• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Acronyms and abbreviations
 Acknowledgement
 Executive summary
 Introduction
 Maize research and development...
 Maize production technology...
 Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics...
 Maize production, marketing, and...
 Farmers' adoption/disadoption of...
 Credit and extension services
 Factors affecting adoption of agricultural...
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Reference






Title: Adoption of maize production technologies in western Tanzania
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077544/00001
 Material Information
Title: Adoption of maize production technologies in western Tanzania
Physical Description: x, 29 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kaliba, Aloyce R. M
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Place of Publication: Mexico D.F
Publication Date: c1998
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Technological innovations -- Tanzania   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 29).
Statement of Responsibility: by Aloyce R.M. Kaliba ... et al..
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077544
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 42190620
isbn - 9706480129

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    Acronyms and abbreviations
        Page v
    Acknowledgement
        Page vi
    Executive summary
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Maize research and development in Tanzania and the study area
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Maize production technology recommendations
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of maize farmers by the study area
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Maize production, marketing, and seed practices in Western Tanzania
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Farmers' adoption/disadoption of improved maize
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Credit and extension services
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Factors affecting adoption of agricultural technologies in the study area
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Reference
        Page 30
Full Text





Adoption of


Maize Production


Technologies in


Western Tanzania


Aloyce R.M. Kaliba,
Hugo Verkuiji,
Wilfred Mwangi,
D.A. Byamungu,
P. Anandajayasekeram,
and Alfred J. Moshi

August 1998


/

S0


I1
CIMMYT
Sustainable
Maize and Wheat
Systems for the Poor


Funded by the
European Union










Adoption of Maize Production


Technologies in Western Tanzania






By
Aloyce R.M. Kaliba,
Hugo Verkuiji,
Wilfred Mwangi,
D.A. Byamungu,
P. Anandajayasekeram,
and Alfred J. Moshi*













August 1998




Aloyce Kabilia is with the Livestock Production Research Institute, Mpapwa, Tanzania. Hugo Verkuijl and Wilfred
Mwangi are with the Economics Program of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and
are based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. D.A. Byamungu is with the Agriculture Research and Training Institute, Tumbi,
Tabora, Tanzania. Ponniah Anandajayasekeram is with the Southern Africa Centre for Coordination of Agricultural
and Natural Resources Research and Training, Gaborone, Botswana. Alfred J. Moshi is with the Ilonga, Kilosa,
Tanzania. The views presented in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect policies of their
respective institutions.











CIMMYT is an internationally funded, nonprofit scientific research and training organization. Headquartered in Mexico,
the Center works with agricultural research institutions worldwide to improve the productivity and sustainability of maize
and wheat systems for poor farmers in developing countries. It is one of 16 similar centers supported by the Consultative
Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The CGIAR comprises over 50 partner countries, international and
regional organizations, and private foundations. It is co-sponso red by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the
United Nations, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Financial support for CIMMYT's research agenda currently comes from many sources, including governments and
agencies of Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Denmark, France,
Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, the Philippines,
Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, the United Kingdom, Uruguay, and the USA, along with
(among others) Cornell University, the European Union, the Ford Foundation, Grains Research and Development
Corporation, the Inter-American Development Bank, the International Development Research Centre, International Fund
for Agricultural Development, Kellogg Foundation, Leverhulme Trust, Nippon Foundation, OPEC Fund for International
Development, Rockefeller Foundation, Sasakawa Africa Association, Stanford University, Tropical Agriculture Research
Center (Japan), UNDP, University of Wisconsin, and the World Bank.

CInternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 1998. Responsibility for this publication rests solely with
CIMMYT.

Printed in Mexico.

Correct citation: Kaliba, A.R.M., H. Verkuijl, W. Mwangi, D.A. Byamungu, P. Anandajayasekeram, and A.J. Moshi.
1998. Adoption of Maize Production Technologies in Western Tanzania. International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Center (CIMMYT), the United Republic of Tanzania, and the Southern Africa Center for Cooperation in Agricultural
Research (SACCAR).

Abstract: This study of the adoption of maize production technologies in Western Tanzania forms part of a larger study
to evaluate the impact of maize research and extension throughout Tanzania over the past 20 years. Using a structured
questionnaire, researchers and extension officers interviewed farmers in June-November 1995. Survey data were grouped
by agroecological zone into the high rainfall zone and low rainfall zone. A two-stage least squares procedure was used to
analyze factors affecting farmers' allocation of land to improved maize varieties and use of inorganic fertilizer across zones.
The analysis showed that extension, short-maturing varieties, and rainfall were significant factors affecting the proportion
of land allocated to improved maize. Extension increased the probability of allocating land at the means by about 30%.
Short-maturing maize varieties increased the probability of allocating land at the means by about 24%. Farmers in the high
rainfall zone are 14% less likely to allocate land to improved maize. An increase in the wealth index by one unit increased
the probability of using fertilizer by 13%. Research should give priority to developing or screening varieties that yield well
and tolerate drought stress and field pests, especially stalk borers. Flexible integrated management packages that combine
a drought-tolerant variety with improved cultural practices such as timely planting and weeding can increase yields. More
research should be directed to strategies for improving soil fertility and soil conservation, because the use of chemical
fertilizer is likely to remain low in the foreseeable future. Extension should direct more effort toward appropriate soil
fertility recommendations. An efficient marketing system for inputs and outputs will benefit farmers by paying higher prices
for maize and reducing the cost of fertilizer. Studies on the economics of seed and fertilizer use should also be undertaken,
especially now that input and output markets have been liberalized. In collaboration with the government and other
stakeholders, the formal credit system needs to address the credit problems faced by small-scale farmers.

ISBN: 970-648 012-9
AGROVOC descriptors: Tanzania; Maize; Zea mays; Varieties; Plant production; Seed production; Seed industry;
Production factors; Production economics; Input output analysis; Socioeconomic environment; Development policies;
Marketing policies; Credit policies; Demography; Land resources; Land use; Cultivation; Cropping patterns; Cropping
systems; Crop management; Mechanization; Plant breeding; Shelling; Drought resistance; Pest resistance; Inorganic
fertilizers; Fertilizer application; Prices; Diffusion of research; Extension activities; Economic analysis; Economic viability;
Technology transfer;
Innovation adoption; Small farms; Environments; Lowland; Highlands; Research projects
Additional Keywords:
AGRIS category codes:
Dewey decimal classification: 33816










Contents


Contents ............................................ ................... ...................................................... iii
Tables. ...................... ......................................................... iv
Figures................. ................................................................. iv
A abbreviations and A acronym s ........................................................................... ................................ v
E executive S um m ary ................................................................................................... v i
1.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Motivation and Objectives for This Study ........................... ....... ................................. 1
1.2 T h e S tudy A rea ......................................................................... 2
1.3 M methodology ....................................................... .......... ..... 3
2.0 Maize Research and Development in Tanzania and the Study Area............. .......... ........ 6
2 .1 M aize R research in Tanzania ............................................... ............................................... 6
2.2 Maize Research in Western Tanzania .............................................. .............................. 7
2.3 The M aize Seed Industry in Tanzania .............................................. .............................. 7
3.0 Maize Production Technology Recommendations ...................................................... 9
3 .1 V varieties ............................................................... ............................ 9
3.2 Planting Tim e, M ethod, and Spacing .............................................. .............................. 9
3.3 Fertilizer Types, Time, and Method of Application ....................................................... 9
3 .4 W eed C o ntrol ..................................................... .....................................
10
3.5 Pest and D disease C control ...................................................... ..................................... 10
3 .6 H harvesting and S storage ........................................................... ....................................... 10
4.0 Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics of Maize Farmers in the Study Area.... 11
4.1 Demographic Characteristics ..................................................................................................... 11
4.2 Land Resources and Allocation ................................................... 12
4.3 Livestock Ownership and Farm Mechanization ....................................... ................... 13
5.0 Maize Production, Marketing, and Seed Practices in Western Tanzania ........................ 14
5.1 Crops and Cropping System ..................................................... ................... .............. 14
5.2 Maize Crop Management Practices ......................... ................................. ......................... 14
5.3 Maize H i -l5;i. Transportation, and Storage ....................................... .. .............. 18
5.4 Seed Selection and Recycling .......................................................... ........................... 19
5.5. Maize Cropping Calendar for Western Tanzania ....................................... .................. 19
6.0 Farmersi Adoption/Disadoption of Improved Maize ..................................... .......... 20
6.1 Varieties C currently G row n .............................................................................................. 20
6.2 Preferred Improved Maize Materials and Reasons for Farmersf Preferences ........................... 20
6.3 Farmersf Disadoption of Improved Maize ............................... .... ................................ 21
7.0 Credit and Extension Services ............................................................................... 22
7 .1 C credit A availability .................................................................................. 2 2
7 .2 E extension S services .................................................................................. 2 2

8.0 Factors Affecting Adoption of Agricultural Technologies in the Study Area .................... 24
8.1 Definitions ....... ................................................ ....... .......................... 24
8.2. Adoption of Improved Maize in Western Tanzania................... ................... ................. 24
8.3. Tobit Analysis of Land Allocated to Improved Maize .......................................... ........... 25
8.4 Probit A analysis of Fertilizer Use ................................................. ................................. 26
9.0 Conclusions and Recommendations ....................................................................... 27
9.1 Conclusions ..................................... ....................... 27
9.2 Recom m endations ..... ................................ .................. .............................. .... 28

References .................................................................................................................. 30




iii











Tables


Table 1. Recommended maize varieties by region and district, Western Tanzania...........................9
Table 2. Recommended planting time and recommended fertilizer rate..................................... 9
Table 3. Demographic characteristics of sample households, Western Tanzania............................. 11
Table 4. Farm size and land use pattern, Western Tanzania............... ...............................12
Table 5. Numbers of livestock and farm implements owned, Western Tanzania..............................13
Table 6. Maize cropping systems, Western Tanzania ....................................... ...............14
Table 7. Time and method of land preparation, Western Tanzania.......................................14
Table 8. Farmers' major agronomic practices, Western Tanzania................ ........................... 15
Table 9. Fertilizer use for maize production, Western Tanzania.......................... ................... 16
Table 10. Other soil fertility management practices, Western Tanzania....................................16
Table 11. Major field pests, diseases, and their control, Western Tanzania .................................... 18
Table 12. Maize 1, I -1Ii,, transportation, and storage, Western Tanzania ...................................19
Table 13. Maize cropping calendar, Western Tanzania............................................................19
Table 14. Maize varieties and hybrids planted in the 1994/95 season, Western Tanzania..................20
Table 15. Preferred maize varieties/hybrids, Western Tanzania......................... ..................... 20
Table 16. Farmers' reasons for preferring certain varieties/hybrids, Western Tanzania.....................21
Table 17. Farmers' sources and use of credit, Western Tanzania................... ..........................21
Table 18. Farmers' sources of information about maize production t. i. d1. ,-.-., Western Tanzania.........23
Table 19. Tobit model estimates for land allocation to improved maize varieties................................. 25
Table 20. Probit model estimates for fertilizer use ............................................... ................ 26





Figures


Figure 1. W western Zone, Tanzania................................... .......................... .. ...... .. 2
Figure 2. Trends in farm size in high and low rainfall zones, Western Tanzania.................................12
Figure 3. Trends in maize area in high and low rainfall zones, Western Tanzania................................12
Figure 4. Adoption of improved maize in high and low rainfall zones, Western Tanzania ....................26










Acronyms and Abbreviations


AEZ
ARTI
CAN
CIMMYT


DALDO
DIVEO
DRT
EAAFRO
FSD
FSR
GOT
ICW
masl
MOA
MSV
NALEP
NGO
NMRP
NPK
OPVs
P-Values
RALDO
REDSO/ESA
REO
SA
SACCAR
SARI
SG-2000
ST
STD
SUA
T&V
TANSEED
TFA
TMV
Tsh
TSP
UCA
ULVA
SAID
VEO


Agroecological zone
Agricultural Research and Training Institute
Calcium ammonium nitrate
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo
(International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
District Agricultural and Livestock Development Officer
District Village Extension Officer
Department of Research and Training
East Africa Agriculture and Forest Research Organization
Food Security Department
Farming systems research
Government of Tanzania
Ilonga Composite White
Meters above sea level
Ministry of Agriculture
Maize streak virus
National Agriculture and Livestock Extension Project
Non-governmental organization
National Maize Research Programme
Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
Open pollinated varieties
Standard normal probability
Regional Agricultural and Livestock Development Officer
Regional Economic Development Services Office for East and Southern Africa
Regional Extension Officer
Sulfate of ammonia
Souteher Africa Centre for Coordination of Agricultural Research
Selian Agricultural Research Institute
Sasakawa-Global 2000
Streak resistant
Standard deviation
Sokoine University of Agriculture
Training and Visit
Tanzanias Seed Company
Tanganyka Farmers' Association
Tanzania maize variety
Tanzanian Shillings
Triple super phosphate
Ukiruguru Composite A
Ultra low volume applicators
United States Agency for International Development
Villege Extension Officer










Acknowedgments


We are also thankful to E. Nkonya (SARI, Arusha) for supervising the initial survey and to R. Mnunduma, T.
Nyoni, A. Mhoja, and P. Rweyemamu for conducting the survey. We thank all the RALDOs, DALDOs,
DIVEOs, and VEOs who helped during the surveys, and the farmers who patiently listened and responded to
the questions. Special thanks go to S. Msilanga, B. Hango, and Wzo. Aklilewerk Bekele for typing drafts of this
report, and to Miguel Mellado and his team for design and production.




Executive Summary



Maize provides 60% of dietary calories and more than 50% of utilizable protein to the Tanzanian population.
The crop is cultivated on an average of two million hectares, which is about 45% of the cultivated area in
Tanzania. Recognizing the importance of the maize crop to the lives of Tanzanians, the government has
committed human and financial resources to developing the industry. A National Maize Research Programme
(NMRP) was started in 1974 with the broad objective of developing cultivars suitable for major maize-producing
areas. The NMRP and maize extension services have made a considerable impact in increasing food
production.


This report forms part of a larger study to evaluate the impact of maize research and extension in Tanzania
over the past 20 years. The Department of Research and Training (DRT) conducted the study in collaboration
with the Southern Africa Coordination Centre for Agricultural Research (SACCAR) and the International Maize
and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). To increase data validity and reliability, researchers and
experienced extension officers used a structured questionnaire for interviewing farmers. Interviews were
conducted in all seven agroecological zones of the country between June and November 1995. This report
covers survey findings in the Western Zone, which includes Tabora and Kigoma regions.


Data collected in the survey were grouped into two agroecological zones: the high and low rainfall zones. These
are the most important maize production zones and therefore the most important categories for the analysis. A
two-stage least squares procedure was used to analyze factors affecting farmers' allocation of land to improved
maize varieties and use of inorganic fertilizer.


Maize research in the Western Zone is undertaken in collaboration with Ilonga Research Institute.
Recommended maize varieties and hybrids include Kilima, Katumani, TMV1, CG4141, UCA, H622, and
H632.


The mean age of farmers was about 46 years in the high rainfall zone and 49 years in the low rainfall zones.
For both zones, mean farming experience was about 18 years and the level of formal education was about four
years. Farmers in the high and low rainfall zones had about nine and eight family members, respectively. The
number of female adults and children was significantly higher in the high rainfall zone.










Acknowedgments


We are also thankful to E. Nkonya (SARI, Arusha) for supervising the initial survey and to R. Mnunduma, T.
Nyoni, A. Mhoja, and P. Rweyemamu for conducting the survey. We thank all the RALDOs, DALDOs,
DIVEOs, and VEOs who helped during the surveys, and the farmers who patiently listened and responded to
the questions. Special thanks go to S. Msilanga, B. Hango, and Wzo. Aklilewerk Bekele for typing drafts of this
report, and to Miguel Mellado and his team for design and production.




Executive Summary



Maize provides 60% of dietary calories and more than 50% of utilizable protein to the Tanzanian population.
The crop is cultivated on an average of two million hectares, which is about 45% of the cultivated area in
Tanzania. Recognizing the importance of the maize crop to the lives of Tanzanians, the government has
committed human and financial resources to developing the industry. A National Maize Research Programme
(NMRP) was started in 1974 with the broad objective of developing cultivars suitable for major maize-producing
areas. The NMRP and maize extension services have made a considerable impact in increasing food
production.


This report forms part of a larger study to evaluate the impact of maize research and extension in Tanzania
over the past 20 years. The Department of Research and Training (DRT) conducted the study in collaboration
with the Southern Africa Coordination Centre for Agricultural Research (SACCAR) and the International Maize
and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). To increase data validity and reliability, researchers and
experienced extension officers used a structured questionnaire for interviewing farmers. Interviews were
conducted in all seven agroecological zones of the country between June and November 1995. This report
covers survey findings in the Western Zone, which includes Tabora and Kigoma regions.


Data collected in the survey were grouped into two agroecological zones: the high and low rainfall zones. These
are the most important maize production zones and therefore the most important categories for the analysis. A
two-stage least squares procedure was used to analyze factors affecting farmers' allocation of land to improved
maize varieties and use of inorganic fertilizer.


Maize research in the Western Zone is undertaken in collaboration with Ilonga Research Institute.
Recommended maize varieties and hybrids include Kilima, Katumani, TMV1, CG4141, UCA, H622, and
H632.


The mean age of farmers was about 46 years in the high rainfall zone and 49 years in the low rainfall zones.
For both zones, mean farming experience was about 18 years and the level of formal education was about four
years. Farmers in the high and low rainfall zones had about nine and eight family members, respectively. The
number of female adults and children was significantly higher in the high rainfall zone.











The time for land preparation, planting, and harvesting depends on rainfall. Land preparation for maize usually
starts in August-September, planting starts in October-December, and harvesting occurs mainly between May
and June. The maize plot was weeded twice at most. The time of these weedings depended on rainfall and
planting date, but most farmers weeded after the first three weeks of planting and weeded a second time
depending on weed re-emergence. Most farmers in the high rainfall zone weed in November-December, while
farmers in the low rainfall zone weed in December-January. More farmers in the high rainfall zone weed twice
compared to farmers in the low rainfall zone.


The use of fertilizer on maize was constrained by high fertilizer prices. Farmers mainly used urea, and the
average fertilizer application was higher in the low rainfall zone (57.2 kg/ha) compared to the high rainfall zone
(54.2 kg/ha). To increase soil fertility, farmers plowed crop residues back into the soil (mainly in the low rainfall
zone). More farmers in the low rainfall zone practiced a crop rotation (66.7%) compared to farmers in the high
rainfall zone (44.6%). The important field pests and diseases in both zones were stalk borers and maize streak
virus (MSV).


Most farmers recycled seed for five years in a row, but others recycled seed for as much as 10-15 years. Seed
was selected during the harvest or when maize was shelled for storage, and selection was based on the size of
the cob and grain maturity. Maize for seed was stored separately from the main crop, mainly on cribs. Maize
for food was shelled and stored in gunny bags, on cribs, or in the traditional storage structure (kihenge). Most
farmers treated stored maize with industrial chemicals to control pests.


The main maize varieties grown during the 1994/95 farming season in the high rainfall zone were local
varieties, H614, Tuxpeno, and ICW. In the low rainfall zone, the main varieties were local varieties, H614,
Tuxpeno, and UCA-St. The improved maize varieties preferred by farmers in the high rainfall zone included
H6302/H614 and Tuxpeno. Tuxpeno and UCA-St varieties were preferred by farmers in the low rainfall zone.
Varieties were preferred for their yield, resistance to drought, and resistance to field pests. About 14% of the
farmers in the high rainfall zone and 33% in the low rainfall zone had stopped growing an improved maize
variety. Farmers in the high rainfall zone mainly disadopted H6302/H614, whereas farmers in the low rainfall
zone mainly disadopted H614 and UCA.


About 44% of the farmers in the high rainfall zone and 32% in the low rainfall zone used credit. The important
credit institutions were cooperative unions, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and agro-companies
providing credit in kind. More farmers in the low rainfall zone (90.4%) reported that credit was difficult to
obtain compared to farmers in the high rainfall zone (42.6%). Lack of knowledge (information) and bureaucracy
were the main constraints to obtaining credit in the high rainfall zone. Farmers in the low rainfall zone reported
that those who were not growing cash crops had no access to credit. Most farmers had received information on
improved maize varieties, use of fertilizer, weed and pest control, and storage practices. The most important
sources of information were research and extension.


The two-stage least squares analysis showed that extension, short-maturing varieties, and rainfall zone were
significant factors affecting the proportion of land allocated to improved maize varieties. Extension increased











the probability of allocating land at the means by about 30%. Short-maturing maize varieties increased the
probability of allocating land at the means by about 24%. Farmers in the high rainfall zone were about 14% less
likely to allocate land to improved maize. An increase in the wealth index by one unit increased the probability
of using fertilizer by 13%.


Large parts of Western Tanzania are prone to frequent drought that can destroy maize or chronically reduce
yields and increase stalk borer attack. Research should give priority to developing or screening varieties that are
high yielding and that tolerate moisture stress and field pests, especially stalk borers. Flexible integrated pest
management packages, which combine drought tolerant varieties with improved cultural practices such as
timely planting and weeding, could increase yields. Low-cost techniques for controlling stalk borer and MSV
using cultural practices or environmentally friendly industrial chemicals should be developed.


Extension efforts need to be strengthened to increase the flow of information to farmers. More effort should be
directed toward soil fertility technologies, as a majority of farmers use inefficient fertilizer practices. Advice to
farmers to use organic manure to supplement chemical fertilizer should be increased.


Most improved varieties are fertilizer responsive and economic yields are usually obtained after fertilizer
application, but the use of fertilizer is constrained by its high price and unavailability. Policy makers should
support the promotion of an efficient marketing system for outputs and inputs, which would offer higher maize
prices to farmers and reduce the cost of fertilizers. More research should be directed to soil mining,
supplementation of chemical fertilizer with different sources of organic manure, crop residue management, and
soil conservation. Additional soil fertility research will be particularly relevant because the use of chemical
fertilizer is likely to remain low in the foreseeable future because of its rising price. Also, studies on the
economics of fertilizer use should be undertaken, especially now that input and output markets have been
liberalized.


With rising input prices, providing credit to farmers becomes increasingly important. In collaboration with the
government and other stakeholders, the formal credit system needs to address the credit problems faced by
small-scale farmers, especially their lack of knowledge (information) of formal credit systems. Cumbersome
bureaucratic procedures for obtaining credit should be amended. The formation of farmer credit groups should
be encouraged, because lending to groups tends to reduce transactions costs and improve the rate of loan
recovery.












































































ix






















































































X










Adoption of Maize Production

Technologies in Western Tanzania

Aloyce R.M. Kaliba, Hugo Verkuijl, Wilfred Mwangi, D.A. Byamungu, P.
Anandajayasekeram, and Alfred J. Moshi


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Motivation and Objectives for This Study

Maize is the major cereal consumed in Tanzania. It is estimated that the annual per capital
consumption of maize in Tanzania is 112.5 kg; national maize consumption is estimated to be three
million tons per year. Maize contributes 60% of dietary calories to Tanzanian consumers (FSD 1992,
1996). The cereal also contributes more than 50% of utilizable protein, while beans contribute only
38% (Due 1986). Maize is grown in all 20 regions of Tanzania. The crop is grown on an average of
two million hectares or about 45% of the cultivated area in Tanzania. However, most of the maize is
produced in the Southern Highlands (46%), the Lake zone, and the Northern zone. Dar es Salaam,
Lindi, Singida, Coast, and Kigoma are maize-deficit regions. Dodoma is a surplus region during good
growing years, and in years following a plentiful rainfall the region is the number one supplier of
maize to Dar es Salaam (FSD 1992; Mdadila 1995).

Maize is not only a staple crop in surplus regions but a cash crop as well. For instance, in the Lake
zone, maize competes aggressively with cotton for land, labor, and farmers' cash. Realizing the
importance of the maize crop to lives of Tanzanians, the government has been committing human
and financial resources to develop the industry. Research and extension efforts in maize started in
1960. Breeding efforts in the 1960s resulted in the release of Ukiriguru Composite A (UCA) and
Ilonga Composite White (ICW). Between 1973 and 1975 Tanzania experienced a severe food
shortage because of drought and the "villagization" campaign, which displaced farmers (Maliyamkono
and Bagachwa 1990). The food crisis prompted the nation to launch several campaigns with the
objective of food self-sufficiency, including "agriculture for survival" (kilimo cha kufa na kupona).
The country also initiated a maize project in 1974 with assistance of the U.S. Agency for
International Development (USAID). The project's objective was to promote maize production in
pursuit of food self-sufficiency. The National Maize Research Programme (NMRP) was launched, with
the broad objective of developing cultivars suitable for major maize-producing areas.

The NMRP and maize extension have made a considerable impact in increasing food production.
This study was conducted to evaluate that impact during the past 20 years. Conducted by the
Department of Research and Training (DRT) in collaboration with the Southern Africa Coordination
Center for Agricultural Research (SACCAR) and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Centre (CIMMYT), the study included the nations seven agroecological zones. The study was
conducted between June and November 1995. This report covers survey findings from the Western
Zone of Tanzania. The objectives of the study were to describe the maize farming systems in the










Western Zone, evaluate the adoption of improved maize production technologies, and, in light of the
findings, identify future themes for research.

1.2 The Study Area

The Western Zone of Tanzania is administratively divided into Tabora and Kigoma regions (Figure 1).
Tabora region occupies about 73,500 km in west-central Tanzania. It lies between 40 and 70 south of
the equator and between 310 and 340 east of Greenwich. Variations in elevation are not great and
range from less than 1,100 masl to more than 1,500 masl. The climate is warm. Rainfall is markedly
seasonal and ranges from an annual average of 1,000 mm in the west to 600 mm in the northeast.
More than half of the region is under natural forests, consisting of miombo woodland. In the
northeast, the dominant species are Acacia, Commiphora, and Combetrum.

Kigoma region is characterized by variable land forms ranging in elevation from 770 masl along Lake
Tanganyika to 2,399 masl in some parts of Kasulu. Most of the region is part of the Central plateau
(around 1,000 masl), an immense, gently undulating plain with gentle slopes, shallow valleys, and a
large area of swamps bordering the main watercourses. The region occupies about 36,600 km2. The
climate is characterized by a single rainy season (November to early May) followed by a prolonged dry
season. Annual rainfall ranges between 900 mm and 1,000 mm and the mean annual temperature is
12-280C. The climate is modified by Malagarasi swamp, Lake Tanganyika, and the highlands,
resulting in lower annual mean
temperatures and higher LAKE VICTOIA
rainfall than might be expected. ukobag
Musoma








LEWes ern zone
LAKE TANGANYIKA .... Cerfralzone
I Dodoma __

0 -. ,- gares
_-- t Eastern zone Salaam
Aringa -


Mbeya -/


I / \Mtwara g
i ,-.* Songea
LAKE NYASAF \ .Tunduru .

Figure l. Western Tanzania.










1.3 Methodology

1.3.1 Sampling procedure
The number of farmers interviewed in the nationwide survey was determined by the importance of
maize production in a given zone. About 1,000 maize farmers were interviewed nationwide. The
Western Zone was allocated 114 farmers or approximately 11% of the national sample. At the zonal
level, two districts were purposively selected for each zone. Both zones are in the intermediate
altitude, and they are disaggregated by the amount of precipitation they receive. Urambo and Kasulu
Districts are part of the high rainfall areas (>1,000 mm annually) and Tabora and Nzega Districts are
part of the low rainfall areas (<1,000 mm annually). At the district level, three villages were
purposively selected according to maize production and accessibility. From each village, about 18
farmers were randomly sampled from the register of households. To increase data validity and
reliability, farmers were interviewed by researchers and experienced extension officers using a
structured questionnaire developed by a panel of the zonal farming systems research economists,
CIMMYT and SACCAR economists, and national maize breeders and agronomists. The interviews
were conducted between June and November 1995. To maintain uniformity, data from all zones were
compiled at Selian Agricultural Research Institute (SARI) and then sent back to the respective zones
for analysis and completion of the reports.

1.3.2 Analytical framework
Factors influencing the adoption of new agricultural technologies can be divided into three major
categories: farm and farmers' associated attributes; attributes associated with the technology (Adesina
et al. 1992; Misra et al. 1993); and the farming objective (CIMMYT 1988). Factors in the first
category include a farmer's education, age, or family and farm size. The second category depends on
the type of technology (e.g., the kind of characteristics a farmer likes in an improved maize variety).
The third category assesses how different strategies used by the farmer, such as commercial versus
subsistence farming, influence the adoption of technologies. In this study a two-stage least squares
analysis is used to test factors affecting allocation of land to improved maize varieties (intensity of
adoption) and adoption of inorganic fertilizer (incidence of adoption). The basic assumption is that a
farmer first tests and adopts improved seed by planting it on part of his or her land designated for
maize production, and then decides to use fertilizer. The tobit (Tobin 1958) and probit (McFadden
1981) models, which test the factors affecting intensity and incidence of adoption, can be specified as:

Yi = jXi + Ei
i = 1 if grow improved maize variety; j = 0 otherwise

Y = XijXi + a,
i = 1 if use fertilizer; j = 0 otherwise

Where:
Y = the proportion of maize area allocated to improved maize varieties (IMV) or adoption of
inorganic fertilizer;
.ij = parameters to be estimated; and
ei and ai = error terms.










The models were further specified as:


PLAN = A+EXP+EDVC+WID+EXI+LAB+VA 1 +VA2+VA3+AEZ1 +AEZ2+Ei
FERT = A+EXP+EDVC+WID+EXI+LAB+IMR+VA1 +VA2+VA3+al

where:
PLAND = proportion of maize area allocated to improved maize varieties (average for 1992-94).
FERT = use fertilizer (FERT= 1 if used fertilizer; 0 otherwise) for the same period.
A = constant.
EXP = household head experience in farming (years).
EDVC = education level of household head (years).
WID = wealth index.
EXI = intensity of extension index.
LAB = number of adults in the household (15 years and above).
IMR = inverse Mills ratio of equation PLAND.
VA 1-3 = group of improved maize varieties (VA 1 =1 if farmer grows the variety in group 1, VA1
= 0 otherwise). The varieties were grouped according to months to maturity.Group one
(VA 1) consists of Katumani and Kito (3 months); group two (VA2), of TMV1, Staha,
Kilima, Tuxpefo, and ICW (3.5-4 months); group three (VA3), of UCA and hybrids
(4.5-5 months).
AEZ1-2 = high and low rainfall zone (AEZ1= 1 if the farmer is in the low rainfall zone, AEZ1=0
otherwise). The high rainfall zone (AEZ2) was not included in the models to avoid
multicollinearity (Griffiths et al. 1993; Greene 1993).
eiand a = error terms.

Formation of the model was influenced by a number of working hypotheses. It was hypothesized that
a farmer's decision to adopt or reject a new technology at any time is influenced by the combined
(simultaneous) effects of a number of factors related to the farmer's objectives and constraints. The
following variables were hypothesized to influence the adoption of improved maize technologies:

Farmer's experience: An experienced farmer is hypothesized to be more likely to adopt an
improved maize technology package.

Household head received education: Exposure to education will increase a farmer's ability to
obtain, process, and use information relevant to the adoption of an improved maize variety. Hence
education will increase the probability that a farmer will adopt an improved maize technology
package.

Labor: Large households will be able to provide the labor that might be required by improved maize
technologies. Thus household size would be expected to increase the probability that a farmer will
adopt an improved maize technology package.










Wealth index: Wealthier farmers may have the means of buying improved maize technology, so
wealth is expected to be positively associated with the decision to adopt an improved maize
technology package.

Extension intensity: Agricultural extension services provided by the Ministry were the major
source of agricultural information in the study area. Hence it is hypothesized that contact with
extension workers will increase the likelihood that a farmer will adopt improved maize technologies.

Inverse Mills ratio: Adoption of improved seed enhances the use of inorganic fertilizer.

Agroecology: The agroecological zone can influence a farmer's decision to adopt improved maize
technology package both positively and negatively.

Hotland (1993) has suggested establishing a wealth index by aggregating the major wealth indicators
in a study area. Numbers of livestock and farm implements owned, as well as the average amount of
cultivated land, are major wealth indicators in the Central Zone. These indicators were aggregated
by calculating the wealth index (WID) as follows:

n

Y_
WID = -- (i=1,...,5;j=l,2,...,N)
i= i

where:
Yi = the average number of livestock units, farm implements (hand hoes, axes, cutting
equipment) and cultivated land for the past three years;
Y. = the sample mean for each item; and
N = the sample size.

Extension services were the major source of information in the study area for improved agricultural
practices. The number of recommendations with which a farmer is familiar can be used as an index
of the transfer of information from extensionists to farmers. The extension index (EXT) was
calculated as follows:
n
EXT -
6
where:
n = the number of recommendations that a farmers knows from the improved technology
package, such as improved seed, row planting, fertilizer application, ox-plowing, field pest
and disease control, and so on.

The PLAND equation was estimated using the tobit model (Tobin 1958). The inverse Mills ratio for
equation PLAND was calculated and included as a regressor in equation FERT to correct for
correlation between PLAND and FERT equation errors. Quasi-maximum likelihood was not used
because of the problem of convergence (Saha and Love 1992; Hill 1994). Both models were
estimated using TSP, Version 4.3.









2.0 Maize Research and Development in Tanzania and the Study Area

2.1 Maize Research in Tanzania

About 85% of the maize produced in Tanzania is grown by peasants whose farms are less than 10
ha. Ten percent of maize production occurs on medium-scale commercial farms (10-100 ha), and the
remaining 5% occurs on large-scale commercial farms (>100 ha). Between 1961-65 and 1985-95,
national maize production is estimated to have grown by 4.6%, of which 2.4% can be attributed to
growth in area and 2.2% to growth in yield. Despite this yield growth, average yields are less than
1.5 t/ha, although grain yields tend to be higher in high-potential areas such as the Southern
Highlands (Moshi et al. 1990).

Maize breeding and agronomy trials have been conducted in Tanzania for more than 20 years. The
improved open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) ICW and UCA were developed, tested, and released in the
1960s and are still widely used. During the same period, a few research stations undertook
agronomy research, which later formed the basis for recommendations that were applied to the
entire country.

In 1974, the NMRP was launched to coordinate maize research and encourage the better utilization
of some resources. The program is responsible for coordinating all phases of maize research, from
varietal development and maize management research on station to verification on farmers' fields.
The NMRP has divided the country into three major agroecological zones for varietal
recommendations:
* The highlands (elevations above 1,500 masl), with a growing period of 6-8 months.
* The intermediate (or midaltitude) zone (900-1,500 masl), which is further subdivided into "wet"
(>1,100 mm rainfall, with a 4-5 month growing period) and "dry" subzones (<1,100 mm
rainfall, with a 3-4 month growing period).
* The lowlands (0-900 masl), with a 3-4 month growing period.

To date, several breeding populations have been developed and are being improved through
recurrent selection for specific traits. Since 1974, two hybrids and six OPVs have been released. In
1976, Tuxpefo was released for the lowland areas. Hybrids H6302 and H614, suitable for the
highlands, were released in 1977 and 1978, respectively. In November 1983, three OPVs were
released: Kito, Kilima, and Staha. Staha is characterized by its tolerance to maize streak virus (MSV),
whereas Kilima was recommended for the midaltitude zone. Kito is an early maturing variety adapted
to both lowland and midaltitude zones. In 1987 two OPVs, TMV1 and TMV2, were released. TMV1
has white, flinty grain, is streak resistant, and has intermediate maturity. It is recommended for the
lowland and midaltitude zones. TMV2 is also a white flint maize and is recommended for the high-
altitude and high-potential maize-producing areas.

In 1994, the NMRP released versions of Kilima, UCA, Kito, and Katumani that are resistant to MSV:
Kilima-St, UCA-St, Kito-St, and Katumani-St. Around the same time, two foreign seed companies,
Cargill and Pannar, introduced or released seven hybrids for commercial use. For improvement of










husbandry practices, the NMRP conducted off-station agronomy trials that in 1980 resulted in maize
production recommendations specific to 11 regions. The recommendations related to choice of
variety, plant spacing, plant density, fertilizer rate, weeding regime, and pesticide use.

2.2 Maize Research in Western Tanzania

Maize research in the Western Zone was initiated through the East Africa Agriculture and Forest
Research Organization (EAAFRO) at the Agricultural Research and Training Institute (ARTI), Tumbi,
in 1969 under the cereal and legume research program. From 1968 to 1970, Tumbi served as the
substation of ARTI-Ukiriguru. Research consisted mainly of evaluating materials on the experiment
station. In 1971, ARTI-Tumbi acquired independent status but continued to conduct maize research
under the supervision of ARTI-Ukiriguru. From 1974, ARTI-Tumbi started to collaborate with ARTI-
Ilonga and on-farm maize research was conducted, focusing on Tabora region.

In 1975, the Agricultural Trials and Training Center was established at Mubondo in Kasulu District
under the Kigoma Rural Integrated Development Project. In the 1976/77 cropping season, the first
maize trials were conducted in Kigoma region. Following the 1977/78 cropping season, the
Mubondo substation continued with maize evaluation trials on the station under the NMRP,
coordinated by ARTI-Ilonga, while ARTI-Tumbi provided the human resources. In the 1978/79
cropping season, research emphasized on-farm trials and demonstration plots in both regions. The
districts covered were Kibondo and Kasulu in Kigoma regions and Tabora, Urambo, and Nzega in
Tabora region.

2.3 The Maize Seed Industry in Tanzania

The hybrid CG4141 is multiplied and distributed by Cargill Hybrid Seed Ltd., which is based in
Arusha. A locally bred hybrid, H614, is grown mainly by farmers in the high rainfall zone (37.1%o);
only 14% of sample farmers in the low rainfall zone grew it. This is because the hybrids are late
maturing. Locally bred cultivars have flint grain and good pounding and storage qualities, and they
yield as well as CG4141. They are marketed mainly by the Tanzania Seed Company (TANSEED),
which has not done well in the newly competitive seed industry. This has contributed to reduced
adoption of locally bred hybrids. Before input markets were liberalized in 1990, locally bred varieties
were almost the only improved maize seed planted in Tanzania.

After market liberalization, private companies not only engaged in seed multiplication but conducted
trials to evaluate the adaptability of imported varieties to the local environment. The varieties
deemed suitable are subsequently released to farmers. CG4141 is competing aggressively with the
locally bred cultivars multiplied and sold by TANSEED. Pannar started producing and marketing
maize seed in 1995. The new companies have recruited chains of stockists who sell their seed in
villages and towns, and TANSEED has followed suit. Farmers have reported that seed sold by
private companies is purer, more uniform, and higher yielding than seed from TANSEED, which has
reduced demand for TANSEED products.










The drawbacks of the new varieties sold by Cargill and Pannar are their high price, poor storability,
poor pounding quality, and unsatisfactory taste. Pounded maize is used to make a local dish prepared
from grain from which the seed coat has been removed (kande). Some farmers also pound their
maize before milling to make a whiter and softer dough (ugali). When pounded, maize seed with a
soft seed coat breaks, and flour losses before milling are greater. This underscores the importance of
the flint trait in farmers' varietal preferences.

The latest development in the maize seed industry is the resumed importation of a once-famous
hybrid, H511, from Kenya, by the Tanganyika Farmersi Association (TFA). H511 yields as well and
matures as early as CG4141; its advantage over CG4141 is its flinty grain. The 1994/95 price for
Cargill maize seed (CG4141) and Pannar seed (PAN 6481) was Tanzanian shillings (Tsh) 650/kg,
while Kilima, a composite, sold at Tsh 450/kg. The high prices of maize seed have forced many
farmers to recycle hybrid seed.

Before market liberalization, quasi-governmental institutions and cooperative unions monopolized
input marketing. These institutions were inefficient in delivering inputs to farmers. They suffered
from chronic liquidity problems, because they depended on borrowing money for buying inputs. This
led to delayed input supply and chronic shortages that served as a disincentive to farmers (Mbiha
1993; Nkonya 1994). Market liberalization has led to a rapid increase in the number of private
businesses that engage in input marketing. Farmers could obtain inputs from village stockists who are
located much closer to them than prior to 1990. Inputs have also become readily available on time
in villages. As expected, the price of inputs has increased sharply, wiping out the shortages that
existed before.









3.0 Maize Production Technology Recommendations


3.1 Varieties

The recommended varieties for the Western Zone are shown in Table 1. The choice of maize variety
is determined by the farmer's objectives, the length of growing season, the elevation, and the amount
of rainfall at a given locality. For intermediate altitude areas (900-1,500 masl) with low rainfall
(< 1,000 mm), the following varieties and hybrids have been recommended: Kilima, Katumani,
TMV1, CG4142, UCA, H622, and H632.

3.2 Planting Time, Method, and Spacing

Planting time is one of the crucial factors for high yield. The recommended planting time for Tabora
region is in November-December, while for Kigoma region it is between mid-October and mid-
November (Table 2). Recommended planting depth for maize is 5-7 cm. Row planting is
recommended to achieve a desirable plant population. For Tabora and Urambo Districts, a spacing of
30 x 90 cm and one plant per hill is recommended, whereas for Igunga and Nzega the
recommended spacing is 30 x 90 cm for late maturing maize and 30 x 75 cm for early maturing
maize. For Kigoma region, a spacing of 50 x 80cm and two plants/hill are recommended. Growing
maize as a monocrop is recommended throughout Western Tanzania.

3.3 Fertilizer Types, Time, and Method of Application

The major limiting nutrients in the Western Zone are nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). As improved
varieties require substantial quantities of mineral nutrients for their vegetative and grain development,
different rates of inorganic and organic fertilizers have been recommended. In Tabora region, 60 kg
P205/ha in the form of NPK and 70 kg N/ha as
Table 1. Recommended maize varieties by region and sulfate of ammonia (SA), calcium ammonium
district, Western Tanzania nitrate (CAN), or urea are recommended.
Region/district Varieties recommended Additionally, given the high livestock population
Tabora region and availability of manure, 7-10 t/ha of farm
Tabora/Urambo Kilima, Katumani, TMV1, CG4141, UCA yard manure (FYM) is recommended. In Kigoma
Igunga/Nzega Katumani, TMV1
Kigoma region region, the recommendation is 125 kg/ha of
Kigoma rural UCA, Kilima, CG4142 triple super phosphate (TSP) and 250 kg/ha of
Kasulu H632,UCA, Kilima, H622 urea (Table 2). Nitrogen applications may be split
Ibondo H632,H622,UCA, Kilima, CG4142
by applying about 50% of the total amount at


Table 2. Recommended planting time and recommended fertilizer rate
Variable High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone

Time of planting October-November November-December
Inorganic fertilizer rate
Phosphorus (kg/ha) 125 (triple super phosphate) 60
Nitrogen (kg/ha) 250 (urea) 70
Manure (t/ha) 7-10 7-10










planting and the remainder just before tasseling. Fertilizer is normally placed 5 cm below the depth
of the seed and about 5-8 cm to the side by digging a single hole beside each seed, placing the
fertilizer in the hole, and covering it with soil. (Alternatively, a continuous furrow is made along the
length of the planting row. Fertilizer is placed in the furrow and covered with soil. The seed is
planted on top of this soil and covered properly.) For off-season maize planted under residual
moisture, fertilizer (SA or urea) should be buried deeply in the soil to be taken up easily by the plants.

3.4 Weed Control

Weeds can seriously affect maize yield, and two weedings with a hand hoe are recommended in the
Western Zone. The first weeding is recommended at one to two weeks after germination. For
Tabora region, the second weeding is recommended before tasseling, whereas for Kigoma region it
is recommended 35 days after germination.

3.5 Pest and Disease Control

The major maize pest in Western Tanzania is stalk borer, and the best method of control is to use
resistant varieties. Common stalk borers are the spotted stalk borer (Chilo partellus) and the pink
stalk borer (Sesamia calamistis). These are controlled by applying a pinch of dust or granules of an
insecticide such as endosulphan 4% dust at 5 kg/ha; Cymbush dust 1% at 2.5 kg/ha, or Sumicombi
1.8% at 5 kg/ha.

3.6 Harvesting and Storage

Maize is harvested when it is dry, with a moisture content of about 35-40%. Harvested maize should
be dried on the cob and shelled and winnowed before it is stored. It is recommended to store shelled
maize treated with Actellic Super in gunny bags or unshelled maize in storage structures (kihenge) (in
which case Actellic 50EC is used to treat maize).










4.0 Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics of Maize

Farmers in the Study Area


4.1 Demographic Characteristics

Table 3 summarizes the characteristics of sample households in the Western Zone. The mean age of
the household head was about 46 years in the high rainfall zone and 49 years in the low rainfall
zone. In both zones, sample farmers had lived in the same village for about 20 years and had an
average of about 18 years of farming experience. The level of education of the household head was
about four years. There were no significant differences for these characteristics between zones.

Average household size was nine in the high rainfall area and about eight in the low rainfall area.
High rainfall areas had significantly more female adults and children compared to the low rainfall
areas. Compared to farmers in the low rainfall areas, sample farmers in the high rainfall areas also
had more male adults and female adults working off of the farm. Only 9% and 5% of the sample
farmers in the high and low rainfall zones, respectively, had any off-farm income, and most of this
income went to purchase seed and fertilizer.

Farmers in the low rainfall areas used more hired labor (50%) than farmers in high rainfall areas
(39%). Most farmers in the high rainfall (21.4%) and low rainfall areas (25.9%) used hired labor for
land preparation. About 18% of the farmers in the high rainfall zone and 3% in the low rainfall zone
used hired labor for weeding. A large percentage of farmers in the low rainfall area (20.7%) used
hired labor for tree crops such as coffee, while only 7% of farmers in the high rainfall area used hired
labor for tree crops.

Table 3. Demographic characteristics of sample households, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Standard Standard
Characteristic Mean deviation Mean deviation t-statistic
Household head
Age (yr) 45.8 56 49.2 57 1.3
Education (yr) 4.3 56 4.5 57 0.3
Years lived in the village 20.2 56 20.5 57 0.15
Farming experience (yr) 18.4 56 17.7 57 0.3
Labor availability (no.)
Male adults 2.1 51 2.3 50 0.5 (NS)
Female adults 2.5 55 2.0 56 1.9*
Children 4.5 53 3.5 50 2.2**
Off-farm employment (no.)
Male adults 1.7 6 1.3 3 0.6 (NS)
Female adults 1.4 7 1.25 4 0.3 (NS)
Number of Percent of Number of Percent of
farmers farmers farmers farmers
Off-farm income 5 8.9 3 5.3 0.6 (NS)
Used hired labor 22 39.3 29 50.0 1.5 (NS)
Note: NS= not significant; *= significant at p<0.1; **=significant at p<0.05.











4.3 Livestock Ownership and Farm Mechanization


Livestock production was an important component of the farming system in both the low and high
rainfall zones. However, farmers tended to keep more goats than cattle. As more grazing land has
been converted into crop land, the remaining marginal land is more suitable for raising goats. The
average number of goats and sheep owned by households was relatively similar in both zones (Table
5), but farmers in the low rainfall zone had significantly more cattle compared to farmers in the high
rainfall zone.


The average number of hand hoes was four for the high rainfall zone and five for the low rainfall
zone (Table 5). An average of four pieces of cutting equipment was owned by households in both
zones. No farmer in the sample owned a tractor or cart. About 16% of the farmers in the low rainfall
zone hired ox-plows for land cultivation. No farmers in the high rainfall zone hired ox-plows.

Table 5. Numbers of livestock and farm implements owned, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Standard Standard
Mean deviation Mean deviation t-statistic

Number of livestock
Goats 5.8 6.0 5.2 4.7 0.38 (NS)
Sheep 3.7 2.3 5.0 2.9 0.8 (NS)
Cattle 2.0 1.0 7.0 2.4 3.3 **
Other livestock 12.8 18.0 18.3 17.3 1.3 (NS)

Number of farm implements
Hand hoes 4.3 2.5 4.8 2.7 1.2 (NS
Cutting equipment 3.6 1.9 3.6 1.5 0.1 (NS)

Note: NS = not significant; = significant at p<0.05.
a Includes machetes, axes, and knives.










5.0 Maize Production, Marketing, and Seed Practices in Western

Tanzania


5.1 Crops and Cropping System


Maize is the major food and cash crop in the study area, and most farmers grow it (Table 6). Forty-
four percent of farmers in the high rainfall zone grew maize as a sole crop, compared to 54% of
farmers in the low rainfall zone. Maize was intercropped by 56% of farmers in the high rainfall zone
and 46% in the low rainfall zone. The main reason for intercropping was to save labor.

5.2 Maize Crop Management Practices


5.2.1 Land preparation
Land preparation depends on the rainfall pattern. Land preparation starts in August and ends in late
September for 84% of the farmers in the high rainfall zone (Table 7). In the low rainfall zone, land
preparation was mainly done between September and October (78% of the sample farmers). The
majority of farmers in both zones used a hand hoe for land preparation.

Table 6. Maize cropping systems, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Number of farmers Percentage of farmers Number of farmers Percentage of farmers

Cropping pattern
Monocrop 20 43.5 20 54.1
Intercrop 26 56.5 17 45.9
Reasons for intercropping
Saves labor 13 46.4 9 52.9
Land scarcity 9 32.1 4 23.5
Spreads risk 2 7.1 4 23.5
Increases income 4 14.3 -
Cropping system
Maize/legumes 15 34.9 10 22.7
Maize 13 30.2 29 65.9
Tuber crops 3 7.0 1 2.3
Tobacco 5 11.6 3 6.8
Other 7 16.3 1 2.3

Table 7. Time and method of land preparation, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Number of farmers Percentage of farmers Number of farmers Percentage of farmers

Time of land preparation
August 23 41.0 5 9.3
September 24 42.8 28 51.9
October 7 12.5 14 25.9
November-January 2 3.6 7 13.0
Method of land preparation
Hand hoe 49 94.2 50 98.0
Hand hoe/oxen 1 2.0
Other 3 5.8











5.2.2 Seedbed type, planting time, and weeding
Table 8 shows farmers' agronomic practices. Maize was sown in a flat seedbed by all respondents in
both zones. In the 1994 farming season, in the high rainfall zone, maize planting started in October,
while farmers in the low rainfall zone mainly started planting in November. Ninety-three percent of
the farmers in the high rainfall zone and all farmers in the low rainfall zone plant maize in rows; 67%
of farmers in the high rainfall zone and 83% in the low rainfall zone said they adopted row planting
because it made it easy to manage the field. Other reasons included increasing yields or saving labor.
Most farmers in the low rainfall zone (71%) used the recommended spacing, while 50% of the
farmers in the high rainfall zone used the recommended spacing. The average number of seeds per
hill was significantly higher in the high rainfall zone (2 seeds/hill) than the low rainfall zone (1.7
seeds/hill) (t=3.3, p=0.01).


The time for weeding followed the pattern of planting. In the high rainfall zone, most of the farmers
(82.1%) weeded their maize for the first time in November-December, while most of the farmers
(81%) in the low rainfall zone weeded their maize in December-January. The average number of
weedings was 1.6 for farmers in the high rainfall zone and 1.4 for farmers in the low rainfall zone.
More farmers in the high rainfall zone (17.9%) performed a second weeding, however, compared to
farmers in the low rainfall zone (9.3%).

Table 8. Farmers' major agronomic practices, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Practice Number of farmers Percentage of farmers Number of farmers Percentage of farmers

Time of planting
September 2 3.6
October 29 52.7 9 16.8
November 18 32.7 31 57.5
December-January 6 10.8 14 29.1
Planting method
Row 50 92.6 53 100.0
Random 4 7.4 0 0
Reasons for row planting
Ease of field management 36 66.7 45 83.3
Increase yield 12 22.2 1 1.9
Other 6 11.2 8 14.8
Spacing between rows
Use recommended spacing 25 50.0 39 70.9
Use other spacing 25 50.0 16 29.1
First weeding
November 22 39.3 2 3.8
December 24 42.8 25 47.1
January 7 12.6 18 33.9
February 3 5.4 8 15.1
Second weeding
November-December 9 42.2
January 9 42.2 5 100.0
February 1 5.3
Mean Standard deviation Mean Standard deviation

Number of seeds per hill 2.0 0.5 1.7 0.5
Number of weedings 1.6 0.5 1.4 0.5











5.2.3. Type of fertilizer, quantity, and constraints
Fertilizer was used by 66% and 60% of farmers in the high and low rainfall zones, respectively
(Table 9). Farmers in the high rainfall zone used urea (49%), TSP (32%), and SA (19%), and farmers
in the low rainfall zone used urea (37%), CAN (37%), SA (21%), and NPK (5%). The average amount
of fertilizer used was slightly higher in the low rainfall zone (57.2 kg/ha) than the high rainfall zone
(54.2 kg/ha), but both amounts were below the recommended rate. The main constraint to using
fertilizer was the high price. Organic manure was used by 5% and 16% of farmers in the high and
low rainfall zones, respectively, mainly because of its high price and unavailability.




Table 9. Fertilizer use for maize production, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Number of farmers Percentage of farmers Number of farmers Percentage of farmers

Use inorganic fertilizers (IF) 37 66.1 34 59.6
Use organic fertilizers (OF) 3 5.4 9 15.8
Reasons for not using IF
Expensive 11 91.7 15 88.2
Other 1 8.3 2 11.8
Reasons for not using OF
Expensive 3 42.9
Unavailability 1 14.3 11 100.0
Don't know about them 3 42.9




Table 10. Other soil fertility management practices, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Practice Number of farmers Percentage of farmers Number of farmers Percentage of farmers

Fallow maize plots
Yes 30 53.6 40 70.2
No 26 46.4 17 29.8
Reasons for not fallowing
Land is scarce 14 66.7 13 76.5
Difficult to clear land 4 19.0 3 17.6
Other 3 14.3 1 5.9
Practice crop rotation
Yes 25 44.6 38 66.7
No 31 55.4 19 33.3
Reason for not practicing
crop rotation
Don't know about them 16 59.3 6 33.3
Land is scarce 9 33.3 7 38.9
Other 2 7.4 5 27.8
Management of crop residues
Plow under 10 18.2 37 69.8
Burn 35 63.6 4 7.5
Feed to cattle 5 9.1 10 18.9
Other 5 9.1 2 3.8










5.2.4. Fallowing, crop rotation, and crop residue management
About 54% of the farmers in the high rainfall zone and 70% in the low rainfall zone fallowed their
land (Table 10), generally to replenish soil fertility. Fallows lasted 1.8 years in the high rainfall zone
and 2.1 years in the low rainfall zone. Farmers often grew maize immediately after fallowing (45% of
farmers in the high rainfall zone and 52% of farmers in the low rainfall zone), although 15% of
farmers in the high rainfall zone and 30% in the low rainfall zone reported planting tobacco after
fallow. Other crops mentioned were cassava and legumes. Farmers in the high rainfall zone said that
the crop they chose to grow after fallow was chosen because it provided more income (55%). In the
low rainfall zone, farmers decided which crop to grow after fallow on the basis of whether the crop
needed more fertile soil (38%), provided higher income (25%), or was the only crop grown (25%).
The main reason for not fallowing in both zones was land scarcity.

About 44% of respondents in the high rainfall zone and 67% in the low rainfall zone rotated their
crops, and this difference was significant (t=5.6; p=0.01). The common crop rotations were
maize-tobacco (43.8% of farmers in high rainfall areas, 71% of farmers in low rainfall areas);
maize-legumes (33.3% of farmers in the high rainfall zone); and maize-cassava (19.4% of farmers in
the low rainfall zone). Farmers in the high rainfall zone rotated crops mainly because the previous
crop increased soil fertility (82.2%) or because they wanted to break a disease or pest cycle (14.3%).
Similar reasons for crop rotations were advanced by farmers In the low rainfall zone (83.4% to
increase soil fertility, 16.7% to break a disease/pest cycle). The main reason that farmers in the high
rainfall zone did not rotate crops was that they were not aware of the benefits of the practice
(59.3%), while farmers in the low rainfall zone said they did not rotate crops because they lacked land
(38.9%).

Farmers who do not apply fertilizer or who applied only a small amount were advised to plow crop
residues back into the soil to avoid soil mining. This recommendation was followed by about 18% of
farmers in the high rainfall zone and 70% in the low rainfall zone. About 64% of the farmers in the
high rainfall zone burned their crop residues.

5.2.5 Pest and disease control
Maize pests, diseases, and control methods are summarized in Table 11. About 78% and 90% of the
sample farmers in the high and low rainfall zones, respectively, reported that stalk borers were the
most serious field pest. In the high rainfall zone, cutworms and termites were also reported as
important field pests (18.3%). More farmers in the high rainfall zone (42.1%) than in the low rainfall
zone (22.8%) used no method to control maize field pests. In the high rainfall zone farmers used
mostly DDT (24.6%), Thiodan (15.8%), and Marshal (10.8%). In the low rainfall zone farmers used
mostly Thiodan (57.9%) and DDT (17.5%).

The most important maize disease in both zones was maize streak virus (reported by 62% of the
farmers), while about 31% of the farmers in both zones reported that no diseases affected the maize
crop. About 88% and 97% of the farmers in the high and low rainfall zones, respectively, did not
control field diseases. Local varieties were affected most by pests and diseases.











Table 11. Major field pests, diseases, and their control, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Number of farmers Percentage of farmers Number of farmers Percentage of farmers

Field pests
None 1 1.4 4 6.8
Stalk borers 55 77.5 53 89.8
Cutworms and termites 13 18.3 1 1.7
Vermin 2 2.8 1 1.7
Method of control
None 24 42.1 13 22.8
Thiodan 9 15.8 33 57.9
DDT 14 24.6 10 17.5
Marshal 6 10.5 -
Other 4 7.0 1 1.8
Field diseases
None 18 31.0 19 31.1
Maize streak virus 36 62.1 38 62.3
Cob rot 3 5.2 2 3.3
Smut 1 1.7 2 3.3
Method of control
None 49 87.5 55 96.5
Chemical 4 7.1 1 1.8
Other 3 5.4 1 1.8
Most affected varieties
Local varieties 19 65.5 25 55.6
Hybrids 5 11.1
UCA 2 6.9 4 8.9
Katumani 8 27.6 11 24.4


5.3 Maize Harvesting, Transportation, and Storage


The maize harvest depends on the time of sowing and the end of the rainy season. Most of the maize
crop was harvested in the survey area between April and May (Table 12). The harvested cobs were
generally transported by head load and bicycle. About 38% and 47% of farmers in the high and low
rainfall zones, respectively, stored maize in a kihenge. Other methods included storing maize in gunny
bags or on cribs. More farmers in the low rainfall zone (75%) treated their maize before storage,
compared to 65% of the farmers in the high rainfall zone. Treatment with Actellic Super was the most
common control method in both zones (reported by all farmers in the high rainfall zone and about 93%
in the low rainfall zone). Reasons reported in the high rainfall zone for not treating maize were lack of
cash (54.4%) or no need for it (42.9%); the main reason in the low rainfall zone was that maize did not
need treatment (84.6%). Farmers in the low rainfall zone started treating maize significantly earlier
(10 years ago) than farmers in the high rainfall zone (4 years ago) (t=3.0; p=0.01).


5.4 Seed Selection and Recycling


Most respondents recycled their maize seed. Some farmers have recycled seed for as much as 10
years. About 46% of the respondents have been recycling improved seed for the past 5 years, while
about 21% have recycled it for 10 years, and 19% for 15 years. Only 14% of the respondents
reported purchasing new seed regularly.











Seed was selected based on the size of the cob (94% of farmers) and grain maturity (6%). Seed was
selected during harvesting and shelling for storage, and seed maize was either stored on cribs (56%)
or shelled and stored in gunny bags (44%). Other reported seed storage methods were shelling and
applying chemicals or shelling and applying ash and then storing in gunny bags.


Table 12. Maize harvesting, transportation, and storage, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Number of farmers Percentage of farmers Number of farmers Percentage of farmers

Month of harvest
March 4 7.1 4 7.8
April 14 25.0 19 37.3
May 27 48.2 15 29.4
June-July 11 19.6 13 25.5
Method of transportation
Head load 45 77.6 30 62.5
Bicycle 13 22.4 12 25.0
Cart 6 12.5
Maize storage
Shell and store in kihenge 20 37.7 17 47.2
On cribs 12 22.6 5 13.9
Gunny bags 20 37.7 14 38.9
Other 1 1.9



5.5. Maize Cropping Calendar for Western Tanzania


Table 13 summarizes the maize cropping calendar for the Western Zone. In both zones the peak
labor demand occurred between November and January, while the remaining part of the year was
relatively slack. In the low rainfall zone, only a few farmers carried out a second weeding.











6.0 Farmers' Adoption/Disadoption of Improved Maize


6.1 Varieties Currently Grown


Table 14 shows maize varieties grown by the sample farmers in the 1994/95 farming season. In the
high rainfall zone, the main varieties grown were H614 (37.1%) and local varieties (34.3%). In the
low rainfall zone, the main varieties grown were Tuxpefo (31.0%) and UCA-St (31.0%).
Table 14. Maize varieties and hybrids planted in the 1994/95 season, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone

Number of Percentage of Number of Percentage of
Variety/hybrid farmers farmers farmers farmers

Local variety 12 34.3 3 10.3
H614 13 37.1 4 13.8
Tuxpeno 3 8.6 9 31.0
TMV1 1 2.9 n n
UCA 2 5.7 2 6.9
UCA-St 1 2.9 9 31.0
ICW 3 8.6 2 6.9


6.2 Preferred Improved Maize Materials and Reasons for
Farmers' Preferences

In the high rainfall zone, H6302 andH614 and Tuxpefo were the varieties most preferred by
farmers, while farmers in the low rainfall zone preferred Tuxpefo and UCA-St (Table 15). Differences
in preferences can be attributed to the marketing strategies of Tanseed. The distribution of maize seed
by Tanseed followed the recommendations from research. The most valued seed traits were high
yield, drought tolerance, and resistance to field pests and diseases.

In the high rainfall zone, Tuxpefo (71.4%), and H6302/H614 (57.1%) were mainly preferred for
their high yields. In the low rainfall zone, Tuxpefo was preferred for its high yield (52.0%) and
drought tolerance (44.0%), and UCA-St was mainly preferred for its high yield (72.7%).


Table 15. Preferred maize varieties/hybrids, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Number of Percentage of Number of Percentage of
Variety/hybrid farmers farmers farmers farmers

Local variety 6 16.2 2 3.9
H6302/H614 16 43.2 3 5.9
UCA 6 16.2 6 11.8
Tuxpeno 7 18.9 25 49.0
UCA-St 1 2.7 11 21.6
ICW 1 2.7 4 7.8










6.3 Farmers' Disadoption of Improved Maize


About 15% and 33% of the sample farmers in the high and low rainfall zones, respectively, had
disadopted an improved maize variety. In the high rainfall zone, farmers had disadopted H6302/
H614 (81.8%) and UCA (18.2%). Reasons for disadopting H6302/H614 were susceptibility to pests
and diseases (37.5%), unavailability of seed (12.%), loss of seed from drought (25%), or replacement
with a better variety (25%). All farmers had disadopted UCA because of its low yield.


Table 16. Farmers' reasons for preferring certain varieties/hybrids, Western Tanzania

High yield Resists pests/diseases Tolerates drought
Zone Variety/hybrid (% farmers reporting) (% farmers reporting) (% farmers reporting)

High rainfall Tuxpeno 71.4 14.3
H6302/H614 57.1 14.3 7.1
Low rainfall Tuxpeno 52.0 44.0
UCA-St 72.7 9.1



Farmers in the low rainfall zone had disadopted H614 (44.4%), UCA (37.0%), and UCA-St (14.8%).
The reasons for disadopting H614 were its susceptibility to pests and diseases (25.0%), lost seed
(25.0%), late maturity (25%), and replacement with a better variety (25.0%). Farmers had disadopted
UCA because of its low yield (50.0%), susceptibility to pests and diseases (20%), or the superiority of
the local variety (20%). UCA-St was disadopted for its late maturity (50%), small cobs (25%), and loss
of seed from drought (25%).


Table 17. Farmers' sources and use of credit, Western Tanzania
High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Number of Percentage of Number of Percentage of
farmers farmers farmers farmers

Access to credit
Yes 20 43.5 18 32.1
No 26 56.5 38 67.9
Source of credit
NGOs 11 57.9
Cooperative union 3 15.8 15 93.8
Agro-companies 5 26.3 1 6.2
Inputs purchased
Fertilizer 14 25.0 9 15.8
Seed 11 19.6
Pesticides 11 19.6
Availability of credit
Difficult to obtain 20 42.6 47 90.4
Not difficult to obtain 27 57.4 5 9.6
Constraints
No collateral 3 20.0 4 13.3
Lack of knowledge 7 46.6 6 20.0
Not a cash crop farmer 9 30.0
Bureaucracy 5 33.3 7 23.3
Other 4 13.3









7.0 Credit and Extension Services


7.1 Credit Availability

About 44% of the farmers in the high rainfall zone and 32% in the low rainfall zone used credit (Table
17). Farmers in the high rainfall zone obtained credit from non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
(57.9%), agro-companies (26.3%), and the cooperative union (15.8%). Almost all farmers in the low
rainfall zone got their credit from the cooperative union (93.8%). The amount borrowed averaged
Tsh 20,700 (N=9) in the high rainfall zone and Tsh 41,000 (N=2) in the low rainfall zone. In the high
rainfall zone, credit was mainly used for fertilizer, seed, and pesticides; it was used only for fertilizer in
the low rainfall zone. Credit was significantly more difficult to obtain in the low rainfall zone (90.4%)
than the high rainfall zone (42.6%) ((2 = 25.8; p=0.01). Lack of knowledge and bureaucracy were the
main constraints to obtaining credit in the high rainfall zone. Farmers in the low rainfall zone reported
that if one was not a cash crop farmer one lacked access to credit.

7.2 Extension Services

All districts in the survey area are covered by the National Agriculture and Livestock Extension Project
(NALEP), sponsored by the World Bank and Government of Tanzania (GOT), and the training and visit
(T&V) extension system is used in the study area. Farmers' sources of information on the improved
maize technology package are shown in Table 18. Most farmers had received information on
improved maize varieties, fertilizer, weed and pest management, and storage practices. Information on
the use of herbicides, ox-drawn implements, and disease control measures was lower, especially in the
low rainfall zone. The most important sources of information were research and extension.










Table 18. Farmers' sources of information about maize production technology, Western Tanzania

High rainfall zone Low rainfall zone
Number of Percentage of Number of Percentage of
farmers farmers farmers farmers

Improved maize varieties
Received information 43 76.7 45 78.9
Source of information
Fertilizer
Received information 50 98.0 56 100.0
Adopted recommendation 37 72.5 39 69.6
Source of information
Research/extension 31 60.8 52 94.5
NGOs 10 19.6 2 3.6
Other sources 10 19.6 1 1.8
Weed management
Received information 54 96.4 55 98.2
Adopted recommendation 54 96.4 56 100.0
Source of information
Research/extension 30 53.6 37 68.5
NGOs 13 23.2 12 22.2
Other sources 13 23.2 5 9.3
Herbicide
Received information 13 65.0 20 35.7
Adopted recommendation 0 0.0 0 0.0
Source of information
Research/extension 8 80.0 17 89.5
NGOs 2 20.0 1 5.9
Other sources 2 20.0 1 5.9
Ox-drawn implements
Received information 13 61.9 23 41.8
Adopted recommendation 11 55.0 16 29.1
Source of information
Research/extension 7 58.3 22 88.0
NGOs 1 8.3 3 12.0
Other sources 4 33.3 0 0.0
Pest management
Received information 34 82.9 46 82.1
Adopted recommendation 25 61.0 41 73.2
Source of information
Research/extension 24 70.6 39 90.7
NGOs 6 20.0 3 7.0
Other sources 4 13.3 1 2.3
Disease control measures
Received information 18 66.7 30 53.6
Adopted recommendation 12 44.4 24 42.9
Source of information
Research/extension 13 76.5 28 96.6
NGOs 1 5.9 1 3.4
Other sources 3 17.6 0 0.0
Storage practices
Received information 37 86.0 44 78.6
Adopted recommendation 28 66.7 39 69.6
Source of information
Research/extension 28 80.0 37 86.0
NGOs 3 8.8 4 9.3
Other sources 4 11.4 2 4.7

a No data available.









8.0 Factors Affecting Adoption of Agricultural
Technologies in the Study Area

8.1 Definitions

Feder et al. (1985) defined adoption as the degree of use of a new technology in a long run
equilibrium when a farmer has full information about the new technology and its potential.
Therefore, adoption at the farm level describes the realization of farmers' decision to apply a new
technology in the production process. On the other hand, aggregate adoption is the process of
spread or diffusion of a new technology within a region. Therefore a distinction exists between
adoption at the individual farm level and aggregate adoption within a targeted region. If an
innovation is modified periodically, however, the equilibrium level of adoption will not be achieved.
This situation requires the use of econometric procedures that can capture both the rate and the
process of adoption. The rate of adoption is defined as the proportion of farmers who have adopted
a new technology over time. The incidence of adoption is defined as the percentage of farmers using
a technology at a specific point in time (for example, the percentage of farmers using fertilizer). The
intensity of adoption is defined as the level of adoption of a given technology (for instance, the
number of hectares planted with improved seed or the amount of fertilizer applied per hectare).

8.2. Adoption of Improved Maize in Western Tanzania

The common procedure for assessing the rate of adoption is the use of a logistic curve, which
captures the historical trend of adoption over a given time and can be used to assess the effectiveness
of agricultural institutions that have served the farming system over time. The logistic curve is
constructed using data on the proportion of farmers who have adopted an improved technical
innovation over a given period. The basic assumption is that adoption increases slowly at first but
then increases rapidly to approach a maximum level (CIMMYT 1993). Mathematically, the logistic
curve is given by the following formula:

K
Yt
1 = eabt

where:
Yt = the cumulative percentage of adopters at a time t;
K = the upper bound of adoption;
b = a constant, related to the rate of adoption; and
a = a constant, related to the time when adoption begins.












Figure 4 shows the rate of adoption of improved maize in the high and low rainfall zones. In 1994,
about 55% of the farmers in the high rainfall zone and 93% in the low rainfall zone had adopted
improved maize. The rate of adoption for 1974-94 was 0.10 and 0.08 for the high and low rainfall
zones, respectively. The higher rate of adoption in the low rainfall areas can partly be attributed to the
influence of research and extension. Most of the evaluation trials were conducted in the low rainfall
area. Only recently have research activities been undertaken in the high rainfall area through the
Mubondo Research Station.


8.3. Tobit Analysis of Land
Allocated to Improved Maize


The tobit model results on the
proportion of land allocated to improved
maize are presented in Table 19. The
tobit model was used because the
proportion of land allocated to improved
maize is a continuous variable but
truncated between zero and one. The
use of ordinary least squares will result in
biased estimates (McDonald 1980). In
Table 19, 8EY/5Xi shows the marginal
effect of an explanatory variable on the


IUU
90T
90 Low rainfall zone
.- 80
70
- 70

t 60
50
S40
30
S- -" High rainfall zone
0 20--
10
0
1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993
Figure 4. Adoption of improved maize in high and low rainfall zones,
Western Tanzania.


Table 19. Tobit model estimates for land allocation to improved maize varieties

Parameter Coefficient t-statistic SEY/SXi SEY*/Xi 8f(z)/1Xi

Constant -0.0052 -0.0216 0 -0.004 -0.002
EXPF 0.0001 0.0141 2.19e-09 0 0
LAB -0.0281 -1.5894*** 0 -0.0191 -0.0117
EDVC 0.0071 0.4529 0 0.0048 0.003
WID 0.0114 1.3919 0 0.0077 0.0048
EXI 0.7107 2.4305** 0.110606 0.482757 0.2966
VA1 0.5626 3.1119* 0.06931 0.382157 0.234793
VA2 0.2299 0.8895 0.01157 0.156164 0.09595
VA3 0.1263 1.3871 0.0035 0.08579 0.05271
AEZ1 -0.3317 -3.7645** 0.02409 -0.22531 -0.13843
SIGMA 0.4241 12.1741*

Sample size 113
Number of positive observations 84
Proportion of positive observations 74.33
Z-score 0.66
f(z) 0.32086
Log likelihood function -72.23
Likelihood ratio test 35.5*
X2 23.59

Note: *** = significant at p<0/1% level; ** = significant at p<0.5% level; = significant at p<0.01% level.











expected value (mean proportion) of the dependent variable, 6EY*/SX shows changes in the
intensity of adoption with respect to a unit change of an independent variable among adopters, and
5F(Z)/5Xi is the probability of change among nonadopters (e.g., the probability of adopting
improved maize varieties) with a unit change of independent variable Xi.The log-likelihood ratio test
was significant at the 1% level.


The significant variables were extension, varieties in group one (i.e., varieties that matured rapidly),
and high rainfall. The marginal effect of extension on the mean proportion of land allocated to
improved maize varieties was 0.11, and extension increased the probability of adoption by 29.7%.
The negative sign on the high rainfall variable shows that farmers in the high rainfall zone are more
likely to have lower values for the proportion of land allocated to improved maize. The marginal
effect of the high rainfall zone on the mean proportion of land allocated to improved maize varieties
was 0.11, and the probability of adoption decreased by 13.8% for farmers in the high rainfall zone.
Farmers growing the short-maturing maize varieties (Katumani and Kito) were more likely to allocate
more land to improved maize than to other groups of varieties. The marginal effect of short-maturing
varieties on the mean proportion of land allocated to improved maize was 0.07, and short-maturing
varieties increased the probability of adoption by 23.5%.

8.4 Probit Analysis of Fertilizer Use


Results of the probit model for the use of inorganic fertilizer are presented in Table 20. The probit
model was used because the response on inorganic fertilizer use was binary (= 1 if the farmer used


inorganic fertilizer for the past three years and =


Table 20. Probit model estimates for fertilizer use

Parameter Coefficient t-statistic

Constant -0.9482 -1.0603
EXPF -0.0056 -1.4326
LAB 0.0129 0.17401
EDVC 0.0463 0.8273
WID 0.4694 4.7152*
EXI -1.1051 -0.9381
IMR 0.4347 0.8871
VA1 -0.6979 -0.7991
VA2 -0.8731 -0.7573
VA3 -0.4957 -1.4407
AEZ1 0.0065 0.0136

Sample size 113
Number of positive observation 69
Proportion of positive observation 61.06
R-squared 0.438
Factor of correct prediction 0.832
Log of likelihood function -51.89
Likelihood ratio test 47.2*
X2 23.59

Note: = significant at p < 0.01 level.


0 otherwise). Establishing the quantity of fertilizer
used per hectare was difficult because of
the lack of data. In Table 20, the change
in probability (5Y/(6) shows the change
SEY/SXj in probability that a farmer will use
-0.2607 fertilizer, given a unit change in the
-0.0015 independent variable. The likelihood ratio
0.0035 test was significant at the 1% level. The
0.0127
0.1291 factor for correct prediction was 0.8. The
-0.3039 inverse Mills ratio was not significant,
0.1195
0.119 indicating that the use of fertilizer was not
-0.1919
-0.2401 directly related to the use of improved
-0.1363 seed alone. Although the inverse Mills
0.0018
ratio was not significant, the calculated
probability that farmers who used
improved seed would use fertilizer was
high. The use of improved seed increased
the probability of using fertilizer by about
12%. The significant variable was the
wealth index. An increase in the wealth
index by one unit increased the
probability of using fertilizer by 13%.









9.0 Conclusions and Recommendations


9.1 Conclusions

This study has provided information on maize production in Western Tanzania, including varieties
grown and preferred by farmers, maize management practices, and factors that can enhance
adoption of improved maize. The information has some implications for priority setting and future
research themes within maize research programs.

The mean age of farmers in the high and low rainfall zone was about 46 and 49 years, respectively,
and farmers in both zones had about 18 years of farming experience. The level of education was
about four years for both zones. Farm households in the high and low rainfall zones had about nine
and eight family members, respectively. The number of female adults and children was significantly
higher in the high rainfall zone.

The time for land preparation, planting, and harvesting depends on the rainfall pattern, but land
preparation generally starts in August-September, and planting starts in October-December.
Harvesting was mainly done between May and June. The maize plot was weeded twice at most. Most
farmers do the first weeding after the first three weeks of planting and the second weeding depends
on weed emergence. Most farmers in the high rainfall zone weed in November-December, while
farmers in the low rainfall zone weed mostly in December-January. More farmers in the high rainfall
zone weed twice compared to farmers in the low rainfall zone.

The use of fertilizer in maize production was constrained because of the high fertilizer price. Mostly
farmers used urea; the average amount of fertilizer applied was higher in the low rainfall zone (57.2
kg/ha) than in the high rainfall zone (54.2 kg/ha). To increase soil fertility, farmers plowed crop
residues under (mainly in the low rainfall zone). More farmers in the low rainfall zone rotated crops
(66.7%) than farmers in the high rainfall zone (44.6%). The most important maize pests and diseases
in both zones were stalk borer and MSV.

Most farmers recycled seed for up to five years, although others recycled seed for as many as 10-15
years. Seed was selected during harvesting and shelling for storage, and the chief criteria for selection
were the size of the cob and grain maturity. Seed maize was stored separately from the main crop,
mainly on cribs. Food maize was shelled and stored in gunny bags, cribs, or the kihenge. Most
farmers treated stored maize with industrial chemicals to control pests.

The main maize varieties grown during the 1994/95 farming season in the high rainfall zone were
local varieties, H614, Tuxpefo, and ICW. In the low rainfall zone, the main varieties grown for the
1994/95 farming season were local varieties, H614, Tuxpefo, and UCA-St. The improved maize
varieties preferred by farmers in the high rainfall zone included H6302, H614, and Tuxpefo.
Tuxpefo and UCA-St were preferred by farmers in the low rainfall zone. Varieties were preferred for
their yield, drought resistance, and pest resistance. Improved maize varieties had been disadopted by
about 14% of the farmers in the high rainfall zone and 33% in the low rainfall zone. Farmers in the
high rainfall zone disadopted mostly H6302 and H614, and farmers in the low rainfall zone mainly
disadopted H614 and UCA.










About 44% and 32% of the farmers in the high and low rainfall zones, respectively, used credit. The
important credit institutions were cooperative unions, NGOs, and agro-companies that provided
credit in kind. More farmers in the low rainfall zone (90.4%) reported that credit was difficult to
obtain compared to farmers in the high rainfall zone (42.6%). Lack of knowledge (information) and
bureaucracy were the main constraints to obtaining credit in the high rainfall zone. Farmers in the
low rainfall zone reported that those who did not grow cash crops had no access to credit.

Most farmers had received information on improved maize, use of fertilizer, weed and pest
management, and storage practices. The most important sources of information were research and
extension.

The two-stage least squares analysis showed that extension, short-maturing varieties, and rainfall
were significant factors affecting the proportion of land allocated to improved maize. Extension
increased the probability of allocating land at the means by about 30%. Short-maturing maize
varieties increased the probability of allocating land at the means by about 24%. Farmers in the high
rainfall zone are 14% less likely to allocate land to improved maize. An increase in the wealth index
by one unit increased the probability of using fertilizer by 13%.

9.2 Recommendations

Large parts of the Western Zone are prone to frequent drought that can destroy the maize crop or
reduce yield and increase stalk borer attacks. Research should give priority to developing or screening
varieties that yield well and tolerate drought stress and field pests, especially stalk borers. Flexible
integrated management packages that combine a drought-tolerant variety with improved cultural
practices such as timely planting and weeding can increase yields. Low-cost technologies for
controlling stalk borer and MSV using cultural practices or environmentally friendly industrial
chemicals should be developed.

More research effort should be directed to strategies for avoiding soil mining, supplementation of
chemical fertilizers with different sources of organic manure, crop residue management, and soil
conservation. Additional fertility research will be particularly relevant because use of chemical
fertilizer is likely to remain low in the foreseeable future because of rising prices.

Most improved varieties are responsive to fertilizer, and farmers usually obtain economic yields with
fertilizer. But use of fertilizer is constrained by high price and lack of knowledge. An efficient
marketing system for inputs and outputs will benefit farmers by paying higher prices for maize and
reducing the cost of fertilizer. Such a system cannot be established without policy support from the
government, however. Studies on the economics of seed and fertilizer use should also be undertaken,
especially now that input and output markets have been liberalized.

Extension efforts need to be strengthened to increase the flow of information to farmers. More
efforts should be directed toward appropriate recommendations for fertilizer use, as a majority of
farmers use inefficient practices. Farmers should be advised on the use of organic manure to










supplement chemical fertilizer. Furthermore, extension efforts should be directed toward the adoption
of improved varieties, weed control, and the control of field and storage pests and diseases.

Formal credit is not available to all maize farmers. With rising input prices, providing credit to
farmers becomes increasingly important. In collaboration with the government and other
stakeholders, the formal credit system needs to address the credit problems faced by small-scale
farmers, especially their lack of knowledge (information) about formal credit and the bureaucratic
procedures for obtaining it. The formation of farmer groups should be encouraged, because lending
to groups tends to reduce transactions costs and improve the rate of loan recovery.










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