• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Figure
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Maize agro-ecologies of the...
 Maize production trends and...
 Maize production constraints
 Priority research constraints
 Recommendations for maize research...
 Annexes
 Reference
 Back Cover






Group Title: Maize in the Philippines : production systems, constraints, and research priorities
Title: Maize in the Philippines
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077527/00001
 Material Information
Title: Maize in the Philippines production systems, constraints, and research priorities
Physical Description: vi, 38 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gerpacio, Roberta V
International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Publisher: CIMMYT
Place of Publication: Mexico D.F. Mexico
Publication Date: 2004
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Philippines   ( lcsh )
Farmers -- Philippines   ( lcsh )
Agricultural productivity -- Philippines   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 36-37).
Statement of Responsibility: Roberta V. Gerpacio ... et al..
General Note: Joint three-year IFAD-CIMMYT project.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00077527
Volume ID: VID00001
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 60617069
isbn - 9706481230

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
    Figure
        Page v
    Acknowledgement
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Maize agro-ecologies of the Philippines
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Maize production trends and systems
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Maize production constraints
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Priority research constraints
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Recommendations for maize research and development in the Philippines
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Annexes
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Reference
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text

II
CIMMYT.

Maize in the Philippines
Production Systems, Constraints,
and Research Priorities

Roberta V. Gerpacio
Jocelyn D. Labios
Romeo V. Labios
Emma 1. Diangkinay









Maize in the Philippines:

Production Systems, Constraints, and

Research Priorities







Roberta V. Gerpacio1
Jocelyn D. Labios2
Romeo V. Labios3
Emma I. Diangkinay4


JL
IFAD


CIMYT
CIMMYT.M


1 Agricultural Economist, CIMMYT-Philippines Office, IRRI, Los Bainos, Laguna, Philippines (r.gerpacio-irri@cgiarorg);
2 Soil Science Specialist, Agricultural Systems Cluster (formerly Farming Systems and Soil Resources Institute),
College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Bainos, Philippines (jolabios@vahoo.com);
3Farming Systems Agronomist, ASC, CA, University of the Philippines Los Bainos, Philippines
(romylabios@yahoo.com; rvl@lgn.csi.com.ph);
4 Project Research Assistant, CIMMYT-Philippines (e.diangkinay@cgiar.org).




























CIMMYT (www.cimmyt.org) is an inter nationally funded, not-for-profit organization that conducts
research and training related to maize and wheat throughout the developing world. Drawing on strong
science and effective partnerships, CIMMYT works to create, share, and use knowledge and technology to
increase food security, improve the productivity and profitability of farming systems, and sustain natural
resources. Financial support for CIMMYT's work comes from many sources, including the members of the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) (www.cgiar.org), national
governments, foundations, development banks, and other public and private agencies.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 2004. All rights reserved. The
designations employed in the presentation of materials in this publication do not imply the expr session of
any opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT or its contributory organizations concerning the legal
status of any country, territory, city, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries. CIMMYT encourages fair use of this material. Proper citation is requested.

Abstract: This is one of a series of country studies on maize production systems in Asia. It is part of a
project designed to promote sustainable intensification of maize production systems while ensuring
equitable income growth and improved food security for poor households that depend on maize. Maize
is the second most important food crop (after rice) in the Philippines, and the major source of income for
one-third of farmers (1.8 million). It is also the primary source of feed for the Filipino poultry and livestock
industry, and is being increasingly used in the manufacturing sector. Rapid economic growth and
urbanization are expected to create an even higher demand for maize in the Philippines. The challenge is
to provide more maize for an expanding market, while preserving the natural resource base and the
environment. Effective policy design and implementation must be based on comprehensive, accurate
data on the current state of maize-based farming systems. The goal of this study was to clarify the
probable response of the social and biophysical environments of the Philippines to future growth in
demand for maize by determining the constraints to productivity growth and the potential environmental
consequences, by collecting information on the available options for promoting sustainable growth.

Correct citation: Gerpacio, R. V., J. D. Labios, R. V. Labios, and E. I. Diangkinay. 2004. Maize in the
Philippines: Production Systems, Constraints, and Research Priorities. Mexico, D.F: CIMMYT.

ISBN: 970-648-123-0

AGROVOC descriptors: Seed production; Maize; Rice; Food crops; Food security; Farming systems;
Rural areas; Storage; Farmers; Poverty; Livestock management; Yield
increases; Economic growth; Environmental factors; Agricultural policies;
International organizations; Project management; Philippines

AGRIS category codes: E16 Production Economics
F01 Crop Husbandry

Dewey decimal classification: 633.1599


Printed in Mexico.












Contents













Page No.
Tab le s .............................................................. ........... ...... v
Fig u re s ......................................................... v
A know ledgm ents ...................... ............................................................ ........... ................ ...... vi

1. In tro du action .... ........................... .............................................................. ... ............ 1
1.1 B ackg roun d ... .. ................................................................ .. .......... .. ............. 1
1.2 O objective ....... ................... ... ...... ....... 1
1.3 M ethod ology ........ ........................................ ............................... .. ............... 2

2. M aize Agro-ecologies of the Philippines .......................................... ........................... 3
2.1 G general Characteristics .......................................................... .............................. 3
2.1.1 Rainfed low lands .......................................................... .............................. 3
2.1.2 Upland plains ................................. ................ 4
2.1.3 Rolling-to-hilly areas ................................................. .................................. 4
2.2 Biophysical Environm ent .................................................... ................................... 4
2 .2 .1 R rainfall ........ ........................................ ............................... .. ............. 4
2.2.2 Tem perature ........... ...... .............. ......... ... ...... ............ 5
2.2.3 Types of soil ...... ........ ...................... 5
2.3 Institutional Environm ent .................................................. ................................... 6
2.3.1 Line agencies ................................. ................ 6
2.3.2 Farm er cooperatives and user groups............................ .................................. 6
2.3.3 Sources of m material inputs ............................................. .............................. 6
2 .3 .4 C red it institutions ................................................ ............................................. 7
2.3.5 Prices of inputs and outputs ............................ ..... .................................. 7
2.4 Infrastructure ....... .. .................... .. ................................ .. .................. 10
2.4.1 Physical accessibility and irrigation facilities .............................. ........... 10
2.4.2 Post-harvest facilities ........................ ........... .............. ............... 11
2.4.3 Proximity to markets and marketing practices ........................................... 11
2.5 Socioeconom ic Characteristics ........................ .............................. ............................ 11
2.5.1 Households and ethnicity ........................ ........................... ............................ 11
2.5.2 Literacy and level of education ...................... ...................... ........................... 11
2.5.3 Landholdings and tenure ................ ............................... ............................. 12
2.5.4 M aize utilization ........................ ......................................... ............................ 13
2.5.5 Farm er classification ........................ ................................... ............................ 13











3. Maize Production Trends and Systems ................................ ... ............................. 14
3.1 M aize Production Trends ........................ ...................................... ............................ 14
3.2 M aize Production System s ........................ .................................... ........................... 15
3.2.1 M ajor farm enterprises ........................ ............................... ............................ 15
3.2.2 Crops and cropping pattern ........................................... ........................... 15
3.2.3 M aize cropping calendar............................................. .............................. 16
3.2.4 Maize varieties grown and farmers' preference ................................................. 16
3.2.5 Land preparation and crop management practices ........................................... 19
3.2.6 Level of labor and material input use ........................................ ................ 20
3.2.7 Post-harvest practices ........................ ................................. ........................... 20
3.2.8 Yields and yield gap ........................ ................................... ............................ 21

4. M aize Production Constraints ........................ ..................................... ............................ 22
4.1 Biotic and Abiotic Constraints....................................................... ........................... 22
4.2 Institutional Constraints ........................ ....................................... ............................ 23
4.3 Input Supply Constraints ........................ ..................................... ............................ 23
4.4 O their Socioeconom ic Constraints ..................................... ........................................ 24

5. Priority Research Constraints .................... ............................ ..................................... 25
5.1 Methodology for Identifying Priority Constraints ................................................. 25
5.2 Priority Constraints ...................................................... ....................................... 26
5.2.1 M major findings ..................................................... ...................................... 26
5.2.2 Regional priorities ................................................................... 26
5.2.3 Technology development and dissemination.................................................. 28

6. Recommendations for Maize Research and Development in the Philippines ................... 30

7. A nnexes ................. ...................... ............... 32

8 R eferen ces .... ............ ................................................................ .......... ...... 36











Tables












Page No.

Table 1. Agro-ecological classification of 24 surveyed villages in the Philippines ................................... 3
Table 2. Average annual rainfall and temperature in maize production areas
of the Philip pines, 1990 1999 ............................................... ................................................. 5
Table 3. Advantages and disadvantages of different soil types as reported by farmers in
m aize production areas of the Philippines. ........................................ ............................ 6
Table 4. Range of prices in PhP pesos of farm inputs, outputs, and competing and
complementary products in 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .......................... .................7
Table 5. Infrastructure status in 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .................................................. 10
Table 6. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. ........ 12
Table 7. Farmer characteristics by economic status in 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .................. 13
Table 8. Long-term trends of maize area, yield, and production in the Philippines, 1980-2000 ............. 14
Table 9. Cropping patterns found across the 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .............................. 15
Table 10. General maize cropping calendar (17 months) in the 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. ...... 16
Table 11. Maize varieties grown in 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .............................................. 17
Table 12. Maize characteristics ranking based on farmers' preferences. .................................................. 19
Table 13. Average labor and material inputs use in 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .................... 20
Table 14. Maize yield by type of material and maize agro-ecozone,
24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .......... ...................................................................... 21
Table 15. Farmer-identified technological and socioeconomic constraints to maize productivity,
24 surveyed villages, the Philippines, 2001. ............................................ .............. 23
Table 16. Prioritizing constraints across maize ecologies and geographic regions................................... 25
Table 17. Top 10 priority constraints to maize productivity based on
efficiency vs. poverty rankings, the Philippines. ........................................... ................. 26
Table 18. Top 25 maize priority constraints according to priority indices, the Philippines..........................27
Table 19. Top 25 prioritized technological and socioeconomic constraints, the Philippines. .................. 27
Table 20. Technology options and research approaches that will help alleviate major
maize production constraints, the Philippines. ............... ........................... ............... 28




Figure

Page No.
Figure 1. M ap of the Philippines.............................................................................. ........................ 2











Tables












Page No.

Table 1. Agro-ecological classification of 24 surveyed villages in the Philippines ................................... 3
Table 2. Average annual rainfall and temperature in maize production areas
of the Philip pines, 1990 1999 ............................................... ................................................. 5
Table 3. Advantages and disadvantages of different soil types as reported by farmers in
m aize production areas of the Philippines. ........................................ ............................ 6
Table 4. Range of prices in PhP pesos of farm inputs, outputs, and competing and
complementary products in 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .......................... .................7
Table 5. Infrastructure status in 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .................................................. 10
Table 6. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. ........ 12
Table 7. Farmer characteristics by economic status in 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .................. 13
Table 8. Long-term trends of maize area, yield, and production in the Philippines, 1980-2000 ............. 14
Table 9. Cropping patterns found across the 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .............................. 15
Table 10. General maize cropping calendar (17 months) in the 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. ...... 16
Table 11. Maize varieties grown in 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .............................................. 17
Table 12. Maize characteristics ranking based on farmers' preferences. .................................................. 19
Table 13. Average labor and material inputs use in 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .................... 20
Table 14. Maize yield by type of material and maize agro-ecozone,
24 surveyed villages, the Philippines. .......... ...................................................................... 21
Table 15. Farmer-identified technological and socioeconomic constraints to maize productivity,
24 surveyed villages, the Philippines, 2001. ............................................ .............. 23
Table 16. Prioritizing constraints across maize ecologies and geographic regions................................... 25
Table 17. Top 10 priority constraints to maize productivity based on
efficiency vs. poverty rankings, the Philippines. ........................................... ................. 26
Table 18. Top 25 maize priority constraints according to priority indices, the Philippines..........................27
Table 19. Top 25 prioritized technological and socioeconomic constraints, the Philippines. .................. 27
Table 20. Technology options and research approaches that will help alleviate major
maize production constraints, the Philippines. ............... ........................... ............... 28




Figure

Page No.
Figure 1. M ap of the Philippines.............................................................................. ........................ 2











Acknowledgments











This manuscript reports on the results of the rapid rural appraisal (RRA) and participatory
rural appraisal (PRA) surveys conducted in 24 villages across eight provinces of the
Philippines from July 2001 to March 2002. It also includes discussions from the National
Maize Research and Development Priority-Setting Workshop, held at the International Rice
Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos, Laguna, on 12-15 March, 2002, and from the Fifth
Annual Workshop of the Asian Maize Socio-Economic Working Group held in Bangkok,
Thailand, on 1-4 August 2002.

The authors would like to thank the United Nations International Fund for Development
(IFAD) and CIMMYT for the grant that enabled the conduct of this work, and their university
department heads for supporting their active participation in this Asia-wide study and in the
Asian Maize Socio-Economics Working Group.

The authors would also like to thank in particular Drs. Prabhu Pingali and Michael Morris,
both former Directors of the CIMMYT Economics Program, and Dr. Eliseo Ponce, former
Director of the Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Agricultural Research (DA-BAR), for
supporting this work; project coordinator Roberta Gerpacio; the DA regional directors,
managers and technical staff of the Regional Integrated Agricultural Research Centers
(RIARCs), who helped conduct the field surveys; the maize farmers and municipal and village
officers who patiently sat in on discussions and interviews; the numerous maize experts who
participated in the national maize R&D prioritization workshop; Artemio M. Salazar, Celia 0.
Tabien, and Cynthia M. Medina, for their active though short-term participation in the
project; and our research assistants for their valuable help on all aspects of this project.
Finally, we acknowledge the editorial review of this document by Crissan Zeigler, consultant,
and Alma McNab, senior science writer/editor, as well as the design and formatting services
of Eliot Sanchez Pineda, CIMMYT Corporate Communications, Mexico.











1. Introduction


1.1 Background

Maize is second to rice as the most important crop in
the Philippines, with one-third of Filipino farmers, or 1.8
million, depending on maize as their major source of
livelihood. White maize is the most important substitute
staple in periods of rice shortage, especially for people
in rural areas. Yellow maize is the primary source of
feed for the Philippines' animal industry, and is being
increasingly used by the manufacturing sector.

Maize production in the Philippines increased at an
annual rate of 1.7% over a 20-year period (1980-2000)
(Table 8, Annex 1). After production peaked in 1990 at
4.9 million metric tons, a sharp decline was posted in
1998 when the El Nifo phenomenon affected the
region. Total area planted to maize was also highest in
1990, at 3.8 million hectares, but was observed to be
on the decline at 1.9% per year from 1985 to 2001
(Gonzales and Lapina, 2003). These long-term figures
reflect a sharper decline in white maize area in contrast
to that planted to yellow maize. Further, while average
yields for white maize are consistently low, yellow
maize yields increased by an annual rate of 4.9% over a
17-year period beginning in 1985 (Gonzales and
Lapina, 2003). The adoption of improved technology
for yellow maize production has resulted in significant
yield increases. Yellow maize accounted for 23% of total
maize production in 1985, and for 58% by 2001. It
should be noted, however, that the national average
yield of 1.82 tons per hectare for white and yellow
maize (in 2001) is low when compared to maize yields
in other Asian countries (Gonzales and Lapina, 2003).

Most common in upland areas, maize production peaks
from July to September; the lean months are from
January to June. The upland regions of Mindanao have
the most area planted to maize, and the highest
production in the Philippines. Maize is also grown in


the rainfed lowlands, where it is planted during the dry
season after the rice crop has been harvested. The
production of maize after rice increases the productivity
of irrigation systems during the dry season, while
supplying needed grain during an otherwise lean
period. Integrating livestock into the system provides
high value products and increases the income of maize
farmers with small landholdings (FSSRI, 2000; Eusebio
and Labios, 2001).



1.2 Objective

The three-year IFAD-CIMMYT Project was designed to
promote the sustainable intensification of maize
production systems in the uplands of selected countries
in Asia, to enhance maize supplies while ensuring
growth and improved food security for the poor
households that subsist on maize. More specifically, the
study aimed to:

* Gather detailed information on the different maize
production systems by agro-ecological zones;

* Identify maize production constraints in these zones;

* Prioritize these constraints and develop potential
solutions; and

* Make recommendations for research and
development and policy change to promote
sustainable maize production.

New data from this study suggest that research and
development agendas as well as funding priorities be
changed to better serve the needs of maize farmers and
consumers. Results also indicate that socioeconomic
and policy-related constraints impact maize
productivity more than technical constraints do.











1.3 Methodology

The detailed characterization of upland maize
production systems was conducted through a two-
stage survey: the first stage involved a rapid rural
appraisal (RRA), and the second stage, a participatory
rural appraisal (PRA). RRA and PRA are quick methods
of collecting primary data, providing a wealth of
information at low cost, and are generally very effective
when system-level information is required from several
countries or agro-ecological zones. Primary data were
collected from maize farmers themselves, and
secondary data from sources that include Philippine


government offices at local and national levels,
international agricultural organizations, and national
educational institutions of agriculture.

Twenty-four villages across eight major maize-growing
regions in the Philippines were selected for the survey,
based on dominant maize production systems in the
country. A general RRA/PRA questionnaire prepared by
CIMMYT was developed to fit the country's specific
maize production conditions. Information was collected
on the physical, biological, institutional, and
socioeconomic environments, among others. Fieldwork
was conducted throughout 2001 by maize scientists
from national and international organizations.


Figure 1. Map of the Philippines.


40
C


Occidental Mindoro,
Southern Tagalog


Mindanao


RRA/PRA survey sites of the IFAD-CIMMYT study on
o the intensification of upland maize production
systems in the Philippines (July 2001-March 2002).



Isabela, Cagayan Valley






UPLB (NARS)

Camarines Sur, Bicol Region






V Leyte, Eastern Visayas



Cebu, Central Visayas



then



Cotabato, Central
Mindanao


e SSo
So


uth Cotabato,
uthern Mindanao












2. Maize Agro-ecologies of the Philippines


2.1 General Characteristics

Maize production agro-ecologies in the Philippines are
classified based on the shape of the landscape and
topography of the areas where maize is largely
grown-the rainfed lowland, the upland plain, and the
rolling-to-hilly agro-ecologies. By definition, rainfed
lowlands are contiguous, level-to-slightly-sloping
bunded or diked fields with variable depth and duration
of flooding, depending on rainfall (Eusebio and Labios,
2001). The upland plains are contiguous, level,
unbunded areas where a maximum of 30% of the
landforms have less than a 15% slope (NAREA, 1988-
1992). In the Philippines, this agro-ecology is generally
rainfed. Hilly lands are areas of at least one square
kilometer (100 ha) in which 70% of the landforms have
a 16-32% slope.


The agro-ecological classification of the 24 villages
(barangays) surveyed in this study (Table 1) are
described in subsequent sections. Geographical regions
and even villages may have a combination of agro-
ecologies grown to maize. In Northern Mindanao, for
example, two survey villages represent the upland
plain maize agro-ecology while one village is classified
as a rolling-to-hilly agro-ecology. In Carmen and
Tulunan, North Cotabato, maize is grown in both upland
plains and rolling-to-hilly agro-ecozones.



2.1.1 Rainfed lowlands

In this study, the three sites surveyed in Mindoro
Occidental province, Southern Tagalog region (Region
IV), represent the rainfed lowland agro-ecozone where


Table 1. Agro-ecological classification of 24 surveyed villages in the Philippines.


Province, region
Isabela, Cagayan Valley


Mindoro Occidental,
Southern Tagalog

Camarines Sur, Bicol Region


Cebu, Central Visayas


Leyte, Eastern Visayas


Bukidnon, Northern Mindanao


South Cotabato,
Southern Mindanao

North Cotabato,
Central Mindanao


Village, municipality
Fermeldy, Tumauini
Villaluz, Benito Soliven
Palutan, San Mariano
Lagnas, Sablayan
Barahan, Sta. Cruz
Cabacao, Abra de Ilog
Sta. Maria, Iriga City
Burocbusoc, Buhi
Tinawagan, Tigaon
Toong, Remigio
Bae, Sibonga
Capitan Claudio, Toledo City
Mabunga, Mahaplag
Pres. Garcia, Matalom
Manlawaan, Tabango
Sibonga, Kadingilan
Silae, Malaybalay City
Sto. Nino, Talakag
Lambayaong, Tampakan
Laconon, T'Boli
Colongolo, Surallah
Liliongan, Carmen
Dungoan, M'lang
New Caridad, Tulunan


Agro-ecological classification of surveyed villages
Rainfed lowlands Upland plains Rolling-to-hilly areas


Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.










maize is grown as a dry season crop after wet season
lowland rice. Vegetables can also be grown after rice,
but maize is preferred for its assured commercial value.
Planting is done towards the end of the rainy season
and before the onset of the dry season (October-
December) when conditions are not too wet or too dry.
Maize cropping in this region is almost totally
dependent on rainfall, and only a few farmers have their
own irrigation water pumped from ground or surface
water sources, or from government supplied shallow
tube wells. Farmers report having used local/traditional
maize varieties in the past, but have now shifted
completely to using hybrid maize varieties. As a result,
local traditional varieties are now difficult to find in
Mindoro Occidental.

There are no primary markets in the villages around the
maize growing areas. Farmers sell their maize to
secondary markets, or private traders, who come from
an average of 35 km away to pick up the maize from
the farms or in the village. A transport system is
available, mostly during good weather, as villages are
accessible by seasonal rough roads.


2.1.2 Upland plains
Rainfed upland plain maize areas, located in Luzon and
Mindanao, were represented by eight of the 24 sites
surveyed. Rainfall patterns in these areas vary with
geographical locations but generally allow two to three
maize crops per year. Local/traditional varieties are still
grown by some farmers along with improved open-
pollinated varieties (OPVs) and hybrids. Villages are
accessible through all-season gravel roads. The villages
in the upland plains in Luzon are close to primary and
secondary markets, which are usually less than 10 km
away, while the villages in Mindanao can be as far away
as 21 km from the primary markets. Secondary markets
can be much farther away from the villages, with one
market in the survey being 183 km away.


2.1.3 Rolling-to-hilly areas
The rolling-to-hilly maize agro-ecologies can be found
across Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao islands and are
represented by 14 of the 24 sites surveyed. As in the
upland plains, these areas are rainfed and maize is
grown twice a year, with a third crop of maize or
another upland crop being planted if weather
conditions are good. Soil erosion is a common problem
here, due to the natural hilly topography. Most villages
in these areas can be reached through gravel roads,
and public transport is generally available.


Maize production in these areas is either for home
consumption or selling for cash income. Consequently,
the maize varieties grown and the production
management systems including input use, differ
according to end-use goals. In Cebu and Leyte in the
Visayas, maize is grown largely for food and farmers
prefer local/traditional varieties and the improved
OPVs, which have lower input and management
requirements. In Luzon and Mindanao, where maize is
grown for income, improved OPVs and hybrids are
preferred over local/traditional varieties.



2.2 Biophysical Environment

2.2.1 Rainfall
The Corona System of climate classification is the most
widely used in the Philippines, with the four types of
climate defined as follows (National Rain Stimulation
Office, BSWM, 1991):

* Type I-two pronounced seasons, dry from
November to April; wet during the rest of the year;

* Type II-no dry season, with a very pronounced
rainfall from November to January;

* Type III-seasons not very pronounced, dry from
November to April and wet during the rest of the
year, and

* Type IV-rainfall more or less evenly distributed
throughout the year.

Variability in climatic characteristics exists even within
geographical regions. Annual rainfall in all study sites
(except Southern Mindanao) is sufficient for maize
production, but seasonal distribution regulates planting
(Table 2). Maize farmers who are partially or totally
dependent on rainfall adjust the cropping calendar to
coincide with months when precipitation will be
sufficient to supply crop water requirements.

In Mindoro Occidental (Southern Tagalog, Type I
climate) rice is grown during the wet season and
followed by a maize planting supported by residual soil
moisture and supplementary irrigation, if sowing is
timed properly. This is commonly done in October to
November, and farmers who plant their maize earlier
(September) risk flooding from the tail end of the rainy
season. Maize can be affected by dry periods at critical
growth stages during years when the dry season comes
earlier than expected. South Cotabato has the lowest
annual average rainfall among the study sites, yet three
crops of maize are planted. Rainfall in this province/
region is lowest during planting of the first maize crop
and highest during the third maize cropping.










In Camarines Sur (Bicol) and Leyte (Eastern Visayas),
both of Type II climate, there is no pronounced dry
season, and rainfall can support two to three maize
crops per year. Typhoons, however, provide a
significant risk factor for farmers, who may lose their
standing crops to any of the five to eight typhoons that
affect these areas each year.

The Type III climate of Isabela, in Cagayan Valley, has an
average rainfall of only 47 mm in the first maize crop
season at planting time, but reaches >100 mm during
the tasseling-to-harvest period. It is a wetter period for
the second and third crops, with >200 mm mean
monthly rainfall throughout these two growing seasons.
Bukidnon in Northern Mindanao also produces three
crops of maize per year, with rainfall at <100 mm
before planting in the first cropping, but peaking to an
average 173 mm during the cropping season. The
second crop is planted in a wetter environment at an
average >100 mm per month during the growing
season, and rainfall declines toward harvest time for the
third crop.

There is Type IV climate in Cebu in Central Visayas and
Cotabato in Central Mindanao, where even rainfall
distribution allows two to three crops of maize to be
produced, followed by a short dry season. Tropical
storms are a low risk factor in Mindanao.



2.2.2 Temperature

The annual air temperature averages 270C across the
eight regions studied, with a high of 330C during
summer (Table 2). In the Philippines, temperature
variations during the maize cropping seasons do not
critically affect the maize crop as do rainfall variations.


2.2.3 Types of soil

Secondary data describing soil characteristics in the
survey areas are very limited. Parent or origin materials
of soil are shown in soil maps, but information on the
current status of soil fertility, degradation, or
management requirements in the research sites is
lacking. Primary soil data were therefore derived almost
entirely from farmer interviews during the RRA/PRA.

Farmer-respondents assessed the advantages and
disadvantages of each of five soil types based on
fertility level, drainage characteristics, susceptibility to
erosion, and suitability for crop production or other
agricultural use. The most common soil types in the
surveyed provinces are clay loam and sandy loam soils
consistently described by the farmers as the most fertile
soils, generally suited to most crops (Table 3).

Farmer assessments of soils include the following
observations:

* Sandy loams are not waterlogged but more
susceptible to drought;

* Clay loam soils retain soil water better, but can be
poorly drained;

* Clay loam soils of Isabela can make land preparation
difficult during the wet season;

* Clay and calcareous soils identified in the hilly maize
areas of Cebu are only marginally suitable for crops;

* Clay soil in the hilly agro-ecozone in Leyte is eroded,
and

* Soils in the upland plain and hilly maize agro-
ecologies in Cotabato are already slightly eroded,
although still good for crop production.


Table 2. Average annual rainfall and temperature in maize production areas of the Philippines, 1990-1999.
Type of Cropping Annual rainfall (mm) Annual air temperature (C)
Province, region climate season Average Minimum Maximum Average Minimum Maximum
Isabela, Cagayan Valley III 1,2,3 1,705.1 3.0 296.6 27.3 21.9 32.6
Mindoro Occidental,
Southern Tagalog I 2 2,350.8 5.3 482.1 28.0 23.7 32.3
Camarines Sur, Bicol II 1,2 2.028.0 35.9 279.9 27.2 23.6 30.7
Cebu, Central Visayas IV 1, 2, 3 1,588.6 3.7 493.7 28.0 24.7 31.3
Leyte, Eastern Visayas II 1,2 1,776.6 65.1 219.2 27.1 23.3 30.9
Bukidnon, Northern Mindanao III 1,2 2,556.3 107.9 321.8 23.9 18.5 29.2
South Cotabato,
Southern Mindanao I 1, 2, 3 916.5 44.2 109.9 27.5 22.4 32.6
Cotabato, Central Mindanao IV 1,2, 3 2,125.8 74.1 276.1 28.0 23.1 32.8
Source: Regional and Provincial Station, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), 2000.










Table 3. Advantages and disadvantages of different soil types as reported by farmers in maize production areas of the
Philippines.
Soil type Local name Advantages Disadvantages
Clay loam Malagkit or Pilit-pilit Good for cereal crops Land preparation is difficult in the wet season
Generally suitable for growing many Limited source of moisture for crops
crops, including high value crops
Fertile
Good water retention
Excellent for lowland rice production
Sandy loam Buhaghag, Banlikan, Good for maize, legumes and Poor water holding capacity, drains easily
or Balod vegetable production Susceptible to drought
Generally suitable for growing many crops Low fertility
Does not become waterlogged
Clay Good water retention Tendency to flood, not good for crops
Good for contour farming and has Susceptible to soil erosion
potential to support forest trees Not suitable for maize production
Generally suitable for growing many crops Needs proper soil fertility management practices
Excellent for pasture Poor drainage
Sandy clay loam Good for crop production and pasture Slightly susceptible to soil erosion
Alluvial soil
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.


2.3 Institutional Environment

2.3.1 Line agencies
Government extension offices from the Department of
Agriculture (DA) play a vital role in technology
information dissemination to farmers in the surveyed
villages. DA agricultural technicians regularly conduct
farmers' field schools and training sessions, which
provide farmers with updated technology for maize
farming. Neighbors and other farmers within the
community share knowledge and are regarded as
valuable sources of information. Seed company field
technicians also provide information to maize farmers,
but it is generally limited to the product they are selling.
There is little or no extension service provided by
agricultural state universities or colleges (SUCs) near the
survey areas. Non-government organizations (NGOs)
and international agricultural research centers (IARCs)
have not yet reached many of the surveyed areas.



2.3.2. Farmer cooperatives and user
groups

Working together to increase productivity and help
each other, known as the 'bayanihan' system, is natural
to Filipino culture. Several help organizations exist in
the surveyed villages including farmers' associations,
cooperatives, government and non-government
organizations, and the Rural Improvement Council.
These groups provide technical, financial, or livelihood
assistance to their members, in the form of livestock


dissemination programs, small handiwork business
assistance, and help in establishing small consumer
(sari-sari) stores. Barangay or neighborhood officials, as
well as women's, youth, and church organizations are
also active in providing livelihood, leadership, and
religious programs and seminars in their respective
communities.



2.3.3 Sources of material inputs
The many agricultural stor es in the countryside and
cities make material inputs for crop production such as
seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides readily available to
farmers. Some maize farmers, however, cannot pay cash
for production inputs and instead obtain their supplies
from private trader-financiers in their area on a charge-
to-crop credit arrangement.

The DA sometimes provides maize farmers free or
subsidized hybrid seeds and fertilizers through
agricultural production intensification programs. Farmers
complain, however, that maize seeds received through
government programs often have poor germination,
show poor field performance, and give low yields.

Farmers recycled OPV seeds from their previous
harvest, while others exchanged or bought OPV seed
from their neighbors. Other farmers who grow white
improved OPVs obtain seeds from the DA, agricultural
dealers or local cooperatives, or from state universities
or colleges with maize breeding and seed production
programs.











2.3.4 Credit institutions


The majority of farmer-respondents (-90%) state that
they lack sufficient capital for their farm operations and
have to borrow from private moneylenders on a
charge-to-crop scheme with a 10-20% interest rate.
The lenders sell farmers agricultural input products at
higher than market value, and later buy back the
harvests at lower than market value. In this lending
scheme, the loans for agricultural inputs, as well as
interest due for one cropping season, are deducted
from the total value of the harvest that is in turn sold
to the lender. When asked why they continued to
support this seemingly costly and unfair arrangement,
the farmer-respondents report that going to the
private trader-financiers is more convenient than going
to formal credit institutions for three reasons-private
loans do not require collateral, the trader-financiers are
always accessible, and inputs were readily available.
Farmer-respondents also state that they continue to
use the services of the trader-financiers because


income from a harvest is usually insufficient to pay for
loans taken during the previous cropping season.

About 10% of the surveyed farmers did not use the
trader-financiers. About 8% of them obtained credit
from cooperatives, and only 2% had enough capital
themselves. While formal credit programs and facilities
were available from some government and private
banks, no farmer used these sources because they
found the paper work too tedious and the requirements
(especially collateral) too stiff. Farmers also noted that
financial institutions only extend agricultural loans to
farmer associations, not to individual farmers.



2.3.5 Prices of inputs and outputs

Table 4 summarizes the range of input and output
prices as well as prices of competing crops and
livestock in the survey areas. Price variations between
sites are due to differences in transportation and


Table 4. Range of prices in Filipino pesos (PhP) of farm inputs, outputs, and competing and complementary products in 24
surveyed villages, the Philippines.a
Mindoro Camarines South
Isabela Occidental Sur Cebu Leyte Bukidnon Cotabato Cotabato
Land rent (PhP/ha/year) 2,100.00 500.00 1,000-2,500.00 175-250.00 Nil 400-5,000.00 2,240-2,725.00 1,500-3,500.00
(42.00) (10.00) (20-50.00) (3.50-5.00) (8.00-100.00) (44.80-54.50) (30-70.00)
Land tax paid (PhP/ha/year) 112-200.00 200-250.00 85-160.00 49-319.00 100-400.00
(2.24-4.00) (4.00-5.00) (1.70-3.20) (0.98-6.38) (2.00-8.00)
Maize seed:
Local/traditional 7.50 10-23.00 25-34.00 6.00 5.00-7.50 6.50-7.20
(PhP/kg) (0.15) (0.46) (0.50-0.68) (0.12) (0.10-0.15) (0.13-0.14)
Local/Improved OPVs 20.00 (bartered) 23.00 3.00 6.50 30.00
(PhP/kg) (0.40) (0.20-0.46) (0.06) (0.12) (0.60)
Hybrid (PhP/18-kg bag) 1,500-1,850.00 1,900-2,200.00 1,900-1,980.00 (not planted) (not planted) 1,600-1,825.00 2,000-2,225.00 1,500-1,900.00
(30.00-37.00) (38.00-44.00) (38.00-39.60) (32.00-36.50) (40.00-44.50) (30.00-38.00)
Most common fertilizers
used (PhP/50-kg bag):
Urea (46-0-0) 405-425.00 440-480.00 430-440.00 405-430.00 450-460.00 430-500.00 380-385.00 385-405.00
(8.10-8.50) (8.80-9.60) (8.60-8.80) (8.10-8.60) (9.00-9.20) (8.60-10.00) (7.60-7.70) (7.70-8.10)
Complete (14-14-14) 395-440.00 440-480.00 430-440.00 405-420.0 430.00 415-500.00 420-430.00 405-420.00
(7.90-8.80) (8.80-9.60) (8.60-8.80) (8.10-8.40) (8.60) (8.30-10.00) (8.40-8.60) (8.10-8.40)
Ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) 260.00 275-300.00 285-290.00 280.00 -
(5.20) (5.50-6.00) (5.70-5.80) (5.60)
Ammonium phosphate 395.00 500.00 360-530.00 400.00
(16-20-0) (7.90) (10.00) (7.20-10.60) (8.00)
Muriate of potash (0-0-60) 360-450.00 435.00
(7.20-9.00) (8.70)
Most common pesticides used
Herbicides 2,4-D 2,4-D 2,4-D 2,4-D
Insecticides Cymbush, Furadan, Larvin, Furadan, Decis Karate Daconil,Lannate, Furadan,Lorsban, Karate,Brodan,
Decis, Magnum, Karate,Decis, Larvin,Furadan Larvin Hostalum 40
Larvin Cymbush, Fenom D EC
Fungicide None None None None None None None None
Labor wage rate (P/person-day):
Farm labor
Male 75-160.00 80-100.00 100.00 50.00 or in 80.00 60-70.00 70-85.00 70-80.00
(1.50-3.20) (1.60-2.00) (2.00) kind (1.00) (1.60) (1.20-1.40) (1.40-1.70) (1.40-1.60)
Female 75-150.00 80-100.00 40.00 or in 50-100.00 60-70.00 70-85.00 70-80.00
(1.50-3.00) (1.60-2.00) kind (0.80) (1.00-2.00) (1.20-1.40) (1.40-1.70) (1.40-1.60)
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.
SUS$ equivalent given in parentheses; US$1.00 =PhP 50.00.











Table 4. Cont'd.

Mindoro Camarines South
Isabela Occidental Sur Cebu Leyte Bukidnon Cotabato Cotabato


200-225.00 150-250.00
(4.00-4.50) (3.00-5.00)
100-150.00 100.00
(2.00-3.00) (2.00)


In kind (sharing of harvest) 10:1
Power rental cost:
Animal only (PhP/day) 60.00
(1.20)
Animal with operator 120-200.00 150.00
(PhP/ person-animal day) (2.40-4.00) (3.00)
Four-wheel tractor (PhP/pass) 700-800.00 1,200-1,300.00
(14.00-16.00) (24.00-26.00)


Drying costs:
Dryer fees (PhP/50 kg sack)

Labor cost (PhP/day)

Shelling costs (PhP/cavan)

Milling costs (PhP/unit)

Maize grain prices (PhP/kg)
At farm gate:
White maize

Yellow maize

At the nearest market:
White maize

Yellow maize

Prices of competing crops (PhP/unit)
Rice


100-130.00
(2.00-2.60)
10.00-13.00
(0.20-0.26)
Grains sold
unmilled


10.00
(0.20)
10.00
(0.20)
20.00
(0.40)
Grains sold
unmilled


6.30-7.50 6.50-9.50
(0.13-0.15) (0.13-0.19)


7.15-9.00
(0.14-0.18)

8.50-10.00/kg
(0.17-0.20)


Non-farm labor
Male

Female

Labor compensation
Arrangements at harvest
In cash (PhP/sack of cobs)


150-160.00 70.00
(3.00-3.20) (1.40)


150-175.00
(3.00-3.50)
60-140.00
(1.20-2.80)


10.00-13.00 12.00-13.50
(0.20-0.26) (0.24-0.27)
10:1 10:1 10:1


9 or 10:1


50.00-60.00 40-100 60.00-70.00 60.00
(1.00-1.20) (0.80-2.00) (1.20-1.40) (1.20)
120-150.00 80-200.00 120-140.00 125.00 150.00
(2.40-3.00) (1.60-4.00) (2.40-2.80) (2.50) (3.00)
-- 1,200.00 650-710.00 950-1,200.00
(24.00) (13.00-14.20) (19.00-24.00)


175.00
(3.50)




10.00
(0.20)


75-100
(1.50-2.00)
150.00
(3.00)
800.00
(16.00)

0.50
(0.01)
100.00
(2.00)
8.00-12.50
(0.16-0.25)
Grains sold
unmilled




6.10-8.00
(0.12-0.16)



6.00-8.50
(0.12-0.17)


0.50-5.00 10.00-16.00 1.00-6.00
(0.01-1.00) (0.20-0.32) (0.02-0.12)
-- 80.00
(1.60)
5.00-9.00 7.00-8.00 5.00-16.00
(0.10-0.18) (0.14-0.16) (0.10-0.32


5.00-7.50 5.50-8.00 5.00-6.00 6.50-7.00
(0.10-0.15) (0.11-0.16) (0.10-0.12)
-- 6.00-7.00 5.40-6.60
(0.12-0.14) (0.11-0.13)


6.00-8.50
(0.12-0.17)


250.00/sack
(5.00/sack)


5.00-7.00 4.50-10.00 6.00-10.00
(0.10-0.14) (0.09-0.20) (0.12-0.20)
6.00-8.00 3.50-8.50 5.00-9.00
(0.12-0.16) (0.07-0.17) (0.10-0.18)

6-20.00/kg 7.50-10.50/kg
(0.12-0.40/kg) (0.15-0.21/kg)


Vegetables: Eggplant 10-12.00/kg 5-10.00/kg 5-6.00/kg 2-3.00/kg
(0.20-0.24) (0.10-0.20) (0.10-0.12) (0.04-0.06)
Snap beans 12-20.00/kg 6-25.00/kg 4-6.00/kg -
(0.24-0.40) (0.12-0.50) (0.08-0.12)
Tomato 5-15.00/kg 80-250.00/crate 80-200.00/crate
(0.10-0.30) (1.60-5.00) (1.60-4.00)
Squash 350-800.00/sack 5-10.00/kg 2-16.00/kg -
(7.00-16.00) (0.10-0.20) (0.04-0.32)
Okra 2-12.00/kg -
(0.04-0.24)
Sweet pepper 10-20.00/kg 30-90.00/kg 15-35.00/kg
(0.10-0.40) (0.60-1.80) (0.30-0.70)
Root crops: Peanut 15-21.00/kg 30.00/kg 12.50/kg 100-200.00/can 35-40.00/kg
(0.30-0.42) (0.60) (0.25) (2.00-4.00) (0.70-0.80)
Sweet potato 8-12.00/kg 100.00/15kg
(0.16-0.24) (2.00)
Prices of livestock products (PhP/unit)
Poultry 80-100.00/hd 80.00/hd 67-80.00/hd 70-75.00/hd 65-70.00/kg 60-70.00/kg 67-70.00/kg 60-75.00/kg
(1.60-2.00) (1.60) (1.34-1.60) (1.40-1.50) (1.30-1.40) (1.20-1.40) (1.34-1.40) (1.20-1.50)
Pig 63-65.00/kg 55-70.00/kg 52-70.00/kg 50.00/kg 50-55.00/kg 40-55.00/kg 40-49.00/kg 37-40.00/kg
(1.26-1.30) (1.10-1.40) (1.04-1.40) (1.40) (1.00-1.10) (0.80-1.10) (0.80-0.98) (0.74-0.80)
Cow/carabao 68-100.00/kg 9,000- 10,000- 7,000- 8,000-9,000.00/hd 7,500.00/hd 90.00/kg
18,000.00/hd 16,000.00/hd 15,000.00/hd
(1.36-2.00) (180-360.00) (200-320.00) (140-300).00 (160-180.00) (150.00) (1.80)
Goat 750.00/hd 50.00/kg 200-1,000.00/hd 550-800.00/hd -
(15.00) (1.00) (4.00-20.00) (11.00-16.00)
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.
US$ equivalent given in parentheses; US$1.00 =PhP 50.00.


Paid in kind

Paid in kind 50-100.00
(1.00-2.00)
10.00-16.00
(0.20-0.32)










handling facilities provided by suppliers. Seed,
fertilizers, and pesticides are the most common
material inputs bought by maize farmers. Seeds of
local/traditional varieties and improved OPVs are often
recycled or exchanged with other far mers within the
village. If bought, seed of local/traditional varieties
costs anywhere from (Philippine peso) PhP10-36/kg
(US$0.50-0.72/kg) in Visayas, to PhP4.50-7.20/kg
(US$ 0.09-0.14/kg) in Mindanao, while that of the
local/improved OPVs ranged from PhP3-30/kg (US$
0.06-0.60/kg) across the survey sites. Hybrid seeds
ranged from PhP1,500-2,225/bag or about PhP80-
125/kg (US$ 0.10-0.12/kg).

The most common fertilizers used in maize production
as reported by interviewed farmers are urea (46-0-0),
complete (14-14-14) and ammonium sulfate (21-0-0)
fertilizers, which cost PhP380-500 (US$ 7.60-10.00),
PhP395-500 (US$7.90-10.00) and PhP260-300 (US$
5.20-6.00) per 50-kg bag, respectively. Other
fertilizers in use include muriate of potash (0-0-60) at
PhP360-450 (US$7.20-9.00) and ammonium
phosphate (16-20-0) at PhP360-530 (US$ 7.20-10.60)
per 50-kg bag. Fertilizer costs do not vary much across
the eight regions surveyed, but sulfate is the cheapest
source of nitrogen at about PhP260-290/bag or
PhP5.20-5.80/kg (US$ 5.20-5.80/bag or US$ 0.10-
0.12/kg) (Table 4). Organic fertilizers like farmyard
manure (FYM) and chicken dung are also reported to
be in use in some survey sites.

The most common pesticides in use are Karate,
Furadan, Decis, and 2, 4-D. Of these, 2, 4-D (a
herbicide) is the cheapest at PhP248-280/liter
(US$4.96-5.60), and Furadan (an insecticide) is the
most expensive at PhP700-1,000 (US$ 14-20.00)/1-kg
box. Seeds are commonly treated with Larvin to
protect them against weevils. The use of pesticides is
highest among the survey sites in the hybrid-growing
maize areas of Luzon and Mindanao; none of the
surveyed sites reports using fungicides.

Average daily wages for agricultural farm labor are not
gender biased, whereas non-farm labor is. Non-
agricultural male labor enjoys a higher daily wage rate
of PhP70-250 (US$1.40-5.00) (depending on the task),
compared to the female labor wage rate of PhP60-150
(US$1.20-3.00)/day. Agricultural laborers of either sex
receive wages ranging from PhP75-100 (US$1.50-
2.00)/person-day in Luzon, to PhP50-80 (US$1.00-
1.60)/person-day in the Visayas and PhP60-85
(US$1.20-1.70)/person-day in Mindanao (Table 4).
Snacks and/or lunch are sometimes also provided for
the farm workers, especially during planting and
harvest operations. Groups of farm laborers can also be
contracted for either planting or harvesting maize. The
contract arrangement is locally called the 'pakyawV


system where total labor is nor mally paid on a per-
hectare rate during planting. Harvesters are paid either
in cash at per-sack rate or in kind, getting a share of the
total harvested cobs (Table 4). The most common
harvest-sharing scheme is 10:1, where for every 10
sacks of harvested maize, the owner gets 9 sacks and
the harvesters get 1.

For land preparation, some farmers contract four-wheel
tractors at a rate ranging from PhP650-1,200 (US$13-
24.00) per passing in Isabela, Bukidnon, South Cotabato
and Cotabato, or ranging from PhP1,200-1,300 (US$24-
26.00)/ha in Mindoro Occidental. Animal power with
operators can also be contracted for land preparation
especially in hilly areas at PhP80-200 (US$1.60-4.00)/
person-animal day. However, in Lambayong, South
Cotabato, animal power and animal power with
operator are rented at PhP60 (US$1.20)/animal-day and
PhP125 (US$2.50)/person-animal day or at PhP800 and
PhP1000 (US$16-20.00) per passing respectively.
Farmers with no draft animals can also rent them at
PhP40-100 (US$0.80-2.00)/animal-day.

Post-harvest operations are limited to solar drying,
shelling and milling. Shelling is done using the
mechanical sheller and costs PhP8-20.00 (US$0.16-
0.40)/50-kg sack across the survey sites. Manual
shelling is also practiced, but only for grain to be used
at home. The grain is shelled, then sun-dried for 2-3
days on multipurpose cement pavements. Farmers
report paying anywhere from the minimal PhPO.50 to
as high as PhP16.00 (US$0.01-0.32)/50-kg sack of
maize for the use of these pavements. Due to lack of
drying facilities, barangay roads and highways are
commonly used as drying pavements during peak
harvest season. In Visayas, maize is dried in the husk to
allow for longer storage (as maize is mostly for home
consumption), whereas maize grain in Luzon and
Mindanao is sold immediately after drying to eliminate
the need for storage. Milling is practiced only in
surveyed sites where maize was for home use. In these
areas, maize grain is milled in batches whenever
needed and stored for a certain period.

Maize grain prices vary little within and across the
regions surveyed. In general, maize grain prices are
higher by at least PhP 1.00/kg in the nearest markets
than at the farm gate. During the 2001 RRA/PRA
survey, maize grain prices ranged from PhP5.00-9.50
(US$0.10-0.19)/kg at the farm gate to PhP5.00-10.00
(US$0.10-0.20)/kg in the nearest markets. Some maize
farmers in Cebu and Leyte kept most of their grains for
home consumption; however, the few farmers who sold
their white maize earned between PhP5.00-8.00
(US$0.10-0.16)/kg at the farm gate and PhP6.00-8.50
(US$0.12-0.17)/kg at the nearest market. Yellow maize
(usually hybrids) commanded a higher price than white










(local/traditional) maize in most surveyed sites, except
South Cotabato and Cotabato. In these areas, prices of
white maize ranged from PhP4.50-10.00 (US$0.09-
0.20)/kg as compared to only PhP3.50-9.00 (US$0.07-
0.18)/kg of yellow maize.

Across the surveyed sites, farmers identified several
crops they would plant if they could not plant maize
(Table 4). These crops include rice, vegetables
(eggplant, squash, snap beans, tomatoes, okra, sweet
peppers) and root crops such as sweet potato and
peanuts. Rice was the main competing crop of maize in
Isabela, Leyte, South Cotabato, and Cotabato, with
prices that ranged from PhP6-20/kg or PhP250/50 kg
sack (US$0.12-0.40/kg or US$5.00/50-kg sack). During
peak harvest season, vegetables in Camarines Sur,
Cebu, Bukidnon, South Cotabato, and Cotabato
provinces were on average sold at PhP2-90.00
(US$0.04-1.80)/kg; peanut was sold at PhP 12.50-
40.00(US$0.25-0.80)/kg. Farmers enjoy higher profits
from these alternative crops, as they mature earlier and
can be sold at higher prices than maize.

To add to income generated by maize production,
farmers also raise livestock and poultry in their
backyards. The most common animals raised among
the surveyed farmers were poultry and swine with
market prices ranging from PhP60-75 (US$1.20-1.50)/
kg or PhP67-100 (US$1.34-2.00)/head and PhP37-70
(US$0.74-1.40)/kg, respectively. Carabao and cattle


sold at an average of PhP7,500-18,000 (US$150.00-
360.00)/head, while goats sold for PhP550-1,000
(US$11-20.00)/head. These animals are usually sold
when cash is much needed, as at the start of the school
year. Animals are also slaughtered for home
consumption when there are special occasions.



2.4 Infrastructure

2.4.1 Physical accessibility and irrigation
facilities

The road networks in the municipalities surveyed are
accessible by all kinds of land transportation. Most
villages surveyed have graded and gravel roads that
can be used throughout the year (Table 5). Some
interior villages, however, are not accessible to motor
vehicles, especially during the rainy season. Farmers in
these villages use animal drawn carts to haul their
products to the nearest market.

Most villages surveyed in this study have no major
irrigation projects or facilities, and farmers depend
largely on rainfall as the source of water for their crops.
A few areas with irrigation, like Leyte, Bukidnon, South
Cotabato, and Cotabato, obtain most of their water from
springs and rivers, but save it for high value crops like
rice or vegetables rather than maize.


Table 5. Infrastructure status in 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines.
Mindoro Camarines South
Isabela Occidental Sur Cebu Leyte Bukidnon Cotabato Cotabato
A. Road condition (km)
Cement/paved 0.07-2.0 0.2-1.2 0.1 to >1.0 0.2-1.2 0.08-0.1 0.3-5.0 5.0
Gravel/asphalt 0.12-5.0 0.3-12.0 1.5-6.0 5.0-8.0 7.0-9.1 2.0-7.0 5.7 1.5-8.5
Seasonal/fairweather 50.0 3.0-5.0 5.0 5.0-14.0 12.0 1.5
B. Markets and marketing
1. Means of transporting Jeepneys, Jeepneys, Motorcycles, Jeepneys, Motorcycles, Motorcycles, Motorcycles, Motorcycles,
farm products tricycles, trucks tricycles jeepneys, tricycles tricycles jeepneys multicab, trucks multicab, trucks multicab, trucks
2. Primary market
Distance from village (km) 7.0-10.0 2.0 -15.0 4.0 8.0 1.5-10.0 5.0 57.0 4.0 8.0 18.0 21.0
Estimated % of output sold 5-100 20-25 10-80 20-80 5-40 30-90 90-95
Reasons for choice For immediate income, Higher price, tied up Less or no Higher price, For immediate Tied up with Higher price of
of market tied up with traders with traders transport cost, for tied up with income, traders produce, near
immediate income traders regular buyer and accessible
3. Secondary market
Distance from village (km) 9.0 -10.0 35.0 36.0 12.0 28.5 15.0 70.0 4.0-28.0 95.0-183.0 33.0-68.0 2.5 34.0
Estimated % of output sold 6-90 100 10-80 20-90 80 60-95 10-100 5-10
Reasons for choice Higher price, tied Provides credit, buy Provides credit, Good price, buy Higher price, Higher price, buy Higher price, Higher price,
of market up with traders in bigger quantities, higher price, tied in bigger provides in bigger quantities, no loans from have other business
higher price up with traders quantities credit paid in cash, traders in the area,
tied up with traders not strict in quality
C. Post-harvest facilities
Solar dryer (cement pavement) V V V V V V V
Storage facilities At home Some Some / V Some Some Some
Mechanical sheller V V V V V V V V
Rice/maize mill Rice mill / none / V V V V
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.










2.4.2 Post-harvest facilities
In the study areas, post-harvest facilities present are
limited to solar dryers (usually cement pavement),
mechanical sellers, and mills (Table 5).

A roving mechanical maize sheller comes to the
villages during harvest, or farmers can have their maize
shelled at a few privately operated stationary sellers.
Some areas use manually operated maize sellers to
process grain intended for home use. Grain is dried on
cement pavement and even national roads, for two to
three days. In Leyte and Cebu, maize is dried, then
stored and shelled only as needed for home
consumption. Mechanical maize mills and traditional
manual grinding stones are commonly used to process
maize grain into grits.

Since most grain is sold immediately after drying,
storage facilities do not receive high priority as a post-
harvest requirement in the survey areas. In most survey
sites, small quantities of grain intended for future use
are stored in the home. Storage facilities do exist,
however, in Cebu and Leyte and in the provinces of
Mindoro Occidental and Camarines Sur.


2.4.3 Proximity to markets and
marketing practices
Maize farmers sell their grain and other farm products
either directly in public markets or to traders who come
to the villages. Among the survey sites, barangay Silae
in Bukidnon, 57 km away from Malaybalay City, is
farthest from the nearest/primary market. Cagayan de
Oro City, 183 km away from barangay Sibonga in
Kadingilan, Bukidnon, is the farthest secondary market
used by maize farmers in the study (Table 5). In general,
self-financed maize farmers sell their grain in secondary
markets, where prices are often high. Maize farmers
with loans from trader-financiers have to sell their grain
to the financiers despite the low prices they often get.
The trader-financiers come to the villages during harvest
and haul the grain in volume. Trucking services
(transportation costs) may be charged to the farmers,
shouldered by the traders, or shared by both parties. A
few farmers sell their production to feed millers in
nearby areas. Farmers consider feed millers good
market outlets because grain may fetch higher than
market prices, and some feed mills do not have very
strict grain quality standards.


2.5 Socioeconomic
Characteristics

2.5.1 Households and ethnicity
Of the eight regions surveyed, South Cotabato has the
highest combined population of the three study
villages, followed by Cotabato and Camarines Sur (Table
6), while Leyte (Region VIII) has the lowest combined
population. Average household size ranges from 3.3 in
Mindoro Occidental to 5.4 in Bukidnon; provinces
surveyed in Mindanao tend to have higher average
household sizes than those in Luzon and Visayas.

Ethnic grouping is localized in the regions or provinces.
The Ibanagand Ilocano groups are prominent in Isabela
province, and the Mangyans in Mindoro Occidental and
Camarines Sur. The study areas in Mindanao (Bukidnon,
South Cotabato, and Cotabato) had the highest number
of ethnic groups in their communities, with the
Cebuanos, Lumads, and T'bolis being the top three
(Table 6).

Most households in the surveyed villages were headed
by men (Table 6), but survey respondents report that
husband and wife play an equal role in making far ming
decisions since agriculture is considered to be a family
enterprise. Interestingly, up to 14% of households in
the study areas of Mindanao are led by females, as the
male household heads have sought employment in
urban areas.


2.5.2 Literacy and level of education
Most Filipinos consider education for their children to
be a top priority, and even resource-poor families will
strive to send their children to school. The majority of
the population in the surveyed villages has attended or
completed primary schooling, with a significant number
having attended secondary school and some going on
to university (Table 6). About 66% of those in Isabela
have attended or completed elementary school, 45% of
those in Cotabato have attended or completed
secondary school, and 25% of those in Bukidnon have
attended or completed tertiary (college) education. In
contrast, 80% of the population in Laconon, T'boli,
South Cotabato cannot read or write. Education can
encourage farming households to try out and adopt
modem technologies that improve farm production.











2.5.3 Landholdings and tenure

The average farm size across the 24 surveyed villages
ranges from 0.8-4.3 ha (Table 6). Mindoro Occidental
has the largest average farm size (2.2-4.3 ha) while
Cotabato has the smallest farms (0.8-1.0 ha). The
villages surveyed in Leyte and South Cotabato have no
recorded data on agricultural landholdings.

Most maize farmers in the surveyed villages are
landowners, with the highest proportion (78%) living in
Mindoro Occidental (Table 6). Leyte and Camarines Sur,
meanwhile, had the most tenant/sharecropper farmers


(64%) and mortgage payers (91%). Other maize farmers
had land awarded to them as agrarian reform
beneficiaries (ARBs) and hold Certificates of Land
Transfer (CLT). A last group is made up of landless
laborers. Interestingly, Isabela (where maize is
commonly grown for commercial purposes) has more
tenants/shar e-croppers than landowners, although it
also has the highest proportion of CLT awardees.
Another noticeable finding is the complete absence of
landless laborers being reported in the villages of
Mindoro Occidental and Leyte, which is quite unusual
in the country.


Table 6. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines.

Mindoro Camarines South
Isabela Occidental Sur Cebu Leyte Bukidnon Cotabato Cotabato


Total population across
surveyed villages
Number of households
% Male-headed
households
Average household size
Major ethnic groups
present in the
surveyed villages


Educational level
(as % of population)
Illiterate
Elementary level
or graduate
High school level
or graduate
College level
or graduate
Average farm size
(ha/household)
Tenure status (as % of
households)
Landowners
Tenants/sharecroppers
Fixed rent payers
Mortgage payers
Landless laborers
Others (CIT)
Maize utilization (%)
Sold
Kept for food
Feed
Retained as seed
Others
Average per capital income
(pesos, 2000) a/
Poverty incidence (%) a
1997
2000


824
90-95

4.9
Ibanag,
Ilocano,
Pangasinense


1,665
100

3.3
Mangyan,
Iraya


9.1 11.9
65.6 33.2

19.4 37.0

5.9 17.9

1.8-2.2 2.2-4.3


23.2
34.3
1.7
9.6
13.9
17.3

94-96
0-1
1-2
1-2
0-5
24,278


78.2
9.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
12.3

100
0
0
0
0
23,876


36.1 17.3
32.6 23.4


1,239
75-95

4.8
Mangyan


928
94-100


5.0 4.3
-- Waray
Cebuano


1,017
90

5.4
Cebuano
Boholano,
Ilonggo,
Manobo,
Lumad


13,122

2,664
90

4.9
Cebuano
B'laan,
Ilonggo,
T'boli


10.9 7.5 3.1
48.3 31.8 42.2

31.8 54.7 29.7

9.0 5.9 24.9


1.7-2.3 1.3-2.3


94-100
0
1-2
1
1-2
20,798


2-3
45-97
1-2
1 -53
1-16
21,843


1.9-3.0


80-90



24,183


40.0
4.3
21.8
6.4
14.9
12.6

85-95
5-10
0
0
0-5
29,817


53.2
17.6
3.0
7.4
15.7
3.1

91 -97
0.5-6
1
0.5-1
1
32,101


1,264
86-97

5.0
Cebuano
Ilonggo,
Manobo,
B'laan,
Maguindanao


0.0
40.7


0.8-1.0



56.5
28.1
2.4
6.2
2.1
4.7

77-97
10
1-10
0.5- 7
1-3
19,443


35.1 31.9 41.9 23.1 25.4 42.7
44.1 35.7 44.3 24.7 25.2 34.8


Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.
' Philippine Human Development Report 2002.










2.5.5 Farmer classification


Most maize produced in the hybrid-growing areas of
Luzon and Mindanao is sold to livestock and poultry
feed mill industries almost immediately after drying, but
farmers in Mindanao keep a higher proportion of their
harvest for home consumption than do farmers in
Luzon. In Bukidnon, farmers report that even yellow
maize is processed and consumed as food in times of
very poor harvest.

On the other hand, harvests of local/traditional white
maize varieties that predominate in the Visayas
provinces of Cebu and Leyte, are mostly retained at
home for human consumption and animal feed. In these
villages, maize cobs are dried with or without husks,
stored and milled as needed for immediate use. Farmers
in these provinces also retain a significant percentage of
their maize harvests for seed purposes.

Across all survey sites, only a minimal proportion of
total maize production is reported as allocated to other
purposes (Table 6).




Table 7. Farmer characteristics by economic status in 24
surveyed villages, the Philippines.
Maize agro-ecozone Farmer classification
and parameters Poor Intermediate Rich
Rainfed lowlands
Average farm size (ha) 0-1.0 1.0 5.0 > 5.0
Income by source (%)
Maize production 76 54 56
Other agricultural income 24 40 40
Non-agricultural income 0 6 4
Upland plains
Average farm size (ha) 0.5 2.0 2.0 5.0 > 5.0
Income by source (%)
Maize production 73 65 54
Other agricultural income 27 21 34
Non-agricultural income 0 14 12
Rolling-to-hilly areas
Average farm size (ha) 0 2.0 2.0 5.0 > 5.0
Income by source (%)
Maize production 59 48 29
Other agricultural income 41 45 49
Non-agricultural income 0 7 22
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.


One exercise conducted in this study was classifying
maize farmers within the community by income group
and asking farmer-respondents to provide descriptions
and general characteristics of each group. Farmers in
the survey sites were classified as either poor, medium-
intermediate, or rich, with each group being
characterized by such parameters as farm size, income
by source, household size, and number of livestock
owned (Table 7).

The poor group is typically made up of farmers who are
tenants or sharecroppers, with large households, and
little or no education. If they own their land, these
farmers tend to have small farms of up to 2.0 ha only.
They also characteristically earn most of their income
from maize production and other agricultural
enterprises (usually as hired labor in other farms) rather
than from non-agricultural or non-farm activities. These
farmers earn an estimated 59-76% of their income from
maize production and none from non-agricultural
activities. Meanwhile, the medium-rich (intermediate)
farmers, many of whom own their farms, typically own
about 2-5.0 ha of farmland and have more sources of
income than the poorer farmers. Maize production
provides an estimated 48-65% of this farmer group's
total household income, and non-farm activities
provide about 6-14% of their total income. Typical non-
farm income-earning activities for these farmers include
buy and sell enterprises, driving public vehicles for hire,
working in factories or stores in nearby cities, and
working as construction laborers within or outside the
community. Farmers in the relatively rich far mer group
tend to have smaller households, and larger farms (at
least 5.0 ha) where more than one kind of crop is
grown. These farmers tend to be less economically
dependent on maize production, which provides only
about 29-56% of their household income; of the three
income groups, they characteristically receive the
highest proportion of their incomes (4-22%) from non-
agricultural enterprises. These rich farmers or members
of their family may have skills or education that allows
them to hold white-collar jobs in bigger cities like
Metro Manila, or to work overseas and send
remittances home.


2.5.4 Maize utilization











3. Maize Production Trends and Systems


3.1 Maize Production Trends

In 1980, total maize production in the Philippines was
about 3 million metric tons (t) harvested from about 3.2
million hectares (ha), posting an average yield of 0.9 t/
ha. In 1990, maize production peaked at 4.8 million
tons from 3.8 million ha, for a yield level of 1.3 t/ha. In
2000, the country produced 4.5 million tons of maize
from 2.5 million ha with a peak average yield of 1.8 t/
ha. During this 20-year period, harvested maize area
declined by about 1.6% per year while average maize
yield increased by 3.2% per year, resulting in only a
slight annual increase of 1.7% in total production (Table
8; see Annex 1 for details).

These figures reflect contrasting trends in yellow and
white maize production in the country. Production of
yellow maize increased from about 332,000 tons in
1980 to 2.6 million tons in 2000, a growth of 8.7% per
year. On the other hand, white maize yield declined at
2.4% annually from 2.7 million tons in 1980 to 1.9
million tons in 2000 (Table 8). Yield and area planted to
yellow maize increased significantly from 1980-2000,
while those parameters for white maize decreased. The
increase in yellow maize production is due to wider
adoption of higher-yielding maize varieties, which were
developed in response to the increasing demand for
maize grain from livestock feed industries. Meanwhile,
white maize production declined because of low yields


and a shift in the area that used to be planted to white
maize, to yellow maize and/or higher-value crops like
sugarcane and vegetables.

The eight major maize-producing provinces in the
Philippines that were surveyed for this study showed
maize production trends similar to those at the national
level. During 1980-2000, Isabela, Mindoro Occidental,
Camarines Sur and Bukidnon showed growth in maize
production, spunred by the huge growth in yellow
maize production (Table 8). Among these four
provinces, Isabela posted a declining trend in total area
planted to maize, which was in turn due to the huge
decline in area planted to white maize. Average maize
yield in all four provinces grew positively due to the
increase of farmer adoption of higher-yielding maize
varieties, especially hybrids.

Figures from the period 1996-2000 show Bukidnon,
Isabela, South Cotabato and Cotabato, in this order, to
be the top four maize-producing provinces in the
Philippines, contributing 41% of the total national maize
production. Yellow maize comprised at least 57% of the
total maize produced and covered at least 46% of the
total harvested maize area in these provinces. In terms
of average maize yield, Isabela ranked first with 2.8 t/
ha, followed by Bukidnon and South Cotabato with 2.6
t/ha and 2.3 t/ha, respectively (Annex 1). These yield


Table 8. Long-term trends of maize area, yield, and production in the Philippines, 1980-2000.
Annual growth rates for the period 1980-2000 (%)
Maize area Maize yield Maize production
Province, region Total White Yellow Total White Yellow Total White Yellow
Isabela, Cagayan Valley (2.3) (18.2) 10.3 8.6 5.7 5.4 5.8 (12.4) 15.7
Mindoro Occidental, Southern Tagalog 5.5 6.5 4.0 4.0 9.1 10.5
Camarines Sur, Bicol 1.4 (4.1) 1.8 5.2 4.1 5.1 6.6 (0.1) 6.9
Cebu, Central Visayas (6.6) (6.6) (6.8) 0.8 0.8 1.2 (5.8) (5.8) (5.7)
Leyte, Eastern Visayas (8.9) (8.8) (1.5) (1.6) (10.5) (10.5) -
Bukidnon, Northern Mindanao 2.1 (4.7) 16.6 6.2 3.8 4.8 8.4 (0.8) 21.4
South Cotabato, Southern Mindanao (5.9) (9.9) 2.2 1.5 1.5 1.5 (3.8) (8.5) 3.7
Cotabato, Central Mindanao (1.7) (5.6) 0.6 (0.8) (1.1) (6.4) -
Philippines (1.6) (3.4) (3.7) 3.2 1.1 5.0 1.7 (2.4) 8.7
Source: Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS), 2000.










levels, as well as those in Cotabato and Mindoro
Occidental, exceeded the national average yield level of
1.6 t/ha.

During 1980-2000, however, the maize-consuming
provinces of Cebu and Leyte posted negative growth
rates in total maize production, due to continuously
declining production of both yellow and white maize.
These trends resulted from the continuous decline in
area planted to maize, especially white maize, as well as
from almost stagnant maize yield levels. In the period
1996-2000, Mindoro Occidental and Leyte produced
only 20,000 and 27,000 tons of maize respectively,
with most of the maize produced in Mindoro Occidental
being yellow, while maize produced in Leyte was
mostly white.



3.2 Maize Production Systems

3.2.1 Major farm enterprises
The major agricultural enterprise across the study area is
crop production, and maize is the primary crop grown.
Vegetables, legumes, root crops, and other cash crops
are also planted as relay crops or intercrops to maize,
usually as a small percentage of the total cultivated
area. Most farm households also engage in small-scale
(backyard) poultry and livestock production to augment
income and supply home needs. Non-farm activities
and enterprises, such as operating small sari-sari stores
or driving tricycles orjeepneys for hire, also provide
additional income in many of the surveyed sites.

Animals commonly raised by maize farmers include
cattle, carabaos (water buffaloes), goats, swine, and
poultry, with wealthier farmers owning more animal
types and units. Water buffaloes are kept as work
animals, while cattle, goats, and swine are
kept to sell as necessary, especially during lean
months. Poultry is kept for home consumption, Table
especially in lower-income farm households. the
Maize
ec

3.2.2 Crops and cropping patterns Rainfec

The rainfed lowlands maize agro-ecozone in
the Philippines has two cropping seasons, with Upland
maize grown either as the main crop (in
Isabela) or as the dry season crop (in Mindoro
Occidental) after transplanted rice (Table 9). In
the latter case, rice is grown during the wet Rolling
season, when rainfall can support the crop,
while 70-100% of the same areas is planted to
maize during the dry season.


The upland plains maize agro-ecozone can be found in
Isabela, Camarines Sur, Bukidnon, South Cotabato, and
Cotabato. In this agro-ecozone, two crops of maize are
commonly grown in at least 75% of the cultivated area,
sometimes with the second crop of maize intercropped
with vegetables (Table 9). In some areas, a third crop of
maize, tobacco (in Isabela), or mung bean can be grown
with sufficient rainfall and favorable weather conditions.

In the upland sloping, rolling-to-hilly maize agro-
ecozone, farmers often grow two crops of maize, with a
few farmers planting a third crop of maize, legumes,
vegetables, or a combination thereof (Table 9). In
Isabela, about 85% of the cultivated area in the
surveyed barangays is devoted to this cropping pattern,
using legumes in the third cropping. In Cebu, at least
90% of the cultivated area in this agro-ecozone is
devoted to maize in the first season, with a few farmers
intercropping legumes with it. During the second
cropping, when there is extremely high rainfall and
some typhoons, more farmers intercrop vegetables and
other cash crops with maize, although some still risk a
maize crop. With intercrops, maize is planted in only
50-75% of the total cultivated area. Some farmers in
this agro-ecozone in Cebu and Leyte fallow their fields
during the third cropping to avoid crop failure. In
Bukidnon, farmers consider upland rice and vegetables
as the second and third most important crops after
maize, and these are usually intercropped or relay
cropped with maize (upland rice is often planted in a
separate parcel of land). In South Cotabato, farmers
may risk a third maize crop, which often fails due to
unfavorable weather. Farmers estimate that 63% to 85%
of their cultivated area is grown to maize, while the rest
may be planted to rice, peanut, cotton, and sugarcane.


9. Cropping patterns found across the 24 surveyed villages,
hilippines.
agro- Estimated % of total
ozone Cropping pattern (s) area planted to maize
Lowland Maize upland rice 70-100
Transplanted rice maize
Maize- maize 75-100
plains Maize maize maize
Maize maize tobacco (Isabela)
Maize maize+vegetables
Maize maize / legume 35-100
Maize maize
-to-hilly areas Maize maize maize
Maize+legumes maize vegetables
Maize- maize+vegetables maize
Maize maize legumes, vegetables
Maize maize maize+legumes/vegetables
Upland rice, maize vegetables


Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.










3.2.3 Maize cropping calendar

In Luzon, maize cropping starts with the first monsoon
rains in the summer months. Planting season for the first
crop starts in April/May in Isabela and in May/June in
Camarines Sur (Table 10). Farmers in Isabela plant their
second maize crop in September/October, almost
immediately after harvesting the first crop, while
farmers in Camarines Sur will wait until November/
December to establish their second crop. This cropping
calendar is similar across the upland plains and the
rolling-to-hilly maize production environments. In
Mindoro Occidental, maize is grown as a second crop
after rice and is planted in October/November when the
monsoon rains have subsided. Farmers are careful not
to delay maize planting until December, because
drought may occur during the later growth stages of
the crop.

In Cebu and Leyte, the first maize crop is planted from
April/May until July. The second cropping is from
August/September until November/December. With fair
weather and good rainfall, a third crop of vegetables or
root crops may be grown from December to March,
right before the onset of summer.

In the Mindanao provinces surveyed, the first crop of
maize is planted in February/March and harvested in
June/July. The second maize crop is sown in July/
August and harvested in November/December. In the
upland sloping, rolling-to-hilly environments in South


Cotabato and Cotabato, farmers may plant a third crop
of maize or legumes in November/December and
harvest it in February, March or April.

In summary, the maize crop calendar for the Philippines
indicates that the supply of locally produced maize
grain is leanest during January, April-May, and October.
In different provinces, maize is harvested a month or
two before or after these lean months. Farmer-
respondents in this study often stated that it is
important that appropriate drying, processing, and
storage facilities in the maize regions are provided to
ensure that a good supply of grain exists throughout
the year.



3.2.4 Maize varieties grown and farmers'
preferences

Farmers choose the maize varieties they grow based on
their intended use. For home food and feed needs,
farmers prefer to grow local/traditional white maize
varieties for their good eating quality, low material
inputs requirement (especially fertilizers), and low
production cost as the seed can be recycled. If maize is
grown purely for cash income, farmers are more likely
to grow hybrid varieties, as long as they have access to
capital for material and labor inputs. Farmers are aware
that higher yields can be expected from these improved
varieties if proper quantities of inputs are supplied.


Table 10. General maize cropping calendar (17 months) in the 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines.
Province, region Season J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M
Isabela, Cagayan First ///////////////
Valley Second//////////////
Third ///
Mindoro Occ., Second
Southern Tagalog
Camarines Sur, First (Wet)//////////////////////////
Bicol Second (Dry)/////////////////////////////////////
Cebu, Central First V//////////////////A
Visayas Second ////////////////////////
Third////////////////////////////
Leyte, Eastern First ////// ///A
Visayas Second//////////////////////////
Bukidnon, N. First///////////////////////////////
Mindanao Second//////////////////////////////
South Cotabato, First //////////////////
S. Mindanao Second//////////////////
Third///////////////////////
Cotabato, Central First ///////////////////
Mindanao Second V////////////////////////
Third/ ///////////////
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Sunrey 2001.











In Cebu and Leyte, where white maize is grown largely
for human consumption, farmers grow mostly local/
traditional varieties (the most popular of which is
Tiniguib), and improved OPVs. In addition to factors
and preferences discussed above, farmers will choose
to plant local/traditional and improved OPVs that have
good grain yield and high milling recovery, are
resistant to pests and diseases, and are suited to
marginal soils (Table 11). However, farmers report that
these varieties have small ears, are susceptible to
lodging, and are difficult to husk and shell. Some
farmers who tried growing hybrid varieties observed
pest resistance and larger ears, but also reported low
milling recovery, susceptibility to weevils, and low
market demand for the grain.


The extent of adoption of local/traditional and improved
OPVs has generally been constant through the years,
although some specific varieties are no longer planted
primarily because seed has become unavailable.

In Camarines Sur, adoption of yellow hybrid varieties is
reported to be declining because farmers cannot afford
the high costs of seed and required fertilizers. Farmers
are gradually shifting to improved OPVs, as their seeds
are readily available through barter, sale or from
recycling of the last harvest. However, these varieties
are late maturing, produce small ears, and are
susceptible to fungus infection, corn borers, and
lodging.


Table 11. Maize varieties grown in the 24 surveyed villages, the Philippines.
Farmer-identified Farmer-identified Level of
Maize type and advantages of the disadvantages of the farmer
variety/a variety variety adoption Trend of farmer adoption
Hybrids
Cargill High yielding; resistant to lodging, Expensive seed; susceptible to stalk Medium to Constant to increasing
pests and diseases; full cobs at maturity; rot, corn borer, aphids; thin stalks; high (decreasing in Camarines Sur,
heavy grain; big ears; long cob; loaned small kernels; high input South Cotabato and Cotabato)
by traders; high shelling recovery; requirements; poor eating quality
easy to harvest (soft ear shaft)
Pioneer High yielding; resistant to Expensive seed; susceptible to stalk Medium to Constant to increasing
drought, lodging, pests and rot, weeds, aphids, lodging; thin very high (decreasing in Camarines Sur,
diseases; full cobs at maturity, stalks; high input requirements; South Cotabato and Cotabato)
heavy grain; loaned by traders; vivipary character; small kernels; yield
high shelling recovery lower than that of Cargill hybrids
Cornworld Big ears; free from DA; Poor germination; susceptible to Low Not planted anymore in
heavy grain molds, lodging; light grain some areas
Mariana (Ayala) Provided by DA with a subsidy Poor germination; susceptible to Low Decreasing (not planted
through production program; long pests, stalk rot, lodging; light anymore in Isabela, Camarines
cobs; heavy grain; good yield; big colored grain; low yield; small grain; Sur, Bukidnon, South Cotabato)
grain-filled ear; loaned by traders short stature
GSI 40 Big cobs; provided free by DA; Poor germination; small and unfilled Low Decreasing (not planted
resistant to pests; cobs; light grain; low yielding; anymore in Isabela, Bukidnon,
good germination difficult to husk; susceptible to mold; Cotabato)
low shelling recovery
SMC High yielding; big ears; Vivipary character; susceptible to High Decreasing
resistant to lodging lodging and weeds; small grain
Far East Resistant to lodging Light grain; susceptible to ear rot Low Decreasing
Bioseed High yielding; high shelling recovery; Poor germination Low Not planted anymore
resistant to drought; cheaper seed than (in Cotabato)
Cargill and Pioneer varieties
Improved OPVs
IPB Cheaper seed; large ears; Susceptible to lodging Low Decreasing (not used anymore
heavy grain; resistant to pests in Camarines Sur)
VM 2 High calorie content; compact kernels -
in the cob; good eating quality
Composite/DMR Seed can be recycled; big Susceptible to fungal infection in Very high Constant
heavy grain; does not rot easily the field, corn borers and lodging;
small ears; late maturing
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.
a Maize farmer-respondents could not remember the specific variety name (or numbers of hybrids) they use.











The commercial maize growing areas of Mindoro
Occidental, Isabela, Bukidnon, South Cotabato, and
Cotabato are dominated by modem yellow hybrid
varieties. Some local/traditional varieties and improved
OPVs are still grown but in smaller areas and commonly
for home consumption. Farmers cited favorable
characteristics of hybrid varieties, such as: high yields,
heavy grain, general resistance to pests and diseases,
tolerance to drought and other climatic stresses, and
high shelling recovery (Table 11). On the other hand,
they listed high seed cost and high input requirements
as disadvantages in the use of hybrid varieties. Farmers
also report that hybrid seed provided by the DA
through maize production intensification programs
often shows poor germination and field performance.


Farmers were also asked to rank varietal characteristics
according to importance. High yield was the most
important parameter across all surveyed barangays but
two. In Cebu, where maize is grown for food, farmers
considered good eating quality to be the most
important characteristic of a variety, while farmers in
Mindoro Occidental chose good quality of plants to be
the most important (Table 12). Disease and pest
resistance consistently ranked as the second, third or
fourth most important characteristic, followed by heavy
grain weight or full maize cob/ear. Other characteristics
differ in their ranking across sites but mostly reflect the
cited advantages of varieties identified.


Table 11. continued

Maize type and Farmer-identified advantages Farmer-identified disadvantages Level of farmer
variety"/ of the variety of the variety adoption Trend of farmer adoption


Local/traditional (native) varieties
Sinabmit Early maturing; heavy grain;
good market price
Wonder Big cobs and grain;
fewer inputs required
Tiniguib(yellow Good eating quality; high milling recovery;
and white) resistant to pests and diseases; suitable
for marginal soils; tolerant of weeds; good
storing ability; high calorie content; compact
kernels; readily available seed; requires less
fertilizer; longer cob and bigger grain; heavy
grain; good market price; good yields
Mimis, lolo Good eating quality; high milling recovery;
pest resistant; suited to marginal soils; weed
tolerant; stores well; high calorie content;
compact kernels; readily available seed
Kalimpos, Takuro High milling recovery; large ears; good
eating quality; suited to marginal soils;
easy to shell; weed tolerant; stores well;
high calorie content; compact kernels;
readily available seed


Good eating quality; high milling
recovery; pest resistant; early maturing
Good eating quality
Large ears; resistant to weevils; high milling
recovery; suited to marginal soils;
easy to shell; good eating quality
Resistant to weevils; high milling
recovery; suited to marginal soils;
good eating quality; early maturing
Big ears; short plants
Big kernels; requires less fertilizer;
high yields
Good yield; requires less fertilizer;
insect resistant


Low yield; susceptible to
downy mildew
Low yield; light grain

Difficult to husk and shell; susceptible
to lodging and to downy mildew;
low yields; requires more fertilizer;
shorter storage life


High

High

Medium
to high

Medium to
very high


Small ears


Tall and susceptible to lodging
Susceptible to weevils when
harvested early

Small ears; hard to shell


Susceptible to weevils
Poor eating quality;
susceptible to lodging


Low
Low


High


Low
Low

Medium


Not planted anymore
(in Mindoro Occidental)
Not planted anymore
(in Mindoro Occidental)
Constant to decreasing in
Cebu, Bukidnon, South
Cotabato
Constant to increasing
(in Cotabato)







Constant (in Cebu)




Constant (in Cebu)

Not planted anymore (in Cebu)
Constant (in Cebu)


Decreasing (in Cebu)


Not planted anymore (in Cebu)
Not planted anymore
(in Bukidnon)
Decreasing (in Bukidnon)


Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.
"/Maize farmer-respondents could not remember the specific variety name (or numbers of hybrids) they use.


Minantika

Java
Kantitik


Bisaya


Tikod-tikod
Masiao

Banlon











3.2.5 Land preparation and crop
management practices

Across all survey sites, land preparation consists of one
or two plowing operations, harrowing to level the field
and reduce the size of soil clods, and furrowing. The
timing of these operations depends on soil moisture
conditions. The first plowing is generally done soon
after harvesting the previous crop to prevent weed
growth and incorporate residues. These land
preparation operations are often done with animal
power, but may be mechanized on level terrain,
especially if capital is available to pay for tractor rental.

Table 12. Ranking of maize characteristics based on farmers'
preferences.
% of farmer-
respondents
who gave


Province Characteristics


Isabela High yielding
Full and heavy grain and cobs
Resistant to lodging
Resistant to pests and diseases
Tolerance to high density
Mindoro Good quality of plants
Occidental Big ears/cobs; heavy grain
Resistant to lodging
Resistant to pests and diseases
High yielding
Camarines High yielding
Sur Do not require so much fertilizer
Can be recycled
Resistant to wind/rain damage
Big grain
Cebu Good eating quality
High milling recovery
Resistant to pests
Suited to marginal soils
Big ears
Leyte High yielding; big ears, and compact kernels
Resistant to pests and diseases
Tolerance to drought
Suited to marginal soils
Readily available seed
Bukidnon High yielding
Seed can be recycled
Resistant to pests and diseases
Heavy grains
Resistant to drought; tolerates acid soils
South High yielding
Cotabato Resistant to lodging
Resistant to pest and diseases
High shelling recovery
Heavy grain weight
Early maturing
Cotabato High yielding
Heavy grain weight/ears
High shelling recovery
Resistant to pests and diseases
Resistant to lodging
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines PRA Survey 2001.


Ranking
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5


rankings
100
50
41
35
14
100
100
54
100
46
78
83
78
100
100
--.


In the rainfed lowlands, the field is plowed once and
harrowed twice to prepare the land for the dry-season
maize crop after wet-season rice is harvested. The
extent of farm mechanization is 70-95% (usually during
land preparation), and farmers cite heavy labor use
(both family and hired labor) during planting and
harvesting. Furrowing is immediately followed by
sowing and basal fertilizer application. Inorganic
fertilizers are generally applied 25-30 days after
planting. Some farmers also use chemical pesticides to
control insect pests. Off-barring, hilling-up, and
manual/hand weeding are practiced to control weeds.
Harvesting, dehusking, drying ,and sometimes
shelling are done manually with both family and
hired labor.

In the upland plains where maize mono-cropping is
practiced, plowing is generally mechanized, while
animal draft power is used in harrowing and
furrowing. The field is plowed two to three times
and harrowed once or twice depending on soil
conditions. Furrowing is done at planting. For
hybrids, one seed per hill is sown at a distance of
60-75 cm between furrows and 20-25 cm between
hills. For OPVs, two seeds per hill are sown at 60 cm
between furrows and 30-40 cm between hills.
Weeds are commonly controlled through combined
manual or hand weeding and off-barring and hilling-
up at 20-25 days after planting. Herbicides are very
seldom used, although in Isabela pre- and post-
emergence herbicides may be applied when labor is
scarce. Fertilizers and pesticides are also applied but
often at rates lower than what is recommended or
required by the crop. Only maize farmers in
Camarines Sur report using farmyard manure on
their crop. Most farmers have been introduced to
integrated pest management (IPM) technology, but
its use has been limited. For example, farmers were
trained in the use of Trichogramma, a biological
control for Asian corn borer, yet in only a few of the
survey sites is it actually used; farmers reported
limited availability constrained their use of the
pesticide. Harvesting is done manually in all sites.

In the rolling-to-hilly agro-ecologies, land
preparation is done manually or with the use of draft
animal. Other crop management practices are
similar to those in the upland plains, although input
use in these agro-ecologies (particularly in Cebu and
Leyte) is lower than in the upland plains. Maize
farmers grow mostly local/traditional varieties,
sown three to five seeds per hill at distances of 30
cm x 60 cm, 45 cm x 45 cm, or 50 cm x 100 cm.
Farmers use wider planting distances than when
planting improved OPVs or hybrids in other
environments, primarily to accommodate
intercrops.










3.2.6 Level of labor and material input
use

The average labor and material input use of maize
farmers does not differ much across the different maize
production environments in the Philippines. Maize
farmers in the rainfed lowlands of Isabela, upland plains
of Mindanao, and rolling-to-hilly areas of South
Cotabato grow all three types of maize varieties. The
rainfed lowlands of Mindoro Occidental grow only
hybrids and the rolling-to-hilly areas of Cebu and Leyte
grow only local/traditional maize varieties. Improved
OPVs are sown at 18 kg/ha and hybrids at 16-22 kg/ha
in the rainfed lowlands. Seeding rates in the rolling-to-
hilly agro-ecozone, especially where local/traditional
varieties are grown, are lower than those used in the
rainfed lowlands and upland plains (Table 13).

The national fertilizer recommendation is 100 kg/ha
urea (45-0-0) plus 200 kg/ha complete fertilizer (14-14-
14) for OPVs, and 150 kg/ha urea plus 300 kg/ha
complete fertilizer for hybrids. Complete fertilizer is
used for basal application, while urea is applied as side
dressing 25-30 days after planting. Based on these
recommendations, the fertilizer application rates used
by farmers in Isabela, Bicol, Bukidnon, South Cotabato,
and Cotabato are sufficient. Farmers, however, tend to
apply more urea (at 150-325 kg/ha), and less complete



Table 13. Average labor and material inputs use in 24
surveyed villages, the Philippines.
Maize agro-ecozone
Rainfed Upland Rolling-
Inputs (unit/ha) lowlands plains to-hilly
Maize seed (kg)
Local/traditional 15-20 9-14
Improved OPVs 18 16-20 14-20
Hybrids 16-22 16-18.5 16-21
Inorganic fertilizers (kg)
Urea (45-0-0) 100-600 150-325 50-325
Complete (14-14-14) 150-350 100-300 50-325
Ammonium phosphate (16-20-0) 150 350 0 200 0-100
Di-ammonium phosphate (18-46-0) 0 -100 0-150
Muriate of potash (0-0-60) 0 100 0-125
Ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) 175-300 -
Inorganic fertilizers (kg)
Nitrogen 90-375 119-301 30-235
Phosphorus 41-119 14-128 7-135
Potassium 21-49 14-102 7-121
Farmyard manure (t) 0 0 -4 0-10
Lime (t) 0 0-2.5 0-2.5
Trichogramma (cards) 0 0-200 0 45
Human labor
Total (person-days) 54-89 28-68 40-111
Men (%) 63 71 55-86 55-100
Women (%) 27-33 14-45 0 45
Person-animal days 0-10 5-10 6-25
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.


fertilizer (at 50-325 kg/ha). The benefits of soil analysis
and proper fertilizer recommendations are not realized
in many areas. While farmers in Mindoro Occidental
may overuse fertilizers for their maize (at 100-600 kg/
ha urea plus 150-350 kg/ha complete fertilizer), those
in the rolling-to-hilly areas of Cebu and Leyte do not
apply enough fertilizer. Only a few farmers in the
upland plains and rolling-to-hilly areas use organic
fertilizers (particularly farmyard manure), and lime to
address soil acidity problems (Table 13). Farmers in the
hybrid growing areas commonly use pesticides for
insect control, while those in the maize consuming
areas of Cebu and Leyte do not. Far mers who do use
pesticides, however, state they apply minimal amounts
and only when infestation is heavy.

Labor use in maize production ranges from a low 28
person-days per hectare (PD/ha), in the generally
mechanized upland plains of South Cotabato, to a high
111 PD/ha in the rolling-to-hilly villages of Cebu where
manual labor is mostly used. Women farmers (mostly
hired labor), provide 10-45% of the total labor used in
maize production, and are employed during planting,
manual weeding and harvesting. As expected, labor
use and animal power use are highest in the rolling-to-
hilly maize agro-ecozones of Cebu and Leyte (Table 13).



3.2.7 Post-harvest practices

Maize is sun-dried immediately after harvest, usually on
drying pavements at home or in common areas in the
community. Big, well-developed ears of local/
traditional and improved OPVs are selected for planting
in the next cropping season. Dried maize ears intended
for the market, especially for the feed industry, are
shelled using mechanical sellers contracted through
cooperatives or individual entrepreneurs in the
community. Dried and shelled maize grain is
immediately sold, making storage unimportant. Maize
grain is sold soon after drying for several reasons-
weevils often attack stored grain, lowering grain
quality; grain that is not dried to optimum moisture
content, especially during the wet season, can develop
molds; and farmers have to sell their harvest
immediately to pay back loans taken from trader-
financiers.

Maize harvested for home use is sorted, smaller ears
are milled, and bigger ones are kept for seed. Ears are
sun-dried with or without husks and stored in dry areas
in the house or in a separate storage shed. Farmers
report that ears with husks store better because
weevils, the common storage pests, do not easily infest
them. Ears are shelled manually, shortly before use.











Better-off farmers bring their produce to commercial
maize mills for milling, while poorer farmers use their
wooden or stone mills. Farmers reported that
mechanical milling produce maize grits of better
quality.



3.2.8 Yields and yield gap

The highest yields are obtained from hybrid maize
compared to those of local/traditional and improved
OPVs, with the rainfed lowland environments
producing much better yields than the upland plains
and rolling-to-hilly areas (Table 14). Across agro-
ecozones, hybrids commonly yield 1.6-6.0 t/ha. Hybrid
yields are highest in the rainfed lowland environments
of Mindoro Occidental and reach maximum levels of
5.5-9.0 t/ha. The most common yield of local/
traditional varieties ranges from 0.1-2.5 t/ha in the
rolling-to-hilly areas, and 1.0-2.0 t/ha in the upland
plains.

In Cebu and Leyte, maize yields are highest during the
first cropping, and decline by 70-87% during the third
cropping when conditions become marginal due to


drought stress. Yields of hybrid maize grown in Isabela
and Mindoro Occidental are notably higher than those
in Bukidnon, South Cotabato, and Cotabato.

Farmers are aware that the productivity of their maize
crops can still be improved and report several reasons
for the yield gap. They claim that erratic, unpredictable
weather conditions affect crop growth, and tropical
storms, like those that often occur in Camarines Sur and
Leyte, can destroy crops. In the rainfed lowlands of
Mindoro Occidental, weather extremes-heavy rains and
flooding at the start of maize cropping and drought
toward the later stages of crop growth-can adversely
affect maize production. Secondly, farmers tend to use
less than recommended amounts of fertilizers because
they lack the capital to purchase the inputs. Thirdly,
farmers cite soil acidity and declining soil fertility as a
problem. In the rolling-to-hilly agro-ecozones, the
continued loss of fertile topsoil due to erosion
constrains maize production. Other constraints stated
by farmer-respondents include pest incidence, farmers'
lack of or insufficient access to technical information or
technology, and poor crop management practices.


Table 14. Maize yield by type of material and maize agro-ecozone,
24 surveyed villages, the Philippines.
Range of maize yield by agro-ecozone (t/ha)
Type of maize material Rainfed lowlands Upland plains Rolling-to-hilly
Local/traditional
Most common 1.0 2.0 0.1 -2.5
Minimum attained 0.5 -1.5 0.1 -3.0
Maximum attained 1.0 2.0 0.2 3.8
Improved OPVs
Most common 2.0 4.0 0.9 2.4
Minimum attained 1.0 3.5 1.0 2.1
Maximum attained 2.0 4.5 2.0 4.5
Hybrids
Most common 4.6 6.0 3.0 5.7 1.6 5.0
Minimum attained 3.0 5.0 1.5 5.0 2.0 4.3
Maximum attained 5.5 9.0 4.0 7.0 4.0 7.0
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Survey 2001.











4. Maize Production Constraints


4.1 Biotic and Abiotic Constraints

Most farmer-respondents in the study mentioned the
Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guenee), corn
earworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubn.), and white
grubs (Leucopholis irrorata Chev.) as annual problems.
The Asian corn borer, considered the most destructive
pest of maize in the Philippines (Morallo-Rejesus,
2002), occurs yearly in all study sites; its incidence has
been constant to increasing during the last 10 years,
with farmers reporting yield losses of 30-100%.
Significant efforts have been directed at developing
biological means to manage this pest, specifically mass
rearing of controls for field release. Other pests
occurring less frequently but causing moderate-to-high
yield losses are armyworm (Mythimna separate Walker)
and common cutworm (Spodoptera litura Fabr.).
Weevils (Sitophilus spp.) are a serious storage pest,
especially in Cebu and Leyte, where farmers store
maize grain for home use.

Weeds are a substantial problem in maize production
across the survey sites. Several species are persistent
and recur every cropping season, causing yield losses
as high as 100% if no hand weeding or herbicide is
used. Farmer-respondents mention aguingay
(Rottboellia cochichinensis), mote-mote (dpomoeia
triloba), makahiya (Mimosa pudica), Amaranthus
spinosus, and cogon (Cynodon dactylon) as the species
causing the most damage.

Maize downy mildew (Perona sclerospora sorghi) is a
major disease in the survey sites, including areas
planted to hybrid maize varieties. While its occurrence
is observed to be decreasing in some locations, downy
mildew is reported to be increasing in Cotabato, with
reported yield losses as high as 40%. In other
developing countries, most commercial cultivars sold
by the private sector in mildew prone areas are treated
with the systemic fungicide RidomilTM, and only
recently has the private sector begun to develop
resistant cultivars (Pingali and Pandey, 2001). Seed
treated with RidomilTM, however, is generally too
expensive for resource-poor farmers, which precludes


its widespread use. Other diseases observed by maize
farmers are ear rot (Diplodia spp.) and stalk rot (Erwinia
carotovora), both of which are prevalent in the wet
season.

Soil fertility constraints seriously affect the maize areas
surveyed in the study. Decline in soil fertility is a result
of soil erosion, intensive and continuous cropping
without proper nutrient management, and intensive use
of inorganic fertilizer sources that cause soil acidity.

Improper fertilizer use and nutrient management
practices, including imbalance in the nutrients provided,
are serious concerns in the survey areas. Often due to
lack of capital, the far mer-respondents apply fertilizers
at lower-than-recommended rates and do not practice
regular soil testing and monitoring. Organic fertilizers,
like farmyard manure, are rarely used because farmers
perceive these to be less effective and more labor
intensive, and because the large amount of organic
fertilizer needed for maize production is not usually
available. Incorporation of crop residues into the soil is
practiced only where land preparation is mechanized.

In rolling-to-hilly agro-ecologies, farmers are keenly
aware of the loss of fertile topsoil due to erosion, yet
erosion reducing technologies are not widely practiced.
Some farmers in Leyte establish rock walls and follow
contour plowing, but the adoption of contour
hedgerow technology is often not sustained because of
the intensive labor required and the farmers' perception
that shading may affect their maize crop.

Maize productivity constraints associated with climatic
extremes are either flooding during wet season
cropping and/or drought during dry season cropping.
Drought at any stage of crop development affects
production, but maximum damage is inflicted when it
occurs around flowering (Pingali and Pandey, 2001).
Farmers may respond to drought at the seedling stage
by replanting their crop, but drought at flowering stage
can be mitigated only by irrigation. These abiotic
constraints were identified in Isabela, Mindoro
Occidental, Leyte, and Bukidnon.











4.2 Institutional Constraints

The Local Government Code of 1992 caused the
Department of Agriculture to devolve its extension
service mandate to local government units (LGUs),
particularly the Municipal Agriculture Offices (MAOs).
Operationally, this transfer of responsibilities led to
wide variation in the quality and effectiveness of
government extension services across the many
municipalities. MAOs have limited human and financial
resources to bring sufficient and timely extension
services to all barangays, and farmers report insufficient
agricultural extension assistance from them. There is
also concern about the need for government
agricultural technicians to be better trained to address
specific production problems and provide information.
Farmers comment that the inability of government
extension services to provide sufficient and updated
information on agricultural technologies contributes to
poor farm productivity.


4.3 Input Supply Constraints

In general, the cost of inputs is a major concern to
maize farmers, as is the timely availability of inputs.
Material farm inputs from agricultural supply dealers,
agricultural cooperatives, and private traders are
available across all 24 surveyed areas. Farmers with
resources buy material inputs directly from agricultural
supply stores/dealers. Most farmer-respondents report
insufficient capital to directly purchase inputs, and
instead obtain them from private trader-financiers who
provide inputs on loan, with high interest rates. This
arrangement does not always allow farmers to choose
among materials available, e.g., fertilizers, pesticides, or
even maize seed. With private traders, material inputs
are often priced higher than the prevailing market retail
price. Farmers who use recycled seed may have less
financial stress as they have set aside their own planting
materials, and the lack of capital at planting time may
not seriously hamper their planting schedule. However,


Table 15. Farmer-identified technological and socioeconomic constraints to maize productivity, 24 surveyed villages, the
Philippines, 2001.
Region, province Rainfed lowland Upland plains Rolling to hilly
Region II Isabela Lack of capital/low inputs; absence of input/output price policies; drought; Soil erosion
lack of efficient mechanical dryer; weeds; pests and diseases (corn borer,
stalk rot; cut/army-worms, rodents, aphids); flooding
Region IV-
Mindoro Occidental Corn borer/earworm; insufficient water supply;
insufficient technical know-how on INM; lack of
capital/ inadequate credit support; lack of
price support; inadequate pH facilities; trader
monopoly; soil acidity; inadequate
farm-to-market roads; flooding and silting
Region V Camarines Sur Poor marketing systems; lack of capital/low income; soil erosion/acidity; Weeds
low adoption of modern technology; lack of lodging-resistant varieties;
weeds; storage pests; lack of low- interest credit source; lack of
post-harvest facilities
Region VII Cebu Limited knowledge on variety use/seeds; limited knowledge on proper fertilizer management;
improper crop production management (planting distance/density); limited access to market outlets;
high pest incidence during production and post-harvest; low soil fertility; low grain price; lack of
improved post-harvest facilities
Region VIII Leyte Limited knowledge on seeds/variety to use; limited knowledge on proper fertilizer management;
improper crop production management (planting distance/density); limited access to market
outlets; high pest incidence during production and post-harvest; low soil fertility; low grain price;
lack of improved post-harvest facilities
Region X Bukidnon Soil infertility and acidity; soil erosion; limited capital; low grain prices; high input prices; pests and
diseases (ear rot, stalk rot); lack of post-harvest facilities; limited access to credit institutions;
limited farmers' access to technology; poor government extension services
Region XI South Cotabato Pests and diseases (ear rot, corn borer, stalk rot, whorl maggot, downy mildew, armyworm, BLSB,
leaf blight, rust); limited capital and technical information; limited access to credit; high price of
hybrid seeds; high transport costs; poor quality of hybrid seeds; soil acidity/erosion/infertility;
drought; flash floods; limited improved post-harvest technology
Region XII Cotabato Pests and diseases (whorl maggots, downy mildew, borers); weeds; drought; poor information transfer;
limited support from DA & LGUs; low adoption of modern technology; soil acidity/erosion; limited
capital/access to credit; high input and transport costs; low quality seeds; poor post-harvest facilities
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines RRA/PRA Surveys 2001.










these farmers are aware that much lower yields are
obtained from recycled seed, especially if no fertilizer is
applied. Farmers' cooperatives are the optimal source
of production inputs, but few are successful enough to
support the needs of their members.

Maize farmers are also constrained by lack of farm labor,
especially during peak periods of land preparation,
planting, and harvesting. A growing number of maize
farmers in Isabela, for example, have resorted to the
use of mechanized power, especially for land
preparation.


4.4 Other Socioeconomic
Constraints

Other constraints mentioned by farmers can be
characterized as socioeconomic and institutional,
namely:

* Lack of access to formal credit sources (government
institutions, cooperatives, etc.);

* Insufficient access to fair market and price
information;

* Inefficient marketing system for farm inputs and
products, and

* Poor infrastructure (roads, irrigation, post-harvest
facilities, etc.).











5. Priority Research Constraints


5.1 Methodology for
Identifying Priority Constraints

This study used the methodology developed at
CIMMYT (Pingali and Pandey, 2001) to prioritize
maize productivity constraints that farmer-
respondents identified during the RRA/PRA surveys.
Three criteria were used for prioritizing the list of
farmer-identified constraints: efficiency, the extent of
poverty, and the extent of marginality of the
production agro-environment. Details on how each of
the indices was created and the weights used for
deriving a composite index that includes all three
criteria are found in Table 16.

The efficiency index priorities constraints in terms of
getting the biggest "bang for the research buck." It
estimates the expected production gain associated
with alleviating the constraint, and priorities the
constraints in terms of getting the highest return for the
investment. The inherent risk associated with research
investments is quantified in terms of the probability of
success in finding a technological solution that will
alleviate the constraint, based on the maize scientists'
knowledge of the alleviating technologies.

Even where appropriate technologies are available,
their adoption by farmers is not guaranteed. To quantify
the probability that farmers in a particular location will
adopt a technology, CIMMYT drew on the farmer
history of technology adoption and patterns of
adoption for that ecology or region. In the Philippines,
this was based on the most informed knowledge of
regional maize scientists who participated in the
priority setting exercise.


The poverty index redirects the focus of the efficiency
criteria by targeting investments to areas where rural
poverty is highest. The commonly accepted measure of
absolute poverty is the proportion of the population
living below the poverty line, measured as the lowest
annual income level required for a citizen to have the
basic necessities of food, housing, and clothing.
Secondary data on regional rural-urban poverty were
used to calculate the poverty index. The marginality
index modifies the efficiency index by targeting
investments toward the more marginal agro-
environmental areas, on the assumption that more
commercial areas are being served by the private
sector. The inverse of the estimated average maize yield
in a particular maize-producing geographic region or
ecology was used as a measure of marginality index.

At the country level, the constraints identified from the
RRA/PRA work were ranked across all maize ecologies
and geographic regions using the above three indices,
plus a composite index (Table 16). The weights used in
computing the composite index may vary depending
on the relative importance of each index and on the
mission and perspective of the user. As the objective of
the national study on maize was to delineate research
and development guidelines, efficiency was used as the
primary determining factor in allocating scarce public
resources, with important consideration given to the
extent of poverty within the ecology and geographic
region.

The planning process took place primarily during a
national maize research and development priority-
setting workshop, attended by senior maize researchers
from the public and private sectors, regional maize


Table 16. Prioritizing constraints across maize ecologies and geographic regions.
Efficiency index Poverty index Marginality index Combined index
Is a product of: Is a product of: Is a product of: Is equal to:
-Importance of constraint -The efficiency index and The efficiency index 0.5*Efficiency index
-Yield gain associated with constraint alleviation share of the global population and inverse of the average +
-Total production by maize ecology and region living below the poverty line maize yield in the particular 0.3*Poverty index
-Probability of success in finding a solution (in the particular ecology ecology and geographical +
-Adoption history (% farmers who adopted new technologies in the past) and geographical region) region 0.2*Marginality index










program directors, and other stakeholders in the
Philippines. The four-day national maize workshop was
held at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) on
the campus of the University of the Philippines Los
Bafos, in March 2002. The workshop presented the
findings from the RRA/PRA work, inventoried current
and potential technologies for alleviating the identified
constraints, and identified technologies currently not
available in the country, but that may be brought in
from outside. The workshop ranked the proposed
solutions based on their potential for alleviating the
constraints, and identified policies needed for the rapid
promotion, deployment, and adoption of the proposed
solutions.

Workshop participants were divided into working
groups based on geographical regions. Each group
discussed the maize productivity constraints identified
by the farmer-respondents as affecting the region and
maize production environment, then prioritized the
constraints and identified potential technical and/or
policy change solutions. The results from all groups
were consolidated to produce the country-level priority
constraints discussed in the next section.



5.2 Priority Constraints

5.2.1 Major findings

The constraints presented in Table 15 were ranked
across geographical regions and maize agro-ecozones
using the efficiency, poverty, marginality, and
combined indices. Annex 2 shows the full list of 145
prioritized maize productivity constraints from the
different geographical regions. It is important to note
that the constraints given priority vary depending on
the index used. Table 17 shows the top 10 constraints,
associated by geographical region and maize agro-
ecozone, based on the indices for efficiency and
poverty. These results indicate that, based on the


efficiency index alone, first addressing the farmers' lack
of capital and the absence of input/output price policies
in the broad plains and hilly areas of Isabela would
provide the highest returns to maize research and
development investments in the Philippines. On the
other hand, based on poverty index alone, limited
farming capital and soil infertility and acidity in the
rolling-to-hilly areas of Bukidnon receive the highest
priority.

Based on the efficiency index ranking, the needs of
Isabela dominate the top 10 priority maize productivity
constraints. These priority constraints also include biotic
and abiotic constraints such as corn borers, weeds, stalk
rot, and drought. Based on the poverty index ranking,
the needs of South Cotabato and Bukidnon comprise
the top 10 priority constraints. The poor rural population
in these two provinces comprise 8.6% and 7.6%,
respectively, of all the rural poor in the country. In
contrast to priorities based on the efficiency index,
those based on the poverty index generally consisted of
socioeconomic and policy-related productivity
constraints associated with agricultural extension/
technology transfer services, far mers' access to
agricultural credit, and input or output price policies.

These results confirm the farmers' perception that
socioeconomic and policy-related constraints impact
maize productivity more than technical constraints do.



5.2.2 Regional priorities
The top 25 priority constraints that should be addressed
according to the efficiency, poverty, marginality, and
combined indices are presented in Table 18. Most
priority maize productivity constraints measured by the
efficiency index alone, and measured using the
combined index, are identical. About half of those
priority constraints, however, rank much lower when the
poverty and marginality indices are used individually.


Table 17. Top 10 priority constraints to maize productivity based on efficiency vs. poverty rankings, the Philippines.
Efficiency ranking Poverty ranking
Province Agro-ecozone Constraint Province Agro-ecozone Constraint
1. Isabela Broad plains & hilly Lack of capital (low inputs applied) 1. Bukidnon Rolling-to-hilly Limited capital for farming
2. Isabela Broad plains & hilly Absence of pricing policy for 2. Bukidnon Rolling-to-hilly Soil infertility and acidity
agricultural inputs and outputs
3. Isabela Upland, broad plains & hilly Corn borers 3. South Cotabato Rolling-to-hilly, uplands 'Aguingay' (Rottboellia cochichinensis)
4. Isabela Broad plains & hilly Lack of more efficient mechanical dryers 4. South Cotabato Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Limited capital for farming
5. Isabela Broad plains & hilly Drought 5. South Cotabato Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Limited technical information
6. Isabela Upland, broad plains & hilly Weeds 6. Bukidnon Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Low market price of maize grains
7. Isabela Upland, broad plains & hilly Stalk rot 7. South Cotabato Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Limited access to agricultural credit
8. Isabela Upland, broad plains & hilly Cutworms, armyworms 8. South Cotabato Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Non-adoption of improved
agricultural technology
9. Isabela Upland, broad plains & hilly Rodents 9. Bukidnon Rolling-to-hilly, uplands High costs of agricultural inputs
10. Isabela Upland, broad plains & hilly Aphids 10. South Cotabato Rolling-to-hilly, uplands High costs of hybrid maize seeds











While the combined index provides a balance of
efficiency, poverty, and marginality considerations, it
should be noted that 8 of the top 10 constraints of the
combined ranking are among the top 10 constraints in
the efficiency index (Table 18), and that all of the top 10
constraints in the poverty index also appear in the
combined rankings, although they rank lower.

Of the top 25 priority constraints, 12 are specific to
Isabela, 5 to South Cotabato, 4 to Bukidnon, and 3 to
Cotabato (Table 19). Looking more closely at the list, the
constraints are noticeably similar regardless of the type
of maize production environment. As such, addressing
the production constraints in one specific region or
environment first can have enormous spillover effects to
other regions and environments where maize farmers
experience the same constraint.


However, none of the constraints from the maize-
consuming provinces of Cebu and Leyte (in the regions
of Central and Eastern Visayas, respectively) appeared
in the top 25 constraints. Why? Total maize production
in these regions is small compared to the more
commercial areas of Cagayan Valley and Mindanao. The
Visayas nevertheless remain important on a regional
basis, especially in white maize, which is the staple food
of maize-consuming communities in the regions. It is
therefore advisable to continue investing moderately in
white maize research, with an emphasis on the Central
and Eastern Visayas regions.

Priority constraints based on the combined index can be
classified into two major groups: biotic/abiotic
constraints and socioeconomic constraints. Maize pests
and diseases (corn borer, ear rot, stalk rot) and some
weed species rank high among the top biotic/abiotic


Table 18. Top 25 maize priority constraints according to priority indices, the Philippines.
Maize productivity Priority indices
Region, province Maize agro-ecozone constraint Efficiency Poverty Marginality Combined
II Isabela Broad plains and hilly Lack of capital (low inputs applied) 1 14 2 1
II Isabela Broad plains and hilly Absence of pricing policy for agricultural inputs and outputs 2 16 4 2
II Isabela Upland, broad plains and hilly Corn borers 3 20 7 3
II Isabela Broad plains and hilly Lack of more efficient mechanical dryers 4 21 8 4
II Isabela Broad plains and hilly Drought 5 30 18 5
II Isabela Upland, broad plains and hilly Weeds 6 38 23 6
II Isabela Upland, broad plains and hilly Stalk rot 7 51 37 7
X Northern Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Limited capital for farming 12 1 13 8
X Northern Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Soil infertility and acidity 13 2 15 9
II Isabela Upland, broad plains and hilly Cutworms, armyworms 8 53 39 10
II Isabela Upland, broad plains and hilly Rodents 9 54 40 11
II Isabela Upland, broad plains and hilly Aphids 10 55 43 12
II Isabela Broad plains Flooding 11 57 48 13
XI Central Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Poor technology and information transfer 14 25 10 14
XII Southern Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Aguingay (Rottboellia cochichinensis) 18 3 1 15
XI Central Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Drought 16 28 12 16
X Northern Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Low price of maize grain 17 6 20 17
XII Southern Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Limited capital for farming 20 4 3 18
II -Isabela Hilly Soil erosion 15 67 57 19
XII Southern Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Limited technical information 21 5 5 20
X Northern Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands High price of agricultural inputs 19 9 28 21
XII Southern Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Limited access to credit 23 7 6 22
XII Southern Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Non-adoption of improved agricultural technology 27 8 9 23
XI Central Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands Low adoption of improved agricultural technology 22 39 24 24
XII Southern Mindanao Rolling-to-hilly, uplands High price of hybrid maize seed 31 10 11 25



Table 19. Top 25 prioritized technological and socioeconomic constraints, the Philippines.
Region, province Rainfed lowland Upland plains Rolling to hilly
Region II Isabela Lack of capital/low inputs;absence of input/output price policies; corn borer;Lack of more efficient
mechanical dryer;drought; weeds; stalk rot;cutworms, armyworms;rodents;aphids;flooding;soil erosion
Region X Bukidnon Limited capital for farming;Soil infertility and acidity;low maize grain prices;high input prices
Region XI South Cotabato Aguingay;limited capital and technical information;limited access to credit;poor adoption of new/modern
technology;high price of hybrid seed
Region XII Cotabato Poor information transfer;drought;low adoption of modern technology











constraints. Socioeconomic constraints include farmers
lack of capital, limited access to formal credit and
updated technical information, absence of support price
policies for inputs and outputs, and low grain prices.
During the RRA/PRA surveys, farmer-respondents felt
that the identified socioeconomic constraints had a
larger negative impact on maize production than the
biotic/abiotic constraints. For example, farmers felt that
they could have applied improved nutrient and pest
management practices if they had had enough capital
to purchase the required material inputs. Sufficient
capital, or at least better access to low-interest
agricultural credit, would allow maize farmers to buy
and plant better quality higher-yielding maize varieties.
With higher yields, low input costs, and a good grain
price, maize farmers could have a chance to break the
cycle of rural poverty and improve their living
conditions.



5.2.3 Technology development and
dissemination

The constraints prioritization exercise also identified the
most effective means of alleviating the constraints
cited, as well as suppliers that have a comparative
advantage in delivering the particular research product


or technology. This section briefly presents viable
technological and socioeconomic interventions that
maize scientists listed during the priority-setting
workshop for selected priority constraints (Table 20).

Potential solutions were classified as either technological
ones that address biotic/abiotic constraints to maize
production, or policy/program options that address
socioeconomic constraints. The technological options
have been widely presented in other publications
(I"i' i, I reports, scientific papers, journal articles, etc.)
and will not be discussed here. Also, farmer-
respondents expressed feelings that concerned public
and private agencies having enough updated
technology to alleviate biotic/abiotic constraints.

Although the pipeline of relevant agricultural
technologies has not yet run dry, what is more
important for farmers is an economic climate conducive
to agricultural production, comprised of higher maize
grain prices, low input costs, easier access to far m
capital, and updated information on affordable
technologies. Attractive maize grain prices will provide
an incentive for farmers to expand the area planted to
maize or adopt modern varieties to raise production.
With lower input costs, maize farmers could enjoy
higher returns from their enterprise.


Table 20. Technology options and research approaches that will help alleviate major maize
production constraints, the Philippines.
Production constraint Technological options or research strategy Suppliers/responsible agency (ies)
Biotic constraints
Pest and diseases pest monitoring and surveillance Department of Agriculture
use of biological control such as Trichogrammma for corn borer Local government units
use of resistant varieties Private sector
promotion of appropriate cultural management practices
Abiotic constraints
Soil erosion promotion of improved soil conservation tillage Department of Agriculture/RIARCs
development of alternative soil management technology Local government units, NARS
Soil infertility and acidity promotion of balanced fertilization Department of Agriculture/AIARCs
liming Local government units
promotion of organic fertilizer use NARS
Drought development and use of resistant varieties Department of Agriculture, state colleges
and universities, private sector, NGOs
Socioeconomic constraints
Limited capital for farming credit assistance from public and private sector Public and private credit institutions
Absence of input/output policy formation/review Department of Agriculture
price policies price monitoring Local government units
Limited access to credit formation of farmer cooperatives Department of Agriculture
development of pro-poor credit scheme Local government units
Poor adoption of new/ farmers' field school (FFS) Department of Agriculture
modern technology technology demonstration Local government units
enhancement of extension activities State colleges and universities
on-farm-research trials Private sector
Poor farm-to-market roads development of appropriate cost-effective post-harvest facilities










In recent years, the Philippine government has had to
confront two major challenges-increasing farmer
demand for improved maize technologies, and a
stagnant or declining resource base that has
constrained the ability of public research organizations
to develop and disseminate improved technology. In
response to these challenges, more active private
sector participation in the maize seed industry has
been encouraged.

Private seed companies have responded to policy
reforms by increasing their maize research and
development investment (Gerpacio, 2003). To avoid
competition with the private sector, public breeding
programs have concentrated on activities that are


unlikely to attract profit-oriented firms, such as genetic
resource conservation, pre-breeding, population
improvement, development of special trait materials,
and OPV development. Private seed companies,
meanwhile, have emphasized inbreeding, hybrid
development, hybrid seed production and distribution.
Despite increasing specialization, however, public and
private maize seed organizations continue to be linked
through international germplasm exchanges, public-
private germplasm transfers, and collaborative varietal
testing networks.











6. Recommendations for Maize Research

and Development in the Philippines


How will the relationship between public organizations
and private seed companies evolve in the future?
CIMMYT convened a meeting of experts (scientists from
the public and private sectors, development agency
officials, NGO representatives, media specialists, and
farmers) in Tlaxcala, Mexico, to discuss the conditions
necessary for productive and harmonious collaboration
between the public and private sectors with respect to
research and development options for maize (and
wheat and rice). The consensus of the participants
resulted in the following suggestions, as printed in the
Tlaxcala statement on public/private sector alliances in
agricultural research (CIMMYT 1999):

* Public organizations can and should continue to play
an active role in maize research and seed production;
public-sector involvement will help to reduce
research and development costs for private firms (for
example by generating improved germplasm that
can be used as inputs into commercial breeding
programs and by training researchers).

* Where conditions permit the existence of
competitive seed markets, the public sector should
complement and support rather than compete with
the private sector in providing improved seed and
related technology to farmers.

* The public sector has a particularly important role to
play in supporting local private seed companies,
which can enhance competition in seed markets.

* Where technical, economic, or institutional conditions
discourage private companies from providing
improved seed technology to farmers, public
agencies may be called upon to assume responsibility
for meeting farmers' needs.

* Even where international research organizations and
private seed companies are active, strong national
public research programs will often be needed to
adapt privately and internationally developed
research products to local conditions.


How might the public sector roles and responsibilities
develop in the future to accommodate the needs of
millions of subsistence farmers who until now have
attracted limited attention from private seed
companies? The anticipated increase in maize demand
in the Philippines will lead to the intensification and
commercialization of existing production systems, as
well as expansion into less favorable maize production
environments. The public sector can work on identifying
the principal technological constraints to increasing
maize productivity in those areas; design crop and
resource management technologies to alleviate the
principal constraints and support sustainable practices
in fragile environments; and develop technology
dissemination plans and more effective agricultural
extension strategies.

The strong likelihood that the private sector will be
reluctant to address the needs of farmers in marginal
areas should encourage the public sector to continue
their active role in maize research and development
and seed production, particularly for improved OPVs.
The public sector should assume a more
complementary and supportive role to the private
sector by developing policies that facilitate private
sector operations. Along these lines, the Philippine DA-
BAR recently charted a seven-point agenda to
strengthen the government's general research and
development system (The Philippine Star, May 18,
2003):

1. Appropriate more resources for conducting applied
and on-farm research (OFR) following the farming
systems perspective to fast-track technology
promotion and adoption and create immediate
impact on beneficiaries (farmers and fishermen);

2. Support priority high-impact research and
development projects that have direct bearing on
small and medium enterprises and, more important,
on the income-generating capabilities of resource-
poor farmers and fishermen, with focus on six basic
commodities, namely rice, maize, coconut,
sugarcane, vegetables, and aquaculture;










3. Develop and strengthen collaboration among
existing research and development systems,
consortia, networks, state colleges, and universities
at the national and local levels to enhance sustained
growth in agriculture;

4. Strengthen the capability of the DA research and
development system and foster active partnerships
with the local government units (LGUs) and other
concerned institutions in the regions;

5. Institutionalize the planning and implementation of
an integrated and unified research and development
agenda of both DA-BAR and two research agencies
of the Department of Science and Technology
(DOST): Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry
and Natural Resources Research and Development
(PCARRD), and Philippine Council for Aquatic and
Marine Research and Development (PCAMRD);

6. Develop mechanisms using information technology
(ICT) and other means to enhance decision-making
and technology adoption; and


7. Advocate policies that promote sustained growth in
agriculture and develop strategies to increase
investments in research and development by both
government and private sector here and abroad.

Finally, it is important to recognize that improved
agricultural technology is not the only key to increasing
maize productivity and bettering living conditions of
resource-poor maize farmers in the Philippines. No
amount of advanced public- or private-sector maize
research will help the most disadvantaged farmers
unless substantial parallel investments are made in
infrastructure, agricultural extension, input production
and distribution systems, grain harvest and post-harvest
facilities, and grain marketing. In the end, the role and
impact of appropriate government policies-from input
and grain pricing policies to policies on intellectual
property rights-should certainly not be overlooked.












7. Annexes


Annex 1. Maize production, area harvested, and yield, the Philippines, 1980-2002.
Production ('000 mt) Area harvested ('000 ha) Yield/hectare (mt)
Year White Yellow Total White Yellow Total White Yellow Average
1980 2,718 332 3,050 2,850 349 3,199 0.95 0.95 0.95
1981 2,711 585 3,296 2,683 611 3,295 1.01 0.96 1.00
1982 2,776 628 3,404 2,812 571 3,383 0.99 1.10 1.01
1983 2,356 778 3,134 2,544 588 3,132 0.93 1.32 1.00
1984 2,289 962 3,250 2,538 689 3,227 0.90 1.40 1.01
1985 2,978 885 3,863 2,843 667 3,511 1.05 1.33 1.10
1986 2,925 1,166 4,091 2,763 832 3,595 1.06 1.40 1.14
1987 2,765 1,513 4,278 2,693 990 3,683 1.03 1.53 1.16
1988 2,859 1,569 4,428 2,745 1,000 3,745 1.04 1.57 1.18
1989 2,923 1,599 4,522 2,702 987 3,689 1.08 1.62 1.23
1990 2,966 1,888 4,854 2,739 1,081 3,820 1.08 1.75 1.27
1991 2,906 1,749 4,655 2,583 1,006 3,589 1.12 1.74 1.30
1992 2,700 1,919 4,619 2,351 981 3,331 1.15 1.96 1.39
1993 2,627 2,171 4,798 2,098 1,051 3,149 1.25 2.07 1.52
1994 2,090 2,429 4,519 1,866 1,140 3,006 1.12 2.13 1.50
1995 1,862 2,266 4,129 1,670 1,022 2,692 1.12 2.22 1.53
1996 1,883 2,268 4,151 1,696 1,040 2,736 1.11 2.18 1.52
1997 1,879 2,453 4,332 1,699 1,027 2,726 1.11 2.39 1.59
1998 1,620 2,203 3,823 1,451 903 2,354 1.12 2.44 1.62
1999 1,824 2,761 4,585 1,608 1,034 2,642 1.13 2.67 1.74
2000 1,889 2,622 4,511 1,573 937 2,510 1.20 2.80 1.80
2001 1,918 2,607 4,525 1,565 921 2,487 1.23 2.83 1.82
2002 1,797 2,522 4,319 1,503 892 2,395 1.20 2.83 1.80
Source: Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS), 2003.











Annex 2. Maize research prioritization for the Philippines, by region
Production Efficiency Poverty Marginality Combined
Region environment Productivity constraint rank rank rank rank


Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Upland plain
Bicol Region Rolling-Hilly
Bicol Region Rolling-Hilly
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
C. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Cagayan Valley Broad plain & hilly
Cagayan Valley Broad plain & hilly
Cagayan Valley UP BP & hilly
Cagayan Valley Broad plain & hilly
Cagayan Valley Broad plain & hilly
Cagayan Valley UP BP & hilly
Cagayan Valley UP BP & hilly
Cagayan Valley UP BP & hilly
Cagayan Valley UP BP & hilly
Cagayan Valley UP, BP & hilly
Cagayan Valley Broad plain
Cagayan Valley Hilly
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland


Poor marketing systems
Lack of capital/low income
Unstable price of corn
Bad weather condition
High costs of inputs
Low adoption of technology
Lack of lodging-resistant varieties
Misuse of fertilizer/low fertilizer use
Soil erosion/siltation/acidic soil
Weeds
Lack of low interest credit source
Storage insect pests
Lack of post-harvest facilities
Absence of strong farmers organization
Rodents
Limited farm work/job opportunities
Poor farming systems
Soil acidity/poor soil fertility
Weeds
Poor farm to market roads
Poor information transfer
Drought
Low adoption of technology
Hagonoy
High costs of inputs
Aguingay
Soil fertilization problem
Limited capital
Limited access to credit
Limited support of DA-LGU
Soil acidity
Downy mildew
Soil erosion
Whorl maggots
Corn borer
Ear rot
Paragrass
Use of low quality seeds
High transportation costs
Triloba
Egg blight
High interest rate of traders
Poor quality of grain
Stalk rot
Rats
Weevil
Lack of capital / low inputs
Absence of pricing policy for input & output
Corn borer
Lack of more efficient mechanical dryer
Drought
Weeds
Stalk rot
Cutworms/Armyworms
Rodents
Aphids
Flooding
Soil erosion
Limited knowledge on proper fertilizer management


Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines National Maize RD&E Priority-Setting Vbrkshop 2003.
Note: UP upland; BP broad plains; P-U-R-H-M plains, upland, rolling, hilly, mountainous.











Annex 2. cont'd....
Production Efficiency Poverty Marginality Combined
Region environment Productivity constraint rank rank rank rank


Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Central Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
Eastern Visayas Rolling-Hilly, Upland
N. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
N. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
N. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
N. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
N. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
N. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
N. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
N. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
N. Mindanao Rolling-Hilly, Upland
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M


Limited knowledge on variety use/seeds
Ineffective financial scheme
Crop production management
Planting density
Planting distance
Limited access to market outlets
Low price
Low soil fertility
High production pests incidence
Poor farm-to-market roads
High pests incidence (post-harvest)
Lack of improved post harvest facilities/equipment
Limited knowledge on proper fertilizer management
Limited knowledge on variety use/seeds
Ineffective financial scheme
Crop production management
Planting density
Planting distance
Limited access to market outlets
Low price
Low soil fertility
High production pests incidence
Poor farm-to-market roads
High pests incidence (post-harvest)
Lack of improved post harvest facilities/equipment
Limited capital for farming
Soil infertility and acidity
Low price of maize grains
High price of inputs
Pests and diseases (ear rot, stalk rot)
Limited access to credit institution
Soil erosion
Lack of post-harvest facilities
Limited access to technology at farmers level due to poor extension
Aguingay
Limited capital
Limited technical information
Limited access to credit
Non-adoption of new technology
High price of hybrid seeds
Drought
Soil fertility problem
C. odorata
Soil acidity
Soil erosion
Poor quality of hybrid seeds
Ear rot
Poor cultural management
Corn borer
Stalk rot
Low quality/yield of recycled seeds
Whorl maggot
Flash floods
. triloba
Strong winds
Downy mildew
High transport cost
Limited support from DA-LGUs


Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines National Maize RD&E Priority-Setting workshop 2003.
Note: UP upland; BP broad plains; P-U-R-H-M plains, upland, rolling, hilly, mountainous.











Annex 2. cont'd....
Production Efficiency Poverty Marginality Combined
Region environment Productivity constraint rank rank rank rank
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M Army worm 71 48 59 70
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M A. spinosus 74 50 60 72
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M BLSB 73 49 61 73
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M Rats 75 52 68 74
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M Leaf blight 76 56 69 76
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M Landslides 77 59 71 77
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M Limited statistical information 78 60 72 78
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M Poor quality of grains 79 64 78 79
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M Rust 80 66 81 80
S. Mindanao P-U-R-H-M Limited pH technology 81 70 83 81
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Insufficient water supply 98 100 103 100
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Lack of capital and inadequate credit support 100 101 104 101
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Lack of price support 102 102 108 102
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Corn borer 103 103 113 103
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Rodents 104 104 114 104
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Trader monopoly 105 105 115 105
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Insufficient technical know-how on integrated nutrient management 106 106 117 106
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Sandy soils 107 107 118 107
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Flooding and siltation 108 108 120 108
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Insufficient technical know-how on planting distance 109 109 126 109
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Acidic soils 110 110 128 110
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Inadequate post-harvest facilities 111 111 131 111
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Inadequate farm to market roads 112 112 132 112
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Lack of market outlets 113 113 133 113
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Weeds (sedges and broad leaves) 114 114 135 116
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Inactive cooperatives and farmers' association 115 115 136 117
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Corn earworm 116 116 137 118
S. Tagalog Rainfed lowland Declining production area due to industrialization 117 117 139 122
Source: IFAD-CIMMYT-Philippines National Maize RD&E Priority-Setting Vbrkshop 2003.
Note: UP upland; BP broad plains; P-U-R-H-M plains, upland, rolling, hilly, mountainous.












8. References


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Maize production systems in South Cotabato, Southern
Mindanao (Region XI): constraints and priorities for research.
Unpublished regional report prepared for the IFAD-CIMMYT
Project on the Intensification of Upland Maize Production
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Agricultural Research Center, Department of Agriculture,
Davao City, Philippines.
Bangoy, C., W. Malacad, J. Torres, and A. Aguinaldo. 2002.
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(Region XII): constraints and priorities for research.
Unpublished regional report prepared for the IFAD-CIMMYT
Project on the Intensification of Upland Maize Production
Systems in the Philippines. University of Southern Mindanao,
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Agricultural Research Center, Department of Agriculture,
Amas, Kidapawan City, Philippines.
Banoc, D., M. Sacay, and E. Balbarino. 2002. Maize production
systems in Leyte, Eastern Visayas (Region VIII): constraints
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State University, Baybay, Leyte, Philippines.
Barbonio, L., and T. Tormes. 2002. Maize production systems in
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priorities for research. Unpublished regional report prepared
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Maize Production Systems in the Philippines. Bicol Integrated
Agricultural Research Center, Department of Agriculture, Pili,
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constraints and priorities for research. Unpublished regional
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Intensification of Upland Maize Production Systems in the
Philippines. Cagayan Valley Integrated Agricultural Research
Center, Department of Agriculture, Ilagan, Isabela,
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CIMMYT. 1999. Tlaxcala statement on public/private sector
alliances in agricultural research. International Maize and
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15-17, 2003, Monte Vista Resort, Calamba, Laguna,
Philippines.
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constraints and priorities for research. Unpublished regional
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Intensification of Upland Maize Production Systems in the
Philippines. Northern Mindanao Integrated Agricultural
Research Center, Department of Agriculture, Dalwangan,
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Management. 1991. Preliminary Climatic Classification of 15
Selected Provinces and Cities in the Philippines. BSWM,
Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.
Pingali, P.L., and S. Pandey. 2001. Meeting World Maize Needs:
Technological Opportunities and Priorities for the Public
Sector. In: P.L. Pingali (ed.). CIMMYT 1999-2000 World
Maize Facts and Trends. Mexico, D.E: CIMMYT.
The Philippine Star. May 18, 2003. Manila, Philippines.











Rosales, A., E. Gregorio, J.D. Labios, and C.M. Mendoza. 2002.
Maize production systems in Mindoro Occidental, Southern
Tagalog (Region IV): constraints and priorities for research.
Unpublished regional report prepared for the IFAD-CIMMYT
Project on the Intensification of Upland Maize Production
Systems in the Philippines. Southern Tagalog Integrated
Agricultural Research Center, Department of Agriculture, Lipa
City, Batangas and Agricultural Systems Cluster (formerly
Farming Systems and Soil Resources Institute), College of
Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Banos, College,
Laguna, Philippines.


Sopsop, E, F. Balina, and E. Balbarino. 2002. Maize production
systems in Cebu, Central Visayas (Region VII): constraints and
priorities for research. Unpublished regional report prepared
for the IFAD-CIMMYT Project on the Intensification of Upland
Maize Production Systems in the Philippines. Central Visayas
Integrated Agricultural Research Center, Department of
Agriculture, Cebu City, Cebu, and Leyte State University,
Baybay, Leyte, Philippines







ISBN: I, I -1 1 i i


1I CIMMYT.
INTERN.,nON.L NLIZE ~ND WVHfE %T IIPRO\ EMENT CENTER
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