• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Main














Title: Statistics on Cuban women
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078134/00001
 Material Information
Title: Statistics on Cuban women
Physical Description: Book
Language: Spanish
Creator: Federación de Mujeres Cubanas
Publisher: Federación de Mujeres Cubanas
Publication Date: 1985
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078134
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Main
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text


STATISTICS ON
CUBAN WOMEN


FEDERATION OF CUBAN WOMEN


G~i~nCC~ti~T~-mC~,T~_~~ ,e ~c~i--;45)3nt~--;SS~i~-~--i~!~


GE~~j~p~*~i~c~t~~ r ~-j~-';~MI~-7c~i~3fl~~











In 1984 there were 5 053 974 males and
4 988 799 females living in Cuba. Males made
up 50.3 % of the total population, and females
comprised 49.7 % of it.
There were 1 013 males for every 1 000
females, a ratio that has shown a declining trend
over the years, due fundamental to the
mortality of the predominantly male immigrant
groups which came to Cuba at the beginning of
the century.

MASCULINITY RATIO

YEARS INDEX
1978 037
1979 1 036
1980 1 022
1981 1 023
1982 1 020
1983 1 018
1984 1 013


The socio-economic changes which have taken
place in Cuba since 1959 have had a great effect
on health. Diverse measures, such as the making
of all medical-health care services free of charge,
and the expansion of these services to. even the
most remote corners of the country, have had
consequences such as an increasing life
expectancy, now over 70 years.
From 1981 to 1982 life expectancy for the total
population was 73.93. For women it was 75.77.
In the field of demographic development, the
deep revolutionary changes taking place since'
1959 are reflected in the fertility rates. These
rates have consistently declined since 1965, the
year which had the highest birth rate (the gross
birth rate then was 34.3 per thousand
inhabitants). In 1984, the gross birth rate was
16.6 per thousand inhabitants.


This marked and accelerated drop is due to a
number of factors. These, taken as a group, are
related to the socio-economic cultural changes
which the country has undergone. Particularly
significant in this.regard are the changes which
have altered the position of women in society. Of
these, several must be singled out: women's
increased access to paid work, to education, and
to free health care. The possibility of a couple to
consciously and responsibly decide how many
children they want and when, is also a reality
since Cuba already has the material, legal and
educational bases required for them to do so.
The development of health care programs
directed at mothers and new borns, both from
the social and medical viewpoints, has brought
the infant mortality rate down substantially.
Today the rate is 15 per thousand live births.
This has placed Cuba among the 15 nations of
the world with the lowest infant mortality rates.
That means that these health care programs have
saved the lives of thousands of children during
the years of the Revolution.

INFANT MORTALITY

YEARS INFANT MORTALITY
RATE PER THOUSAND
LIVE BIRTHS
1959 60.0*
1969 46.7
1973 29.6
1978 22.4
1984 15.0
*Estimates prior to 1959. which are not considered reliable, are even higher.


The number of beds at the end of 1983 was
60 037. That represents an 84.7 % increase over
1958. Of the available beds, 81.7 % are reserved
for curative purposes rather than preventive
care.


c~s~b~u~',~ C ~.~-~U)3~--j~%(t~-~-~)~


c^skiSrs^PS ~15 _(,C^ SS^











The number of beds in medical assistance and
social units in 1958, 1978, and 1983 were the
following:

BEDS 1958 1978 1983
TOTAL 32 501 51 595 60 037
Of these:
medical
treatment 28 536 43 103 49 042



Of the total number of beds set aside for medical
treatment in 1983, 34.5 % were reserved for
specialties related to health care for women and
children. (See graph 1.)


SPECIALTIES TOTAL
Pediatrics 8 245
Obstetrics 5 713
Gynecology 1 641
Neonatology 1 329


The census results in 1953, 1970 and 1981
reflect the favorable changes which have taken
place with respect to women's employment.
Taking into account the real level of the active
labor force, the number of women between 15
and 50 years of age employed in 1970 was
higher than in 1953. The higher incidence of
employment in the over-50 age group in 1953,
reflects the lack of social security services at that
time. Beginning in 1981, the rate of women's
employment started to rise among the
20-and-over age group, peaking in the 30-34
age-group, in which 32 out of every 100 women
worked. There is a marked drop in the number
of women working in the over-55 age group,
which is the retirement age for women, because
of the social security benefits they begin to
receive. Some, however, do continue to work
past 60.


RATES OF FEMALE EMPLOYMENT
BY AGE GROUP
1953, 1970, and 1981 census

AGE GROUPS 1953 1970 1981
10-14 10.9" 0.4
15-19 17.2 16.4 12.9
20-24 22.3 25.3 43.2
25-29 22.1 24.2 50.9
30-34 21.3 23.0 52.4
35-39 21.1 22.2 51.8
40-44 20.9 21.1 48.7
45-49 19.6 18.9 40.7
50-54 18.2 15.9 30.9
55-59 15.5 12.0 18.1
60-64 12.9 6.8 7.8
65 and over 8.5 1.9 2.0
SRate for 14 years old

The 1981 census shows that the employment
rate for both sexes in Cuba represents more than
half the population 15 and over. Women
represent 32.8 % of the labor force.
An analysis of the economically active female
population by age, shows that it is younger than
the economically active male population.
Women under 45 make up the bulk of those
actively employed, and total more than the
number of men under that age who are
employed. (See graph 2.)

THE BREAKDOWN BY AGE AND SEX (%) OF
THE ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION
(1981 Census)

AGE GROUPS MALE FEMALE
Total 100.0 100.0
15-19 6.9 6.7
20-24 13.1 15.7
25-29 13.8 16.6
30-34 13.7 16.5
35-39 12.3 14.6
40-44 10.7 11.7
45-49 8.6 8.1
50-54 7.5 5.5
55-59 6.1 2.8
60-64 4.0 1.1
65-69 1.9 0.4
70 and over 1.4 0.3


c~k~i~lt~.~;S~i~'~P~~16 ~~il~~-n;











An analysis of the breakdown by economic
sector is an important indicator by which to
evaluate to a great degree the level of economic
development achieved.
In Cuba, women workers are employed
fundamentally in the following sectors:
education, industry, trade, and public health;
representing 23.2 %; 18.4 %; 15.6 % and 11.2 %,
respectively, of the total number of women
employed.
Women make up 36.1 % of the total 3 047 300
workers.

WOMEN WORKERS BY SECTOR (1983)

SECTORS WOMEN (%) OF
TOTAL WORKERS
TOTAL 36.1
Industry 29.9
Construction 12.2
Agriculture 19.2
Forestry 16.3
Transportation 17.1
Communications 46:1
Trade 46.9
Other productive work 45.5
Communal and individual services 40.4
Science and technology 48.2
Education 66.3
Art and Culture 42.5
Public Health 68.4
Finance and Insurance 63.2
Administration and office workers 43.3
Other non-productive workers 39.0


During these twenty-five years, Cuba has
achieved a very high increase in the upgrading of
women workers.

The state employs almost 99.0 % of the
economically active women. The breakdown by
occupational category is as follows:


1983 (thous.) X WITH
RELATION
TO 1978


TOTAL WORKERS
Of them: Females


3 047.3
1 098.6


CATEGORY


1983 (thous.) % WITH
RELATION
TO 1978


Workers
Technicians
Administrators & office workers
Services
Officials (leadership)
or (management)


At the same time that the number of women in
the active labor force increased, so did the
number of women who occupy high posts in
government branches, where at present, they
represent around 23 % at the national level.
(See graph 3.),

WOMEN MANAGERS BY ECONOMIC SECTOR
(July 1984)

SECTORS TOTAL WOMEN %
MANAGERS
TOTAL 227 582 51 752 22.7
Industry 49 753 5 307 10.7
Construction 20 379 1 892 9.0
Agriculture 23 812 1 335 5.6
Forestry -
Transport 12 956 964 7.4
Communications 3 178 1 169 36.8
Trade 48 468 14 406 29.7
Other productive
Work 100 24 24.0
Communal servi-
ces 5 042 1 736 34.4
Science and tech-
nology 954 221 23.2
Education 31 193 14 878 47.7
Art and culture 3 882 1 366 35.2
Public health,
sports, and
tourism 14 787 4 876 33.0
Finances and
Insurance 2 385 1 033 43.3
Administration
and office workers 10 693 2 605 24.4


Women represent 23.8 % of the deputies on the
National People's Power Assembly.

Today 99.7 % of all women workers belong to a
trade union. There are 135 336 women who
hold trade union leadership positions on the
different levels.


d~%jfS~P~'~i~L~CR~~,~ ?r ~-~-~~~`~)31~-~d;)3~~


CATEGORY


<^^^^ i^ s~~s^ ~sF17^










WOMEN LEADERS (%) IN THE TRADE UNION
MOVEMENT

YEARS
1978 1982 1983
Full-time profes-
sionals employed
by the Central Or-
ganization of
Cuban Trade
Unions (CTC) 10.1 13.4 14.0
Union executives
at national, pro-
vincial and muni-
cipal levels 34.7* 36.4 40.0
Local union
leadership 40.6 45.6 45.1
Corresponds to 1980
The corresponding figures for the student
organizations not only demonstrate the results of.
25 years of Revolution with its just practice of
equality but also shows the power of women.
The Federation of Secondary School Students
has a membership that is 57.7 % female, a
national vanguard that is 57.3 % female, and a
leadership that is on the average 56.1 % female,
with a goodly number of them in the top
leadership. The Federation of University
Students has a membership that is 59.1 %
female, a national vanguard that is 55,2 %
female, and a leadership that is 49.8 % female.
This active incorporation of women is in
proportion to their rising educational level, as
can be seen from the following table, which
shows the educational level of working women.

EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF WORKING WOMEN

EDUCATIONAL LEVELS 1983 X WITH
RELATION
TO 1978
TOTAL 1 098.6 114.2
Primary 317.5 99.4
Basic secondary 354.8 154.5
Technical & Professional 139.5 248.7
Teacher education 79.1 142.8
Secondary (pre-unlverslty) 128.5 201.4
Higher 79.2 210.1


The breakdown of Cuba's female population, six
years of age and over, by educational level and
according to the 1981 population census was:

BREAKDOWN (%) OF WOMEN

EDUCATIONAL 1970 1981 POINT
LEVELS DIFFERENTIAL %
WITH RELATION
TO 1970
Sixth grade or less 84.8 61.2 23.6
Secondary 14.3 36.0 21.7
Higher 0.9 2.8 1.9


(See graph 4.)
Since the mid-seventies, Cuba has achieved
levels of primary school attendance which are
close to 100 % for both sexes.
One of the most important achievements with
respect to women and education in Cuba is their
greatly increased entry into higher studies. Cuba
has seen the opening of numerous university
centers and branches in almost all the country's
provinces.

INCREASED ENROLLMENT OF WOMEN
IN HIGHER EDUCATION

SCHOOL YEAR ENROLLMENT VARIATION (X)
WITH RESPECT
TO THE
PREVIOUS YEAR
1976-77 43 301
1977-78 52 131 120.4
1978-79 59 151 113.5
1979-80 67 880 114.8
1980-81 73 413 108.2
1981-82 85 462 116.4
1982-83 90 758 106.2
1983-84 117 741 112.1

In the last five years, 45 993 women have
graduated from higher education programs. That
represents 46.7 % of the country's total graduates
during that period.
Women comprise 54 % of the country's
technicians, and it is natural that they should


18










participate in the work of the state branches
dealing with the evaluation, selection,
acquisition and adaptation of technology, as well
as be present in the research institutes.
The number of women who are members of the
Cuban Academy of Sciences Higher Scientific
Council went up 62.5 % between 1980 and
1983.
With respect to the number of scientists,
engineers and technicians engaged in research
there is the following table:


YEAR 1982


TOTAL


OF THEM:
WOMEN


Scientists 4 300 1 505
Engineers 6 875 3 035
Technicians 9 320 4 845


Most of the women working in science and
technology are under 35 years of age.
Consequently, the future development of these
fields will depend even more on women.

At the end of 1983, women's massive
participation in sports rose to 613 700, an
increase of 63.2 % over 1978. Women's
participation in recreational sports activities
tripled what it was in 1978, which means
294 600 more women took part.
Women workers and housewives are also
participating in sports through basic gymnastics


groups which have an enrollment of 110 400
women, or 39 % more than in 1978.
Another point to stress is related to Cuban
women's success in international sports events,
both in the team and individual categories.
The number of women and the number of
medals they have won have increased. Their best
sports have been track and field and gymnastics.

MEDALS WON BY CUBAN WOMEN IN INTER-
NATIONAL COMPETITIONS

EVENTS TOTAL # GOLD
OF MEDALS
CENTRAL AMLf ICAN
Jamaica 1962 10 6
Puerto Rico 1966 19 7
Panama 1970 53 21
Dominican
Republic 1974 53 21
Colombia 1978 46 26
Cuba 1982 80 40
PAN AMERICAN
Brazil 1963 6 4
Canada 1967 9 2
Colombia 1971 19 4
Mexico 1975 18 6
Puerto Rico 1979 21 7
Venezuela 1983 38 10
OLIMPICS
Japan 1964
Mexico 1968 1
Federal Republic
of Germany 1972 2
Canada 1976 -
Soviet Union 1980 I 1

(See graph 5.)


-T:i^^&s~SaL~S~-stS^^3a^<^3 '^-^t^^^19











GRAPH 1


NUMBER OF BEDS IN MEDICAL CARE UNITS

PERIOD: 1983 (1)


OTHER BEDS

CARE FOR THE FEMALE SECTOR OF THE POPULATION


TOTAL NUMBER OF BEDS




....B 20


-:::-j,-rr~~ ~~~
1 .ii~ "'
'""
c,.....-.
.,......, -
~~i: _:
i.i-r
!,. it7 '*
""-"' ""
~-~-i -''
.~L~*'~









GRAPH 2


RATES OF FEMALE EMPLOYMENT BY AGE GROUPS


1953


rAG'E GROUPS

65
AND OVER

60-64

55-59


50-54


45-49

40-44

35-39


30-34

25-29


20-24


15-19

10-14


6. 60 50 40 30 20


T


I


.0 10 20 30 40 50 !60 */.


21
















WOMEN WORKERS BY OCCUPATIONAL
(THOUSANDS)


CATEGORY



E1978

1983


320,8
300 294,5



1961.2
200 18S.9


121.1,

100
49.4
39Q -


WOR ERS TECHNICIAN OFFICE WORKERS SERVICE WOR ERS A DMINISTRA TOR


22


GRAPH 3















GRAPH 4


EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE FEMALE POPULATION SIX YEARS AND OVER.
1981 CENSUS


HIGHER


SIXTH GRADE


SECONDARY


G^P^s~~i^f. y23 ^^^^%^^^2









GRAPH 5
( )


MEDALS WON BY CUBAN WOMEN IN SPORTS EVENTS.


Ci~CP~gl-i~.24 ~i~(~238i~f~;-~a~35~~




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs