deal; they may not acquire goods entrusted to
themselves, or to other brokers, for sale (Clauses 65-91).
The civil law recognizes five classes of bankruptcy:
(a) suspension of payment, (b) accidental insolvency,
(c) culpable bankruptcy, (d) fraudulent bankruptcy,
(e) absconding (Clause 122). Fraudulent bankruptcy is
assumed when a bankrupt has failed to keep the prescribed
books, or books in the prescribed manner, or when he
fails to answer the summons of a Judge (Clause 128).
The execution of deeds of assignment of property of
traders is regarded as an act of bankruptcy (Clause 134).
The regulations as to obtaining discharges are very
stringent (Clauses 174-181).
Ordinary binding contracts may be made by word
of mouth, by public or private written document, or
through an authorised agent (Clause 183). An oral offer
must be accepted at once, and a written offer within
twenty-four hours by a person residing in the place
where the offer is made, or by return of post by others;
otherwise the offers are void, but if a later acceptance
is made, any retraction of the offer must be made by
return of post to avoid liability to an action for loss and
damages (Clauses 184-185). Every trader can charge
interest for deliveries macd on credit, one month after
6-(2248)









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rendering an account, if the time of payment has not been
specified, even though the debtor is not a trader (Clause
212). A seller must deliver the goods sold in the time
and at the place agreed upon, but if no time has been
fixed, then the seller must have the things sold ready for
the buyer within twenty-four hours following the com-
pletion of the contract. If no place has been named,
delivery shall be made in the place where the goods
existed at the time of the sale (Clause 134).
Three kinds of commercial agency are recognized:
(a) the Comisi6n (relating to specific mercantile trans-
actions) ; (b) Preposici6n (when an agent is placed in the
position of a manager) ; (c) Correduria y agencia de
cambio (brokerage) (Clauses 331-462).
The law recognizes four forms of commercial associa-
tions : (a) full partnership; (b) joint-stock companies;
(c) limited partnership ; (d) joint adventure.
A partnership is made between persons capable of
trading by a written document made public and
registered. This document must contain (a) the names
and addresses of both parties; (b) partnership style;
(c) names of partners charged with management and
right of signing; (d) the capital introduced by each
partner; (e) the scope of the partnership; (/) the share
of profits or losses assigned to each partner; (g) time
limit; (h) permissible annual drawings of each partner;
(i) particulars as to division on winding-up; (j) arbitra-
tion provisions, if any; (k) registered address of the
concern; (1) any other binding terms (Clauses 464-549).
A joint-stock company may sue and be sued. The
liability of the members is limited to the amount of their










SOCIAL CONDITIONS


subscription (Clause 550). But an ordinary joint-stock
company can only exist by complying with such regu-
lations as apply to the registration of partnerships
(Clause 551), and those projected for carrying out under-
takings of public concern must be authorised by special
law (Clause 553). All joint-stock companies must specify
the time of their duration, unless such time limit is
implicit in their deed of incorporation (Clause 446).
Article 14 of the Constitution declares that companies
constituted abroad which are recognized in Colombia
as juridical personalities, will not have rights other than
those which appertain to Colombian persons." By
Legislative Decrees Nos. 2 and 37 of 1906, foreign joint-
stock companies desiring to have permanent establishments
in Colombia must record in the National Registry of the
district in which their chief place of business is situated,
a copy of their Act of Incorporation, copies of their
Articles of Association, and evidence of their registration
and permission to trade in their own country. Such
companies must have a fully authorised local resident
agent. They are not subject to any special tax.
Limited partnership (sociadad en comandita) are of
two kinds: (a) Simple limited partnerships with a
capital fund supplied wholly or in part by the limited
partners and the working partners; (b) Limited partner-
ship by shares, whose capital is contributed by shares
subscribed by members whose names do not appear
in the partnership instrument (Clause 597). Both clauses
are subject to ordinary partnership law, but the limited
partners (whose names may be omitted from the partner-
ship instrument and need not appear in the official









COLOMBIA


abstract) are liable only to the extent of the capital they
have invested (Clause 599).
A joint adventure (participaci6n) "is a contract by
which two or more traders take an interest in one or
several mercantile ventures, contemporaneous or in
succession, which must be carried out by one of them
in his own name alone, and under his personal credit,
with the obligation of rendering an account, and of
dividing with his co-adventurers the gains or losses, in
agreed proportion (Clause 629). The Supreme Court
has held that only traders may be joint-adventurers.
PATENTS.-According to Decree No. 909 of 1906 on
Stamped Paper and National Stamp-Duty, patents of
privilege must pay annually ten pesos gold on each
invention.
TRADE MARKS.-By Decree No. 217 of 1900 it is
enacted that any citizen, whether Colombian or foreigner,
who is the proprietor of a Trade or Commercial Mark,
may acquire the exclusive right to its use by Registration.
The applicant, personally or by attorney, must appear
at the Ministry of Public Works with a request for
Registration, setting forth the distinctive sign which
constitutes the mark, the article to which it refers, and the
place of manufacture or production. This request must
be made on stamped paper of the third class, and be
accompanied by two copies (drawings or prints) of the
mark, each bearing a stamp of the first class. The
application is published in the official Gazette at the cost
of the applicant, and if thirty days thereafter, if a Trade
Mark, or sixty if a Commercial Mark, there should be
no opposition, it is registered. A Trade Mark (Marca















Senerifeo

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iSketch map of
Barba s COLOMBIA.
S. showing
: oPast RAILWAYS & WATERWAYS.
''--....... s MPOCo RAILWAYS IN OPERATION SHOWN THUS: iiiiiii
/ t\ RAILWAYS CONSTRUCTING & PROJECTED: ....------
.ta TERMINATION OF RIVER NAVIGATION:........ t
0- : Scale of English Miles.
.50 0 50 100 150
78 76 74 72









SOCIAL CONDITIONS 73

de Fabrica) is defined as any phrase or sign employed in
order to distinguish or define a particular product in-
tended for trade or commerce." A Commercial Mark
(Marca de Comercio) is defined as a "phrase or sign
distinctive of an article of commerce intended to be
associated with a particular commercial person or trading
house." By Decree No. 217 of 1900, the dues payable
on both classes of Mark are ten pesos gold.














CHAPTER IX
INLAND COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORT
ONE of the greatest needs of Colombia, if not indeed the
greatest of all, is the provision of facilities for inland
traffic. Not only is a large part of the country still
practically unexplored, but even districts which are
comparatively densely populated are often left in strange
isolation owing to the lack of railroads and highways.
It is this fact that makes travelling in the Republic
slow and costly, and the transport of goods a matter of
serious concern. No doubt the configuration of this very
mountainous country with its deep valleys and rolling
llanos, explains much of the present condition of affairs,
because the engineering and financial problems to be
overcome are considerable. Nevertheless it will be
found, especially when the railroads and highways of the
country are being examined, that past political history
has had much to do with both the deeds of commission
and omission; with the new era, therefore, we may
justly look for greater wisdom and swifter progress.
We have already dealt with certain provisions for
inland navigation, and meagre though these be, it will
be found that the river system plays an almost pre-
dominant part in traffic possibilities when the country is
viewed as a whole.
In regard to river traffic the MAGDALENA stands pre-
eminent. In its course of about 1,060 miles (of which
930 are navigable), it traverses nearly three-fourths of
74












































Riv'o Alagdalcmi S/l'lr-Wfi'c'cI S/t'anw (>ildas


()(II









COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORT 75

the central part of the Republic, and by means of its
tributaries taps many of the most thickly populated
of the agricultural and industrial regions. Unfortunately,
although the fourth largest river in South America, it
partakes for long stretches the character of a mountain
stream. Broadly speaking, the river is navigable for
large steamers from the Atlantic almost up to Honda,
a distance of about 1,000 kilometres ; for small steamers
from above Honda to Neiva; for boats and rafts up
to the confluence of the Paez. As a matter of fact,
however, there are numerous obstacles to be met with.
Much dredging and rectification of banks are required
in the lower reaches before large steamers can enjoy a
free and easy course all the year round. Real difficulties
begin at Honda, just above which are the celebrated
Fall and Rapids of that name. These cause most of
the steamers to anchor a short distance below the port.
For up-country traffic this stoppage generally takes
place at La Dorada, where there is a short railway running
to Honda and then on to Ambalema. By using this
railway passengers avoid the Falls of Honda and the
narrow straits of Colombaima, where the river races
between high rocky cliffs. At Ambalema passengers
and goods once more join the river, a short distance by
small steamer being traversed before reaching Girardot,
where the railway to Bogota begins. The steamers
continue up to Neiva, and then further progress must
be made by canoes, or the peculiar raft-boats known as
Champans. On the banks of the Magdalena are numerous
ports, some little more than wharfs and warehouses.
The river has also many tributaries. Soon after leaving









COLOMBIA


Barranquilla on the south bank is Calamar, the river
port and railhead of the Cartagena railway. Just above,
on the north bank, is Heredia, an important collecting
depot of the rich agricultural Magdalena plains. Higher
up, on the south bank, is the mouth of the Cauca. A
regular service of steamers ply up the river from Barran-
quilla to Valdivia; also up a tributary of the Cauca, the
Nechi, as far as Zaragoza. The Cauca is used on many
of its stretches by both steamers and rafts, assisting in
traffic between such towns as Cali and Cartago, but the
bed is in many parts impassable owing to falls and rocks.
Returning to the Magdalena we find on its north bank
the river Cesar, which affords a waterway through fertile
regions to the Valle Dupar and the Goajira Peninsula.
Here is also the mouth of the partly navigable Lebrija,
which runs south-east, steamers going as far as Estaci6n
Santander, champans continuing the voyage to Puerto
Santos, where the pack-mule trail commences. Other
tributaries useful as collecting and distributing channels
are the Opon and Carare, opening up the country of
Santander; the Sogamoso, tapping Santander and
BoyacA and the Nare, traversing part of Antioquia. To
return once more to the main stream of the Magdalena,
Jesus del Rio and Zambrano are important as the coffee
and tobacco depots of Bolivar; Magangu6 is the gateway
to the cattle-raising plains of Corozal. From Puerto
Wilches a railway is under construction to Bucaramanga,
which district is also served by La Gloria, Bodega de
Carmen, and Bodega del Sur. From Puerto Berrio a
railway runs south-west to La Quiebra and is being
continued to Medellin.









COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORT


It has already been said that the navigation of the
Magdalena is by no means easy, this is due to sand-
banks, rocks, and at certain seasons lack of water.
Consequently the service is apt to be slow and somewhat
irregular, moreover, it is extremely expensive owing to the
frequent transhipments. In his report to the Board of
Trade, Mr. G. T. Milne says : With a view to improving
conditions a canalisation tax is imposed on both exports
and imports, the product being applied to the acquisition
and upkeep of dredges." The work is carried out under
the direction of the Minister of Public Works and a
Canalisation Board. According to a recent decree the
tax is as follows- Do s
Dollars Gold
per ton.
On imports of general merchandise .. .. 4.5
On national manufactures for consumption
in the country .. .. .. .. 2.10
On national manufactures for export-
On sawn or squared timber, sugar, rubber,
minerals, hides, coffee, cocoa and salt .. 1.60
On timber in logs, and fibres .. .. 0.60
In 1912 this tax yielded about 117,000 dollars gold,
on an import cargo of 44,500 tons and an export cargo
of 53,300 tons. Mr. Milne adds : While the Canalisation
Board probably does something to improve navigation,
to deal effectively with the problem (which is stated to be
getting more serious every year owing to the diminished
amount of water in the rivers through deforestation)
technical advice of the best kind available would be
necessary, with presumably the expenditure of very
large sums of money. At present canalisation works
on an extensive scale might prove to be beyond the
country's resources, although a loan, secured on the









COLOMBIA


revenue derived from the tax and expended by responsible
foreign engineers and contractors, might greatly improve
existing conditions. The first essential would be a
thorough investigation of the problem by a competent
engineer. If his report should be favourable to expendi-
ture a loan could presumably be arranged on condition
that the collection of the tax by the lending house was
satisfactorily provided for. In the event of the necessary
works being deemed beyond the country's resources, the
only solution of the difficulty would seem to be for the
Government to assist such railway enterprises as would
tend to facilitate communication between the littoral
and the interior. Eventually a trunk line, linking up
existing and projected railways, may cross the country
from ocean to ocean ; but it seems improbable that a work
of this magnitude will be undertaken in the near future."
Before discussing this and other aspects of the railway
problem we must say a few words about the steamboat
accommodation in the Magdalena, and also on the other
navigable waterway systems of the Republic. That
such facilities as the Magdalena offers should largely
monopolise attention is explained when we realise that
close upon 80 per cent. of the value of imports, and over
60 per cent. of the exports pass through the Customs
of Barranquilla and Cartagena, and as only a small
proportion of these goods remain in the two cities, or
are distributed in their neighborhoods by rail or carts,
or transhipped to Santa Marta, it is clear what a pre-
ponderating part this river plays in the business life of
the country. While there is a fair amount of competition
in the provision of steamboat service, the two leading









COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORT


organizations are a local company, the Empresa Han-
seatica, and an English company, the Empresa Aliadas,
both of which are managed by Colombian firms. The
Hanseatica has a fleet of seven steamers of 1,269 tons in
all, and the Aliadas twenty-nine steamers of over 6,000
tons. These steamers, and those of other owners, are
flat-bottomed stern-wheelers, drawing little water and
designed on the lines of the American river steamboats.
A weekly express mail service to Bogota, and inter-
mediate services, are run by the Aliadas for a monthly
Government subsidy of 1,000. Passenger rates and
cargo freights are on a tariff approved by the Government,
rebates being allowed on certain classes of goods. Thus
the charge for carriage of general merchandise from
Puerto Colombia to La Dorado, thence over rail to
Arranca Plumas, then by river, and again by rail to
Bogota is about 12 per ton, calculated thus in gold
dollars per ton-
Railway freight, Puerto Colombia to Barran-
quilla .. .. .. .. .. 3.63
River freight, Barranquilla to La Dorado .. 14.0
Sundry charges: Manifest and Stamps .. 1.60
Loading river steamer ..... .60
Canalisation tax . ..... 2.0
Customs despatch .. .. .. .20
Cartage .. .. .. .. .10
Commission .. .. .. 1.20
Through freight, La Dorado-Bogota .. 35.35
58.68

The through rates from Cartagena are the same. It
should be noted that there is a rebate of 25 per cent. on
the river freights for agricultural and mining machinery,









COLOMBIA


tools and wire netting, and 50 per cent. on railway
material.
Mention has already been made of the CAUCA, which
taps part of Bolivar, Antioquia, Caldas, El Valle and
Cauca. It is navigable from the Magdalena, near
Magangu6, to Rio Nuevo; but thence to the city of
Antioquia the river is impassable. Above that there is a
considerable reach of fair waterway, a busy traffic being
kept up from a little above Cali and rather beyond
Cartago. The Nechi and other tributaries bring addi-
tional traffic to this river, giving access to districts lying
eastward.
The SINU, draining the low-lying cattle and sugar
plantation lands of western Bolivar, is open to steamers
from the Gulf of Cispata to Monteria.
Going west, there is the Atrato, falling into the Gulf
of Darien and navigable as far as Quibdo. Plans have
been prepared for a short canal from Cupica Bay, by
which this river would be given an outlet into the Pacific.
While the eastern slopes of the Cordillera and wide
valley of the department of El Valle is served by the
Cauca, the western slope and coastal forest regions are
served by the San Juan, which is open for steamers
from Buenaventura to San Pablo, and for small boats to
Dipurdu. There is a project to join the San Juan with
the Atrato by canalisation, which would also have the
effect of giving direct water communication between the
Atlantic and the Pacific. But the engineering diffi-
culties are very considerable and the probable cost,
in view of the class of possible traffic, appears prohibitive.
The PATIA drains the south-western border of Cauca









COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORT


and the western part of Narifio, flowing into the Pacific
not far from the Ecuadorian frontier.
On the eastern side, the META rising in the Cerro del
Nevado (where snow-capped peaks, 14,140 ft. above
sea-level, feed enormous glaciers), lying to the south-west
of Bogota, skirts the foot-hills of the Eastern Cordillera,
and, flowing through the great territory of Meta and the
southern border of the Comisaria of Arauca, which is
tapped by tributaries, joins the Orinoco at the Venezuelan
frontier, and affords an outlet into the Atlantic through
Lake Maracaibo.
The GUAVIARE river rises on the southern slope of the
Cerro del Nevado, and just below Uribe is joined by the
Ariari, which rises in the foot-hills of the Cordillera de
Sumapaz and passes by the town of Arana. The
Guaviare continuing with a north-eastward trend, cuts
the Meta territory almost in two and flows into the
Orinoco. One day it may become of great importance.
The Yupura, which flows right through the Caqueta
territory, tapping it right and left by means of many
tributaries, and the Putumayo, south of the Caqueta,
both of which flow into the Marafion, are waterways
whose usefulness are bound to be largely developed in the
near future.
Other rivers are navigable, though they are generally
tributaries of the systems already mentioned. Some
particulars of these will be found in the chapter on
Ports and Harbours.
RAILWAYS.-For the moment the railways of Colombia
present an extraordinary absence of systematic develop-
ment. There are fourteen lines, ranging from 15 to 55




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