THIS VOLUME HAS BEEN
COLLEGE OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
Dr. Lawrence C. Wanlass, President
GOVERNMENT OF THE
VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE U.S.A.
Hon. Ralph M. Paiewonsky, Governor
AMERICAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION
Laurence S. Rockefeller, President
Henry L. Diamond
Thomas R. Herrick
October 1 4, 1965
CANEEL BAY PLANTATION
U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
Published by Caribbean Research Institute
College of the Virgin Islands
St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
TITLE PAGE ... .............. .. .... **........ .. I
PREFACE ........................ ................. V
INTRODUCTION ... .......... ........................ XI
CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS ......................... XV
PART I CITIZEN ACTION IN CONSERVATION ........ 1
Symposium .................................. 3
PART II GOVERNMENT PLANNING FOR CONSERVATION ... 35
Government Policies in Conservation -
Dr. Francis X. Mark ........................ 37
Protecting National Resource Values with
Zoning and Related Legal Measures Dr.Erling
D. Solberg ................................. 43
Discussion ................................. 51
PART III NATIONAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ........ 89
Some Problems Associated with the Management
of National Resources Dr. Arthur E. Dammann 91
Discussion .............. ...... ..........*** 99
PART IV ECONOMIC FACTORS IN CONSERVATION ...... 123
Economics and Conservation Fred M. Gottheil 125
Discussion ....... ................ ... ..... 133
PART V SITE ELECTION AND CONSERVATION ......... 183
An Approach to Site Selection for National
Parks, National Reserves and Other National
Areas Dr. Carl A. Carlozzi ............... 185
PART VI HISTORIC LANDMARKS .................... 201
Discussion .............. ................. 203
PART VII SUMMATION AND RESOLUTIONS ........... 231
Mr. Laurence Rockefeller
(Consisting of the remarks delivered at
Governor Paiewonsky's Reception for Con-
I am pleased to have this opportunity to thank, on behalf of
the American Conservation Association, our two distinguished co-
sponsors of the Eastern Caribbean Conservation Conference, Governor
Paiewonsky and his associates of the Virgin Islands Government, and
Dr. Wanlass and his associates, Dr. Blaut and Mr. Herrick of the
Caribbean Research Institute. We are also indebted to Mr. Givens
and his National Park Service team for what they have done to make
this possible, and to Bill Faber and the Caneel Bay staff in doing
a superb job of handling this for us. My two associates who have
been spearheading our participation were Henry Diamond and Mildred
The inspiration for this conference really goes back to Carl
Carlozzi, who is here with us this afternoon, and who spoke at the
Conference. His original Ph.D. study not only suggested the Con-
ference, but gave it much of its direction. It was his concept
that the preservation of the resources of this area was the concern
of all of the people and that therefore this was the one denomin-
ator that transcends international frontiers to draw these people
together for the common good.
I believe we have made a splendid start, and I hope that Dr.
Wanlass and the college might somehow be a coordinating group to
continue our efforts. I would be pleased if in three or five years
from now we would want to have another conference. We could capi-
talize on everything that we have accomplished and review our pro-
gress. I was amazed at the background of experience and knowledge
represented at the Conference. It was a little overwhelming to some
of us at the lay level. I have been trying to put together in some
layman's language some of the basic aspects that we were discussing
in the simplest possible terms.
To me the broadest common denominator that we have is the qual-
ity of the environment we live in, whether urban or in the country-
side. This is one aspect. Another is preservation in various aspects;
another emphasizes outdoor recreation. The President of the United
States has given a new dimension to this whole field in the emphasiz-
ing of natural beauty. His concept is a dramatic breakthrough of a
society reaching beyond its material goals of security and well-
These four different concepts I have just mentioned are all re-
lated to the common raw materials of our renewable resources. They
are air, water, forest, soil, fish and animals, including humans.
These elements together make up our natural environment. None of
them can we take for granted. It seems to me that any action that
breaks this chain of life impairs our well being. In these islands
we have a classic example of the price we pay for a lack of concern
for these basics. When the rain forest land was cut over, soil
erosion followed and the watersheds were destroyed or seriously im-
paired. This was a very costly short-term expedient. So it is for
each one of these qualities of environment each one must survive if
the whole is to survive and be preserved.
There are many facets of action that relate to this chain of
life. There are obvious things that we can be doing directly, per-
sonally, through our local government, through our civic organiza-
tions or elected representatives. As you know, in the United States
Mrs. Johnson has emphasized primarily what we can do as individuals:
clean up our immediate back yards, paint where paint will do some
good, plant and concern ourselves by brightening up and making it
a more enjoyable community in which to live. She and others who
have seen it done have been astounded by how people have identified
themselves and have a little of their youth problems solved. Once
the community feels a part of the effort and is uplifted by it,
exciting differences have come about.
In New York, citizen groups are putting pools, sandboxes and
small play areas in the spaces between buildings and creating places
where people can meet. Much can be done in a park where people can
feel a part of it.
On a national and state basis, government is seeking to control
billboards. In Hawaii, the state has outlawed billboards largely
through citizen boycotts. Where billboards can still be used, there
is a tendency for citizens to boycott.
Then there is the question of junkyards. There is another
thing that the federal government has taken first steps to settle.
We, of course, are moving ahead on landscaping, scenic highways, and
trying to get a little more judgement and taste in building instead
of simply going from A to B.
The federal government has started matching grant programs to
study air and water pollution. We in New York are very excited
about the chance to vote in the next election for a billion-dollar
bond issue to clean up the Hudson River and our other waterways.
If we get a big majority in favor of this, it will have great impact
on other states that have big urban populations, such as California,
and it may trigger a wave of action against pollution.
Our list of problems is not short. In certain areas on the north
shore of Puerto Rico we have serious problems of beach erosion. An-
other focal point of concern: The transmission and distribution lines
of electric power. To preserve the beauty and quality of the environ-
ment, some of these must be put underground. It was very encouraging
to see the progress that is being made there and what was necessary
to get it done. The hardest thing of this is the transmission lines.
The cost of putting these great lines underground is enormous. It
is being done in limited areas. The President recently indicated
that they are going to press that these be done and that the govern-
ment will sponsor research on all of these problems.
Generally not included, because it is not a physical state, is
the problem of noise. But in its impact on the quality of the envir-
onment, noise is an important factor and cannot be ignored.
We conservationists used to think that we were a voice in the
wilderness, but now almost everyone in government is sympathetic.
Not long ago activities such as fire, police and health were given
full consideration first, and if anything was left over, people would
talk about parks, recreation and natural beauty. Conservation would
get the leavings, and it was crumbs on the floor that generally were
We hope that since the Outdoor Recreation Commission, which
reflects the leadership of the government and the will of the people,
that we have gotten up off the floor and onto the table. We hope
that whatever is a reasonable share will be allocated for the pur-
poses that we are discussing here. If the whole budget is going to
be cut, we hope that it will be cut proportionately and beauty alone
will not suffer. In this way the balance will be preserved and each
one will give proper consideration.
We are not trying to come from behind and then get way out ahead
and then take money from other people. We want to restore a balance
that hasn't existed to give a proper share of interest and funds to
conservation. This conference is so good, and we discussed in detail
so much, that I am only trying to give you a lay point of view as a
voter, taxpayer, and a worker in the vineyard of conservation, guide-
lines for action. However, to sum it up, when one link breaks in the
chain of life, sooner or later all links forming the whole of nature
will begin to deteriorate. We must act to prevent it. This is the
sum of thought that I would like to leave with you.
CARL A. CARLOZZI
The first nature sanctuary in the Caribbean area was estab-
lished 171 years ago at King's Hill Forest on St. Vincent. If
the effect of that particular action to protect nature in the
Islands could be called a precedent, then it took the better
part of a century and a half for the idea to catch on. Today
there are other nature sanctuaries in the Caribbean -- not many,
of course, and most of them products of the mid-twentieth cen-
The destruction of the natural communities of the Eastern
Caribbean Islands with the consequental loss of numerous
endemic species of plants and animals began when the first col-
onial settlements were established. Now, as we enter the last
third of the twentieth century, people on the Islands are tak-
ing a more active look at what has happened to their resources
during the proceeding four and a half centuries.
In general, the physical remains of human activity in the
Islands have fared only a little better than nature. Like most
of the efforts to preserve the more unusual natural features of
the Islands, efforts to protect and develop sites of outstanding
historical importance have also been products of recent decades.
The Eastern Caribbean Conservation Conference held in
October, 1965 at Caneel Bay Plantation, St. John, Virgin Islands
was in many respects an historical event in the Caribbean. Over
the years representatives from the Islands and countries of the
Caribbean have assembled to discuss the many problems of mutual
concern and interest. This was the first time that a concerted
approach had been taken to problems of the conservation of nat-
ural, scenic, and historic resources of the Islands.
Another unusual feature of this conference, as Dr. James
Blaut so aptly pointed out in his summation paper, was the wide
variety of people participating. One would expect to find bio-
logists and historians at a conference such as this, but, one
also found geographers, economists, socialogists, anthropolo-
gists, planners, businessmen, civil servants, and politicians.
This mixture gave the conference much of its strength, despite
statements and disclaimers by some of the participants that
they thought perhaps they were out of place, or that they were
not really conservationists and perhaps should not be there.
I can't believe that the conference would have produced the solid
and apparently long lasting effects for conservation in the Carib-
bean had the professed'hon-conservationists" not been there.
The influence which these people had upon the proceedings
was to guarantee that any discussion of natural and historic
areas and sites would not be limited to a "preservationist" point
of view. Interests were too varied and professional competen-
cies too deep to allow such a narrow point of view to be estab-
lished. The up-shot of bringing this multi-interest group to-
gether to discuss conservation was that it got discussed in a
context which was meaningful, broad in scope, and realistic.
Professors Mark and Gottheil perhaps did more to establish
the discussions in the broader context of national planning and
decision making than anyone else. Once having set this tone it
became possible for others concerned with the preservation of
nature and history in the Islands to accept the often conflicting
values which surround their goals, and the fact that action and
decision making for conservation in the Caribbean as elsewhere
can never be isolated from the task of choosing between alterna-
Certainly from the point of view of national development one
of those alternatives should be the preservation of natural and
historic features. The Conference was not lacking in its share
of people who could and did eloquently articulate the facts and
the philosophies supporting the cause of preservation. Dr.
Dammann's pleas on behalf of nature in the Islands is one that
I wish had been sounded and listened to a long time ago. The
panel of speakers who considered the question of historic monu-
ments were equally persuading and one wishes that someone had
followed their advice long ago, also.
The issues of this Conference were not concerned over the lack
of past action, but rather to assess what resources the islands
have and how the people and their governments can take action now
and in the future to conserve them. It was gratifying to note
Dr. John Watts' comments on the practical political-economic
basis for conservation on the Caribbean Islands. Dr. Erling
Solberg's careful presentation of some model legal-institutional
methods for achieving conservation goals provided the Conference
with a logical framework for action.
This Conference did take action. Their resolution to create
a region-wide organization may change the face of the Islands'
landscapes far into the future. The Caribbean Conservation Associa-
tion is getting underway. Its constitution has been drafted and
first annual meeting is planned for spring of 1967. By the time
that meeting is held there will be two new quasi-governmental
island organizations formed to guide conservation efforts on St.
Lucia and Grenada.
It is hard to know what to expect from conferences. Like
most conferences, the Eastern Caribbean Conservation Conference
produced some well conceived papers. It provided a reason for
people to get together around an important problem. It also gave
the participants an opportunity to see what could be done to con-
serve nature and history by observing the work to date in Virgin
Islands National Park. What is unexpected is that one year after
the Conference people throughout the Islands are still discussing
the conference issues and are enthusiastically preparing to make
their regional association a viable tool for conservation in the
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
Alegria, Ricardo (G Mrs.)
Pres., Institute P.R. Culture
Director, Dept. of History
Univ. of the West Indies
Dir. Museums & Libraries
Dir., Planning Board of the Virgin Islands
Blaut, James (& Mrs.)
Dir., Caribbean Research Institute
College of the Virgin Islands
Dir., USDA Experimental Station
Senator, Virgin Islands Legislature
Rep., Virgin Islands Museum
Pres., Caneel Bay Plantation
Bryan, The Hon. Gerald (& Mrs.)
Puerto Rico Planning Board
Carlozzi, Carl (& Mrs.)
University of Massachusetts
Former Pres. Colonial Williamsburg
Trustee, Jackson Hole Preserve, Inc.
Dept. of Geography
University of Florida
U.S. Sport Fish & Wild Life Service
Dir., Marine & Insular Research Station
Caribbean Research Institute
College of the Virgin Islands
Caribbean Research Institute
College of the Virgin Islands
Dawson, The Hon. Ivan
Member of Legislative Council, B.V.I.
Adm. Sec'y. Trade & Prod.
Diamond, Henry L.
Vice Pres., Amer. Conservation Ass'n.
Dept. of Geology
State University of New York
Binghamton, New York
Field, Arthur J.
Dept. Anthropology & Soc.
Wayne State University
V. I. National Park
Inst. of Marine Biology
University of Puerto Rico
Montserrat Real Estate Co.
Dept. of Economics
University of Illinois
Dept. of Geog. & Anthropology
Louisiana State University
Sr. Research Associate
Caribbean Research Institute
College of the Virgin Islands
St. Croix Landmark Society
Dept. of Anthropology & Soc.
University of Puerto Rico
Vice Pres. & Dir. Pub. Relations
Caneel Bay Plantation, Inc.
Officer, Jackson Hole Preserve, Inc.
Amer. Geographical Society
Town & Country Planning Advisor
Dept. Commerce Trade & Industry
Mallet, The Hon. George
Minister of Trade & Industry
Dept. If Anthropology
Mark, Francis X.
Chairman, Social Science Dept.
College of the Virgin Islands
Matheson, D. Lloyd
Soc. for the Restoration of Brimstone Hill
Dept. of History
University of the West Indies
Dept. of Commerce
O'Neal, The Hon. J. R.
Chairman, Nat'l. Parks Trust
Member, Legislative Council
Paiewonsky, Isidor (& Mrs.)
Rep., Virgin Islands Planning Board
Paiewonsky, The Hon. Ralph (& Mrs.)
Passalacqua, Luis (& Mrs.)
Esec. Dir., CODECA
Petitjean-Roget, Jacques Martinque
President, Historical Society
Dir., Hotel Program
College of the Virgin Islands
Dept. of Commerce
Agricultural Research Serv.
Dept. of Agriculture
Dean Faculty, Arts & Sciences
University of Puerto Rico
Administration of Parks & Rec.
Rockefeller, Laurance (& Mrs.)
President, Amer. Conservation Ass'n.
Dept. of Anthropology
Dir., Inst. for the Study of Man
Ruopp, Phillips (& Mrs.)
Dean, College of the Virgin Islands
Schraub, Malford C. St. Thomas
Dept. of Const. & Tech.
College of the Virgin Islands
Dept. of Social Science
College of the Virgin Islands
Dept. of Social Sciences
College of the Virgin Islands
Econ. Res. Service
Dept. of Agriculture
Stanton, Hazel DuBois
Caribbean Research Institute
College of the Virgin Islands
Caribbean Research Institute
College of the Virgin Islands
Thomas, D. L.
Industrial Development Advisor
Perm. Sec'y. for Trade & Industry
Dept. of Economics
University of Puerto Rico
Dir. Inst. of Tropical Forestry
U.S. Forest Service
Dept. of Agriculture
Pres., College of the Virgin Islands
Chairman, Tourist Board
Member of the Legislature
Dept. of Geography
Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez
Dir. Public Information
College of the Virgin Islands
Member, Nat'l. Trust
Supt. of Agriculture
CITIZEN ACTION IN CONSERVATION
JAMES A. O'BRYAN, COORDINATOR
VIRGIN ISLANDS BEAUTIFICATION COUNCIL
Ladies and gentlemen, this portion of the Conference is called
to order. As is customary in these conferences, the Chairman has to
say what he is doing so everyone will know.
My name, as you can see here, is James A. O'Bryan. I am the
coordinator of the Virgin Islands Beautification Council. This Beau-
tification Council was created a few months ago by proclamation from
Governor Paiewonsky. It is patterned after similar councils created
in the United States of America by our illustrious President Johnson.
The object of this Beautification Council is not only to conserve but
to create beauty wherever possible, in order to sustain the economic
advantages which we have and which we hope to develop in the next few
years. In the Virgin Islands, about 50% of the revenues are derived
from the Tourist Trade. We know that tourists are very particular
people and like beautiful things and beautiful places. One of the
objects of this Virgin Islands Council is to preserve the natural
beauty, to maintain the highest standards of sanitation throughout
the Islands, to make of this a livable place for the tourist, and in
so doing, to retain a sort of viable economy for the United States
With that in mind, I call on Mr. O'Neal, who is the Chairman of
the Natural Park Trust of the British Virgin Islands.
Mr. Chairman, I belong, maybe, to the smallest territory attend-
ing this session here this evening, but I hope that when I am through
I will have satisfied the body that we also in the British Virgin
Islands, whom I represent, are doing our bit by way of conserva-
In 1961, we enacted the National Parks Bill. And I am glad
to have here tonight listening to me Captain O'Bryan, our former
Administrator under whose tenure of office in the Virgin Islands
the bill was passed.
A few years before that, at least a year before that, also
during Captain O'Bryan's tenure, he was asked to help and with the
generosity and philanthropy of Mr. Rockefeller we got funds to ac-
quire 15 acres of land in Virgin Gorda and 2 parcels on Tortola,
one called Spring Bay, maybe some of you have been to it--a beau-
tiful spot--and another one called Devil's Bay. We bought 75 acres
of Cane Mountain with an altitude of 1,780 feet. Since the acquisi-
tion of land, we have planted over 50 thousand seedlings of mahog-
any and cedars, mostly obtained from St. Croix. And here again
we must thank Dr. Bond for his assistance in helping set up the
National Park in the Virgin Islands.
The aim in our group in the Virgin Islands is twofold, both
aesthetic and economical.
We have long been a people who live by the sea, and ship build-
ing is one of the trades that our people used to follow long ago.
Timbers are getting scarce, so scarce that we can hardly build boats,
so one of the objects of the National Park is to reforest the land
in the Virgin Islands in order that in the future we will have tim-
ber for building boats and also maybe for the furniture industry.
On the aesthetic side, we want to beautify our roads, our
beaches and parks and to this end we have funds from the local
government and have recently made a start in this direction.
In a nut shell, that is what we are trying to accomplish in
the British Virgin Islands.
Thank you very much, Mr. O'Neal. I now call upon Mr. Carlozzi,
an Associate Professor of Conservation from the University of Mass-
I won't be speaking at this symposium on the basis of practical
experience in the Caribbean. This will come, I think, from the rest
of the panelists.
My purpose here is simply to discuss how I view the whole ques-
tion of citizen action in conservation, and I hope perhaps I can
throw out some thoughts for people from all of the islands as to
how they might look at the potentials for citizen action.
As I see it, there are generally two levels on which that
action takes place. And in this case, I am going to separate citi-
zens as being individuals or groups apart from established govern-
ment bureaucracies--not that the people in their bureaucracies are
not citizens, but this is action taking place apart from government.
The primary need here is for some sort of organization--in this
sense, a selected group of citizens who get together because of a
common interest to develop common purposes and goals relating to
these interests. Now their interest may be extremely broad. That
is, they may have in mind the protection of every form of area that
this Conference will cover. That is, everything from National Parks,
Nature Reserves, Historical Monuments and Public Recreational Areas.
They may encompass the full range or they may have a very specific
interest. In the Caribbean there is an outstanding example of a
group with specific interests--the friends of English Harbor with
their extremely focused interest in the restoration of Nelson's
Dock Yard. And without commenting further I might say that they are
successful in this venture. But it is necessary that there be some
form of organization. It is also necessary that there be some form
of financing. The financing may come from government in part or in
total. It may come from outside sources, in the sense that the organ-
ization itself represents a body which can solicit for financial help
from other places, including their own government.
I think this organization needs some sort of legal framework
within which to work. That is, they ought to be empowered as a quasi-
public body, as a quasi-governmental body, perhaps, but at least be
empowered to the extent that they can hold funds, hold lands, accept
gifts, deeds for property and so forth, thus can be responsible for
the disposition of the financial or real aid that they may obtain.
Their primary duty as an organization should be to carry out some
program which has a continuing influence on their country, their
island, or in whatever segment of their nation they work. In this
sense, it shouldn't be a one-shot proposition. I think they can be
most effective if they become established, remain established, and
The other thing that they can do is to exert leadership within
the community that they are serving. This leadership should take
very specific forms, I think. I think they ought to serve as a kind
of public forum, a sounding board for all of the ideas pertaining
to their concern. In other words, this is the group to whom the gov-
ernment and individuals turn when there are questions of programs or
management or problems with regard to the preservation or the pro-
tection or the development of the sites in question.
I think in addition to this, they should exert leadership through
educational institutions. I would include school systems, universi-
ties, and all general public education. Now this might be what some
people call public relations, but I conceive of it as being carried
out on a high enough plane to be called general public education.
In this case, the organized group whatever, has an opportunity
through the newspapers, through radio and other forms of mass media
to reach out to the people they serve with their program.
This brings us to a secondary level of citizen action. In its
broadest form it is public approval by the majority of the people
for the programs that are being carried out in their behalf by the
organized group. They should come to see the benefits, the values,
and support this program. Perhaps they will support it eventually
to the point where they can exert significant influence on the fin-
ancing. That is, they would be happy to see more government funds
put into the efforts of the organization. You can also, I think,
get some more direct involvement as this goes on, involvement by
the people in doing things themselves. Perhaps on a smaller scale,
perhaps under guidance of the main organization. Perhaps it is
simply an awareness that they own on their own land, a significant
site, whether it be natural, historical or archaeological that they
feel somehow involved with and see the need for preserving it, or
protecting it. This level of citizen action, if it is going on in
a wide-spread way, represents, I suppose, the highest kind of sophis-
tication for a population. But it is at least what I would call a
suitable goal to work for. Obviously, all of these things build on
each other. The central organization--it might be a committee, a
trust, or any of the recognized official names for such an organi-
zation. It. can build from a handful of citizen leaders who have
combined their strength operating within a legal framework, able
to obtain financial backing, able to obtain sites, if this is nec-
essary. It can carry on a continuing program which can exert leader-
ship through educational institutions and thus build upon this as a
means of bringing more citizens in at the basic level of involve-
ment, which is approval and sympathy and public pressure, or bring
them in at the individual involvement of seeing themselves in some
aspect as custodians of their own sites.
I think that this has been really too general, but these
are my views on how I would conceive of a citizen action, at least in
part. Thank you.
Thank you very much, Professor. I now call upon Mr. Hubert
Hilder, President of the St. Croix Landmark Society.
I am not the president of the St. Croix Landmark Society. I
was some years ago. I have a great deal of interest in it and I
am so pleased to be called upon after Dr. Carlozzi, because with
no modesty whatsoever I am really pleased to say that the St. Croix
Landmark Society which is a fairly young group, practically filled
up all the classifications that he suggested would be the right
kind of citizen group to have.
We have done a lot of work on creating a landmark for the island
of St. Croix in the form of the reconstruction of a great house, form-
erly called Estate Whim. And we expect to go on with it in the next
two years, provided the money if forthcoming. We are getting along
well with it and creating, or rather, recreating the windmill which
was there and is now ruined, but which will be rebuilt so that
we will not only have a great house but we will also have the wind-
mill which will be able to do work. It will not be used for grinding
sugar as it formerly was supposed to do, but it will be working in-
sofar as the windmill sails will turn. In fact these have been
ordered from Holland and will be made to order and come over to us
so that the sails will be turning and the grinders will be turning
and it will be a facsimile of a former mill.
This was done strictly by citizens, by people who are sufficiently
interested to give a great deal of time and effort and some money to
rebuilding this old great house and now making a museum out of it.
We have moved the museum from the town of Christiansted out to this
countrypplace. It was a very big job, and according to Dr. Carlozzi,
the way we did it was in line with many of the things that he sug-
If there are any questions about it, I have a little folder
that I have brought with me which just came in from the printers
in New York. They were just mailed. I received only two copies
this week and I brought one with me, if anybody is interested in
the Whim Great House, they can read about it in this folder.
Thank you very much.
Thank you very much, Mr. Hilder. I now call upon Mr. Gorman
of the Montserrat Company for his opening remarks.
Thank you. I am from the small island of Montserrat. I have
been there for the last three years. We have a land development
company. We have 1350 lots that we have developed and we are put-
ting in all utilities and we have put in a nine-hole golf course.
Over the past three years we have created a large amount of traffic
for a very small island that hasn't followed a seasonal tourist pat-
tern. I am giving this to you only in the way of identification,
because I have an example of "citizen action" in conservation in
the archaeological field that you might find of interest.
When we started construction on our golf course, we had to do
considerable bulldozing. We were working on the number one fairway
one Friday afternoon and turned up some pottery jars and bones and
things. We stopped working in that area and decided that we should
hold off until we could get someone properly qualified to come
and look at it. On Saturday morning, a man was down from the hotel
who was from Canada, a publisher. He said, "You can't touch that
land. It's sacred, it belongs to the government and it should be
preserved and you can't put any golf course in here." And I said,
"Let's not make any hasty decision on it." And he said, "I'm
going to take some action, whether you are or not."
Well, he left on Sunday to go back to Toronto and Tuesday morn-
ing a very strange looking character walked into my office, complete
with beard and all. He looked like Santa Claus, and he said, "I
am the archaeologist." And I said, "Fine, I am the Queen of May."
And he said, "I am, really." I said, "I don't believe you, where
did you come from?" He said, "Canada. I just got in." He said,
"Go ahead and pull on the beard. It's real." I said, "All right,
do you have any identification?" And he said, "Yes, I am from the
Royal Ontario Museum." Now this man from Canada had really created
some action. He had this archaeologist on the plane before he knew
what had hit him.
Work on the site was stopped and we roped off a rather large
area and dug for about two weeks. He took back about five hundred
pounds of pottery jars and broken bones and things like that and
did a very thorough job on it. We still haven't received his report,
but it was a very interesting experience for me. And it pointed up,
I think, how intensely interested some people are--as many people
are--in these things we are talking about and are going to talk
about here. And I think that out of this series of meetings (I
hope) will come more intensified feeling on the part of governments
and individuals to be prepared for a situation like this one I've
mentioned so that proper action can be taken, either by a landmarks
committee, something of your type, Mr. Hilder, or properly qual-
ified people to take over any situation like this.
It was sheer luck that we got this archaeologist down there.
Eventually we would have had to go ahead and build our golf course
and we might have destroyed something of terrific value.
Thank you very much. Tha- is all I have to contribute at
Thank you very much, I now call on the gentleman from Barbados,
I am now the Secretary of the Barbados National Trust, and per-
haps if I might be allowed to mention a few of the stages by which
we got underway, some people might be interested in them.
About five years ago, a group of us came to notice that the
mason's hammer and the carpenter's saw were destroying many of our
rather fine houses and buildings, some of which dated from the
seventeenth century. Fortunately, we had with us a town planner,
who was -also a skilled architect and who had had some experience
with the National Trust in Great Britain. We got together and
formed what we called the Barbados National Trust. We drew up a
constitution, based on that which is used in Great Britain, and we
were able to persuade the government to enact legislation incor-
porating the National Trust. This means in Barbados that the Trust
has the right to hold property. It can sue and be sued as a body
corporate. It also means that we can encourage anyone who wishes
to deed their property to the Trust, to do so.
It may seem strange, but one of the first monuments--because
we interpret the word "monument" in a very broad sense--the first
monument we thought worthwhile preserving was a gully known as
Welchman's Hall Gully. In this gully there were several exotic
plants that grew nowhere else on the island. We were rather hap-
pily surprised when we were able to raise, by public subscription,
half the money to buy the gully and the government put up the other
half. This gully is now becoming almost a money-spinner.
We naturally make a charge for people who wish to go there.
We've found too that it seems in our circumstances that it is bet-
ter to have such a Trust formed of private citizens, that is, non-
governmental people. The Government has been interested, and indeed
has given us quite a considerable amount of support, including fin-
ancial support. The Government prefers to leave the details to the
We are interested as well, in bringing to the notice of the
public, buildings which we consider to have architectural or his-
toric interest. To ensure this, we have put on the front of these
buildings--of course with the permission of their owners--a plaque
which marks the particular building as having either historic or
Here I would mention that the main shop in our capital city,
Bridgetown, belonging to DeCosta and Company had a particularly
fine facade, and the firm was about to entirely demolish the build-
ing, and put up something of chrome-plate and glass. The National
Trust pointed out to the directors of the Company the value of
leaving this lovely facade. And, it was a great pleasure (just a
week ago) that we not only persuaded the firm to leave it, but to
be able to mount on the plinth of the facade a plaque stating that
this was a building of historic and architectural interest. In other
words, we hope it is preserved for all time.
Naturally, like yourselves in the United States Virgin Islands,
Sir, we are interested in the tourist trade. We would like to share
it a bit more with you. And we know that the visitors are parti-
cularly interested in things historic. But we felt too that an
equally important factor in forming the Barbados National Trust was
the need to preserve the island heritage.
As you know, several of these islands--and we in Barbados parti-
cularly--will feel a bit of a wrench when we become independent. We
have been British for three hundred odd years, only British, and we
feel that we would wish to preserve the symbols of our history. This,
I suggest, is very important for a people who have to face, shall I
say, the hazards of independence. We obviously hope that our tour-
ists will be interested in our historic monuments.
I might say that we interpret the term historic monuments in
a very, very broad sense. It may be a bit of land, it may be an
actual building, it may even be a cannon or a fort or something of
this nature. We have been able to persuade--I would not say too
much persuasion was necessary--several private owners of places of
historic interest to maintain their buildings authentically. I
might mention one you are all familiar with--the actress, Ingrid
Bergman who has acquired a property known as Maycock's Bay on which
there is a particularly fine fort. She has agreed to consult the
Trust, at least she has done so, and officials of the Trust have
advised her how to preserve its antiquity and historic character.
We have had no fight with private individuals on this. It
may be perhaps that we are entirely divorced from government.
When I use this word "divorced", I might say it is a very happy
arrangement, because government has given us substantial grants
from time to time for a specific purpose.
I might mention just one last thing, Sir, that we have recently
built along the east coast of Barbados--a road which we are pres-
ently calling the East Coast Road. We are very anxious to have
Her Majesty the Queen declare the road open when she visits Barbados
on the fourteenth and fifteenth of February next year. And we feel
complimented that the Barbados National Trust has been asked to
landscape the area. We have received a grant from the Government
for this specific purpose, and the work has been put in hand.
Our experience in Barbados augurs that much can be achieved
even by a small group who dedicate themselves to the preservation
of the heritage of the community.
Thank you, Sir.
Thank you very much, Mr. Wiles, for your statement.
Now, ladies and gentlemen, you have all heard open statements
from people of many countries about citizen action in various com-
munities. I now declare this panel open for questions from the
floor. As you stand to ask a question, or as you raise your hands,
as the case may be, please state your name and your country.
I might report briefly on activity in Puerto Rico in this gen-
eral field. We have, let us say, the beginning of a private group
with this same objective. It is known as the Natural History Society,
a group of people who had one thing in common, that is, they enjoyed
one weekend each month going to some point of interest, to a beach,
to a mountain, to see a forest, a waterfall, or something of that
nature. Among the group we had archaeologists, we had foresters,
we had botanists, we had people interested in shells, and it became
apparent to the whole group that some places we were going to visit
were the last places. Sometimes there were shards or places where
you could find shells or the last pieces of forestry and this led
us into the development of a conservation committee. The conserva-
tion committee did not have this good background that we have been
hearing about now as to how to go ahead, but its first approach was
to be sure that the Natural History Society did not make a fuss
about the destruction of some plentiful resources, but that we saved
our ammunition for the best. So we made an inventory, which is
not yet complete, of this broad group as Professor Carlozzi has
mentioned; waterfalls, beaches, cliffs, mountains, a variety of
natural features and architecture as well. We took the topographic
maps and we located three or four areas and we went out on weekends
looking for one thing or the other and we devised a one-page form
in which we described these exact locations, how much land was in-
volved and how good it was.
We now have an inventory of Puerto Rico of three hundred such
locations. Many of them are not the best. We have many duplicates
but we are now at least in a position to point out to the govern-
ment when the bulldozers approach that this is the best or this is
the last. We have had financial support. We are not incorporated,
but we have been called upon by two or three governmental agencies
for counsel, when they were on the verge of expropriating an area
of natural beauty, for comments as to whether we felt that it was
one of the best and how much land we thought they should acquire.
This, of course, is encouraging. Furthermore, we have estab-
lished contact with all of the agencies of the government which are
concerned with this type of thing. The University appointed a
liason officer to work with us. First to tell us of areas we don't
know about, and to assist his own agencies to recognize the import-
ance of the society.
One sour note is that at the present moment the committee is
inactive because we have reached the point where it takes more time
than any of us can give to it. So the inventory sits there. We
anticipate reactivating. If one single government agency would pro-
vide us the support, as I understand they have in other places, I
think we could move ahead. As you realize, Puerto Rico, like
Barbados, is an area densely populated, where movement is going
on 24 hours a day. We must either move fast or not even try.
Thank you very much.
Have you tried incorporating as a non-profit organization
soliciting funds from the general public which could be non-taxable
or selling memberships in any way?
We have had some misgivings as to how much support we could get.
This is not a good reply, but having heard what was said here, I be-
lieve this is one of the things we ought to consider.
We have a group of 80 people which includes bankers, lawyers,
and so forth. They are laymen as far as science is considered, but
they are influential in community affairs and there seems to be no
reason why we couldn't go in this direction. It might be the next
step to take.
Are there any other comments from the floor?
Dr. Carlozzi mentioned the two levels of action, one by the gen-
eral public, and he also envisaged, though he did not outline it,
action on the part of government institutions.
Now, the situation in Montserrat, I think Mr. Wiles will remem-
ber is a rather difficult one. When Mr. Wiles was the Administrator
of Montserrat not so long ago, he tried very hard--after a visit or
two by Dr. Carlozzi--to get the people interested in organizing
themselves into a National Trust in Montserrat, as he has managed
to do in Barbados. But that couldn't be done. For some reason or
other he couldn't get the thing under way. The appeal which the
government sent out received very little response.
Now what I want to ask, Doctor, is what should be done in a
case like that? It would appear that the government should take
the initiative. It would appear that if the historical sites and
the monuments and the heritage of the people and its history and
tradition ought to be maintained, somebody has to take the initia-
tive. And if you can't get the people coming together in a trust
or in any organization that would take effective action in this
regard, what action do you suggest that the government take?
I think that even though I outlined a rather nice sounding
order of events that ought to take place, it is reasonable to expect
that there are going to be variations from one place to another.
The case of Montserrat and Barbados is a good example. But I
would like to mention at this moment there isn't any incorporated
organization, a Trust or a foundation. Yet this group, the Natural
History Society which grew informally, came to express a certain
interest, recognized certain values in landscape, and exerted a
very strong moral force. To the point that even though unofficial
and unincorporated it nevertheless was drawn upon by the government
at a critical moment, not like we think ought to be drawn upon but
at least consulted. They represent a force, and influence decision
Now perhaps this is a logical beginning for other places, even
though the Puerto Rican group is not officially designated as a corp-
oration. It is not backed by the legislature nor does it have any
of the powers that the Barbados National Trust has. This does not
preclude its opportunity to be a public forum, to be a sounding board
for ideas and for itself to become a squeaky wheel that governments
spend an awful lot of time oiling. They don't like to hear squeaks,
I guess, but anyway it's worthwhile to consider it on this basis.
Now perhaps once you get this kind of recognition--in other
words, once government turns to your group, however informal it may
be, for advice, for help in decision making, for help in policy
making, this may be the logical way to arrive at the point to move
towards incorporation, towards becoming an established corporate
group. This may be the answer. I don't know this for sure. I am
suggesting that this is certainly a possibility. But in the mean-
time, even should this day not arrive I would not discount the in-
fluence of even an informal group upon the policy decisions of
government, if they are at least organized within themselves to pro-
vide leadership, and this is clearly a personal matter.
I don't think it takes a body of three hundred well organized
people necessarily to do this. A body of three well organized
people may be able to exert enormous amounts of pressure, especially
if they explore the avenues to making their squeaks sound loud at
the right time.
Now this could be a well placed group, also it could be a gen-
eral education program that they carry out and so forth. It does
not take enormous funds. It does take time and it does take personal
This is about the only way I can respond to Mr. Thomas.
Thank you very much Dr. Carlozzi.
Mr. Thomas, We must never discredit the general public educa-
tion of the masses on any problem with which we are confronted. In
the Virgin Islands we have used to great advantage the town meeting
hall where we discuss certain questions concerning the democratic
process. Maybe your cultural groups, your middle class groups could
devise a system towards educating them and telling them exactly the
benefits and so on that could be derived from such a thing, and what
the immediate and ultimate aims would be and what it would contri-
bute to the culture along this line.
Are there any other comments from the floor?
I have a question that arises out of ignorance. Has there been
any attempt to educate the taxi drivers as to the historic sites or
the points of interest so that they might be able to point out to the
tourists the places of historical interest? I addressed that question
to no particular member of the board.
There is an Archaeological Society. This is purely a volun-
tary and private society, but in conjunction with an equally active
Tourist Development Board. The regular courses of instruction are
arranged for taxi drivers in regard to the history of the island,
so that they are well informed, both before and during the normal
Here, in the Virgin Islands, the Department of Commerce, under
Dr. Prendergast, has prepared items of general historical importance
of the island, and the taxicab people from time to time are briefed
about it and are able to tell the tourists about them on regularly
Are there any other comments from the floor?
I am happy to be fairly familiar with Montserrat, and I wasn't
going to offer anything, but I think this may be of some value to
Montserrat is a very small island. It was never a very rich
island. It doesn't have great, magnificent houses and such things
as the other British islands have, and the French islands have,
like Martinique and St. Lucia. It does have some remarkable old
buildings in town that are very fine architecturally, and it seems
to me that one possible way for the government to create interest
in preserving the better architecture there, would be to borrow an
architect who wasn't locally concerned, and wasn't trying to please
any particular people, to get him to pick out half a dozen build-
ings and to get the government to offer a permanent tax cut of 5%
or something like that. Therefore, if the people would not change
the appearance of those buildings, and as long as they maintain the
original appearance, they would get a little subsistence that way
from the government. That would be one possibility.
Another thing in Montserrat that is of great interest geologi-
cally is the old volcano. It is my understanding that there is a
good deal of crown land, isn't there?
Yes, but at least that is an area that I think could be devel-
oped slowly and not too expensively which would be of great interest
to the tourists, and in many cases you wouldn't have to put out any
special money or raise very much private capital for it. I expect
that if the group is interested in preserving the best things in
Montserrat, they could call on such persona as the Osborns and the
Hollands and several other people that could be called in for a
consultation. Maybe you could get started off by having the govern-
ment ask them first for their advice.
Mr. Chairman, I would like to thank Dr. Bond very much for
his remarks, and I think I can say in answering the first part of
his remarks that the government has indeed borrowed an architect
and he is sitting on my right, here. He is Mr. McKee, who is a
well known and well qualified architect. We have just borrowed
him from the United Kingdom at a tremendous--I started to say salary.
Well, he has the responsibility of advising the government and of
doing the unpopular work of trying to convince people that their
ideas on these matters are not always right. But here he is, and
he is an architect and a planner. The Administrator thought that
he should attend this conference. No doubt, he will have a few
remarks to make later on.
Oh, I would be glad to hear from him. In fact, I went to
school with a fellow in Montserrat by the name of Markhum. I did
not hear Markhum's name mentioned from Dr. Bond's lips.
And also, one of the ablest teachers from Montserrat, Emanuel
Benjamin Oliver, so there must be something left in Montserrat
that we can do something about, Mr. Thomas, at least we hope so.
I would like to comment on what Mr. Bond has said. It appears
to me, I would like to hear the opinions from the residents who have
lived here longer in the West Indies than myself, as to what the sit-
uation is in other islands, other than Montserrat.
It seems to me that while Mr. Bond's remarks about selecting
a few buildings is of value, isn't the fact that the form of the
town basically is of more importance than its character? The fact
is that you have two-story buildings and they have this very West
Indian quality to the buildings, little colonnades hanging on the
balconies, and the problem is going to be that commerce proposes
to put in something more along the lines of American supermarkets,
lots of glass and lots of air conditioning. I was very encouraged
on my first visit to St. Thomas upon seeing a very large number of
shops that have retained outwardly the West Indian quality. If it
is possible to cut down on some of your traffic, I think this is a
very successful idea. I'd like to hear just whether any towns in
any other islands in the Eastern Caribbean have already succumbed
to the glass-fronted jungles?
The town of St. Augustine, Florida, has a plan that demands
that any new construction conforms to a certain time period. I
have forgotten whether it was the late Spanish or the early British,
but the whole downtown center is conformed to a particular pattern.
Any new construction must be approved in preserving all of the old.
Are there any other comments from the floor?
Perhaps I ought to make one further comment, that is, that the
fire hazard that St. Lucia has suffered--three very serious fires--
the last one in 1948, burned out a very large section of the old
town and I suppose it now represents more the image that is being
suggested by Mr. McKee from Montserrat', of a very modern recent
architectural construction in the main business section of the town,
and then just on the periphery are the old buildings which did not
succumb to the fire, and in that area it is quite an interesting
example of an Eastern Caribbean town.
Sir, I do take pleasure in representing the British Virgin
Islands at this Conference. And as Mr. O'Neal has said, we are the
smallest of the group and we don't have much to offer, but we are
here at least to look on, to listen and to learn. And I am quite
sure from what I have heard already from the members who have already
spoken, that when this Conference is over, this delegation from the
British Virgin Islands will have something at least to help us with
a little development that we have done. Mr. O'Neal has outlined a
proposal of our intention and I am quite sure that as we are now on
the threshold of tourism, that we have many historical areas that
we need to beautify and also to retain for our future tourist develop
ment. I am quite sure that if we depend only on government to take
care of this situation, we will not in fact get the fullest benefit
from it. I am quite sure that I, as a representative, will do my
part to try to persuade government to add some money to the pro-
ject in order to make this a success.
Mr. O'Neal at present is a nominated member of the Legisla-
tive Council and he has shown me that he would not be interested
in being nominated at another general election as a nominated
member, but would rather take more interest in dealing with the
National Park and continuing with the type of development that
he is now doing, as the chairman of this National Park Trust.
Nevertheless, I am quite sure as I listen to the former discus-
sion, that if we can form such types of committees, that is,
working, using the public individuals instead of just waiting
on the government, that we are certain to build up a very import-
ant industry that will mean very much to our future development.
As I said before, and I am saying again, that I am quite sure
that we have very much to learn from this Conference.
Thank you, Mr. Dawson. Are there any other comments from the
I would like to hear Dr. Carlozzi's comments on comprehensive
planning action as distinguished from piecemeal protective action.
One of the major problems, I think, in dealing with the pre-
servation, the protection, or even the actual development and
management of sites of all kinds, is that very often action does
take place out of the context of the socioeconomic changes that
are appearing on an island. These may be haphazard changes in
the sense that they are evolving without very much direction, or
they may be changes relating very specifically to policy, land
development policy, of the government. Without question the ulti-
mate aim should be not only to include these as--I mean not only
to accomplish the preservation and the protection of these sites--
but to do it in such a way that this preservation and this pro-
tection becomes part of government policy and government planning,
If you do this outside of that context, you are constantly fight-
ing the battle of someone having planned the use of the landscape
before you get there. And while you cannot always win these bat-
tles, you can win a few of them, but that perhaps isn't enough.
I think what it takes is a long look at what you want from the
landscape and what part the development of parks, reserves, his-
torical sites, or recreational areas can have in that overall
In a sense, much of the preservation that has gone on is all
to the good, but it has been really a brush fire effort. It has
been individuals or groups of individuals striking to achieve a
very specific goal, to save this, to develop that. I for one
would not like in any way to diminish the accomplishments that
they have made. I would suggest that over the long run, this is
a matter for inclusion in the overall look at the landscape, at
the environment and in what direction your society and economy
Certainly, the concept being employed in Montserrat now;
having a professional architect on hand to look at the town, who
thinks of it in terms of the form of the town and the function
that the town has to play in relation to the form, is considered
to be desirable in the light of its historical importance, in the
light of the economic importance, and so on. This is a step in
the right direction.
And I don't want to miss the chance here in saying that I
think we might take a look at what goes on in Puerto Rico, with
the Institute of Culture in the historic zone in the old city of
San Juan. This is a very clear cut attempt to somehow combine
those qualities of the town that have historical importance with
the functional purpose of the town, to serve its commercial needs,
its waterfront needs, its entertainment and recreational needs.
These can be put together, but you won't put them together if it's
a committee to save this building and this building alone. You
will perhaps save that building, but growing up around it may be
the very kind of thing that we speak about, the concrete and the
glass, the chrome and the glass building that throws the whole
aspect of the town out of context, and certainly brings in all
sorts of conflicting values within the area itself.
So I think clearly that this is a major goal to work for,
that this is the approval we want. It's a look at our environ-
ment, our landscape and how these things would fit into it. Here,
of course, is where you need the widespread citizen approval of
what goes on. Here is where the educational and the leadership
role of the organized group of citizens can play its most signi-
It is very difficult for government to persist in policies
where the mass of people either show great disapproval or total
apathy. And I would say the challenge is very strong here, if
we want to think about the development in the context of national
plans or regional plans or urban plans.
Thank you very much professor. Are there any further questions
or comments from the floor?
Let's pay a little homage here to the piecemeal effort. Let's
not bury it completely for several reasons. In the first place,
we must be pragmatic. We are trying to do something and trying to
do something fast. Let's remember we can "committee" things to
death. We can convince people to pass on master plans, but it may
take 10 years to do it and lose their interest while doing it.
Remember, we are dealing with human beings in our effort to save
something, whether it be a village in Barbados or a beach in St.
Thomas. This small effort, whatever you name it, will crystallize
feelings and actual attitudes in such a way as to make an overall
plan a little easier. Remember, a great many of the conservation
efforts around the world are really begun as specific piecemeal
I wouldn't want Mr. Donnelly to think that I disagree with his
point of view. I have much good to think about the successful
efforts that have been made, not only in the Caribbean, but else-
where. What I am saying is that this basis can do the things,
he said it can. It can crystallize interest and it can make an
accomplishment. You can save these particular things that you
are interested in. I would like to think, however, that as we
look at the overall problem, for the islands especially, and in
many cases other countries, that here we know development is going
to occur. Many of the islands already think in terms of national
palns, and I have had personal experience with this in Trinidad.
There a national plan was worked on with help from a United Nations
planning team. And I was happy to participate, at least to the
extent of helping to select sites for a park and recreational
system for the country within the context of a national plan. Now
when that national plan is going to come about, I don't know. Do
I think it is wise to wait until the national plan was a reality
in order to make some very strong frontal attacks on the preserva-
tion of certain really important natural and historical sites?
No. I would not like to think we would wait for the national plan
to come along. But in thinking in terms of the national plan, what
you do has established this interest as a valid interest--as valid
as the preservation of soil for agriculture, as valid as areas for
housing or roadways, the protection of watersheds, anything you
want to think of as major land use allocations. This becomes one
of the important appropriate needs and you get it included. And
I think that this is a pretty important thing. Now obviously you
will be foolish to wait and never take action, because you always
were waiting for the national plan. I think this would not be so,
but certainly I would like to think that we could think in this
context. If we really believe in what we say about these things,
they are valid inclusions. I would not delay action. But, I
would certainly wish to see action carried out, perhaps on two
fronts, one piecemeal, as we have an opportunity to grab off and
preserve and protect or develop a site that we know is import-
ant, and the other, a long time continuing effort to see things
as a part of the national policy and national planning. Thank you.
Yes, but remember the goal of the piecemeal effort is not so
much to save whatever the object is as it is to instill an atti-
I like to think that this was so, but I don't know. I mean,
there is nothing in my experience that makes me believe that peo-
ple who are motivated primarily to preservation could create an
I think of a group of "Friends" that were more interested in
developing and restoring Nelson's Dock Yard in Antigua than creating
an attitude. I think the attitude grows out of the restoration,
that you can utilize the restoration as a means to creating it and
that these things come along as a result of this. I don't think
that the primary motivation is to be found here in creating an
attitude or else you'd go about it in an entirely different way.
But the end result is, I think, that they do create an attitude
and they serve very handsomely in doing this.
Well, Dr. Carlozzi has largely said what I was going to say.
I would just like to add that while I approve strongly of piece-
meal development, if there is no plan to work to, I think the
danger of devoting your attention solely to this is the fact that
the very qualities that you are trying to preserve in the indivi-
dual unit can be destroyed by the development around it.
I have worked for some years in Edinborough, and I think as
a city it has probably got more preservation societies per square
inch than any other city in the world, but there was one drawback.
I can think of very many instances, but there is one a? ,ut a castle,
a small castle that sits in the middle of Edinborough, that should
be preserved despite the fact that there was a new technical col-
lege being planned for the area. The result was that the preserva-
tion society won. The small castle was maintained, and the techni-
cal college was built right around the castle, and the castle
was left in the court yard. The result was that the scale of the
original building was completely destroyed. The new development
completely dwarfed the original site, and you ended up with the
ridiculous situation that what you tried to preserve in one way
you destroyed in another way. I think this is a danger of con-
concentrating on a new interest or too small a unit.
Thank you very much, ladies and gentlemen. I have an
instruction here that someone is calling us. This has been a
most interesting discussion. I am sure that we will have time
during the rest of the conference to iron out any of the differ-
ences that exist among our miscellaneous philosophies. I am
sure that as Mr. Dawson said, that each of us will be able to
return with some benefit, or some means by which we can better
do the things which we have been doing in the past at home,
whether by piecemeal or economic comprehensive planning. When
in doubt, use both, as I have been instructed. Thank you very
much for your patience, and I want to tell you that dinner is
GOVERNMENT PLANNING FOR CONSERVATION
CHAIRMAN: MR. JOHN WATTS, CHAIRMAN
THE GRENADA TOURIST BOARD
GOVERNMENT POLICIES FOR CONSERVATION
Dr. Francis X. Mark
College of the Virgin Islands
The approach of this paper is not that of the conservation-
ist but of the political scientist who sees conservation as only
one of the many conflicting demands faced by policy-makers. The
discussion of Government planning for conservation is not meant
to be descriptive; rather, it is my purpose to raise some general
questions about conservation in the context of the islands of the
Eastern Caribbean, in the hope that possibly this session may, as
a result of panel contributions and discussion from participants,
provide the outlines of a possible framework to guide the various
governments in formulating policy.
It seems appropriate to discuss this topic under three heads,
which can be phrased in question form:
1. How important a role ought conservation to play in govern-
ment policy in the Eastern Caribbean area?
2. What are the criteria which ought to be established in
order to assist Governments to formulate policies about conserva-
3. What kind of organizational and institutional structure
should Governments set up for proposing, advising on, and executing
In raising these questions, I make no claim to having answers
to any or all of them. It is my hope that our session this morning
will provide these.
A certain amount of conservation is already practiced in the
area, as evidenced by the existence of laws establishing closed
seasons for hunting or prohibiting the hunting of certain species,
the establishment of some National Trust type institutions, and
the creation of parks, recreation areas, forest reserves, etc.
in various territories. There is some doubt, however, about how
much of this is the result of conscious overall policy planning.
How important is conservation--as distinct from the question
how influential are conservationists of one kind or another--as
a legitimate demand among the many conflicting social and economic
demand goals which make not only policies, but proper planning,
in the Eastern Caribbean an exercise in all the arts of compromise?
How much attention ought Governments to pay to those who demand
conservation, and at what cost?
It appears that this question must be considered in two con-
texts: 1) the context of the resources of the area; and 2) the
context of modernization and change which may be desirable. Before
we consider the resources of the area, or of any part of it, the
question of what it is we want to conserve, and why we want to con-
serve it has to be faced. The first is to some extent a technical
question for our scientists, or an aesthetic question for our land-
scape lovers, or the business of our historians, archaeologists,
and other curators of our culture; it is not, fortunately, my pro-
blem as a political scientist. The second implies, in fact, that
we have begun to answer the second general question which was posed
at the beginning, because it concerns criteria. Must we preserve
for the sake of uniqueness, or of representativeness, or for what
To return to the main topic, the resources of the area as a
whole are limited, of individual parts of it pitifully small. The
desire for maximum and most efficient use of these resources is an
argument both for and against the conservationists' position, as
measured against the satisfaction values of the population. This
is the strength of the oft-heard argument that in this part of the
world landscape is a valuable resource, and that green hills, white-
sand beaches and the other attributes of a tropical paradise are
potentially the most valuable economic asset of the region; the
argument would see tourism as the major pillar of economic develop-
There are considerations which make this view open to serious
question: 1) The continuously declining position of the area's
staple agricultural products are an economic argument for industrial-
ization; 2) new staples, or market-gardening (which is largely a
peasant occupation), are unlikely to provide a long-term solution
to the agricultural problem; 3) social, economic and political
considerations may make various desirable conservation policies
unworkable, pointless or farcical; and 4) the demands of tourism
itself, as a viable industry, result in the destruction of some of
those very features of the area which are regarded as a resource
in this connection.
It must be accepted, too, that modernization is inevitable
in the area, with its concomitant of physical change. The dominant
socio-economic attitudes of the population demand admission to the
20th Century, with all that it connotes. Emphasis on minimum stan-
dards of living, for example, results in the need for housing devel-
opment; industrialization means urbanization. The acceptance (con-
scious or unconscious) of patterns of physical and social develop-
ment of the more successful, i.e., the more industrialized countries
is also a consequence of this attitude.
There is clearly a need for compromise in planning, given the
continuance of existing forms of political system in the area. But
what kind of compromise? This depends upon the criteria to be adopted
about what to conserve. Here, the usual general formulae such as
"whatever leads ultimately to the greatest good of the community"
and "conservation where possible" are of little value except in
specific situations where all the information is available--as it
seldom is in this area. We may phrase these in more practical terms,
perhaps; "Green rather than grey", "Better grass than concrete", or
"Rural jungle is preferable to urban jungle".
In the examination of organizational and institutional structure
we may be less vague. The existence of Planning Boards is generally
accepted as desirable in the Eastern Caribbean, and land use surveys
zoning regulations and other media are being employed in many terri-
stories. The problem here is one of availability of technical skills
rather than unwillingness to make use of them.
In this connection, three specific measures suggest themselves
for discussion as possible immediate contributions towards assisting
Governments to plan conservation policies:
1) The establishment of some regional body for conservation
activity would seem to be an urgent need. The composition of such
a body, its functions, and its relations with governments and with
local associations must be a matter for discussion. But. such a
body could fill much of the demand for technical advice and assist-
ance, for educating decision-makers and public, and for stressing
the claims of conservation which appears necessary.
2) The improved administration and execution of such laws
affecting conservation as are in existence in the territories.
3) For this purpose, it would appear that some form of sup-
port for historical, archaeological and naturalist societies which
exist locally in many of the territories ought to be considered.
This support, some of which may need to be financial, may have to
come from governments and/or from the regional body. But it is
necessary to provide encouragement for and to raise the prestige
of many of these local societies, some of which are regarded as
groups of cranks in their local communities, but which are reposi-
tories of a great deal of knowledge, interest and concern about the
area; they are too often compelled to be merely small pressure
groups, vocal and informed but not very effective.
These, and other measures which may suggest themselves to this
conference, should be invaluable to governments in the area in plan-
ning for conservation.
PROTECTING NATURAL RESOURCE VALUES
WITH ZONING AND RELATED LEGAL MEASURES
Dr. Erling D. Solberg
I would like to spend a few minutes discussing some of the
legal measures that have been used, and are being used, or that are
proposed in the United States for reserving land for open spaces,
or for other conservation uses. I will start by discussing some
of the measures that have been used for reserving fertile soils for
Urbanization is not taking place around every town or city.
It is mostly centered around what we call standard metropolitan
statistical areas, that is, areas with a core city having 50,000
people or more. Urbanization of fertile farm lands has been most
rampant in California. Consequently, I will center my remarks
around some of the techniques that have been developed in Calif-
ornia in attempting to protect their fertile land for farming.
About a decade ago the farmers in California developed what
they called an exclusive agricultural zoning district. In such a
district only farming and a few related uses that facilitate the
use of the land for farming are permitted. All other uses, includ-
ing non-farming residences are prohibited. In addition, minimum
lot sizes are established that range from five acres to as much as
one hundred and sixty acres, depending on the district.
These types of exclusive agricultural zoning districts have
been established in more than a score of counties in California,
and they have been established by half a dozen cities. In recent
years, exclusive agricultural zoning districts have been estab-
lished in a dozen other states by counties, by towns, and by other
local units of government. This has occurred in Iowa, Indiana,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Florida, and in a few more states.
As I have indicated, zoning in California is at the county
level. In the northeastern part of the United States, where there
also are a few exclusive agricultural zoning districts, zoning is
at the town or township level. In the Lake states, zoning is at
the county and at the township level.
There have been terrific pressures on exclusive agricultural
zoning districts. There have been pressures of rising land values,
pressures of taxes, and political pressures of one type or another.
As a result, these exclusive zoning districts have not worked as
well as it was anticipated. I will say some more later about some
of the new techniques that were developed to make them more effect-
Now let me touch on a new approach that has been used in Hawaii.
In 1961, the legislature in Hawaii created a State Land Use Commis-
sion. This commission was authorized and directed to place all land
in the islands in one or another of four types of zoning districts.
The most fertile and productive land agriculturally was placed in
agricultural zoning districts. The second zone was a conservation
district. In conservation districts, they placed water reserve,
forest, recreation, grazing, and historic lands, and a number of
other categories. The third type was rural districts. In these
districts, they placed lands in small farms and lands that are
in non-farm homes on tracts that contain one acre or more. Also,
in these districts the normal urban services are not provided, The
fourth type of district is for the urban lands which are now in
urban uses and lands that may be needed for urban purposes in the
foreseeable future. These four types of districts were established
by the state agency, the State Land Use Commission.
Counties may also zone in Hawaii within the legal framework
applied by the State Land Use Commission. The counties may pass
restrictions that apply within the zoning districts, but the regu-
lations may not conflict with the regulations passed by the State
Land Use Commission.
But there is one exception to this county authority. It con-
cerns the conservation districts. The counties may not pass zoning
regulations there. These regulations are passed by another agency,
the Department of Land and Natural Resources.
The Hawaiian Law has another feature of interest. Lands that
are placed in conservation districts or in agricultural districts
may be "dedicated" by the owner for renewable ten year periods.
And when he does that, the land will be assessed based on its value
for farming in an agricultural district, or for conservation in a
conservation district, and not for its value for sub-division, or
for shopping centers, or for industry.
That brings me back to some problems in California. They have
tax problems. In some instances, the annual taxes on agricultural
lands have totaled more than the gross profits from that land. Conse-
quently, under such pressures, the farmers just can't hold the land
for agricultural purposes.
About three or four years ago the legislature submitted to the
people of California a referendum which would have authorized pre-
ferential assessments of agricultural lands--lands that are in an
exclusive agricultural zone and that are used for farming only. The
people turned it down. In the previous year, the same people passed
a preferential assessment law which authorized lands that are in golf
courses to be assessed based on their value for golf courses only,
and not for subdivision or shopping centers, industrial areas, etc.
As a result of the action of the people in California in turning
down the proposed constitutional amendment, the California legis-
lature passed the California Land Conservation Act of 1965. This
act authorizes any city or county by contract with the land owners
to limit the use of prime agricultural land to agriculture and com-
patible uses. Prime agricultural lands are lands in soil conserva-
tion land use capability classes one and two, or lands that yield
annual returns from agricultural production, that is unprocessed pro-
duction, of $200 an acre or more. This contract is for ten years
and is renewable.
Under this arrangement, the county agrees to pay to the land
owner a sum annually that totals five percent or five dollars for
every hundred dollars assessed valuation of the land. The State
agrees to pay annually to the county one dollar an acre for each
acre of land under contract, to help cover costs of payments that
the counties are making to the land owners.
This is an effort you see to ease the tax burden on agricul-
tural land so that landowners can keep these lands in agricultural
Provisions are made for cancellation of the land contracts.
A violation of the contract by the owners, of course, will result
in the county cancelling the contract and terminating the ten year
period. If the farmer doesn't want to renew his contract, it is
terminated, of course.
Also, there is this provision in the law: At such time as the
land owner doesn't renew, or has his contract cancelled, he shall
pay to the county 50% of the increased assessed valuations of the
land which occurred between the time that he entered into the con-
tract and the time of the termination of the contract. In other
words, under this law, the county is taking a portion of the capital
gains. This law was passed in 1965, and I don't know how it is going
to work. There just hasn't been time to see how effectively it is
going to work out.
In 1965 the Pennsylvania legislature considered House Bill No.
1634. Well, you might say this bill is a compromise. It doesn't go
nearly as far as the law in California that I have just described.
It provides that the counties may covenant with the owners of farms
forests, water supply or open space lands, that their lands shall
remain as open space for five-year renewable terms, and the county
contracts that the tax assessment on these lands during that time
shall remain at current values. The bill ran into a little diffi-
culty. I don't know how it is faring.
In a number of states, laws have been passed authorizing local
units of government to acquire what we call development rights in
the land. Again, in Pennsylvania in 1965, a second bill, House Bill
No. 1633, was considered which contained such provisions. (Neither
bill became law.) It is more or less representative of some of the
laws that have been passed in other states and some of the laws that
are proposed. So I will just briefly touch on the provision of this
bill and then I will stop. This bill would authorize the common-
wealth through the Department of Forests and Waters and the Depart-
ment of Agriculture to acquire open space property interests. The
property interests may be acquired by purchase, by gift, by condem-
nation, by devise or otherwise. The open-space property interests
may include the fee simple title, a license, a life estate, or an
easement, which are restrictions or covenants of a sort.
The Department of Forests and Waters would be authorized to
acquire open space interest for future public acquisition in fee
simple to preserve water supply, for forest uses, to protect existing
or future public parks, to conserve scenic resources, to preserve
historic areas, to preserve open spaces between cities, or for re-
sale subject to restrictive covenants.
The Department of Agriculture in Pennsylvania, under the proposed
law, could acquire open spaces to preserve land for farm uses, to
conserve land for water supply uses, or for resale subject to res-
trictions, so as to keep the land in farming or in water supply uses.
This proposed law also provides that all property that is acquired
in fee simple shall be resold within two years to private interests,
subject to restrictive covenants. The idea is to keep as much of
the land value as is desirable in private ownership. The Common-
wealth's interest in land that is acquired would be exempt from taxa-
tion. If land is resold for farming, subject to restrictive coven-
ants which prohibit development for non-farming uses or for resi-
dential uses, the farmer's tax assessment would be based only on the
values that the Commonwealth granted when reselling the land to him.
And that's about it. Thank you very much.
GOVERNMENT PLANNING FOR CONSERVATION
Ladies and gentlemen, you have heard Dr. Francis Mark, who has
expressed his comments on this background paper, Government Plan-
ning for Conservation. Dr. Mark is the Chairman of the Division of
Social Sciences at the College of the Virgin Islands. Thank you
very much, Dr. Mark.
Just before we let loose these panelists upon you, I think we
should take the opportunity to introduce them all to you individu-
ally, so you will know who is talking, and about what. Starting on
my right, you have Dr. Francis Mark, whom I have introduced before
and whom you have looked at for a long time. Then you humble ser-
vant, of course, John Watts, who is the Chairman of the Tourist
Board on the little British Island of Grenada, the Windward Island
further south. Immediately on my left we have Mr. Thomas Blake
who is Director of the Planning Board of the United States Virgin
Islands. Then comes Mr. G.E.V. Dawson, Secretary of Trade and Pro-
duction Commission of Labor of the British Virgin Islands. And then
we have with us Mr. Gerald Bryan, The Honorable Gerald Bryan, who
is the Administrator of the British Island of St. Lucia, also in the
Windward Islands. Then you have our good friend, Mr. Herrick, Thomas
Herrick of the Caribbean Research Institute at the College of the
Virgin Islands, and may I say the driving force behind this Confer-
ence. Next to Mr. Herrick we have Mr. Alfred Thorne, Professor of
Economics at the University of Puerto Rico. And lastly, and by no
means, least, we have Mr. Irving Solberg, of the Natural Resource
Economic Division of the Department of Agriculture with the United
States Federal Government.
And there you have it, Ladies and Gentlemen, a fine collection
of gentlemen who will now thrust themselves upon you intellectually
and otherwise. Now we will hear from Thomas Herrick.
Well, unfortunately, I have very little to say with regard to
this particular panel, although I am a political scientist. I acted
as a political scientist in a planning project in Venezuela which
was recently completed.
We were planning the Orinoco River Basin down there, and I did
participate in the administrative aspects of that particular plan-
ning project. We were at that time doing a comprehensive planning
of the entire Orinoco River Basin in Venezuela, planning from soup
to nuts--housing, regional political relationships with the state
governments, urban planning, industrial planning, and feasibility
studies for particular plants. In fact, everything.
When I was there, I was struck by the fact that you have down
there a planning operation consisting of two distinct organizations.
One, the regional authority, or in this case, the "Corporacion
Venezolana de Guayana", which had absolute authority over this parti-
cular area and all the planning, all the development, and virtually
life and death control over the development of the Orinoco River
Basin. On the other hand, you also had the National Planning Office,
in this case, Cordiplan Venezuela. The National Planning Office was
busily engaged in five-year plans, one-year plans, two-year plans,
and concern from a national viewpoint.
Now, in relating this back to the paper here, and in my own
experience in Venezuela, I can see a possibility of a planning board
or a planning organization, which might be national in scope, which
might be attempting to develop particular programs, and be in almost
a vital life-or-death conflict with another organization, also
government-backed, which would be devoted to a particular region of
particular entity, possibly a particular province.
I expect the same thing is happening here in conservation. We
spoke, for example, of the local ad hoc committee to preserve a
particular historical site. These ad hoc committees are very power-
ful committees. Included on their staffs are very important people
within their specific governments working sometimes against the
National Planning Board, and there really isn't too much they can
do about it, except to try to effect a compromise. Perhaps it is
the function of the political scientist to try to work out these
particular compromises. This is a point which Francis Mark left
hanging here. How are you going to work your compromises? How
does a politician within a government work a compromise between two
government-backed organizations, one perhaps national in scope,
and the other devoted to a particular landscape site, to a parti-
cular historical site, or to any particular question of conser-
vation? Well, I wish I had an answer to that. If I were to make
a choice or to offer a solution, I think that the power should go
to your National Planning Board, and your ad hoc committee or your
historical landscape committees, whatever they may be, could pro-
vide more of a showcase role, a very important showcase role of
course, one which might provide funds, certainly publicity.
But I am struck by the fact that your overall planning and
your overall planning boards do not seem to have the power, do not
seem to have the prestige to fully carry through a comprehensive
planning program. And in the area of conservation, this seems to
be of vital importance. And again I can go back to my Venezuela
experience, where I noticed a definite conflict between the reg-
ional planning group in Guayana and in the Orinoco River Basin and
the National Planning Board of the Government of Venezuela. Thank
Well, that was Tom Herrick. We have heard from a couple of
Political Scientists. How about letting us hear from an Economist?
I now call upon Professor Alfred Thorne, Professor of Economics at
the University of Puerto Rico. Let's hear his contribution.
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, I have first of all to
confess that I have never done any work whatever in the field of
conservation, but I am very happy to be here because I have always
had an interest in the area.
When I accepted, or when I was asked this morning at breakfast-
time to make a few comments, I almost declined, through fear of not
being able to make an adequate contribution in view of lack of
experience in the area, but I felt that whatever little I had to say,
I should say it rather than just pop out of it. Now it seems to me
we are in a very difficult area of choice. An Economist is of course,
as you all know a man who is involved in a dismal science, a very
dismal science to most of those who are outside of it, but some of
us enjoy it. We have a very difficult problem here, of choice. This
problem of choice is all the more important in the Eastern Carib-
bean where we have a very dense population and where the density is
becoming greater rather than smaller. We have got, first of all, a
choice as to whether we are going to have conservation or preserva-
tion. I do have a recollection that somewhere in the past I heard
somebody in this field say that there was a difference between pre-
servation and conservation: that there is the alternative of pre-
serving nature as it is and preserving ruins, more or less as they
are, perhaps restoring them to make them resemble more clearly what
they are presumed to have been; and there is the other alternative
of conserving, of improving consciously upon nature -- not distorting
nature by some aesthetic standards, but not leaving it untouched.
I think that one gets the sense of this difference when one
looks at the approaches in England and compares them with the
approaches in the United States of America. In America, if I am
correct--I hope I am, if I am not, I would like to be put right--
I have the feeling that in the United States the emphasis has been
on conservation, upon improving upon nature, creating parks, beaches,
etc., more beautiful and usable than they would be if left untouched
by the hands of man. In the case of England, I have the impression
that the emphasis has been on trying to preserve what nature has
produced without interfering with it.
This is one area of choice, but I don't think it is by any
means the most difficult area of choice. I think we really get
into the difficulties when we are trying to decide whether we ought
to conserve at all, or ought to preserve at all, and what would be
the alternatives if we did not.
Now from the point of view of economics, if we say that our
objective is economic in some cases, then we have got some criteria
which could be simple, I think. For example, we could consider that
we have here a problem of choice between income effects and employment
effects. Very often, if you take one step and increase income, you
do not at the same time create more net total employment. We have
seen this, time and again, and I think the Puerto Rican case is a
good example of it. It is not unique. It is going to be found
right through the Caribbean. You create more employment in the
modern sector but a number of people who are employed in the old,
low income sectors decide--(I am talking now quite distinctly from
technological unemployment)--that they will no longer accept the low
income wage in the traditional old peasant and similar sectors.
They hopefully go to the urban area where the new employment is
usually created. They don't find the employment in the urban area;
but they remain there and become unemployed persons rather than low
wage, underemployed persons in the rural area. So we have got these
among our criteria: Are we going to create parks and improve beaches,
without considering what alternatives we could make of the area being
conserved, in terms of creating employment and creating income?
We have to consider not just income effects in the next year
or two, but over varying periods of years. We may create more income
for the next five years by conserving, or we may lose income for the
next five years. But, on the other hand, what we gain or lose in
that five-year period immediately ahead may be more than offset by
what we lose or gain, if we take a 10-year span of the time within
which to make the calculation. And so we have got another problem
of choice here.
The question also arises as to the effects on the distribution
of income. If you develop an area in a certain way, you may raise
income among the very poorest members of society for a short time,
or a longer time. In using the resources in a different way, you
may increase the incomes of the middle classes and upper classes
of people. The lower class, income-wise, may also get some trick-
ling benefits. So this, I suggest, is another matter for serious
There is also the question of conservation of land to stimu-
late tourism versus use of land for market gardening or some other
farming. Some think that these are always alternatives. Actually
they may not be, in some cases, because if we increase tourism,
then we often increase the demand for market gardening and for
other "non-staple" farm products. People who have a low level of
income seldom eat tomatoes and lettuce, and do not eat eggs and
butter and cheese very much. So that conservation of some areas
for the improvement of the tourist industry, may have undoubtedly
some repercussions that we might not like, but may also bring net
gains to farmers and others--it all depends on how the industry
develops and the conservation effort relative to all available
land resources and other productive resources.
But there is the question of population which makes this
choice so difficult in the Eastern Caribbean. Is there a popula-
tion policy? Should there be a population policy? The projections
that one would make with regard to income effects of a given use
of resource or employment effects, obviously would be influenced
by what one expects the total population to become. If we have
a stationary population, they we have a much reduced problem. If
the population is growing, then what we consider today as land
available for parks may impinge upon needed agricultural land in
ten years' time.
So I would suggest that the planning boards in these islands
should consider the population projections at the outset, and
recommend a national population policy.
Another point that would arise, I think for early decision
is whether the conserved or preserved park should be publicly
owned or privately owned. I think that an examination of the
British, Swedish, and American experiences could be useful. In
the case of the British experience, we note that many of the parks
are privately owned. The government introduced legislation which
prevents and restricts private owners of land from using the land
in certain ways. I am not suggesting that the procedures set up
in England are the most logical; but I think there is some rele-
vance, especially in our islands where we are faced with very
limited government resources.
In the case of the United States, we have got the government
owning the parks, but the United States government is supported
by a very rich country, so it can afford to buy, or not sell, land
when it decides that it wants this land for a park. Moreover, the
United States is a huge area, and so the problem of choice is not
so severe a one. But when we come to small islands where there
is a tremendous demand for practically all of the land for some
basic use or other, and prices are relatively high, the British
approach is something we ought to think about. It means that
government money that otherwise would be spent to purchase land
for the purpose of conserving or preserving it would not be spent
for that purpose, and would be available for other public purposes.
And finally -- there is the question of who makes the decisions.
We may have a planning board and all of that, but the question
still is: should the decisions be made by a group of experts with-
out any reference to the House, or Congress or Parliament, or
whatever it is, or should the proposals come through in very great
detail to the legislative body for the latter's decision?
We can get into a very serious problem here because usually
interest in conservation is greatest among a few people educated
in a certain way, and so forth, with certain levels of choice and
all of that. The greatest majority of people, as far as I have
understood the American History of it, have not been very interested
in pressing for conservation. The movement has come through a few
educated people, often hydraulic engineers and the like. If we
were to attempt to apply fully our democratic principles we might
find that we were left no land for conservation, because the great
majority of farmers would say, "No, let's use it for agriculture."
I have only posed these problems. I haven't solved them, I
realize this; but we economists are accustomed to putting more
problems up for consideration than we solve.
Thank you. (Applause)
Thank you, Professor Thorne. Now we have heard from, shall
we say, some of the "technical boys". We have with us a representa-
tive from the island of St. Lucia. I know they have a very -- in
fact, they have the best historical society in the Windward Islands.
We in Grenada are very envious of them, and so may I take this
opportunity to introduce the very Honorable Mr. Bryan of St. Lucia
to make a speech on this question of natural resources.
Thank you very much, Dr. Watts. I have been introduced very
neatly as being the peron who really knows nothing at all about
the subject. In fact, I can only speak to you from the point of
view of an administrator with a small "a". I have, however, been
an Administrator with a capital "A" of the British Virgin Islands
in St. Lucia. I, therefore, speak with experience concerning
this island. And I would like to take this point of view when i
speak, that this British Virgin Island, to give you the scale, is
approximately 60 square miles in length. I think that it was larger
when I went there, but the experts took off two square miles during
my term of office. St. Lucia is 238 square miles and has approxi-
mately 100,000 people. Now these are very small islands and quite
obviously they cannot have a very elaborate organization set up
to deal with individual problems such as conservation. Further-
more, these islands--I am sure I speak on behalf of the people of
the islands--feel that there has been far too much conservation
and preservation in the past and that there has been far too
little emphasis on the type of development which tends to con-
flict with conservation and preservation. And it is only just
now in these islands that we are getting this type of develop-
ment and that the problem is becoming more acute. So that insofar
as St. Lucia is concerned, this problem is now arising and we
attend this conference in the hope that we will learn how to
tackle it from the experience of those countries which have been
living with the problem for some time.
It seems to me, listening to the main address this morning,
that I must compliment the speaker, Dr. Francis Mark, on his very
stimulating address. I hope that we will be able to receive copies
of this address after the conference so that we can study it in
greater detail, but the main point has been the conflicting claims
between conservation on the one hand and economic and other develop-
ments on the other. Now, as far as I am concerned, the main thing
would seem to be to try to set up some form of organization which
would insure that the claims of conservation will receive due and
proper consideration against the competing claims of other sorts of
It might, I think, be helpful if I just gave a bit of the back-
ground of what actually happened in one of these smaller islands in
St. Lucia. There is no overall conservation policy and there is
no special central planning authority. But you must remember the
size concerned, that there are few people available for these special-
ized agencies and it is quite possible for the government to keep
an eye on most of the things that are going on.
The policy of the government is to concentrate on agriculture
first and the development of tourism second from the point of view
of the economy. But we have found that tourism can conflict with
the development of agriculture. For example, the development of
land for tourism can push up land prices to the point at which
they far exceed the agricultural value of the land. In St. Lucia,
conservation has been on a piecemeal basis as opposed to an overall
planned policy. And it is easy to see how these areas of conser-
vation have arisen. One of the earliest was the conservation of
the forest reserves. The whole of the central area of St. Lucia is
mountainous and it is covered with forest. And there is specific
legislation preserving those forest areas for a very good reason.
They are the catchment areas for water supply, and by preserving
the forest we conserve our water supply.
As far as fauna is concerned, there is legislation protecting
the birds. St. Lucia has a species of parrot which is unique in
the world, and it has been recognized that there should be specific
legislative protection for that parrot and other birds, but we do
not have any national society, such as there is in Puerto Rico, to
insure that this legislation is effective.
And finally, on the preservation side, more recently we have
introduced legislation to protect the beaches. There are now two
societies in St. Lucia, the Archaelogical and the Historical Society,
which has been mentioned, and more recently, a Horticultural Society,
both concerned with conservation on the island. They are private
voluntary societies, and they do operate in close association with
the government, but they have got at the moment no legislation to
As I mentioned earlier, until recently there has been no real
conflict with the claims of conservation and the claims of other
developments. But quite recently, to meet the pressing demands
for additional residential land, the government has acquired a
sizeable area of land from the British War Department. This land
is situated on a hill known as Fortuni Hill. This hill has been
fought over on numerous occasions by the British and the French,
and it can be considered as a historical monument. Now the govern-
ment, to cope with the development, has set up a special Develop-
ment Board, and the planning of the development was handed over
to that board and the board brought in architects for special
advice, and finally the plan was subject to approval by the govern-
ment. In the plan I am happy to say, that the whole of the top
of this mountain with the old fortifications and military build-
ings has been taken from the main development, and the only sites
which are being made available for houses are on the periphery
of the area. The appointment of members to the board is a matter
for the government, and quite recently a representative of the
Archaeological and Historical Society has been appointed to the
board, and I understand from the minister, Mr. Mallard, who is
at the Conference, that he proposes now to appoint a member of
the Horticultural Society to this board so that in this manner
the agency will be directly concerned with conservation being
brought directly into the field of planning.
I think also it is true to say that there is much greater
awareness of the problem now that the need to find solutions is
arising. This has cropped up in a sphere of conservation which
isn't perhaps directly related to the meeting here, but that is
archives, and we have now set up a formal archives committee.
The government gives an annual grant to the committee, and there
has quite recently been a meeting of archaeologists under the wing
of the University of the West Indies in Jamaica. I only quote
that to show that there is the growing awareness of the problem
of conservation. The Archaeological and Historical Society have
carried out an inventory of historical sites and they are now on
Now, from our point of view, as I mentioned at the beginning,
our question is, "Where do we go from here?" What action ought we
properly to take in St. Lucia in the light of experience else-
where? Before we came here, we were considering specific legis-
lation to protect archaeological and historical sites in exactly
the same way as legislation has been passed to conserve fauna,
beaches and forestry land. This seems to be one practical plan
of insuring conservation of these buildings. We are also consider-
ing setting up a national trust on the lines of the National Trust
in Barbados, which was explained to us yesterday by Mr. Wiles.
Another major problem in relation to conservation has been under-
lined, and that is that where the resources, the natural resources,
the resources of technical knowledge, and finance are so very
limited, we have got to get solutions which will make the maximum
use of these resources. In that connection, we are particularly
interested in the suggestion that there should be some regional
cooperation here, because these smaller islands would, I think,
find this particularly useful, in that they might get their own
resources. And perhaps there might be some possibility of chan-
nelling financial assistance to the smaller and less economically
With these few ideas, I thank you for listening to me.
Ladies and Gentlemen, you have had Mr. Bryan who has
told you what efforts have been made in the small island of St.
Lucia, from which, I guess, some of us can benefit.
And now, Tom, you are sitting very close to me. How about
your telling us somehting? Ladies and Gentlemen, Mr. Thomas
Blake from the United States Virgin Islands, Director of the
Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. Ladies and Gentlemen of
this Conference, so far you have heard from political scientists,
economists, and a government administrator. Now you will hear
from a Planner who is in the executive branch of the American
system of government. I should hope somewhere on this panel we
have a sociologist or archaeologist, because all of these fields
and all of these endeavors are wrapped up in what we call a planner.
To begin with, in addition to being aware of all of these
special areas, the planner is really a generalist. In the American
system the planner is always faced with presenting these alterna-
tive choices to the decision-maker in the legislative branch of
the government. But in order to do this, he must be able to
think like the politician, and since he is usually appointed and
not elected, he becomes a "soft" politician.
Now Dr. Mark posed three headings under these conflicting
demands that might be imposed on the whole conservation effort.
Since the topic of this particular seminar, this panel discussion,
concerns influence on government planning for conservation, I think
we should talk more about what government can do in order to sort
out the problems which face conservation today.
I don't think there are any real serious conflicts in the
minds of any of us as to whether or not we should talk more about
what government can do in order to sort out the problems which
face conservation today.
I don't think there are any real serious conflicts in the
minds of any of us as to whether or not we should have conservation
or whether or not conservation should be part of government policy.
I think in all the efforts to improve a society's economic gains
against social gains and the others, that conservation can play
an important role. The question however, is to first determine what
are these goals, what are the objectives we are trying to achieve,
and then to see how much conservation efforts can contribute to
the achievement of them. Dr. Mark raised some very important
points, and again Mr. Bryan has mentioned the one that I like to
consider, the role of some sort of regional planning group for
the entire Eastern Caribbean.
My experience so far is rather limited in the planning field.
I have only been involved in it for the last three or four years.
However, in looking at the entire Caribbean you can address your-
selves to certain subregions. But we have all had some horrible
experiences, I think, with regional bodies, regional groups in
the Caribbean, and I think most of you here are familiar with those
bodies: the efforts of the federation which is in a way a
regional body; the efforts of the West Indies conference and
later on the Caribbean Commission. These were all thrown back
into the political arena, because of the difference in the
governments of these particular islands. Regardless of the
past failures, regional bodies are probably the most sensible
approach to discussing at least the conservation efforts of the
entire area. We in the United States Virgin Islands tried to
determine in our long-range planning what areas in our sub-
region were most meaningful to us, and to which island or islands
we should allocate our conservation efforts and resources. For
example, we realized that we have a very valuable asset here
in St. John at the National Park. The park isn't just here to
preserve open space, though that may have been the original
intention. There are economic benefits and social benefits that
grew out of the park. Because we have the park within the small
subregion we were then able to work with other areas and develop
them for other uses. But here is a source of conflict. As Mr.
Thorne has said, to what end are you conserving this particular
piece of land in St. John? What if your people's demands and
problems are such that the majority of them are not really making
full use of the area which you are conserving. By this I mean
if steps are not taken to move the other sections of an overall
area forward economically, then people in St. Croix, for example,
or in the British Virgin Islands, or in the other islands close
to us, cannot really appreciate this park here in St. John,
because they have not the economic means to really utilize it.
I say then that before we leave here today or before this con-
ference is closed, though I don't think the intent of this con-
ference was to have a workshop, but we should leave with some
things in mind when we get back to our little areas to begin to
work on our particular problems. The results of this conference
should have been to give us enough food for thought and to get
together again after having thought about these things. And I
say to you, don't only think of conservation in terms of natural
areas, or conservation for the protection of water sheds, but
also of the one resource which none of us has addressed ourselves
to seriously, and I think is the most important resource, is the
human resource. Whether you think in terms of conservation or
preservation, holding on to what you have, or what you think in
terms of conservation as developing and making something more
productive, you should consider the human resources as something
that ought to be conserved and developed. I will agree that in
the past we have all thought about natural areas and historical
buildings. My point is that it is useless to think of these
things merely in the effort of conserving them. You must determine,
predetermine, your goals and objectives and then formulate your
policies. I don't think that in this short session any one of
us will come up with policies that make sense. And again, I say
our role as technicians usually will be merely to pose the several
policies and the consequences of them and leave them up to the
decision-makers, which puts it back in Dr. Mark's lap as a
political scientist. I think my training has always been that
the elected representatives of the people must finally make the
The other point I would like to address myself to is one
raised by Tom Herrick, in reference to his experience in Guayana,
where the effort was primarily an industrialization, and indus-
trialization leading to urbanization. I get the impression that
Tom feels that once you make this decision then things will run
away, they just go galloping ahead, and you will not be able to
control them. In fact, some of the efforts of the Caribbean
Research Institute lately has been towards this proliferation
of urbanization in the island of St. Croix, in the United States
Virgin Islands. This is somewhat my concern too, because again
decisions have not been made yet as to whether or not agricul-
ture is meaningful in the economy of the island of St. Croix,
and if in choosing to industrialize we should concentrate on
higher density in certain select areas or to allow things to
just spread all over the land. I say then the task of the tech-
nician is to recognize that these things will be, that there will
be industrialization which leads to urbanization, but the techni-
cian's role is to allocate land for each of these endeavors and
to present recommendations to the decision makers and to let
them finally make the decision. Our role cannot be to decide
but to advise and guide. Thank you.
That was Thomas Blake of the United States Virgin Islands.
We are still in the Virgins, Ladies and Gentlemen, so we will
hear from the British Virgin Islands. We will now hear from Mr.
Dawson, Commissioner of Labor in the British Virgin Islands.
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, I told Mr. Herrick that
I hadn't hoped to be on the panel or anything of the sort. I had
hoped to sit and listen and learn. There is hardly anything that
I could add to what the previous speakers have said, Mr. Bryan
covered the British Virgin Islands very well except for one or
two little points which I shall try to make here.
We have in the British Virgin Islands an ordinance which
set up a National Park Trust Committee of which Mr. O'Neal spoke
last night. Then we have an ordinance to protect beaches. This
ordinance prohibits or restricts the removal of sand and gravel
from the beaches which have been protected under the ordinance,
and even the owner of the beach must obtain permission prior to
removal of his sand or gravel.
We have just had a town planner from London. He is a town
and country planner, I should say. Mr. Dix is his name. I don't
know whether the town planner we have here from Montserrat is
acquainted with him. We are still awaiting a report, and until
that is received there is hardly much we can do as far as plan-
ning is concerned. However, we are trying to preserve certain
places of historic interest such as old sugar mill towers. We
have two such towers which I think can be preserved, and we are
working to that end with the hope that in the not too distant
future we shall have those properly preserved. We are hoping
to capture some of the tourist trade, and in this aspect we are
trying to beautify the colony as much as we can.
I don't think there is much more I can say on this, but
I do hope that after this conference we shall be able to take
back something to present to our government whereby we can start
the ball rolling in the proper direction. And to this end I
intend to listen attentively to the speakers and to see what
suggestions I can get to take back. Thank you.
Ladies and Gentlemen, I intentionally left the next speaker
for the last. We have among us here Dr. Erling Solberg of the
National Resource Economic Division of the Department of Agri-
culture of the United States government. I can think of no more
suitable person to give us some guidance into the practical
experiences on conservation.
Ladies and Gentlemen, Dr. Solberg.
Thank you Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen. I am going
to make some remarks on the details of the planning process, on
the details of what it actually involves and I will try to stress
the aspects of the planning process that deal with natural
resources. But first I will have to give you a little back-
ground information on planning itself. I suppose that both in
the United States and in the islands the population explosion
continues. The technical revolution continues, which means
that we will have change. The automobile brought great change
to the nation and I am sure to your islands here.
Our need is to plan for that change, not let it grow hap-
hazardly and wastefully. This involves what the planner calls
"comprehensive planning for our community", and I am using the
term "community" to mean a little township or a city. It may
mean a county or several counties, or a region, or it may mean
several states. I am using it in a very, very general sense.
The planner starts with collecting data about the community,
about what the community has now, and about its problems. With
that information in hand, he then proceeds to devise plans that
are comprehensive plans for the community as a whole. Now again
I am using the word "community" in a very broad sense.
First, let me give you some general information on the type
of basic data or information that goes into the planning process.
Some of the preliminary remarks will just touch on it. For the
present I will not deal in great detail with the problem of
natural resources. I will deal with that later on.
Facts need to be collected about people and about their
creations, about existing public and private employment, trans-
portation facilities, public service facilities and government
building facilities. The climate of an area must be considered.
Then data needs to be collected about the present economic base
of a community: about its people, their educational level, their
skills; about population growth and trends in education; also,
reports on location of schools--elementary and high schools and
colleges, parks, playgrounds. Then also data is needed on the
location of dwelling areas; one-family, two-family, multiple
dwellings; on government and finance. And then, finally, data
needs to be collected on present land uses.
The planner begins designing a zoning ordinance, which is
one of the ways of carrying out the comprehensive plan, with an
inventory of present land uses. How is land used today? Where
are the industrial areas, the business areas, the residential
areas, the farming areas, forest areas, recreational areas, etc.?
And he also finds out the ownership of all land in the community:
federal government, state, county, city or township, other local
government units and private. Finally, he collects data on nat-
ural resources and on problems in the past. Planning has often
neglected certain aspects of the natural resource problems.
Here is a fast rundown of the type of resource information
that a planner needs, to design a good comprehensive plan. First,
he needs soil resource data. Now, planners in planning for rural
areas made use of land use capability ratings for some time; but,
in recent years, they are also starting to make use of soil
survey interpretation maps indicating the suitability of the soil
for purposes such as highways, parks, golf courses, athletic
fields, sewage disposal areas, sand and gravel quarries, for
industrial areas, and for woodland and agricultural areas. I
am just touching on some of the items that go into the planning
process.Another area where it is necessary to consider resource
data is in urban and suburban conservation. In building our
suburbs, there is very often a great deal of needless soil
erosion taking place. With some preplanning, much of this could
be prevented. Under current building practices soil is allowed
to wash into and fill lakes and streams and it is washed onto
the beaches. I heard some of you talk about that last night.
It gets into our streams and valleys, and fills the stream beds.
It kills the fish and harms the area for recreational uses. Then
when floods come, stream beds are quickly flooded and the flood
Agricultural resource data that should be considered when
planning for a community includes information on the number,
value, and improvements on farms. This is important in the plan-
ning process. Very frequently, land in farms or in forests has
been considered undeveloped land by planners. But if you are
going to develop a comprehensive plan, data about such "undevel-
oped land" should be considered. Farm lands and forest lands
can be used to provide the open spaces that make the urban com-
munity more livable. We need information on acreage of woodlands
and other land uses, information on the size and type of farms
(commercial, part-time, etc.), on the extent of pasture and
woodlands, on water and wind erosion, and on irrigation and
drainage facilities in the area.
If an urban subdivision moves into a community in which
there are irrigation and drainage facilities, when they could
go into an area without such facilities, there is a considerable
loss of "sunk" investment. The irrigation facilities will not
be useful for the urban community.
The type and value of agricultural production should be
taken into consideration. The employment that provides the pay-
rolls of the community is also important. If the agricultural
base goes, the agricultural industries, the processing plants,
and the firms that are serving agriculture and the farmer will
Then planners need water resource data. They need to collect
information showing the location of streams, lakes, ponds, and
other bodies of water. The quantity and quality of ground and
surface water are important in the planning process. The loca-
tion of flood plains, swamps and wet land areas of high water
capabilities is also of importance. There should be accurate
maps showing the location of ponds, farm wells, water mains and
other water improvements. Recreational data should go into the
planning process--maps showing the location of present parks
and playgrounds, maps indicating public and private beaches and
swimming pools and other recreational facilities. I'm skipping
down through this list very fast. There are also natural loca-
tions of scenic beauty, historic buildings and sites, including
There is also forest resource data. Consideration should
be given to the forest potentials in an area; forest acreage,
total volume of annual growth, investments in forest industries
and processing industries, also to supply and service firms and
to studies of forest trends in the area. All of these pieces of
information go into the planning process.
Having all of this information at hand, then the planner is
in a better position to begin his comprehensive plan. I am going
to touch on just a few of the types of plans that might be
included in a comprehensive plan:
First, plans for improving transportation and utilities
as the community grows.
Maps showing the location of proposed sewage treatment
plants, water mains, and so on.
Then if you are going to have a larger population in the
community, an economic base has to be provided. Jobs have to
be provided and plans have to be drawn up that concern people;
plans of new schools of all kinds; elementary, junior and senior
high schools, colleges, vocational and training schools; also
plans relating to one-family, two-family, and multiple-family
residential areas; also areas to be set aside for future
industry, for business, for homes, for forest, for farming,
for recreational areas, and for other uses.
Having collected the facts and looked at the community as
a whole, the planner is then in a much better position to suggest
a realistic comprehensive plan for the future development of a
community. He will have to develop plans for reserving land
having transportation advantages for new industries, land for
shopping centers, for schools, parks, playgrounds,and other public
facilities. He will need plans for reserving and developing open
spaces: the steepest slopes, natural drainage areas, floodways,
and other unusual land forms. Zoning plans should indicate the
proposed zoning district for agricultural areas, for residential,
commercial, industrial, forestry and recreational uses. Natural
resource-oriented and agricultural-oriented plans and maps should
be included in the comprehensive plan. And it should include
programs for reserving the water supply for irrigation, for
livestock and domestic purposes; and plan for flood control,
for recreational areas; also resource plans and maps indicating
proposed parks, playgrounds, community and regional parks; and
plans for creating parklands having unique public values, such
as beaches, and dunes, forestry areas, cliffs, and historic
areas, natural environment areas, and plans for an enlargement
and development of forest areas.
A word should be said here about fish and wildlife resources.
Data and facts should be collected relating to fish and wildlife.
Plans for developing wildlife resources and game reserves might
be included, maps showing marshes, swamps and adjacent water areas,
etc. After the planners have prepared the comprehensive plan,
the next step in the planning process is to design ways of
carrying the plan out.
Zoning is one of the ways this is done. Projecting improve-
ments ahead for a number of years is another way. Preparing
official highway maps showing proposed roads, is another way.
The appropriations that the community makes for future public
developments are one of the best ways of directing future growth.
If the community is interested in reserving the fertile land for
farming, for example, but puts a high-speed highway through the
best farming areas, or if it puts sewers and water mains there,
the pressure on the farming area will be terrific, and it will
be extremely difficult to reserve the area for agriculture.
And the same rule would apply to forest areas and to other areas
that the community wants to reserve. There are many factors
that go into the planning process.
At this point, I think I have talked too long already. I
have been rather halting, because I have been taking individual
data from a long outline. I had very few minutes to prepare
this presentation. Thank you very much.
Ladies and Gentlemen, that was Dr. Solberg. Now we have
ten minutes before we close and I see that we have a coffee break
coming up. And before we close, I would like to give the opportunity
to members of the floor to pose a question or two to these fine