• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Purpose of the consultation
 Global trends
 CIMMYT's strengths
 CIMMYT's weaknesses
 Recommendations on products and...
 Intellectual property rights and...
 Concerns and partnerships
 Issues concerning CIMMYT's organizational...
 Opportunities for future resource...
 Conclusions from the stakeholder...
 Reference
 Back Cover






Group Title: Perspectives on CIMMYT's future : a summary of external stakeholder consultations conducted for strategic planning at CIMMYT
Title: Perspectives on CIMMYT's future
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077526/00001
 Material Information
Title: Perspectives on CIMMYT's future a summary of external stakeholder consultations conducted for strategic planning at CIMMYT
Physical Description: 16 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Publisher: CIMMYT
Place of Publication: Mexico D.F
Publication Date: 2004, c2003
Copyright Date: 2003
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Research   ( lcsh )
Wheat -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Abstract: As part of the strategic planning process initiated in July 2002, CIMMYT commissioned the Meridian Institute to conduct an extensive consultation with more than 170 stakeholders worldwide, representing national agricultural research services, CGIAR Centers, advanced research institutes, the private sector, donor agencies, and representatives of farmer groups. The interviews elicited highly divergent opinions and valuable insights into how others perceive CIMMYT and its future. Overall, the consultations revealed that CIMMYT's products and activities are greatly appreciated and serve an apparent need. There was concurrence that CIMMYT has a comparative advantage in many areas - human resources and networks, breeding expertise and germplasm collections, and research and training programs - and that it should increase its collaborative efforts and ensure greater access to its products. Most of all, the stakeholders believed that for CIMMYT to survive and continue its history as a highly successful organization, it should move beyond discussion of new strategies and take decisive action toward real change.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 16).
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077526
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 56139078
isbn - 9706481087

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Purpose of the consultation
        Page 1
    Global trends
        Page 2
    CIMMYT's strengths
        Page 3
    CIMMYT's weaknesses
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Recommendations on products and programs
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Intellectual property rights and related concerns
        Page 8
    Concerns and partnerships
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Issues concerning CIMMYT's organizational structure
        Page 12
    Opportunities for future resource mobilization
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Conclusions from the stakeholder consultation
        Page 16
    Reference
        Page 16
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text












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CIMMYT (www.cimmyt.org) isan internationally funded, nonprofit, scientific research,
training, and development organization. CIMMYT acts as a catalyst and leader in a
global maize and wheat innovation network that serves the resource-poor in developing
countries. Drawing on strong science and effective partnerships, we create, share, and
use knowledge and technology to increase food security, improve the productivity and
profitability of farming systems, and sustain natural resources. CIMMYT is one of 16
food and environmental organizations known as the Future Harvest Centers
(www.futureharvest.orag. Located around the world, the Future Harvest Centers conduct
research in partnership with farmers, scientists, and policymakers to help alleviate poverty
and increase food security while protecting natural resources. The centers are supported
by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)
(www.cgiar.org), whose members include nearly 60 countries, private foundations, and
regional and international organizations. Financial support for CIMMYT's research agenda
also comes from many other sources, including foundations, development banks, and
public and private agencies.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 2003. All rights
reserved. The opinions expressed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the
authors. The designations employed in the presentation of materials in this publication
do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT or its
contributory organizations concerning the legal status of any country territory city, or
area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
CIMMYT encourages fair use of this material. Proper citation is requested.

Correct citation: CIMMYT 2004. Perspectives on CIMMYTs Future: A Summary of
External Stakeholder Consultations Conducted forStrategic Planning at CIMMYT Mexico,
DF: CIMMYT

Abstract: As part of the strategic planning process initiated in July 2002, CIMMYT
commissioned the Meridian Institute to conduct an extensive consultation with more
than 170 stakeholders worldwide, representing national agricultural research services,
CGIAR Centers, advanced research institutes, the private sector, donor agencies, and
representatives of farmer groups. The interviews elicited highly divergent opinions and
valuable insights into how others perceive CIMMYT and its future. Overall, the
consultations revealed that CIMMYT's products and activities are iI'. ii appreciated
and serve an apparent need. There was concurrence that CIMMYT has a comparative
advantage in many arenas-human resources and networks, breeding expertise and
germplasm collections, and research and training programs-and that it should increase
its collaborative efforts and ensure greater access to its products. Most of all, the
stakeholders believed that for CIMMYT to survive and continue its history as a highly
successful organization, it should move beyond discussion of new strategies and take
decisive action toward real change.

ISBN: 970-648-108-7
AGROVOC descriptors: Agricultural development; Development plans; Planning;
Research institutions; Strength; Right of access; Trends; Partnerships; Structural policies;
Private sector; Farmers associations; Genetic resources; i 1 1 1..1 1 ,i Plant production;
Agricultural research; CGIAR; Developing countries
AGRIS category codes: E14 Development Economics and Policies; A50 Agricultural
Research
Dewey decimal classification: 658.57


Contents


Page

1 Purpose of the Consultation

2 Global Trends

3 CIMMYT's Strengths

4 CIMMYT's Weaknesses

6 Recommendations on Products and
Programs

8 Intellectual Property Rights and
Related Concerns

9 Concerns about Partnerships

12 Issues Concerning CIMMYT's
Organizational Structure

13 Opportunities for Future Resource
Mobilization

16 Conclusions from the Stakeholder
Consultation


Printed in Mexico.








Perspectives on CIMMYT's Future
A Summary of the External Stakeholder Consultation Conducted
for Strategic Planning at CIMMYT







Purpose of the Consultation


CIMMYT initiated strategic planning in July 2002 to (1)
examine the continuing relevance of the Center's mission,
(2) define how CIMMYT should position itself to meet
the needs for agricultural knowledge and technology over
the next 10-15 years, and (3) determine the most
appropriate organizational structure and operating
modalities to deliver CIMMYT's products and services
effectively and efficiently.

To ensure that the planning process would be inclusive
and benefit from the perspectives and expertise of a wide
range of organizations, CIMMYT sponsored an extensive
consultation with more than 170 stakeholders worldwide.
CIMMYT requested that the Meridian Institute facilitate
the consultation to encourage open discussion and
preserve respondents' confidentiality. From late 2002
through early 2003, colleagues from important
constituencies provided information through interviews

Farmers 3% I


Other 1%-
Australia 2%-


Figure 1. External
stakeholders by
organization (n = 172).


and written surveys: national agricultural research services
(NARS), advanced research institutes (ARIs), CGIAR
Centers, the private sector, donor agencies, non-
governmental organizations (NGOs), and representatives
of farmer groups (Figures 1 and 2).

As one might expect, the interviews elicited highly
divergent opinions about some issues, but the consultation
provided a spectrum of valuable insights into how others
perceived CIMMYT and its future. To preserve
confidentiality, the full report will not be published, but
the following summary encapsulates the major lessons
that CIMMYT took to heart in developing its strategy
(CIMMYT 2004b). The summary covers several broad
themes: global trends that will affect CIMMYT's operating
environment; CIMMYT's strengths and weaknesses; and
recommendations related to CIMMYT's future activities,
its partnerships and networks, organizational structure,
and resource mobilization.


Fa Figure 2. External
stakeholders by
region (n = 172).










Global Trends


Virtually all of the influential global trends for agricultural
research and development covered in the analysis that
CIMMYT conducted (CIMMYT 2004a) prior to developing
its strategy were identified by CIMMYT's stakeholders:
globalization and trade liberalization, persistence of
poverty and a growing gap between rich and poor,
population growth and urbanization, HIV/AIDS, water
scarcity, climate change, declining soil fertility, the need
to protect biodiversity, the continued need to attain food
security, the need for high-quality varieties and continued
exchange of germplasm, rapid advances in agricultural
biotechnology, privatization of agricultural research, the
changing capacity and role of national research systems,
and the decline in public funding for agricultural research.


ALL OF THE INFLUENTIAL
GLOBAL TRENDS FOR
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
AND DEVELOPMENT COVERED
IN THE ANALYSIS THAT
CIMMYT CONDUCTED PRIOR
TO DEVELOPING ITS STRATEGY
WERE IDENTIFIED BY
CIMMYT'S STAKEHOLDERS
AS WELL.










CIMMYT's Strengths


The strengths listed most often by CIMMYT's stakeholders
represent an inventory of our current comparative
advantage: CIMMYT's human resources and networks, its
breeding expertise and collections of genetic resources,
its research and training programs, its history and
reputation, and its honesty, credibility, and mission.

All stakeholder groups cited the talent, dedication, and
experience of CIMMYT's past and present staff. These staff
are viewed as indispensable to CIMMYT's achievements,
although some stakeholders cautioned that CIMMYT's
human capital could erode quickly through reliance on
special funding and other financial challenges.

Stakeholders also viewed CIMMYT as playing an essential
coordinating role in a rich network of organizations and
professionals that transcends geopolitical boundaries, gives
agriculturalists in less developed countries access to
colleagues in more developed countries, and is unusually
vertical in its membership, ranging from farmers to
Ministers of Agriculture. Stakeholders observed that few
organizations in agricultural research could claim an equally
extensive network. The key question that emerges is how
CIMMYT will leverage its network to the fullest in light of
changing opportunities and challenges.

CIMMYT's breeding expertise-the strong plant breeding
skills of CIMMYT staff-and its collections of genetic
resources are also viewed as key strengths. Nearly all
national research system stakeholders regard plant
breeding as an important function of CIMMYT, and many
advocated greater integration of biotechnology and
conventional plant breeding. Others advocated greater
synergy between breeding and crop management and
systems research. Stakeholders outside the national
research systems disagreed about whether CIMMYT's plant
breeding expertise should support limited plant-breeding
capacity in developing nations or be devolved entirely to
the private sector and national research programs.

The unparalleled richness, diversity, and potential of the
genetic resources in CIMMYT's care have been the "creative


basis" for plant breeding at CIMMYT, but stakeholders
felt that these collections are an under-used resource.

CIMMYT's research and training programs are regarded
as strengths largely by stakeholders from national research
systems. CIMMYT's training programs are a key factor in
increasing the capacity of national research programs, a
forum for sharing questions and ideas, a key investment
in CIMMYT's network, and an important conduit for
feedback and information. Many felt that the importance
of CIMMYT's training programs is not fully realized within
CIMMYT.

Stakeholders believed that CIMMYT's recognized success
in combating hunger through the development of new
crop varieties and crop management systems affords it a
great deal of leverage in forming partnerships, recruiting
new talent, and, more importantly, setting the tone for
agricultural research and development in many developing
countries. Many stakeholders cautioned that CIMMYT's
history and reputation are an important, but not
permanent, source of capital, which CIMMYT should
regard as a strategic resource.

CIMMYT's mission is regarded as a strength among
representatives of national research systems, who believe
that the mission gives CIMMYT important standing in the
world and that there will be a need for such an organization
for many, many years. Many respondents called CIMMYT
an "honest broker" in agricultural research and technology
transfer. The perception that CIMMYT's work is less
politicized than that of other players has provided a great
deal of comfort for partners at all levels. This honesty allows
CIMMYT to create collaboration and understanding where
other entities, acting alone, could or would not. Because
of the perception of honesty, information coming from
CIMMYT is viewed as highly credible. Interviewees who
cited this strength are very concerned that this role not be
lost. They claim that if CIMMYT's interactions with the
outside world become highly politicized, the poor farmers
of the world will not be served by another entity.










CIMMYT's Weaknesses


CIMMYT's most frequently cited weaknesses are
challenges that we must respond to in charting our course
for the future: CIMMYT is hampered by funding
constraints, is slow to respond to change, is a poor
collaborator, has gradually moved away from its mission
and research focus, is spread too thinly and has a limited
presence on the ground, lacks systems thinking, and is
subject to the high transactions costs of the CGIAR System.

Funding was CIMMYT's most frequently cited weakness,
mentioned by stakeholders from all constituencies except
the donor group. Declining funding for agricultural
research and the increasing dependence on special project
funds limit CIMMYT's ability to fulfill its mission and create
the risk that CIMMYT's portfolio of projects and
partnerships will reflect its donors' agendas, not CIMMYT's
or its partners'. Funding challenges will erode CIMMYT's
capacity to attract talented scientists and consequently
its scientific reputation. Donors regarded funding
challenges as a reality across the CGIAR and not a problem
particular to CIMMYT.

Advanced research institutes perceive CIMMYT as slow
to adapt to new circumstances, including intellectual
property issues, the debate over biotechnology in
developing countries, and important environmental
changes (such as climate change and the looming global
water crisis). One stakeholder, summarizing the views of
many, said that CIMMYT "lacks a strategic global
outlook." Many stakeholders observed that CIMMYT
cannot rest on its past accomplishments; others felt that
CIMMYT is not doing enough to advertise its recent
scientific successes to the larger world or to invest in its
own reputation through strategic partnerships.


Stakeholders outside of national research systems (from
the CGIAR, private sector, ARI, and donor constituencies,
but not NGOs or farmers) felt that CIMMYT could be more
thorough and proactive in partnering, especially when it
is expected to play a leadership role. Some stakeholders
experienced a lack of attention to the interpersonal
relationships that can define institutional relationships.
Insufficient time and attention were devoted to
collaborative efforts, to gaps in the technology
development and delivery chain, and to building human
capacity in the countries where some projects operate.
Stakeholders from the national research systems
advocated that CIMMYT act less unilaterally, engage in
more substantive and frequentjoint planning and project
evaluation, and give them (and farmers) a greater role in
CIMMYT's regional strategies.

Many interviewees, especially among donors and CGIAR
stakeholders, felt that CIMMYT had gradually moved away
from its mission and that its research focus had changed.
This perception was explained in several ways: as a
weakness of the CGIAR System in general; as a result of
depending on special project funding; as a movement
away from meeting the needs of the poor and towards
meeting academic standards of excellence; as a preference
for basic over applied science; and as a move away from
its core competence in the development and dissemination
of new varieties.

CIMMYT is perceived as trying to accomplish too much
with too few staff, with limited success or over too little
time. Opinions about the ability of over-committed staff
to nurture the quality of partnerships have been described
above. Over-committed staff may also affect CIMMYT's
ability to respond to change and to stay focused on the
mission.













CIMMYT's insufficient on-the-ground presence was
mentioned most frequently by NGOs as a weakness. The
key message is that CIMMYT needs to work closely with
a variety of organizations that can complement its activities
on the ground. To do so, CIMMYT needs a greater regional
presence to identify, develop, and maintain effective
partnerships. CIMMYT cannot afford to be isolated from
the regions where it is most needed.

Several groups of stakeholders regarded a lack of holistic
thinking as an important weakness in CIMMYT's approach
to developing and delivering new agricultural technology.
"Holistic thinking" meant different things, such as more
integrated crop production packages that include new
varieties, resource management, and methodological
frameworks for assessing socioeconomic impacts; projects
that include greater attention to socioeconomic aspects
of poverty (access to markets, access to inputs, gender
issues); or a systems approach that focuses on all aspects
of sustainable agriculture, particularly for farmers in
marginal environments. In general, there was concern that
CIMMYT scientists are not encouraged to see agricultural
technology from a systems point of view. CIMMYT's history
and culture have not positioned it to anticipate the need
for interdisciplinary thinking. Staff are largely recruited as
specialists, with highly focused training.

External stakeholders in many groups, most notably
donors, expressed concern that mission of CIMMYT and
other CGIAR Centers is compromised by the large
overhead burden imposed by the CGIAR System, a burden
that the CGIAR reform process must address.


A KEY MESSAGE IS THAT
CIMMYT NEEDS A GREATER
REGIONAL PRESENCE TO
WORK CLOSELY WITH A
VARIETY OF ORGANIZATIONS
THAT CAN COMPLEMENT ITS
PRESENCE ON THE GROUND.








Recommendations on Products
and Programs


Stakeholders' specific suggestions for CIMMYT's products
and programs are described below. Some stakeholders
focused on broad, global issues, while others focused more
on regional and local needs. As a result, opinions diverged
with respect to the relative importance of CIMMYT's
products and the need to focus more on basic or applied
research. Most stakeholders regarded improved
germplasm as a high-priority product. Several stakeholders
from the various groups suggested that CIMMYT work
with partners, including farmers, to identify and prioritize
needs for research and products.

Stakeholders from all types of organizations and regions
agree that strategic germplasm improvement is a strength
of CIMMYT and that improved germplasm is a core
product. Respondents were divided about the appropriate
balance of upstream versus downstream research,
however. Some advocated that CIMMYT should focus
more on work of direct benefit to farmers (e.g., seed
distribution, development of local seed companies, and
adaptive, farmer participatory research) and rely more on
the private sector and ARIs for upstream research. Others,
concerned that large private companies are investing less
in upstream research, contended that CIMMYT should
focus on upstream research and that national programs
and local research should conduct downstream research,
where viable.

There was also considerable disagreement among
stakeholders regarding how CIMMYT should prioritize
activities between marginal and favorable (especially
irrigated) environments. A few respondents from ARIs and
the private sector commented extensively on this issue.
They contended that CIMMYT should focus on maize in
marginal environments because subsistence farmers,
particularly in Africa, are highly dependent on maize
production across large, marginal geographic regions that
are likely to be disregarded by the private sector for some
time to come. Several respondents suggested a continued
focus on wheat production in irrigated environments as a
means of feeding a growing urban population in the


developing world. Others suggested that CIMMYT should
turn its attention to marginal wheat production areas,
because current technologies and subsidies can be used
to stimulate wheat production in irrigated environments.

A particular concern among Central Asian and South
American stakeholders was to protect agricultural
biodiversity. Central Asian stakeholders appeared to be
concerned about biodiversity because the region is
considered a center of origin for wheat. South American
stakeholders seemed concerned to access diverse
germplasm for local breeding programs. Some felt that
CIMMYT has an important role in characterizing and
evaluating germplasm and making greater use of
genomics to catalog its genetic resources. An individual
from the private sector suggested that a private company
might be willing to fund a detailed investigation of the
genetic resources in CIMMYT's genebank.

Many stakeholders from national research systems,
especially in Africa and Asia, as well as other stakeholders,
mentioned that improved germplasm is a high-priority
product. They emphasized the need to develop and deliver
germplasm that yields well, has high grain quality, and
resists biotic and abiotic stresses, including drought, pests,
Striga in Africa, soils with little nitrogen, and stresses
resulting from climate change. Stakeholders in Central
Asia suggested that CIMMYT work with partners to
combine local wheat varieties and CIMMYT varieties in
breeding programs. Several stakeholders in Africa, but also
some in other regions, mentioned quality protein maize
as an important product and suggested that its adoption
by smallholder farmers should be stimulated.

Many stakeholders advocated that CIMMYT keep track
of rapid developments in biotechnology to maintain its
scientific pedigree. Stakeholders from national research
systems looked to CIMMYT to facilitate access to the tools
of biotechnology and other areas of new science, provide
training in applications of new science, and transfer












technology to developing countries. Several stakeholders
in developing countries suggested that poor people would
use biotechnology products if they presented a clear
benefit. Even NGOs that many consider ardent opponents
of biotechnology and genetic engineering indicated that
it is important for CIMMYT to remain engaged in the
biotechnology arena. Other stakeholders advocated the
integration of biotechnology and conventional breeding
within CIMMYT.

Donor agencies, ARIs, and private companies indicated
that CIMMYT cannot compete with investments by the
private sector and ARIs in biotechnology research and
development. Many respondents recommended that
CIMMYT focus on activities in biotechnology for which it
has a comparative advantage and pursue partnerships
more proactively with the private sector and ARIs. It was
suggested that CIMMYT organize a centralized unit of
negotiators specializing in brokering and leveraging deals.
Scientists working on adapting and improving
technologies obtained by this brokering unit could be
based at ARIs and private companies rather than CIMMYT.
This strategy would provide CIMMYT in-kind support and
access to the latest technologies and information. Another
possibility was to post CIMMYT scientists to biotechnology
laboratories establishedjointly with other institutions (e.g.,
private companies) in developing countries. Again, the
idea was that these laboratories would house CIMMYT
scientists with scientists from national programs, industry,
other CGIAR Centers, and other research institutions.
Interviewees pointed specifically to the hope that
biotechnology would be helpful in addressing problems
that many have viewed as intractable, especially problems
in Africa, and they suggested moving CIMMYT's
biotechnology research to Africa.

Several stakeholders indicated that CIMMYT could play
an important role in conducting research and providing
information on cropping systems and other agricultural
methods to address the constraints of poor farmers related


to infertile soils and lack of water. They suggested that
CIMMYT look at the interactions between crops and their
impact on soil and water systems. Several advised CIMMYT
to learn from its success with the Rice-Wheat Consortium
for the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Stakeholders also mentioned
that CIMMYT has an important role in developing other
agricultural practices that preserve natural resources. For
instance, stakeholders in South and Central Asia
mentioned reduced tillage and bed planting, and
stakeholders in South America specifically mentioned
conservation agriculture and reduced tillage as
technologies that can greatly benefit and are affordable
to poor farmers.

Some stakeholders emphasized the need for greater social
science capability to understand how global markets and
agricultural policies affected the livelihoods of the poor.
Socioeconomic aspects of poverty, such as poor access to
markets and the feminization of agriculture, should be
integrated into CIMMYT's projects. Some stakeholders in
donor organizations, ARIs, and national research systems
suggested that social scientists within CIMMYT have an
important role in determining the return on investment
in CIMMYT's products and activities. Many questioned
whether these capabilities were best developed by
CIMMYT itself or attained through new or enhanced
partnerships with other institutions.

Several stakeholders across categories and regions
suggested that CIMMYT should increase efforts to build
capacity in developing country institutions. Some felt that
training should enable developing countries to conduct
breeding, extension, seed distribution, and other
downstream activities and free CIMMYT to focus
increasingly on upstream research. CIMMYT's strategy to
build capacity should focus on providing information and
knowledge, developing research methods appropriate to
the circumstances of developing countries, and
coordinating research networks in target regions.








Intellectual Property Rights
and Related Concerns


A number of other issues arose in the course of the
interviews and the survey. Participants urged CIMMYT to
play a leadership role on the issue of public-sector research
and intellectual property rights. Many feared that the
growing effects of intellectual property rights on CIMMYT's
freedom to operate would affect CIMMYT's ability to
conduct cutting-edge science, especially in biotechnology.
They cautioned that CIMMYT must become more
sophisticated with respect to intellectual property, investing
more resources in this area.

Partners from national research systems, NGOs, and private
companies in developing countries held diverse opinions
on intellectual property. Many felt that CIMMYT should
ensure the free availability and exchange of genetic
resources, including improved germplasm. Many also
suggested that CIMMYT should protect its materials and
inventions, but it should differentiate among partners and
their objectives (e.g., charging companies from
industrialized countries a fee for its products but making
them available free of charge to projects that benefit the
poor). Other considerations CIMMYT should take into
account included the protection of farmers' rights, the
need to provide incentives for small seed companies in
developing countries, and the need to protect inventions
of developing country partners.

Several stakeholders, especially from national research
systems and NGOs, suggested that CIMMYT commands
the respect of high-level decision makers and should help
local organizations engage decision makers to increase
political support for public agricultural research and
extension.


PARTNERS FROM NATIONAL
RESEARCH SYSTEMS,
NGOS, AND PRIVATE
COMPANIES IN DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES HELD DIVERSE
OPINIONS ON INTELLECTUAL
PROPERTY.









Concerns about Partnerships


As noted earlier, partnerships were emphasized by many
respondents as an important means for CIMMYT to cope
with declining resources. Stakeholders from diverse groups
suggested that CIMMYT can be more effective if it
develops partnership networks that consist of
organizations that can offer a package of strengths and
products to address problems in a systematic and
sustainable manner. These networks could develop long-
, medium-, and short-term strategic objectives to focus
their efforts and should increase CIMMYT's impact on
the ground.

To effectively develop and maintain partnerships and
partnership networks, CIMMYT may have to consider
changes to its organizational structure and management.
Several stakeholders, especially from national research
systems and NGOs in developing countries, suggested
that CIMMYT establish more regional offices with more
staff.

CIMMYT faces the challenge of adapting to changing
capabilities of partners in developing countries, particularly
the changing capacity of national research organizations.
Stakeholders from within and outside national research
systems noted that research capacity and circumstances
differ greatly by country and region, but that many
national research systems are coping with the effects of
declining funding, including the difficulty of attracting
young scientists.

Partnering with the public sector. All respondents from
national research systems expressed appreciation for
CIMMYT's work. Many look to CIMMYT as a key
organization that can help enhance their capacity.
Representatives of national research services (and some


other) stakeholders suggested the following strategies for
CIMMYT to enhance the effectiveness of partnerships:

SIncrease the number of face-to-face meetings and
organizejoint workshops
SFacilitate coordination between national and regional
organizations (CIMMYT is uniquely positioned to get
national and regional organizations to collaborate
more effectively)
Develop national and regional partnership networks
with shared responsibilities
SPlace CIMMYT staff in national research services
SProvide more information, possibly demonstration
projects, on CIMMYT and CGIAR products and
successes
SEstablish regional offices in more countries
SProvide funding, grants and/or awards for national
research projects and staff
SMake (reprints of) CIMMYT scientific papers and
publications more widely available
SDevelop effective information sharing and
dissemination tools using the Internet

A few stakeholders noted that CIMMYT would be well
served by increasing its reliance on scientists in developing
countries. These local scientists are directly familiar with
local problems, conditions, resources, and partners. To
assist CIMMYT in keeping track of new developments in
science and to help determine research priorities, a few
stakeholders suggested that CIMMYT create a science
advisory council that includes partners from developing
countries.













Private companies, international and indigenous.
Most stakeholders viewed private companies as (potential)
partners for CIMMYT. They also felt that CIMMYT has
much to offer the private sector, especially access to
germplasm, scientific knowledge, and a truly global
perspective on applied agricultural research. Stakeholders
differentiated between private companies from
industrialized countries, and smaller, local seed companies
in developing countries. With regards to the former
category, stakeholders held diverging views on whether
CIMMYT should partner with these organizations. Some
stakeholders thought CIMMYT could greatly benefit from
strategic partnerships with these companies, for instance
by seeking access to advanced technologies or by relying
on private-sector breeding programs. Others felt that the
costs of public-private partnerships were far too high, for
instance in terms of transaction costs of working out
intellectual property arrangements, or in terms of the costs
to society of privatizing public goods.

Regarding private seed companies in developing countries,
stakeholders from all regions felt that such companies
are potentially important partners for CIMMYT, especially
when it comes to developing and commercializing
improved varieties and hybrids. Seed companies in
developing countries have local research and extension
networks in place that can help bring new products and
information (sales representatives often provide
information about "best farming methods") to farmers.
Some stakeholders in Africa suggested that, where there
is no functioning seed distribution system in place,
CIMMYT should become involved in the creation of
indigenous seed companies. CIMMYT's role could be to
provide these companies with hybrid lines free of charge.
Some stakeholders also see a need for CIMMYT training
of company scientific staff. Most stakeholders from
developing countries suggested that the role of local
private seed companies in research, seed distribution, and
extension would increase in the years to come. However,


most of them, including some representatives from private
seed companies, indicated that the private sector would
only serve those farmers that can pay, at least to some
extent, for higher quality inputs. They felt that the public
sector would continue to play a role in serving the poorest
people.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and
community-based organizations (CBOs). Various
individuals pointed out that several NGOs and CBOs have
a strong presence and very effective networks in
developing countries, especially in rural areas. Some NGOs
are working with farmers on agricultural experiments to
discover and demonstrate how different farming methods
and inputs may improve productivity; CIMMYT should
explore opportunities for partnerships with such
organizations. One stakeholder suggested that CIMMYT
might stimulate retired agricultural scientists to set up
NGOs focused on accelerating technology adoption by
poor farmers. However, several stakeholders also indicated
that CIMMYT should consider the mission and objectives
of NGOs, as well as the ramifications of its own decisions
regarding science and technology (for instance, decisions
regarding the use of genetic modification, or research into
"ecological agriculture"), as it explores the development
of partnerships with NGOs.

Farmers and farmer organizations. Many stakeholders
thought that CIMMYT should become more responsive
to the needs and priorities of its beneficiaries, farmers in
particular. They suggested that partnerships with farmer
organizations would help to identify those needs, but
these organizations could also serve as extension networks
to get information and products to farmers. Most
interviewees did not think CIMMYT should devote
resources to working with individual farmers, but that
partnership with organizations that represent the interests
of poor farmers is a positive step towards more effectively
identifying and responding to priority needs. The farmer













organizations shared many of the views of national
researchers regarding joint priority setting and project/
program development and implementation.

Other CGIAR Centers. Several prominent stakeholders
suggested that the CGIAR System is too fragmented and
competitive. They suggested that CIMMYT should work
more closely with other CG Centers, especially those that
perform similar activities. These comments were made in
the context of collaboration at the organizational level,
as well as between outreach staff of different CGIAR
Centers. Most stakeholders twho commented on this issue
thought that the current atmosphere of competition was
causing considerable inefficiencies and led to concerns
about the viability of the system. Some suggested that
CIMMYT should take it a few steps further than just
improved collaboration in the CGIAR System, and
suggested that CIMMYT should consolidate with other
germplasm improvement centers. Another stakeholder
suggested that the system should learn from national
experiences of close collaboration between public-sector
institutions (e.g., the National Institutes of Health in the
USA, which work closely with US universities).


International organizations and bilateral and
multilateral donors. A few interviewees indicated that
CIMMYT and the CGIAR should coordinate their activities
with international organizations, including FAO and the
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and
others working on plant genetic resources. Also, several
stakeholders from very different perspectives (donor, ARI,
and on-the-ground NGO) suggested that multilateral and
bilateral donor organizations have great capacity in
planning on-the-ground projects and have outreach
networks in developing countries. They suggested that
CIMMYT should consider these organizations as potential
partners.

Other opportunities for new or strengthened partnerships
identified by the stakeholders included universities (in
particular universities in South America and Southern
Africa), as well as private research institutions in South
America. One stakeholder from sub-Saharan Africa
indicated that religious organizations are playing a greater
role in addressing problems in rural communities.








Issues Concerning CIMMYT's
Organizational Structure


Stakeholders mentioned several issues regarding
CIMMYT's structure and management systems. Many,
including donors and NGOs, suggested that CIMMYT had
become too bureaucratic and should be much leaner.
Associated with increased bureaucracy is the contention
that decision-making in CIMMYT has become too top-
down. Many stakeholders, including donors, companies,
national researchers, and NGOs, also suggested that
CIMMYT should strengthen its presence in the regions it
targets, and should, for instance, only maintain a small,
administrative core. A large number of interviewees-
individuals very familiar with CIMMYT's structure-
questioned the current "stovepipe" management
configuration.

Why house maize and wheat research in the same
center? Several stakeholders questioned whether it was
appropriate for maize and wheat to be housed within the
same institution. Interviewees, for example, pointed to
similarities between wheat and rice and wondered
whether these two crops should be consolidated within a
single institution. Other interviewees indicated that
advances in science, especially biotechnology, made
developments in one crop equally relevant to multiple
crops. Thus, some stakeholders advocated for
consolidation with other Centers in the CGIAR System.
The Center named most often was IRRI, but numerous
other Centers were also mentioned. Consolidation could
create greater efficiencies, so that discoveries and lessons
learned in one crop could easily be applied to other species
and systems. Other stakeholders recommended greater
communication and collaboration, not actual


consolidation. One stakeholder specifically suggested
moving away from the notion of a maize and wheat
"Institution." Greater emphasis and focus should be
placed on cropping "systems" such as rice-wheat systems
(the interviewee noted the success of the Rice-Wheat
Consortium).

Decentralization. Some interviewees specifically
suggested that greater decentralization of CIMMYT's
breeding programs would result in better products for
farmers. They argue that decentralized programs are more
likely to build on locally adapted germplasm and take local
farmers' preferences into account; interviewees pointed
specifically to CIMMYT's work in maize in Africa. Such
approaches emphasize the importance of partnerships,
at multiple levels, including product delivery to resource-
poor farmers.

Stovepipes and matrices. Interviewees more familiar
with the inner workings of CIMMYT suggested that the
current "Program Stovepipes" were inhibiting innovation
and creating inefficiencies. Specifically, interviewees
mentioned poor communication among Program Directors
and program staff. Most notably, people pointed to poor
integration of the Biotechnology Program with the Maize
and Wheat Programs. A few stakeholders urged better
sharing of staff across programs. For example, a private-
sector stakeholder noted that in his/her company,
pathologists work on multiple crops. These stakeholders
encouraged more of a matrix management approach,
which they believed would bring greater resource
efficiency.








Opportunities for Future
Resource Mobilization


CIMMYT faces a serious challenge as it attempts to adapt
to reductions in funding and budget shortfalls.
Stakeholders mentioned multiple seemingly interrelated
causes for these budget shortfalls. Many stakeholders
expect a continued decline in public financing for
agricultural research and a resulting increase in
competition for funding. These stakeholders mentioned
that changing donor policies tended to favor short-term
outcomes of projects, which detract from the long time
horizons needed to develop and evaluate new crop strains.
Stakeholders, including representatives of bilateral donor
agencies, suggested that more donor institutions are
becoming interested in using challenge grants to fund
research and projects. Some stakeholders felt that donor-
driven competition was probably a contributing factor to
the lack of cooperation and coordination within and
among CIMMYT's programs.

Despite their rather pessimistic outlook about the future
of public funding for agricultural research and the strong
advice that CIMMYT should become a more efficient
organization, stakeholders see several opportunities for
CIMMYT to improve its funding structure and adopt
strategies that increase the likelihood of sustained
financing of its operations. A few interviewees thought
that better marketing and collaboration with organizations
that can speak on behalf of CIMMYT would be one
answer. Others thought CIMMYT should mount an
aggressive education program for its donors, many of
whom are far removed from the realities of providing crop
production technologies to farmers in marginal
environments. These voices suggested that CIMMYT take
it upon itself to inform donors of the importance of long-
term funding commitments required to feed the world's
poor.


Increased funding for development assistance.
Several interviewees indicated that funding for
development assistance and poverty alleviation in general
seems to be increasing; agricultural extension and
agricultural training are also high on the agenda of some
private foundations. Stakeholders interpreted the
implications of this shifting focus for CIMMYT in slightly
different ways. Some recommended that CIMMYT should
try to better understand donor needs and help donor
organizations better understand how CIMMYT's mission
and work are relevant to addressing those needs. Other
stakeholders, however, suggested that CIMMYT should
not chase funding and have its agenda determined by
donor priorities, but instead should focus on the priority
needs of poor people. They suggested that if CIMMYT
does a goodjob of identifying priority needs in developing
countries, and communicates these effectively to donors,
it will influence donor priorities and funding will follow.

Several stakeholders suggested that influencing and
responding to donor priorities will require that CIMMYT
work differently not only with donor agencies but also
with CIMMYT's partners. Several stakeholders in donor
organizations mentioned that decision-makers in their
organizations do not fully understand what CIMMYT does
and how it contributes to fulfilling donor objectives. There
seems to be a communication issue that can be addressed
through, for instance, promoting regular interactions and
relationship-building with donor organization staff focused
on understanding donor objectives. Also, clear
communication about how CIMMYT activities support
donor objectives, as well as establishing and enhancing
relationships with donor organization field staff who
influence priority setting in their organizations would help.
These relationships can grow into true partnerships that
support CIMMYT's activities.












A few stakeholders suggested that CIMMYT should
internalize the philosophy of focusing on mission and
results by organizing around specific outcomes, instead
of crops. They suggested that this would improve its
communication with donors, because it relates activities
directly to the types of impacts donors are interested in.

Earmarked funding. Several interviewees predicted that
donors would increasingly channel funding through
institutions in developing countries. They suggested that
CIMMYT should explore the possibility of working with
donors and partners/clients in developing countries to
build upstream agricultural research into projects, and have
part of the funding earmarked forthese research activities.
Many national research service representatives suggested
that CIMMYT and its partners collaborate on proposal
development, which could offer new methods for securing
funding.

Alternative institutional funding sources. Interviewees
from donor agencies and ARIs suggested that innovative
approaches to collaboration might offer access to new
sources of funding, such as funding from agencies that
are not usually involved in funding research and projects
targeted to developing countries. Agricultural, health,
environmental, and other agencies might be interested in
sponsoring research conducted through a national
institution that collaborates with CIMMYT. Other potential
new sources of funding that interviewees mentioned were:
charitable foundations of international agricultural
companies; bilateral donors, especially through
partnerships with their field staff; the Global Environment
Fund; the Millennium Challenge Account in the USA;
benefit concerts; the private sector, especially for hybrid
breeding; overhead charges added to project funding; and
challenge grants. With regard to challenge grants, those
interviewees that commented on them suggested that
they have the potential to bring in additional donors,
increase CIMMYT's responsiveness to local needs, improve


impact measurement, and enhance collaboration with
new and existing partners. They strongly encouraged
CIMMYT to participate in challenge grants.

In-kindsupport. Several stakeholders strongly suggested
that CIMMYT should take advantage of opportunities to
obtain in-kind support such as the use of highly advanced
laboratories and equipment and access to specialized
expertise at these interviewees' public-sector ARIs and
private companies. These individuals specifically
mentioned that CIMMYT's limited resources make it very
difficult to develop and maintain state-of-the-art capacity
in biotechnology research. Strategic collaboration with
ARIs and/or private companies may provide CIMMYT with
access to this capacity (labs, technology, and knowledge).
CIMMYT should explore what it has to offer in return. For
instance, some ARIs mentioned that insufficient efforts
are being made to apply their research, and they might
need CIMMYT's help and expertise in breeding to develop
products that benefit farmers and consumers.

Fee-for-service or licensing arrangements.
Stakeholders were divided about the question of whether
CIMMYT should make a profit on its germplasm collection.
Some stakeholders felt that the germplasm bank is a
"treasure," which CIMMYT should be able to use to its
financial benefit, for instance by licensing germplasm to
developed country institutions or companies for a fee and/
or royalty sharing arrangement. These stakeholders
suggested that such arrangements could be structured
to allow CIMMYT to continue to make germplasm freely
available to developing countries. They also suggested
that, in order to make this work, CIMMYT needs to be
innovative, and should establish very clear policies
regarding material transfer, intellectual property
protection, and royalty sharing. Other stakeholders,
however, were adamant that germplasm should remain
in the public domain.













Several stakeholders from private seed companies and
national research services in different regions suggested
that CIMMYT might consider selling products such as seed,
training programs, and consulting services to generate
income. Another suggested that biotechnology products
might be sold to private companies. Several national
research representatives also suggested that the countries
and national and regional organizations that benefit from
CIMMYT's products might be willing to make financial
contributions.

Developing an endowment fund to finance core
activities. Several stakeholders, in reflecting on CIMMYT's
strengths, suggested that there may be benefactors
(including philanthropists, private companies, and
charitable foundations) who might be interested in helping
CIMMYT establish an endowment, or establish separate
endowments for wheat and maize depending on donor
interests, to provide unrestricted funding for parts of the
research agenda. A few stakeholders also encouraged
CIMMYT to monitor and, if possible, participate in the
discussions regarding implementation of the financial
provisions under the International Treaty on Plant Genetic
Resources.


STAKEHOLDERS SEE
SEVERAL OPPORTUNITIES
FOR CIMMYT TO INCREASE
THE LIKELIHOOD OF
SUSTAINED FINANCING.








Conclusions from the
Stakeholder Consultation


The Meridian Institute report closes with the following
observations:

After reviewing the feedback provided by CIMMYT's partners
in developing and transitional countries, it is obvious that
CIMMYT's products and activities are greatly appreciated and
serve an apparent need. There seems to be a general call for
greater collaboration and greater access to CIMMYT's products.
However, ideas worldwide are changing with regards to the
role of international agricultural research centers, and many
stakeholders reflected that "real change" is necessary for
CIMMYT to survive and continue its history as a highly successful
organization. They would like to see CIMMYT take this
opportunity to move beyond discussion of new strategies and
take the actions necessary to remain relevant and successful in
a changing world.

Many of the insights expressed by CIMMYT's stakeholders
were included in the development of its new strategy, such as
the recommendation to decentralize research and to move
towards a more consultative and interdisciplinary research
approach. Interested readers are invited to consult CIMMYT's
strategy for details (2004b).


References
CIMMYT. 2004a. Global Trends Influencing CIMMYTs Future.
Prepared by the Global Trends Task Force in Support of
Strategic Planning at CIMMYT. Mexico, DF: CIMMYT.

CIMMYT. 2004b. Seeds of Innovation: CIMMYTs Strategy for
Helping to Reduce Poverty and Hunger by 2020. Mexico,
DF: CIMMYT.


STAKEHOLDERS REFLECTED
THAT "REAL CHANGE" IS
NECESSARY FOR CIMMYT TO
SURVIVE AND CONTINUE ITS
HISTORY AS A HIGHLY
SUCCESSFUL ORGANIZATION.








Conclusions from the
Stakeholder Consultation


The Meridian Institute report closes with the following
observations:

After reviewing the feedback provided by CIMMYT's partners
in developing and transitional countries, it is obvious that
CIMMYT's products and activities are greatly appreciated and
serve an apparent need. There seems to be a general call for
greater collaboration and greater access to CIMMYT's products.
However, ideas worldwide are changing with regards to the
role of international agricultural research centers, and many
stakeholders reflected that "real change" is necessary for
CIMMYT to survive and continue its history as a highly successful
organization. They would like to see CIMMYT take this
opportunity to move beyond discussion of new strategies and
take the actions necessary to remain relevant and successful in
a changing world.

Many of the insights expressed by CIMMYT's stakeholders
were included in the development of its new strategy, such as
the recommendation to decentralize research and to move
towards a more consultative and interdisciplinary research
approach. Interested readers are invited to consult CIMMYT's
strategy for details (2004b).


References
CIMMYT. 2004a. Global Trends Influencing CIMMYTs Future.
Prepared by the Global Trends Task Force in Support of
Strategic Planning at CIMMYT. Mexico, DF: CIMMYT.

CIMMYT. 2004b. Seeds of Innovation: CIMMYTs Strategy for
Helping to Reduce Poverty and Hunger by 2020. Mexico,
DF: CIMMYT.


STAKEHOLDERS REFLECTED
THAT "REAL CHANGE" IS
NECESSARY FOR CIMMYT TO
SURVIVE AND CONTINUE ITS
HISTORY AS A HIGHLY
SUCCESSFUL ORGANIZATION.






























ii -I




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