Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Basic problems
 Haitian schools of yesterday
 Haitian schools since 1931
 Appendix I. Budget of the direction...
 Appendix II. Physical educatio...
 Appendix III. Programs of...
 Appendix IV. Examinations for the...
 Appendix V. Enrollment in secondary...
 Appendix VI. Inventory of the national...
 Appendix VII. Memorandum of agreement...
 Back Matter

Group Title: United States. Office of Education. Bulletin, 1948,, no. 1
Title: Education in Haiti
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078360/00001
 Material Information
Title: Education in Haiti
Physical Description: v, 90 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cook, Mercer, 1903-1987
Marshall, Kendric N. ( Introduction )
Publisher: United States Government Printing Office
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Publication Date: 1948
Edition: United States Office of Education Bulletin 1948 no. 1
Subject: Education -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Society -- Haiti -- 20th Century
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 86-90.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078360
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000208353
oclc - 24685568
notis - AAX5157

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Basic problems
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Haitian schools of yesterday
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Haitian schools since 1931
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Appendix I. Budget of the direction generale of urban instruction, 1943-44
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Appendix II. Physical education
        Page 66
    Appendix III. Programs of studies
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Appendix IV. Examinations for the certificate of secondary studies
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Appendix V. Enrollment in secondary schools for 1944-45
        Page 81
    Appendix VI. Inventory of the national library on September 30, 1944
        Page 81
    Appendix VII. Memorandum of agreement between the Haitian government and the Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc.
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Back Matter
        Page 91
Full Text

By MercerLCook

Professor of Romance Languages, Howard University
Former Supervisor, English-Teaching Project in Haiti

Bulletin 1948, No. 1

FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY Oscar R. Ewing, Administrator
Office of Education .. . . John W. Studebaker, Commissioner

37 .73

Foreword AMERICA

THE U. S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION has undertaken the
preparation of a series of basic studies on education in a
number of Central and South American countries under the
sponsorship of the Interdepartmental Committee on Cultural
and Scientific Cooperation. This series of studies is part of
a program to promote understanding of educational con-
ditions in the American countries and to encourage co-
operation in the field of Inter-American education. The pro-
ject, a part of a Government-wide program of cultural co-
operation under the auspices of the Department of State, was
begun in the fall of 1943. It involves travel by Office of
Education specialists in the various countries for the purpose
of gathering data first hand on their educational systems,
and the preparation of reports from these data for publication.
Education in Haiti is based on data gathered by the author
in Haiti in 1945 and supplemented since then through docu-
mentary study. This manuscript was prepared under the
supervision of Dr. Cameron D. Ebaugh, Senior Specialist,
American Republics Section. The views expressed therein
are those of the author and do not necessarily represent
those of the Government of the United States.
To the many persons and organizations in Haiti and the
United States who have aided in bringing this study to com-
pletion, the U. S. Office of Education expresses gratitude.
Director, Division of International Educational Relations


Foreword----------------------- ---- ---


Chapter 1. Basic Problems ------ -------

Chapter 2. Haitian Schools of Yesterday ------
Colonial period (1492-1804)--------------------
Independence (1804-1915) ------------------ --
American occupation (1915-1934)-___-------------_

Chapter 3. Haitian Schools Since 1931-------------

General administration_____---
Teacher status --------------------
Urban elementary schools_------
Rural elementary schools --------
School canteens -----------
Normal schools ------------------
Vocational schools ------------
Commercial schools ---------
Secondary schools_----_ ----
The University -----------
Faculty of medicine -------
School of pharmacy ------
School of dentistry -------
School of nursing -----
Faculty of law----------------_

------ 30
------------ 32
---- 42

Faculty of sciences ---- --- ----------
School of applied science_
School of surveying --
Normal courses for secondary school teachers----
College of Agriculture -
Courses for agronomists ------
Normal courses for rural teachers
Other higher schools- ----------
Military Academy---- _-------_-------------------
Apostolic School---------------------------
Bureau of Ethnology----
Centre d'Art-------------------- --------------

Summary-------------- ------------------


I. Budget of the Direction G6n6rale of Urban Instruction,
1943-44 ----------------------- --------------
II. Physical Education .------------------------------
III. Programs of Studies------------------------- --
IV. Examinations for the Certificate of Secondary Studies--
V. Enrollment in Secondary Schools, 1944-45 --------
VI. Inventory of the National Library, 1944 -------------
VII. Memorandum of Agreement between the Haitian Gov-
ernment and the Inter-American Educational Foun-
dation, Inc., 1944 --------------------------------


-------------- 86

M-| ijZ
Ir v

=7 _~

-_ -- I-- L
evening courses leading, respectively, to the degrees of bachelor and licen-
tiate in law.


N THE PREFACE to la Nation haitienne, M. DantBs Bellegarde
observed: "Historically, no people on earth is more deserving than
the Haitian nation-which emerged by heroic effort from the most
degrading slavery-of loyal and sympathetic study by historians in-
terested in the formation and development of states."'
As "one of the most ardent and capable ministers of public instruc-
tion of the twentieth century," 2 M. Bellegarde would readily affirm
that the story of the Haitian school system provides a master key to
an understanding of most Haitian problems. It opens the door to
comprehension of the economic, social, and political difficulties that
have beset the tiny Negro Republic. In many instances, it explains
the shortcomings and the achievements of the Haitian people.
Furthermore, 1946 is an opportune year for a study of education
in Haiti. No comprehensive account in English has appeared since
the Report of the U. S. Commission on Education in Haiti,' published
in 1931. This Commission had been sent to Haiti in 1930, after a
student strike had hastened the end of President Borno's administra-
tion. During the intervening years significant educational reforms
have been attempted under Borno's successors: St6nio Vincent and
Elie Lescot. The student strike of January 7, 1946, which resulted
in the overthrow of the Lescot regime, parallels that of 1929 and there-
fore marks a convenient point at which to take stock.
Numerous individuals-Haitians and North Americans-have
facilitated the preparation of this bulletin. Without the aid of Dorothy
Kirby, former principal of the Lyc6e de Jeunes Filles, the work could
not have been completed. The writer is also indebted to Dantes
Bellegarde and Maurice Dartigue, former ministers of public instruc-
tion; to Lucien Hibbert, dean of the Facult6 des Sciences; to Max A.
Rigaud, former director of vocational education; to Adrien Jeanty,
secretary of the Facult6 de Droit; to Sister Therese, of the Institution
du SacrB Coeur; to F. Morisseau-Leroy, former director of urban
education; to Edith Lamarre, Solange Dominique, and other teachers

I Paris, J. de Gigord, 1938. P. VIII.
2 Logan, Rayford W. Education in Haiti. Journal o] Negro History, October 1930. P. 431. We have
borrowed extensively from this study in the first chapters of this bulletin.
3 Publications of the Department of State, Latin American Series, No. 5; Washington, 1931.

m the public-school system; to the staff of the Haitian embassy in
Washington; to former ambassador Jacques C. Antoine; to Ren6
Piquion; to Ellen Gut, formerly of the Pan American Union; and to
members of the American Republics Section, Division of International
Educational Relations, U. S. Office of Education.
The cooperation of these persons has supplemented observations
of a 22-month stay in Haiti as supervisor of the English-Teaching
Project, first sponsored by the U. S. Office of Education and later by
the Office of Inter-American Affairs.

numerous private elementary schools that operate in the cities of Haiti.

THE REPUBLIC OF HAITI is situated about 50 miles southeast
of Cuba and about the same distance northeast of Jamaica. It
occupies the western third, about 10,700 square miles, of the moun-
tainous island which the Spaniards named Hispaniola. The remain-
ing two-thirds constitute the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic.
At first sight, the visitor understands why the Indians called this
island Haiti (Land of Mountains). Looking down from an airplane,
one sees a succession of lovely green elevations, more than sufficient
to justify the Haitian proverb, "Behind the mountains are other
mountains." The highest of these peaks reaches less than 9,000 feet
above sea level, but more than two-thirds of Haiti is covered by high-
lands. This complicates the construction of roads and renders many
villages practically inaccessible to commerce and to education. The
high rate of illiteracy-estimated at about 92 percent by some observ-
ers '-should be attributed in part to topography.
For administrative purposes, Haiti is divided into five departments:
Artibonite, North, North West, West, and South. The Summary of
Biostatistics, published by the U. S. Bureau of the Census in June
1945, lists the following approximate population figures for these
departments: Artibonite, 490,000; North, 660,000; North West,
150,000; West, 1,000,000; and South, 700,000.2 Without exception,
the principal Haitian cities are seaports.3 In order of size, these are:
Port-au-Prince, the capital, with an approximate population of
I "Although no recent estimates are available, it is improbable that more than 8 percent of the population
over 10 years of age is literate." Basic Data on the Other American Republics, Office of Inter-American
Affairs, 1945, p. 100.
2 Op. cit., p. 29.
a "The country is so mountainous that no cities have grown up in the interior." Leyburn, James G.
The Haitian People. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1941, p. 10, fn.


150,000; Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, and Les Cayes, each of which has
about 20,000 inhabitants; Jeremie, Saint-Mare, and Jacmel, each
with approximately 10,000 inhabitants; and Port-de-Paix, with a
population of about 5,000. The country's 9 public secondary schools,
or lycees, are located in these urban centers. Two lycles, the 3 largest
private secondary schools, the Military Academy, and the Univer-
sity, as well as most of the better public and private elementary,
vocational, and commercial schools, are concentrated in the capital.
Official records for 1942-43 place 10 of the 12 private secondary
schools in Port-au-Prince and an eleventh in P6tionville, which, for
all practical purposes, is but a suburb of the capital. Forty-seven of
the country's private elementary schools are located in Port-au-Prince,
and 3 in Petionville, according to the same official report.4 The
National School of Agriculture (Damien) is less than 5 miles from
This concentration of educational institutions in the very shadow of
the Palais National may have tended to make Haitian students
politically minded. At any rate, the visitor sometimes gets an
impression that many of these pupils keep one eye on their books and
the other on politics. Reenforcing this impression is the fact that
the two most important upheavals of the past 20 years have been
initiated by student strikes that originated in the Port-au-Prince area.
Haiti is primarily an agricultural country; most of its inhabitants
live in the rural districts. In fact, some of the towns are little more
than villages. Exact census figures are not available, both because
of the inaccessibility of certain communities and because of the
peasant's traditional distrust of officials, too often connected in the
past with tidings of taxes and compulsory military or road service.
Moreover, it is unlikely that any serious, scientific attempt has ever
been made to count the total number of Haitians. Most commen-
tators adopt the figure of 3,000,000, in accordance with an estimate
reached by the Haitian Government in 1937. Another estimate,
published by the Catholic Clergy of Haiti in 1938 and based on bap-
tismal records,5 lists a total of 2,663,000. Though both these figures
are approximations, it is none the less evident that perhaps nine-
tenths of the population is rural.
These statistics indicate that the fundamental educational problem
in Haiti, as in various other Latin American countries, is that of the
rural school. An agricultural country, depending almost exclusively
on its production of coffee, sugar, bananas, cotton, and similar crops
for subsistence, Haiti is compelled to try to intensify its agricultural

4 Direction GOn6rale de 1'Enseignement Urbain. Tables et graphiques statistiques de Z'Enseignement
Urbain, 1942-43. Port-au-Prince. Pp. 49, 59.
6 Pan American Union. Haiti. American Nations Series, No. 11; 1942. p. 13.


effort through educating the peasants in modern methods of cultiva-
tion and soil conservation. To an alarming degree, erosion has al-
ready "bled the earth to the bone," 6 in the words of a contemporary
Haitian novelist. With a population density of 280 per square mile,
second to that of no other Republic in the New World, Haiti probably
has less than 1 acre of tillable soil per inhabitant.
Until the problem of rural education is satisfactorily solved, Haiti
seems destined to remain a desperately poor country. The converse
of this statement is also true, for Haitian economics and education
are inextricably linked. Progress has been made in recent years,
but the deplorable facts remain that four out of five peasant children
never attend school;7 that teachers' salaries are inadequate; that
many school buildings are hopelessly unsatisfactory; that equipment
and textbooks are often unobtainable; that malaria, yaws, syphilis,
tuberculosis, and hookworm have undermined the health of the Hai-
tian masses; that, as one Haitian physician states, "the diet of the
Haitian peasant has not changed since slavery days"; s that education
has been tied up too closely with politics. Moreover, the language

CARREFOUR-RAYMOND FARM SCHOOL. Schools of this type provide
practical rural and agricultural education under teachers prepared in the
Central School of Agriculture.

problem continues to plague Haitian educators. The official lan-
guage of the Republic is French while, to quote Leyburn, "not one
peasant out of a hundred can even guess what is being said in that
language."9 All Haitians understand, and most Haitians speak
Creole. Even if the child belongs to one of the exceptional families
SRoumain, Jacques. Gouzerneur de la Rosie. Port-au-Prince, 1944. p. 5.
The Report of the U. S. Commission on Education in Haiti stated: "Three out of four children in Haiti
are not enjoying school advantages, and most of these are without school opportunities." (p.9). In 1944-45
there were 105,310 enrolled in all the schools of Haiti. If we assume that one out of every six inhabitants
is of school age, approximately 500,000 Haitians should be attending school.
B Lherisson, Camille. Diseases of the Peasants of Haiti. American Journal of Public Health, August
1935. p. 924.
Op. cit., p. 279.


who use French at home, he is almost certain to speak Creole with
comrades and domestics. At primary school, even in the urban
centers, French must be taught as a foreign language. The rural
school teacher is expected to use Creole for the first 2 or 3 years,10
so as to bridge the gap between the patois and French, but many of
his charges are not likely to remain in school after the second or
third year. For adult illiterates, recent efforts have been made to
teach the reading and writing of Creole following a system called the
Laubach Method, but lack of funds and of enthusiasm, combined
with an abundance of criticism," have handicapped the development
of this project on a nation-wide scale.
Thus, poverty, ill health, politics, and linguistics are the basic
ills that beset the Haitian school teacher, and the greatest of these
is poverty. A glance at the annual budget is revealing in this con-
nection. From 1916 to 1944, the total yearly revenue ranged between

Table 1.-The Haitian Budget 1931-461

Year General budget tructin Agriculture

1 2 3 4

1931-32---------------------- ----- $6,380, 225.42 $358,248. 43 $325, 292. 64
1932-33........ .------------------------- 6,419, 309.93 359, 680. 55 329,774. 12
1933-34 ....----------------------.-...... ---- 6, 572, 738.97 369, 952. 10 336, 534.97
1934-35... -------.--- --.--------- --..- 6,809,900. 31 395, 782. 10 360, 506.95
1935-36 ...........---------------------------- 6,849,956.21 414,949.60 407,446.33
1936-37--- --- ------------------....--- 6.913, 028. 22 378, 532. 56 407, 314. 50
1937-38.------. -------- -------------- 6, 587, 199.95 505, 660. 06 377, 938. 54
1938-39. ----------------- 5, 537, 795. 67 530,495. 56 363, 052.84
1939-40 -----------....-....-. ------ 5, 736, 772. 24 527,045. 66 2 357, 227.31
1940-41--..---.. --- ----- ------------ 5, 079,399. 71 439, 272. 02 292, 494. 69
1941-42.----------- ------------ --------- 5,574,522.12 476,945.67 391,139.70
1942-43 -....--- ----------- 5,605, 996. 32 484,055. 18 401,158. 50
1943-44---.... --------......----------- 8,404,202.62 547,518.22 488,758.73
1944-45 ...-----.---. -------------- 7,198,200. 00 577,108.20 485,108. 12
1945-46 4. ------- 7, 336,120. 00 606,620. 40 488,629.12

I Unless otherwise specified, these figures are based on appropriations listed in gourdes gourdee, in 1946,
equivalent to about 20 cents, U. S.) in the Annual Reports of the Fiscal Representative. Ordinary, supple-
mentary, and extraordinary disbursements are included, except for 1944-45 and 1945-46. The allocation
for the Department of Agriculture has been included because a sizable proportion of the funds so earmarked-
usually about 60 percent-is applied to rural education. In 1945-46 approximately $431,693 of the amount
appropriated for agriculture and labor is to be used by services connected with rural education. Not in-
cluded in the table is the allotment for the Military Academy which for 1945-46 amounts to $15,000, accord-
ing to le Moniteur of Sept. 13, 1945. The Military Academy and the Medical School are under the juris-
diction of the Interior Department.
2 "For the first 4 months of 1937-38 Labor was a separate department. On Feb. 1, 1938, certain functions
of the Department of Labor were transferred to Agriculture and the balance to Public Instruction." Annual
Report of the Fiscal Representatie, 1939-40. p. 107.
Le Moniteur, Sept. 28, 1944. p. 788.
4 Ibid, Sept. 13, 1945. p. 758.

10 Dartigue, Maurice. Rural Education in Haiti. The Inter-American Quarterly, April 1941.
I This criticism has been directed principally against the Laubach Method. Some Haitians have claimed
that this method teaches Creole as an end in itself and does not facilitate comprehension of French. They
point out that Creole, despite its borrowings from African, Spanish, and English, is fundamentally French,
and they claim that a method devised by the late M. Beaulieu leads more readily to a knowledge of French
than Laubach's phonetic transcriptions. Defenders of the Laubach plan reply that it is intended for adults
who would probably never take the trouble to learn French, and that the rapidity with which it can be
mastered fully justifies the venture. One or two textbooks, Protestant hymnals, and a weekly newspaper,
Limye, Fos, Progre (Light, Strength, Progress), have been published in Creole.


16,048,390.75 gourdes ($3,209,678.15) and 50,421,016.49 gourdes
($10,084,203.29). For 15 years of that period, expenditures exceeded
revenues, with a net deficit of 1,400,851.60 gourdes ($280,170.32).
With so little money available down through the years, it is not
surprising that educational facilities in Haiti have never been adequate.
On less than the average income of a first-class American university,
the Haitians must provide and maintain elementary, secondary,
professional, rural, and vocational schools for a population of approx-
imately 3 millions.
Haiti's school system, modeled on that of France, is centralized
under the minister of public instruction, a title which was changed to
minister of national education late in 1945. Rural schools are admin-
istered by the minister of agriculture, but usually both portfolios
are held by the same person. Toward the end of his administration,
President Lescot separated the two offices. In France, frequent
cabinet changes do not materially disrupt the continuity of public
The bureaucratic organization of the portfolio prevents the polit-
ical character of the office, with the constant danger of sudden changes of
ministry, from reacting harmfully upon the schools.12
Educational reforms in France are usually subjected to careful
deliberation and long discussion before adoption. In Haiti, on the
contrary, political upheavals almost invariably lead to a shake-up of
educational officials and policies. The Revolution of January 1946,
for example, removed not only the president and his cabinet, but also
the deans of the law and medical schools, the directors of urban,
secondary, and vocational instruction, principals of seven of the nine
public lycees, various inspectors, and several members of the staff of
the National School of Agriculture.
This is particularly noteworthy because many of the administrators
so affected had received specialized instruction in foreign countries,
especially in the United States, and Haiti does not possess a surplus
of trained technicians. Efforts have been made to divorce education
from politics, but they seem to be more of a hope than a reality. Once
again we are confronted by the basic evil, the impoverished condition
of the country, which creates a constant scramble for jobs, and jobs
in education are no exception. Unfortunately, merit is not always
the sole criterion; the political nature of school appointments is
further emphasized by the fact that every appointee receives a com-
mission signed by the president. The absence of an effective bureau-
cratic bulwark against undigested modifications, such as exists in
France, makes the minister of public instruction practically omnip-
otent during his brief moment on the scene. Prompted by what is
Farrington, Frederic E. French Secondary Schools. New York, Longmans, Green & Co., 1910. P. 89-90


usually a sincere desire for improvement (and sometimes an urge to
justify his appointment by discrediting his predecessor), he inaugur-
ates reforms, oft-times dictatorially. Whether progressive or not,
these alterations furnish his opponents political ammunition with
which to attack his program. One example from many which might
be cited is that of President Fabre Geffrard's administration (1858-67).
Geffrard's minister of public instruction, Elie Dubois, has come to be
recognized as one of the most active and competent officials ever to
occupy the post. He is credited with having pioneered in the field
of rural and vocational education, with having created numerous new
schools, and with having labored diligently to make compulsory at-
tendance something more than a theoretical regulation. Nevertheless,
his successor, Demesvar Delorme, announced on September 4, 1867,
ontaking over the ministry:
Determined to reorganize instruction, the Government wishes to set out
this without delay. Its program is wide and complete, and we are going to
explain it by actions. It is important to reorganize elementary educa-
tion immediately. Perhaps we should more accurately say, to found it, for
the vague and incomplete manner in which elementary schools are organized
at the moment, makes it impossible for them to attain the objective for which
they are intended.13
Two pages later, Delorme attacked his predecessor more directly:
"Thus it is not a question of deceiving the public, as one has done
these last few years, by the haphazard and confusing creation of
schools in rural districts and villages."
This is typical of a situation that has recurred periodically through-
out the history of Haitian education. As Rayford Logan has pointed
Practically every minister of public instruction-there were thirty-six from
1844 to 1894-showed the vices of the situation, suggested remedies, intro-
duced bills of reform, and, with few exceptions, left the situation almost as
he had found it."
It should also be noted that a large number of Haiti's most distin-
guished citizens have thought, written, and acted on the educational
scene. On the walls of the Lyc6e Petion hangs a list of former princi-
pals of that institution which reads almost like a Who's Who ofHaiti.
Notwithstanding the frequent revolutions and other obstacles, they
have developed a system which, in some respects, has produced
remarkable results. In this connection, they have been aided since
1860 by Catholics, mostly French, who are said to have educated
"about one-fourth of the literate population of Haiti. A few Protestant
bodies also carried on educational work.'15
'l Vincent and Lhbrisson. La Ligislation de l'Instruction Publique. Paris, 1895. p. 470-471.
14 Logan, Rayford W. Education in Haiti. Journal of Negro History, October 1930. p. 411.
16 Buell, Raymond L. The American Occupation of Haiti. Foreign Policy Association, 1929. p. 330.


Prior to the American Occupation (1915-34), "in spite of the in-
adequacy of educational facilities, there grew up in the towns a small
educated class, some of whose members achieved distinction.""1 On
October 26, 1931, the minister of public instruction in France decreed
that the Haitian Certificate of Secondary Studies (second degree)
would be accepted by French universities as the equivalent of the
French baccalaureate in Lettres and Lettres-Sciences.'1 Nevertheless,
"education was confined largely to the towns and was literary in
nature. Although Haiti is an agricultural country, the government
made little effort to establish a system of agricultural and vocational
guidance. The educational system may have produced a Haitian
lite, but it did little for the peasant population."1s
To correct this situation, which numerous Haitian educators had
deplored, the American Occupation devoted much of its effort. It
built rural and vocational schools, organized the Service Technique
with its National School of Agriculture, and adopted active measures
to improve the health of the peasantry. To a considerable degree,
the Americans were the veritable founders of technical and agricul-
tural education in Haiti. "It took the American Occupation to show
the way in the matter of rural education ." 19 a future Haitian
minister of public instruction and agriculture wrote in 1936.
Unfortunately, in fostering their program, the Americans were not
so tactful as they might have been. Dantes Bellegarde has told the
story in Pour une Haiti heureuse and in la Resistance haitienne. In
the report of the U. S. Commission on Education in Haiti, we read:
Notwithstanding the evidence of good faith and good work set forth in
the program of the Service Technique, the intelligent Haitians, with the
exception of a few immediately connected with the service, are practically
unanimous in their opinion that the Service Technique is not a success.
Some Americans in Haiti are also critical of this service. The critics express
generally their hearty approval of the underlying idea.20
The principal objections, as reported by the Commission, Bellegarde,
Logan, and others, may be summarized as follows:
(1) The reforms were carried out with Haitian funds, but without the
consent or counsel of the Haitian officials.
(2) There seemed to be a waste of money; some American officials, chosen
none too judiciously, were judged incompetent or unnecessary by the
11 Ibid., p. 331.
17 Bouchereau and HBraux. Legislation Scolaire. Port-au-Prince, 1933. p. 186.
18 Buell. Op. cit., p. 331.
19 Dartigue, Maurice. L'Oeuvre d'Education Rurale du Gouvernement du Prisident Vincent. Port-au-
Prince, 1936. p. 3.
20 Op. cit., p. 57.


(3) By concentrating on rural and vocational education, the Americans
strengthened the impression that they intended to make the Haitians a
nation consisting exclusively of "hewers of wood and drawers of water."21
As appropriations for urban instruction shrank in proportion to
disbursements for rural and vocational education, the Haitian leaders
became convinced that their traditional system of education was
seriously threatened. Opposition to American innovations was
intensified by national and racial considerations.
This brings us to the final problem under discussion. An admixture
of the French, African, and American cultures, the Haitian combines
the virtues and the defects of this triple heritage. Proud of his
citizenship in the first Latin American country to achieve its inde-
pendence, he is highly sensitive to foreign criticism of his backward-
ness or of the frequent revolutions that have characterized so much
of his history. This sensitivity has been heightened by his color-
Haiti is the only admittedly Negro Republic in the New World-for
he knows that his color has inspired many of the unsympathetic
sensational reports published by Englishmen, Americans, and French-
men. The situation is further aggravated by the existence of an
intra-Haitian color problem. Isolated linguistically from his Latin
American neighbors, he has borrowed most of his institutions from
France, the nation against which his war of independence was fought.
For more than a century he has felt at home in Paris and out of place
in Washington. Nevertheless, two world wars have brought home the'
lesson of his economic dependence on the United States. Wearing
clothes processed in the United States, using tools made in the United
States, taking American medicines, trading principally with the
United States, sending an ever-increasing number of his children to
this country for specialized training, he has realized that Haitian
education, to meet the needs of all the people, should represent a
fusion, or an adaptation of French and American methods to Haitian
life, rather than a mere imitation of one or the other system. This
new orientation cannot be accomplished overnight or by coercion.
It will take time, tenacity, and tact.
Several of the problems mentioned in this chapter are Latin Ameri-
can rather than Haitian. Certainly the existence of a small, highly
cultured group and of a large underprivileged peasantry is not ex-
clusively a Haitian phenomenon. The universality of this condition
is all the more reason for sympathetic study of the Haitian effort to
remedy it. That the attempt has thus far been unsuccessful is less
significant than an understanding of the problems and forces which
have opposed it.
2 Cf. Balch, Emily, and others. Occupied Haiti. New York, The Writers Publishing Co., 1927. p. 116.

W HEN COLUMBUS disembarked on Haitian soil, on December
6, 1492, and established the first European settlement in the
New World, the education of the native Arawak Indians was doubt-
less the least of his worries. Nine years later, with the arrival of the
Franciscans, the quest for gold was slightly camouflaged by the zeal
for converting the natives. In 1503 Ovando encouraged the Fran-
ciscan fathers to teach a goodly number of young Indians to read
and write Spanish, and even recommended a bit of Latin for those
who seemed particularly intelligent.'
As these prospective converts to the gold mines and to Christianity
departed for happier hunting grounds in alarming numbers, they were
replaced by more robust African slaves. About the middle of the
seventeenth century, French buccaneers, who had been operating
from Tortuga Island, took possession of the Western part of His-
paniola. They named their conquest, legalized in 1697 by the Treaty
of Ryswick, Saint Domingue, and it rapidly became the most pros-
perous of France's overseas possessions.
Like the Spaniards, the French used slavery as an ingenious means
of bringing heathen souls closer to God. In 1685 Louis XIV and his
clever minister, Colbert, issued their Code Noir, an amazing melange
of religion and economics, humanitarianism and brutality. Article II
of this document ordered: "All the slaves in our islands will be bap-
tized and instructed in the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman religion."
Soon, however, the planters reacted even against this rudimentary
instruction, on the ground that it would be dangerous to enlighten
the slave.
' Quoted by Bouchereau, Madeleine. Education des Femmes en Haiti. Port-au-Prince, 1944; p. 1.


As the colony became more and more prosperous, the wealthy
planters began to send their youngsters to France to be educated.
On the island itself-
.the education of the different classes of colonial society was greatly
neglected. There were scarcely any schools for the whites themselves. How
could one have thought of instructing blacks and mixed bloods? Finding
no means of education in St. Domingue, the wealthy planters sent their sons
to France. Rich freedmen followed this example: thus a few young mulat-
tjes left for Paris and participated in the exciting life of the great capital.2
Public education was unknown in St. Domingue.3 The few private
schools that existed rarely, if ever, taught more than reading and
writing, and, with the exception of a Catholic school for girls, founded
in Cap-Haitien in 1733, were apparently restricted to white children.
When the news of the French Revolution reached the "Queen of
the Antilles," as the French called the fabulous colony, St. Domingue
was inhabited by about 30,000 whites, 28,000 freedmen, and 500,000
slaves.4 What little education the first two groups possessed loomed
large only by comparison with the illiteracy of the untutored blacks.
With the arrogance of ignorance, the white planters pushed the freed-
men into the arms of the slaves and thereby provided leaders for the
impending revolt. Julien Raimond, "best educated of all the mulat-
toes," 5 Vincent Og6, trained in France, and Alexandre Potion, whom
a Frenchman had taught watchmaking, all played prominent roles in
the events that carried Haiti from revolution in 1791 to independence
in 1804.
The black leaders, with the exception of Toussaint Louverture,
were "totally without education. 'To Dessalines the alphabet never
revealed its mystery.' Christophe did learn to sign his name labori-
ously, but Jean Frangois, Biassou, Bouckmann, and Jeannot were
probably absolutely illiterate." 6 As for Toussaint, Pierre Baptiste
Simon, his father (or godfather) "taught him to speak, read and
write French, but Creole remained the language in which he expressed
himself with greatest facility. While still a slave Toussaint did
considerable reading." 7
A present-day Haitian writer reports that Toussaint "took a very
special interest in public instruction. He founded numerous schools
that he visited in keeping with his custom of checking up personally

Bellegarde, Dantts, la Nation haitienne. Paris, J. de Gigord, 1938. p. 62.
3 Dartigue, Maurice, I'Enseignement en Haiti, Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie de 1'Etat, 1939. p. 5.
* Bellegarde, la Nation haitienne, p. 32. Rayford W. Logan (Educationin Haiti. Journal of Negro His-
tory, October 1930, p. 410.) believes "that in 1804 there were probably fewer than 20,000 mulattoes in Haiti;
that of them only a very small number had an elementary education."
3 Page and Brulley, Diveloppement et causes des troubles Paris, 1793. p. 61.
6 Logan. Op. cit., p. 409.
7 Korngold, Ralph. Citizen Toussaint, Boston, Little, Brown and Co., 1944. p. 57.


schools are commonly of the one-room type, the Furcy School, near
Port-au-Prince, has a building for each activity.
on everything. As modern in 1801 as any government of the present
century, he sent several young Negroes to France to be educated
there on government scholarships." 8 Nevertheless, Toussaint's Con-
stitution of 1801, to which Napoleon objected so strenuously, men-
tioned education in but 1 of its 77 articles: "Any person will have the
right to open establishments for the education and instruction of
youth, with the permission and under the surveillance of the municipal
administrations." 9 From 1791 to 1804 St. Domingue was the scene
of a series of bloody conflicts. The French planters, the Spaniards,
the English, traitors within his own ranks, and finally some 25,000
French troops that Napoleon sent under General Leclerc's command
probably prevented Toussaint from devoting much attention to
public instruction.
In short, the educational heritage left by the French in St.
Domingue was meager. It did little more than to establish a tradition
of sending children of privileged islanders to Parisian schools.
INDEPENDENCE (1804-1915)
On January 1, 1804, Jean-Jacques Dessalines proclaimed Haiti's
independence and, following Napoleon's example, declared himself
emperor. A tremendous task of rehabilitation confronted the nation.
Cities and plantations, that had been burned to delay Leclerc's
invasion, had to be rebuilt. The possibility of future hostilities with
the French or with other European powers alarmed by the existence
of an independent Negro country in the midst of colonial Latin
America, compelled the Haitians to construct fortresses like Chris-
8 Brutus, Timoleon C. Rancon de Gdnie, Port-au-Prince, Edition Theodore, 1945-1946, vol. 1. p. 380.
SConstitution frangaise des colonies de St. Domingue. Paris, 1801. p. 7.

5 .'


tophe's famous Citadelle La Ferriere. A mass of ex-slaves had to be
prepared, by education, for the responsibilities of citizenship.
If the great Toussaint had lived,'1 this threefold challenge-
economic, political, and educational-might have been met. Dessa-
lines's genius, however, was almost exclusively military, and his reign
too short-lived for constructive educational planning. Assassinated
on October 17, 1806, the Father of Haitian Independence left several
forts but few schools to his compatriots. Article 19 of the 1805
Constitution specified: "In each military district, a public school will
be created for the instruction of youth." As there were six military
districts of the country, this regulation, if actually carried out, would
indicate that the entire country possessed but six public schools in
1805 and 1806. The Constitution of 1806 made no mention of public
That there was some desire for education in these early days is
attested by incidents like the following:
Mr. Acloque has often told me how a young shoemaker of Port-au-
Prince had found an old copy of Lhomond's grammar in a cellar ....
Some people would meet at the shoemaker's to study together, others at
home would make manuscript copies of the little book.12
The revolution that unseated and beheaded Dessalines finally
resulted in a schism that divided the country between two of Tous-
saint's military aides. In the North, Henri Christophe became King
Henri I, and in the West and South, Alexandre Potion took over as
Between 1807 and 1820, Christophe established various elementary
schools in the principal cities of his kingdom, and a Royal Academy at
the Cape. To help with his program, he imported a number of
Englishmen and women. From the Baron de Vastey's Essay on the
Causes, etc., Logan has quoted the following table as an indication of
Christophe's educational realizations:

Table 2.-Educational Realizations of Henri Christophe
Royal Academy

Number of pupils in-

and Gramin Geog-
Latin English Total
compo- mar raphy

Prof. J. Daniels, M.A ..-..------ ....------- 11 42 19 16 61

to He had died on April 7, 1803, in a French prison, the Fort du Joux.
11 Vincent, Stenio and Lherisson, L. C. La Ligislation de l'Instruction publique. Paris, Vve. Ch. Dunod
et P. Vicq, 1895. p. 8.
12 Pressoir, Catts. Historique de l'Enseignement en Haiti. Revue de la Societi d'llistoire et de Gdographie
d'Haiti, January 1935. p. 33-34.


National Schools

Founded Place Reading Arithme- Total
Bible tic

1 2 3 5

October 1816.---- Cape-Henry-- 98 120 249
May 1817 -- .. .--..- Sans-Souci. .. 28 30 36
April 1817.- Port de Paix 55 83 133
May 1817-- .--- ----..--- ----- Gonaives. .----- 48 53 120
November 1817 ------.... --------. St. Marc--- e.......... ..... 58 100 172
December 1819 --- .-------.------ Port Royal -----------.- .... -- .... 60
January 1820--------------------- Limb -------------------- ---- ------- 60
Do.----.. -----------------Borgne- ------------------- - 60
Do --...------------ St. Louis.-------- ---- -- 60
Do--...------... .----- Jean Rabel- ------------ - 60
Do -... ... ------------ -- Plaisance ------------------ ------ 60
Total ------ 287 386 I 1,110

I Logan, Rayford W. Education in Haiti. Journal ofNegro History, October 1930, p. 416.

Five of these schools were founded in 1820; none of them seems to
have long survived the monarch's suicide on October 8 of that year.
To the South, President P6tion's administration (1807-1820) was
marked by two more durable advances in the field of education. The
Constitution of 1816 decreed, for the first time in Haiti, that public
instruction should be gratuitous. Every subsequent Constitution
repeated this stipulation, at least insofar as elementary education
was concerned.13 P6tion's other significant contribution was the
founding of the lycIe at Port-au-Prince in 1816. This secondary school,
which bears the name of its founder, is the oldest institution of its
kind in the republic.
According to a prospectus of March 1, 1816, the following subjects
were taught at the Lyc6e Potion:
Latin, French, English, and other modern languages; mathematics, in-
cluding arithmetic, geometry, rectilinear and spherical trigonometry,
algebra and its application to arithmetic and geometry; statics and navi-
gation; ancient and modern geography; sacred and secular history; book-
keeping, drawing, music, fencing, and dancing.14
In all probability, this curriculum was never applied in its entirety;
there has often been wide divergence between the printed program
and actual practice in Haitian education.
Another general, Jean-Pierre Boyer, succeeded Potion, and was able
to reunite the North and South. Unfortunately, education did not
benefit from the change. "Sharing the ideas of his time against public
instruction, he (Boyer) did not devote sufficient attention to the edu-
cation of the people." Instead, he placed a burden on future
budgets by agreeing to pay an indemnity of 150 million francs to the
French. In return, Charles X recognized the Haitian Republic.
"r Vincent and Lh6risson. Op. cit., p. 10-11. The 1935 Constitution made an exception of higher education.
14 Ibid., p. 37 fn.
1 Bellegarde. la Nation haitienne, p. 105.


Though the indemnity was finally reduced to 60 million francs, and
though Boyer somehow managed to leave a surplus in the National
Treasury when he was forced to retire in 1843, payments on the in-
demnity, like appropriations to the Army, may have been partly
responsible for the chronic lack of sufficient funds for education.
Despite Boyer's indifference to the public schools, "the first law
regulating the organization of public instruction in Haiti" 16 was
voted during his administration, on July 4, 1820. Three years later
the Academy of Haiti was founded, with a course of study comprising
medicine, law, literature, astronomy, etc. For 2 or 3 years during
Boyer's regime a National School of Navigation functioned but, like
the Haitian Academy, it disappeared even before the 1843 Revolution
removed Boyer from office.
As usual, the revolution was accompanied by a new constitution.
That of 1843 placed the schools under the direction of a minister of
public instruction, and made specific mention of girls' schools for the
first time. In a circular of November 29, 1844, the first minister of
public instruction, M. Honor Fery, announced:
Our entire system of public instruction is to be reconstructed; under the
previous government it existed in name only. And so, what results has it
produced during a quarter of a century? How truly is this lost time to be
regretted! 1
Fery tried to stimulate the establishment of schools by the various
communes. He even offered financial assistance from government
funds, but his appeal fell on deaf ears. Many of his successors were
to meet with the same rebuff. Tradition, the centralized school sys-
tem, poverty, and perhaps a certain apathy have placed almost the
entire burden of public instruction on the national government. The
first communal schools-three urban and three rural-were organized
in 1843.
In 1844 the nation's second lycee, that of Cap-Haitien, was founded,
and 1 year later a third national secondary school was opened at Les
Cayes. Vincent and Lherisson note that the first public primary
school for girls was organized in 1844. Two years later "the Maison
Central was created, designed to receive small vagabonds. During
Geffrard's government, this institution was reorganized and became
a trade school while preserving its correctional character." 18
The next important date in the history of Haitian education was
1848. In that year the illiterate and incompetent Faustin Soulouque,
whom the politicians had maneuvered into the presidency, was about
to declare himself Emperor Faustin I. Paradoxically, "under the
16 Bouchereau. Op. cit., p. 11.
1" Vincent and Lherisson. Op. cit., p. 430.
Is Dartigue. I'Enseignement en Haiti, p. 12.


government of Soulouque, the most criticized ruler of Haiti, the most
important laws in the history of education were passed." In De-
cember 1848 the first law for the creation of rural schools stipulated:
A:ticle 117. There shall be established on the rural habitations national
schools where the precepts of religion, reading, writing, and the fundamentals
of arithmetic shall be taught. The pupils shall learn to apply the best pos-
sible methods for the most productive cultivation of the land. The girls shall
learn to sew.
Article 118. These shall be boarding schools where the greatest possible
number of children of agricultural families shall be educated at government
expense. They may also admit boarding and day students supported by
parents or municipalities.
Article 119. There shall be annexed to each rural school sufficient land
which, when cultivated by the children themselves, shall provide for the total
or at least a part of their subsistence.
Normal schools, three new lyces, fines for parents whose children
withdrew from school before attending for 7 years, were also provided
by this law.
Theoretically excellent, these regulations of 1848 did not begin to
emerge from the limbo of printed but unenforced Haitian statutes
until 1859. Deposed by revolution, Emperor Faustin I was succeeded
by President Fabre Geffrard, who had the foresight to appoint Elie
Dubois as his minister of public instruction. With some modifica-
tions, Dubois resurrected the law of 1848 and attempted to realize
most of its provisions. By October 1861, thanks to his efforts, there
were 242 public schools: 4 lycees; 2 boys' secondary schools operating
on government subsidies; 2 boarding schools for girls; 89 elementary
schools for boys; 50 elementary schools for girls; 90 national rural
schools; 2 state-subsidized girls' schools; and 3 state-subsidized boys'
Reference has already been made to Dubois's interest in vocational
education, rural schools, and compulsory attendance. In this latter
connection, he issued an Appeal to the Conscience of Parents on June
12, 1860. His circular of July 27, 1861, called the attention of parents
to the "irregularity of the pupils in our public schools." He re-
minded parents of the sacrifices that the government was making,
and warned that drastic measures would be taken if the situation
did not improve.
Through no fault of Dubois, this problem of enforcing attendance
has remained acute. Since 1874 every Haitian constitution has
stated that primary instruction is gratis and compulsory. Thus, as
Bellegarde has pointed out, Haiti preceded France by 8 years in

19 Gagneron, Marie. The Development of Education in Haiti. Unp. master's thesis, Atlanta University,
1941. p. 23.
20 Bouchereau. Op. cit., p. 14. Quoted from Elie Dubois, Deux Ans de Mfinistere. Paris, 1867.


decreeing compulsory attendance. There is reason to believe, how-
ever, that the measure proved more practical in France than in Haiti.
In 1874 Thomas Madiou complained of "parents unwilling to send
their children to school regularly." 21 This, he said, was especially
true of rural schools. As a remedy, he decreed that rural schools
would hold continuous classes from 10 a. m. to 4 p. m., so that children
might have time to work in the fields in the early morning or late
afternoon. As recently as 1942, Dartigue decried the indifference of
parents and explained that some children stay away because they
lack clothing.22 It should be noted, moreover, that topography, an
insufficient number and inadequate distribution of schools, frequent
illness, and climate-even in Port-au-Prince, teachers and students
remain at home when it rains-hinder regular attendance.
To return to 1860 and to a brighter aspect of Haitian education,
this was the year in which a Concordat with the Vatican was signed,
thus making possible the establishment of Catholic schools in the
republic. With government support, the Catholics agreed to open
various schools in the capital and elsewhere. Though these schools
were under the nominal jurisdiction of the minister of public instruc-
tion, the Church authorities had practically a free hand. Neverthe-
less, these schools followed the official government curriculum, and
the archbishop, bishops, and cur6s, became ex officio members of the
various commissions of public education, which, for the most part,
have existed only on paper.
Many Haitians have paid tribute to these schools. "Let us hasten
to add," write Vincent and Lh6risson, "the Fathers of the Petit
Seminaire, the Brothers of Christian Instruction, the Sisters of St.
Joseph de Cluny, and the Sisters of Wisdom, have labored constantly
since their arrival in the country for the intellectual and moral well-
being of Haitian youth." 23 In 1906 Fleury F6quiBre, a champion of
vocational education, praised the Madeleine Orphanage, founded in
1893 by the Sisters of St. Joseph de Cluny. More recently Dant&s
Bellegarde has lauded the contribution of these French and Belgian
missionaries to Haitian education.24
To be sure, these schools have been accused of devoting too much
time to religious instruction, of being more French than Haitian, of
sometimes obstructing necessary reforms. Nevertheless, the im-
partial visitor to St. Louis de Gonzague, to the Petit SBminaire, or to
the Institution du Sacr6 Coeur, three of the Catholic schools in
Port-au-Prince, is compelled to admit that the national schools in
the capital suffer by comparison. The causes of this superiority are
21 Vincent and Lherisson. Op. cit., p. 482.
22 Educational Yearbook of the International Institute of Teachers College, 194~. p. 230.
3 Op. cit., p. 46.
24 Cf. Pour une Haiti heureuse, p. 193, 198; la Risistance haftienne, p. 87.


varied, but may be attributed chiefly to material advantages, and to
the fact that their work is less affected by political shake-ups. Most
of their instructors consider teaching a career and devote their entire
time to it, whereas many public-school teachers to make ends meet
are obliged to seek part-time employment. In the rural districts
their work, though less spectacular, has been characterized in many
instances by sacrifice and service.
Protestant missions also have aided the Haitians. Christophe, and
to a lesser degree P6tion, benefited from their efforts. "The English
Wesleyans," Logan observes, "preceded the Catholics in establishing
schools." 25 Though Haiti, like her Latin American neighbors, is
predominantly Catholic, Haitian constitutions have regularly in-
sisted on freedom of religion. All sects have had the right to estab-
lish churches and schools. One of the outstanding Protestant mis-
sionaries of nineteenth century Haiti, the Reverend Mr. Bird, has
listed 2,700 students as enrolled in Wesleyan, Baptist, and Episcopal
schools of Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, JNr6mie, and
Jacmel prior to 1867. 26
Revolution and constitution followed revolution and constitution
with the passing years. If education had been able to seep through
to the masses, the unbridled ambitions of political opportunists and
unscrupulous military leaders might have been checked. Instead,
instruction for the few seemed the unwritten law and proved to be
more effective than most of the printed statutes. The distance be-
tween social classes widened as the more fortunate sent their young-
sters to the Petit S&minaire, to St. Louis de Gonzague, or even to
Study in France, as we pointed out earlier, was a tradition that
went back to colonial days. Anxious to give their children the best
possible education, parents who could afford it-and some who could
not-continued the practice after Haiti had become independent.
The Haitian Government made scholarships available. In 1895
Vincent and Lh6risson stated that 22 Haitians were then studying
abroad on such scholarships.
On the other hand, considerable opposition to this custom devel-
oped as early as 1867. On September 4 of that year Delorme hoped
to improve Haitian schools to such an extent that it would become
unnecessary to send children to Europe.
Most often they either die in Europe from the rigors of winter, or they do
unsatisfactory school work, far from the control, counsel, and care of their
parents. But for a few honorable exceptions, they bring back to their
country only the prejudices of classical studies along with ideas of which
patriotism is not the basis.27
2 Op. cit., p. 438.
SIbid., p. 439.
? Vincent and Lh6risson. Op. cit., p. 470-471.


A similar objection was voiced 22 years later by M. L6ger Cauvin
before the Constituent Assembly at Gonaives, and M. Fleury
FequiBre was even more emphatic in 1906.
The argument continued, and so did the custom, until momentarily
checked by travel restrictions imposed by two world wars. Obviously,
even if Haitian professional schools had been of exceptional caliber,
it would still have proved advantageous for a minority of serious,
gifted Haitians to establish intellectual contact with the brilliant
minds of the University of Paris. Nevertheless, it was equally
obvious that education at home needed to be widened at the base.
That numerous Haitians recognized this need is evident from many
eloquent pages in their literature and from various excellent but
unenforced laws. Perhaps the best illustration was that of the nor-
mal school. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
a veritable chorus of Haitian writers insisted that a school could be
no stronger than its faculty. The laws of December 1848 and Decem-
ber 1860 authorized the creation of teacher-training schools. On
June 2, 1877, a project for two normal schools: one for boys and the
other for girls, was voted by the Chamber of Deputies but rejected by
the Senate. In 1903 Minister Bonamy submitted a similar project
which never came up for discussion by the Legislature. Three years
later FequiBre wrote: "The Republic of Haiti today is still without a
single normal school for primary instruction." 28 Not until 1913 was
a girls' normal school finally opened; one for boys began a useful but
ephemeral existence in 1932, only to be closed in 1941.
The tragic story of the normal school was more or less true of many
other urban institutions during the first period of Haitian indepen-
dence. In 1860 Dubois claimed that most of the students in the
medical school were ignorant of the elementary essentials of French.
He spoke of the real organization of this school as a matter for future
consideration. Ten years later the law of 1870 remedied this situa-
tion, but Robert Parsons in 1930 related subsequent vicissitudes that
befell the institution.29 The National Law and Music Schools, which
Dubois created in 1860, were discontinued in 1867 by Provisional
President Nissage Saget. The Law School did not reopen until 1888
and 2 months thereafter its doors were again closed until 1890. The
National Music School which, however, "was once one of our most
flourishing higher schools," 30 and the School of Painting both dis-
appeared after a few years. The lycees somehow managed to continue
their precarious existence, though ridiculously low salaries and fre-
quent turnover in personnel lessened their effectiveness. A more

28 Fequiere, Fleury. I'Education haitienne. Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie de l'Abeille, 1906. p. 271.
2 Cf. his History of Haitian Medicine, New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1930.
30 Vincent and Lherisson. Op. cit., p. 57.


practical secondary school program was devised in 1906 by a special
committee, but the minister of public instruction and his chef de
division were relieved of their posts before the plan could be inaugu-
In the rural districts the situation was even worse. In 1895
Vincent and Lherisson painted a word picture of one rural school as
they had seen it 5 years earlier. Dilapidated and insanitary, it
combined the most objectionable features of saloon and stable. Teach-
ers' salaries, as late as 1906, were in some cases as low as 15 gourdes
a month, and often this pittance could not even be collected. In 1912
the Catholics signed a convention with the Haitian Government
whereby they agreed to create presbyteriall" schools in rural areas.
"Directed very often by incompetent lay teachers, these schools were
devoted solely to the teaching of reading, writing, arithmetic, and
catechism," 32 Mme. Bouchereau declares. The number of these
schools, Logan reports, rose to 259 and then dropped to 105 within 6
years after the convention was signed. The peasant seemed fated to
remain illiterate.
The handwriting on the wall was legible to Haitian authors. Ac-
cording to Logan:
Both Firmin and Bellegarde, among many others, warned that unless the
government reformed its program it was only a question of time before some
other country would step in and do it Haitian leaders at the beginning
of the century had come to realize that the independence of their country
was doomed unless a radical change was made. Their J'Accuse was perhaps
more scathing than the condemnations contained in the reports of the
American High Commissioner, the Financial Adviser, or the Director General
of the Vocational Department. Here, as elsewhere, however, the prophets
failed to get a hearing. The end was near; the diagnosis was correct. The
patient failed to heed the advice of his own physicians; foreigners intervened
and wrote the same prescriptions that he had refused to have filled.3
In 1915 after 11 years of independence, the threefold challenge that
had confronted Dessalines was still awaiting its solution. With the
aid of Christophe, Potion, Dubois, Dehoux, Guilbaud, Bellegarde,
the missionaries, and others, progress had been made in education,
appreciable progress insofar as classical instruction for the Blite was
concerned. Splendid laws had been formulated, even for rural
education, but politics and economics had bruised and battered them
beyond recognition. To continue Logan's analogy, a new physician
arrived on the scene, and he prescribed not medicine but a major

31 This plan has been reported in detail in Bellegarde, la Nation haitienne, p. 252-271.
32 Bouchereau. Op. cit., p. 21.
33 Op. cit., p. 429-430.


American Marines landed at Port-au-Prince on July 28, 1915, and
occupied the country until August 21, 1934.34 The political pot had
boiled over in Haiti. Between August 1912 and July 1915 there had
been five presidents, and just prior to the arrival of the Marines, the
last chief executive had been assassinated by a populace infuriated
by a wholesale massacre of political prisoners. To restore stable
government, protect foreign interests, and prevent German seizure
of customs control and of the Mole St. Nicholas were the main reasons
advanced by American officials to justify the intervention.35 The
validity of these reasons and of our moral right to intervene are
controversial questions beyond the province of the present study.
Our major interest here is the influence of these 19 years on the
Haitian school system.
With respect to education, the period was characterized by good
intentions that were often handicapped by misunderstanding. Though
the treaty of September 16, 1915, did not specifically mention educa-
tion, the Americans soon realized that the country would never be-
come truly rehabilitated until rural and vocational instruction was
provided for the masses. On page 5 of his Second Annual Report,
the American High Commissioner, Gen. John Russell, stated:
As already pointed out, the energies of the Haitian Government at present
should be directed along lines of agricultural development and training, and
vocational instruction. It is my unqualified opinion that there should be no
hesitation about or diversion from this policy.
The principal Haitian opposition was directed not so much against
this program as against the methods by which it was carried out.
Dantes Bellegarde, minister of public instruction and agriculture
from 1918 to 1921, would have included the improvement of all
Haitian schools in the reform, and indeed recommended an extension
of agricultural training, the establishment of normal courses for boys,
the raising of teachers' salaries, and numerous other useful projects,
only to see most of them rejected by the Financial Adviser.3"
Notwithstanding budgetary difficulties and the incessant wrangling,
this resourceful minister was able to introduce various measures, many
of which have continued, in one form or another, to the present day.
Among the most important of these modifications were: The reor-

a4 Although the Marines did not leave Haiti until 1934, U. S. control of public works, the sanitation service,
and the Service Technique-the latter included supervision of the program of rural and vocational educa-
tion-terminated on October 1, 1931, as the result of the Haitianization agreement signed on August 5, 1931.
Cf. Millspaugh, Arthur C. Haiti Under American Control, Boston. World Peace Foundation, 1931.
p. 194.
3 On pages 61-62 of his account, Millspaugh quotes a letter in which former Secretary of State Robert
Lansing discussed the causes of the intervention.
36 Cf. Bellegarde. Pour une Haiti heureuse. Vol. II, p. 173-249.




1849 1860

1888 1895 1912
Number of Public Schools in Haiti, 1849-1945






Pip. l~i


ganization of the ministry of public instruction; the creation of a
salary scale and a system of classifying and promoting teachers; the
reform of provincial lyckes, which prevented unnecessary duplication
and provided economies for other educational projects; the inaugura-
tion of school canteens; the drafting of rules for the elementary and
superior brevets which are awarded after successful completion of the
elementary and superior elementary (primaires superieures) studies;
the creation of the complementary course; the establishment of a
Department of Home Economics in the Elie Dubois School; the addi-
tion of trade schools to the School of Applied Science; and the pre-
liminary organization of the University of Haiti by the law of August
4, 1920.
If "American disorganization," as Millspaugh has termed the period
1915-22, had not been so confusing, the Occupation authorities might
have profited immensely from close cooperation with a man of Belle-
garde's competence and integrity. Instead, it was decided on April
17, 1923, to establish the Service Technique de l'Agriculture et de
1'Enseignement Professionnel as a separate unit under American
direction. According to the U. S. Commission on Education in Haiti:
the motives of the leaders of this movement to try to render a real
service to the Haitian people cannot be questioned. The state of mind
of the Haitians following the American Occupation and their lack of approval
have doubtless made it difficult to secure their cooperation on any construct-
ive policy or program. Occupation of any country by a foreign nation always
gives rise to problems difficult and perplexing . The Commission is of
the opinion that the setting up of a distinct and separate system of schools
for primary children in city and country, under a different and distinct
state department, the Department of Agriculture, was a mistake.37
Nevertheless, it must be admitted that significant accomplish-
ments resulted from the American efforts. At the outset, Haiti
lacked trained agronomists, rural and vocational teachers, rural
schools, well-equipped laboratories, and accurate statistics on rural
economy. By 1931 the following had been realized:
The founding of the Central School of Agriculture, with its laboratories
and its library, designed to prepare agricultural technicians and instructors
for rural and vocational schools; the creation and construction of a secondary
agricultural school at Chatard, of seventy-four farm schools, the creation of
four trade schools for boys and two for girls, as well as the reorganization of
three schools already in existence: the construction at Port-au-Prince in 1930,
of four large buildings for trade schools; the introduction of the first linotype
machine in Haiti and the organization of courses in linotyping and printing;
the preparation and editing of textbooks in agriculture and animal hus-
bandry; the preparation at the Central School of Agriculture of 130 teachers
for farm schools and of seventeen directors or teachers for trade schools, of
eighteen agricultural and veterinary agents; the preparation of seven-
teen assistants for the Experimental Stations and the Central School; the
3 Op. cit., p. 60.




1860 1875

1888 1895 1912
Enrollments in Haitian Schools, 1860-1945

1939 1945

in 1ian

J Flg. 2


awarding of scholarships or the obtaining of scholarships from American
universities for thirteen students; the moral or material encouragement
given four others for study abroad. Of these seventeen students traveling
in the United States, eight have been prepared for education .seven
have received their master's degrees from reputable American universities,
such as Columbia, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, California, Ohio State,
Kansas State. 38
Dartigue's r6sum6 should be supplemented by statistics which
Millspaugh cited from various reports of the High Commissioner
and the Financial Adviser:
Four hundred agriculturists and teachers were given training up to 1930.
Ten rural farm schools with an enrolment of 642 were open in 1925. There
were reported to be 65 farm schools at the end of 1929 with an enrolment
of 7,493, and eight industrial schools with 3,293 pupils. A fund of $600,000
which had been reserved for irrigation, was appropriated in 1929 for the
building at Port-au-Prince of industrial schools, which were to accommodate
6,000 children and replace forty Haitian-directed schools. It was stated in
April 1930 that there were 70 rural and ten urban schools, with a total en-
rolment in the 80 schools of 9,349. A secondary agricultural school was
opened in 1928-1929, as "an experiment to determine whether or not it
would be possible to draw from the rural districts a group of intelligent and
energetic young men who would be educated and trained as teachers of agri-
culture." Evening classes were started for adults in Port-au-Prince in 1927,
and such instruction was given in 16 rural schools in 1929 to 635 students,30
In addition to the rural and trade school program, the Occupation
authorities obtained, after considerable controversy, control of the
National School of Medicine in 1926. The institution was entirely
reorganized, and a new building erected. Substantial financial aid
was granted by the Rockefeller Foundation for equipment and
These achievements become all the more impressive when we re-
member that they were accomplished in less than 10 years. In that
brief period the Americans provided the Haitians with an excellent
framework on which to build an adequate system of rural and vo-
cational schools. To some extent, the age-old prejudice, common to
many 1ite families in Latin America, against working with one's
hands, was shaken. The promise of higher salaries attracted various
younger members,of the upper class to useful careers as agronomists.
On the debit side of the ledger, enrollment and attendance figures
proved that much still remained to be done.41 Moreover, the Service
Technique had aroused nationalist opposition. The student strike
of 1929 began "at the Central School of Agriculture at Damiens,
partly because of the fear that some of the money used for scholar-

3s Dartigue. I'Enseignement en Haiti. p. 18.
3' Op. cit., p. 163-164.
41 Dartigue. l'Enseignement en Haiti. p. 19.
I1 Cf. table 3.


Table 3.1-Schools Under the Direction of Haitians and of the
Service Technique


Enroll- Average
Number Ent1- attend-
ment ance

1 2 3 4


Girls .---.--------------..--------.-.
Boys------... --..... .---------------
Girls .... .....-----------------------
Communal ----... --........ ..---------
Mi-temps (part-time) --- .-----
Presbyterial and Catholic-
Boys ...------------------....-------
Girls.. .....-------------------------

Total.-----......----- ......----.--

Girls...... ---------.......----
Private .......-.------------------.
Communal. _..---------.------..-
Presbyterial and Catholic-
Girls ..-.........-----------

Total ........----------------------------.------------..........

National congregational (Catholic) Urban and rural:
Brothers, boys ...- .... -------------------.. .....
Sisters, girls -.. -----------.------------------------

Total ..-------------.----------..------

Superior primary schools-..--..--..................-...............
Grand total, primary..............................
Boys.--........ ...--------------------------.........
Girls -..... ----....--................ ..........

Private schools for boys collegess) ---.. --....... .... ...-..-....
Private schools for girls -.........----- .........- ........ .. .......-
Public schools for boys (lgeds).....--........-............-- ...-
Normal schools for girls .---.....----------------------- -.
Special schools ----.----------------------------.....

Total ............................... ...---.

Private (Sciences appliques) ......-----......................










1, 067

10, 753



36, 332

17, 305
5, 895



6, 256

12, 895

86, 284


8, 247

3, 697
1, 030
1, 847



4, 476





67, 448


7 2,322 2,204
8 1,896 1,839
6 1,146 868
2 47 46
5 116 105

28 5,527 5,062


1 25 25

1 This table, published on pages 8-9 of the Report of the U. S. Commission on Education in Haiti (1931)
furnished the basis for that Commission's statement that three out of four children in Haiti were not enjoy-
ing school advantages in 1930.
2 Taken from a State Department bulletin, 1929.

- - - -
- - - -
- - - -
- - - - .-



School Number Teachers and Day enroll-
employees ment

S2 3 4

Ecole Centrale ------ -----------------------.. -----.. 1 43 207
Ecole Elie Dubois ----------........-------------. 1 15 172
Maison Centrale -------------------------............ 1 34 359
Boys' industrial schools...--.--.---.------.------------- 5 82 1, 523
Girls' industrial school .- ------------------------------ 1 11 155
Farm schools ---...-------. ------------------------ 60 126 6,858
Total..---- .....-----..----.---------.--- ..-69 311 9,274
Night school enrollment (Industrial and Farm schools) -- ......---------.. ----...----- 1,709
Summer school enrollment (Ecole Centrale) ----------- ----------.......---------- 447
Total enrollment Service Technique schools -.... --.------------ -----...... 11,430

3 Annual Report Technical Service of the Department of Agricultural and Vocational Service, 1928-29.

ships would be used to pay the salaries of six new 'experts' that Dr.
Freeman [American director of the school] was said to have brought
from America with him and, because of the conviction that these
'experts' would be given the very positions for which they were being
trained. Out of this strike grew the troubles that caused President
Hoover to state the necessity for a new policy in Haiti. This resulted
in the appointment of the Forbes Commission and of the Moton
Commission, the latter to study educational conditions."42
Though the strike of 1929, like that of 1946, was initiated by the
students, it enlisted the support of older Haitians who were incensed,
for one reason or another, by the American intervention. One Haitian
told the writer that he enrolled in the Law School merely to be eligible
to participate in the demonstrations. Subsequently the strike spread
to other sectors of the population. President Louis Borno, whom many
considered a puppet in the hands of the Occupation authorities, was
replaced by Provisional President Eugene Roy, free elections were
held, and Haitian schools returned, considerably improved, to their
rightful owners.

42 Logan. Op. cit., p. 460 fn.

VIEWED against the turbulent background of 1900-15, the period
1931-46 was, in the main, a peaceful one.' Two presidents-
St6nio Vincent (1931-40) and Elie Lescot (1941-46)-duly elected in
accordance with Haitian law, administered the country, albeit dicta-
torially when judged by North American standards. This era of
relative tranquillity provided an atmosphere favorable to educational
progress, though poverty and the other problems outlined in chapter I
still confronted the school officials. Vincent had long been interested
in education. In 1895 he had collaborated with L. C. Lherisson on la
Legislation de l'Instruction publique, an indispensable volume for the
student of Haitian education. With Dantis Bellegarde he had pre-
pared two textbooks, I'Annie enfantine d'histoire et de geographie
d' Haiti, and 1' Ecolier haitien. Later he had directed a private business
school. Lescot's contact with the schools had been less intimate,
but he had served briefly as minister of public instruction.
Progress in education was certainly made under both presidents.
New schools were built; many smaller schools consolidated; three new
lyces organized; salaries raised; teacher training was improved; en-
rollment increased; a business-like organization provided; cooperation
with U. S. educational agencies and institutions intensified. Much of
this resulted from the efforts of an indefatigable young educator whose
name has appeared frequently in this bulletin. As director of rural
education during part of Vincent's administration, and minister of
public instruction and agriculture under Lescot from May 1941 to
October 1945, Maurice Dartigue established something of a reputa-
tion for longevity in high educational office and was able to apply
many of his ideas under two successive presidents.
He had opposition, however. An important predecessor was
1 The period covered in this chapter ends with Jan. 11, 1946, when President Elie Lescot was removed from


( being organized )


Director of Elementary Director of Director of Director of Director of
and Normal Instruction Physical Administrative Service Vocation- Secondary Education
Education ( Business Office ) Instruction t

Teaching of Personnel Specialized
Hygiene and Statistics Vocational Schools Inspectors
Inspectors Collaboration Accounting
With Servce Equipment Control of Commercial
D'Hygiene Inventory Schools

I frn1a nrim iainnr I I Tnan.tnr..- I

Organization of Public Instruction in Haiti, 1945


Dumarsais Estime,2 who had maintained a middle-of-the-road attitude
in the controversy between the American and French systems of edu-
cation. In the rural schools, Estimb, had promoted Maurice Dartigue
and Andr6 Liautaud, two exponents of North American methods, to
important positions, whereas the urban schools moved ever closer to
the French model. He actively supported the two normal schools,
one of which was directed by a Frenchwoman; and, toward the end of
his administration, he had arranged to send certain graduates of the
girls' normal school to France for further study. The outbreak of the
war prevented the realization of this project and of his plan to import
several agrgeks to teach in Haiti, a suggestion which Bellegarde had
made in the early years of the American Occupation. Incidentally,
during EstimB's ministry the department of physical education was
organized (see appendix II). When Dartigue became minister,
numerous Haitians feared that, in his zeal for practical education, he
would sabotage the humanities. They remembered his close ties with
the Americans: in 1929 he had been one of two instructors at the
Central School of Agriculture who refused to join the strike; subse-
quently he obtained his master's degree from Teachers College of
Columbia University. The adverse criticism mounted as he sent
more and more young Haitians to American universities and, upon
their return, appointed them to responsible administrative posts.
Throughout 1945 le Nouvelliste, oldest Haitian daily, conducted a cam-
paign against those whom it derisively called the "Masters of ..."
Resentment increased as he closed the boys' normal school, altered the
staff and curriculum of the girls' normal school, inaugurated courses
for lycee teachers, and adopted 65 percent as the passing grade in all
schools instead of the traditional French rating of 5 out of a possible
10. As always, some of this opposition was sincere, but some of it
also emanated from personal grievance or political ambition.
M. Dartigue's reform, as outlined in The Educational Yearbook of
the International Institute of Teachers College for 1942, was to have
comprised three phases:
The first phase of the work will deal with administration The in-
spectors will be supervisors and will have specialized duties, and the super-
visors of elementary schools will not at the same time be supervisors of
elementary or vocational schools. Appointment will be on the basis of
preparation, character, and fitness for the job to be done. Duplication of
schools will be done away with ....
The second phase, the most important phase of the reorganization is
the training of personnel For the present the soundest policy will be
to select the best and most promising among the present supervisors and
teachers and send them abroad The rank and file of the primary
school teachers will be brought to a new level of efficiency through intensive
2 In the elections of May 15, 1946, EstimB became a senator. On Aug. 16,1946, he was elected to the presi-


training in service. Those who are utterly incompetent will have to be
The third phase will include such matters as the reorganization of the
curriculum, the improvement and change in methods of teaching, editing of
textbooks, organization of social welfare, and training in citizenship.
Once the problems of primary and vocational education had been
solved, M. Dartigue intended to direct his attention to the secondary
schools, which produce the nation's political leaders, and here he an-
ticipated strong opposition. Fortunately or unfortunately, the re-
form did not get that far. To some extent the objectives of the first
two phases were attained, but the secondary schools were still fol-
lowing the 1935 program when the Revolution of 1946 marked the
end of an interesting era.
All urban schools, with the exception of the Medical College and
the Military Academy, are under the supervision of the minister of
national education. Rural schools are administered by the minister
of agriculture,3 but, as already noted, these posts are usually held
by the same official. The minister of National education is aided by
the Direction Gnderale de l'Enseqgnement Urbain, which comprises:
1. The Department of Primary and Normal Urban Instruction;
2. The Department of Urban Vocational Instruction; 3. The De-
partment of Urban Secondary and Higher Instruction; 4. The
Department of Physical Education; and 5. The Business Office.
Each of these departments has a chief, and the entire organization
is headed by the Director General of Urban Instruction, who is
responsible to the minister for technical and administrative activities
of the Direction Gindrale.
With the assistance of qualified heads of departments, the Director General
also fills the office of technical counselor of the ministry of public instruction.
LThis was written in 1943.] At the request of the minister, he examines, or
has examined, all questions relating to urban instruction, as well as con-
tracts and concessions relating thereto.5
Also connected with the Direction Generale are the inspectors as-
signed to different districts.6
The Division of Rural Education, under the supervision of the

3 After the January 1946 Revolution, the Provisional Government placed rural schools, with the excep-
tion of the College of Agriculture, under the minister of national education.
4 In 1938 these schools were transferred to the ministry of public instruction from the ministry of public
5 D1partement de 1'Instruction Publique. DCcret-loi riorganisant la Direction Gineralp de l'Enseignement
Urhain. Port-au-Prince, 1943.
6 On page 25 of his l'Enseignement en Haiti, M. Dartigue reports: "The territory of the Republic was
divided into 24 school districts, each under the supervision of an inspector. Some of these inspectors were
aided by suh-inspectors."


minister of agriculture, contains the following departments: 1. The
Department of Research and Statistics; 2. The Department of Super-
vision; 3. The Department of Higher Agricultural Education;
4. The Teacher-Training Department; 5. The Department of Ele-
mentary and Intermediate Instruction; and 6. The Business Office.
The center of rural education is the College of Agriculture at Damien,
a magnificent institution that also houses a normal school for rural
teachers. Other types of educational institutions under the jurisdic-
tion of the minister of agriculture are the farm-schools, village schools
(ecole des bourgs), communal schools, presbyterial schools, and ele-
mentary rural schools.7
In Haiti as in France, curricula for public and private schools are
fixed by the government, which awards all diplomas. The examina-
tions on which these awards depend are prepared and graded under
the supervision of the Direction Gendrale. Usually these tests consist
of a written examination, which is eliminative, and an oral. They are
given in June or July and again in September or October for candidates
who are unsuccessful or absent in the spring. This centralization leads
to a uniformity which would be even more pronounced if between one
Haitian school and another Haitian school the disparity in material
facilities and teacher efficiency were not so great. Even in so vital a
matter as textbooks, expediency, rather than sound academic practice,
seems to govern all too many of the educational institutions. Though
the Haitians have prepared numerous textbooks, especially in the social
sciences, they are forced to rely heavily on France, and to some extent
on Canada, for publications in mathematics, French, Latin, medicine,
law, and other fields. Many such volumes are imported by the
Catholic school officials, but transportation difficulties, particularly
severe during the war, the paper shortage, and the resulting scarcity
of books, have virtually created a Black Market in this commodity.
Few Haitian families with children in the public schools can afford
to purchase books for their offspring. Numerous lyce students are
without any textbooks whatever.8 There exists, to be sure, a list of
texts recommended by the Direction Generale, but, in most instances,
the teacher selects any book that may be available.
Occasionally a volume containing references antagonistic or unfair
to Haiti slips into the private schools; in such cases, the Direction
Gindrale exercises the right of censorship. There have been rare

7 In 1938 a number of agricultural colonies were founded; each had two schools: one for boys and another
for girls. Planned for Haitian repatriates from the Dominican Republic, these schools have since ceased
to exist. For an account of the first year of this experiment, cf. LiAutaud, Andr6. Douze Mois de colonisa-
tion agricole en Haiti. Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie de l'Etat, 1939.
B Thanks to the generosity of the U. S. Government, two English texts-English Lessons for Haitian
Schools and The IHaitian-American Anthology have been distributed gratis to Haitian students. In the case
of the latter textbook, the ministry of public instruction paid for the printing of 1,000 additional copies.


instances in which the Haitian authorities have obtained the removal
of an unsympathetic foreigner from the faculty of a Catholic school.
By and large, however, the Government exerts only nominal control
over the private institutions. In keeping with the Concordat, Catholic
schools are subsidized. The Brothers of Christian Instruction, for
example, at the secondary school, Saint-Louis de Gonzague, receive
fifty dollars each per month. Aside from obtaining a license to oper-
ate, preparing their students for the official examinations, and observ-
ing the official holidays, the private schools, lay and Catholic, enjoy
complete autonomy.
Avoiding coeducation whenever possible, the Haitians have tradi-
tionally trained boys and girls in separate institutions. Often the
term "mixed school" means that girls and boys are taught in different
parts of the same building.9 At the two extremes, the kindergarten
and the university, the sexes study together, and in recent years
several lycies have admitted a few female students. A number of
private schools are coeducational but, as Mme. Bouchereau observed:
"In Haiti, one will still have long to wait before coeducation arrives.
Yet, in the rural districts, the fusion of schools is gradually taking
place." 10
The academic year usually begins the first Monday in October and
ends about the middle of July. Holidays, national and Catholic, are
fairly numerous." Most urban schools start the day at 8 a. m. and
close at 4 p. m., with an hour or an hour and a half for lunch. After
June 1, for the past 3 years, only the morning session has been held,
but pupils have been required to report a little earlier in the morning.
This is an excellent measure that might easily be put into operation
during the entire school year, for the hot Haitian afternoon is at no
season conducive to intellectual activity. The main objection raised
by administrators is that the full program could not be covered in one
session. Rural elementary schools also hold 2 daily sessions: from
9 a. m. to noon, and from 1 p. m. to 3:30.12
The status of the Haitian school teacher is far from enviable.
Overworked and underpaid, he is further demoralized by insecurity
of tenure and uncertainty of promotion. Notwithstanding the efforts
9 Cf. Bouchereau, Madeleine. Education des femmes en Haiti, Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie de 1'Etat,
1944, p. 22.
10 Ibid., p. 70.
" For an average year the holidays are as follows: Oct. 17-Anniversary of the death of Dessalines; Nov.
1-2 All Saints Day and la F9te des Morts; Dec. 8-Anniversary of the Consecration of Haiti to Our Lady
of Perpetual Help; Dec. 23-Monday after Jan. 6-Christmas vacation; Jan. 1-Haitian Independence
Day; Mardi Gras-2 days; Easter vacation-2 weeks; Apr. 14-Pan American Day; May 1-Labor and
Arbor Day; May ?-Ascension (1 day); May 18-University and Flag Day; May or June--Fte Dieu
(1 day); May or June-Pentecost (1 day).
12 Service National de la Production agricole et de 1'Enseignement rural. Guide pour les Instituteurs des
hcoles relevant du S. N. P. A. et E. R. Port-au-Prince, 1936. p. 4.


of ministers like Bellegarde and Dartigue to improve his condition by
protective legislation, he knows, through bitter experience, that ad-
vancement often depends on political or personal favoritism. He has
little faith in the honesty of the competitive examinations (concours)
by which vacancies are supposed to be filled. If he is fortunate, he
may obtain a scholarship to the United States that will probably pay
him more than his regular salary.13 Nevertheless, to obtain this
scholarship, he must sign a pledge to remain in the public-school
system for at least 3 years after his return, whether or not the State
sees fit to increase his salary.14 With little incentive for creative
research or stimulating teaching, he augments his income as best he
can, and often looks forward to a revolution that will recognize his
exceptional administrative qualifications. This does not mean that
there are no inspiring, conscientious, competent instructors in the
Haitian schools, but it does explain, at least partially, the reluctance
with which talented, ambitious young islanders adopt teaching as a
permanent career. If, by some miracle, a business boom should
enable private industry to employ a large number of white-collar
workers at $100, $75, or even $50 a month, perhaps nine-tenths of the
nation's classrooms would be teacherless.15
The following monthly salary scale for employees of urban schools
was adopted by the Decree-Law of September 30, 1941, as modified
by the Decree-Law of January 10, 1944:

First class $-----------160 to $200 First class------ $65 to $90
Second class --------- 100 to 150 Second class----- 50 to 60
Third class----------- 60 to 90 Third class ---- 35 to 45
Fourth class ---------- 40 to 55 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
INSPECTORS First class------------ $40 to $50
First class------ 85 to 110 Second class---- 25 to 35
Second class------ 65 to 80 Third class_-.------ 15 to 20
Third class------ 50 to 60 Unclassified----- 14 1
First class------- 65 to 100
Second class---------- 50 to 60
Third class------ 40 to 45

la In most cases, while the instructor is studying abroad, the Haitian Government contributes to the
support of his family.
It One young Haitian teacher, who had made an excellent record in the graduate school of an American
university during 1944-45, was appointed to the Lycde Pition at forty dollars a month, the minimum salary
for secondary school instructors. To help support his wife and child, he was obliged to seek part-time em-
ployment on the faculty of a private school.
15 The report of the Division of Rural Education for 1941-42 pointed out that positions offered by SHADA
(Haitian-American Society for Agricultural Development) had made serious inroads on the teaching staffs
of various rural schools. (p. 313)
16 D6partement de l'Instruction Publique. Dicret-loi reorganisant la Direction Ginerale de L'Enseignement
Urbain. Port-au-Prince, [n. d.], p. 5


The same Decree-Law fixed the salary of the Director General at
$270 a month. Subsequently the requirements for that position,
and for the specialists, inspectors, secondary and elementary school
teachers were stipulated, but no provision was included for the
automatic advancement of teachers. This made promotion depend,
not upon seniority and merit, but rather upon merit as judged sub-
jectively by the administrative officials. As far back as 1919 Belle-
garde had avoided that pitfall by a far-sighted measure which speci-
fied, for example, that a third-class instructor would be elevated to
the second class after a period of 5 years or, in special cases, after
3 years.17 Adherence to a system such as Bellegarde's would have
prevented much of the dissatisfaction voiced by teachers who felt
themselves deserving of promotion. On the other hand, the limited
budget would have made the practicability of automatic increases
Public-school teachers are considered on leave of absence with pay
during vacation periods, though "they may be required to attend
special summer courses not to exceed 5 weeks in duration." 18 Sick
leave with pay may be granted for a maximum of 15 days. For each
unauthorized absence, one-thirtieth of the instructor's monthly
salary is deducted. Expectant mothers are accorded 45 days with
pay, and it is not unusual to see a woman in the ninth month of
pregnancy attempting to teach a class.
After 25 years of service in the public schools, the teacher or ad-
ministrator is eligible for retirement. According to the Pension Law
of 1923 (revised in May 1928), 1 percent of the monthly salary is
to be deducted regularly, plus one-twelfth of the annual salary for the
first year, and one-twelfth of any later increase. In actual practice,
numerous Haitians have managed to avoid this deduction of one-
twelfth of the first year's salary. Except in special cases, the pension
is not to exceed twenty dollars a month.19
Until the 1946 Revolution there was no association of teachers in
Haiti. This, more eloquently perhaps than any other single factor,
indicated the plight of the Haitian instructor: his low morale and
prestige, his inability to demand better working conditions, the
threatening intellectual stagnation. Those islanders who had studied
in the States had certainly noted the existence and influence of such
organizations as the NEA, AAUP, Teacher's Union, and professional
associations in the various academic fields. The absence of any

17 Cf. Bellegarde, Dantis. Pour une Haiti heureuse Port-au-Prince, Chgraquit, 1929. Vol. II, p 289.
Bellegarde's classification, however, was somewhat different. He divided the teachers into five classes
and a sixth group which he called trainees (stagiaires).
Is Dcret-loi riorganisant la Direction Ginerale de l'Enseignement urbain. p. 15.
19 Bouchereau, Charles, and Heraux, Herman, Ligislation scolaire. Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie A.
Heraux, 1933. p. 229.


similar group in Haiti, the writer was informed, could be ascribed to a
government which frowned on all organizations of workers.2
The status of the private school teacher is even worse than that
of his colleagues in the public schools. Though accurate statistics
are not available, he usually works for less money, has no semblance
of a salary scale, and no prospects of a pension.

What the Haitians call l'enseignement primaire in reality embraces
both primary and elementary instruction. We have accordingly
adopted the more inclusive term, elementary education, for this im-
portant area of the Haitian school system. Elementary instruction
is divided into six 2-year courses:
Approximate age of pupil
Course years
1. Kindergarten-------------------------- 4 and 5
2. Preparatory section------------- 6 and 7
3. Elementary-------------------------------- 8 and 9
4. Intermediate __ -------------------- 10 and 11
5. Superior------------------ 12 and 13
6. Complementary ---------------------- 14 and 15
The curriculum of the Preparatory section (20 hours a week) in-
cludes: religious instruction, reading, French, writing, fundamentals
of arithmetic, nature study, drawing, singing, manual work, exercises,
and games.21 In the elementary course, the history and geography
of Haiti and general geography are added. Pupils of the intermediate
section attend school 21 hours a week, and study the same basic pro-
gram, with the addition of civic and moral instruction, physical and
natural sciences, as well as hygiene. In the superior course (25 hours),
literature, general history, world geography, and physical education
are included. The complementary course (26 hours) adds applied
psychology and modern languages-usually English-to the program.
From 1919, when the complementary course was inaugurated, until
1943, when the normal school was reorganized, the complementary
course was considered the equivalent of the first 2 years of the normal
Three diplomas, awarded to pupils who pass examinations given by
the Direction Odndrale, indicate successful completion of the various
stages of this 12-year program: The Certificate of Primary Studies,
taken at the end of the intermediate course; the Brevet Elmentaire,
at the end of the superior course; and the Brevet Superieur, upon ter-
mination of the complementary course. Students of public and pri-
20 In justice to ex-Minister Dartigue and ex-Director General Morisseau-Leroy, I must mention their
immediate approval of my suggestion that the teachers of English form an association. Despite their official
sanction, which I transmitted to the teachers, the organization did not materialize. This I attributed either
to indifference or fear.
21 Gagneron. Op. cit., p. 51.


vate schools, along with a few who have attended no institution, take
these official examinations. Usually, the vast majority of candidates
for the two brevets are girls.
For the Certificate of Primary Studies, the written examination
includes a dictation, a composition on a simple subject, two problems
in arithmetic, and questions on Haitian history and geography. The
oral tests reading, French, arithmetic, Haitian history and geography,
civic and moral instruction, and hygiene.22 The written examination
for the Brevet Elementaire comprises a dictation, five questions relating
to the comprehension of the text, a composition, arithmetic, history
and geography (Haitian and general), science, and religious instruc-
tion. In addition, there is a practical exercise connected with this
examination: the male candidates are required to prepare a free-hand
drawing, and the girls do a bit of needlework. For the Brevet Su-
perieur, the examination is somewhat more advanced, but of the same
general nature. The oral includes rapid translation of an English
or Spanish text, and simple conversation in the foreign language.23
The results of these examinations in June and September 1945 were
as follows: 24

Table 4.-Results of Examinations, June and September 1945

Girls Boys Total
Candi- Candi- Candi- Percent
date Passed d Passed das Passed passed

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Primary studies..------- 909 564 1,008 626 1,917 1,190 62
Brevet 616mentaire---- 365 268 55 43 421 311 74
Brevet superieur......... 35 25 4 0 39 25 64

The courses leading to these diplomas are taught in schools called
primaires and primaires supgrieures, the latter term designating those
few institutions which include the complementary course in their
program. In addition, there are part-time institutions where pupils
"spend an hour during which they are taught reading, writing, and
arithmetic applied to their daily lives. Their readings are taken from
books dealing with the history and geography of Haiti and hygiene."25
These pupils take no official examinations, but receive report cards.
Adult evening courses, which meet from 7 to 9 p. m., offer the same

22 Cf. Bouchereau and H6raux. Op. cit., p. 82-83.
23 Ibid., p. 86-89.
4 These results, from an unpublished report for 1944-45, were sent to the writer by M. Morisseau-Leroy,
Director General of Urban Instruction, and Dorothy M. Kirby, Principal of the Lyc4e de Jeunes Filles.
3, Gagneron. Op. cit., p. 53.


program as the part-time classes. Teachers are usually university
students, who are thus enabled to earn extra money.2"
The Haitians also attempt to offer some instruction in manual train-
ing in their elementary schools. The report of the Direction Gengrale
for 1943-44 states:
The teaching of manual and domestic arts has been carried on in a great
number of schools. More than ever, special attention has been given this
type of activity which can help to make a progressive system out of the old
stereotyped system of education.27
In the same report, is this list of manual and domestic arts taught in
the primary schools:
Number of Number of
schools in schools in
Activity which taught Activity which taught
Embroidery and sewing ----------55 Weaving_----------- 47
Cooking------------ 17 Spinning----------- 19
Pastry cooking------------------ 6 Drawing ------------ 10
Laundering--------------------- 1 Making patterns----------- 4
Basketry------------- 56 Modeling ------------ 3
Special activities for the same period included several interesting
projects: About 20 schools held exhibitions of manual arts; a hair-
dressing salon was installed at 1 institution; the pupils of another
whitewashed the walls of their classrooms.28
Private elementary schools, administered by various denominations
or individuals, follow the same general program, though there are
variations. At the Institution du Sacr6-Coeur, for example, one of
the largest and best-equipped elementary schools for girls, English is
taught even in the lowest grades. Since very few boys study for the
brevets, a number of the leading secondary schools, such as the Petit
Seminaire College St. Martial, St. Louis de Gonzague, and the College
Oddide (also called the College de Port-au-Prince) offer preparatory
classes to youngsters not yet ready for the secondary school course.
Members of the American Colony who have children in Haiti usually
send them to the Union School, an institution directed by a group of
Americans and Haitians and patterned after elementary schools in
the United States. A few Haitian children also attend the Union
It hardly seems necessary to point out how closely urban elementary
schools in Haiti, with the exception of the Union School, resemble
those of France. The three diplomas and practically the entire cur-
riculum, if we exclude Haitian history and geography, have been bor-
rowed from the French. Sometimes the methods employed seem
reminiscent of an approach long since outmoded in the better French
26 Ibid.
27 Les Rsultats de la troisime annee de riforme de l'Enseignement urbain. Port-au-Prince, 1945. p. 9.
28 Ibid., p. 10.


institutions of learning. And yet, one often detects a thoroughness
and an intellectual maturity that are at once surprising and enviable.
What disturbs the foreign visitor most is the ever-present poverty;
the undernourished youngsters; the demoralized, underpaid teachers;
the makeshift classrooms; the lack of blackboards, pencils, paper,
and books. Correct these evils, and the elementary school may func-
tion as effectively in Haiti as it does in France. Continue to neglect
them, and imitation of any system, be it French or North American,
cannot save the schools. Percentage enrollment in different urban
elementary schools in 1942-43 29 was as follows: Higher elementary
schools and normal school, 1.41; lay elementary schools, 46.79; con-
gregational elementary schools, 45.31; part-time schools, 2.46; evening
schools, 1.21; and communal schools, 2.82.
What we are obliged to call the program of the elementary schools under
the Division of Rural Education comprises: 1. the tools of learning: reading,
writing, arithmetic; 2. social sciences, including history, geography, agricul-
tural, civic and social problems, and moral conduct; 3. domestic and manual
arts: drawing, modeling, basketry, gardening, weaving, carpentry, sewing,
cooking, domestic science; 4. the means of expression: language, literature,
and music, implying the study and knowledge of French as the official lan-
guage and perhaps eventually as the vernacular ; 5. hygiene and
physical education; 6. religious instruction.30
Instead of the 12-year program provided for the urban elementary
school students, a 6-year course has been prepared for the rural schools.
The classes are called: Beginners I and II; Intermediates I and II;
Advanced I and II. No official examinations are given at the end of
the course, although occasionally a graduate will take part in the test
for the Certificate of Primary Studies, and at regular intervals the
Department of Statistics at Damien will give special tests to deter-
mine the progress of certain groups of rural pupils.
This discrimination between rural and urban elementary schools
has been sharply criticized. While its proponents, like Dartigue, have
contended that it is eminently practical and realistic, its opponents
have insisted that it strengthens class distinctions and hampers the
peasant's advancement.31
29 Direction Gen6rale de l'Enseignement Urbain. Tables et graphiques stalisliques de I'Enseignement
urbain: 1942-43. Port-au-Prince. p. 12.
30 S. N. P. A. and E. R. Bulletin 9. Guide povr les Instiluteurs des Ecoles relevant du S. N. P. A. et E. R.
Port-au-Prince, 1936. p. 4.
21 In July 1946 the Union Nationale des Instituteurs d'Haiti declared: "The present organization of our
educational system makes the peasant a person apart, isolated from the community. The State must offer
all the children in the Republic the same opportunity to complete at least the full cycle of primary studies.
The acquiring of knowledge follows the same pattern in the peasant brain as in that of the city dweller.
We need, therefore, a single program of studies for all the children of the Republic All children should
be compelled to take the examinations for the Certificate of Primary Studies. After the Certificate of Prl.
mary Studies, the peasant child might go to agricultural school or continue his classical courses, as his parents
see fit,


In 1931 "all the national rural schools under the jurisdiction of the
Department of Rural Instruction were transferred to the National
Service of Agricultural Production and of Rural Education (S. N. P.
A. and E. R.), under the Department of Agriculture The rural
schools were completely reorganized. All incompetent instructors
were dismissed and replaced by others on the basis of competitive ex-
aminations. The latter were immediately assembled at summer
courses designed to introduce them to the new methods; better build-
ings were rented for the schools and provided with a certain number of
benches, blackboards, buffets, and equipment; a new curriculum was
prepared and a system of supervision was organized by using as in-
spectors a group of efficient principals of farm-schools who had re-
ceived professional training at Damien." 32
For 1944-45 the enrollment and personnel of all the rural schools in
Haiti were as follows:

Table 5.-Enrollment in rural schools, 1944-45

Number of schools Enrollment Number of
Ave- teachers
Type of school daily
S- attend-
iSo 3 Ec g ,s ance r

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Farm schools ..--....... 46 ---- 45 91 10,576 2,567 13,143 9,151 163 58 221
Rural schools...----... 117 22 32 171 9,547 3,032 12,579 8,739 163 58 221
Village schools (Ecoles
des Bourgs)--........- 41 41 21 103 5,406 3,871 9,277 6,748 90 82 172
Communal schools--- 27 10 3 40 1,970 572 2,542 1,739 33 14 47
C. A. St. Martin I..--- 1 -- 1 53 53 53
Girls' normal school
(Martissant) ....- .. --- 1 .. 1 -------- 56 56 56 -
Special farm-school of
Chatard--............ 1 ----- -- 1 26 -- 26 26 3 1 4
Presbyterial schools.---- 33 27 184 244 7.569 6,811 14,380 12,030 124 164 288
Private schools -.. -- --- 2 4 6 296 187 2 4 6
Total__----------- 266 103 289 658 35,147 16,909 52,352 38,729 578 381 959

1 Centre d'Apprentissage Bois Saint-Martih.

Table 5 indicates that the five major types of rural elementary
schools are the farm-schools, rural schools, village schools, communal
schools, and the presbyterial schools. "The farm-schools are the best
organized; they have a suitable building and a garden. The expenses
for this type of school are comparatively higher, the teachers are
better trained and well paid, relatively speaking." 33 In general, the
pupils of these farm-schools obtain somewhat better results in the
tests than those of the other rural schools.34 The Ecoles des Bourgs
32 Dartigue, Maurice. L'Enseignement en Haiti, Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie de 1'Etat, 1939. p. 20-21.
33 S. N. P. A. and E. R. Tables statistiques de la fr6quentation des 6coles de l'Enseignement Rural, 1939-40
et 1940-41. Bulletin 18. Port-au-Prince, 1942. p. 3.
34 Cf. S. N. P. A. and E. R. Rapport annual 1940-41; 1941-42. p. 138.


are located in the principal village of a commune. Usually the so-
called Ecoles Rurales are housed in buildings, more or less adequate,
rented from individuals. Most of the teachers, like those of the
village schools, have no professional preparation other than that
given in summer or special courses. These teachers are recruited by
competitive examination. The communal schools are rural schools
supported by a sum placed at the disposal of the Division of Rural
Education by certain communes.35 While the farm-schools, rural
schools, and village schools teach the full 6-year program, the com-
munal schools offer only a 5-year course. Reference has already been
made to the presbyterial schools which, according to Dartigue, "pro-
vide instruction purely classical and bookish,"36 although the agreement
of March 31, 1932, specifies that these schools shall follow the course of
study of the national rural elementary schools."'



1932-33 1939-40 1944=45
Enrollment in Haitian Public Rural Schools'
SBased on the annual reports of the SNPA and ER for 1932-1933 and 1939-1940. The figures for 1944-1945
are taken from a report as yet unpublished. Presbyterial and private rural schools are not included, nor is
the College of Agriculture.
One institution which differs somewhat from the five types of rural
schools is the Centre d'Apprentissage Saint-Martin, that had an
enrollment of 53 boys in 1944-45. These young men, of varying ages,
receive practical training in cabinet-making, weaving, basketry, agri-
culture, animal husbandry, and pork-butchery, although this work is
sometimes handicapped by the students' insufficient preparation in
the three R's.38
35 S. N. P. A. and E. R. Tables statistiques p. 3.
36 L'Enseignement en Haiti, p. 23.
37 Bouchereau and Heraux. Op.*cit., p. 252.
as S. N. P. A. and E. R. Rapport annvel, 1941-41. p. 357.


The philosophy underlying Minister Dartigue's entire reform of
rural schools has been that of uplifting the peasantry by useful labor
efficiently performed. Efforts have been made to take the school to
the community, to assist parents as well as pupils:
Unless the parents are brought to understand, appreciate, and even par-
ticipate in the new program, there is danger that the school's work will be
paralyzed. To prevent systematic boycotting by the adults of the new ideas
and ideals, parent-teacher association, clubs of all sorts, and cooperatives
are being formed The work of the schools is supplemented by a
program carried out by the department of agricultural extension. Not
only advice is given to the peasants, but selected seeds as well, and plants
of coffee, coconut, lime, and other seeds are distributed to them in large
quantities. Actual help is given to them in planting their crops and in
such tasks as building concrete platforms for drying coffee.
Emphasis on the economic and social community work to be carried out
by the school has led the Department of Rural Education to try experi-
mentally a new plan in one of the rural schools located in a mountain area.
This section used to be a coffee-producing center. But insect pests and
hurricanes, coupled with depredation by revolutionary bands and the ignor-
ance and helplessness of the peasants, have led to the destruction of most of
the coffee trees. The soil has lost a great part of its fertility due to erosion
and to constant use without fertilizer. In the last four years, a new school
has been established in that community, and two teachers have been placed
there. One, who is well trained in agriculture, is at the head of the project
and directs the agricultural program inside the school. His main work,
however, is to take the school to the community, while the other teacher
carries out the teaching in the school and organizes the community recre-
ational program.
The results obtained in less than two years may be summarized as follows:
The raising of vegetable crops has been introduced in the school and in the
homes of many peasants. To avoid discouragement in this new venture,
the teacher marketed the produce in town. To conserve the soil, terraces
have been built in the school, and many peasants have been persuaded to
build terraces on their property. In connection with the new program of
coffee planting in high altitudes carried out by the government, the school
has been responsible for the planting of 10,000 coffee plants in the community.
Peach trees are being distributed, although in small amounts, from the school
nurseries; during one month of the year, reforestation trees are secured from
near-by government nurseries and planted by the children. A campaign
is now under way for the effective use of manure in an attempt to restore
soil fertility. Step by step, the school is tackling in its program the various
urgent needs of the community.31
Understandably proud of this achievement, M. Dartigue was
sobered when he realized "the magnitude of the task yet to be ac-
complished. The rural schools reach only a little more than 10 per-
cent of the rural population and, besides, the new ideas and methods
are not yet in full application in many institutions due to the lack

3a Dartigue, Maurice. Rural Life and Education in Haiti. The Inter-American Quarterly, April 1941, p.


of trained teachers and funds." 40 Four years later, even though the
rural school enrollment had risen to 52,352, the problem still remained
One feature which rural and urban schools have in common is the
cantine scolaire, which Dantes Bellegarde created, and which dis-
tributes free lunches for needy public-school pupils. This useful
project has continued, but its extension to all the impoverished pupils
of all elementary schools has been prevented by lack of funds.41
According to the most recent report on the cantines scolaires, that
of Ethel Mealey, Consultant in Health Education for the Haitian-
American Educational Commission,
Only 37 schools of the 183 (urban public elementary, trade, and secondary
schools) or 20 percent of the schools have a cantine, i. e., furnish food at
midday for the pupils through money allotted for that purpose. Nine cantines
are in Port-au-Prince; 2 in P6tionville; and 26 are in the provinces. But,
not all children in these 37 schools are fed during each school day. The
teacher selects the most conspicuously needy children; the number depends
on the amount of money available. One group of selected children is fed
for one month, the following month another group is selected. If some of
the selected children are absent, other pupils are chosen to fill the quota.
Two illustrations of cantines will show how the cantine operates. In one
school in Port-au-Prince the monthly allocation is 300 gourdes, or $60.
It was estimated that during the month of November 1945 the cost per
pupil is 30 centimes, or 6 cents. Therefore, since November had 19 school
days, 55 pupils can be selected out of approximately 1,000 pupils ....
Another school in J4r6mie has a quota of 225 gourdes, or $45. The esti-
mated cost per day, per pupil is 27 centimes, or 5.4 cents. 36 pupils were
selected for the cantine for November 1945.42
The long struggle, described in chapter II, for a teacher-training
institution, culminated in the creation of a normal school for girls
in October 1913. Under the able direction of a French woman, it
remained open until 1943. By 1928 it had graduated 225 young
women, 158 of whom were teaching in public or private schools in
1939.43 Students holding the brevet elementaire, or having completed
the quatrieme course in a recognized secondary school, were admitted
to the first year, provided they were at least 14 years of age. Those
holding the brevet suptrieur entered the third year after passing a
preliminary examination.
Although the law of August 24, 1913, had authorized the establish-
40 Ibid., p. 37.
41 "The lunches provided at the Cantines scolaires," Dartigue explains, "have so far been handled by the
National Lottery which has frequently given the enterprises to politically deserving women who think
more of the profit to be derived than of the children to be fed." Educational Yearbook f the International
Institute of Teachers College, 1942. p. 241.
42 Mealey, Ethel. Report on Problems of Nutrition in Haiti, January 17, 1946. p. 13-14. Miss Mealey
reported a total of 18 canteens in rural schools.
43 Bouchereau. Op. cit., p. 50.


ment of a normal school for boys as well, this institution did not
materialize until 1932. For 9 years it filled a real need in the Haitian
school system, only to be discontinued in 1941. Three distinguished
educators, all of whom had headed the Lycee P6tion, directed the
institution during its brief lifetime: MM. Damoclis Vieux, Auguste
Fabius, and Dantes Bellegarde. In 1934, 22 students were enrolled.44
Unable to find an official record of the number of graduates, the
writer was informed by M. Bellegarde that in 1939 there were possibly
25 or 30 students, some of whom were auditors, in the third-year
class. In 1945 many of the graduates of this school were serving
efficiently in the various schools of the Republic.
On paper, the 3-year program for both normal schools was the
same,45 though sewing was replaced by agriculture, wood- and iron-
work for the male teacher-trainees. 46 In actual practice, there were
differences in the two courses of study, or at least in the content of
certain classes, because the boys entered the third year with their
Certificate of Secondary Studies (second part), which is considerably
higher than the brevet sup&rieur that the girls' normal school required
for admission to the third year.
Two years after the closing of the boys' normal school, its sister
institution was completely reorganized. Moved to a new locale at
Martissant, just outside of the capital, the girls' normal school re-
opened in January 1944 with a new staff and a new program, of 2
years' duration. Its objective now was to train women teachers for
urban and rural schools, though the emphasis seemed to be on the
latter. Thirty-five young women, recruited from different parts of
the country, constituted the first class.
They adapted themselves rather quickly to the curriculum that was pre-
pared to satisfy the intellectual, social, and professional needs of the urban
Haitian teacher. Contrary to what one might have expected, they partici-
pated enthusiastically in the different practical exercises of the Martissant
The administration and curriculum of this school have fluctuated
greatly. From January to November 1944, pending the arrival of
an American directress, the school was administered by a committee
of officials from the Rural and Urban Divisions. Then the American
principal, a member of the Haitian-American Cooperative Educa-
tional Commission,48 served until July 1945, when a Haitian directress
44 Dartigue. I'Enseignement en Haiti. p. 28.
45 See appendix III.
46 On page 28 of his 1'Enseignement en Haiti, Dartigue reports that this part of the program was not
47 Les Risultats de la troisieme annie de riforme de L'Enseignement vrbain. Port-au-Prince. 1944. p. 6.
48 This Commission was set up by agreement between the Haitian Government and the Inter-American
Educational Foundation, Inc., on April 30, 1944. For a copy of the agreement, see appendix VII. In
addition to the American principal, specialists in science, public health, and manual arts, also connected
with the Commission, helped with the program of the girls' normal school.


was named. A few months later, the Haitian directress came to the
United States for further study.
On the urban elementary school level, teacher training for men
remained more or less at a standstill between 1941-44. The report
of the Direction Gindrale for 1943-44 stated that special courses for
the improvement of teachers had been held at Port-au-Prince, Cap-
Haitien, Grande-RiviBre du Nord, St. Marc, and Les Cayes. "From
January 10-15," the report stated, "150 public school, lay, congrega-
tional, and private school teachers of the Department of the North
attended courses for their improvement at the Maison Populaire of
Cap-Haitien. ." 49 Another encouraging development was the
increasing number of scholarships awarded teachers for study abroad,
but neither special institutes nor study grants could satisfactorily
replace the normal school proper. Consequently, "measures were
taken for the establishment of a section for the formation of urban
instructors at the National School of Damien." 5 This course was
inaugurated in October 1944.
Rural teachers are also trained at Damien, in a 2-year course the
prequisites of which are "eleven years of primary and secondary
training; however, most of the students have completed twelve
years." 51 Furthermore, candidates for admission are examined in
physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, mathematics, history and geog-
raphy of Haiti, general history, and geography.
Between 1931 and 1941 this normal section "graduated a total
of 115 instructors in rural education." 52 In addition to the regular
course work listed in appendix III, "every summer the teachers of
each district are gathered for short courses where they discuss various
problems and give their opinions on curriculum and methods of
teaching, which are recorded by the supervisors." 65 During the
summer of 1943" a group of 48 women teachers attended courses
organized for them at the National School of Agriculture (Damien).
Similar courses were also given at the end of July for the male in-
spector-instructors of rural education. These classes benefited from
the instruction of a Cuban specialist in fruit and vegetable con-
servation ." 54
One of the finest accomplishments of Minister Dartigue's adminis-
tration was the creation of a summer school for teachers and principals

49 Le Risultats de la troisiime annie de rfiorme de l'Enseignement urbain. p. 5.
's Ibid., p. 7. The writer has tried unsuccessfully to obtain information concerning the enrollment and
curriculum of this section.
a1 Gagneron. Op. cit., p. 47.
2 S. N. P. A. and E. R. Bulletin 31. Rapport annual 1940-41; 1941-4. p. 109.
s5 Dartigue. Educational Yearbook of Institute of International Education of Teachers College. p. 229.
6 Lescot, Elie. Exposi gindral de la situation. Message due President de la Ripublique le ler janvier 1944.
Port-au-Prince. p. 67-68.


of secondary schools. The first session was held from August 16 to
September 15, 1943:
The curriculum included the following subjects: education, principles and
problems of secondary education; economics, the economic history of Latin
America; Greek civilization; mathematics; history of Haiti; chemistry,
physics, and natural science. Special lectures on the administration of
lycdes and diverse local problems of secondary education were delivered. .. 55
The experiment was repeated in 1944 and 1945 with slight varia-
tions in the course of study. In 1944, for example, vocational guid-
ance and English were included. English again figured in the program
of 1945. Each year foreign lecturers, some of whom were sent by the
United States Government, supplemented a faculty of eminent Haiti-
ans. These stimulating intellectual contacts could have contributed
much to the professional growth of the Haitian instructor, if the sum-
mer session had become a permanent institution. Because of the
centralized public-school system, almost all the teaching personnel of
the Haitian lycees attended these courses.
Still another recent development in the field of teacher training
must be mentioned here. On May 30, 1942, the Haitian Government
decreed that the teaching of English should be compulsory in sec-
ondary and higher elementary schools. At the request of the Depart-
ment of Public Instruction, the U. S. Office of Education, early in
1943, sent a mission of eight American teachers and a supervisor.
The members of this mission taught English in various national
schools, prepared several textbooks,56 and by June 1945, had taught
courses in composition, pronunciation, methodology, and American
literature to three groups of Haitian teachers and prospective teachers
of English.5
Perhaps on the strength of the success of the new English program,
the Department of Public Instruction organized special teacher-
training courses in Mathematics and Letters. This program, called
the Cours Normal Sup&rieur, began officially in October 1944 and, in
1945, became a branch of the newly organized University of Haiti.
Thus, one of the recommendations made by Haitian legislators in
1848 and 1860, and again by the U. S. Commission in 1931 was finally
realized: "A Teachers College for training secondary school teachers."
To summarize, except for the closing of the boys' normal school in
55 Les Risultats de la deuxiime annie de riforme de l'Enseignement urbain ... p. 36. For the 1943 session
the Department of Public Instruction published a pamphlet, Cours d'Et pour les professeurs de lycge.
Port-au-Prince, 1943.
56 One of these texts, The Haitian-American Anthology, was prepared in collaboration with M. DantBs
57 United States Government encouragement of extraschool and adult continuation study of English has
been continued by the furnishing of American English teaching personnel and cash subsidies by the Depart-
ment of State to the Institut Haitiano-Am6ricain in Port-au-Prince. This locally autonomous society,
dedicated to promoting cultural interchange between Haiti and the United States, currently enrolls an
average of 200 students of English, including secondary school teachers of English.


1941, teacher training in Haiti has improved steadily in recent years.
Opportunities for such study have been provided, and these have been
augmented by scholarships offered by the United States and Haitian
Governments, the British Council, and several American universities
and colleges. Nevertheless, the general outlook in this field-as in
most aspects of Haitian education-is beclouded by the inadequate
budget for public instruction. Promising recruits cannot long be
expected to undergo special preparation for a career that does not
pay a living wage. One of the principal objections to the summer
courses for lycee teachers has been the financial sacrifice that they
impose on provincial instructors. The sole practical solution is to
increase the appropriation for national education at the expense of
departments that are less indispensable or overstaffed.

Under the immediate jurisdiction of the Director of Vocational
Education, who in turn is responsible to the Director General of
Urban Instruction, are 9 trade M and 5 private commercial schools.
Many of the vocational schools are recent arrivals on the scene:
Until 1925 there were only three vocational schools, one of which, for girls,
was operated by Belgian Sisters. This number was ridiculously small,
especially since innumerable rhetorical statements about training skilled
workers and developing a middle class had been made. Between 1925 and
1931 only one vocational school for boys was established, but the standards
and efficiency of almost all the others were lowered. In the 10 schools now
operating (1942), 2 of which are for girls, there are 1,368 pupils.59
In 1942-43 this enrollment dropped to 1,097,6 and for 1944-45 there
was a further decrease to 758. The statistics for the latter year were
as follows:

Table 6.-Number of teachers and enrollments, vocational
schools, 1944-45

Name of school and location Numbersof Enrollment

J. B. Damier, Port-au-Prince--- -------- --- 9 65
Maison Centrale, Port-au-Prince ----- ----------- 14 240
National School of Arts and Trades, Port-au-Prince ------.-----------. 7 65
Elie Dubois, Port-au-Prince----------------------- 12 164
Cap-Haitian Vocational, Cap-Haitien ----------------------------- 6 45
Maison Populaire, Cap-Haitien --------.------------------------ 8 106
Gonaives Vocational, Gonaives ---------------------------------- 4 21
Jacmel Vocational, Jacmel.. --. --. -----------..-------. --------- 5 28
Cayes Vocational, Aux Cayes ----------... -------------- --------- 5 24
Total ... .. --------------------------------------- 70 758

5a There were 10 such schools until the institution at Jir6mie was "temporarily closed" in 1941.
6' Dartigue. Educational Yearbook 1942. p. 234.
6o Tables et graphiques statistiques de l'Enseignement urbain. p. 37.


The combined annual appropriation for these schools is $77,882.50.
The course of study, of 3 years' duration, includes both technical
and academic subjects. Among the latter, we find French, arithmetic,
algebra, geometry, history and geography of Haiti, general history
and geography, hygiene, civic and moral instruction, drawing, book-
keeping, physics, and chemistry. The trades taught are carpentry,
cabinet making, shoemaking, dressmaking, tailoring, auto mechanics,
tinsmithing, blacksmithing, masonry, and basketry. One of the oldest
and finest of these institutions, the Elie Dubois Vocational School,
operated by Belgian Sisters, offers classical courses leading to the two
brevets; practical courses in designing, dressmaking, sewing, millinery,
and home economics; as well as a normal course. The annual exhibi-
tion of students' handiwork testifies to the excellence of its methods.
To inaugurate his reform, Minister Dartigue conducted a survey of
vocational education, and a report on this investigation was published
in 1941.61 This 16-page booklet pointed out that the provincial trade
schools (Cap, Jacmel, Jerimie, and Gonaives) had been established
by the American Service Technique, which had also built school-
houses for these institutions, and reorganized the J. B. Damier School
and Maison Centrale at Port-au-Prince.
The mistake made by the American directors of the Service Technique
was to open the vocational schools before training specialized instructors;
for vocational education, much more so than elementary and secondary
education, requires well-prepared teachers.62
M. Dartigue was able to rectify this situation by sending about 25
principals and instructors to such institutions as Columbia University,
Hampton Institute, the Institut St. Georges (Belgium), West Virginia
State College, the Students' Art League of New York, the University
of Puerto Rico, and the Ecole du Meuble (Montreal). Moreover,
between October 1942 and March 1943, 11 teachers served an appren-
ticeship of 6 months at the National School of Arts and Trades,
conducted by the Salesian Fathers in Port-au-Prince.
Since 1943, according to a communication received from the former
director of vocational education, M. Max Rigaud, the following steps
have been taken to improve the instruction given by the trade schools:
1. Pupils are admitted by competitive examination.
2. 2 hours are devoted to theoretical courses and 4 hours to practical work.
3. Projects are executed by the students after special study: drawing up of
plans, estimates, tools, number of hours of work.
4. Instruction in the ateliers comprises a complete series of exercises, method-
ically related one to the other and prepared according to job analysis.
5. The pupil who has finished the cycle of exercises completes his training
by serving an apprenticeship that may vary from 6 to 10 months.

*I D6partement de 1'Instruction Publique. Rapport sur les Ecoles professionnelles. Port-au-Prince, 1941.
2 Ibid., p. 3.


The trade schools are also making a start in the matter of vocational
guidance and placement. This is followed up by periodical meetings
with former students and reports from employers. The needs in this
area, as seen by M. Rigaud, include: "a trained and specialized per-
sonnel; money.to carry out the program; a general occupational survey;
a campaign to persuade the people, and especially the educators, of
the importance of guidance; industrial development; a better social
understanding of the necessity for specialization; a good battery of
In 1944-45 there were five commercial schools-one at Cayes had
been "temporarily closed"-under the surveillance of the Department
of Vocational Education:
Table 7.-Number of Teachers and enrollments, commercial
schools, 1944-45

Name of school and location Nmber of Enl-
teachers meant
Special School (Robin), Port-au-Prince........ ....----------------------. 8 214
Commercial Institute, Port-au-Prince---.........----------........----- 6 120
Maurice Laroche School, Port-au-Prince --------------------------------- 7 90
Laroche Brothers' School, Port-au-Prince-..-....--------------. ........ 2 4
Cercle d'Etudes Post-Scolaires, Cap-Haitien-....- -...................... 4 19
Total.----------------------------------- 27 447

These institutions prepare typists, stenographers, bookkeepers,
accountants, and secretaries. A 1-year minimum course is prescribed
in typing and shorthand; 2 years for secretaries; and 3 years for
Toward the beginning of his administration, Minister Dartigue also
ordered a study of commercial schools. The institutions were in-
spected, and 60 of the principal employers were canvassed in order to
determine the main desiderata. This resulted in the publication of a
report e in 1943, which recommended;
1. An adequate control of commercial education.
2. Serious requirements for the official license permitting a commercial
school to function: a suitable building; adequate equipment; a competent
teaching staff, experienced and of recognized good character.
3. Regulations fixing the conditions of admission.
4. Quarterly registration of students, necessary for guaranteeing the regu-
larity of the courses and a complete cycle of studies.
5. Compulsory study of English in all sections.
6. Preparation of an adequate curriculum.
7. Regulating the length of the course.
8. Establishing a regular time schedule.
63 Departement de l'Instruction Publique. Risumi d'um rapport sur la situation de l'Enseignement com-
mercial, Port-au-Prince, 1943. p. 11,


9. Systematic organization of final examinations.
10. Preparation of an official scale for evaluating work in shorthand and
Thanks to M. Rigaud and his assistant, M. Liautaud, the cooperation
of several commercial school directors was obtained, and by 1945
most of these recommendations, notably items 1, 2 (in part), 5, 6, and
7 seemed to be in operation.

Secondary education occupies an important but restricted field in Haiti.
It is highly regarded among the upper social classes, who look to the second-
ary schools for the training of the future professional men and leaders in
government in the Republic."
Written by the U. S. Commission in 1931, these words are equally
true today. Graduation from a secondary school has continued to
be a sine qua non for membership in Haiti's intellectual lite and, to
some extent, for high political office. France's acceptance of the
Haitian certificate of secondary studies as the equivalent of the French
baccalaureate has brought additional prestige to the diploma. Three
new national secondary schools have been founded since the report
of the U. S. Commission was published. This has brought the total
number of lycles to nine. One of these, the Lyc~e de Jeunes Filles,
established in 1943, constitutes Haiti's first official attempt to open
this branch of education to girls.65 Furthermore, a modern laboratory
has been installed at the Lyc6e Petion, thanks to private philanthropy;
and another donation has made possible the construction of a new
building to replace the dilapidated Lyc~e de Saint-Marc in the near
Nevertheless, in equipment and physical plant, most of these
schools are desperately handicapped. At Port-de-Paix, Jacmel, and
Les Cayes, students are taught in flimsy frame houses that seem ready
to crumble at any moment. The lycde at Cap-Haitien is in better
condition largely because its principal, M. Louis Mercier,66 enlists the
aid of his students in providing necessary improvements. The
Lyc~e de Jeunes Filles, housed in what used to be the girls' normal
school, is also lamentably run-down.67 Some of the classrooms at
the Lyc6e P6tion and at various other schools are separated only by
a thin wooden partition which shuts out light and air but not the
lecture of the teacher in the adjoining room. In short, only the
lycee at Gonaives approaches the modern conception of a schoolhouse.
An interesting sidelight is that the six lycles most poorly lodged at
84 Report of the U. S. Commission on Education in Haiti, p. 19.
55 Mme, Bouchereau observes: "Secondary education for girls was organized by the law of 1893; in reality
it consisted only of higher elementary courses courses primaires superieurs). Op. cit., p. 16.
6" This educator and historian died on May 18, 1946.
o0 The Lescot Government had made plans for a new site and a new building.


the moment are rented by the State from private individuals, whereas
the buildings at Gonaives, Cap-Haitien, and Port-au-Prince (Lyc~e
Potion), belong to the Government.
Each lycde has a library, but the books are often inappropriate,
rarely used, few in number, and uncataloged.6 In most instances
they are kept under lock and key; generally no provision is made for
the students to consult them. "Oh, they're for the teachers!" I
was informed at one provincial lycee. Through the English Teaching
Project, small collections of books by American authors have been
given to four lycees by the Office of Inter-American Affairs. Haitian
teachers of English are requiring their advanced students to read
some of these volumes. Perhaps in this way the library habit will be
Notwithstanding the material disadvantages, many brilliant Hai-
tians have been trained in these national secondary schools. Like
Mark Hopkins on his log, scholars with national, and some with
international, reputations, like Price Mars, Pauleus Sannon, Dantes
Bellegarde, Lucien Hibbert, Louis Mercier, Raymond Doret, and
Edgard Numa,69 have inspired their students despite the absence of
blackboards, visual aids, and even textbooks. On the whole, the
lycge has made a vital contribution to Haitian life. An institution
like the Lyc6e Philippe Guerrier at Cap-Haitien would be a credit to
any nation.
Realizing that much was wrong with the national secondary schools,
Minister Dartigue ordered an investigation during the early months
of his administration. Among other findings, this survey revealed
that some of the teachers were poorly prepared. The most glaring
defects were corrected; summer courses inaugurated; teachers and
principals sent abroad to study; the individual teaching load was
fixed at 15 hours per week so as to dispense with unnecessary person-
nel and raise salaries with the money thus economized.
Two of the more outstanding secondary schools in Haiti are the
Institution St. Louis de Gonzague and the Petit Seminaire College
St. Martial. These two church schools, both located in Port-au-
Prince and supported by student fees and government subsidy,
offer greater facilities than the average lycee and attract large num-
bers of Haitian boys. Both institutions have libraries-that of
St. Louis de Gonzague is considered the best in Haiti, although here
68 An exception is the Lycee de Jeunes Filles, whose principal is an American with experience as a high-
school librarian and teacher.
69 Of this group, only Doret (Lyc6e Petion), Numa (Lycee Philippe Guerrier at Cayes), and Mercier
(Lycee Philippe Guerrier at Cap-Haitien) were still connected with secondary education in 1945. Price
Mars had become a senator and a professor at the Bureau of Ethnology; Pauleus Sannon had died; Belle-
garde had been retired; Hibbert had been named dean of the Faculti des Sciences. Since that time Numa has
been elected deputy; Mercier has died; and Bellegarde has been named Haitian Ambassador to the United


again the books are kept under lock and key. Two Catholic schools
for girls, Sainte Rose de Lima and the Institution du Sacr6 Coeur,
also offer secondary education, but the bulk of their students are
enrolled in the elementary department.
The third type of institution to dispense secondary education is
the lay private school. As a rule, these schools are poorly organized
and transitory. At the moment the most popular of these private
secondary schools is the College de Port-au-Prince, directed by
M. Henri Od6ide. This school has a student body in excess of 700.
Three striking conclusions are immediately apparent as one scans
the following table. First, more than twice as many Haitians are
enrolled in private as in public secondary schools. This indicates a
reluctance on the part of parents, able to pay the modest tuition fees,
to send their youngsters to the free national schools. Pressoir states
that the lycee is sometimes dubbed "the school for the poor."70 If

Table 7.-Institutions offering secondary education, 1942-43

Name of school and location


Lyc6e POtion, Port-au-Prince ....-------------------
Lycee Philippe Guerrier, Cap-Haitien. .... ... ----------.- -
Lycoe Philippe Guerrier, Aux Cayes .--.........--------...
Lycee Geffrard, Gonaives ----------------...------------
Lyc6e Pinchinat, Jacmel. -. ---------------------------------
Lycee Nord Alexis, Jeremie ...------------------
Lycee Tertulien Guilbaud, Port-de-Paix ----------
Ly6ce St6nio Vincent, St. Marc ....... ..--------------------


Name of school and location

Enrollment attendance

2 3

I 380 348



Enrollment Average
Boys Girls Total ance

2 3 4 5

Petit SBminaire, Port-au-Prince--- 826 ..------- --..-. 826 791
St. Louis de Gonzague, Port-au-Prince---- 816 --.... 816 783
College de Port-au-Prince, Port-au-Prince -------------- 705 .---.. 705 648
Simon Bolivar, Port-au-Prince-------------------------- 219 -..-- 219 172
St. Vincent de Paul, Port-au-Prince--------------------- 180 -..... 180 172
Institution Tippenhauer, Port-au-Prince-------------- 169 -- 169 157
Ste. Rose de Lima, Port-au-Prince --------------- -- 65 65 60
Cours Classiques, Port-au-Prince ------------- 43 20 63 57
College Bonhomme, Port-au-Prince -------------------- 15 45 60 49
Cours Secondaires, Port-au-Prince ----------8 18 26 26
College de Petionville, P6tionville --------------------- 51 41 92 91
College Notre-Dame, Cap-Haiten --------------- 293 -- 293 283
Total- ...........-- --- ----------- 3,325 189 3.514 '3,289

I Tables et graphiques statistiques de l'Enseignement urbain: 1942-48. Port-au-Prince, 62 pp., 38, 49.

70 Op. cit., p. 47.


this be true, it does not constitute a hopeful augury for the rapid
advent of a truly democratic spirit in Haiti. On the other hand, as
long as schools like the Petit SEminaire and St. Louis de Gonzague
retain their superiority over most of the lycees, parents will continue
to prefer them for their offspring. Secondly, the previously men-
tioned concentration of schools in the capital is also patent; only one
private secondary school, the Collage Notre-Dame, is located in a
provincial city. In the third place, the total number of girls enrolled
for 1942-43 is but 189. With the recent addition of the Lyc6e de
Jeunes Filles, which had an enrollment of 34 for 1944-45 and reached
its full capacity of 63 for 1945-46, and the secondary courses at the
Institution du Sacr6 Coeur, this figure must be revised upward.
Despite this increase and the work of Dorothy Kirby and her staff 71
it is obvious that the idea of extending secondary training to girls has
not yet caught the public fancy.
The course of study for secondary schools covers 7 years. Pupils
are admitted to the Sixieme (Sixth Grade) after having obtained the
Certificate of Primary Studies and after passing an entrance exami-
nation. As in France, successive classes are numbered in counter-
clockwise fashion. For example, the second year is called Cinquinme
(Fifth Grade); the third year, Quatrieme (Fourth); the fourth year,
Troisinme (Third); the fifth year, Seconde (Second); the sixth, Premiere
or Rhetorique; and the final year is known as Philosophie. The three
beginning classes, Sixieme, Cinquieme, and Quatri8me, constitute the
Grammar Division, while the last 4 years are referred to as the
Humanities Division. Not all the national secondary schools offer
the entire program. Only the Lycees P6tion, Philippe Guerrier
(Cap-Haitien), and Pinchinat (Jacmel) include the final year, Phil-
osophie.72 At St. Marc, neither Philosophie nor Rhetorique is taught.
Students eligible for these courses are awarded scholarships enabling
them to complete their secondary courses at the Lyc6e P6tion. An-
other national school that offers an incomplete program is the
Lyc~e de Jeunes Filles. Beginning in October 1943 with a
class in Quatrieme, it has added one course each year. At the moment
its 63 girls are spread over Quatrieme, Troisieme, and Rhetorique.
Secondary school students have a choice between three programs
or sections: Section A (Latin-Greek), Section B (Latin-Science), and
Section C (Science-Modern Languages.)73 Section B, however, is offered

71 In the baccalaureate examinations of July 1946, the first in which students of the Lycee de Jeunes Filles
participated, Miss Kirby presented 11 candidates, all of whom passed. Several obtained the highest marks
given in various subjects.
72 The low enrollment in advanced classes of other lycIes would not justify the expense of a course in
a Cf. appendix III.


only in a few private schools. Lyce students may thus select either
Section A or Section C, but "after the grammar division, the student
who has shown no disposition for Latin and Greek will be compelled
to change to Section C, after his parents or guardian have been noti-
fied, provided the lycge that he is attending offers the latter course.
A student in Section C may be admitted to Section A, after the
grammar classes, on condition that he pass a special examination
in Greek and Latin. After the Troisieme no pupil may change from
one section to another." 74 The same regulations stipulate that the
maximum number of students in any class is fixed at 35. Unfortu-
nately, this rule cannot always be applied; the writer has seen as
many as 50 in a class at the Lyc6e P6tion. The maximum age limit
for students of the national secondary schools is set as follows: Sirieme,
14 years; CinquiBme, 15; Quatrieme, 16; Troisieme, 17; Seconde, 18;
Rhetorique, 19, and Philosophie, 20.75
Proficiency in the secondary school curriculum is evaluated by
two official examinations for the Certificate of Secondary Studies,
sometimes called the baccalaureate. The first part of this examina-
tion is given at the end of Rhetorique; the second part after Philosophie.
Questions are prepared and mimeographed by the Direction Ggngrale;
each paper is corrected by at least two examiners, and if there is
too great disparity between the two grades, a third examiner corrects
the copy. The examiners are teachers or former teachers of national
and private schools. After the written test is graded, candidates
who have not been eliminated, take the oral. Only students who
have completed Rhetorque or Philosophie with an average of 50 per-
cent or more in the quarterly examinations given at their respective
schools are eligible for these official examinations for the Certificate.76
The baccalaureate results for 1944-45 were: 77

Part Girls Boys Total
Candi- Paed Per- Candi- Passed Per- Candi- Passed Per-
dates cent dates cent dates cent

First ........ 21 17 81 420 160 39 441 181 41
Second......... ..------ 10 9 90 143 83 58 153 92 60

These results emphasize a fundamental difference between the Hai-
tian lycee and the American high school. Like the French, the Hai-
tians consider their certificate of secondary studies a badge of dis-
74 D6partement de PInstruction Publique. Programmes et Plan d'Etudes de l'Enseignement secondaire
dassique. Port-au-Prince, 1935, p. 2-3.
7' Ibid., p. 4.
76 For the subject matter of these examinations, see appendix IV.
7 These figures include results obtained in July and October 1945. Examinations for the Certificate,
like those for the two brevets, are given each spring and fall.


tinction and award it sparingly. Thus the mortality rate of 61 per-
cent among the male candidates for the first part of the 1945 examina-
tion. Whereas the majority of American high-school graduates do
not continue in college, the Haitian with a "bachot" usually enters
the university to prepare for one of the professions. Moreover, long
before he has completed his year of Rhetorique or Philosophie, he has
seen many of his former classmates drop out of school for one reason
or another. Fifty-nine students in a class of Sixieme will dwindle to
10 in Philosophie at Cap-Haitien, or 31 students in Sixieme at Jacmel
will shrink to 6 or 7 in Philosophie.
At the Lyc~e des Cayes, how many have dropped out before finishing Rhgto-
rique? Twenty in 1936, 23 in 1937, 29 in 1938, 19 in 1940, 17 in 1941, when
the enrollment was lower.78
This is a perplexing problem that has disturbed Haitian educators
for many years. Some have suggested that it might be possible to
direct slower students into trades or business after Quatrieme, and
thereby forestall the discouragement and loss of time that their con-
tinued attendance and failure at the lycde would entail. Certainly
the uninterrupted 7-year course has proved too lengthy to be practical
for the majority of students. The minority who complete the pro-
gram are usually able to do creditable work on the university level in
France or in Haiti. In the United States they are classified as college
juniors, like holders of the French baccalaureate.
As in France, there are few extracurricular activities for the lycee
student. Though some secondary schools have basketball, track,
and football teams-association football is Haiti's national game-
athletics play a decidedly minor role. School newspapers, dramatic
clubs, or debating societies are nonexistent, but English clubs have
been organized in all the lyces and in some of the private schools.
Student government has not yet been tried; at the Lycfe de Jeunes
Filles, however, a start has been made in this direction.
Consultation between teacher and student is rare. In general, the
instructor teaches his classes and apparently takes no further interest
in the institution. There are exceptions, to be sure, at J4r6mie, Cap
Haitien, and elsewhere, and their number seems to be increasing.
In this respect, much depends on the attitude of the director and his
chief administrative assistant, the Censeur, though these officials are
probably reluctant to add to the duties of the low-salaried instructors.
The one secondary rural school is the Special Farm-School of Chat-
ard, which trains a select group of the most promising graduates of
elementary farm-schools. Some of the students who complete its
3-year course enter the Normal Section at Damien. Its curriculum

78 Morisseau-Leroy, F. La Mission de notre enseignement secondaire. 'Educateur haitien, May 194. p.5.


stresses agriculture. "The students take theoretical courses in the
general principles of agriculture, botany, entomology, animal hus-
bandry, and do practical work on the farm of the establishment, where
they work every day for 2 hours in the morning and 1 or 2 hours in the
afternoon." 79 In addition, they have classes in manual arts: bas-
ketry, weaving, pottery, blacksmithing, and cabinet-making; and
assist in the upkeep of the building; repair equipment, etc.0 As there
are but 26 students enrolled in this school, it would hardly be an over-
statement to say that secondary training does not exist for the rural

Until 1945 Haiti had no university in the sense that the term is
understood in this country. The various institutions that offered
higher education were, for the most part, under separate ministries.
On December 27, 1944, President Lescot issued a decree-law estab-
lishing the University of Haiti. The most important articles of this
edict were:
Article 1. The University of Haiti is created with a view to dispensing
theoretical and practical higher learning, in the Faculties which are a part
of it and in the Schools or Institutes of higher learning which are affiliated
with it, to stimulate and to organize scientific research, to serve as a center
of diffusion and publication of science and culture.
The University of Haiti may, with the approval of the Council of the
Secretaries of State, acquire, sell, accept gifts and legacies, contract with
private parties and perform all other administrative acts.
Article 2. The Faculties of the University and the Schools of higher
institutes which will be affiliated with it will be designated by an Executive
Order of the President of the Republic which will determine the relations
of the schools affiliated with the central administration of the University. .
Article 3. Higher education also is given in so-called free private schools
and in the Higher Special Schools organized by the State or with the approval
of the State (Military Schools, Apostolic Seminaries and so forth) functioning
outside of the University. ..
Article 4. The University of Haiti is placed under the control of the
Secretary of State for Public Instruction. The direction and the functioning
of the University are assured by the Council of the University presided over
by a Rector in conformity with the General Regulations which will be made
by Executive Order of the President of the Republic.
The Faculties of the University of Haiti are directed by their respective
Deans, each one assisted by the Council of Professors of the Faculty.
The affiliated Schools or Institutes are directed by their respective
Directors, assisted by the Council of Professors of the said establishments.

Bellegarde. la Nation haitienne. p. 298.
80 S. N. P. A. and E. R. Rapport annuel 1940-41; 1941-42. p. 144-145.


Article 5. The Council of the University is formed by the Rector, the
Deans of the different Faculties, the Directors of the affiliated Institutes or
High Schools; it is presided over by the Rector.
The Council of the University will meet at least every two months. It
will also meet at special session upon the request made by the Rector on his
own authority or at the special request of the Secretary of State for Public
Article 6. In order to assure the progress of the University and liaison with
the service of Public Instruction, the Secretary of State for Public Instruction
will be assisted by the Consultative Council which will meet twice a year,
at the end of the month of January and at the beginning of the month of
August. Special meetings may, however, be called at any time by the
Secretary of State for Public Instruction.
The Consultative Council will be composed of the members of the Council
of the University, of the Director General of Urban Education, of the
Director of Rural Education, and the Director of the General Hospital.
Article 7. The Rector presides over the Council of the University.
He watches over, aided by the Deans of the Faculties and the Directors
of Schools affiliated with the progress of the University, the application of
Laws and Regulations of the University and is charged with the general
administration of the University.
He is assisted in his administrative work by a Treasurer-Administrator
and a Secretary.
Article 8. The rector is named by the President of the Republic from a
list of three names presented by the Secretary of State for Public Instruction.
The designation of the three names will be made in the following manner:
The Council of the University chooses two names among those Titulary
Professors who are not members of the Council and who are recognized for
their personal value, their eminence in their respective branch and their
moral and intellectual integrity. The Secretary of State for Public Instruc-
tion will add the third name which he will choose either among the Titulary
Professors, or among the members of the Council of the University.
The Deans are named by the President of the Republic on the recommenda-
tion of the Secretary of State for Public Instruction. For each post to be
filled, the Secretary of State will present a candidate drawn from a list of
two names at least and three at most, submitted by the Council of the Uni-
versity and chosen among the Titulary Professors of the Faculty where the
nomination should take place.
The members of the Professorial Teaching Corps and the permanent
members of the Administrative personnel are named by the President of
the Republic on the recommendation of the Council of the University. .8

As a result of this decree-law, the Minister of Public Instruction
became Acting Rector of the University. The Schools of Law and
Medicine were transformed into a Facultd de Droit and a Facultt de
Medecine; the School of Applied Sciences was made a part of the new
Faculty des Sciences. The Normal Courses for teachers in secondary

s8 Le Moniteur, Jan. 1, 1945. The translation is that transmitted by the United States Embassy in Haiti
to the Secretary of State on Jan. 23, 1945.


schools, described earlier in this chapter, were attached to the Uni-
versity. Little else was accomplished prior to the Revolution,
although plans, which never materialized, were drawn for a central
administration building that would have been a "combination audi-
torium, cafeteria, and dormitory."
In December 1945 there were 432 students enrolled in the different
branches of the University:

Table 8.-Number of professors and enrollment, University of
Haiti, December 1945

School Nuber of Enrollment

College of Medicine (Faculti de lidecine) ----------------------.---- 31 100
School of Pharmacy .....------------------------ ------ -------------- 10
School of Dentistry (Ecole d'Art Dentaire) --....---......-......---------------....-- 25
Midwifery (Obstitrique) ..--- ..-..... ......- .. .........------- -------------- 3
College of Law (Faculti de Droit) -------_. ---------------- -------.- 9 135
College of Agriculture --..--..-.-------------------- ---------------. 26 31
Normal School for Rural Teachers (Section Normale agricole)- ------. ------- 22
College of Sciences (FacultJ des Sciences)..----. ----------..------ 13 65
School of Surveying (Ecole d'Arpentage).--------------------------- 3 16
Normal courses for teachers in secondary schools -------... ..--.------- 7 25
Total -.. --- -----------_...-...-- --- -------------- ..... 89 432

1 From an unpublished report of the Direction Gindrale. This does not include the three private law
schools in Cap-Haitien, Jer6mie, and Aux Cayes.

The 31 professors of the College of Medicine also serve the Schools
of Pharmacy, Dentistry, and Midwifery; and the 26 professors at the
College of Agriculture also teach the Normal Courses for Rural Teachers.
Among the various fields not covered by the University or by the
special institutions mentioned later in the chapter, one notes imme-
diately the absence of a school of social work, desperately needed in a
country where poverty, ignorance, and disease are so widespread. A
few young Haitians have received training as social workers in the
United States, but the number is far from adequate. Also noticeably
absent is a Faculte des Lettres, for which Dantes Bellegarde has fought
since 1918. No provision is made for the master's degree (licence)
which plays an important role in French universities. Since the
secondary school offers few electives and fewer possibilities for real
specialization, university courses in business administration, sociology,
music, journalism, and comparative literature, to name but a few,
are very much in order. Foreign students interested in subjects as
different as French and folklore might be attracted to Haiti if such
courses were available. These are some of the possibilities which
may be realized once the University is firmly established.
The curricula of the colleges now in existence will be found in ap-
pendix III. A brief statement concerning each of the schools will
therefore suffice at this point.


Faeulte de Medicine et de Pharmacie82
This Faculte is divided into five Sections:

Section Prerequisites
1. P. C. B. (1-year premedical Certificate of Secondary Studies (first part).
2. Medicine (5 years) _---_----- Certificate of Secondary Studies (both parts)
and P. C. B.
3. Pharmacy (3 years) --------- Certificate of Secondary Studies (first part)
or Brevet Supdrieur.
4. Dentistry (4 years)------- Certificate of Secondary Studies (first part)
or Brevet Supdrieur.
5. Midwifery (1 year)------- Brevet Supdrieur and Nurse's diploma.
The premedical course is designed to compensate for the insufficient
scientific preparation given by the secondary schools. Tuition scholar-
ships for five students in Medicine, one in P. C. B., one in Pharmacy,
and one in Dentistry, are provided by the Government. Tuition
fees for the other students in all sections total twenty dollars a year.
After completing the course in medicine, the young physicians are
required to serve an apprenticeship in the rural districts. A few,
however, obtain scholarships from various sources for foreign study.
Practically all the professors and most of the instructors (charges de
course) of this Faculte have obtained at least a part of their training
The Nurse's diploma, mentioned as a prerequisite for the course in
midwifery, is awarded after 3 years' study in the Nursing School that
was reorganized in 1942 by two American nurses.
With the full cooperation oi the Director of the Department of Health,
the Director of the Hospital, and the Medical Faculty we were able to raise
the program on a much higher level. The students responded very well,
and much to our surprise the third-year students asked that they be given
more class work so as to be more in rapport with the second- and first-year
As our assignment called for Public Health Nursing preparation, from the
very first we made great efforts to tie up preventive with curative medicine,
and brought into the program those courses which would prepare the nurses
for P. H. work, and in March 1944, when a Health Center opened, built by
the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs in cooperation with the Department of
Health we were able to start a training program in Public Health Nursing.
Only those nurses who show by their work and attitudes that they can be
prepared for P. H. N. are sent to this health center for their affiliation.
Some of our nurses after leaving the School of Nursing enter the School of
Midwives, as the School of Nursing is the door through which they must
enter in order to arrive at the School of Midwives. This School for a long
time will continue to attract some of the best nurses as midwifery here carries
prestige unknown in the U. S. However, we hope that with the Public

82 Cf. Service National d'Hygitne Publique et d'Assistance Publique. Faculty de Medicine et de Phar-
macie et Ecole de Chirurgie. Bulletin d'Informations 1944-1945.


Health point of view they have now, they will, even in midwifery spread the
ideas of preventive medicine.83
Faceult, de Droit
The prerequisite for admission to the College of Law is the Cer-
tificate of Secondary Studies (both parts). The course, of 3 years'
duration, is taught in the late afternoon and early evening. Many
students take it, without any intention of practicing law, but rather
as a preparation for a political career, or as a necessary discipline for a
cultured individual. After the first 2 years the student is considered
a bachelor of laws (bachelier en droit); upon completion of the final year
he receives the degree of master of laws (licencie en droit). As Haitian
jurisprudence is based on that of France, few graduates of this
Faculty continue their legal studies in the United States.
Faculte des Sciences
This branch of the University comprises the School of Applied
Sciences,84 the School of Surveying, and the Normal Courses for
Secondary School Teachers. The 4-year course of the School of Ap-
plied Sciences leads to the diploma of Civil Engineer. For admission,
the Certificate of Secondary Studies (first part) is required. The
School of Surveying offers a 2-year course. Its prerequisite is the
Troisieme course of the secondary school program, but the adminis-
tration hopes eventually to require the first part of the Certificate of
Secondary Studies. At the end of the first year a certificate is awarded
and, following the apprenticeship undergone during the second year,
successful aspirants receive a surveyor's commission. The Normal
Courses for Secondary School Teachers, to which reference has been
made earlier in the chapter, last but 1 year. At the end of this period,
that is much too short for the course really to attain its objective, the
trainees receive a certificate.
Eeole Nationale d'Agriculture
This institution, sometimes called the Central School of Agriculture,
the College of Agriculture, the Practical School of Agriculture, or
Damien (because of its location) offers a 3-year course for agronomists,
and the previously mentioned 2-year course for rural teachers. The
prerequisite for the former is the Certificate of Secondary Studies
and satisfactory entrance examination papers in physics, chemistry,
natural science, history, and geography.85
In addition to dispensing advanced agricultural education, the Col-
lege of Agriculture is expected to conduct "scientific work and research
3 Letter of July 29, 1946, from Martha P. Cattelain, Directress of the School of Nursing, to Dorothy M.
84 Founded in 1902, the School of Applied Sciences operated as a private institution with a small govern-
ment subsidy, and was at times connected with the Department of Public Works.
s8 Cf. Gagneron. Op. cit., p, 47; and S. N. P. A. et E. R. Programme des Cours d l'Ecole Nalianale d'Agri-
culture. Port-au-Prince, 1945.


as befits a higher institute of agriculture." 86 Its faculty consists of
well-prepared young people, many of whom have studied in the
United States."8 In 1943 alone, eight members of the Rural Educa-
tion personnel were sent to the United States to study. More-
over, five agronomists of the Agricultural Extension or of the School of
Agriculture, did specialized study abroad and a sixth left last Septem-
ber for a year of specialization in Entomology. Two specialists studied
abroad for a month, one in the United States, the other in Puerto
Rico." 88
A unique feature of Damien is its library which, as far back as 1936,
contained 3,455 books, 8,322 periodicals, 32,794 bulletins, and 428

COMMUNAL SCHOOL. Support for this type of elementary rural school
derives largely from the commune itself.

volumes on Haiti, all of which were classified and cataloged.89 The
collection has continued to grow and has been entrusted to a young
Haitian trained in library science in the United States.
Indeed, Damien, with its well-trained personnel, its experimental
station, its library, and its other facilities, should some day become

8 S. N. P. A. and E. R. Bulletin 36. Rapport annuel 1948-44. p. 75.
87 Four bachelors of science, six masters of science, and one Ph. D. are listed among the members of the
Damien faculty in the annual report for 1943-44.
8s Lescot, Elie. Erpose general de la situation. Message du President de la Ripublique, le er janvier 1944.
p. 68.
89 Dartigue L'Oeuvre d'Education rurale .... p. 16. The Annual Report for 1943-44 (p. 90) gave the
following inventory of the Damien collection: 10,604 books; 38,000 bulletins, reports, and circulars; 12,000
revues; 3,000 newspapers; 900 catalogs.


more than a college of agriculture and a normal school for rural
teachers. Some day it must take its place as a citadel of hope for the
Haitian peasant.

The Military Academy, opened by the Americans in 1921, was
closed in 1934 because the quota for officers in the Garde d'Haiti
had been filled. The school reopened in 1939 "under the direction
of two superior officers of the United States Regular Army, a colonel
and a major." In 1944 President Lescot reported that a competitive
examination would be held to select 60 cadets who, upon graduation,
would be commissioned second lieutenants. "The Military School,"
he declared, "is henceforth established as a permanent State organi-
zation; it will no longer function periodically." The following year
it was again closed.
An Apostolic School, designed to train native Catholic priests, was
organized in 1920. Operating on government subsidy, this school had
graduated 20 priests by 1941.
Two recent additions to the educational institutions of Port-au-
Prince are the Bureau of Ethnology and the Centre d'Art. Founded
by the late Jacques Roumain in 1941, the Bureau of Ethnology
maintains a museum, publishes scientific documents, and teaches
courses in ethnology. The Centre d'Art, which is supported by the
United States Department of State and the Haitian Government
jointly, was established in 1944 by an American artist, De Witt
Peters. The latter had come to Haiti as one of the teachers of English
sent by the U. S. Office of Education. Classes are taught in painting
and sculpture. Expositions of Haitian art have been held in Port-au-
Prince, Havana, Washington, New York, and other cities, with the
result that Haitian painters are finding a market for their work.

o0 Gagneron. Op cit., p. 67.

STARTING from scratch, if ever a school system did, Haitian edu-
cation has been handicapped by poverty, political instability,
topography, climate, color prejudice, and linguistics. The lack of
textbooks, of suitable buildings, of a living wage for teachers, and of
a sufficient number of school canteens, may be attributed directly to
the country's economic situation. Despite these and other obstacles,
the Haitians, through their own efforts and with some aid from
foreigners, principally French and North American; have progressed
along the road to enlightenment. Their schools are no longer entirely
literary or classical; teachers are better trained and somewhat better
paid; printed regulations are less frequently disregarded. Their
graduates acquit themselves creditably in American colleges and
universities, just as they have long since done in France. Enrollment
has increased, though in the rural districts it is still one-fourth or
one-fifth of what it should be.
Highly centralized, like the French model which most of the urban
schools follow, the system has the virtues and defects inherent in such
an organization. From the primary grades through the secondary
schools, success is measured solely by official examinations given by
the State. Consequently, the baccalaureate degrees of two students
who may have attended different institutions have the same value.
On the other hand, the uniform program does not provide sufficiently
for individual differences or interests. This is especially true of the
7-year course leading to the certificate of secondary studies. More-
over, several important areas of instruction are as yet untouched by
Haitian schools.
As in numerous other countries, Haitian economic, political, and
intellectual life has gravitated to the capital. We have noted that all
the private secondary schools, save one, are concentrated in Port-au-


Prince. Only two provincial lycles offer the complete secondary
program. Four of the five recognized commercial schools are likewise
in the capital. Several provincial cities have no vocational school.
In too many instances, the best teachers are transferred to Port-au-
Prince. This may mean a small raise in salary and increased oppor-
tunity for the instructor, but it is certainly unfair to the pupils in the
smaller towns. If the provincial cities are to develop healthily, this
dangerous tendency must be checked.
Students in the rural districts are at a still greater disadvantage.
Sometimes no school is accessible. When they do attend, they follow
a modified program, and do not receive the standard certificates and
diplomas. Only one small secondary school has been provided for
them. This schism between rural and urban education, which may
be justified on practical grounds, tends to perpetuate class distinctions
that are all the more noticeable in a country where the masses are
illiterate and underprivileged. There is no gainsaying the fact that
Haiti negls skilled workers, but, in a democratic country, it is no
more necessary that every peasant's son should be restricted to voca-
tional training than that every politician's son should be forced into
law school.
At least one portent of democracy can be detected in Haitian
schools today: the extension of secondary education to girls, which
will enable more young women to enter the various professions. An
increase in the number of evening and part-time schools, as evidence
of a really serious attempt to stamp out illiteracy, would be even more
gratifying. Whether this campaign should be conducted in Creole or
in French is a difficult problem which the Haitians themselves must
decide. From the democratic standpoint, however, it would seem
preferable for both lite and peasantry to read, write, and speak the
same language.


Budget of the Direction G6enrale of Urban Instruction for 1943-44:

Total disbursements ------------------------------------- $523,492.76
Classification of disbursements:

I. Administration ---------------------
II. Supervision-
1. Elementary schools ------------
2. Secondary schools -- ---------
3. Vocational schools ---------------------
III. Instruction-
1. Lay elementary schools ---------
2. Congregational elementary schools -_
3. Secondary schools -------------
4. Secondary school for girls-----------
5. Vocational schools---------------------
6. Higher schools-
(a) Law School ------------
(b) School of Applied Science --------
IV. Physical education_ ----------
V. Fixed expenses (rents) ----------
VI. Repair and maintenance ------------
VII. Diverse subsidies__--__-------
VIII. Scholarships and cultural relations-
(a) Scholarships------------
(b) Cultural relations -------
IX. Literacy campaign ------------

1 Direction G4nerale de l'Enseignement Urbain. Les Risultal
l'Enseignement rbain. Port-au-Prince, 1945. P.82 f.



S 8,704.93
S 75,793.01

S 9,560.88

S 4, 153.63

s de la troisiime annde de reforme de



I. National Library---------------------- $2, 243. 46

II. Communal schools_ ----------------- 5, 051. 42

III. Maison Populaire d'Education (Cap-Haitien)----- 10, 197. 20

IV. Centre d'Art (Rental)----------------- 300. 00
V. Cantines scolaires--_- ------------ 16, 677. 82

VI. Scholarship to the United States awarded by 0. J. Brandt Co_ 445. 00

VII. Scholarship awarded by President of Haiti--------_ 1, 352. 25

VIII. School of Applied Science (from student fees) ------ 3, 239. 75

IX. School of Surveying ---------------------- 1, 086. 37


Appendix II


"In 1938 a law was passed requiring physical education in the schools.
A Normal School of Physical Education with sections for boys and girls was
created to prepare trained teachers in this respect The Normal School
of Physical Education has one director and two professors." 1

The number of urban students (not including children between 4 and 6 years
of age) taking physical education in 1942-43 was:

Public elementary schools for boys --- ---- 3, 816
Public elementary schools for girls ------------4,968
Private elementary schools for girls ---------- 3, 000
Lycde P6tion ------------------------- --- 380
Private secondary schools -------------------- 522
Vocational schools for boys ------------------ 322
Elie Dubois (vocational school for girls)------- 170
II. PROVINCIAL CITIES ---------------------------- 12, 078

Total ---------------------------------_ 26,256

For the youngest classes, physical exercises are conducted every day for 15 or
20 minutes. For primary classes, there are 3 periods of 30 minutes each a week.
Pupils of the higher elementary and secondary schools have 2 weekly periods
of 1 hour each. Elementary school pupils of the required age-from 13 to 16
years-begin volleyball, basketball, and association football. The girls par-
ticipate more especially in rhythmic exercises.2

I Gagneron, Marie. The Development of Education in Haiti. Unpublished master's thesis. Atlanta
University, 1941. p. 54.
2 CL Les Rdsultats de la deuxitme annie de riforme de l'Enseignement urbain. Port-au-Prince, 1944. p. 53.


Appendix III



According to an official regulation of Sept. 26, 1932, the curriculum of this
school was as follows:
r i


French (spelling, grammar, analysis, vocabulary)--
French composition --...--.------------- -- --------.
Literature (literary history, explanation of texts). -
Applied psychology ----------------- -------
Mathematics .-------- ----------------------
Methodology .--........---------------
Nursery school methods--Singing -- -----
Experimental psychology ------ ---- --------
Pedagogical readings ----------------------
Ethics..... ----------------
Practice teaching ....... ------------------
Physical sciences -------------------------------
Natural science ------------------------
History of Haiti.------------------
Geography of Haiti ---------------------
General history ... ---------------------
General geography -. -- ---------------
Hygiene, rearing of children -------------
Home economics ------------------
Religious instruction -.. -- --------------
English .---. ------------------------------
Civics ------ ----------------------
Sewing -------------------------- -----------------
Drawing -- ------ ---------------
Physical education -----------
Total ........... ..------------- -

Hours per week, by year

- ------

2 3 4

4 2
1 1
2 2
2 2
5 4
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1
0 2






1 Bouchereau, Charles and H1raux, Herman. Legislation scolaire. Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie A.
H1raux, 1933. p. 130-131.

Several years later, however, on the basis of information received from the
principal of the school, Madeleine Bouchereau published a somewhat different
program for the third-year course:

Religious instruction ------------
Pedagogical dissertation -------
Explanation of texts ------------
General pedagogy__------------
History of education_ -----------
Pedagogical reading and school
legislation ---------------
Introduction to philosophy ------

Applied pedagogy (practice teach-
ing)------------------------- 8
Home economics---------------- 1
Manual training (sewing) --------- 3
Drawing.__ -- --------- 1
Singing -------------------- 1
Physical education _--------- 11


_------------1 26

I Bouchereau, Madeleine. Education desfemmes en Haiti. Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie de l'Etat, 1944.
pp. 51-52.



In her report of June 30, 1945, Yvonne Daigle, who had directed the school
since the previous November, listed the following program of studies for its 2-
year course:

Hours per week, by quarter

2 3 4 5

Agriculture.. ... ---- -..-------------... 5 5 3 5
Anatomy and physiology------------ 2
Arithmetic. --- .. -- 2 3 -
Assemblies ....-------------- 1 -- --
Chemistry .-----------------...----- ....-- 3 --..-.-
Drawing---------- ---- ------- 2 ------
Education -.-. --- .... 1
English -------- -2 2 2 2
French ...------ .-------- 2 3 2
Home economics:
Sewing.--- 3 2 2 --
Cooking.-----------------.--- 2 4 3
Manual arts .---- .----- 4 ..-- 6
Industrial arts ------ ----4 4
Physical education .- 4 2 4 3
Physics ..-- ---------- -....- -.. -----..--------- 2 ......
Religious instruction 1 ..... 1 1
Social science--.. 3 2 2 2
Special activities .... 5 2 5 2
General science-... ..------ 3--
Hygiene ..-.. .. ... 2
Music ------------3 3 2
Pedagogy .- ...... 2
Principles. .----------- .....--- 2 3
Psychology----- -- 2 3
Observation in primary school ------ ----... 2
Total ---------_ 42 35 38 34

"The program of studies for the fifth trimester differs somewhat from that of
the previous ones in that because of lack of agreement on part of the Administra-
tive Commission of the Normal School as to what constitutes a good practice
teaching program in a Normal School it was deemed necessary to confine the
practice teaching to forenoons." The same report adds that there were 6 weeks
of practice teaching.


Department of Letters
Subjects Hours per week
French literature, explanation of French texts-------------------------- 3
Latin language and literature-------------------------------- ------- 2
History of civilization and explanation of philosophical texts ------------- 3

Department of Mathematics
Mathematical analysis------------ ------------------------------ 2
Analytical geometry ------------------------------------------------- 2
Mechanics_------------------------- 2
Complements of geometry ---------------------------------------- 1
Descriptive geometry --- -- ---------------- 2
Review of last 3 years of mathematics taught in secondary schools--------- 2
Drawing ---..------------------------------------------------- 2


Department of Languages

Methods of teaching English -------------------------------------- 3
English composition and grammar .--.------ ------------------------ 2
American literature ------------------------------------------------- 2

Two 1-hour courses in Pedagogy History of education and Problems of
secondary education-were required in all departments.1
1 This program was furnished to us in January 1946 by Dr. Lucien Hibbert, dean of the Facult des Sciences.


Lycke students may follow either Section A (Latin-Greek), or Section C
(Sciences-Modern Languages). Only one or two private secondary schools also
offer Section B (Latin-Science). The official program of studies, as published in
1935, follows:

Subject Section A Section B Section C

1 2 3 4

French _............-....
Latin ......-- ...-.......-
History and Geography ..-
Mathematics .------
Civics.....- -----
Hygiene --------------------
English --------...
Spanish ------------

Total.---... --- ---------------------.

French .-- -...-....... ..- ... ..---- ... ....- .....
Latin ---..... ....-.--------- --------
History and Geography ------------
Descriptive botany .--------------------
Civics. .. ..- ------ ------------------------------- --
English ..--. ...--..-.- ------------------------------------
Spanish ------------------------------
Drawing ---- ---- --- -----------------
Total -----------------------------------

French ---..-- _---- .-------. .---------------------
Latin --------------... ------... --------......---
Greek .- ...-...... ....----------..........-.----- ---
English or Spanish ... .........--------------------- -------
History and Geography ...- ----------- -.----
Mathematics ..- --
Descriptive zoology ... ---------------
Civies -... -------------------- ---------------
Total ---.. -------------------------- ---


7 7 8
6 6 0
5 5 5
5 5 6
2 1 2
1 1 1
1 1 1
0 0 2
0 0 2

27 26 27


7 7 8
6 6 0
5 5 5
5 5 6
2 2 2
1 1 1
0 0 2
0 0 2
1 1 1

27 27 27


S 6 6 8
S 4 4 0
3 0 0
2 2 14
4 4 4
4 4 7
2 2 2
1 1 1
- 1 1 1
27 24 27

See footnotes at end of table.

See footnotes at end of table.

---------- --------- --------- -


Subject Section A Section B Section C

1 2 2 4

French .............-------------------------.
Latin ....-...... ....----------..............
English or Spanish ....---.--------. ---------------------.---
History and Geography of Haiti.-........-----------
General history and geography.....-----------------------
Mathematics ------------------- .-----------------..
Physics.- ..........-.............--..... ---....
Chemistry .--...........--...........................-----------------------
Drawing..........-- --------------------------------

Total .........---- --- -------------

French--..--.............------. ---------------------
Latin- ---...-------------------------.
Greek ........------- ---- .---------------------------
English or Spanish ----...................... -----
History and Geography of Haiti ----------
General history and geography ------
Mathematics...------------- --. ------------------ .
Physics .------... .------ ------- .. ---
Chemisty .-----------_ -_ -----------------------------
Drawing ...--..............---------------------------

Total.... .................-----------------------

French ........-------------------------------------
Latin -------------.......... -- -- ----.-----
Greek ----__.....----------------- -.
English or Spanish --------------------------
History and Geography of Haiti --------------
General history and geography ---------------
Mathematics -------
Physics ----------.......... --
Chemistry -- --- ---------
Plant physiology------ --------------.
Drawing ..... -----------------

Total ...----- ..............-------------------

Philosophy. .-----------
History and Geography of Haiti ---------
General history and geography -- ------
Mathematics ---- -----------
Organic chemistry -----------
Cosmography ---------------------
Animal physiology --- -------
English or Spanish -- -----------
Common law (and Political economy)-----------
Hygiene------------------- -

Total.............---- --------..-------------- 27


6 6 8
4 4 0
3 0 0
2 2 16
2 2 2
2 2 2
4 5 5
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 1 1

27 25 27


6 6 8
5 5 0
3 0 0
2 2 16
2 2 2
2 2 2
3 5 5
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 1 1
27 26 27


6 6 7
4 4 0
.3 0 0
2 2 16
2 2 2
2 2 2
3 5 5
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1

27 26 27


10 10 6
3 3 3
2 2 2
0 0 5
2 2 2
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 14
1 1 0
1 1 0



I Students take both English and Spanish.
2 Programmes et Plan d'Etudes de l'Enseignement secondaire classique. Port-au-Prince, 1935.


In addition to the above, certain courses, such as Religious instruction, taught
by the parish priest, Music, and Physical education, are prescribed "for all classes
and all sections." (Ibid, p. 69). Again the reader should be warned against
taking these printed regulations too seriously. English, for example, is usually
taught in all sections, from Sixidme through Philosophie, twice a week in the
Grammar Division, and three times in the Humanities Division. Inasmuch as
the English program has been developed since 1943 with the cooperation of the
U. S. Government, we include a brief outline of that program as of June 1945

Subject matter

Pronunciation, grammar, read-
ing, and simple conversation.
-----do_ ----_--- ----------

Composition and conversation _-

Advanced composition and con-
versation; American literature.

Review grammar; reading: Con-
tinuation of American liter-
Cours de style; reading; ad-
vanced diction.

General review; advanced read-
ing and diction.


Introduction to English: Lessons
Introduction to English: Lessons
Mimeographed sheets and illus-
trated pamphlets.
Mimeographed sheets and illus-
trated pamphlets; This Is
English Lessons for Haitian
Schools; mimeographed sheets
and illustrated pamphlets.
English Lessons for Haitian
Schools; Haitian-American An-
Haitian American Anthology.
mimeographed sheets; books
from the English library.'

I Cook, Mercer. Handbook for Haitian Teachers of English. Port-au-Prince, 1945. p. 3.


P. C. B. (1-year premedical course)


Subject Total Total
Theory Practice wey annually

1 2 3 4 5

Physics..--.-..------.....---------------------- 2 4 6 240
Chemistry .-----.---.. ----------------------_- 2 6 8 320
Biology --.---.-----.---------------- ---- 1 6 7 280
Botany ------ -------------------------------- 2 4 6 240
Embryology ........ .........---------- -........ 1 .I----.--. 1 28



4 ------






1 Hours


Anatomy --........ ..--------
Bacteriology -----------
Elementary surgery --------
Embryology ...... -- ----
Normal histology .....-----------

Medical physics ..----------
Physiological chemistry ---
Symptomatology -----
Pathological anatomy ------
Parasitology ...- -------------
Clinical microscopy ...- -
General pathology -... ---------
Anatomy (Nervous system) ----
Biological chemistry -------
Practical surgery...-------

Medical pathology.-------
Surgical pathology -----------..
Obstetrical pathology -.--------
Medical clinic_----------
Surgical clinic ------ ---------.
Obstetrical clinic .--------
Psychiatry ------------
Therapeutics -.---------------.
Immunology ----------
Radiology ... --------------
Urology __.. --------
Biological chemistry -----
Phthisiology (Tuberculosis) --
Pharmacology -... ------
Surgery --- --------------
Oto-rhinolaryncology --.- --.
Tropical pathology ._----.
External pathology -----
Preventive medicine --.-.. .

Medical pathology .----- ------------
Surgical pathology.-------- ------------------
Obstetrical pathology --------------------------
Medical clinic-------.. ----------------
Surgical clinic..---------------------------
Obstetrical clinic. -.------------------
Medical jurisprudence .. ----------------------
Gynecology.._-- -------------------------
Dermatology ---...-----... ---------- ----
Hygiene .------ .. --------------------
Radiotherapy- ...--- -------------- -
Biological chemistry ------------------
Phthisiology .--..----....----------- --------
Surgery -.---------.. .. ------------------.. -------- -
Psychiatry --..---..- -----.-----..-------.------. --
Physiotherapy..-----....-------... ---.-- ---..
Oto-rhinolaryngology ...---------------------------
External pathology-------------....------------
Preventive medicine ..---------... ---- -.

Theory Practice Weely an aly

2 3 4 &


2 10 12 480
----- --- 1 2 3 120
.. 1 4 6 220
----- -- 1 1 40
1-------- ----- 4 5 200


S3 2 5 200
S 2 2 80
1 1 40
--..--- 1 3 4 160
1 1 2 80
-- --- ---- 2 2 80
2 3 120
---- ----- 1 -------- 1 40
-.. -1 -- -- -- 14 60
1- 1i 60
-- 1 2 3 120


S---- 2 2 80
S 2 -..... 2 80
---- --- 2 2 80
6 6 240
6 6 240
5 5 200
.1. 40
1 ----- 1 40
1 1 1 40
S 1 1 40
. .. 1 40
1 1 40
2 ---------- 2 80
- -- 1 -1--- 40
1 1 40
S- 2 2 80
1 1 40
i 1 I 40

2 ----------- 2 80
------- 2 2 80
2 2 80








See footnotes at end of table.





General anatomy .-
General histology -- ....
Physiology.._ .-- .----
Dental anatomy. -----..-.
Prosthesis ...----
Dental histology ---------
Exodontia. .....-

Exodontia__ ............
Preventive dentistry -.-...
Operative dentistry --..- -
Prosthesis---.. ---------
Bacterioloy ------ _--..---
Operative technique...
Histopathology --------

Hygiene -----------------
Symptomatology_ ---------
Prosthesis. ----------------
Operative technique ------
Operative dentistry ------
Dental clinic------------
Exodontia -_--.---- -

Oral pathology -----------
Operative technique ------
Prosthesis ----------------
Orthodontia_ -- ----------.
Radiology 3..------------
Exodontia and oral surgery
Dental clinic---------
Stomatology 4..-------------




- -

- -


Practice Total, Total,
Practice weekly Annually

3 4 5


91i 11)1 460
4 5 200
2 3 120
3 120
2 3 120
S1 40
1 40
2 2 80


8 8 320
S1 40
1 40
7 8 320
2 3 120
4 4 160
---------- 1 40


1 ---------- 1 40
1 1 40
2 7 9 360
1 1 40
---- ----- 2 2 80
S ----------- 1 40
---------- 15 15 600
------- 4 4 160


--- 1 --- 1 40
---- ------------ ---------- 2 2 80
----------- 2 10 12 480
----------------- ------- 1 ----------- 1 40
--- ----- -- --- ----------- 1 1 40
-- 3 3 120
---------------- 15 15 600
--1-- --- ------ ----- 1 40

See footnotes at end of table.

------------ --------------

- ------------------------



ThSubject Prt Total, Total,
Theory Practice weekly annually

1 2 3 4

Chemistry .----------------
Chemical pharmacy ------------------------------

Chemistry--..- ------------- -------
Biology .---------------- ------ -
Bacteriology ----------------------------------------
Materia medical and toxicology...---- ........------
Chemical pharmacy -------------------------------

Chemistry...........-- ---------.------------..-
Physiological chemistry..-..------............----..
Immunology........-----.............-. ...........
Parasitology ....--- -- ------........-----------
Microscopy .....------------------ ..........
Material medical and toxicology----------------------
Galenic pharmacy------ ----------------------

Obstetrical pathology ----------............ ...----.
Obstetrical clinic ..------------------------
Obstetrical maneuvers. ....--- -_- ----


2 2 4 160
1 2 3 120
3 2 5 200
1 2 3 120
---- ..-. 2 2 80


3 6 9 360
1 6 7 280
1 2 3 120
1 .------ 1.. 40
2 ---........ 2 80


.---.... 7 7 280
1 ------..- 1 40
1 -....... 1 40
... .... 2 2 80
1 2 3 120
S 1 40
--........ 1 1 40
2 --........ 2 80


3 ------- 3 120
------ -- 1 1 640

I The fifth year is entirely clinical.
2 The practical tests in the fourth-year Dentistry examinations are eliminatory.
3 The course in Radiology begins in the third quarter.
4 The course in Stomatology is given in May and June.
6 The course in Chemical pharmacy begins after the Christmas vacation. An apprenticeship in a phar-
macy of Port-au-Prince is required of all first-year students.
8 Service National d'Hygi8ne Publique et d'Assistance Publique. Faculty de M6decine et de Pharmacie
et Ecole de Chirurgie Dentaire. Bulletin d'Informations 1944-1945. For checking the translation of scientific
terms used in this section, I am most grateful to Dr. W. Montague Cobb, of the College of Medicine, Howard

School of Nursing
Subject Hours per year Subject Hours per year
Anatomy and physiology .---- 90-95 Massage------- --------- 8
Microbiology_-------_ 80-85 History of nursing------- 18
Chemistry ------- --- 30 Hygiene------------ 25
Practical care----------- 110 Ethics__--- ------ 20
Practical care theory------- 50 Normal nutrition_--_---- 30
Bandage------------------ 15 Drugs and solutions----------- 8-10



Practical medicine----
Surgery-Gynecology _
Practical surgery -__
Materia medica-------
Diet in illness --------

Community hygiene_----------
Public health ------------
Public health nursing-Field work.
Mental hygiene ----------------


Civil law -----------
History of law ------

Civil law. -----------
Civil procedure -----
International law ------

Civil law --------------------
Commercial and maritime law ---_
Conflict of laws (Droit international
priv) -----------------------

Hours per week Subject Hours per week
12 Nutrition--------------- 30
30 Contagious diseases----------- 20
30 Obstetrics------------------- 35
-- 25 Practical obstetrics--------------- 30
------ 35 Care and development of children_ 24
-- 24 Ophthalmology_--------- 10

25 Principles of education_---
26 Professional adjustment -- -
23 Case study --------
364 Principles of social work ----
23 Laboratory technique-------

Hours per week Subject Hou
----------- 2 Criminal law_------------
------------ 2 Political economy ------------


rs per week

------ 2 Constitutional law --
2 Statistics --------


-- 2

2 Money and banking (Ldgislation
2 financinre) ----------------- 2
Administrative law_------------ 2 1


School of Applied Science
FIRST YEAR (14 hours a week)

Descriptive geometry
Inorganic chemistry
Analytic geometry

Spherical trigonometry
Complements of geometry

SECOND YEAR (16 hours a week)

Legislation Construction
Analysis Physics
Organic chemistry Manipulations
Strength of materials Descriptive geometry
Mechanics Topography
1 Letter from Martha P. Cattelain, Director, School of Nursing, to Dorothy M. Kirby, July 29, 1946.
2 This schedule was sent by M. Adrien Jeanty, Secretary of the Facultd de Droit. For checking the trans-
lation of legal terms, I am indebted to Prof. Robert Ming, of the School of Law, University of Chicago.


Municipal engineering
Professional practice
Strength of materials

Political economy
Ports, rivers, and canals

School of Surveying

Geometry of space
Descriptive geometry

Plane geometry
Geometry of space

THIRD YEAR (18 hours a week)
Industrial chemistry
Concrete construction
Industrial physics
FOURTH YEAR (18 hours a week)
Concrete construction
Technology 1

FIRST YEAR (20 hours a week)
Surveying (theoretical and practical)
SECOND YEAR (20 hours a week)

Descriptive geometry
Detailed study of logarithms and solu-
tion of triangles (in general, trigonom-
etry applied to surveying)

I. History of surveying
II. Description and use of surveying instruments
III. Methods of surveying
Surveying by diverse methods and relative calculations. Drafting. Instruc-
tion in the use of topographic signs, the various styles of letters used in titles.
Drawing of topographic map from notes made in the field.
I This information was sent by Dr. Lucien Hibbert, Dean of the Facult des Sciences. Prof. Granville
Hurley, of the College of Engineering, Howard University, was kind enough to check the translation of
technical terms.



Course for Agronomists

Hours per week, by quarter

1 1 R3 4


Industrial arts-........................ ................
General botany_......-
Metals and metalloids.. ------- ---------.-
Drawing ........... ............................
General zoology..------._ _...-----------------
Agricultural zoology---------.............................
General zootechnics ..................................
Cryptogamia and taxonomy................................
Topography--..............--- ....... ----------. ----
Rural legislation.. .........................---------

Special agriculture......... ..............................
English..------ ----------.............................---
Industrial arts --------------------------------------- -
Agricultural microbiology--------.... --------------------
Plant anatomy........................................
Organic chemistry... -..--------------------------..---
Free-hand drawing..........------------------------------
Agricultural machinery.--------.... -----------------
Rural legislation ----------....-----------------------. -...
Anatomy and physiology of animals -------
Feeding of farm animals .................................-
Pathogenic microbes of domestic animals .....-------------
Plant physiology I.-.................----------------------
General entomology-------------------------------------
Water control and drainage........................-----
Special zootechnics... -------- ----------------------------.
Agricultural statistics ....- ----------------------------
Soil chemistry ..--------- ------------
Clinic .---------------- -------------------

Fruit cultivation...--..............------.... --------
Plant physiology II---.........------------------------
Soil cultivation.. ----------- ---- --......--------------
Rural sociology .----------------------------------
Forestry ------------...-----------------------
Rural economy _------ ------- --------
Economic entomology..------- --- ----------- -
Apiculture ---------------------------------
Irrigation ....-------------------- -----.----------
Parasitic diseases --. ---------------. -----------
Aviculture .------------------- ---------------------..
English .-------- --------------
Plant pathology --- --------------------------------
Farm mechanics ------------ ---------------------
Principles of genetics -. ---------------------------
Rural construction ---------------------------
Distribution of agricultural products---------------
Agricultural accounting .------ --------------
Principles of education.---------- ---------------
Government sanitary regulations -----------------
Dairy technology -- --------------------------------

1 1 1
5 5 5
4 ------------ ----------
3 3 3
2-4 2-4 2-4
4 4 4
2 ---------------------
2 2 ....
6 6 6
4 4
.. .... 4 4
............. 1 1
.. ---- ..-..-.- 2


7 7 7
1 1 1
5 5 5
3 ....- ... .....--- -....
3 3 -.......
2-4 24 2-2
2 -- --- -------
2 4 ----
4 4
------------ 3 3
-..---------- 4
.............--- 4 4
-------- -- 2 2
6 6
----- ------ ------------- 3
------------- ----------- 4
----- -- ---- 3


7 7 7
4 ------------- -------------
3 --
2 2 --
3 3
2 2 ---
4 4 ----
3 ---------------------.
4 4 --
4 4 -. ..-
4 ---
1..--- .. 1
4 4
..- -- 4 4
4 4
-- 2 2
----------- ----------- 2
----- ---...-- ---- ------. 2
.-..- ------ -------------
-------- ------

.-.- .------ --------- 6


Normal School for Rural Teachers
I --

Zootechnics .. ...........-- ------------------------------
English-....-.......-------- --........... ------ ---
Industrial arts ..---- .---------------------------------
Botany -------- ---------------------------------
Agricultural chemistry. --.. ----- ------------
Drawing -------------....------------------------------------
Physical education ---------------------
Hygiene ..---------- ..----------------------------
Religious instruction ---------------------------------------
Music...------------.-------- ---------------------- -
Psychology------- ----------------------------------
Zoology ..- ------------------------------------
Principles of education .------ ...................---------
Entomology ------------------.---------------------------
Agricultural geology.......---------------------. -------
Agricultural problems of Haiti ......--------....--------.
Sociology-------------- -----------------------

Plants of economic importance to Haiti .----------
Industrial arts ........--------------------------
Drawing..------.................. ----------------
Methods (General) ................-- ....................-
Methods (Specialized)..----------------------------------
Pedagogy ----------------------------------------------
Physical education ......---........ --......--------
Entomology ----------------------
Topography-...-------------..-----.... ---
Religious instruction.........................------------
Agricultural technology ......---------------------
Veterinary service ----- --------
Rural sociology -------------------
Rural construction.........--.----------------------.---
Rural legislation.........--------------------------------
Nutrition -...........-------------------------
School administration .-----------------

Hours per week, by quarter


2 3 4


6 6 6
1 1 1
6 6 6
3 3 3
3 3 3
2-5 2-6 2
4 4 4
2 2
2 1 1
1 1 1
1 ...----.-.----
1 1 1
2 2
3 3
2 2 -..----
3 3
.-------.-- -- ----- 2
--- ------ ---------- 2
-- ------------- 2








SProgramme des Cours a I'Ecole Nationale d'Agriculture. Bulletin 34. Port-au-Prince, 1945.

Appendix IV


According to the official regulations published in 1935,1 the written examina-
tions include the following subjects:

First Part (taken after Rhetorique)



French composition -----------------------------------------
Latin to French ----------------------------------------------
Greek to French ----------------.----------------------
Mathematics --__-------_----- --------------------------------
I Programmes et Plans d'Etudes pp. 10-13.




- -

French composition-----
Mathematics --------------

Latin to French-------------
English (or Spanish) to French---
French composition --
Mathematics -
English to French -- ----------
Spanish to French-

Second Part (taken alter Philosophie)
Philosophy -------------------------------
History of Haiti------------------------------
Physical sciences -- ------
Translation: English (or Spanish) to French_
Philosophy----------------------- ----
Mathematics -------
Physical sciences -- -----
Translation: English (or Spanish) to French

On March 20, 1946, shortly after the Revolution, the Direction Gendrale changed
the regulations to read as follows:

First Part:

French -----
Latin ------
Greek -------
English -----
Physics -----


Inorganic chemistry_ ---------
Plant physiology --- ---------
General history and geography -.--
History and geography of Haiti --
French, Latin, Greek, English -------

-- 3
-- 2
----- 2

Time allowed

--------------------- 1 2
------------------- 1
--------------------- 1
-------------- 1 11
-- ---------------- 2 2


French ---------------------------------------------
Mathematics ------------------------------- --
Latin -----------------------------------------------
English ---------------------
Physics -------------------------------------------------
Inorganic chemistry -----------------------
Plant physiology ------------------------------------




-------- ---- ----
------ ------- -
- - -


SECTION B-Continued
Time allowed
Written Subject Coefficient hourr)
General history and geography -- ......----------------- 1 1
History and geography of Haiti ------------------------__ 2 2
French, Latin, Mathematics, English---._____. _____
French.-----------..... ..____.._.. ..__________ .__. 2 4
Mathematics ------.....______ 3 4
English------- ____-------------------------_ 2 2
Spanish ---------.--------------_-------------------_ 2 2
Physics ------. ----------------...... ....-----------. 2 2
Inorganic chemistry -------------. __.-------__ 1 1
Plant physiology -------------.....__ ....------------. 1 1
History and geography of Haiti -------------------------- 2 2
General history and geography -------------------------- 1 Y1
French, mathematics, English, Spanish---......-_____
Second Parts
Philosophy ---------------------- -----------_--_ 3 4
English __----------------- ---.-__ -_----____.. 2 2
History and geography of Haiti -------------------------- 2 2
Physics -------------- --------_- 1 2
General history and geology-----------..___________-. _._ 1 11N
Animal physiology ------------...._________------------_ 1 1
Organic chemistry ------------------------------------- 1 1
Cosmography --------. -----.---- -----_ ------- 1 1
Common law ------ -----._ --------------------------- 1 1
English ------------------...---------_.. .. ... ..
Philosophy ------------------------------------- 4
English ---------------- --------------------------__. 2 2
Mathematics 3 4
Mathematics------- ----------------____--------------------------________ 3 4
Physics ..... ... ..__ ._ ___.____ ________ 2 2
History and geography of Haiti -------------------------- 2 2
General history and geography --------------------------_ 1 1
Animal physiology_ ------------------------------------- 1 1
Inorganic chemistry .._ ..______. ....------------------. 1 1
Cosmography ... ......__ .._______---------------------1 1
Mathematics, English -------------_- -_____._....-


Appendix V


Number of schools Enrollment Average attendance

Girls Boys Mixed Total
Girls Boys Total Girls Boys Total

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Lyes........----------- 1 --. 8 9 -. 34 21,575 1,609 31 1,429 1,460
Private establishments 1 7 --6 113 2 358 4,053 4,411 290 3,809 4,099
Total.....--. 1 1 15 -- 6 1 22 2 392 5,628 6,020 321 5,238 5,59

I S=School; C=Class.
2 Includes 26 girls.

Appendix VI

30, 19441

A. Haitian collection:
1. Books_-----
2. Reference ---
3. Magazines and
papers -----
B. French collection:
1. Books_----

2. Reference --------
3. Magazines and nel

1, 197



1, 261

C. English collection:
1. Books ----------------
2. Reference ---------
3. Magazines and news-
papers -_-________--.
D. Spanish collection:
1. Books_---------
2. Reference_-------
3. Magazines and bulletins

I Les Rsultats de la troisimre annie de riforme de l'Enseignement urbain. Port-au-Prince, 1945, p. 61.

Appendix VII


The Government of the Republic of Haiti (hereinafter called the "Republic"),
and the Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc. (hereinafter referred to
as the "Foundation"), a division of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American
Affairs, an agency of the Government of the United States, have agreed to under-
take a cooperative educational program available to all interested public and
private groups in accordance with the following terms and conditions, without
prejudice to the official program of education of the Haitian Government:

1, 052


1, 127
1, 162


Appendix V


Number of schools Enrollment Average attendance

Girls Boys Mixed Total
Girls Boys Total Girls Boys Total

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Lyes........----------- 1 --. 8 9 -. 34 21,575 1,609 31 1,429 1,460
Private establishments 1 7 --6 113 2 358 4,053 4,411 290 3,809 4,099
Total.....--. 1 1 15 -- 6 1 22 2 392 5,628 6,020 321 5,238 5,59

I S=School; C=Class.
2 Includes 26 girls.

Appendix VI

30, 19441

A. Haitian collection:
1. Books_-----
2. Reference ---
3. Magazines and
papers -----
B. French collection:
1. Books_----

2. Reference --------
3. Magazines and nel

1, 197



1, 261

C. English collection:
1. Books ----------------
2. Reference ---------
3. Magazines and news-
papers -_-________--.
D. Spanish collection:
1. Books_---------
2. Reference_-------
3. Magazines and bulletins

I Les Rsultats de la troisimre annie de riforme de l'Enseignement urbain. Port-au-Prince, 1945, p. 61.

Appendix VII


The Government of the Republic of Haiti (hereinafter called the "Republic"),
and the Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc. (hereinafter referred to
as the "Foundation"), a division of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American
Affairs, an agency of the Government of the United States, have agreed to under-
take a cooperative educational program available to all interested public and
private groups in accordance with the following terms and conditions, without
prejudice to the official program of education of the Haitian Government:

1, 052


1, 127
1, 162


Appendix V


Number of schools Enrollment Average attendance

Girls Boys Mixed Total
Girls Boys Total Girls Boys Total

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Lyes........----------- 1 --. 8 9 -. 34 21,575 1,609 31 1,429 1,460
Private establishments 1 7 --6 113 2 358 4,053 4,411 290 3,809 4,099
Total.....--. 1 1 15 -- 6 1 22 2 392 5,628 6,020 321 5,238 5,59

I S=School; C=Class.
2 Includes 26 girls.

Appendix VI

30, 19441

A. Haitian collection:
1. Books_-----
2. Reference ---
3. Magazines and
papers -----
B. French collection:
1. Books_----

2. Reference --------
3. Magazines and nel

1, 197



1, 261

C. English collection:
1. Books ----------------
2. Reference ---------
3. Magazines and news-
papers -_-________--.
D. Spanish collection:
1. Books_---------
2. Reference_-------
3. Magazines and bulletins

I Les Rsultats de la troisimre annie de riforme de l'Enseignement urbain. Port-au-Prince, 1945, p. 61.

Appendix VII


The Government of the Republic of Haiti (hereinafter called the "Republic"),
and the Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc. (hereinafter referred to
as the "Foundation"), a division of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American
Affairs, an agency of the Government of the United States, have agreed to under-
take a cooperative educational program available to all interested public and
private groups in accordance with the following terms and conditions, without
prejudice to the official program of education of the Haitian Government:

1, 052


1, 127
1, 162


1. The Cooperative educational program may include:
(a) Furnishing by the Foundation of a staff of educational specialists re-
quested by the Minister of Education for service in Haiti in carrying
out the cooperative educational program;
(b) Training grants to permit Haitian educators to come to the United
States for specialized training, to lecture and to exchange ideas and
experience with United States educators;
(c) Exploration and survey in Haiti of local educational needs and resources
for carrying out training projects;
(d) Development, adaptation, and exchange of suitable teaching materials,
particularly visual materials;
(e) Local projects needed to implement the program in Haiti.
2. For the purpose of providing an instrumentality through which the cooper-
ative educational program can be conducted by the representatives of the two
parties to this agreement, the Government of Haiti shall create a special service
to be known as the Commission Cooperative Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education,
which shall operate as a separate entity within and subordinate to the Ministry
of Education. The Commission Cooperative Haitiano-Amdricaine d'Education
shall have the power to execute the cooperative educational program herein
3. The Foundation will provide a field staff of educational specialists to assist
in the consummation of the cooperative educational program. The field staff
shall be under the direction of an official who shall have the title of Representative
of the Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc., in Haiti, and who shall be
acceptable to the Government of Haiti. This official shall be representative of
the Foundation in connection with the program to be undertaken in accordance
with this agreement.
4. The Government of Haiti shall appoint as Director of the Commission
Cooperative Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education the Representative of the Inter-
American Educational Foundation, Inc. The Director of the Commission Coop-
6rative Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education shall be responsible for the execution
of and shall have authority to carry out the cooperative educational program of
the Commission.
5. The cooperative educational program in Haiti shall consist of individual
projects. Projects shall consist of specific kinds of work and activities to be
undertaken by the representatives of both parties in the execution of this agree-
ment. The projects and the allocation of the funds of the Commission Coop6r-
ative Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education shall be agreed upon by the Minister of
Education for the Republic of Haiti and the Representative of the Foundation
in Haiti.
6. The Foundation shall pay the salaries and other expenses payable directly
to the American members of the field staff in a total amount not to exceed One
Hundred and Forty-seven Thousand Dollars ($147,000) and shall, in addition,
grant to the Commission Cooperative Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education the total
sum of Fifteen Thousand Dollars ($15,000) as follows:
No later than May 1, 1944, the sum of $5,000
No later than May 1, 1945, the sum of $5,000
No later than May 1, 1946, the sum of $5,000


7. The Government of Haiti shall in addition to its regular budget for education
grant to the Commission Coop6rative Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education the
sum of Fifty Thousand Dollars ($50,000) as follows:
No later than May 1, 1944, the sum of $16,666.66
No later than May 1, 1945, the sum of $16,666.67
No later than May 1, 1946, the sum of $16,666.67
The funds of the Commission Cooperative Haitiano-AmBricaine d'Education
shall be deposited in a special account in the name of the Commission Cooperative
Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education and shall be disbursed by the Director of the
Commission Cooperative Haitiano-Americaine d'Education only upon projects
having the mutual approval of the Minister of Education and the Representative
of the Foundation in Haiti. In addition to the above grants in cash, the Govern-
ment of Haiti will also furnish office space, office equipment, furnishings and
supplies as are necessary, and will furnish such other materials and supplies as
are available and which may be necessary for the projects to be undertaken
through the Commission Cooperative Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education. The
Haitian Government will also provide at least one understudy to each of the
specialists from the United States in order that the Haitian educators may carry
on the educational program when the staff of American personnel is withdrawn.
8. In view of the fact that many purchases of materials and supplies must
necessarily be made in the United States of America and paid for in dollars, the
Minister of Education and the Representative of the Foundation in Haiti may
withhold from the deposits to be made by the Foundation, as hereinabove pro-
vided, an amount established to be necessary to pay for in dollars the purchases
of materials and supplies in the United States of America. Any funds so with-
held by the Foundation for such purchases and not expended on or obligated for
materials or supplies for the Commission Cooperative Haitiano-Am6ricaine
d'Education shall be deposited to the Commission's account.

9. The funds granted by the parties of this agreement to the Commission
Cooperative Haitiano-Americaine d'Education shall continue to be available for
the purpose of this program during the existence of this agreement. Interest,
if any, on any balances of funds to the credit of the Commission Cooperative
Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education shall be credited to and be for the use of the
Commission. The parties hereto shall determine by mutual agreement the
disposition of any unobligated funds remaining to the credit of the Commission
Cooperative Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education upon the termination of this

10. The Director of the Commission Coop6rative Haitiano-Americaine d'Edu-
cation, with the approval of the Minister of Education of Haiti, shall have the
power to select, appoint, or discharge the employees of the Commission and shall
determine the salaries, transfers, and conditions of employment within the Com-

11. Contracts and agreements relating to the execution of projects previously
agreed upon by the Minister of Education and the Representative of the Founda-
tion in Haiti shall be executed in the name of the Commission Cooperative Hai-
tiano-Am6ricaine d'Education by the Director of the Commission.
12. The Commission Cooperative Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education shall be
considered as an integral part of the public administration of Haiti. As a conse-


quence its Director and its personnel shall enjoy the same privileges and rights
which are held by the department and other public divisions of the Government
of Haiti and by the personnel thereof.
13. All employees of the Foundation who are citizens of the United States and
who are engaged in carrying out the objectives of the cooperative educational
program shall be exempted from all income taxes with respect to income on which
they are obligated to pay income taxes to the Government of the United States
and from property taxes on personal property intended for their own use. Such
employees shall also be exempt from head taxes and payment of customs and
import duties on their personal effects, equipment, and supplies for their own use.
14. The expenditure, audit, and accounting of funds in the Commission Coop-
erative Haitiano-Am6ricaine d'Education account, as well as the purchases and
sale of personal property for the account of the Commission shall be regulated
and controlled under such rules, regulations and procedures as shall be mutually
agreed upon by the Minister of Education and the Representative of the Founda-
tion in Haiti. The accounts of the Commission shall be available for audit
whenever it is considered necessary by the appropriate agency of the Government
of Haiti or by the Foundation or its delegate.
15. At the termination of this agreement, all property of the Commission
Cooperative Haitiano-Ambricaine d'Education shall remain the property of the
Government of Haiti.
16. All rights, powers, privileges, or duties conferred by this agreement upon
the Minister of Education may be delegated by him in whole or in part to the
Directors of Rural and Urban Education of the Haitian Government. All rights,
powers, privileges, or duties conferred by this agreement upon the Representa-
tive of the Foundation in Haiti may be delegated by the recipient thereof to repre-
sentatives, provided that such representatives be satisfactory to the Minister of
17. This memorandum of agreement may be amended from time to time if
deemed advisable by the parties hereto and the amendments are to be in writing
and signed by the representatives of the Government of Haiti and the Inter-
American Educational Foundation, Inc.
18. The Government of Haiti shall take the necessary legal steps to effectuate
the terms of this agreement.
This memorandum of agreement shall be effective as of the date hereof and
shall remain in force for three calendar years from said date, unless amended by
mutual agreement.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized, sign the present
contract, in duplicate, in English and in French, at Port-au-Prince, Haiti this
30th day of April 1944.
For the Government of the Republic of Haiti:
For the Inter-American Educational Foundation:
Vice President, Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc.


[N. B. On May 24, 1945, a supplementary agreement was signed by the two
contracting parties. In it the Haitian Government raised its quota to $60,000,
the additional $10,000 to be applied to "the cost of constructing buildings at
normal schools for carrying out the said cooperative educational program in
Haiti." The Inter-American Educational Foundation likewise subscribed an
additional $10,000 to "be used specifically for the purchase and procurement in
Haiti or the United States of America of teaching equipment and supplies jointly
deemed necessary by the Minister and the Representative of the Foundation for
proper administration of said program." The supplementary agreement con-
tained several other relatively minor modifications.]


BELLEGARDE, DANTPS. Pour une Haiti heureuse. Port-au-Prince, Cheraquit,
1929. vol. II, 456 p.
-- Un Haitien parole Port-au-Prince, Cheraquit, 1934. 279 p.
-- la Resistance haitienne (L'Occupation americaine d'Haiti). Montreal,
Editions Beauchemin, 1937. 175 p.
---- La Nation haitienne. Paris, J. de Gigord, 1938. x, 361 p.
-- Haiti et ses problames. Montreal, Valiquette, 1941, 297 p.
and VINCENT, STANIO. L'Ecolier haitien. Brussels, 1'Exportation
Belge, 1911. 62 p.
L'Annie enfantine d'histoire et de gdographie d'Haiti. Brussels,
SociWtd anonyme belge d'imprimerie, 1913. 115 p.
BOUCHEREAU, CHARLES and HfRAUX, HERMAN. Legislation scolaire. Port-au-
Prince, Imprimerie A. Heraux, 1933. 276 p.
BOUCHEREAU, MADELEINE, Education des femmes en Haiti. Port-au-Prince,
Imprimerie de l'Etat, 1944. 87 p.
BRUTUS, TIMOLEON C. Rangon de Genie ou la Legon de Toussaint-Louverture.
Port-au-Prince, Edition Theodore, 1945-1946. 2 vols.
DARTIGUE, MAURICE. L'Oeuvre d'Education rurale du gouvernement du Prdsident
Vincent. Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie de l'Etat, 1936. 32 p.
Conditions rurales en Haiti. Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie de 1'Etat. 1938.
59 p.
-- lI'Enseignement en Haiti. Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie de 1'Etat, 1939.
50 p.
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MORISSEAU-LEROY, FELIX. La Mission de notre enseignement secondaire,
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Rapports annuels du Conseiller Financier receveur gdndral. Port-au-Prince,
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Le Moniteur (Journal oficiel de la R&publique d'Haiti). Port-au-Prince. Pub-
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Rapports annuels du Service Technique de l'Agriculture et de l'Enseignement pro-
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Rappo ts annuels du Service National de la Production agricole et de l'Enseignement
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Guide pour les Instituteurs des ecoles relevant du S. N. P. A. et E. R. Port-au-
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Guide pour l'dvaluation des employs du S. N. P. A. et E. R. Port-au-Prince,
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Rapport annuel du Bureau d'Ethnologie 1942-1943. Port-au-Prince. 16 p.
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R4sumd d'un rapport sur la situation de l'Enseignement commercial. Port-au-
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Dicret-loi riorganisant la Direction Ginerale de l'Enseignement Urbain. Regle-
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Cours d'dit pour les professeurs de lycee. Port-au-Prince, 1943. 11 p.

Tables et graphiques statistiques de l'Enseignement urbain: 1942-1943. Port-au-
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Les Rgsultats de la premiere annie de riforme de l'Enseignement urbain. Port-au-
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Les Risultats de la deuxibme annde de rdforme de l'Enseignement urbain. Port-au-
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Les Risultats de la troisibme annie de riforme de l'Enseignement urban. Port-au-
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SLe Programme de la preparation des cadres continue. Port-au-Prince, 1944. 13 p.


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