• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Copyright
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Executive summary
 CIMMYT's mission
 Taking up the challenge for the...
 Putting people at the heart of...
 Towards a new agenda for innov...
 Global partnerships and knowledge...
 Next steps : Preliminary views...
 Reference
 Appendix 1
 Appendix 2
 Improving the efficiency of field...
 Acronyms and abbreviations






Group Title: Seeds of innovation : CIMMYT'S strategy for helping to reduce poverty and hunger by 2020
Title: Seeds of innovation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077540/00001
 Material Information
Title: Seeds of innovation CIMMYT'S strategy for helping to reduce poverty and hunger by 2020
Alternate Title: CIMMYT'S strategy for helping to reduce poverty and hunger by 2020
Physical Description: x, 56 p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Publisher: CIMMYT
Place of Publication: Mexico?
Publication Date: c2004
 Subjects
Subject: Food supply -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Food supply -- International cooperation   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 46).
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077540
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 56079572
isbn - 9706481079

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Copyright
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Preface
        Page iv
    Executive summary
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    CIMMYT's mission
        Page ix
    Taking up the challenge for the future : A new mission for CIMMYT
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Putting people at the heart of our strategy
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Towards a new agenda for innovation
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Global partnerships and knowledge sharing : The foundation for innovation and impact
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Next steps : Preliminary views in implementing the strategy
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Reference
        Page 46
    Appendix 1
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Appendix 2
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Improving the efficiency of field research
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Acronyms and abbreviations
        Page 56
Full Text















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CIMMYT (www.cimmyt.org) is an internationally funded, nonprofit, scientific research, training, and
development organization. CIMMYT acts as a catalyst and leader in a global maize and wheat innovation
network that serves the resource-poor in developing countries. Drawing on strong science and effective
partnerships, we create, share, and use knowledge and technology to increase food security, improve
the productivity and profitability of farming systems, and sustain natural resources. CIMMYT is one of
16 food and environmental organizations known asthe Future Harvest Centers (www.futureharvest.org).
Located around the world, the Future Harvest Centers conduct research in partnership with farmers,
scientists, and policymakersto help alleviate poverty and increase food security while protecting natural
resources. The centers are supported bythe Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(CGIAR) (www.cgiar.org), whose members include nearly 60 countries, private foundations, and regional
and international organizations. Financial support for CIMMYT's research agenda also comes from
many other sources, including foundations, development banks, and public and private agencies.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 2004. All rights reserved. The
designations employed in the presentation of materials in this publication do not imply the expression
of any opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT or its contributory organizations concerning the
legal status of any country, territory, city, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of
its frontiers or boundaries. CIMMYT encourages fair use of this material. Proper citation is requested.

Correct citation: CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center). 2004. Seeds of
Innovation: CIMMYT's Strategy for Helping to Reduce Poverty and Hunger by 2020. Mexico, DF:
CIMMYT.

Abstract: This publication describes how CIMMYT will reposition itself to meet the needs for agricultural
knowledge and technology in developing countries over the next 10-15 years. It highlights major
changes that will enable CIMMYT to become a more effective partner in research and other activities
that further the Millennium Development Goals for reducing poverty and hunger.

ISBN: 970-648-107-9
AGROVOC descriptors: Agricultural development; Development plans; Planning; Research institutions;
Organization of research; Innovation adoption; Trends; Poverty; Famine; Structural change; Agricultural
research; CGIAR; Developing countries
AGRIS category codes: E14 Development Economics and Policies; A50 Agricultural Research
Dewey decimal classification: 658.402


Printed in Mexico.













Contents



v Preface
vi Executive summary

Chapter 1. Taking up the challenge for the future: A new mission for CIMMYT
2 The context for CIMMYT's strategy
2 Understanding the shifting landscape in which we work
6 Maize and wheat in the developing world
8 CIMMYT's enduring strengths
8 CIMMYT's core values
9 Conclusion: A new mission

Chapter 2. Putting people at the heart of our strategy
12 Poverty and livelihoods
12 Where and who are the poor?
13 A holistic approach to understanding livelihood systems
14 Systems in which maize and wheat underpin food and nutritional security in rural households
15 Systems in which maize and wheat generate income, foster economic growth, and alleviate poverty
15 Conclusion: Framing new research programs, partnerships, and ways of sharing knowledge

Chapter 3. Towards a new agenda for innovation
18 Structuring CIMMYT's global research program
18 The agenda is a work in progress
19 Roles of the programs and disciplinary research groups
19 Programs and partnerships
19 Program 1: Genetic resources
20 Program 2: Global and strategic research
21 Program 3: Sustaining African livelihoods
22 Program 4: Rainfed systems
22 Program 5: Tropical ecosystems
23 Program 6: Irrigated, high-potential maize and wheat systems
24 Conclusion: Focusing on major issues in new ways

Chapter 4. Global partnerships and knowledge sharing: The foundation for innovation and impact
28 Building on a strong network of partnerships
28 Renewing public-sector partnerships
29 Partnering to support a renewed CGIAR
31 NGOs, farmer groups, and community and self-help groups
33 Partnering with private foundations
33 Strategic partnerships with the private sector and advanced research institutes
35 Other international and regional development organizations
35 Science-based advocacy for developing and delivering public goods
36 Working as a global innovation network: A systemic approach to knowledge management
36 The strategic shift towards catalyzing innovation
37 The elements of a global knowledge system
38 Conclusion: Committing to change

















Chapter 5. Next steps: Preliminary views on implementing the strategy
40 Implementing change
46 Setting priorities and allocating resources
42 Developing an implementation plan
42 Recreating CIMMYT as an integrated network of research locations
42 Measuring CIMMYT's impact and progress towards implementing the strategy
43 Accountability and governance
44 Financing the research agenda
45 The learning organization: Anticipating and adapting to change

46 References

47 Appendix 1. A starting point for addressing research resource allocation
49 Appendix 2. Approaches and tools to accelerate improvements in the livelihoods of maize and
wheat farmers and consumers

59 Acronyms and abbreviations


Tables and illustration
8 Table 1.1
7 Map 1.1


3
7


18
40

Boxes
3
4
10
12
13
14
16
25
29
30
32
34
41
54


Is
Maize and wheat facts
Human poverty distribution and the international maize and wheat improvement network


Figure 1.1 Four scenarios of global development
Figure 1.2 Daily per capital caloric intake of the 10 most important food crops in developing
countries, 1999-2001
Figure 3.1 CIMMYT's research structure
Figure 5.1 Implementation of CIMMYT's strategy, 2003-2006


Box 1.1
Box 1.2
Box 1.3
Box 2.1
Box 2.2
Box 2.3
Box 2.4
Box 3.1
Box 4.1
Box 4.2
Box 4.3
Box 4.4
Box 5.1
Box A.1


Analytical foundations for CIMMYT's strategy
The case for CIMMYT and international agricultural research
Building on strengths and fostering emerging competencies for the "new CIMMYT"
Poverty and the environment
Poverty, gender, and agriculture
Poverty, hunger, and malnutrition
Which poor people will CIMMYT work for?
Science of strategic interest to CIMMYT
Public-sector partnerships prevent epidemics in wheat
CIMMYT and other CGIAR Centers
The Patronato of Sonora: Local support for global research
Partnering with the private sector to reach maize farmers
Responding to stakeholders' concerns through the new strategy
Improving the efficiency of field research












Preface


In the past decade, CIMMYT has adapted its research agenda
and structure to meet emerging needs in international
agricultural research and development, but the Center had
no mandate to undertake more than incremental changes. In
2002, CIMMYT's Board of Trustees decided to conduct a
thorough, wide-ranging evaluation of the Center's mission
and, if necessary, undertake a structural transformation to
achieve its strategic goals.

This strategy summarizes the outcomes of that process. It
presents fundamental changes in the way that CIMMYT will
work. The Center has a new mission that emphasizes the role
of knowledge in linking and empowering people to overcome
poverty and environmental degradation. It has a new structure
to bridge the disciplinary divides that occur within most
research centers. The strategy focuses CIMMYT's research
more sharply on reducing people's vulnerability to poverty by
looking at the entire context in which poor households operate
and not exclusively at maize or wheat. It highlights a renewed
commitment to advocacy and capacity building. It examines
strategic opportunities for particular partnerships and
networks to meet the needs of poor people and ensure the
impact of all partners' efforts to promote sustainable human
development. Finally, it reflects a commitment to further
collaboration and change within the CGIAR System.

This strategy was developed through a highly participatory
process that invited dialogue on sensitive issues and
fundamental assumptions, sought feedback from numerous
stakeholders, and laid the groundwork for collaborative priority
setting and continued organizational learning. Internal task
forces explored issues related to global and scientific trends,
partnering, structure, management, and fundraising. An
external stakeholder consultation, facilitated by the Meridian
Institute, gathered feedback from more than 170 individuals
representing major constituencies, including the public sector
(primarily in developing countries), CGIAR Centers, advanced
research institutes, the private sector, non-governmental and
civil society organizations, farmers' groups, and development
agencies. Stakeholders, including CIMMYT staff, identified
likely changes in the context in which CIMMYT operates and
specified the Center's strengths, weaknesses, and
opportunities for change. Finally, CIMMYT developed several
alternative scenarios to catalyze creative thinking about how
the future might unfold and assess CIMMYT's strategy in light
of unexpected global developments.


This information was exchanged and debated virtually as well
as through two major meetings of CIMMYT's staff and trustees.
The discussions provided consensus on broad strategic
directions for the Center. Several drafts of CIMMYT's strategy
were widely circulated, internally and externally, for comment
and refinement.

We are confident that the present document reflects what
was learned and agreed upon during this intensive process,
which has already initiated considerable change within
CIMMYT. We appreciate the time and dedication that all
participants invested in strategic planning, given that everyone
sustained major commitments to research and other activities
at the same time. Many wrote sections of the plan and provided
insights that improved it. Their contributions made a
tremendous difference to the integrity of the final document.
We do not provide individual acknowledgements: the list would
be long and it would also be incomplete, because we wish to
respect the confidentiality of numerous colleagues who shared
their views with us.

This strategy does not set forth a formal research and financing
plan that will be followed rigorously in the coming years. Prior
to more extensive consultation with our partners, it would be
presumptuous to determine the details of our research agenda
or make assumptions about the resources available to finance
that agenda. What we present here is a vision of what we
wish to accomplish and how we wish to do so. We recognize
that a number of difficult choices lie ahead. Research resources
are finite. In concert with our partners, we must be extremely
selective in setting priorities among the activities we wish to
undertake. In the year to come, we will work with these
colleagues to devise research plans and implement
organizational practices to support the strategies described
here. This continued collaboration will provide a welcome
opportunity to further define, assess, and learn from the course
we are charting.


i o t
Chairman of the Board


--Director General
Director General










Executive Summary


1. Purpose of the strategy. In developing this strategy,
CIMMYT sought to examine the continuing relevance of
its mission, define how to position itself to meet the needs
for agricultural knowledge and technology over the next
10-15 years, and determine the most appropriate
organizational structure and operating modalities.

2. Analytical foundations. Considerable analytical work
supported the development of this strategy. On CIMMYT's
behalf, the Meridian Institute surveyed more than 170 of
CIMMYT's external stakeholders from all regions of the
world and from diverse constituencies, including the public
sector (primarily in developing countries), CGIAR Centers,
advanced research institutes, the private sector, non-
governmental and civil society organizations, farmers'
groups, and development agencies. Stakeholders analyzed
CIMMYT's future challenges and its current strengths and
weaknesses with respect to those challenges. In addition,
CIMMYT prepared a detailed assessment of global trends
projected to influence its work, convened task forces to
study scientific, organizational, and financial challenges,
held seminars on applications of new science, and
developed alternative scenarios to assess CIMMYT's
strategy in light of unexpected global developments. At
two major meetings, staff and trustees used much of this
information to come to consensus on the strategic
directions that CIMMYT should take. Based on this
consensus, additional work was undertaken to develop a
model for allocating research resources and to examine
alternatives for structuring research at CIMMYT. The
outcomes of these analyses and consultations are
encapsulated in CIMMYT's new mission and strategy.

3. Mission. CIMMYT revised its mission statement to
acknowledge the people who are central to its mission:
the poor, for whom maize and wheat research offers a
path out of poverty and environmental degradation. The
revised statement also emphasizes the importance of
partnerships for sharing knowledge, catalyzing innovation,
and making an impact:

CIMMYT acts as a catalyst and leader in a global
maize and wheat innovation network that serves
the poor in developing countries. Drawing on
strong science and effective partnerships, we
create, share, and use knowledge and technology
to increase food security, improve the productivity
and profitability of farming systems, and sustain
natural resources.


4. Elements of the strategy. To achieve its mission,
CIMMYT will rely on four sources or "seeds" of
innovation:
* A focus on people and livelihoods.
* A new innovation agenda that emphasizes global
and eco-regional priorities.
* Responsive partnerships and networks for
innovation and impact.
* A commitment to sharing and using knowledge for
innovation across scientific, institutional, and
national boundaries.

5. A focus on people and livelihoods. CIMMYT will
take a holistic approach in its research, focusing on
cropping systems in which maize and wheat are
important to people's livelihoods and have potential for
helping to alleviate poverty. We recognize that research
alone will not solve all of the problems that prevent
people from realizing a better future for themselves or
their children, but we are committed to ensuring that
the research of CIMMYT and its partners is as successful
as possible at contributing to better livelihoods.

As a conceptual framework to organize our research,
we propose using the continuum formed by two kinds
of livelihood systems: systems in which maize and wheat
provide food and nutritional security to rural
households, and those in which maize and wheat
generate income, foster economic growth, and alleviate
poverty.

We recognize that the two systems are not mutually
exclusive and that a mix of research strategies and
partnerships is needed to respond to the particular
challenges presented in different settings. We also
recognize that households producing maize or wheat
for subsistence may gain a significant income from other
crops, or they may receive remittances from family
members employed off of the farm. Conversely, many
households that sell some or all of their maize orwheat
production never earn enough to meet their basic
needs. The goal of our research is essentially to
empower people to choose: to remain in maize and
wheat production and make it more profitable; to
incorporate more stable maize and wheat production
into other, increasingly important livelihood strategies;
or to diversify out of maize and wheat entirely if this
makes the most socioeconomic sense.














6. Research agenda and structure. CIMMYT will
organize its work under a matrix formed by several broad,
thematic programs interacting with groups that have
similar disciplinary research interests. The thematic
programs will catalyze interdisciplinary research done in
collaboration with a wide range of partners. The programs
will maintain a clear focus on livelihoods and production
systems. The disciplinary groups will ensure continuing
scientific and professional excellence.

CIMMYT's major research programs will have either a
global or an eco-regional emphasis. Two global research
programs will focus on genetic resources and on global
and strategic research. They will reinforce research in four
eco-regional research programs: Sustaining African
livelihoods; rainfed systems; tropical ecosystems; and
irrigated, high-potential maize and wheat systems. The
geographic coverage of each program, its major
challenges, and its research emphasis, outputs, and
expected impacts are outlined in Chapter 3.

Each program will be carried out in collaboration with a
diversity of partners, including advanced research institutes,
national agricultural research and extension systems, non-
governmental organizations, farmers' associations, private
companies, and other CGIAR Centers. The precise details
of each research program, including activities, priorities,
and indicators of impact, will be determined in consultation
with these stakeholders. In many cases, CIMMYT already
has strong working relationships with the partners who
are essential to achieving a program's goals; in other cases,
relationships will be established where there are
complementarities and shared goals.

7. Projected impact. Within 10 years, CIMMYT and its
partners will deliver:
* An expanded, more useful, and far more accessible
collection of maize and wheat genetic resources.
* Policies to strengthen technology delivery and remove
constraints to adoption.
* A strong learning and mentoring service.
* Reduced vulnerability of poor households to drought,
infertile soils, diseases, insects, and other stresses,
through the use of new varieties and improved crop
management.
* Improved nutrition through the availability of maize
and wheat varieties with superior nutritional quality.
* Improved access to markets through varieties with
value-added traits.


* Expanded crop rotations and greater crop
diversification (including alternatives to maize or
wheat cultivation) to improve productivity,
profitability, and environmental sustainability.
* Resource-conserving technologies, together with
varieties specifically adapted to them.
* Substantial reductions in the use of water, fuel, and
other inputs in agriculture.
* Decision aids to help farmers use resource-conserving
practices.
* On-farm management of genetic diversity.
* More tools and methods for public agricultural
research, including a global, interactive portal to
knowledge on maize and wheat livelihood systems
in the developing world.

8. Principles for responsive partnering. CIMMYT
works with a wide international network of partners in
developing and industrialized countries. More than ever,
these partnerships are necessary for research to yield the
advances that poor people so desperately need, and for
the poor to benefit from them. This strategy cannot be
implemented without such partnerships. CIMMYT's
intention is to be a true partner in innovation, providing
products, services, information, and technical expertise.
Principles for partnering include:
* Engage in strategic partnerships for specific purposes.
* Engage in collective priority setting and shared
implementation.
* Emphasize equality in sharing resources,
contributions, accountability, and credit.
* Wherever possible, work in a network mode that
brings together multiple partners to solve complex
problems, with each partner contributing from its
particular area of expertise.
* Strengthen the capacity of partners so others can
take on new roles and create additional synergies;
devolve activities wherever possible.

9. Relations with specific partners. With respect to
specific groups of partners, CIMMYT will:
* Strengthen work with national agricultural research
and extension systems, CIMMYT's primary partners,
in broad alliances of diverse partners.
* Actively harmonize and integrate CIMMYT's efforts
with those of other CGIAR Centers, which have the
complementary expertise needed for widespread
impact.















* Continue to build relationships with private
foundations, which often provide resources to assess
and incorporate important new approaches to
research and capacity building.
* Expand relationships with non-governmental and
civil society organizations, especially in seed
production and delivery systems, seed relief, and
health initiatives.
* Establish more strategic and productive relationships
with the private sector and advanced research
institutes to strengthen research capacity and extend
research results to areas with less attractive markets.
* Maintain strong links with other international
development agencies and global and regional
development fora, especially with a view to
advocating policies and institutions that favor
sustainable development.

10. Adding value to partnerships and networks
through knowledge management. Networks and
partnerships become much more effective when careful
attention is given to how people create, manage, and
share knowledge. Through its partnerships, CIMMYTwill
attend to the whole cycle of knowledge management:
* Diagnose needs: Listen to farmers and other
partners.
* Provide access to essential knowledge for research.
SDevelop new technologies with partners.
* Share new technologies widely with other users.
* Carefully monitor adaptation and use of
technologies, to learn for future efforts.
* Understand that knowledge is created and used
through a complex system of multiple interacting
players and forces.

CIMMYT will further an organizational culture to
stimulate the acquisition, sharing, and evaluation of
knowledge.

11. Science-based advocacy. A wide range of
stakeholders advised CIMMYT to give greater attention
to its role as an advocate to ensure that research truly
fosters sustainable development. Building on a stronger
capacity for policy analysis, we will participate more fully
in the public debate on issues of importance to us, our
partners, and our stakeholders, with the goal of
influencing the process though which those issues are


addressed and resolved. Advocacy will be informed by
accurate, science-based information and analysis. We will
advocate only when we and our partners can offer
substantive, competent input; when there is a good
chance that by doing so we can increase the range of
choices available to our partners and to the poor; and
when advocacy is needed to turn research into impact.

12. Measuring impact. Impact studies will extend well
beyond current analyses to measure multiple effects of
the work of multiple partners on food security,
livelihoods, incomes, and the environment. We will
maintain rigorous guidelines for impact assessment and
incorporate them into every research initiative. We will
continue to invest in developing methods when needed.
By institutionalizing impact assessment in this way,
CIMMYT will generate the objective feedback needed
for effective self-assessment and accountability, expand
the knowledge base for impact assessment, promote a
strong impact assessment culture throughout the Center,
and strengthen its ability to become a true learning
organization.

13. Implementing the strategy through planning
and priority setting with stakeholders. A critical and
immediate step for implementing this strategywill be to
hold planning and priority setting meetings with
stakeholders. Many difficult choices remain ahead: the
proposed research agenda is broad, and in concert with
our partners, we will have to be extremely selective in
setting priorities and creating specific work plans.
Information from the planning meetings will also be
essential for CIMMYT to:
* Identify which partners well-positioned to undertake
specific activities more efficiently or effectively than
CIMMYT.
* Determine CIMMYT's overall research priorities and
resource allocations.
* Identify areas where new skills or a different
disciplinary balance are needed.
* Identify which new activities and resources are
required.

In developing the overall plan of work, CIMMYTwill pay
particular attention to opportunities for harmonizing its
efforts with those of other CGIAR Centers. The research
agenda will be implemented by a new management


Viii















team, working in the program/disciplinary matrix, and
equipped with "enabling strategies" for key activities
(e.g., funding, partnerships, advocacy, intellectual
property, communications, human resources
management, capacity building, and so forth).

14. Recreating CIMMYT as an integrated network
of research locations. Changes in how CIMMYTworks
across research locations are vital to implementing this
strategy. CIMMYT seeks to function as an integrated
network of worldwide research locations, each with
considerable autonomy (research leadership will not be
centralized at one location). Staff will be grouped at
any given location to create the appropriate critical mass
of scientific, development, and administrative skills to
better achieve our goals. In regular consultation with
stakeholders, these teams will act as catalysts for
innovation and information sharing-locally, in the
region, and throughout the world.

15. Shifting activities across locations. To be flexible
to serve those who need CIMMYT most, the size and
placement of CIMMYT's various research locations will
be dynamic. When it is efficient to do so, we will shift
activities across locations (for example, some of our more
advanced research initiatives will be housed in
laboratories in industrialized countries). Activities that
were once centralized may be distributed across
locations to be made more effective, such as the
development of locally adapted varieties. Other
activities, such as the ex situ conservation of genetic
resources and pre-breeding, will remain centralized to
be efficient and effective. A given location will engage
in downstream and upstream research to varying
degrees, depending on local needs and circumstances,
but most upstream research will be conducted through
links to partner institutions.

16. Promoting organizational change. Clearly, to
transform itself into the kind of organization envisioned
in this strategy, CIMMYT must be committed to working
in new ways. We must emphasize such practices as
participatory priority setting and planning, strategic
human resource management, critical interdisciplinary
dialogue, partnering for technology dissemination, and


analysis of impact from a systems and livelihoods
perspective. To support our new ways of working, we
will train staff, modify management practices, and
improve management information systems as well as
information and communications technology.

17. Assessing progress in implementing the
strategy. CIMMYT will conduct an overall external
evaluation of progress in early 2006 (allowing a two-
year interval for implementation). The evaluation will
gather external and internal stakeholders' perceptions
to assess progress towards the following goals:
* An increased focus on poverty reduction and natural
resource conservation in our research, framed in the
context of sustainable livelihoods.
* The use of more consultative approaches and
strategic partnerships to develop and execute the
research agenda, including the use of new
approaches to knowledge sharing.
* A more effective alignment of financial and human
resources in support of our research agenda.

18. Anticipating and adapting to change. Many of
the assumptions supporting this strategy are likely to
change over time. To prepare for a future of constant
and unpredictable change, CIMMYT will practice the
principles of continual organizational learning. We will
need a strong understanding of how a learning and
knowledge culture is directly tied to our mission, inspires
superior performance, and is the source of our strength
as an organization. To make these concepts a reality,
we will improve skills that foster collaboration and
learning across disciplines, cultures, and organizational
boundaries. Finally, to be a true learning organization,
CIMMYT must be self-critical, be willing to acknowledge
and learn from its shortcomings, and be self-correcting.
This plan already represents a significant paradigm shift,
in moving away from a crop and technology focus to a
people-centered livelihoods focus, and from a linear
understanding of technology dissemination to a non-
linear understanding of how farmers innovate and
systems change. Open and wide-ranging dialogue with
our allies and critics will ensure that CIMMYT continues
to tackle difficult questions in creative ways.














CIMMYT's Mission


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TEACHER, FARMER, FOUNDER
OF TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION
THROUGH RESEARCH
ORGANIZATIONS, AND
CIMMYT PARTNER




D The context for CIMMYT's strategy
In developing this strategy, CIMMYT sought to examine
the continuing relevance of its mission, define how to
position itself to meet the needs for agricultural
knowledge and technology over the next 10-15 years,
and determine the most appropriate organizational
structure and operating modalities.

The first task in this process was to undertake a thorough,
highly consultative assessment of the global challenges
and opportunities facing CIMMYT and its partners in
agricultural research and development (Box 1.1). Our
assessment of the dramatic changes that await us in
the next 10-15 years underpins all of our choices about
strategic directions.

0 Understanding the shifting landscape in
which we work
When CIMMYT came into being in 1966, the structure
of DNA had been known for only 13 years. Agricultural
research on staple food crops was largely conducted by
the public sector in industrialized countries, and
international development was the domain of a handful
of institutions. Although famine posed a serious human
and political threat in Asia, the notion of establishing
an international research consortium to cope with the
food crisis had not gained momentum. The "global


village" was a newborn vision, not a reality. Most of the
world's people still lived and died in traditional villages,
submerged in local concerns. Breeders in CIMMYT's
predecessor organization had redesigned the wheat plant
for a quantum leap in yield, but the world was largely
unaware of the potential impact of this research (Box 1.2.,
p. 4). The Green Revolution had yet to occur.

Today's "globalizing village" still confronts poverty, hunger,
malnutrition, ill health, and conflict, but many things have
changed, including the pace of change itself.

SThe world's understanding of the nature of
poverty and global inequality has deepened. The
links between economic policy (specifically agricultural
subsidies) in industrialized countries and rural poverty
in developing countries are increasingly clear.
Perceptions of the food crisis have changed as well.
Factors such as civil conflict, disease (HIV/AIDS in
particular), and gender inequality combine with
biophysical threats such as climate change and natural
resource degradation to imperil the well-being of the
rural poor. The global supply of food may be adequate,
but hundreds of millions of people remain hungry
because they lack purchasing power and access to food.
Poor access to markets for crop inputs and sales limits
farmers' opportunities as much as poor access to
technology. Productivity increases in maize- and wheat-
based farming systems are not enough to raise most
farm families out of poverty. New income-generating
activities, both on and off of the farm, must enter into
their livelihood strategies.

SThe understanding of how agricultural
development occurs has become more
sophisticated. The linear, top-down model of
technology transfer has been superseded by an
appreciation that farmers selectively incorporate new
ideas and tools into their practices to meet multiple
objectives. Whether the "improved" technology is
conservation agriculture or family planning, the
participation of end-users in the design, adaptation,
and use of technology is recognized as essential to
making an impact.












Analytical

foundations for

CIMMYT's strategy



Many of CIMMYT's partners, stakeholders, staff, and Board
members were consulted over the past year to clarify potential
challenges and opportunities for the Center We began by
interviewing or surveying more than 170 external stakeholders
from diverse constituencies (national agricultural research
services, CGIAR Centers, advanced research institutes, the
private sector, donor agencies, and farmers' groups) and all
regions of the world. Respondents discussed CIMMYT's future
challenges and the Center's strengths and weaknesses in
addressing these challenges (CIMMYT 2004c). We prepared a
detailed analysis of global trends projected to influence our
work (CIMMYT 2004b). We convened task forces to discuss
scientific, organizational, and financial challenges and held
seminars on applications of new science. A congruency analysis
(Appendix 1) provided information to initiate discussion on
allocating resources by crop and region.

After reviewing several respected scenario-building efforts, we
also engaged in scenario building. By describing plausible but
sharply contrasting futures, scenarios help institutions question
assumptions about the future and respond effectively when
major changes occur Although we do not claim to be experts
at building scenarios, we believe that they can help us to create
an organization that will be more resilient and adept at
responding to rapid and unpredictable change.

The four scenarios developed by CIMMYT were defined by the
matrix arising from four forces that could fundamentally alter
global development to 2020: trends towards lesser or greater
equity and sustainability, and an emphasis on global ("one
world") principles versus an emphasis on regional and local
diversity. Figure 1.1 depicts the matrix and the four scenarios
that emerged:

A world of INTERCROPPING, with global governance
systems and greater equity and sustainability
A world of GARDENS, with regional diversity and greater
equity and sustainability
A MONOCULTURE world, with global governance systems
and less equity and sustainability
A SLASH&BURN world, with regional fragmentation and
less equity and sustainability

We assumed that five driving forces would have similar effects
across these scenarios and be difficult to alter through human
intervention in the next 20 years: climate change, the quantity


and quality of the natural resource base, demographics
(including migration and health), baseline trends in food supply
and demand, and global trends in basic science and
technology. Other driving forces were likely to have different
effects under each scenario, however: governance and
institutions; economic development; agricultural, food, and
trade policies; development and environmental policies; human
capital; intellectual property agreements; and priorities for
agricultural research and development. Information gathered
from the analysis of global trends contributed significantly to
our understanding of how these driving forces might play out
under each scenario.

Once the outlines of the scenarios were clear, we explored
the potential implications of each scenario for CIMMYT by
asking several questions: Who and where are our stakeholders/
partners in this scenario? What products and services do they
require? Under these circumstances, what balance of activities
is most appropriate for CIMMYT? What are the best
mechanisms for developing and delivering our products and
services? What changes can we expect in global trends,
partners and networks, science, and funding prospects? What
are the implications for how CIMMYT is structured? The
scenarios and our conclusions are detailed in CIMMYT (2004a).

The scenario-building effort supported the development of
this strategy by encouraging us to consider new ways of
working and a new structure to accommodate unexpected
change. If scenario building is to lead to true scenario planning
at CIMMYT, however, we must use and re-evaluate the
information from the scenarios when we periodically re-assess
the strategic directions described here.


Figure 1.1. Four scenarios of global development.











The case for CIMMYT

and international

agricultural research


CIMMYT grew out of a pilot program in Mexico in 1943,
sponsored by the Government of Mexico and the Rockefeller
Foundation. The world had seen what expertise in plant
breeding had accomplished for the USA in the wake of
widespread crop failure, hunger, and poverty during the Great
Depression. Could similar expertise benefit Mexico and other
nations?

The pilot program developed into an innovative, sustained
collaboration with Mexican and international researchers. It
established international networks to test experimental
varieties. One of its researchers, Norman Borlaug, developed
shorter wheat varieties that put more energy into grain
production and responded better to fertilizer than older
varieties. By the late 1950s, Mexico was self-sufficient in wheat
production. Mexico's success inspired the program's
researchers to become fierce and effective advocates for the
Mexican innovation model in other countries. In 1966, having
survived one poor harvest but facing another, India took the
extraordinary step of importing 18,000 tons of wheat seed
from Mexico. The first evidence of success was the Indian
wheat harvest of 16.5 million tons in 1968, compared with
11.3 million tons in 1967. Pakistan also began importing
Mexican wheats. These two countries doubled wheat
production between 1966 and 1971 (Hanson et al. 1982).
The Green Revolution-which had by now extended to rice-
had begun.

The social and economic achievements of the Green
Revolution were recognized worldwide when the Nobel Peace
Prize was awarded to Norman Borlaug in 1970. The following


year, a small cadre of development organizations, national
sponsors, and private foundations organized the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(CGIAR) to spread the impact of research to more crops
and nations.

It is widely acknowledged that this visionary investment
made a tremendous difference in developing countries. In
the absence of the CGIAR Centers, crop yields in developing
countries would have been 19.5-23.5% lower; prices for
food crops would have been 35-66% higher; imports would
be 27-30% higher; calorie intake would have been 13.3-
14.4% lower; and 32-42 million more children would have
been malnourished (Evenson and Gollin 2003). We can only
imagine the social costs of such a scenario. Lower food
prices have extended the benefits of agricultural research
widely, to poor consumers in urban areas and landless
people in rural areas (and even to the industrialized world).

The achievements of CIMMYT's maize and wheat
improvement networks have been central to the CGIAR's
impact (Heisey et al. 2002, 2003; Morris 2002; Morris et
al. 2003). Improved maize and wheatvarieties and cropping
practices have enabled poorfarm households to withstand
the effects of unpredictable weather, poor soils, diseases,
pests, and other debilitating stresses that threaten crops
and livelihoods. The continued work of CIMMYT within
the CGIAR will contribute to achieving the United Nations
Millennium Development Goals to halve poverty and hunger
by 2015. The strategies described here place CIMMYT at
the service of these ambitious goals.


WHAT IS NEEDED ARE VENTURESOME
SCIENTISTS WHO CAN WORK ACROSS
DISCIPLINES TO PRODUCE APPROPRIATE
TECHNOLOGIES AND WHO HAVE THE COURAGE
TO MAKE THEIR CASE WITH POLITICAL
LEADERS TO BRING THESE ADVANCES TO
FRUITION.-NORMAN BORLAUG










IDEAS WORLDWIDE ARE
CHANGING WITH REGARD TO


* Several major environmental and social trends
have implications for the future of agriculture.
Natural resource degradation has increased. A particular
concern is the increased scarcity and reduced quality of
water for agriculture, occasioned by climate change as
well as growing competition for water from other
sectors. Rural emigration and the growth of cities also
have consequences for the future of agriculture and the
kinds of technology needed in farming communities.
Urban demand for food will grow significantly, while
the availability of good agricultural land and rural labor
will probably decline. In many parts of the world, HIV/
AIDS will cut deeply into the rural labor force. In this
context, how can agricultural technologies-specifically,
improved maize and wheat varieties and crop and
natural resource management practices-contribute to
reducing poverty and hunger? Farmers will require
varieties that use inputs such as water, soil nutrients,
and labor more effectively, that perform well in low-
input environments, and that resist pests and diseases,
which may proliferate with climate change and
agricultural intensification. Future breeding efforts will
need to focus not only on traits that improve productivity
but on traits that enhance nutritional quality (especially
micronutrient and amino acid content) and processing
quality, which will make maize and wheat competitive
in local, national, and international markets.

Improved varieties alone are unlikely to lead to significant
productivity increases in maize- and wheat-based
farming systems, however. Natural resource degradation
is widespread in most regions, and current farming
practices are not sustainable. Farmers will require help
in developing and adopting management practices that
permit much greater water-use efficiency and allow
sustainable intensification of cropping systems where
the natural resource base permits. New technologies will
need to be more efficient in the use of physical inputs
and labor, more profitable, and more adaptable to
complex livelihood systems that include livestock, other
agricultural enterprises, and employment off of the farm.

SThe gene revolution has superseded the Green
Revolution as the great (but controversial) hope
for solving intractable agricultural problems. In 10
years' time-CIMMYT's medium-term planning
horizon-sequencing of the cereal genomes will increase
the prospects for overcoming barriers to breeding maize
and wheat with better nutritional quality, yield, and


THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
CENTERS, AND MANY
STAKEHOLDERS REFLECTED
THAT "REAL CHANGE" IS
NECESSARY FOR CIMMYT TO
SURVIVE AND CONTINUE ITS
HISTORY AS A HIGHLY
SUCCESSFUL
ORGANIZATION.-SUMMARY
OF MERIDIAN INSTITUTE
REPORT ON STAKEHOLDERS'
PERCEPTIONS OF CIMMYT






resistance to stresses. The challenge for CIMMYT and some
of its partners in national agricultural research programs
will be to remain influential players in this research domain
to ensure that poor farmers have access to the benefits of
breakthrough technologies. CIMMYT and its partners have
an obligation to pay close attention to the social acceptance
of technologies such as transgenics (which may vary
depending on the transgenic trait in question, not to
mention who "controls" the material or technology), as
well as to the crafting of biosafety regulations that protect
both biodiversity and end-users.

The information revolution has as much potential as
the gene revolution to change the research, policy,
and farm landscape. Vast quantities of data will become
available for analysis, from the molecular to the planetary
level (e.g., soil mapping through satellite imagery). Equally
important will be new tools to interpret and combine these
data, leading for example to a better understanding of the
effects of a particular combination of plant variety,
biophysical conditions, and farmer management practices.
Advances in communications technology hold unknown
potential for making knowledge available.

















* The international development community has
grown and diversified. It now encompasses a
multitude of organizations, from modest village
cooperatives to global networks of non-governmental
and civil society organizations (NGOs and CSOs) and
large development banks. Programs such as the United
Nations Millennium Development initiative are
consolidating global commitment to sustainable human
development, while promoting a more coordinated
approach to achieving this goal. The agenda for
agricultural research and development has broadened
as well, in recognition of the links between food, poverty,
conflict, environmental issues, biodiversity, gender,
empowerment, and social equity. CIMMYT and its public-
sector partners will need to strengthen ties to a host of
new actors, not only in the food sector, but in health,
the environment, and in economic development.

SThe roster of players in the field of agricultural
research has changed. The promise of biotechnology
and the shield of intellectual property protection have
led to a boom in private-sector research oriented towards
commercial production. At the same time, support for
public agricultural research has declined in real terms in
developing countries and in international agricultural
research centers. The "rules of the game" are also being
rewritten, dominated by the changing role of intellectual
property protection and its unknown implications for
public-sector research and poor farmers' access to new
technologies. Opportunities for stronger, more
complementary cooperation between the private and
public sectors are emerging, and the impetus for greater
collaboration and efficiency within the public sector itself,
including the CGIAR Centers, is growing as well. The
agreement to share access to "golden rice" technology
is a model for future public- and private-sector
partnerships. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic
Resources for Food and Agriculture, and the recent
announcement by a consortium of US universities,
foundations, and non-profit research institutions that
they will adopt measures to ensure that publicly funded
research products remain in the public domain, are two
additional examples of changing rules. More are
sure to come.


The report summarizing feedback from CIMMYT's
external stakeholders (CIMMYT 2004c) ended with the
following conclusions, drawn by the Meridian Institute
team that facilitated the consultation:

Ideas worldwide are changing with regard to the
role of international agricultural research centers,
and many stakeholders reflected that "real
change" is necessary for CIMMYT to survive and
continue its history as a highly successful
organization. They would like to see CIMMYT take
this opportunity to move beyond discussion of
new strategies and take the actions necessary to
remain relevant and successful in a changing
world.

CIMMYT took this message to heart in assessing new
ways to fulfill its mandate with respect to two of the
world's most important crops, in a time of growing and
unpredictable change.

0 Maize and wheat in the developing world
Maize and wheat account for a large share of the calories
consumed in developing countries (Figure 1.2) and
occupyjust over 190 million hectares (FAO 2003). These
two crops are pivotal to nutrition, health, income,
environmental sustainability, and overall development
of low-income countries. Aside from their value for
sustainable development, both crops possess a deep
cultural significance and are preferred foods for many of
the world's people.

The international maize and wheat improvement
network formed by CIMMYT and its partners spans the
developing world, including areas where poverty is severe
and where maize and wheat account for half of the
calories consumed every day in poor households (Map
1.1). This network, built on decades of germplasm
exchange, is a strong foundation for innovation that
links local, regional, and global perspectives.

Maize has an extensive geographical reach, growing
from sea level to elevations exceeding 3,000 meters;
from the equator to above 50 north and south (well
beyond the tropics and subtropics); and in cold, hot,

















rainy, and dry areas (Dowswell et al. 1996). Wheat is
found "from within the Arctic Circle to higher elevations
near the equator," from sea level to elevations of 4,000
meters in Peru and Bolivia, and in most areas where it
can receive from 250 to 1,750 mm of water (Curtis 2002;
P. Wall, pers. comm.).

Table 1.1 presents statistics on maize and wheat
production, consumption, and trade. A major trend that
is not highlighted in Table 1.1 is the rapidly growing
demand for maize as livestock feed worldwide, especially
in Asia. China will become a major maize importer
because of its rapidly growing livestock industry. Niche
markets are likely to emerge for certain types of specialty
maize (including maize with suitable industrial
characteristics and maize with improved nutritional
quality) if appropriate varieties become available and the
necessary market structures develop. These markets


Map 1.1 Human poverty distribution and the
international maize and wheat improvement
network.


Figure 1.2. Daily per capital caloric intake of the
10 most important food crops in developing
countries, 1999-2001.
Source: FAO (2003).


B
53 ur.
r
*L~4s


m +oms


UNDP Human
Poverty Index
0-5
5-10
10-15
15-20
X, 40
40 W
0-M
Vlis-ys


* .1
,+


% i
U I


(higher
numbers
indicate
greater
poverty)


"ot
I


* Wheat partner locations E Maize partner locations


Note: Based on the high correlation of UNDP's Human Development Index (HDI) (UNDP 2000) with its Poverty Index (r2 = 0.98), missing
human poverty values for some countries were calculated using the HDI value, available for most countries, in the following regression
equation [HPI=82.036-(90.925*HDI)].


Wheat
2Q9%


Maize
11% Cassava 3%
Sorghum 3%
k Potatoes 2%
Sweet Potatoes 2%
Millet 2%
Beans 1% I Soybeans 2%


1 *'
VLp~


K'


i
4 5.5%^^


















could be important for small-scale farmers, who could
produce a differentiated product thatwould not compete
with the cheaper maize produced by the largest
producers.

Table 1.1. Maize and wheat facts.
lu 11 3o


Number of developing
countries growing the crop
Leading producers in
developing world
(million metric tons)
Highest per capital
consumption for food
(kilograms per capital
per year)
Percentage traded worldwide
Leading exporters
(million metric tons) Ai
Percentage of food imports
into developing countries
Percentage of food aid to
developing countries
Source: FAO (2003).
Note: na = not available.


China:
Brazil:
Mexico:
Lesotho:
Malawi:


118
117.3
33.6
18.3
145
135


13
USA: 46.3
rgentina: 10.6
28

na


China:
India:
Turkey:
Tunisia:
Algeria:



USA:
Canada:


71
108.1
70.4
19.5
208 kg
198 kg


19
26.9
17.8
43

6


D CIMMYT's enduring strengths
Consultations with our stakeholders confirmed that
CIMMYT occupies a special niche among the many
institutions and actors in global agricultural research and
development. Our strengths will continue to be the
cornerstone of our work (Box 1.3., p. 10):

* As steward of the world's largest collections of maize
and wheat genetic resources, we have a unique
responsibility for conserving those resources and
increasing their usefulness to people and the
environment.
* The knowledge, expertise, and effectiveness that we
bring to international plant breeding-and our


improved maize and wheat varieties themselves-will
play an important role in helping people to survive
the vagaries of an increasingly unpredictable physical
and economic environment.
SOur experience and understanding of the complex
dynamics of agricultural systems will guide the
development of technologies that include appropriate
mixes of improved maize and wheat varieties,
environmental and crop management practices, and
socioeconomic and policy recommendations, all
adapted to particular eco-regions and human systems.
SOur extensive network of partners, which transcends
borders and sectors, will continue to provide a forum
for setting priorities, collaborating on research that
leads to impact, building capacity, gaining feedback
from stakeholders and beneficiaries, and multiplying
the impact of our work and that of our partners.

SCIMMYT's core values
What values and qualities will motivate CIMMYT as it
pursues its mission?

One quality that is particularly important in CIMMYT's
work isstewardship-the responsible care and use of the
world's natural resources, including genetic diversity,
water, and soils.

Because CIMMYT and its partners conduct research whose
results are intended to be useful in people's lives, one of
our primary values is pragmatism, which we define as a
practical, realistic, and collaborative approach to setting
priorities and achieving the challenging goals described
in this strategy.

Because CIMMYT values the ability to work with others
to achieve results, partnership and participation are among
our core values. Science depends on effective
collaboration, and our vision for the future can be
achieved only through successful partnerships,
characterized by knowledge, learning, communication,
and respect for the skills, contributions, and diversity of
others.

















Because CIMMYT and its partners value the ability to
achieve results and provide enduring solutions to poor
people's problems in the shortest possible time, CIMMYT
also values innovation, quality, 'ie- i':./ir and urgency in
its research.

CIMMYT is also highly motivated by a sense of
accountability to the people who support our research,
to our partners, to our peers in the sciences, and most
of all to the people who can benefit from the products
of our research, now and in the future.

0 Conclusion: A new mission
CIMMYT's current mission is to alleviate poverty by
increasing the profitability, productivity, and sustainability
of maize and wheat systems in developing countries.
This mission statement is accurate but fails to
acknowledge the people who are central to CIMMYT's
mission: the poor, for whom maize and wheat research
offers a path out of poverty and environmental
degradation. The current statement also underplays the
importance of CIMMYT's many partners, who are vital
for sharing knowledge, catalyzing innovation, and
making an impact. We propose a new mission statement
that articulates this point more forcefully:

CIMMYT acts as a catalyst and leader in a global
maize and wheat innovation network thatserves the
poor in developing countries. Drawing on strong
science and effective partnerships, we create, share,
and use knowledge and technology to increase food
security, improve the productivity and profitability
of farming systems, and sustain natural resources.

CIMMYT's strategy for accomplishing this mission rests
on four sources or "seeds" of innovation:

The heart of the strategy: A focus on sustainable
livelihoods for the world's resource-poor maize and
wheat producers and consumers-putting the needs
of people first.


STAKEHOLDERS BELIEVED
THAT CIMMYT'S RECOGNIZED
SUCCESS IN COMBATING
HUNGER...AFFORDS IT A
GREAT DEAL OF LEVERAGE IN
FORMING PARTNERSHIPS,
RECRUITING NEW TALENT,
AND...SETTING THE TONE FOR
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
AND DEVELOPMENT.
-SUMMARY OF MERIDIAN
INSTITUTE REPORT ON
STAKEHOLDERS
PERCEPTIONS OF CIMMYT




* The mind of the strategy:An innovation agenda
that emphasizes interdisciplinary research to address
global and eco-regional priorities.
* The muscle of the strategy:A broad and growing
set of partnerships and networks that will enable
us to stay attuned and responsive to the needs of
poor people and ensure the impact of all partners'
efforts to promote sustainable human
development.
* The spirit of the strategy: Careful attention to
the full cycle of innovation and the sharing and
use of knowledge across scientific, institutional, and
national boundaries.

The chapters that follow elaborate on each of these
"seeds of innovation." Although each one is described
separately, in practice all four will be woven together
and brought to life through CIMMYT's new
organizational structure. As the following chapters will
demonstrate, in putting the livelihoods of poor people
first, CIMMYT will change its approach to research for
development. The next chapter explains how this
"people first" perspective informs our strategy.











Building on strengths and

fostering emerging competencies

for the "new CIMMYT"


This publication describes many changes, large and small,
that will help CIMMYT to achieve its mission. It is often the
nature of strategies to focus on change, sometimes creating
the perception that nothing in the past is worth preserving.
That is not the spirit in which this strategy was conceived.
Our intention is to build on our strengths and foster emerging
competencies to further our mission.

CIMMYT will build on the following strengths:
* Our humanitarian mission to serve the poor in
developing countries.
SA global mandate and global experience in maize and
wheat research.
* Stewardship over the largest collections of maize and
wheat genetic resources.
* Excellence in science, the use of cutting-edge crop
improvement methods, a problem-focused, results-
oriented approach, and delivery of intermediate and
advanced products.
SSystems-oriented, sustainable crop and resource
management research.
SPragmatic and empirical training to create a close-knit
family of alumni and colleagues.
SA global network of partnerships, especially with public
agricultural research institutes.

Building on our strengths does not mean that we will
continue to do exactly the same things in exactly the same
way. We expect that the relative importance of these
strengths will change over time. They will also grow to
support new aspects of our work and benefit from new
approaches (for example, in setting priorities). The number
of players involved will expand, and they will have different
relationships to one another. These changes will necessitate
further changes not only in what we do, but especially in
how we do it.

CIMMYT will foster emerging competencies in the
following areas:
* Focus on people. We will give greater attention to
improving livelihoods in communities in which maize
and wheat underpin the socio-economic fabric. We will
measure our success not only by the excellence of the
technologies we develop, but also in terms of the impact
of those technologies on the livelihoods of the poor.


* Methods foraddressing increasing complexity in the systems
where we work. We will improve our ability to address
increasingly complex problems associated with maize and
wheat production systems. We will give greater attention to
interactions between agriculture, diet, nutrition, and health;
off-farm sources of income; access to markets; and the
relationship between agriculture and the environment.
SExpanded circle of partnerships. We will forge links with
new partners who share our mission of developing science-
based solutions to agricultural problems. We will develop
alliances with new partners in civil society and the private
sector, especially those who excel in new areas of research
or in reaching the poor.
SKnowledge management. We will strengthen our capacity
to facilitate global flows of information and knowledge,
which will become increasingly importantfor enhancing the
usefulness of the germplasm, crop and resource
management practices, and research methods developed
with our partners.
SAdvocacy In its early days, CIMMYT engaged in advocacy
to further the impact of research. Effective science, advocacy,
and partnerships made the Green Revolution possible. We
will return to (and foster) this area of our work to advocate
change with respect to strategically important issues related
to maize and wheat.

By adapting our current strengths to the increasingly complex
and challenging environment in which research and development
take place, we will continue to learn, gain new insights, assess
new solutions, and respond more quickly to emerging demands
and challenges.



PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN TO
CIMMYT GENERALLY HAVE
ONE THING IN COMMON: THEIR
DEDICATION AND WILLINGNESS
TO DO WHATEVER IT TAKES TO
GET THE JOB DONE.-JORGE
COLONEL, ECUADOR, INIAP
AGRICULTURALIST AND
CIMMYT PARTNER














































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Poverty

and the

environment



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Su i'.'I i. ': e ,: it i r in rn'ii r r l..
V ':, r,'.z r-ri'-' l:',,*r f" tM ,y d, '.Iii lrrw ; l,,,'ur

.'.tt n In'.-u cn I tec-i :hrnolo", ifi tfhar t
,+n _r.1_ -,n._1t ra idly ,p -,h i nt trht
rIT' nuicli T r_ i i r., i c. f)ri, h l. c, r l it t9

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.:,n, r.' n pr' .1 :, 3.:t,.:q- g r ter l ,:arinij tor ,. ,,ct
II: cultil.J. Ion, 01 tied Il J'_e toI hI citing
raln,. ;*ter i but the tr:lrnc'ologi,1 rru t L-
sttem', niei l ., r ,ltiable t, k:rb f ," utrtr't Pe-'opl
',ho ,:l r. ni '.',', nr tHin 1 in:i thl'e ti nii- ,,', hich
is5 '.tten the '.:ir for or'e' n-In a be
par:Ic .larl' I elu:tan to ir''e;t in rin, pl .q : ti :t
that 'yield' ri. irrirne :l1tr 'enrfut

ra l i r T u t be ,:c: rritte :l t. t tle'.',l,:pi:n,



imianaiq menti i t thenn i .i l An d heit ':ropj
''h 'i i' :. ipnt, F 't l : m million ecT z
dea el:,pi, g n tri FpC r'c',; t. i II n i- e1ntl,;
i tluen,:c_ the ..Jer ll health ...t the npgtur .:l
re.:nJ.ir:_,e th t u t rin ,i Qrl.:.jltui e


Poverty and livelihoods
l .-I-Ii t I. : i I t i: iii ,n I I : i n, III II I I
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Wherever and whoever they ai- th- I:... ..i
depend heavily on cereal crops, inclI. r ,li I 11111 -
and wheat, for income and nutrition i-, :
p 14). Urban or rural, they all have 1i iil.
in the future of these crops.

D A holistic approach to
understanding livelihood
systems
As a conceptual framework to *
organize our research, we propose
using the continuum formed by t '
kinds of livelihood systems: systemrr: I- lI.:1
maize and wheat provide food i i--I 1tn, ti. I1ni l 111
security to rural households, and th, I- : in liI
and wheat generate income, foster ':. -i niii.: 'ii tl iil-I
alleviate poverty.

For the sake of brevity, we refer t. tl-:h. 1 i : t,
and "income-generating" systeii: l.it tli-,,i i ,i. 1ii ii.
broader than these somewhat re tii.: t.-,ii-: ii ,:i
Generally speaking, as one moves al. ini:i til- .:i Intin.i.ii nI ti, i n
more subsistence-oriented housel-i.I.l: t,, n, ,- i.:, --
oriented households, livelihood :i it. .:]i I -. -,,: -,i ,,
market-oriented, activities generate ii i : i:i 1-i .: n- i
households become less vulnerable to poverty. Households
located at different points along the continuum represent
different sets of needs, which call for different interventions,
often from different sets of partners.

The two systems are not mutually exclusive. A great many
households grow maize or wheat partly for home
consumption and partly for sale. For most households in the
middle of the continuum, the relative emphasis given to each
objective varies from year to year, depending on decisions
taken within the household and factors emanating from
outside (including the vagaries of weather, input and
commodity prices, and the availability of storage facilities
and market infrastructure.)

Although households in subsistence systems tend to be less
wealthy than those in income-generating systems, the mix
of subsistence and income-generating activities pursued by
a given household is not a reliable guide to the level of poverty


A,,




rr
.1a lekr, d t -Iti.- i d 1r
r4 la 1n(; ,rI hjeji;l; J ~ E;,r




t~0
9di,,;~~
EI:I
i p t a
'in ~, ~ Iii ;

--n' :,n
ati 0~~C2~B~~


H.. .. : :,

it tIII i l. ...I :
. th .:.t t I ..: t ..I t I iiii1,
members employed off of the farm. Conversely,
many households that sell some or all of their maize
or wheat production never earn enough to meet their basic
needs. The goal of the research that CIMMYT undertakes
with its partners is to empower people to choose: to remain
in maize and wheat production and make it more profitable;
to incorporate more stable maize and wheat production
into other, increasingly important livelihood strategies (e.g.,
livestock production, cash cropping, or non-agricultural
enterprises); or to diversify out of maize and wheat entirely
if this makes the most socio-economic sense.

Below we summarize the predominant research needs of
farm households in the two types of systems. Although
the discussion that follows focuses on maize and wheat,
the systems in which these crops are grown often involve
multiple crops produced in complex rotations, and this
agricultural diversity is reflected in the range of economic
and environmental issues that these systems present.














Poverty,

hunger, and

malnutrition


1M lnO, Iur I;heId p r.ple 'I- Ilby ,Tev -ji :. ;.:i lght
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pilroild-rt'm ,l'hl:h I urlth- r r rdu,:- ; th 1i1t T t-1 tI-
-Irlt r,' F. .,r- hi l -art 11 :, J Idu, lll, w l, t d Ilt
h' e : i z t i ii p rt ip I.d I' I I I dt i
,thtr n. e i rning l i n ,'n'r,

:l.L .1 1iT *,,i| l ,:.:,nt n r t,:, n uidd re '-s
ttr.,_lnuti itl..n ilir t O .' d pi l .. ij d ..n

;:';trr by ,:- ,l t pirng i t riirniq t: rn'is thdt
I ''J. id mnor nui.iritiou; to.] or highrI
in,. m e, t,:, I"u ,:h :e, it The |:,,tenri, al t,,
i pr r .' hu m an nu i r i t I I ti r i ,ou h pln I t r t
bi:, 'ding ,ppe r; lnrg,-' IT is e tir,-,tedt Thit
the pre',.alen.:c : .: emT ;.a.,uld Ie i, ,- l .-: d
by 1 '.: '. i ting ..i- tin I m million
: ':I; of iron d i':i .:',' rc -h ar- it ir r n-
b'i''t'.[ tiTi d '.:r'[ *.i- .: .nsium ed '.:.
,.. the_: popular h,..n in d'-.'el pi, c'.,. 'tilr #
I.l.uT ind IFPRI ii0 Thi ar o0t ci a ch
,ill itvn,: ,:,-nj. id -, I, th -ou h CIl clr T ,Q
P.irlh.: p l i n inr H ,I e I F'lu', s :' I t R
I. h ,_IllenI'I 1- F'r,.., l l i t.. :i r te : r.ps t. I. Itel
i I1r itlOrl


Systems in which maize and wheat underpin
food and nutritional security in rural households


:,. ll i i t : Ii .. I 1,. 11 I dI I: T In 1, l l Int Ii i: i I ,t l fi-It
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tI-- -l, ,i' 11 -1iiit i :iti:.Ii ,l II Ii -i ':: t- I I IIi-i ll:,: r

[i: .Ii -- I II'i I ,III- ,. i 'iI :' 1 :" ,- i. li: I ,i1-, i tI[:. I


i. I ,l, I ti.l,, i 1 il it i it I i n I: ,I 1 t II tI:.I It
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I nt ,, ,: 1,: ~ ,n t-: : It ,tI: ,, : t I.--














D Systems in which maize and wheat
generate income, foster economic growth, and
alleviate poverty
Improvements to income-generating maize and wheat
production systems help poor farm households to pay for
such things as education and health care and to accumulate
assets that buffer the impact of external shocks such as
drought, flooding, or the sickness or loss of family members.
Such improvements contribute to national (rural and urban)
food and nutritional security, macro-economic growth, and
overall poverty reduction. CIMMYT focuses on small-scale
commercial farmers, who have few resources and experience
great difficulty participating effectively in markets. They often
suffer from a competitive disadvantage and have limited
access to new technology. CIMMYT also works directly with
medium- and large-scale farmers when such work helps to
achieve the objectives of alleviating poverty, conserving
natural resources, and improving the sustainability of
agriculture, but most often we reach those farmers only
indirectly.

Most income-generating agriculture requires technologies
that promote highly productive, profitable production.
Resource-conserving crop management technologies, such
as zero and minimum tillage and bed planting, can contribute
greatly to the long-term productivity, profitability, and
sustainability of many intensively cultivated commercial
maize and wheat production systems. Income security is
improved when improved maize and wheat varieties yield
well and meet the increasingly stringent quality standards
demanded by industrial users. Aside from showing good
resistance to diseases and pests and tolerance of abiotic
stresses, these varieties must respond to increased levels of
management. To diminish vulnerability to climate change
and new stresses, it is essential to develop and disseminate
genetically diverse varieties within and between regions.

The mere existence of improved technology does not lead
automatically to benefits at the farm level. Farmers also
require an efficient and reliable marketing system that allows
them to purchase inputs and sell outputs at fair and
remunerative prices. When such a marketing system is
lacking, policy interventions may be necessary to create
economic incentives for commercial farmers to invest in
improved technology. Appropriatelytargeted policy research
can generate the information to devise such interventions.


MALNUTRITION
IS...IMPLICATED IN
MORE THAN HALF OF
THE 11 MILLION
DEATHS OF CHILDREN
UNDER FIVE IN
DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES.-UNICEF


D Conclusion: Framing new research
programs, partnerships, and ways of
sharing knowledge
This summary has outlined the diverse roles that maize
and wheat production play in the livelihoods of the
poor throughout the developing world. This diversity
has implications for how research is organized to
address poverty and food security (rural and urban),
hunger, and natural resource conservation. It also has
implications for the kinds of partnerships, networks,
and knowledge sharing that are required to meet
farmers' needs.

We recognize that research alone will not solve all of
the problems that prevent people from realizing a better
future for themselves or their children, but we are
committed to ensuring that the research of CIMMYT
and its partners is as successful as possible at
contributing to better livelihoods. To address this
challenge, CIMMYTwill organize its research to:

* Become more successful in addressing both
dimensions of the livelihoods framework: food
insecurity and income insecurity.
* Learn from commonalities in the biophysical and
socioeconomic context in which maize and wheat
are produced.
* Capture technology spillovers, so that innovations
developed for use with one crop or in one region
can be put to use with other crops or in other
regions (for example, spillovers from marginal to
favored areas and vice versa, and across research
programs and regions).

The next chapter describes more specifically how
CIMMYT proposes to organize its research to
accomplish these tasks.













Which poor people will

CIMMYT work for?




Poverty is not a uniform condition. No organization can
help all poor people in exactly the same way or to the
same extent. To make effective use of its resources,
CIMMYT must carefully target its efforts.

CIMMYT will focus on regions in which maize and
wheat, together or separately, are important to people's
livelihoods and have potential for helping to alleviate
poverty and sustain the environment, especially sub-
Saharan Africa and Asia. Our work will respond to the
challenges faced by small-scale, resource-poor farmers,
whose needs are typically overlooked by the private
sector or other technology providers. We will work with
people who are poor but nevertheless have access to
sufficient assets to benefit from our work or to help
others benefit. From a practical standpoint, it is
important to recall that most rural communities, even
those classified as "poor," include a range of wealth
classes. "Wealthier" individuals often determine who
has access to community members, so in practice it is
not always possible to work exclusively with the poorest
community members. (In fact, the poorest of the poor
in rural areas are frequently landless laborers; at best,
CIMMYT can help them only indirectly through the
development of improved agricultural systems.) We will
consider the full context in which poor households
operate and not focus exclusively on the maize and
wheat component of livelihoods. CIMMYT does not
seek to be a "technology assembly line," but rather to
work with its partners in developing a spectrum of
options for local circumstances.



CIMMYT WILL CONSIDER THE
FULL CONTEXT IN WHICH
HOUSEHOLDS OPERATE AND
NOT FOCUS EXCLUSIVELY ON
THE MAIZE AND WHEAT


COMPONENT OF LIVELIHOODS.




























1,,

















0 Structuring CIMMYT's global research
program
How does CIMMYT propose to structure its global
research program to meet local needs for alternative
livelihood strategies? We will organize our work into a
matrix formed by six broad thematic programs, which
will interact with various groups representing expertise
in specific disciplines (Figure 3.1). The thematic programs
will catalyze interdisciplinary research done in
collaboration with a wide range of partners, and they
will maintain a clear focus on livelihoods and production
systems rather than on commodities and disciplines. The
focus on livelihoods should help to identify more potential
complementarities in research with partners. The
disciplinary groups will ensure continuing scientific and
professional excellence. The strategic decision to
implement research in this manner reflects CIMMYT's
commitment to being as integrative as possible in its
research, considering the different natural, economic,
and cultural factors that determine where and how maize
and wheat are grown.


o The agenda is a work in progress
As indicated in the title of this chapter, these proposed
programs are the basis for working out a conclusive,
prioritized research agenda in consultation with
stakeholders. Through this consultation, the details of
each program will be articulated in light of local needs.

The proposed programs consist of two global programs
designed to reinforce the impact of four eco-regional
programs. Theorderin which the programs are presented
in this chapter is not intended to reflect their relative
importance. One reason for adopting this new structure
was to focus CIMMYT's research on a small number of
endeavors of roughly equal importance.

The global programs focus on genetic resources and on
global and strategic research. The brief titles of the eco-
regional programs indicate the diversity represented in
this research agenda: sustaining African livelihoods;
rainfed systems; tropical ecosystems;and irrigated, high-
potential maize and wheat systems. The eco-regional


Figure 3.1. CIMMYT's research structure. Six broad, thematic programs, focusing on global and eco-regional issues, will
catalyze interdisciplinary research done in collaboration with a range of partners. The programs will interact with groups
representing expertise in specific disciplines, whose role is to ensure continuing scientific excellence.

GoSa reeac pogra Ec-e a reeac program

















approach enables us to concentrate resources on high-
priority regions such as Africa and to foster better
collaboration with networks, CGIAR Centers, and other
initiatives that work exclusively in specific regions.

The precise nature of these programs is likely to change
and evolve, depending on the outcome of the dialogue
with stakeholders. As we and our partners gain
experience with this way of working, we will periodically
review CIMMYT's research portfolio and the definition
of the research programs.

o Roles of the programs and disciplinary
research groups
As noted, each program will draw on multiple disciplines
to address a particular set of global or eco-regional issues.
Several disciplinary groups will reflect the Center's core
competencies in maize improvement, wheat
improvement, biotechnology, social sciences, and crop
and resource management. Such groups are essential for
maintaining a critical mass of staff with particular skills,
permitting accurate assessments of strengths and
weaknesses, encouraging individuals to excel and
innovate in their particular disciplines, serving as contacts
for specific requests from outside CIMMYT, and ensuring
the quality of science at CIMMYT by making it possible
to attract and retain excellent staff. Scientists are expected
to work to a high standard within the interdisciplinary
teams created by the programs, but CIMMYT recognizes
that scientists also require opportunities to conduct
additional research that contributes to their particular
discipline as well as to the Center's mission. CIMMYT
will provide resources and other support for cross-
program interactions.

D Programs and partnerships
The next chapter discusses partnerships in detail, but here
it is important to emphasize that each program will be
carried out in collaboration with a diversity of partners,
including advanced research institutes, national
agricultural research and extension systems, NGOs,
farmers' associations, private companies, and other
CGIAR Centers. In many cases, CIMMYT already has
strong working relationships with the partners who are


CONCLUSIVE,
PRIORITIZED AGENDAS
FOR THE NEW RESEARCH
PROGRAMS WILL BE
DEVELOPED IN
CONSULTATION WITH
STAKEHOLDERS. DETAILS
OF EACH PROGRAM WILL
BE ARTICULATED IN LIGHT
OF LOCAL NEEDS.


essential to achieving a program's goals; in other cases,
relationships will be established where there are
complementarities and shared goals.

CIMMYT will provide some products and services to each
program directly-most notably, improved varieties, which
will remain a strong research focus. For other activities,
such as cropping systems or socioeconomics research, we
will conduct research and also facilitate and lend support
to networks of partners who have complementary
expertise in these areas. When others have superior
capabilities or facilities, we will outsource tasks to other
institutions or place staff within those institutions (e.g.,
to conduct aspects of biotechnology research). Details of
such arrangements will be concluded on a program and
activity basis with partners.

D Program 1: Genetic resources
"Harnessing maize and wheat genetic diversity for
humanity"

Challenges. Genetic resources are CIMMYT's primary
asset, and the Center is ethically and legally committed
to conserving and facilitating the use of crop genetic
diversity of maize and wheat for humanity, including
future generations. Essential components for facilitating
access to and use of genetic resources will be the
expanded application of information technology and
access to proprietary technology, information, and other
resources in the private sector.

















Emphasis and outputs. This global program, which
contributes to two CGIAR Challenge Programs (Genetic
Resources; HarvestPlus), encompasses many areas of
research: germplasm collection for ex situ conservation;
characterization of genebank entries; pre-breeding;
applications of genomics; improved and more accessible
information on stored genetic resources; management
of intellectual property associated with germplasm;
economic assessment of the value of genetic resources;
analysis of policies relating to genetic resources and
genetic diversity; conservation of wild relatives of maize
and wheat; on-farm management of maize and wheat
genetic diversity; studies of gene flow under conditions
of farmers' management; and the development of
alternatives that help traditional communities to continue
growing unique genetic resources. The role of
bioinformatics will be especially important to link vast
amounts of data produced through genomics research
to other kinds of data: pedigrees, trial results, and
agronomic and socioeconomic data.

Projected impact. Within 10 years, this program will:
* Complete the regeneration of accessions.
* Complete the molecular characterization of key maize
and wheat accessions.
* Expand CIMMYT's collection of genetic resources to
include more African and Asian maize varieties,
cytogenetic stocks, and genetic populations.
* Store and distribute DNA samples extracted from the
most appropriate genetic resources for use with
genetic studies (structural and functional genomics).
* Assess strategies for on-farm management of genetic
diversity, the incentives needed to make them
feasible, the effects of gene flow within and between
varieties, and the implications for policy analysis and
interventions.
* Further develop and use pre-breeding techniques
(conventional and molecular) for maize and wheat.
* Identify the genetic bases of key traits in maize and
wheat.
* Develop and use a comprehensive data management
system to enable global, web-based access to
information on genetic resources.


a Program 2: Global and strategic research
"Strengthening the global maize and wheat
innovation network through capacity building,
policy development, and the analysis of strategic
global issues"

Challenges. To strengthen and increase the usefulness
of the global maize and wheat innovation network
formed by CIMMYT and its partners, it is essential to
adopt new methods for capacity building, strengthen
policy research, and undertake comparative analyses that
cut across countries and regions. Research with a global
focus is needed to understand changes affecting the
economic, political, and institutional environments in
which CIMMYT operates; identify cross-cutting issues
that transcend national and regional boundaries; ensure
that the overall portfolio of resources is being used
efficiently and effectively; identify key entry points at
which policy interventions can improve the likelihood that
products and services will reach potential users quickly
and effectively; and ensure that when CIMMYT speaks
out on issues of importance to the Center and its
partners, it does so in a consistent and coherent way.

Emphasis and outputs. This global program, which
contributes to the HarvestPlus Challenge Program, will
emphasize activities of strategic global importance:
building capacity through learning, collaborative
research, and mentoring; designing policy interventions
and advocating for change; monitoring trends in the
world maize and wheat economies; setting overall
research priorities; and assessing impact. It will produce
new information and methods for research, policy
advocacy, and priority setting.

Projected impact. Within 10 years, this program will:
* Establish a strong learning and mentoring service that
develops courses and training modules; facilitates
distance learning and the earning of advanced
degrees; offers formal training directly; and
establishes a network of local training partners in a
large number of countries where CIMMYT works.

















* Design policy interventions to strengthen technology
delivery systems and remove constraints to the
adoption of new technologies.
* Encourage awareness and implementation of policies
and contribute to the public debate over issues of
importance to CIMMYT and its partners.
* Ensure that CIMMYT's research continues to address
the priority needs of farmers by monitoring long-term
trends in world maize and wheat markets.
* Assist with ongoing priority setting based upon a
comprehensive assessment of potential research and
development activities worldwide.
* Assess and document impacts of individual CIMMYT
projects as well as the global impacts of CIMMYT's
work, including the impacts associated with
productivity, incomes, livelihoods, and international
diffusion of technologies.

D Program 3: Sustaining African livelihoods
"Increasing food security in Africa through better
technology and improved markets" (sub-Saharan
Africa, primarily eastern and southern Africa; emphasis on
maize and crop diversification)

Challenges. Of all regions of the developing world, sub-
Saharan Africa poses the greatest challenge for sustained
improvement of rural livelihoods and agricultural
productivity. A combination of uncertain and variable
rainfall, poor soils, insect pests, outbreaks of the parasitic
weed Striga, and poorly developed markets and rural
infrastructure has stalled efforts to improve the
productivity and sustainability of agroecosystems. In some
countries, conflict, prevailing macroeconomic and
agricultural policies, and/or a high incidence of HIV/AIDS
have exacerbated these problems. Malnutrition is
common among children and women.

Farm households in much of eastern and southern Africa
mainly grow maize, the most important staple in most
areas, to avoid purchasing it in the hungry season prior
to harvest, when prices are high. Maize is frequently


grown in rotation or association with groundnut, beans,
or other legumes, or cash crops such as cotton or
tobacco. Livelihood strategies often feature a close
integration of livestock and crop management, as well
as a reliance on migration and remittances. Farm
households need production systems that reduce losses
in bad seasons (e.g., under drought); are substantially
more productive in good seasons; improve labor
productivity to compensate for loss of family labor to
migration or HIV/AIDS; sustainably exploit relatively
favorable niches in the landscape; use scarce and
expensive inputs efficiently; take advantage of locally
available inputs (e.g., leaf litter, cattle manure) to maintain
soil fertility; and foster market development to reduce
input prices and improve product prices at the farm level.

Emphasis and outputs. This program, which
contributes to four CGIAR Challenge Programs (Sub-
Saharan Africa; Genetic Resources; HarvestPlus; Water
and Food), emphasizes improving system resilience and
productivity in the face of biophysical and socioeconomic
risk. It will develop a range of maize varieties with
tolerance to drought and low soil fertility, resistance to
insect pests, improved nutritional content, or tolerance
to a herbicide seed treatment that eradicates Striga. In
the context of local biosafety regulations and informed
deliberation by civil society, the program will also explore
the release of maize that is genetically modified to resist
stem borers. With partners, itwill provide suitable wheat
varieties to smallholders in Ethiopia. Participatory
selection of varieties will expand, and systems will be
established to disseminate improved seed effectively
through the private sector and community organizations.
The program will support efforts to make good seed
reliably available at fair prices to smallholders. Policy and
market analyses will be conducted to foster market
development and better integrate smallholder cropping
systems into national markets. Complementary research
on crop and natural resource management will focus on
soil fertility management practices for clearly defined land
types and farmer categories. Considerable attention will
be given to crop-livestock interactions.

















Projected impact. Within 10 years, this program will:
* Ensure that 20% of farm families managing maize
systems in eastern and southern Africa grow maize
that is better at withstanding drought and low soil
fertility.
* Develop and promote effective techniques to combat
Striga, maize field pests, and maize grain storage
pests.
* Develop and promote decision aids that match
resource-conserving practices with land types and
farmer categories.
* Strengthen collaboration among partners to address
development concerns more effectively.
* Foster market development and better integrate
smallholder cropping systems into national markets.
* Contribute to the debate on policy and institutional
issues affecting the agricultural sub-sector.
* Document impacts of improved practices on incomes,
livelihoods, soil and water resources, and the
environment.

D Program 4: Rainfed systems
"Reducing vulnerability by managing risk in rainfed
systems"(Eurasia, Central India, South America; comparable
ecologies in southern Africa are included in the program on
Africa; emphasis on wheat)

Challenges. In these ecologies, crop production focuses
on bread and durum wheat, barley, and pulses (although
maize is important in some areas). Often livestock are at
least as important as grain production in farm family
livelihoods. Widespread land degradation is provoked by
over-grazing of pastures, intensive tillage of agricultural
land, and the grazing of crop residues. The growing period
is short and options for diversification limited. Rainfall is
variable, rainfall-use efficiency is low, and drought stress
is common. Food security often depends heavily on
wheat, which sometimes provides more than half of the
calories consumed daily. Micronutrient malnutrition is
widespread.

Farmers require production technologies that improve
local and regional food security; reduce the risks
associated with recurrent drought; combine livestock and


crop production; make the most of limited or variable water
resources; help reduce land degradation; promote efficient
use of scarce inputs; foster improved input and product
markets and related institutions; and contribute to system
diversification, for more stable production of a wider array
of crops.

Emphasis and outputs. This eco-regional program, which
contributes to two CGIAR Challenge Programs (Water and
Food; HarvestPlus), emphasizes the development of
drought-tolerant, input-responsive, disease-resistant wheat
varieties; resource-conserving technologies; crop
diversification; and policy analysis and advocacy to foster
market development.

Projected impact. Within 10 years, this program will:
* Promote successful adoption of resource-conserving
technologies, together with varieties specifically
adapted to them (especially wheat with increased
drought tolerance, resistance to soil-borne diseases,
and better nutritional value).
* Raise water productivity and improve soil fertility by
expanding cereal-legume rotations and diversifying
cropping systems.
* Improve the nutritional value of wheat.
* Help meet the demand for better livestock feed
through drought- and heat-tolerant maize with
enhanced protein quality.

o Program 5: Tropical ecosystems
"Improving livelihoods and conserving natural
resources in tropical ecosystems" (Latin America,
SoutheastAsia, and tropical areas of southern China; emphasis
on maize)

Challenges. Poor farm households require production
systems that improve their livelihoods; exploit ecological
principles to control weeds, pests, and diseases; conserve
soil and water; and help meet increasing demand for food
(in Latin America) and feed (in Asia). In Latin America,
households often grow maize to avoid purchasing it when
prices are high and to feed small numbers of livestock.
Livelihood strategies may include the production of cash
crops (e.g., coffee), manufacture of handicrafts, seasonal

















off-farm work, or remittances from family members. More
recently, they have come to dominate smallholder rainfed
agriculture in Southeast Asia. In these Asian systems,
maize is grown predominantly for feed (although Asians
consume more maize for food than the entire population
of Latin America). Throughout the tropics, mounting
demand for maize has caused production to encroach
on tropical forests and fragile hillsides.

Emphasis and outputs. This eco-regional program,
which contributes to the HarvestPlus Challenge Program,
emphasizes the integration of high-yielding, stress-
tolerant, nutrient-enhanced maize germplasm with
resource-conserving technologies. It will develop maize
that copes with acidic soils, drought, low soil fertility,
waterlogging, diseases, and insects. These varieties will
have improved protein quality and higher micronutrient
content. They will survive under harsh conditions and yield
well under favorable conditions. Resource-conserving
practices to control weeds and erosion, improve water-
use efficiency, and improve soil fertility will include direct
sowing without tillage, cover crops, crop residue
management, mulch management, and alternative and
more diverse cropping patterns. Substantial farmer
participatory experimentation will contribute to the
development of new varieties and help to refine resource-
conserving practices and associated equipment. The
program will encourage system diversification to avoid
continuous maize cultivation, a goal that requires a
combination of policy analysis and advocacy, market
analysis, and farmer experimentation with alternative
crops. The longer-term consequences and scale
consequences of resource-conserving practices will be
monitored. Impacts of technical change on the livelihoods
of the poor will be studied closely.

Projected impact. Within 10 years, this program will:
* Improve the productivity and profitability of maize-
based agro-ecosystems in tropical ecologies.
* Promote successful adoption of conservation
agriculture, especially zero tillage with mulch soil
cover, on more than one million hectares of tropical
lowlands and uplands (improving incomes and
livelihoods, reducing production costs, and reducing
land degradation).


* Promote successful adoption of more stress-tolerant
and nutritious maize varieties.
* Diversify cropping systems and substantially reduce
the area under continuous maize cultivation, especially
in fragile areas.
* Document impacts and consequences for farm family
livelihoods and the environment of technical change
in maize systems.

[ Program 6: Irrigated, high-potential maize
and wheat systems
"Safeguarding food security through sustainable
intensification" (Indo-Gangetic Plains, Mediterranean
littoral, Yellow River Basin, northwestern Mexico; emphasis on
maize, wheat, and crop diversification)

Challenges. A large number of the world's poor live in
densely populated rural areas where cropping systems are
intensive and complex. Farmers in these areas tend to be
more market-oriented and driven by the need to sustain
local communities and neighboring cities. Globally,
improved food security and livelihoods for poor people
depend heavily on these production systems, which are
often irrigated. The challenges are to foster the
development of farming systems that are more intensive
and sustainable than current systems; assure food-grain
security while delivering a more diverse set of higher-value
products; use external inputs more efficiently; generate
more employment for the landless; supply less expensive
food for poor urban consumers; and conserve and improve
soil and water resources. Water is a particular concern
because of competition for urban, industrial, ecological,
and other non-agricultural uses.

Emphasis and outputs. This eco-regional program,
which contributes to the Rice-Wheat Consortium for the
Indo-Gangetic Plains and two Challenge Programs (Water
and Food; HarvestPlus), emphasizes improvements in
system productivity and diversity, which may at times imply
a decrease, not an increase, in resources devoted to cereal
production. Instead of increasing input use for higher grain
yields, the program will improve nutrient- and water-use
efficiency, which should ultimately lead to better harvests
with fewer inputs.













CIMMYT NEEDS A GREATER
REGIONAL PRESENCE TO
IDENTIFY, DEVELOP, AND
MAINTAIN EFFECTIVE
PARTNERSHIPS. CIMMYT
CANNOT AFFORD TO BE
ISOLATED FROM THE
REGIONS WHERE IT IS MOST
NEEDED.
-SUMMARY OF MERIDIAN
INSTITUTE REPORT ON
STAKEHOLDERS'
PERCEPTIONS OF CIMMYT.






Research will focus on resource-conserving
technologies (zero tillage of wheat after rice; zero-
tilled, rice-based rotations on permanent beds, with
rice grown as an aerobic crop followed by wheat,
maize, legumes, or other crops; non-traditional rice
transplanting practices; and surface seeding of wheat
after rice in low-lying, poorly drained soils). Methods
will be developed to allow a third crop after wheat
and substitute pulses, maize, or potatoes for wheat.
Laser-leveling of irrigated fields will be emphasized.
Maize and wheat varieties for these systems will be
adapted to new resource-conserving practices. They
will also yield well, possess durable disease resistance,
resist pests, reduce the need for irrigation, tolerate
salinity, and have good quality for consumer and
industrial use. Quality protein maize varieties may
become important for meeting China's growing
demand for feed maize. Policy analysis will focus on
maximizing the benefits of improved technologies for
smallholder farmers and poor consumers.


Projected impact. Within 10 years, the program will:
* Promote successful adoption of resource-conserving
technologies and specifically adapted maize and wheat
varieties across a significant area in Asia, Africa, and
Latin America.
* Promote successful adoption of more holistic cropping
systems so that grain supply keeps pace with demand
and food remains affordable for the poor.
* Reduce water use in agriculture by more than 20%
and substantially decrease fuel use.
* Enhance farmers' access to markets by providing cereal
varieties with specific value-added traits (e.g., improved
quality for making leavened, steamed, and flat breads;
maize with better nutritional characteristics).



D Conclusion: Focusing on major issues
in new ways
Rather than addressing research issues through purely
commodity and disciplinary perspectives, CIMMYT will
address them through the lens of eco-regions, cropping
systems, and the needs of poor producers. The programs
proposed above are designed to encourage the synergies
we value among colleagues, disciplines, and partners,
including other CGIAR Centers; serve as the platform for
setting research priorities and focusing on the major
concerns of our stakeholders; highlight complementary
efficiencies in our work; and provide a framework for
altering our research agenda in a transparent way as needs
and strategies change. For an indication of some of the
scientific approaches that will be important for this research
agenda, see Box 3.1. which is recapitulated in greater detail
in Appendix 2.

Obviously the ambitious agenda presented in this chapter
cannot be undertaken by CIMMYT alone. CIMMYT does
not generate impact by itself. More than ever, partnerships
are necessary for research to yield the advances that poor
people so desperately need, and for the poor to benefit
from them. Chapter 4 provides perspectives on various
partnerships that will be needed to achieve CIMMYT's
mission. It also discusses how networks and partnerships
become much more effective when careful attention is
given to how people create, manage, and share knowledge.











Science of strategic

interest to CIMMYT


CIMMYT is committed to evaluating the scientific, humanitarian,
and efficiency merits of new science, including applications of
biotechnology. It is the nature of many scientific discoveries to
be controversial and to require choices that have not been made
before. With respect to biotechnology, CIMMYT's position is
that we must explore this prolific new area of research, especially
to provide informed guidance about its potential risks and
benefits. Biotechnology is not-and certainly will not remain-
the only area of new science to present challenges to CIMMYT
and its stakeholders in the years to come. Our common
responsibility is to confront and explore those challenges to the
best of our ability and ensure that potentially useful knowledge
and technology are employed to benefit the people who need
them most.

Space does not permit us to list every proven or novel method
and tool that is important to CIMMYT's research, but we would
like to give readers some idea of the spectrum of approaches
and innovations that have the potential to improve the efficiency
and impact of our work. The following list is admittedly quite
incomplete, and the approaches mentioned here do not
necessarily have priority over others in use at CIMMYT. We
mention them because they will complement and extend
CIMMYT's expertise and efficiency, especially its core proficiency
in plant breeding. In several cases, these tools will not be
developed or used directly by CIMMYT.

Social science methods. CIMMYT will use a wider spectrum
of social science methods and tools to understand technical
innovation and develop new strategies for addressing the needs
of the poor. Social science methods and perspectives will play
an increasingly important role in research on complex issues
regarding users' perspectives, farmers' local knowledge, and the
social rules that affect their behavior and well-being.

Policy analysis. CIMMYT offers a unique vantage point for
examining factors that affect the productivity of maize- and
wheat-based farming systems in developing countries.
Approaches for analyzing these factors, diagnosing constraints
to technical change, and prescribing policy interventions to
overcome constraints will feature more strongly in CIMMYT's
research.

Conservation agriculture forsmall-scale farmers. CIMMYT
will continue to interact with conservation agriculture networks
and farmers' associations and use its expertise to catalyze
innovation systems in poorer rural populations. In this approach,
research does not necessarily provide technology; it acts as an
integrator to solve problems emerging within the new system.


For example, CIMMYT can facilitate the exchange of
information on small equipment and its local adaptation.
CIMMYT can help improve the provision of specialized inputs
for conservation agriculture. Through research on genotype-
environment interactions and soil and root health, CIMMYT
can also provide component technologies and knowledge
relevant to conservation agriculture systems.

Integrated natural resource management research. New
crop and system models will be used to simulate long-term
performance (and riskiness over time) of resource-conserving
technologies. Information technology will facilitate the sharing
of information on "what works, where, and why." Geographic
information systems (GIS) will become seamlessly linked to
simulation models to guide the development and diffusion of
new technologies on a wider scale.

Genotype-environment (GxE) interactions. CIMMYT's
extensive partnerships make it possible to quantify GxE
interactions by conducting experiments at agronomically
representative sites worldwide. Among other things, this
information provides a better understanding of how to
overcome yield barriers. In addition, with data on the
performance of individual varieties in representative on-farm
sites over a range of agro-ecologies, GIS can provide valuable
predictive information on the locations where a given variety is
most suited and which resistance traits it should carry to ensure
high, stable production. With this information, we can identify
locations where pressure from stresses is extremely high and
predict shifts in pest and disease incidence associated with
climate change. The identification of these hot spots will
facilitate the search for resistance genes.

Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote
sensing. Ever-increasing availability of spatial data is going to
have an enormous influence on CIMMYT for adoption and
impact assessment; decision-making; improving research









IT IS THE NATURE OF MANY
SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES TO
BE CONTROVERSIAL AND TO
REQUIRE CHOICES THAT HAVE
NOT BEEN MADE BEFORE. OUR
COMMON RESPONSIBILITY IS
TO ENSURE THAT KNOWLEDGE
AND TECHNOLOGY ARE USED
TO BENEFIT THE PEOPLE WHO
NEED THEM MOST.





efficiency; communication and diffusion; information
management; and technology targeting. Developments in three
major areas are of particular interest: global positioning system
(GPS) technology, high-resolution imagery and satellite sensors,
and timely (real-time) data provision.

New plant breeding and seed dissemination approaches.
CIMMYT has an important role to play in developing and
advocating practical, farmer-oriented approaches to plant
breeding and seed dissemination to meet the needs of poor
farmers in developing countries (e.g., approaches for national
programs to develop stress-tolerant varieties expressly for poor
farmers' conditions; supra-national, multi-stakeholder
arrangements for developing, releasing, and providing improved
varieties to small-scale farmers).

Gene discovery for pre-breeding research. CIMMYT's pre-
breeding research will be made more effective by merging the
operations of CIMMYT's genebank-including the collection,
characterization, and regeneration of genetic resources-with
all of its pre-breeding research into an applied genetic resources
approach that takes much greater advantage of new science,
such as fingerprinting.

Molecular fingerprinting. This technology is useful for
improving the management of CIMMYT's genetic resources,
identifying useful combinations of inbred lines, conducting more
efficient pre-breeding research, detecting allelic variation for
further phenotypic screening, and protecting/identifying
individual varieties.

Gene and trait mapping. Mapping will remain important for
several years to come as a method for understanding the genetic
basis of plant phenotype (i.e., the location and number of
regions in the genome that are responsible for the expression
of a given trait). This information is the basis for marker-assisted
selection, can be used to validate candidate genes for a given
trait, and can be used to develop contrasting materials for use
in functional genomics approaches.


Marker-assisted selection (MAS). CIMMYTwill maintain and build
its capabilities in this area to reduce costly field analyses (including
plant phenotyping), screen germplasm early in the growth cycle,
screen for traits that would not otherwise be detectable in a given
location, and select for several traits at once. Efforts to develop new
marker systems and/or linked markers for additional traits, especially
to reduce breeding costs, will be undertaken based on CIMMYT's
research priorities. Advances in comparative genetics will increase
the efficiency of the identification of linked markers, as theywill allow
linked markers identified in one crop to be used in others as well.
Furthermore, advances in genomics will allow the simultaneous
identification of many traits (and markers) for MAS.

Functional genomics and gene discovery. CIMMYT will advance
genomics research by continuing to provide key maize and wheat
segregating populations and lines that represent extremes in
phenotypic expression of important stress-related traits. Another
important contribution will be to continue providing molecular maps
with genes and genetic regions identified for tolerance/resistance to
these stresses. By combining the genetic resources and trait knowledge
available at CIMMYTwith genomic tools and knowledge in the public
and private sector, we will be able to identify key genes responsible
for important traits, use this information in its breeding programs,
and provide it to partners.

Transformation technology. The ability to modify specific genes in
a genome or to introduce an entirely novel gene will continue to
improve our knowledge of gene expression and physiological
processes (e.g., to investigate potential genes for enhancing drought
tolerance and disease resistance in bread wheat). This technology
can also provide completely new products for farmers. Its use is most
critical in developing varieties with traits that exhibit an insufficient
range of genetic diversity within the species (e.g., some nutritional
quality traits in maize and wheat).

Bioinformatics. Given the large investment USDA is making to
develop genetic databases for the major crops, including maize and
wheat, CIMMYT need not develop similar systems, but it will need to
link to them. CIMMYT's investment in systems to handle genomic
data is even more limited. A comprehensive and integrated system
will be needed to manage future genomic data, whether produced
at CIMMYT or by its partners. The platform will require links to a
number of crop information systems, genebank systems, simulation
models for plant breeding, and the genetic databases mentioned
above.

Crop information systems. As a global institute with many partners,
CIMMYT is uniquely positioned to anchor an international information
management system that encompasses a genebank management
system (including molecular maps and plant pedigrees), GIS,
bioinformatics, and data management systems related to GxE
interactions. By linking information in these subsystems, we can gain
powerful insights into the relationships between genes, environment,
and the productivity of crops and agricultural systems. To do so,
CIMMYT will make a significant strategic investment in information
and communications technology (how much of this will be done
directly or through outsourcing remains to be determined).
























YS -





























S. S S
II I~I a a. a a a a -1~~II
in o ato an aiapaact






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inoatin prvdn prdcs sevcs a nomain aprace to resarc and aaact buldng



pupss reif an halt intatives.

implmenatin reainhp wit th arvt seto an

a ahre e a o sb e wor in a ne w r mod tha de eo m n a ge ce an gl ba and


cotibtn a ro its pariua r area ofexetie Whr apporae aTwllpa srne

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takeo e oe an crat addtoal huge an prmtn sutial deelpmn
syegis deov a ctvte whree posbe thrug amroe poice and tehoois Thi
rol supot al patars resource-poorfarmer



tente aor wihntoa a grclua To ad vau to it patcpto in paterhp and
reeac an axeso stesibrad a lla ne newrs CI Y wil aten to th hlyl
of aies partes of knweg maagmet It wil futera
Scivl h armnz an itgat CI- oraiatoa cutr to stm lt th acuiiton
efot ait ths af ote C Cetes shrig an evlato of knowedge












STAKEHOLDERS...VIEW
CIMMYT AS PLAYING AN
ESSENTIAL COORDINATING
ROLE IN A RICH
NETWORK...THAT
TRANSCENDS
GEOPOLITICAL
BOUNDARIES, GIVES
AGRICULTURALISTS IN LESS
DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
ACCESS TO COLLEAGUES IN
MORE DEVELOPED
COUNTRIES, AND IS
UNUSUALLY VERTICAL IN ITS
MEMBERSHIP, RANGING
FROM FARMERS TO
MINISTERS OF
AGRICULTURE.
STAKEHOLDERS OBSERVED
THAT FEW ORGANIZATIONS
IN AGRICULTURAL
RESEARCH COULD CLAIM AN
EQUALLY EXTENSIVE
NETWORK.-SUMMARY OF
MERIDIAN INSTITUTE
REPORT ON
STAKEHOLDERS'
PERCEPTIONS OF CIMMYT


0 Building on a strong network of
partnerships
The consultations and analyses that led to the
development of this strategy identified CIMMYT's
extensive networks and partnerships as one of its
greatest scientific and operational strengths. To achieve
its global mission, CIMMYTwill build on its partnerships
in three ways. First, as counseled by our stakeholders,
we will regularly engage partners in a more consultative,
locally nuanced process for developing our global
research agenda. Second, we will reinforce our research
presence in Asia and Africa to address problems of
poverty more directly where they are most extensive and
severe. Third, we will build on the strength of these
partnerships to expand the global public knowledge
base for innovation in maize and wheat research.

This first part of this chapter examines the ways in which
CIMMYT seeks to work with particular groups of
partners-renewing our partnerships with the public
sector, seeking more productive partnerships with the
private sector and advanced research institutes,
encouraging complementarities with other CGIAR
Centers and NGOs, fostering innovation with private
foundations, and partnering to engage in advocacy on
specific issues. In all of these relationships, our intention
is to be a true partner in innovation, providing products,
services, information, and technical expertise. Our
partnerships will emphasize equality in sharing resources,
contributions, accountability, and credit. There has been
some discussion of the transactions costs involved in
extensive partnerships, but it is our belief that the
approach described in this chapter will enable
partnerships to become more efficient for all involved.

The primary resource shared and created by these
partnerships is knowledge. Unlike a particular
technology, which may be relatively short-lived,
knowledge is a continually changing, renewable
resource for science. The second part of this chapter
explains a defining feature of CIMMYT's mission and
strategy: the commitment to be an effective catalyst in
a global knowledge sharing and innovation network.















D Renewing public-sector partnerships
For an organization such as CIMMYT, whose existence is
founded on developing public goods for developing
countries, national research and extension programs and
agricultural universities are natural allies. Many elements
of this strategy, such as a greater regional presence in
Asia and Africa, are intended to help CIMMYT become a
more valuable and effective partner for the public sector
in developing countries.

Based on consultation with many representatives of
national research and extension programs, we envision
that these long-standing allies will join us in forming
broader strategic alliances for managing knowledge and
innovation, as described later in this chapter. We also
believe that there is great potential to work with these
partners to become more effective advocates for policy
interventions to alleviate hunger and poverty, as
mentioned below.

Our extensive collaborative relationships with public
organizations in developing countries, as well as with
regional consortia of national research organizations, have
stood the test of time-in many cases enduring national
conflicts and natural disasters. The economic and
efficiency advantages of the international maize and
wheat research systems formed by CIMMYT and its
public-sector partners in developing countries, as well as
the considerable benefits generated by these systems,
have been extensively documented (see Box 1.2, p. 4).

In light of the growing competition for resources to
conduct public agricultural research and extension,
however, some observers have questioned the
sustainability of these primary research partnerships for
CIMMYT Money is not the only issue. The private sector's
large investment in agricultural research, combined with
its tendency to seek intellectual property rights over key
processes and products, have raised barriers to innovation
by the public sector. In some countries, the number of
talented research staff working in the public sector has
been depleted by emigration, opportunities in the private
sector, HIV/AIDS, and civil disorder. Increased funding
alone will not compensate for these losses.


Public-sector

partnerships

prevent

epidemics in

wheat


International public-sector partnerships can be the best
assurance that some potentially costly problems never
reach farmers' fields. For example, a virulent race of
yellow rust that arose in East Africa in 1986 migrated
to North Africa, crossing West Asia and South Asia to
reach Nepal around 1997. On the way, the new race
caused epidemics and severe production losses in wheat
in Ethiopia, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. The
multi-million dollar losses could have been reduced or
avoided through concerted disease monitoring and
control.

Today, a global network links CIMMYT, ICARDA, and
national research organizations in Asia, Africa, and Latin
America to report new rust races as soon as they appear
and alert unaffected countries to potential epidemics.
Scientists and decision-makers in each country use this
information to decide whether susceptible wheats
should be replaced with new resistant varieties, including
some with durable resistance from CIMMYT. Countries
in one region may ask CIMMYT to facilitate the testing
of their experimental varieties in another region where
a disease already has a head start, simply to ensure that
they already have good resistance to a disease that may
cross their own borders within a few years. This early
warning network is a good example of how
international public research partnerships produce a
global public good-in this case, the prevention of costly
epidemics. No single nation can accomplish this task,
given that disease pathogens do not operate within
national boundaries, and private companies do not
address this kind of need at the global level.






!.jJ










CIMMYT

and other


CGIAR

Centers


Rather than providing an exhaustive list of the many ways
that CIMMYT has collaborated with other CGIAR Centers
over the years, we offer a few representative examples. Our
work with other Centers has ranged from ambitious disaster
relief initiatives, to long-term collaboration in research and
training, to more mundane concerns such as the
development of similar policies and procedures. Some of
these efforts have been quite successful, others less so, but
we are committed to learning from our experience to support
the development of a more integrated, efficient CGIAR.

CIMMYT and several other Centers have formal
arrangements for hosting each others' staff, with provision
f,-,r Il,-,, :.I pp.-,rt n-i ,:.-.IIl-r-i-ti,- r-:earch. Collaboration
iil- I1 I- i; i ,i ;;,- nt l tit.l, o)f CIM M YT's w ork,
ii:i:, .ll ,it l- : .:t .:li it.,ng and executing
it.i n i i. .n l. i I :I i : il:,lit, : t. .:. serving and sharing
,:lint,.: i : ~ n,, .:,: F..i .-Il .: : i.- : :IM M YT has w worked
ili .nl.il:.' IIT- in i' i i i :. ,ii .- In it t. .riAfrica and alongside
--.: -- In, I.t iii:,, ,i. int t..i the Caucasus region,
I ir in ,l *:. -nti l i n .il l, ,ith -tica (CW ANA region).
II II IT iii tn. l-ii it. :,Int .ll: h. rate in several Eco-
ii nd, -iii ,: H.t I ..: ii ii: CIM MYT is currently
lih .: iin in.i'l .:i. I i-i t i tli, I i:,-, heat Consortium for
th, I In-l,,- .- -n 1:h, n 11-, hi,:1 I1 IW M I, ICRISAT, and
, 1: 1: I,, ,- -,II-,,-Itn,,-n ,I I ,il:1 ili, ,isible roles. C IM M YT
i; :ti 1- t l-i, t ,: -,- i.'l.-, ititil ,-s on Integrated Pest
I I ,l,. rit frn f itit,:i[: t FI- ,earch and Gender
- .l., i n ii :n ,-i ii t,: -: F .,.1 .: : for A agriculture, and
[:. l ti'r-i, itlh tlh, -t : HI-.:]hllirin S Initiative and the
' :ii ii ,:i i I ,1 1 I ,1, I Frnrreqiir n Andin9
, *,: ,* -I I, 1 l I I I T I 1- n ,l : I F -I I -l tl -,th :, l- llI ,: ,
I: ,,, ~ I, ..n .I-.. n .-f .: I- d.. .I .: ] .I 11 II I ,T I 11 e l'



n t-i Intii l i _itn: l I, I t ,ii n 1 II .I I ,tl .:i I.
._-,1 ,I _,: ,: i, Ii :,1,1 : [. : t n .. l id,,: i
,]:_ l [ t th .- I' -I ,1 -,


Despite these trends, the public sector
accomplishes many things that other organizations
do not. Publicly funded research and development
organizations often have national coverage, direct
access to farming communities and local research
facilities, a wealth of local knowledge not available
elsewhere, and formal governmental support. They
continue to play valuable public service roles, such
as supporting the conservation and international
exchange of genetic resources or monitoring for
emerging disease epidemics (Box 4.1). Finally, the
public sector in some countries has recently
strengthened its commitment to advanced
scientific endeavors, including biotechnology and
other new research areas, in the service of
agriculture.

For these reasons, and because of the proven
effectiveness of our partnerships with the public
sector, we envision that public research and
extension organizations will remain primary
partners in the years to come.

0 Partnering to support a renewed
CGIAR
CIMMYT's history and evolution are virtually
inseparable from that of the CGIAR. The Green
Revolution in wheat and rice provided much of
the impetus for the CGIAR's founding in 1971 (Box
1.2, p. 4). The CGIAR has been a powerful medium
for channeling support and setting priorities for
international agricultural research. CIMMYT values
the determination within the CGIAR to forge the
work of the Centers into a more efficient whole
to take a coordinated approach to problems of
hunger and poverty. This changing vision for the
Centers has heavily influenced our strategy, which
is intended to offer more opportunities for
collaboration and effective change within the
CGIAR. The agenda for international agricultural
research is expanding, and collaboration is essential
to ensure that resources are used intelligently.












WE NEVER HAD
ENOUGH TO EAT
UNTIL WE


CIMMYT and other Centers have partnered in many
ways over the years (Box 4.2). The recently initiated
Challenge Programs represent opportunities to engage
multiple Centers and external partners in research on
complex issues of wide significance. Perhaps equally
important, the Challenge Programs will generate
valuable lessons for how research might be organized
and funded throughout the CGIAR. We foresee that
similar institutional arrangements, though not on such
a large scale, will be essential for success in the years to
come (two examples of such arrangements are the Rice-
Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains and the
proposed Soil Fertility Consortium for Southern Africa).

As mentioned in Chapter 3, a strong motive for
organizing our research agenda into eco-regional
programs is to foster greater interaction and integration
with other CGIAR Centers. We will seek the expertise
and collaboration of other Centers-and offer our
support-wherever complementarities exist. Specifically,
we will seek to work more closely with IITA, the World
Agroforestry Center, CIAT, and ICARDAon eco-regional
activities in Africa, Latin America, and Central and West
Asia and North Africa, and with ICRISAT in both Africa
and South Asia where our mandates overlap in water-
stressed regions. Given the importance of maize-
livestock systems in Africa, we will also seek to partner
more closely with ILRI (for example, in developing dual-
purpose maize varieties, or analyzing crop-livestock
interactions related to conservation agriculture).
Especially in Africa, we see many opportunities to
collaborate with other CGIAR Centers in activities such
as understanding livelihood systems, conducting
participatory research, improving seed systems,
strengthening policies and markets, and on a more
operational level by sharing infrastructure and data
analysis resources. Advances in genomics and
overlapping cropping systems in South Asia make
stronger collaboration with IRRI advantageous for both
Centers. Our relationship with IFPRI will no doubt deepen
as CIMMYT commits additional energy to policy and
advocacy work. Synergies with all CGIAR Centers on
capacity building, knowledge and information
management, and intellectual property issues
are essential.


STARTED
PRODUCING
SEED.-DEBAKI
KARKI, NEPAL,
FARMER,
WOMEN'S
GROUP LEADER,
AND CIMMYT
PARTNER



Q NGOs, farmer groups, and community
and self-help groups
The spectrum of NGOs and CSOs, including community
and self-help groups, relief organizations, and farmer
advocacy groups, extends from small, locally organized
groups to large international concerns. We have relatively
longstanding relationships with some large NGOs, such
as Sasakawa-Global 2000 and World Vision, and seek
to form others. One of CIMMYT's most enduring research
relationships is with the Patronato of Sonora, a council
of producers in northwestern Mexico that has
provided fundamental support to CIMMYT's research
(Box 4.3, p. 34).

In many cases, NGOs and CSOs have complementary
areas of expertise or resources (e.g., local contacts,
expertise in community welfare issues, language skills)
and similar goals (to improve livelihoods), all of which
can encourage productive partnerships. Their local
expertise is often invaluable for initiating constructive
discussions of local needs and channeling resources to
people for experimenting with technologies or practices
that might meet those needs. In some of the increasingly
unstable areas where CIMMYT is called upon to work,
NGOs may be virtually the only lifeline to poor farm
households. Here we highlight some kinds of
partnerships with NGOs that are important for the future.














The Patronato of

Sonora: Local support

for global research



"The Patronato" (formally known as the Patronato para la
Investigaci6n y Experimentaci6n Agricola del Estado de Sonora) is
an association of commercial and communal farmers in the state of
Sonora in northwestern Mexico. CIMMYT researchers have high
regard for the Patronato, based on decades of cooperation and
support. Millions of farmers around the world would share this regard,
if they knew the debt of gratitude they also owe the Patronato.
More than 1,300 cultivars of wheat and triticale, released in 51
countries and grown on approximately 58 million hectares, can trace
their ancestry to the fields and resources that the Patronato has
provided to CIMMYT in the Yaqui Valley in northwestern Mexico.
The dry environment in the Yaqui Valley is well suited for globally
oriented wheat research because it can be managed to simulate
agro-ecological environments throughout much of the developing
world where wheat is grown.

Yaqui Valley farmers were the first to experience the benefits of the
new wheats developed in the 1950s and early 1960s by the
Government of Mexico/Rockefeller Foundation program that was
the forerunner of CIMMYT (see Box 1.2, p. 4). In 1964 these farmers
decided to create their own organization-the Patronato-to provide
consistent support for agricultural research. The organization was
subsequently expanded to include farmers throughout Sonora.

Most of the Patronato's funding comes from farmers' donations,
based on a yearly quota (currently 0.00125% of their production
per hectare) collected at planting. The Patronato also receives support
from private companies and the State of Sonora.

In addition to providing funding for CIMMYT's wheat and maize
research, the Patronato generously provides access to over 200
hectares of prime agricultural land close to the government's
Northwestern Agricultural Research Center (Centro de Investigaciones
Agricolas del Noroeste, or CIANO), where CIMMYT also has the good
fortune to work. In the course of developing this strategy, Patronato
farmers have been actively involved with CIMMYT and CIANO in
providing feedback for research and priority setting.



















Seed production. One area in which alliances with
NGOs and CSOswill continue to be crucial is in sharing
information about seed production, especially for
maize. The public sector has largely exited the business
of selling seed to farmers, and for years to come, many
of the world's maize farmers will remain far too poor
and isolated to constitute an attractive market for
private seed companies. By partnering with NGOs, local
research and extension organizations, and the private
sector, CIMMYT can share knowledge on producing
good quality seed and create links between community
seed producers and organizations that can provide
information on new varieties. Through this work,
communities gain better information about the new
maize and wheat varieties and practices that are
available to them, establish profitable local seed
production enterprises, and improve crop production.

Seed relief. Relief agencies have the networks and
expertise to help people return to productive, stable
livelihoods in the wake of natural disasters, famine, or
civil disorder. CIMMYT can partner with these
organizations by providing appropriate seed and
knowledge to help restore farming communities and
rehabilitate the agricultural sector, including local
research capacity. Ideally, CIMMYT seeks to establish
partnerships with relief agencies before disaster strikes,
enabling institutions to avoid bureaucratic
impediments and respond more quickly.

Organizations dedicated to nutrition and health.
Agriculture is a food delivery system for better nutrition
and heath. By forming proactive links with
organizations focused on health and nutrition,
including the many NGOs and advanced research
institutes active in this arena, CIMMYT can ensure that
food production systems become part of an
overarching strategy for delivering health and nutrition
in rural communities, including those devastated by
HIV/AIDS. Aside from the work to develop nutritionally
enhanced maize and wheat varieties for the Harvest
Plus Challenge Program, current projects, study how
food systems must change to overcome problems of
rickets and arsenic poisoning.


THE PERCEPTION THAT
CIMMYT'S WORK IS LESS
POLITICIZED THAN THAT OF
OTHER PLAYERS HAS
PROVIDED A GREAT DEAL OF
COMFORT FOR PARTNERS AT
ALL LEVELS. THIS HONESTY
ALLOWS CIMMYT TO
CREATE COLLABORATION
AND UNDERSTANDING
WHERE OTHER ENTITIES,
ACTING ALONE, COULD OR
WOULD NOT.-SUMMARY OF
MERIDIAN INSTITUTE
REPORT ON STAKEHOLDERS'
PERCEPTIONS OF CIMMYT



O Partnering with private foundations
CIMMYT has much direct experience of the ways in which
private foundations encourage and support innovation
in international agricultural research. Private foundations
(the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations) were among the
first to understand the potential of international
agricultural research for development. Foundations
continue to expand the boundaries of international
agricultural research in many ways: they often bring new
groups of partners together; they continually facilitate
and support new approaches for working with farmers;
they provide resources to explore promising applications
of basic research; they invest in studies of emerging issues
at the farm level; they help to create new channels for
learning about and sharing technology; and they
consistently support capacity building.

The value of this contribution cannot be overstated. It
permits new thinking and experimentation in areas that
other partners (sometimes representing more conservative
constituencies) and CIMMYT itself may tend to avoid. To
continue to challenge our assumptions, learn about
different approaches to research and development, and
integrate them into our work, we will seek greater
collaboration with foundations (the Rockefeller, McKnight,
and Gatsby Foundations, among others).














Partnering with

the private

sector to reach

maize farmers



CIMMYT develops improved maize and other
products specifically to meet the needs of poor
farmers, and by providing this technology to local
seed companies free of charge, we can assist them
in delivering improved seed at affordable prices.
They gain access to our research products and
resources (including information on seed
production), and further improve them based on
their local knowledge and expertise. Through their
access to local seed markets, small seed companies
help immensely in enhancing the impact of research
at the farm household level, especially in less
accessible rural areas where larger companies rarely
operate.

CIMMYT will seek partnerships to license its
products (including maize varieties and hybrids) to
private companies in specific regions or countries.
These partnerships will be formed in such a way
that CIMMYT does not compromise its policy of
providing free and unlimited access to its
germplasm to any of its partners. The technology
will remain in the public domain, and CIMMYTwill
retain its freedom to operate. It remains a challenge
to find evenhanded ways of dealing with private
companies when several operate in the same
geographical area and wish to acquire our advanced
germplasm for commercialization, but in some
cases there are solutions. For example, the same
CIMMYT maize inbred, which possesses high
combining ability and other special attributes, might
be used by two different seed producers to produce
two different hybrids or varieties, depending on the
proprietary parents that they use.


3 Strategic partnerships with the private
sector and advanced research institutes
CIMMYT will establish more strategic and productive
relationships with the private sector and advanced
research institutes. Despite the frequently cited
constraints to linking with these organizations,
especially intellectual property constraints, the role of
these organizations in developing and using new
technology with important agricultural applications is
widely acknowledged.

The private organizations with which CIMMYT works
range from very small, local seed companies, which have
little funding to conduct research and marketing
programs, to multinational agriculture-biotechnology-
chemical companies. Similarly, advanced research
institutes include large and small institutes and
universities, public and private, in both industrialized
and developing countries.

The objectives of these partnerships are varied as well.
They help us to acquire technology for our own use or
for use across developing countries. They help to amplify
the impact of research at the local level-for example,
by providing improved seed to poor farmers at
accessible prices (Box 4.4). They are important for
CIMMYT to remain informed about scientific
developments and trends.

Among advanced research institutes, academic
institutions are particularly significant partners because
of their long-term impact on research capacity and on
the kinds of research that are done. The impact of the
development community's investment in international
agricultural research can be extended by creating better
links between academic institutions in donor nations
and CGIAR Centers. Young scientists in industrialized
countries would encounter more opportunities and
motivation to become involved in science to alleviate
poverty and hunger. By influencing the academic
research agenda in industrialized countries to take these
problems into account, academic institutions would also
increase their relevance and links to developing country
researchers and academic institutions.











CIMMYT WILL


ENGAGE IN SCIENCE-
BASED ADVOCACY
TO INCREASE THE
RANGE OF CHOICES
AVAILABLE TO OUR
PARTNERS AND TO
THE POOR.



What is CIMMYT's strength in partnerships with the
private sector and advanced research institutes?
CIMMYT offers unique, genetically diverse
germplasm of maize, wheat, and wild relatives with
numerous traits of interest, such as broad adaptation,
stress tolerance, and improved nutritional and
industrial quality. We offer important information,
both phenotypic and genetic, about that germplasm
in a broad set of environments. We offer an
international network in which we are a trusted
partner. This network is an important avenue for
advanced research institutes, which often lack wide
contacts in developing countries, to implement their
research at the farm level. The groundwork done by
CIMMYT in development and training creates
potential markets for the private sector and a pool
of expertise from which private organizations often
recruit staff.

Each partnership with private companies and
advanced research institutes has its particular
advantages/disadvantages and requires specific kinds
of contractual agreements (including material
transfer, intellectual property, and confidentiality
agreements). CIMMYTgives high priorityto ensuring
that these agreements are congruent with
international conventions, such as the International
Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and
Agriculture, and its own policies. Good legal counsel,
especially with respect to intellectual property law, is
essential to CIMMYT's future, both to ensure that
CIMMYT fulfills its role as custodian and producer of
global public goods, and to ensure that CIMMYT and
its partners in developing countries can still access
the best science for the benefit of farmers.


O Other international and regional
development organizations
CIMMYT will continue to pursue and strengthen its
partnerships with a large number of international and
regional development organizations, such as the World
Bank, United Nations Development Programme, United
Nations Environment Programme, and the United
Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. Global and
regional fora will also feature prominently among our
partners-e.g., the Global Forum on Agricultural
Research, the New Partnership for Africa's
Development, the Southern African Center for
Cooperation in Agricultural and Natural Resources
Research and Training, the Asia Pacific Association of
Agricultural Research Institutions, the Association for
Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and
Central Africa, and the Southern African Development
Community, to name only a few. Regional fora are
especially important partners for setting priorities and
developing more effective strategies for delivering
technology for farmers.

0 Science-based advocacy for developing
and delivering public goods
A wide range of stakeholders consulted during the
development of this strategy advised CIMMYT to give
greater attention to its role as an advocate to ensure
that research truly fosters sustainable development.
Building on a stronger capacity for policy analysis, we
will participate more fully in the public debate on issues
of importance to us, and our stakeholders, with the
goal of influencing the process though which those
issues are addressed and resolved.

CIMMYT's advocacy work will be informed by its
unique scientific and humanitarian perspective. It will
be done in partnership with others (IFPRI, for example)
and focus on two specific objectives.

First, we will advocate when there is a good chance
that by doing so we can increase the range of choices
available to our partners and to the poor. One example
is the debate over transgenic crops. CIMMYT, along

















with other CGIAR Centers, can help assess the potential
usefulness of genetic engineering for public plant
breeding programs, objectively examine the potential
risks and benefits of transgenic crops for poor producers
and consumers, and encourage enlightened private-
sector participation in using new science to resolve the
problems of poor people. Another area where advocacy
is sorely needed is the development of regional biosafety
policies.

Second, we will advocate the use of technologies to
benefit the poor, when advocacy is needed to turn
research into impact. There are countless examples of
promising technologies that never made it off the shelf
because adoption was blocked by external constraints.
For example, the formal and informal mechanisms that
regulate the availability and sharing of seed may be
ineffective, preventing farmers from obtaining better
varieties. In the presence of such constraints, poor
farmers rarely have the clout to bring about needed
policy changes. CIMMYT, along with other CGIAR
Centers, can provide that clout.

All of this work will emphasize accurate, science-based
information and analysis. We will focus only on issues
for which we and our partners can offer substantive,
competent input. CIMMYTwill not recast itself as a policy
advisory organization and will certainly not make
judgments about the political structures or orientation
of any country or territory. To do otherwise would be
irresponsible, given that our participation in apolitical
innovation networks is crucial for achieving our mission.

D Working as a global innovation network:
A systemic approach to knowledge
management
A fundamental change in CIMMYT's mission and strategy
is an emphasis on knowledge sharing and innovation
networks. The knowledge produced by CIMMYT and
its partners will almost certainly become as important a
"global public good" as improved varieties or practices.
How will CIMMYT work with its diverse array of partners
to create and share knowledge?


The acquisition and sharing of knowledge are
complex processes, and innovation is notjust a simple
outcome of those processes. Anyone can be a
knowledge and innovation catalyst, and anyone
might be a user. It is often difficult to identify the
elements that lead to innovation and understand how
they fit together, but without that understanding, it
can be challenging to foster innovation or to
determine why it occurs in one setting and not
another. There are countless examples of research
organizations and networks that work well, and
others that do not. For CIMMYT-which cannot work
well without effective partnerships-it is crucial to
know whether its own approaches to managing
knowledge, partnering, and networking are leading
to effective innovation.

D The strategic shift towards catalyzing
innovation
Who uses the knowledge-the information and
technology-produced by CIMMYT? National
agricultural research systems, other CGIAR Centers,
the private sector (especially local seed and input
providers), and NGOs may all incorporate knowledge
from CIMMYT into their own efforts-for example,
as inputs into further research, as seed for
multiplication and distribution, and/or as technology
packages (in the case of national research
organizations or NGOs) that are used in rural
development.

These same partners are all important sources of
knowledge for CIMMYT as well. CIMMYT must be
highly attuned to their heterogeneous and evolving
needs, and to their changing capacity to generate,
share, and apply knowledge. This collaborative role
is necessary for CIMMYT to succeed in its strategic
decision to act not just as a technology provider but
as a catalyst in an innovation network. To take on
this role, CIMMYT must make it a standard practice
to conduct research priority setting, planning, and
evaluation in collaboration with key stakeholders
whenever possible.

















D The elements of a global knowledge system
The quality and usefulness of the knowledge that we create
and share with others depends, to a great extent, on our
own access to information and knowledge. CIMMYT must
hone a strategy that allows access to new science
(overcoming intellectual property barriers), databases, online
journals, and other resources so that information is available
to scientists and partners regardless of their location.
CIMMYT must also continue to invest in tools to combine,
interpret, and use a wide variety of data in further research.

It is human interactions that give these resources their value,
however. CIMMYT will need to foster greater learning at
the individual, group, and inter-organizational levels. Our
new program structure is based on interdisciplinary teams
to ensure the lively exchange of ideas to solve complex
problems. CIMMYT, as the link in a network of a great
variety of partners, is in a unique position to foster
knowledge sharing across types of research (exploratory,
highly innovative, "blue-sky" research; strategic global
research; and adaptive research), across regions, and from
farmers' fields to the laboratory and back again. By paying
greater attention to this ability to span boundaries, CIMMYT
will reinforce its role as a catalyst for innovation. We can
facilitate "communities of practice" (groups with similar
expertise and interests) that include researchers and
practitioners around the world who are committed to
addressing farmers' needs. By continually engaging with
these partners, we will generate valuable new paradigms
(in other words, new models or sets of assumptions) for
understanding what we are learning from our work, how
we are learning from our work, and when these new
perceptions call for new solutions to research problems.

As part of this learning process, we will strive to ensure
that all partners share information about the benefits,
implementation challenges, and shortcomings of
technologies, and continuing (or emerging) needs of
farmers and collaborating institutions. Formerly the effort
to sustain these information flows may have been seen as
a transaction that detracted from CIMMYT's "real work"
of applied science. In the future, supporting such
information flows will be one of the foremost mechanisms
through which CIMMYT adds value to the networks in
which its science plays a crucial role.













SUPPORTING
INFORMATION
FLOWS WILL BE


ONE OF THE
FOREMOST
MECHANISMS
THROUGH WHICH
CIMMYT ADDS
VALUE TO THE
NETWORKS IN
WHICH ITS
SCIENCE PLAYS A
CRUCIAL ROLE.











Although we have described this approach to knowledge
management as if it were an isolated element of our
strategy, it is not. The platform for developing new
knowledge is based on:
* An agenda of strategic research challenges,
understood in their real-life contexts and identified
through our network of partners (Chapters 2 and 3).
* Effective partnerships and shared research paradigms
to tackle the research challenges (Chapters 4 and 5).
* Information and tools for effective problem-solving
(Chapters 3 and 5).
* A strong human resource base for knowledge creation
(Chapters 4 and 5).
* A continual learning perspective that captures
feedback from our partners and beneficiaries so that
the knowledge creation cycle is dynamic (Chapter 5).


The practical implications for CIMMYT may be
summarized as follows:

* Actively exchange information across
organizational boundaries, and use that
information to inform the workof CIMMYT and
its partners-in other words, function as an open
rather than a closed system with respect to
information.
* Participate in diverse networks and partnerships,
valuing them as multiple sources of information
and expertise, as channels to improve the validity
and usefulness of CIMMYT's products and
services, and as a way of extending impact.
* Recognize that our most important assets are
people, because they create and maintain
scientific knowledge, networks, and
relationships.
* Reward risk-taking and creativity, foster wide-
ranging conversations across disciplines and
programs, and intentionally learn from mistakes
as well as achievements.
* Value individuals who embrace these principles,
and develop procedures and an organizational
culture to sustain them.

[ Conclusion: Committing to change
Clearly, to transform itself into the kind of
organization envisioned in this strategy, especially
with respect to sharing knowledge and fostering
innovation, CIMMYT must make a strong
commitment to working in new ways. We must
draw on such practices as participatory priority
setting and planning, strategic human resource
management, critical interdisciplinary dialogue,
partnering for technology dissemination, and
innovative approaches to understanding impact
from a systems perspective. The next chapter reviews
some of the steps that must be taken for CIMMYT
to move from strategy to practice.







































~rt-"

t*,
















The major elements of this strategy emerged from a
consultative and participatory process involving CIMMYT
staff and a broad cross-section of stakeholders. In
developing this strategy, we strove to respond to concerns
emerging from the consultation (Box 5.1), but the ultimate
proof of success lies not in these pages but in how the
principles of the strategy are put into practice.

Organizational change of the magnitude discussed in this
strategy does not happen quickly or easily. Much work
remains to be done, and difficult decisions remain to be
made. The broad agenda presented in Chapter 3 represents
the scope of research that is needed to fulfill CIMMYT's
mission-in other words, the agenda that it would be
desirable to fund. Given that resources are limited, however,
CIMMYT and its partners will have to be extremely selective
in the research they decide to undertake.


This chapter provides a preliminary view of some of the
steps (Figure 5.1) that will be involved in implementing
the strategy, especially with respect to priority setting. It
concludes with observations on measuring impact,
ensuring good accountability and governance, and
learning to become a learning organization.



The most critical step for moving from strategy to reality
will be a series of planning and priority setting meetings
held throughout 2004 with stakeholders. These meetings
will initiate a continuing process of joint planning and
priority setting for CIMMYT and its partners. These
partners helped to articulate the strategic choices that
CIMMYT needed to make, and their views are equally
essential for helping to specify the concrete actions
needed to move forward.


October 2003 Novi

* Approval of Fir
strategy All
un
Id
ne
Esl
pr
re\
ex
Id
20
Ini






i -


ember-December 2003

alize I. I Ill il, lii 1 structure
ocate current human resources
der the new structure
entify immediate human resource
eds and prepare recruitment strategy
tablish overall research priorities and
ogram budgets I ...i... .to be
viewed after consultation with
ternal stakeholders)
entify Interim PF .II 1111 Directors for
04
tiate plans ii 1. i... 1ii .I staff


January-March 2004

* Develop detailed implementation
plan, including "enabling
strategies" for areas such as
HI III,, IIII human resources, staff
training, capacity building,
communications, intellectual
property, and so forth
* Hire Deputy Director General
Research


January-December 2004

* FPi,,,i 1II planning and priority
setting with stakeholders
* Firmly establish perceptions
among external stakeholders
about CIMMYT's new
directions










r


January-April 2004 January-October 2004
* Initiate new program Develop plan for
structure and teams improving infrastructure


Figure 5.1. Implementation of CIMMYT's strategy, 2003-2006.


October-December 2004
* Conduct preliminary assessment of
progress; redefine programs if warranted
* Finalize research plan for 2005-2007
* Begin External Program and
Management Review


II I











Aside from delineating the research agenda for each
program over the next three to five years, the meetings
with stakeholders will provide information to:
* Determine CIMMYT's overall research priorities and
resource allocations, including the relative allocation
of resources to maize and wheat and across regions.
(Appendix 1 presents an approach for initiating the
discussion of the allocations.) Current short-term
projects, and the resources associated with them, will
be managed under the new research programs.
* Identifywhich new activities and resources are required
to carry out the broader research agenda.
* Identify which partners are well-positioned to
undertake specific activities more efficiently or
effectively than CIMMYT-information that will
determine how overall goals can be accomplished
collaboratively.
* Identify areas where new skills or a different disciplinary
balance are needed. Adjustments in staffing will be
made over the next three to five years.


January 2005
* New management
team in place


August-September 2005
* Prepare medium-term
research plan (2005-2007)


January-June 2006
* With external stakeholders,
evaluate progress in
im l,| l l iiii l strategy


L


September-December 2005
* Conclude External
Program and
Management Review


Responding

to stakeholders'

concerns through

the new strategy


CIMMYT's external stakeholders and staff identified a number of
concerns that the new strategy seeks to address. For example,
CIMMYT was advised to eliminate crop and disciplinary "silos"
and to emphasize systems thinking; the proposed global and eco-
regional program structure aims to respond to this advice. Greater
emphasis on leveraging partnerships should help to reduce
concerns that CIMMYT researchers are "spread too thinly." By
increasing decision-making authority in our various research
locations and implementing joint priority setting with stakeholders,
we should improve CIMMYT's ability to be a good collaborator
and respond much more rapidly to changing local needs.

A number of stakeholders noted that insufficient funding and
increased reliance on short-term, downstream projects are great
handicaps for CIMMYT. These circumstances clearly are not unique
to CIMMYT, as our donor stakeholders have noted, but they must
be addressed. We will redouble our efforts to attract new resources,
to allocate scarce resources to high-priority activities, and to use
resources as efficiently as possible.

Finally, and partly as a result of the trends in research funding
mentioned above, some stakeholders felt that CIM MYT had moved
away from a clear focus on its mission. In developing this strategy
we sought to reach consensus on CIMMYT's mission, to make
our mission known widely and publicly, and to engender broad
support for the research agenda that will fulfill this mission. Our
success in this regard can be judged only in the years to come, as
this new strategy comes into practice.


STAKEHOLDERS WOULD
LIKE TO SEE CIMMYT MOVE
BEYOND DISCUSSION OF NEW
STRATEGIES AND TAKE THE
ACTIONS NECESSARY TO REMAIN
RELEVANT AND SUCCESSFUL.
-SUMMARY OF MERIDIAN
INSTITUTE REPORT ON
STAKEHOLDERS' PERCEPTIONS
OF CIMMYT


2 1 2


I















In developing the overall plan of work, CIMMYTwill pay
particular attention to opportunities for harmonizing its
efforts with those of other CGIAR Centers.



In parallel with the planning meetings described above,
CIMMYT will develop a detailed plan for implementing
its strategy. One of the first priorities is to arrive at a
clear definition of the program/disciplinary matrix
proposed in Chapter 3. Another is to develop the
"enabling strategies" that are vital to implementation.
The mix of strategies remains to be determined, but it is
likely that specific strategies will be needed for financing,
partnerships, advocacy, intellectual property,
communications, human resources, capacity building,
and knowledge/information management.

As CIMMYT's global partnership, research, and
administrative agendas take shape, a team comprising
the Director General, Deputy Director General for
Research, and Director of Corporate Services will oversee
their implementation. Program Directors will provide
leadership in implementing their respective programs.
As noted, we envision that groups sharing a common
disciplinary focus will interact across programs. Over time
they may evolve into communities of practice that extend
well beyond CIMMYT's organizational boundaries.

We will also modify management practices and improve
management information systems and information and
communications technology to support our new ways
of working, and we will train staff in skills that are
essential for implementing the new strategy. Criteria and
mechanisms will be developed to evaluate the progress
of individuals, teams, and CIMMYT itself in delivering
on the goals we have set in developing this strategy.




Changes in how CIMMYTworks across research locations
are also vital to implementing this strategy. The traditional
hierarchy of a centralized headquarters and subsidiary
regional offices is not conducive to the holistic research
perspective and extensive local partnerships that CIMMYT
will require to fulfill its mission. CIMMYT aspires to


function more as an integrated network of worldwide
research locations, each with considerably more autonomy.
In regular consultation with stakeholders, staff at these
locations will develop and lead CIMMYT's research agenda
and drive its research impacts. As mentioned, the first of
these local consultations will occur in 2004.

We believe strongly that basing people in the same place
encourages them to work more effectively together. Staff
will be grouped at any given location to create the
appropriate critical mass of scientific, development, and
administrative skills to better achieve our goals. These teams
will act as catalysts for innovation and information
sharing-locally, in the region, and throughout the world.

We will no longer base all of CIMMYT's research directors
at one headquarters location, and we expect to reinforce
staffing in our Asian and African locations. We will also
shift some activities to new locations; for example, some
of our more advanced research initiatives will be housed in
laboratories in industrialized countries. Activities that were
once centralized may be distributed across locations to be
made more effective, such as the development of locally
adapted varieties. Other activities, such as the ex situ
conservation of genetic resources and pre-breeding, will
remain centralized to be efficient and effective. A given
location will engage in downstream and upstream research
to varying degrees, depending on local needs and
circumstances, but most upstream research will be
conducted through links to partner institutions. Finally, to
be flexible to serve those who need CIMMYT most, the
size and placement of CIMMYT's various research locations
will be dynamic.

D S


As CIMMYT engages in new ways of working, how do we
intend to measure our impact, given that our research will
become more interdisciplinary and collaborative? In the
immediate term, measurable impact indicators for the
respective programs will be determined as priorities are
set for each program, beginning in 2004. Each program
will be held accountable for performance against its own
milestones on an annual basis. At the Center level, CIMMYT
will plan for an overall external evaluation of progress in
2006 (allowing a two-year interval for implementation of






























the strategy). The evaluation will gather external and
internal stakeholders' perceptions and compare these with
the corresponding surveys that formed the analytical
foundations of this strategy (Box 1.1, p. 3).

In particular, the evaluation will assess the extent of progress
towards the following goals:

* An increased focus on poverty reduction and natural
resource conservation in our research, framed in the
context of sustainable livelihoods.
* The use of more consultative approaches and strategic
partnerships to develop and execute the research
agenda, including the use of new approaches to
knowledge sharing.
* A more effective alignment of financial and human
resources in support of our research agenda.

By holding ourselves accountable to these goals, we will
ensure that the philosophy of this strategy is translated
into new practices with tangible results. Evaluation will also
highlight areas where the implementation of the strategy
needs fine-tuning or strengthening, as well as areas where
new information or changes in the external environment
suggest that the strategy itself may need adjustments.

At a more general level, impact studies will extend well
beyond current analyses to measure multiple effects of the
work of multiple partners on food security, livelihoods,
incomes, and the environment. We recognize that these
impacts are not easy to measure, especially in the short
term. Despite the numerous conceptual and practical


challenges involved in assessing these kinds of impacts,
however, this activity is essential for assessing CIMMYT's
progress in achieving its mission. We will maintain
rigorous guidelines for impact assessment, and we will
incorporate these guidelines into every program. We will
continue to invest and collaborate in developing
methods. By institutionalizing impact assessment in this
way, CIMMYT will generate the objective feedback
needed for effective self-assessment and accountability,
expand the knowledge base for impact assessment,
promote a strong impact assessment culture throughout
the Center, and strengthen our ability to become a true
learning organization.



Impact studies provide some indication of the value of
investing in CIMMYTto meet research and development
goals, but they do not provide an idea of the day-to-day
effectiveness of CIMMYT's science or the probity of its
management. Several external and internal mechanisms
help ensure that CIMMYT acts with integrity and
efficiency to fulfill its responsibilities to those it serves
and those who fund it. For example, CIMMYT benefits
from regular public assessments mandated bythe CGIAR,
which also establishes a peer review mechanism to
facilitate self-assessment by each Center.

CIMMYT's Board of Trustees will remain the link between
external and internal processes for ensuring sound
management and outstanding performance at CIMMYT.
The Board is the ultimate architect and arbiter of
CIMMYT's research and management strategies and
policies, as well as of management's performance in
carrying out those policies.

Internally, CIMMYT's research and management are
monitored and evaluated by its research and
administrative management teams. In addition,
independently of the CGIAR, CIMMYT commissions
reviews on issues of concern to the Center. It also
provides scientific and financial information to funding
organizations and undergoes periodic reviews. An
important accountability check in the short term will be
the External Program and Management Review of
CIMMYT, which is currently planned to begin in
late 2004.

















CIMMYT is party to a number of legal agreements,
including conventions such as the International Treaty
on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture as
well as licensing agreements and other contractual
relationships, which are overseen by CIMMYT's legal
counsel. The maintenance of a strong, independent legal
office is absolutely essential to preserving CIMMYT's
integrity and effectiveness as a public research
organization.

Beyond formal reports, reviews, and contracts, however,
scientific accountability within CIMMYT depends
considerably upon achieving teams that work
productively together and with external partners. These
groups will be self-regulating and reflective, and they
will be empowered through multi-source assessment to
review the way CIMMYT's programs are managed and
conducted. Program activities will be aligned clearlywith
resource availability and output and impact productivity.
The allocation of operating budgets between and within
programs will serve as an additional and clear means of
rewarding excellence. The Deputy Director General for
Research will ensure effective cross-program and external
interaction and collaboration.

S.

Funding was a key concern raised by many of the
stakeholders consulted in developing this strategy. A
number of stakeholders mentioned the greatly expanding
agenda for international agricultural research and the
need to show impact in different ways-for example,
not in simple terms of rising yields per unit of land, but
in measurable improvements in livelihoods and the quality
of the natural resource base. Stakeholders also
mentioned the rising cost of research, especially with
respect to biotechnology. They asked if CIMMYT would
be able to fund its research program adequately.

As mentioned earlier, the ambitious research agenda
presented here represents the full spectrum of research
that will enable CIMMYT to fulfill its mission. Specific
elements of the agenda may change upon further
consultation with our stakeholders, but when it is fully
defined, with clearly identified priorities, we will know


whether the most urgent priorities are supported by
current funding, and we will also know which activities
should be suspended-either immediately, or if the
financial situation should become more difficult. With
this information, we will develop a focused strategy to
finance the elements of our research agenda, based on
their relative importance to our stakeholders. This
strategy will be closely supported by public awareness
and communications efforts.

Our fundraising will manifest the same qualities of
partnership that will define our research. Collaborative
priority setting will be followed by collaborative project
development that includes roles and resources for each
partner. Project development will increasingly be done
on a regional or bilateral basis under the aegis of the
eco-regional programs, which will have greater familiarity
with grass-roots organizations and local donor priorities.
We will explore opportunities to link maize and wheat
research and technology development projects with
other rural development activities financed by donor
agencies. Wherever possible, we will link with other
CGIAR Centers. We will continue to communicate closely
with CGIAR donors to identify and encourage shared
priorities.

Although much can be done through individual projects,
they rarely offer stable resources to support core activities
and explore new ones over the long term. Three
additional sources of support seem worth exploring to
expand our resource base:

* Pursuing new public-sector funding from non-ODA
windows, in collaboration with local partners (e.g.,
science and technology or agricultural development
funding, in conjunction with national counterparts
from developed and developing countries).
* Seeking stronger support from the private sector
(both financial and in-kind through staff
secondments, access to private-sector research
infrastructure and/or products).
* Mounting a philanthropic major gifts campaign at
the global level to establish an endowment for
international public goods research for agricultural
and technology development (preferably with other
CGIAR Centers).









































Each of these alternatives represents a different
challenge, from negotiating potential conflicts of interest
to making a significant investment in time and resources.
On the other hand, the need for a stable financial base
will only intensify. If we must expand our resource base,
we are well advised to start sooner rather than later.




Previous chapters have described the increasingly
complex challenges involved in fostering sustainable
livelihoods for the poor, the shifting configuration of
actors and "rules of engagement," and the new tools
that may accelerate the pace of scientific breakthroughs.
The world that CIMMYT entered in 1966 is not the world
in which it lives today, and we have little reason to expect
that this strategy will be a flawless guide to the future.
At most, it can articulate the vision and principles that
will inform our choices in the years to come. Almost as
soon as the ink is dry, a key assumption may change
dramatically.


How should CIMMYT plan for a future of constant and
unpredictable change? The only solution is to practice
the principles of continual organizational learning. First,
even though we will hold ourselves accountable to the
elements of this strategy, we will regularly evaluate-
along with our stakeholders-the validity of our operating
premises (for example, the role of maize and wheat in
the livelihoods of the poor, our particular areas of
expertise and those of our partners, and the state of
science). The important goal is not to have a "Strategic
Plan," but rather to engage in a permanent process of
strategic planning. (Approaches such as scenario
planning, which we undertook in developing the current
strategy, may become a standard feature in future
planning efforts.)

Second, we are committed to furthering an organizational
culture, structure, management style, and performance
incentives to stimulate the acquisition, sharing, and
evaluation of knowledge. Learning must be everybody's
business. We will need a strong, clear understanding of
how a learning and knowledge culture is directly tied to
our mission, inspires superior performance, and is the
source of our strength as an organization. Staff training
to build skills in participatory planning and evaluation, in
teamwork-working across disciplines, cultures, and
organizational boundaries-and in continual self-
reflective learning at individual, team and organizational
levels, will be important to make these concepts a reality.

Finally, if we wish to be a true learning organization, we
must be self-critical, willing to acknowledge and learn
from our shortcomings, and be self-correcting. We must
continually evaluate not only the usefulness of our
technologies, but the robustness of our paradigms. This
plan already represents a significant paradigm shift, in
moving away from a crop and technology focus to a
people-centered livelihoods focus, and from a linear
understanding of technology dissemination to a non-
linear understanding of how farmers innovate and
systems change. No doubt more revolutions in our
thinking await us. Open and wide-ranging dialogue with
our allies and critics will be essential to ensuring that
CIMMYT continues to tackle difficult questions in new
and creative ways.













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A STARTING POINT FOR ADDRESSING RESEARCH


RESOURCE ALLOCATION


How should CIMMYT allocate its resources between
crops and among regions, taking poverty and other
factors into account? Should the pattern of resource
allocation change in future? Who are the alternative
suppliers of CIMMYT's products and services, and how
should their activities influence CIMMYT's research
planning?

A simple congruency model, such as CIMMYT's
Resource Allocation Tool (RAT), can serve as a starting
pointy for addressing these often complex questions.
Like most congruency models, the CIMMYT model is
grounded in the assumption that resources should be
allocated across research activities in proportion to the
likely value of the research output thatwill be generated
by investing in each activity. If this cannot be reliably
estimated, an alternative approach is to allocate
resources to different research activities in proportion
to the importance of the target areas or "needs"
represented by each activity.

The RAT takes as its starting point the distribution of
maize and wheat consumption in the developing world.
Actual consumption data for the year 2000 are used
for the baseline runs. Projected consumption data for
2020 can be substituted to obtain a picture of how
CIMMYT's priorities are likely to change over the short-
to medium-term. The model uses consumption data
rather than production data, in recognition of the fact
that a significant proportion of the maize and wheat
consumed by the poor in developing countries is not
produced domestically but imported.


An important feature of the RAT-one designed to make
it more relevant for making strategic resource allocation
decisions-is that the maize and wheat consumption
data are modified by the application of weighted indices
reflecting factors of importance to CIMMYT's mission.

These indices were constructed at the country level to
account for three factors: the importance of maize and
wheat in human livelihoods; the incidence of poverty;
and the presence of alternative suppliers of CIMMYT's
goods and services. In addition to these indices, the RAT
incorporates a set of variables that allow sensitivity
analysis to be performed on four factors of interest:

1. Maize: wheat price ratio. The RAT analysis can be
conducted in terms of physical units of maize and
wheat consumption, or in terms of the value of maize
and wheat consumption. Sound arguments can be
made to justify either approach. If the analysis is
conducted in terms of value, however, it is necessary
to assign prices to maize and wheat. Ideally, local
consumer prices would be used, but since these are
not available for all countries, the RAT analysis is
based on international reference prices for maize and
wheat. Since international reference prices change
through time, a variable has been incorporated to
allow changes in the ratio of maize to wheat prices.
2. Food vs. feed use of maize and wheat. Given
CIMMYT's mission to serve the poorest of the poor,
it can be argued that maize and wheat destined for
human consumption (food use) should be assigned
higher priority than maize and wheat destined to be
fed to animals (feed use).

















3. Overlaps in CGIAR mandates. CIMMYT's global
mandate to conduct research on maize and wheat
overlaps with the regional mandates of two other
CGIAR Centers, IITA and ICARDA. Variables have
been incorporated in the RAT to allow discounts to
be applied to maize consumed in West and Central
Africa and to wheat consumed in CWANA region.
4. Potential for spillovers. Brazil, China, and India
are clearly important partners for CIMMYT, and our
investment in research targeted at their needs
comprises a significant part of CIMMYT's overall
portfolio. However, since the potential for capturing
research spillovers is much larger in these three
countries than in all other countries, itwould not be
rational for CIMMYT to invest in the needs of these
three countries at the same level of intensity as we
invest in the needs of other countries. For this reason,
a variable has been incorporated in the RAT that
allows a discount to be applied to maize and wheat
consumed in Brazil, China, and India.

Using the assumption that the allocation of CIMMYT's
resources should be roughly congruent with the
importance of maize and wheat in the livelihoods of the
poor, the weighted distribution of maize and wheat
consumption generated by the RAT provides guidelines
that can be used in deciding the allocation of CIMMYT's
resources between crops and across regions as we move
towards 2020.


It is important to stress that guidelines derived from the
RAT are not strict resource allocation parameters. The
actual allocation of resources will depend on at least two
additional considerations.

1. Research efficiency. To say that a certain proportion
of CIMMYT's resources should be allocated to
research for a specific region is not to say that the
same proportion of CIMMYT's resources should be
allocated within that region. For efficiency, often it
will make sense to conduct research for a specific
region elsewhere. A good example is the Mexico-
based breeding program for wheat improvement.
Although the breeding work takes place in Mexico,
products have been successfully transferred to many
other regions, including Asia, CWANA, Sub-Saharan
Africa, and South America.
2. Availability of funding. To say that a certain
proportion of CIMMYT's resources should be
allocated to research on a specific crop or for a
specific region does not mean that funding will be
available for that purpose. If CIMMYT were funded
entirely through core funds, the flexibility to change
research resource allocations would be far greater.
As most of CIMMYT's resources consist of funds
provided for specific uses, CIMMYT's ability to shift
resources is constrained. For this reason, it is unlikely
that the allocation of resources will match the targets
generated by the RAT. The RAT can, however, serve
as a means for CIMMYTto anticipate research needs
and make its case to funding agencies accordingly.














APPROACHES AND TOOLS TO ACCELERATE
IMPROVEMENTS IN THE LIVELIHOODS OF MAIZE
AND WHEAT FARMERS AND CONSUMERS


This appendix provides detail on new approaches for making
the science of CIMMYT and its partners more effective. We
focus on here on approaches to help CIMMYT achieve its
scientific goals, and capacity building to extend scientific
innovation and impact. Third domain of new work-global
advocacy for sustainable agricultural development
interventions-was described in Chapter 4.

Before we describe these new approaches, three points are
worth emphasizing. First, readers should not assume that
all of the scientific approaches described here have priority
over current approaches. Many are simply new tools that
will complement and extend CIM MYT's expertise, especially
its core proficiency in plant breeding. In several cases, these
tools will not be developed or even applied by CIMMYT itself,
but they will be needed to make our work more efficient.

Second, although CIMMYT's new strategy places
considerable emphasis on applied research, strategic
research, such as the current effort to develop apomictic
maize (maize plants that produce clones of themselves), will
remain an important part of our portfolio.

Third, like CIMMYT's renewed commitment to advocacy, its
commitment to capacity building will restore effectiveness
and visibility to an area of work that stakeholders have
counseled us to strengthen. As such, it represents an
important "new" undertaking for CIMMYT.

[ Breeding approaches appropriate for
resource-poor farmers
CIMMYT has an important role to play in developing and
advocating farmer-oriented plant breeding and seed
dissemination approaches. Current approaches in developing
countries often have been adopted from temperate areas in
industrialized countries, which have frequently tended to
focus on developing varieties under agronomically ideal
conditions. Breeding programs in some industrialized
countries have since questioned this approach, which is even
less suited to breeding programs in some developing


countries, where the ideal conditions of the research
station have very little in common with the environment
in which poor farmers raise their crops. Over the past
two decades, CIMMYT has developed and helped others
to implement alternative maize and wheat breeding
approaches that systematically improve tolerance to
abiotic stresses so varieties are more resilient under
farmers' conditions. Varieties must also satisfy farmers'
criteria for what is a "good" variety. Models for
participatory breeding and variety selection have enabled
small-scale farmers to provide information for setting
breeding priorities and developing varieties that meet their
specific needs. These approaches have also given farmers
better information on varieties to make informed choices.

Breeding programs in developing countries also have far
fewer resources than breeding programs in industrialized
countries. How can scarce resources be used effectively
to make an impact in breeding for extremely difficult target
environments? Insights into this question rarely come from
graduate training at universities in industrialized countries,
but they do come from innovation, experience, and
collaboration in the target environments. CIMMYT helps
to meet the challenge of limited resources by bringing
together innovative partners from a range of organizations
to use new approaches to breeding and seed
dissemination.

Although CIMMYT has made considerable progress in
collaboratively developing varieties that match poor
farmers' conditions and preferences, the next challenge
is to refine and institutionalize these approaches. The
world has a wealth of knowledge on crops under ideal
conditions but less on crops under stress, and breeders
have onlyjust begun to exploit genetic variation for abiotic
stress tolerance. Too many breeding programs in
developing countries still work at a remove from farmers'
conditions, and many varieties are still released on the
basis of trials conducted under ideal agronomic
management. A large number of farmers still lack access
to improved seed or use outdated improved varieties. Most

















of all, in an environment that currently favors purely
individual (e.g., proprietary) or national approaches to these
problems, opportunities for collaboration may be
overlooked. CIMMYT is committed to research that
accelerates the development and deployment of stress
tolerant, stable, and well-accepted crop varieties; training
in new breeding approaches; and collaboration that
increases the effectiveness, impact, and sustainability of
breeding approaches in developing countries.

Targeted traits for future genetic improvement.
Throughout this document, we have emphasized the
importance of continued research that improves the
tolerance of maize and wheat varieties to a variety of
stresses-insects and plant diseases, low and irregular water
availability, and poor soil fertility. We will also pay increasing
attention to consumers' needs for improved grain quality.
Given the realities of globalization, more farmers will need
to meet the high standards set by industrial manufacturers
if they are to earn income from their maize and wheat
crops. CIMMYT has an important role to play in providing
the value-added traits that will enable greater numbers of
farmers to benefit from meeting those standards (e.g.,
improved micronutrient and protein content, improved
quality for specialized food and feed products). Traits that
contribute to improved grain storage will also increase in
importance as larger numbers of farmers seek to market
their produce.

D Biotechnology tools to unlock and leverage
genetic potential
Biotechnology is a broad field of science, ranging from
techniques such as tissue culture and embryo rescue, to
more recent advances in structural and functional genomics
and genetic engineering. The management and use of
genetic resources is already being augmented through
molecular fingerprinting, and the efficiency of plant
breeding is already being enhanced by marker-assisted
selection (MAS). Although MAS is the most relevant
biotechnology application to plant breeding at CIMMYT,
effective MAS results from a growing body of information
from large-scale fingerprinting, mapping, and functional
genomics, which provides a more comprehensive
understanding of the genes and pathways that contribute
to desirable phenotypes.


Molecular fingerprinting. Important applications of
fingerprinting for CIMMYT-and the CGIAR Challenge
Program on Genetic Resources-include improved
management of genetic resources in CIMMYT's genebank,
identification of useful combinations of inbred lines to
make hybrids, more efficient pre-breeding research,
detection of allelic variation for further phenotypic
screening, and the protection/identification of individual
varieties. Newer methods based on single nucleotide
differences (SNPs) may provide better discrimination among
maize and wheat genetic resources. In addition, the
application of functional genomics to genetic resources
may provide more detailed analysis of potentially useful
genes for breeding programs. CIMMYT must determine
whether to acquire or outsource fingerprinting and must
also develop database systems to provide this molecular
information to scientists around the world.

Gene and trait mapping. A prerequisite for MAS is the
identification of linked molecular markers. The
development of sets of molecular markers that can saturate
a genome has provided powerful tools to map specific
genes and genomic segments responsible for particular
phenotypes. The need for mapping is changing with the
prospects of functional genomic approaches to directly
identify the gene(s) involved in a particular phenotype.
Mapping will probably remain important for several years
to come, however, as a method to validate candidate genes
for a given trait and to develop contrasting materials for
use in functional genomics approaches. CIMMYT has a
number of segregating populations and genetic resources
that will be useful in mapping studies, and it must
determine whether to analyze them in-house or through
partnerships.

Marker-assisted selection (MAS). Perhaps the most
promising application of molecular genetics to breeding is
the use of molecular markers as indirect selection tools.
Once a trait is dissected into its genetic components and
we have identified markers that are linked to each of the
contributing genetic loci, the markers can be used to select
for the genes (and thus overall the trait) using a relatively
simple laboratory procedure. This process may reduce costly
field analyses (including plant phenotyping), allow
germplasm to be screened early in the growth cycle, screen
for traits thatwould not otherwise be detectable in a given

















location, and select for several traits at once. CIMMYT will
maintain and build its capabilities in this area. A major issue
for future resource allocation is that CIMMYT will require a
high-throughput laboratory for routine analysis of markers,
along with information systems that provide results rapidly
to researchers. Efforts to develop new marker systems and/
or linked markers for additional traits will be undertaken
based on CIMMYT's research priorities and with a view to
reducing breeding costs. Advances in comparative genetics
will increase efficiency of the identification of linked markers,
as theywill allow linked markers identified in one crop to be
used in others as well. Furthermore, advances in genomics
will allow the simultaneous identification of many traits (and
markers) for MAS.

Functional genomics and gene discovery. Genomics, the
study of the genome of living organisms, is made possible
by the rapid achievements in molecular biology combined
with properly phenotyped genetic resources and information
science (see the section on bioinformatics, p.51). Aside from
the innovations emerging from the private sector, advanced
research institutes are developing publicly available genomics
tools and information to identify genes for a range of traits
in many biological systems. Given gene and genome
similarities among all organisms, and especially among cereal
crops, a great deal of this research is applicable to maize
and wheat. The public sector has recently finished sequencing
the rice genome, is sequencing a significant portion of the
maize genome, and has initiated discussion on a similar
project for wheat.

One of CIMMYT's primary contributions to advancing
genomics research will be to continue providing key maize
and wheat segregating populations and lines that represent
extremes in phenotypic expression of important stress-related
traits, such as tolerance to drought, nitrogen-deficient soils,
and acidic soils and resistance to ear rots, rusts, stem borers,
and storage pests. Another important contribution will be
to continue providing molecular maps with genes and
genetic regions (quantitative trait loci or QTLs) identified for
tolerance/resistance to these stresses. By combining the
genetic resources and trait knowledge available at CIMMYT
with genomic tools and knowledge in the public and private
sector, CIMMYTwill be able to identify key genes responsible
for important traits, use this information in its breeding
programs, and provide it to partners.


Gene discovery for pre-breeding research. The
promise behind pre-breeding research is simple but
challenging to fulfill: to identify the gene or gene complex
that confers the disease resistance, micronutrient
content, input-use efficiency, or other characteristic of
value to a breeding program, and make it available in a
form that is easy for breeding programs to use. The
efficacy of pre-breeding research is measured in the
successful expression of newly identified and transferred
traits of value in locally adapted, finished varieties.
CIMMYT's pre-breeding research will be made more
effective by merging the operations of CIMMYT's
genebank-including the collection, characterization,
and regeneration of genetic resources-with all of its
pre-breeding research into an applied genetic resources
approach that takes much greater advantage of new
science. CIMMYTwill interact closely with plant breeders,
both within and outside CIMMYT, in setting priorities
for pre-breeding research and evaluating the utility of
pre-breeding products. The value of collaboration with
a range of partners in this effort cannot be
underestimated, especially as more tools become
available.

Genetic engineering. The ability to modify specific
genes in a genome or to introduce an entirely novel gene
is an important tool for producing knowledge about gene
expression and physiological processes. This approach
has been adapted to investigate potential genes for
enhancing drought tolerance and disease resistance in
bread wheat. Genetic engineering can also provide
completely new products for farmers. Its use is most
powerful and critical in developing varieties with traits
that exhibit an insufficient range of genetic diversity
within the species, as appears to be the case for such
nutritional traits as beta-carotenoid (vitamin A precursor)
content in wheat, and iron and zinc content in maize.

D Crop information systems to amplify the
power of genetic research
New fields of molecular biology, particularly functional
and comparative genomics, will contribute to food
security only if genotypes are intimately linked to
phenotypes for accurately catalogued germplasm. The
CGIAR Centers and national agricultural research systems
















are rich in phenotypic information. In fact, this information
and its collection of genetic resources are arguably
CIMMYT's most important assets. This information cannot
be used effectively, however, without an information
management system that links islands of data collected
from dispersed research efforts and provides continuous
access to a multitude of researchers around the world. As
a global institute with many partners, CIMMYT is uniquely
positioned to anchor such an information management
system. To do so, CIMMYTwill make a significant strategic
investment in information and communications
technology to support a high-capacity, relational database
platform, along with rapid data input methods that rely
on geo-referencing and electronic data capture
technologies.

Specific components of the proposed venture in
information management include a genebank
management system (including molecular maps and plant
pedigrees), GIS, bioinformatics, and data management
systems related to GxE interactions. The goal is to permit
information contained in each of these subsystems to be
linked, permitting powerful new insights into the
relationships between genes, environment, and the
productivity of crops and agricultural systems.

Geographic information systems and remote
sensing. Ever-increasing availability of spatial data is going
to have an enormous influence on CIMMYT for adoption
and impact assessment; decision-making; improving
research efficiency; communication and diffusion;
information management; and technology targeting.

Geo-databases will be accessed through a variety of
applications, complex and simple. At the complex end of
the spectrum, there will be improvements in the ability to
model and simulate complex spatial phenomena by
incorporating higher resolution and real-time inputs, along
with more sophisticated geo-statistical tools. At the simple
end, it is likely that there will be an explosion in interfaces
that permit "spatial browsing" by an ever-increasing
number of end users. It is entirely possible that spatial
technology will become so ubiquitous and embedded in
so many new applications that it will no longer be
distinguishable as a separate entity.


Developments in three major areas are of particular interest
for CIMMYT: global positioning system (GPS) technology,
high-resolution imagery and satellite sensors, and timely
(real-time) data provision. GPS technology, combined with
mobile computing devices, will have a huge impact on
field data collection. Direct transfer from mobile field
devices into centralized geo-databases is also likely to
become standard. Rapid advances in remote sensing
technologies are likely to continue. Second-generation
QuickBird and IKONOS satellites to be launched within
the next two years will bring spatial resolutions down to
50 cm or less. Hyperspectral and radar sensors are likely
to develop further and provide many opportunities for
agricultural applications, such as monitoring soil moisture,
tillage practices, leaf water content, chlorophyll, soil
salinity, and plant conditions and diseases. The volume
and quality of remote sensing data will probably increase,
and costs will probably decrease. Remotely sensed crop
monitoring is likely to replace conventional agricultural
censuses. Early warning systems for food security threats
(e.g., drought, diseases) should become more widespread
and precise.

Bioinformatics. Bioinformatics can be broadly defined
as tools that manage, analyze, and interpret biological
data, i.e., tools that acquire, store, query, analyze, and
visualize. The application of bioinformatics to structural
and functional genomic data has pushed bioinformatics
to the forefront of the interface of computer science,
biology, and mathematics. Prior to development of
genomic technologies, for example, there was little need
for large databases that stored a single kind of data (e.g.,
mRNA arrays). With the development of these large
databases, research is needed on the most efficient
methods for integrating this functional genomics data with
structural genomics data found in public repositories such
as Genbank. There is a further need to integrate structural
genomics data with germplasm and breeding databases.

CIMMYT has made only minor investments in
bioinformatics to date. Given the large investment USDA
is making to develop genetic databases for the major crops,
including maize and wheat, CIMMYT need not develop
similar systems, but it will need to link to them. CIMMYT's
investment in systems to handle genomic data is even
more limited. A comprehensive and integrated system will
be needed to manage future genomic data, whether
















produced at CIMMYT or by its partners. The platform will
require links to a number of crop information systems,
genebank systems, breeding simulation software, and the
genetic databases mentioned above.

Understanding complex genotype-environment (GxE)
interactions. A better understanding of complex GxE
interactions is needed for developing system-based solutions
to farmers' problems. The use of international trials, coupled
with more sophisticated statistical analyses of international
trials data, remote sensing, crop modeling, GIS, and
improvements in CIMMYT's field trials (Box A.1, p. 56), will
open the wayfor much more precise development of varieties
and crop management options (such as conservation
agriculture) that work well together in specific target
environments to improve the sustainability of agriculture.

CIMMYT's extensive partnerships make it possible to quantify
GxE interactions by conducting experiments at agronomically
representative sites worldwide. The knowledge acquired
through this research is directly relevant to farmers' conditions.
For example, these partnerships facilitate a better
understanding of how certain traits overcome yield barriers
(e.g., the mechanisms associated with drought resistance in
maize; the advantages possessed by bread wheats developed
from wild grasses).

Although GxE interactions are so dynamic that it has been
difficult to locate and quantify losses associated with biotic
stresses with much precision, new approaches and tools are
providing useful information. With data on the performance
of individual varieties in representative on-farm sites over a
range of agro-ecologies, GIS can provide valuable predictive
information on the locations where a given variety is most
suited and which resistance traits it should carry to ensure
high, stable grain production. With this information in hand,
scientists can identify locations where pressure from these
stresses is extremely high, and they can predict shifts in pest
and disease incidence associated with climate change. The
identification of these hot spots will also facilitate the search
for resistance alleles within CIMMYT's genebank accessions.
It may be essential to expand our partnerships to test
germplasm in these key "hot spot" locations-which may
not necessarily be where the poorest people live, but where
a certain stress is most destructive and we can learn
the most about it.


[ Biophysical systems research
Soil and root health research. The intensification of
agricultural production, particularly in marginal cropping
systems based on monoculture, has often disturbed the
soil ecological and structural balance. As a result,
significant biotic soil-borne constraints can arise, including
microscopic nematodes and root-rotting fungi. These
pathogens, especially in combination with drought and
micronutrient deficiencies, can reduce yields by as much
as 60%. Scientists and farmers in many parts of the world
are not even aware that these problems exist, despite
their magnitude.

CIMMYT will devote considerable attention to these
"underground problems" in the years to come. Research
will be highly systems-oriented and interdisciplinary. New
technologies, particularly in molecular biology, will
enhance our understanding and clarify the importance
of factors affecting soil health, plant productivity, and
ultimately the long-term environmental sustainability of
cropping systems. Cultivars that resist multiple root
diseases and tolerate micronutrient imbalances will be
the most economic options for farmers and will also use
soil moisture more efficiently. Significant genetic variability
has been found for many of these constraints, and
CIMMYT has obtained molecular markers for these traits
through partnerships with advanced research institutes.
In the future, genetic engineering (based on a better
understanding of gene function) may play a major role
in developing resistant varieties.

Emphasis will also be given to studying the underlying
effects of crop management on soil health, thereby
improving our understanding of which cropping practices
(including diversification, rotations, and soil management)
are most appropriate for maintaining healthy soils for
healthy plants. Particular attention will be given to
assessing and maintaining soil health under zero tillage
to ensure that this resource-conserving practice remains
viable over the long term.

Extending the use of conservation agriculture.
Conservation agriculture is a suite of technologies,
including the retention of crop residues as mulch on the
soil, direct seeding without tillage, crop rotations, and in
some cases green manure cover crops. Over 70 million

















S hectares are under conservation agriculture around the
World, largely in the Americas and Australia. The principles
of conservation agriculture appear to have extremely wide
applicability, spanning a range of elevations, latitudes, soil
types, and rainfall regimes. The technology may be adapted
Sto cereals, oilseeds, pulses, and even cassava and potatoes
(although harvesting causes soil movement). The principles
and benefits of conservation agriculture are independent of
scale, although the practices and limitations to
S -. implementation are very different on small farms, especially
-- with respect to mulch (many small-scale farmers use crop
- .. residues for animal feed), seeding equipment (generally
. -- uninteresting to large-scale manufacturers), and input and
- credit systems.

. This agricultural revolution has spread through farmers rather
than the research establishment, and the greatest
S.- -.impediment to its further spread remains the mindset of
S -scientists and farmers steeped in the tradition of tillage-based
Se.. agriculture. Conventional research systems, which rely on
- developing technological components and delivering them
S .- .to farmers, are not suited to working on conservation
. .. .. agriculture. In addition to being very site-specific, the
S- practices involve many components and considerable
- changes in the way farmers manage their agricultural
----- .systems. Innovation systems focused on innovative farmers
S -. S- -- are required, in which multiple stakeholders with different
S. - specialties and knowledge interact.

S - However, innovation systems do not develop spontaneously
- they need a catalyst to bring stakeholders together.
S- CIMMYT will continue to interact with conservation
S-agriculture networks and farmers' associations and use its
expertise to catalyze innovation systems in the poorer rural
S. populations where it operates. In this process, research does
S- not necessarily provide technology; it acts as an integrator
S e. to help solve problems emerging within the new system.
S- CIMMYT can facilitate the exchange of information on small
S-e- equipment and its local adaptation and manufacture, and
. .- use its experience in developing input supply systems to
S- improve the provision of specialized inputs for conservation
S agriculture. Through research on GxE interactions and soil
- and root health, CIMMYT can also provide component
technologies and knowledge relevant to conservation
agriculture systems.

















Integrated natural resource management research.
The keyword in research on natural resource management
is "integration." Efforts to foster adoption of new resource-
conserving technologies need to be integrated with
supporting policies. Technology development needs to be
integrated with farmer and private-sector participation.
Individual incentives to change natural resource
management practices need to be integrated with rules
governing common property and collective action.
Information on near-term technology performance needs
to be integrated with information on longer-term
consequences. Technical innovations need to be integrated
with institutional innovations. An understanding of how
natural resource management practices work at the plot
or village level needs to be integrated with an
understanding of their outcomes at higher levels of
analysis, e.g., the river basin. At the broadest level, the
interaction of all partners in the development and
dissemination of resource-conserving practices needs to
be integrated in the context of an innovation system.

New science will be used to achieve better integration at
less cost. New crop and system models will be more
capable of simulating the long-term performance (and
riskiness over time) of resource-conserving technologies.
Plot-level models will be closely linked with river basin
models, e.g., to immediately determine the consequences
of plot-level water savings on water balances at the river
basin level. Information technology will facilitate the
sharing of information on "what works, where, and why."
Geographic information systems will become seamlessly
linked to simulation models to guide the development and
diffusion of new technologies on a wider scale. The new
science of innovation systems will help integrate the efforts
of different stakeholders to more effectively deal with
productivity and sustainability improvements through
improvements in natural resource management.

0 New directions and methods in social
science research
CIMMYT will use a wider spectrum of methods and tools
from the social sciences to benefit from alternative ways
of understanding technical innovation and identify new
strategies for addressing the complex needs of the poor.
One area in which social science methods and perspectives


will play an increasingly important role is in research on
complex issues regarding users' perspectives, farmers'
local knowledge, and the social rules that affect their
behavior and well-being. Much information related to
these issues is not explicit or easily articulated. It is
embedded in modes of social organization, customs, and
people's minds, and it is best elicited using qualitative
ethnographic and participatory methods. CIMMYT will
give increasing attention to ways in which qualitative
and quantitative approaches can be combined, and we
will systematically study the variation/variability of results
and lessons learned from participatory methods applied
to common global problems.

Policy analysis will become a greater priority for CIMMYT,
which offers a unique vantage pointfor examining factors
that affect the productivity of maize- and wheat-based
farming systems in developing countries. Policy analysis
could have a significant influence in shaping policy
decisions affecting the maize and wheat sectors in
developing countries. CIMMYT is particularly well
positioned to analyze these factors, diagnose constraints
to technical change, and prescribe policy interventions
to overcome them.

D Building capacity through a strong
learning and mentoring service
To extend the impact of its work, CIMMYT will establish
a strong service to build human capital among research
partners, rural communities, and our own staff. This
learning and mentoring service will empower people to
develop, deliver, and use information and products that
provide new options for research or livelihoods. As part
of CIMMYT's approach to managing innovation and
knowledge more effectively (see Chapter 4), this service
will:
* Coordinate, support, and innovate in capacity
building.
* Provide information on learning resources and
opportunities within and outside CIMMYT.
* Develop instructional materials that can be adapted
to specific local interests and needs.
* Connect people and organizations to foster
continued learning.

















This service will operate from a location that benefits
from excellent information and communications
technology and support, including advanced scientific *
information search and retrieval facilities as well as
writing and publishing capacity. Courses and other
learning opportunities will be offered wherever resources
are available for participants to achieve their learning
objectives.

The spectrum of people who learn through CIMMYT is
wide. Our capacity building agenda will be based on a
prioritized assessment of needs and demand, done in
conjunction with partners and staff in each region and
matched to expertise and other resources. As much as
possible, courses will be demand-driven, interdisciplinary,
employ rapidly developing information and
communications technology, and count towards
advanced degrees. All instructional materials will be A
available and searchable through the Internet and other
electronic formats. These materials will be part of
CIMMYT's digital knowledge base.

Much of the information gathered in developing this
strategic plan indicates that CIMMYT must work more
closely with others to provide more learning P
opportunities in support of scientists in national research
systems. CIMMYT must also seek new ways to reach
farm households and local networks that have limited
access to information and alternatives for improving
agriculture.

Because learning needs will vary greatly, CIMMYT will
place greater emphasis on flexible combinations of short
courses that can be locally adapted and taught. With
other CGIAR Centers, we will explore and develop
distance learning opportunities and other capacity
building initiatives such as the Global Agricultural Open
University. Additional partnerships with universities,
advanced research institutes, and private organizations
in industrialized and developing countries will make it
possible to offer a wider range of complementary
learning opportunities and share expertise in the
development of instructional materials. CIMMYT's
strength in these partnerships is its ability to help people
apply theoretical knowledge in a real-world setting.




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