The Development and Promotion
of Quality Protein Maize
in Sub-Saharan Africa
Progress Report 2003
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
WIN MN'I x IO)NAI. MAI E AN11
Wk-AT IMPROVEMENT CENTER
Quality Protein Maize (QPM) development and promotion activities have grown
tremendously in Africa during 2003. The strong support from the Nippon Foundation is
being complemented through synergies with various other regional projects, resulting in
impressive achievements only partially reported herein. Finally, QPM country working
groups in several countries are functioning, albeit with varying success, to coordinate
stakeholder activities toward achieving greater impact in their respective countries.
Five complementary projects are especially crucial to the success of this Nippon Foundation
1. The WECAMAN (West and Central Africa Maize Network) network, whose
Research Committee has ensured transparency and regional ownership of QPM
research activities and grant allocation in the West and Central Africa sub-region.
2. The ECAMAW (East and Central Africa Maize Network) network, which has
performed a similar role in the eastern and central Africa sub-region.
3. The SADLF (Southem Africa Drought and Low Soil Fertility) network, which has
performed a similar role in the southern Africa sub-region.
4. The QPM-D project for eastern Africa, funded CIDA (Canadian International
Development Agency), has provided strong support to socio-economic, nutrition
and QPM dissemination activities.
5. The QPM project funded by the Rockefeller Foundation enables eastern African
National Program scientists to convert to QPM their preferred OPVs.
In addition to the above five projects, the Harvest Plus project will begin in 2004 to develop
maize (and other crops) with enhanced pro-vitamin A, iron and zinc content. Considerable
opportunities for synergies will need to be developed between QPM and Harvest Plus
activities, particularly related to nutritional advocacy and dissemination of nutritionally
This report describes a selection of QPM-related activities conducted during 2003. Although
QPM research and development efforts are still growing, it is already impossible to discuss
all of the work that is ongoing. Two sections of this report may be particularly helpful to
assist the reader in gaining an overview of the QPM activities: 1) Highlights of 2003
activities are presented in the "Highlights" section, and 2) progress toward achieving the
milestones stated in the QPM workplan for 2003 is summarized in the section entitled
"Achievement of 2003 milestones."
This report was prepared by more than one dozen scientists from CIMMYT, IITA, and
National Programs of several countries, whereas the work reported herein involved hundreds
of partners and stakeholders (e.g. farmers, extension workers, nutritionists, food
technologists, economists, agronomists, plant breeders, field technicians, NGO personnel,
policy makers, and more).
The QPM stakeholders and beneficiaries of this project take this opportunity to thank the
Nippon Foundation for its support of this work.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page i
Achievement of 2003 milestones
QPM activities in Kenya
Economic analysis and impact assessment of QPM
QPM activities in Ethiopia
QPM activities in West and Central Africa
QPM activities in Southern Africa
QPM research for the lowland tropics worldwide
QPM research for the subtropics
Highland QPM research in Mexico
QPM Workplan for 2004
Supplementary data tables A1-A5
Lowland tropics workplan 2004
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report page ii
In-country QPM Working Groups (WG) became operational in Ethiopia, Tanzania
and Uganda, fostering much closer consultations and joint planning by all QPM
Three promising QPM hybrids were identified for the mid-altitude zones of Ethiopia:
CML144/CML159//CML182, CML144/CML159//CML181 and
Two QPM hybrids were pre-released, and two QPM hybrids and one QPM OPV were
nominated for testing in the National Performance Trials (NPT) in Kenya.
One pre-released QPM hybrid performed as well as the popular commercial (normal)
hybrid check in "mother/baby" farmer-participatory, on-farm trials in Kenya.
Conversion to QPM of the three parental lines of BH660, the most popular hybrid in
Ethiopia, reached near completion.
Conversion to herbicide resistance was initiated for 5 QPM OPVs and 7 QPM inbred
lines. This will enable use of low-dose herbicide seed dressing technology that offers
effective control of Striga ("witchweed").
Breeding for weevil resistance within QPM germplasm was initiated with the
formation of an early maturing experimental synthetic among families selected using
artificial infestation of grain with weevils.
Seed production of released QPM varieties: In Uganda, 570 t of certified seed of
Nalongo was produced; in Ethiopia, 35 t of certified seed of BHQP-542 was sold to
farmers and 40 ha of certified seed was planted; and in Tanzania, about 20 t of QPM
foundation seed and 50 t of certified seed were produced by small seed companies and
Training in four countries in the region focused on "hands-on" training in the use of
light tables and on further understanding QPM and its development.
A regional QPM laboratory became operational in Ethiopia with the necessary
equipment provided by the QPM Project.
Mapping of malnutrition and maize consumption patterns determined that impact
potential of QPM in Kenya is greatest around the lower slopes of Mount Kenya and
various dryland areas of eastern Kenya.
Studies were initiated to collect base line data on production, utilization and local
perceptions on QPM in four leading QPM countries in the region.
A comprehensive community nutritional impact study was completed in Ethiopia and
the final report is expected in the latter part of the year.
Animal feeding studies to focus on QPM commercial feed formulation were initiated
in four countries in the region.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 1
Western and Central Africa
The Research Committee of WECAMAN reviewed 32 proposals submitted by the
national agricultural research systems (NARS) in West and Central Africa and
selected 22 proposals from nine countries. A total of US$55500 was allocated to
support research, seed production and promotion of QPM activities in 2003.
In collaboration with SG2000, MSV resistance of Obatanpa, Sussuma and DMRE-
SR-WQPM was upgraded. These varieties will be multiplied for use in QPM project
activities in 2004.
Conversion to QPM was initiated for selected extra-early, early, intermediate and late
maturing normal elite varieties, populations and inbred lines with stress tolerance and
good adaptation to West and Central Africa.
A total of 55 lowland and 81 mid-altitude lines from diverse QPM populations and
crosses were grown to select promising lines for further screening under the light
box/laboratory analysis. The selected best QPM lines will be used to form hybrids
and/or synthetic varieties.
31 breeders, agronomists, extension workers and seed producers from the private and
public sectors in 11 countries attended a training workshop on QPM development and
seed delivery systems in Kumasi, Ghana.
Farmer-participatory, on-farm evaluations of QPM varieties were conducted in
Malawi and Mozambique during 2003; this will expand to include South Africa,
Zambia and Zimbabwe during 2004.
Four very promising new QPM hybrids were identified in regional trials across 33
sites during 2002. Preliminary results from 14 locations during 2003 confirm their
superior performance, with one three-way hybrid looking particularly good.
Maize streak virus (MSV) resistant versions of the widely used hybrid
CML144/CML159//CML176 have out-yielded the original hybrid in preliminary
multi-location trials. MSV resistant versions of the parent lines, and superior MSV
resistant versions of the hybrid will be available within one or two years.
More than 3.5 tons of QPM seed was produced by CIMMYT in 2003 and distributed
for further multiplication or on-farm demonstrations during 2004. Quantitative data
are not available, but private seed companies are producing QPM varieties (especially
Obatanpa) in Mozambique and Zimbabwe.
A Zimbabwean laboratory was selected, among 10 applicant laboratories, to serve as
regional QPM laboratory for southern Africa.
Global: Lowland Tropics
In Nicaragua, NUTRINTA Amarillo, a new open-pollinated, yellow grain variety
was released in a ceremony attended by Dr. Norman Borlaug and Mr. Yoey
Sasakawa. QPM was sown on 8,000 hectares in Nicaragua.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 2
In Vietnam, HQ2000 (CML161 x CML165) was grown on more than 15,000
hectares. A new QPM hybrid, HQ-2004 (CML161 x CML493), will replace HQ2000.
All seed production in Vietnam is done by transplanting.
In Bangladesh, farmers have reported productive experiences with QPM hybrids. In
2003 they imported 20 tons of seed of HQ2000 from Vietnam-enough to sow 1,000
hectares. To meet future demand, the Agriculture Research Institute has begun
increasing seed of the parents of HQ2000.
In India, 15,000 hectares were planted to the white endosperm hybrid, Shaktiman-1.
Two new QPM yellow hybrids were released in the State of Bihar and one QPM
yellow hybrid released in the State of Kamal. Seed production will begin in winter
In Bolivia, the yellow QPM hybrid CML161 x CML165 was approved for release.
Bolivia will be the 23rd country in which QPM maize is grown in the developing
world, and the 18th new country, since the Nippon Foundation began providing
support for work to develop, test, and disseminate QPM.
Four new tropical QPM lines (two white and two yellow endosperm) were released.
Of these, the white endosperm CML491 is outstanding, with excellent GCA for yield,
protein quality, and ear rot and foliar disease resistance. The lines can enhance the
performance and stability of new hybrid combinations.
New generations of tropical QPM hybrids and synthetics were superior to normal and
QPM seed industry checks, in tests at more than 40 locations during 2002-2003.
A project was initiated to identify and/or develop QPM germplasm that also has high
levels of Vitamin-A (beta-carotene) precursors in the grain.
A newly established QPM laboratory, funded by Monsanto Foundation, was
inaugurated at CIMMYT (Mexico) in October 2003 and will be fully operational
before the end of the year.
Aggressive use of molecular markers continues to accelerate the line conversion
program involving normal x QPM lines.
We continued seeking opportunities to exploit the heterosis between tropical and
subtropical germplasm by crossing QPM lines adapted to these two mega-
Global: Highland Tropics
Conversion to QPM of elite highland lines was expanded to include late maturing
lines with yellow grain type.
Two highland white-grained QPM synthetics (experimental open-pollinated varieties)
demonstrated encouraging results in preliminary first year evaluations.
A highland-adapted, yellow-grained QPM synthetic (experimental open-pollinated
variety) was formed.
A project initiated in 2002, evaluating elite subtropical QPM germplasm in highland
environments, has been expanded following encouraging preliminary results.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 3
ACHIEVEMENT OF 2003 MILESTONES
This section provides a concise report of successes and failures in achieving the milestones
that were proposed for 2003 in the QPM Workplan for 2003.
1. QPM Networking
Milestone 1: Partners from at least 6 countries will have participated in each of 3 sub-
regional QPM planning meetings
V Eastern Africa: 35 NARS representatives, albeit only from 4 countries, attended the
QPM working group meeting in Nairobi, 5-6 February 2003.
V Southern Africa: A planning meeting was held 11-12 March in Harare and was
attended by QPM colleagues from Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mexico, Mozambique,
Nigeria, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
V Western Africa: The Research Committee of WECAMAN met from 10-12 April and
approved 22 research projects in nine countries.
Milestone 2: QPM working groups will have been established and will have met in at least 2
countries of each sub-region
I .* Eastern Africa: QPM working groups were functional in Ethiopia, Tanzania and
V Southern Africa: QPM working groups are active in Malawi, Mozambique and
Western Africa: No information to report.
2. Germplasm Development
Milestone 3: For each of the 3 main ecologies, at least 2 new experimental OPVs and 4 new
experimental hybrids will be identified for inclusion in regional or global QPM trials for 2004
* Lowland Topical: Trials of experimental QPM hybrids and OPVs have been sent
from Mexico to multiple countries in Africa.
/ Mid-Altitude Tropical: Trials of experimental QPM hybrids and OPVs have been
sent from Mexico to multiple countries in Africa. In addition, one trial of QPM
hybrids (including new streak virus moderately resistant hybrids) has been distributed
to more than 50 locations, and another trial containing QPM OPVs has been
distributed from Zimbabwe to about 60 locations in Africa.
V Highland Tropical: Preliminary trials including two white-grained synthetics were
grown. Evaluation of highland QPM germplasm is increasing, but currently lags
behind other germplasm categories.
3. Germplasm Testing
Milestone 4: Trial results will be summarized and widely reported
V Five-hundred copies of "Characterization of maize germplasm grown in eastern and
southern Africa: Results of the 2002 regional trials coordinated by CIMMYT" were
distributed to colleagues, partners and interested stakeholders during 2003. This
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 4
report contains summary and detailed results of QPM trials grown at 33 sites in
Milestone 5: Best OPVs and hybrids will be identified for seed multiplication and further
testing during 2004
Eastern Africa: QPM hybrids have been released or are in pre-release stages in
Kenya, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Similarly, QPM OPVs were released and seed
produced in Ethiopia, Uganda and Tanzania.
Southern Africa: Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe have identified promising QPM
hybrids and will include them in mother/baby trials during 2003/04. Commercial
and/or community based seed production of a QPM OPV is ongoing in Mozambique,
Malawi, South Africa and Zimbabwe.
Western Africa: A total of $20,000 was allocated to community-based seed
production of QPM seed in nine countries. Additionally, $21,500 was granted for
projects promoting adoption of QPM varieties in the same nine countries.
4. Seed Production/Dissemination
Milestone 6: Seed production data will document an increased quantity of QPM seed
available in each sub-region
Eastern Africa: Well achieved, see Section 3.4 v
Southern Africa: Data not readily available, see Section 5.4
Western Africa: Data not available, but see Milestone 5
Milestone 7: At least one seed company will be a member of each country-level QPM
Eastern Africa: Ethiopian Seed Enterprise, Ethiopia; membership for other country
working groups could not be confirmed at press time for this report.
Southern Africa: Seed Co, Malawi; SEMOC, Mozambique; Seed Co, Zimbabwe
Western Africa: No information to report.
Milestone 8: Training plans will be developed for each sub-region
Eastern Africa: The focus was on hands-on, one-on-one training in QPM V
development methods (e.g. breeding methods, use of the light table, etc.) provided
during visits to each national program.
Southern Africa: It was decided at the meeting in March that there were no urgent V
training needs for 2003 because several regional scientists attended QPM training in
Mexico, and technicians attended QPM training in Ethiopia during 2002.
Western Africa: QPM scientists and stakeholders from 11 countries attended a
training workshop on QPM development and seed delivery systems in Ghana.
Milestone 9: At least one QPM training event will have been conducted in each sub-region
Eastern Africa: Many one-on-one training events were conducted (see Sections 1.5 V
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 5
X Southern Africa: Although the decision was not to organize any training in southern
Africa, two QPM breeders from southern Africa were funded to attend the Hallauer
Plant Breeding Symposium in Mexico during 2003.
Western Africa: The QPM development and seed delivery systems training event in
Ghana was a huge success.
6. Laboratory Facilities
Milestone 10: Required number and location of QPM laboratories will be agreed for each
/ One laboratory was selected in each of the three sub-regions, on competitive bid
basis, to serve as regional QPM laboratory.
Milestone 11: At least one laboratory will be functional for tryptophan and/or lysine analyses
in each sub-region
Eastern Africa: The Food Science Laboratory at the Melkassa Research Center
(EARO) near Nazareth, Ethiopia, will be fully functional by end of 2003.
V Southern Africa: ZIMLAB, a private laboratory in Harare, was selected and is now
being equipped to begin performing analyses by end of January 2004.
Western Africa: The laboratory at Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana, was
selected as the primary regional laboratory and existing facilities have been upgraded.
7. Nutritional and Economic Studies
Milestone 12: Strategies to obtain required/desired nutritional and economic information will
be documented for each sub-region and for at least one country in each sub-region
/ Eastern Africa: This has been extremely well done (e.g. see Chapter 2 and Section
3.7) and constitutes a major component of the sister project, funded by CIDA.
X Southern Africa: A regional strategy was not developed in 2003, although pertinent
activities were conducted in Malawi and Zimbabwe.
V Western Africa: The Research Committee of WECAMAN agreed on a strategy to be
implemented as stated in Milestone 13.
Milestone 13: At least one nutritional or economic study with QPM will be initiated (or
continued) in at least two countries of each sub-region
9 Eastern Africa: Mapping of malnutrition and identification of likely QPM impact
areas in Kenya, and the community health study near completion in Ethiopia are
outstanding examples of achievement of this milestone!
V Southern Africa: Work with two "QPM villages" is ongoing in Malawi; chicken
(broiler) feeding trials were conducted by Seed Co in Zimbabwe (not reported herein);
and pig feeding trials are planned at Midlands State University during 2004.
V Western Africa: Research in Mali is studying utilization of QPM for animal feed,
while work in Benin is assessing the use of QPM in the preparation of various
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 6
1. QPM ACTIVITIES IN KENYA
1.1 QPM Networking
The project management committee (PMC) of the QPM project met in Nairobi from 3-4
February. The meeting was attended by seven representatives of NARS, seven from
CIMMYT, and one from CIDA.
The PMC meeting was followed by a broader Maize Working Group Meeting on 5-6
February, attended by 35 NARS representatives, 9 CIMMYT representatives and one CIDA
1.2 Germplasm Development
1.2.1 Release and promotion
Two hybrids were pre-released, and 2 hybrids and one OPV were nominated for testing in the
National Performance Trials (NPT) in Kenya:
CML181/CML175//OBATANPA Nominated for the NPT
GQL5/CML176//WW01408//CML181 Nominated for the NPT
Pooll5-QPM-SR Nominated for the NPT
1.2.2 Stress tolerant QPM
Extra-early population formation
In 2002, 29 extra-early stress tolerant normal maize populations were crossed and
backcrossed to POOL15QPM-SR. The resulting crosses were subjected to light table
selection to form 29 BC1F1 bulks. These bulks were planted, and good plants were self-
pollinated to obtain S1 ears. Following selection using light tables, 29 BC1S1 bulks were
formed and distributed to our collaborators for the next cycle of self-pollination in 2004.
Early population/synthetic development
In 2002, 800 early full-sib (FS) families were generated from POOL15QPM-SR. In 2003,
these families were tested under low nitrogen, drought and optimum conditions in Kenya.
The selected 20% were analyzed for quality protein (total protein, nitrogen and tryptophan).
The best families were chosen and planted to form six new stress-tolerant QPM synthetics
and to form S1 progenies to initiate the development of early streak resistant QPM inbred
lines. The six synthetics will be tested regionally in 2004, both as potential new open-
pollinated varieties and as parents of double topcross QPM hybrids (using CML492/CML173
as the other parent for these hybrids).
Intermediate maturity stress tolerant QPM populations
In 2002, 21 locally adapted stress tolerant normal CIMMYT maize lines (CMLs) were
crossed with the famous QPM single cross (CML144/CML159) and the resulting Fl were
crossed to POOL15QPMSR. The crosses were subjected to light table selection and 21 bulks
were reconstituted, planted and self-pollinated. The resulting S1 were selected using the light
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 7
table to reconstitute 21 S1 bulks for distribution to our collaborators for the next cycle of
1.2.3 Study of the effect of abiotic stresses (drought and low nitrogen) on protein quality
In 2002, our data showed that drought and low nitrogen stress can have a negative effect on
the endosperm modification of QPM germplasm. Therefore, we decided to investigate the
effect of these abiotic stresses on the protein quality of QPM. For this purpose, F2 seed of 6
FS families that performed well across environments were harvested from the optimum,
drought and low nitrogen experiments and were analyzed for protein and tryptophan content.
We found that (1) the % protein was lower under low N, and was similar under drought
compared to optimum conditions, and (2) the % protein was similar for QPM and normal
checks under optimum conditions (Figure 1). Regarding protein quality, we found that (1) %
tryptophan was lower under low nitrogen compared to optimum and was not affected under
drought, however, (2) the tryptophan level of QPM families under both low nitrogen and
optimum conditions was higher than the tryptophan level of normal checks under optimum
conditions. These results agree with Pixley and Bjarason (2002)1, who reported that protein
quality was very stable, whereas protein content and endosperm modification of QPM
varieties are less stable across environments.
Figure 1: Percent protein (bars) and percent tryptophan (lines) of six QPM families and two
normal maize varieties grown under optimum, drought, and low nitrogen conditions
Pooll5QPMFS- Pooll5QPMFS- Pooll5QPMFS- Pooll5QPMFS- Pooll5QPMFS- Pooll5QPMFS- Katumani ECA-EE-popl
130 157 176 397 588 589 Composite
Try-DR Try-LN Try-OPT
Pixley, Kevin V. and Magni S. Bjarnason. 2002. Stability of Grain Yield, Endosperm Modification and
Protein Quality of Hybrid and Open-Pollinated Quality Protein Maize (QPM) Cultivars. Crop Sci.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 8
1.2.4 Development of a weevil resistant synthetic
Breeding for insect resistance in maize and other crops has received much attention in recent
years due to development of strains of insect pests resistant to insecticides. Maize stored by
smallholder farmers is often attacked by storage pests causing grain weight losses in excess
of 30%. The major storage pests in Kenya are the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.)
and the larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus Hom). Because use of insecticides has had
little impact in controlling these pests, breeders and entomologists must use either
conventional or genetic engineering methods to improve host plant insect resistance. In this
study screening was done only for maize weevil.
Materials and methods
Maize grain samples from open pollinated ears of 166 FS families were fumigated using
Phostoxin in plastic drums for seven days to kill storage pests from natural attack in the field.
Four replicates of 50g grain samples of each full sib family were allowed to equilibrate for 10
days (grain moisture content- 12%) in 0.25 L glass jars with ventilated lids lined with 40-
mesh wire gauze. Samples were infested with 30 unsexed 30-day old adult maize weevils for
ten days. The jars were placed on wooden shelves in randomised complete block (RCB)
design for 90 days at conditions of 282C and 60+5 % relative humidity. This incubation
period was chosen as farmers store their crop untreated against storage pests for this duration
after harvest. The contents of each jar were sieved across a 4.75 mm and 1 mm mesh to
separate grains form insects and flour. Flour weight, number of progeny, grain weight and
percent grain damage were recorded. A selection index was used by, dividing the family
mean by population mean, and summing over the damage parameters. A value 1 is the
Results and discussion
Table 1. Mean number of weevil progeny emerged and percent grain weight loss
caused by S. zeamais to selected 8 QPM FS families grown at Embu
Entry Pedigree Progeny Wt-loss
No. Log No. Loss Arcsine loss
179 Pool 15 QPMFS-179 14.0 1.86 1.2 0.67
573 Pool 15 QPMFS-573 7.0 1.92 1.2 0.70
338 Pool 15 QPMFS-338 11.0 1.98 1.1 0.63
541 Pool 15 QPMFS-541 7.3 1.98 0.9 0.52
655 Pool 15 QPMFS-655 101.8 4.50 10.5 6.05
422 Pool 15 QPMFS-422 89.8 4.50 10.6 6.10
612 Pool 15 QPMFS-612 102.8 4.58 10.0 5.72
137 Pool 15 QPMFS-137 131.3 4.86 14.3 8.25
LSD 33.2 0.98 5.1 2.93
SE 12.0 0.35 1.8 1.05
P-value 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
There were significant differences in resistance levels of the maize germplasm to weevil
(Table 1). About 20% of these maize materials showed good to modest resistance. Twenty
percent of the families (30 families) were selected from the most resistant and susceptible
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 9
fractions of the population, taking into consideration protein and tryptophan content. The
family was not included in the selected fraction if protein content was below 7.5% or
tryptophan content was below 0.07%. These selected fractions will be advanced to S1 and
the bulks derived will be re-evaluated as part of a divergent selection study for storage pest
resistance in QPM. There was no significant correlation between grain quality (biochemical
basis) and parameters for storage pest resistance among the 166 families evaluated in the
1.2.5 QPM population improvement
Two QPM open-pollinated varieties (PR8763 and Across8762) were self-pollinated to
develop 230 S1 from each variety. The S1 bulks were self-pollinated and 154 S2 were
selected in collaboration with the Ugandan National program at Namulonge (hot spot for
turcicum leaf blight, grey leaf spot, and ear rot). These S2 lines were planted under streak
virus artificial infestation at Embu and are being advanced to S3. The resulting S3 will be
analyzed for protein quality and the best progenies will be crossed with appropriate testers to
identify the lines to be used to (1) develop hybrids and synthetics, and (2) reconstitute new
improved versions of CIMMYT Populations 62 and 63 SR.
1.2.6 QPM streak virus resistant line development
In 2002, 95 QPM F2 populations (QPM x Normal) developed at Harare were planted at 3
sites in East Africa for evaluation and selling. 88 S2 bulks were generated and subsequently
distributed to NARS in Uganda (Namulonge), Tanzania (Selian), Ethiopia (Nazareth, and
Bako), and Kenya (Embu) for further breeding work.
The conversion to QPM of 7 early maturing streak resistant CMLs (CML212, 218, 219, 220,
221, 222 and 236) and 10 new early maturing lines was initiated.
1.2.7 Conversion of locally-adapted maize OPV's to QPM
Conversion of intermediate maturity germplasm to QPM at Kiboko, Kenya
Four intermediate maturity elite varieties ECAVL-2, SADVLA, P501-SRCO-F2 and P502-
SRCO-F2 were each crossed to three QPM donors during the short rain season in 2002. In
early 2003, the Fl crosses were harvested and a balanced bulk advanced to F2 during the
main season. At harvest, 500-600 best ears were selected and shelled individually. Kernels
were screened on the light table, and only kernels with modification between 2 and 4 (on a 1
to 5 scale) were selected. Selected kernels from the best 400-500 ears screened on the light
table were planted ear-to-row during the short rain season in 2003 for the formation of the
first backcross generation (BC1F1). The best 4 plants will be selected in each agronomically
acceptable row, and leaf samples will be sent to the laboratory for DNA marker analysis to
identify homozygous opaque-2 (recessive) plants. Bulk pollen of the recurrent parent OPV
will be used to pollinate marker-selected plants.
Conversion of intermediate maturity germplasm to QPM at Kibos, Kenya
Three intermediate maturity elite varieties, Kakamega Pool A, Kakamega Pool B and
Tuxpeno Sequia, were each crossed to three QPM donors during the short rain season in
2002. In early 2003, the Fl crosses were harvested and a balanced bulk advanced to F2
during the main season. At harvest, 500-600 best ears were selected and shelled individually.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 10
The grain was screened on the light table at Kiboko and returned to western Kenya for
planting during the 2003 short rain season.
Conversion of late maturity adapted germplasm to QPM at Kitale, Kenya
Activities at NARC, Kitale, are converting to QPM 'Kitale synthetic II' (R11C10), 'Ecuador
573' (R12C10), and inbred lines A, F, 82 and 93. In 2003, Fl crosses were advanced to F2.
Materials are in the field at the time of this report.
Conversion of intermediate maturity germplasm to QPM at Selian. Tanzania
A huge effort to convert many elite cultivars at Selian was initiated in 2002 short rains. The
Rockefeller-Foundation-funded project proposed to convert three OPVs to QPM (Staha-ST,
Kilima-ST and TMV-1), but conversion of other OPVs (POP105, Kito and UCA) was also
initiated. Advancement of Fl to F2 is in progress. The senior breeder left Selian in the
middle of 2003 and this might slow down the progress in the conversion activities.
1.2.8 QPM hybrid formation and seed increase
13 QPM synthetics are being crossed to POOL15QPM-SR to (1) develop QPM
varietal hybrids for the 2004 regional testing, and (2) initiate the MSV conversion for
the best new QPM synthetics.
28 early QPM hybrids are being formed for the 2004 regional testing.
1.2.9 Imidazolinone QPM resistant (IQPMR)
The witch weed 'Striga' decimates maize, millet, sorghum, upland rice and Napier
throughout sub-Saharan Africa. From the high plateau of East Africa, where peasant farmers
struggle to survive on tiny fields of maize, to the arid savannas of northern Nigeria, where
they rely on sorghum, African farmers today are fighting a losing battle against the Striga
scourge. During the past seven years CIMMYT, in collaboration with the Weizmann
Institute of Science (Israel), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute and BASF, with funding
from the Rockefeller Foundation, have developed a unique product for Striga control in
maize. It combines low-dose imazapyr (a systemic ALS-inhibiting herbicide) seed coating,
applied to imazapyr-resistant (IR) maize seed, to leave a field virtually clear of emerging
Striga blooms season-long.
Low-dose herbicide seed dressing on IR-maize controls Striga without impacting sensitive
intercrops when they are planted 10 cm or more from maize hills. This allows small-scale
farmers to continue intercropping, at most with slight modification, while using maize seed
treated to control Striga. Converting the most popular QPM materials to IR will lead
CIMMYT and partners to a win-win situation benefiting millions of farmers in sub-Saharan
Five QPM OPVs and 7 elite QPM inbred lines are being converted to IR:
Obatanpa and S99TLWQ, which will be available as IR QPM-SR by 2005
POOL15QPM-SR, POP63-SR, and ACROSS8762 (currently at IR-BCO level)
CML144, CML159, CML154, CML176, CML173, CML181, and CML182 are at IR
BCO level of conversion
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 11
1.3 Germplasm Testing
In 2003, the following types of QPM germplasm were evaluated under both stressed and
unstressed conditions in East Africa:
QPM double top cross hybrids: 9 sets tested in 2 countries (Appendix 1, Table Al).
QPM OPVs: 12 sets tested in 4 countries (Figure 2 and Appendix 1, Table A2)
QPM Three way hybrids from Harare: tested across 6 sites in Kenya (Appendix 1,
QPM inbred lines: 5 sets tested in 2 countries (Appendix 1, Table A4).
Obatanpa-OPV: including 3 different versions of Obatanpa, was tested at 2 sites in
Kenya (Appendix 1, Table A5)
46 sets of various QPM materials including 346 genotypes from CIMMYT Mexico
were planted at 2 sites in Kenya. By the time this report was prepared, the trials from
Mexico had not been harvested.
Figure 2: Grain yield (t/ha), and disease (GLS, turcicum & ear rot) reaction of 2 QPM OPVs, 2 pre-
released QPM hybrids, 2 normal OPVS and 1 normal hybrid, tested across 4 sites including low N and
optimum in Kenya, 2003A.
2 3 4 8 11 WH403-Normal ECAVL-1 -Normal LOCAL CHECK-
Hybrid OPV Normal OPV
Pre-released QPM OPV Nor OPV
m OPT M LN --% Ear Rot GLS E.turc LN= low nitrogen, OPT= optimum, GLS= grey leaf spot, E.turc= turcicum
1.4 Seed Production and Dissemination
1.4.1 Seed production
Seed of 13 synthetics is being multiplied
Foundation seed (20 kg) of parents of 2 QPM three-way hybrids released in Kenya
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 12
Seed of those same above-mentioned hybrids (100 kg) was produced for mother/ baby
trials and demonstration.
4 tons of QPM grains for animal feed experiment were produced.
On-farm evaluation of QPM germplasm is carried out in collaboration with NARS scientists
in the ECAMAW Research Network. During 2002-03, these involved both multi-location
testing of advanced QPM varieties using a farmer participatory approach with "Mother-Baby
trials", organized primarily in Kenya, and a study of N-response of the Ethiopian-released
QPM hybrid, BHQP542, at increasing plant densities. Two sets of trials were prepared: 1)
Four QPM hybrids and one OPV were evaluated at five sites in the transitional zone of the
Central Kenyan Highlands. Baby trials comprising two entries plus the farmer's check were
distributed to 12 farmers at each of two sites. Farmers evaluated the entries in the Mother
trials on two occasions, as well as providing the experiences with the materials in their
"baby" trials. Generally, only one QPM entry (CML144/CML159//CML182, which has been
pre-released for the area) performed as well as the local commercial check, H513 (Figure 3).
Figure 3. QPM performance across four sites in Mother Trials in the Central Kenyan hightlands
Enby Name GralnYlelds
1 2 3 4 5 6
Min 3.0 Entry No.
Ear rot was a particular problem during the 2003 season and incidence was high amongst all
varieties except Entry 2 and H513. Farmers generally ranked H513 highest among the 6
entries although Entry 2 compared well with it. In addition to yield, attributes of interest to
farmers were tolerance to pests and diseases, storage quality, husk cover, cob size and filling,
and grain size. Based on these criteria, farmer preferences generally agreed with breeder
Seven QPM OPVs and one double cross hybrid were evaluated in Mother trials at two sites in
the humid lowland ecology of Coastal Kenya: 24 baby trials were distributed to farmers.
Results from these trials are not yet available.
At Jimma, Ethiopia, a trial was conducted to determine the optimal N rate and planting
density for the recently released QPM variety, BHQP542. This variety must compete with the
popular taller, later maturing hybrid BH660. An objective of this trial was to determine
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report page 13
1 CML144XCML159//CML181 4.0
2 CML144XCML159//CML182 6.0
3 CML181/CML175//OBATANPA 4.6
4 GQL5/CML176//WWO1408//CML181 4.0
5 POOL15QPM-SR 3.0
6 Local Check H513 6.1
LSD (0.05) 0.6
whether higher plant densities are able to compensate for the lower yield potential of this
earlier-maturing variety. BHQP542 yield increased significantly with N fertilizer up to 69-92
kg ha-, but increasing plant population densities from 44,000 to 66,000 ha1 had no
significant effect on yield (Table 2). Since the 2002 season was short in duration and total
rainfall received, the trial is being repeated in 2003 at three sites on-station and 20
(unreplicated) sites on-farm and includes a direct comparison with BH660 at its
recommended density of 44,000 ha-1.
Table 2. Grain yield, t ha1 of QPM as affected by plant density and N-levels
on station of Jima Center in season, 2002.
Nitrogen levels Plant density (D) (x1000 ha 1)
(kg ha ) 44 50 57 66
46 6.02 5.89 5.39 6.89 6.05
69 7.59 8.01 7.64 7.01 7.56
92 7.63 8.14 8.12 8.22 8.03
115 8.02 8.56 8.38 6.61 8.39
Density mean 7.32 7.68 7.38 7.69 7.51
P<0.05 N = 0.56 D = ns NxD = ns
6 sets of 88 QPM S2 bulks were sent to 6 NARS scientists in Ethiopia (Bako, and Nazareth),
Uganda (Namulonge), Tanzania (Selian) and Kenya (Kiboko and Embu) for selfing.
At harvest, CIMMYT scientists (Alpha, Twumasi, and Duncan) will spend 3-5 days to help
with selections using the light table. This hands-on training will benefit scientists and their
Nine scientists from East Africa attended the CIMMYT Special Training Course on Applied
Statistics and Amel R. Hallauer International Symposium on Plant Breeding, Mexico, August
1.5.1 Training in QPM economic analysis and impact assessment
Two students worked with CIMMYT scientists in the impact assessment component of QPM
research. The first student, Timothy Nyanamba, did his M.Sc. in Agricultural Economics at
the Egerton University, Njoro (Kenya). He did his thesis on the topic "Quality Protein Maize
for the Feed Industry in Kenya." He also presented a poster of his work at the International
Agricultural Economics Association, Durban, August 2003 (Nyanamba et al., 2003)2.
A second student, Oiye Shadrack, of the Department of Nutrition, University of Nairobi, is
assisting the Kenya team to identify the target areas, and to prepare and conduct Participatory
2 Nyanamba T., H. De Groote; R. Wahome. 2003. Quality Protein Maize for the Feed Industry in Kenya. Poster
presented at the International Agricultural Economics Association Durban, August 2003.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 14
1.6 Laboratory Facilities
A work place facility comprising one cold room, one working place with benches and light
table incorporated for 20 persons, 2 offices were built in Kiboko, Kenya. These facilities can
be used as training facilities for the whole region.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 15
2. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF QPM
2.1 Economic Analysis of QPM for the Feed Industry in Kenya
To estimate the potential value of QPM for the feed industry in Kenya, a collaborative study
was conducted by CIMMYT, the Department of Agricultural Economics from the Egerton
University (Kenya) and the Department of Animal Nutrition from the University of Nairobi,
with financial support from FOODNET and the Nippon Foundation. Visits to several feed
producers revealed that maize is a key ingredient in animal diets, constituting about 50% of
the commercial formulations. Yearly, 379,000 tons of animal feed are produced in the Kenya,
about half of which goes to poultry. In contrast to swine and cattle, commercial broiler
producers use almost uniquely specially formulated feed. Along the Kenya coast, small scale
producers keep a few batches of 100 birds each, in pens made from local materials. They
purchase the one-day-old chicks from specialized companies. The feed, which represents
about half of the total production costs, is also purchased from specialized companies.
Since QPM has twice the levels of lysine and tryptophan compared to regular maize,
substituting it for regular maize in the production of broiler feed can reduce the amount of
expensive protein sources used. In 2002, a linear optimization model was used to formulate
the cheapest ratio, while fulfilling the different requirements for broiler feed, resulting in a
5% cost reduction. Trials (reported last year) showed that broilers raised on the optimized
QPM mixture had the same feed intake, weight gain and taste as broilers raised on the
normal, non-QPM feed mixture.
In 2003, the trial results were used for economic analysis of the use of QPM for the feed
industry in Kenya, and its results were presented at the Conference of the International
Association of Agricultural Economics (Nyanamba et al., 2003)3. If the feed industry for
broilers in Kenya were to substitute QPM for regular maize, they could decrease the use of
other, more expensive, sources of protein. This would reduce the cost of feed by 5% ($
1.93/kg vs. $2.03/kg) or, for the whole industry, by US$300,000. If the new QPM-based feed
were to be sold at the same price, these benefits would go to the feed companies. If, however,
the cost reduction were to be passed on as cheaper feed, the benefits would go to the broiler
producer, increasing their profits by US$10 for each batch of 200 birds. These producers are
typically small-scale farmers, raising 4 batches annually for the local tourist industry. QPM-
based feed would lead to an annual increase of profits of US$40.
During discussions with the feed producers, two concerns were raised. First, since these
companies do not produce their own maize, but buy it in the market, quality control is
essential. Companies need to be able to check the quality of the QPM, in particular its lysine
and tryptophan content, at reasonable cost. Second, the QPM used in the trials was more
susceptible to storage pests than the regular maize. For the feed producers it is important that
the new QPM varieties have the same storage characteristics as regular maize.
3 Nyanamba T., H. De Groote; R. Wahome. 2003. Quality Protein Maize for the Feed Industry in Kenya. Poster
presented at the International Agricultural Economics Association Durban, August 2003.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report page 16
2.2 Impact Assessment
2.2.1 Identification of areas where QPM can make an impact
QPM is likely to have an impact in areas where maize is constitutes a large proportion of the
diet, especially as a source of protein, and where children and lactating mothers suffer protein
deficiency. To identify and target the proper agroecological zones for QPM, preliminary
studies were undertaken in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia. These studies will map
the areas where QPM and other nutritionally improved maize is likely to make an impact,
based on literature and secondary data. For each of the four countries, a digital map with
administrative boundaries is being constructed, and complemented with geo-referenced
statistical data. These studies typically make use of following data:
Population data from the latest census (how many people live where?)
Production data for the major cereals and pulses (indicators of importance in diet)
Areas where farmers grow improved maize varieties (likely adopters)
Areas where farmers have access to improved seed from private seed companies
(adopters that can be reached through the private sector)
Consumption data for major cereals and pulses (where is maize an important
component of the diet?)
Livestock production data (where do people eat dairy and other animal products)
Health statistics (where do people have protein deficiency, in particular children from
weaning age to 5 years old)
Poverty indicators (where do the poor live, and how many are there?)
All data need to be combined in a GIS (geographical information systems) database,
referenced to administrative units such as divisions or districts (for Kenya). The units should
correspond to the latest census' basic units. This basic map will provide good indicators as to
where maize is important, where there is a protein shortage (based on available protein from
production in the region), and where people have limited resources to purchase high protein
food. This map then needs to be complemented with studies on actual food consumption and
household expenditure patterns. Anthropometric studies are also useful.
The collection of secondary data in Kenya is now finished, and consists of census data, data
on food expenditure and production, malnutrition statistics and micronutrient deficiencies.
Preliminary analysis, in collaboration with the Department of Nutrition at the University of
Nairobi, found that stunting (measured as the % of children too small for their age) is
particularly high at the coast (especially Kilifi district) and in the dry areas (Tharaka district
and West Pokot), but also at some areas around Lake Victoria (Migori) (see map in Figure 4).
Food consumption data show, however, that maize is not the primary weaning food in the
lake basin, and agricultural statistics show that people at the coast only produce 20 kg of
maize per person, as compared to a national average consumption of 100 kg/person.
Therefore, QPM is most likely to have an impact in the dry areas of Eastern Kenya. For the
QPM program that is based in Embu, the two districts most likely to benefit are Tharaka and
Mbeere (which fall under the mandate of the KARI station in Embu), situated at the lower
slopes of Mount Kenya. The program should give high priority to the development and
dissemination of short maturing QPM varieties, and collaboration with the KARI station for
the dryland areas at Katumani.
Studies on micro-nutrients found that deficiencies of iron, zinc and vitamin A are strongly
linked to altitude. These deficiencies are common around Lake Victoria in the West, the
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 17
drylands in the North and East, and at the coast. However, they decrease rapidly with
increasing altitude in Central Kenya. Therefore, our research indicated that breeding for
micro-nutrient enhanced maize should also focus on the lower slopes of Mount Kenya and
the dry land areas.
So far, the secondary data collection is finished in Kenya, and is well under way in Uganda
and Ethiopia. In Tanzania, the Rapid Rural Appraisals have been conducted, and in Kenya
they are expected to be conducted in November-December 2003.
Figure 4. GIS analysis of areas with likely high impact of QPM
MIn trition in Kenya
j^ J \"'*
stunting (% of 6-59 months <
maize consumption (kgthhhnonth)
Bean consumption (kglhhlmonth)
- 15 20
2.3 Participatory Rural Appraisals
After identification of appropriate targeted areas, where impact is expected to be high, the
areas need to be visited. These visits, in the form of Participatory Rural Appraisals, involve
further collection of secondary data in the field, as well as individual discussions with
resource people (health, nutrition and agricultural extension workers), and group discussion
with farmers and consumers.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 18
3. QPM ACTIVITIES IN ETHIOPIA
3.1 QPM Networking
A QPM Coordination Meeting for East Africa and the First Project Management
Committee Meeting of the CIDA funded QPM Development Project (QPMD) were
held in February, 2003 in Nairobi. The meetings were conducted for QPM
stakeholders to develop their first annual workplan for the Project. Both meetings
were attended by the Director of CIMMYT Maize Program.
The Ethiopian QPM country working group was established during 2002, and met
twice that year-the last date of meeting being December 6, 2002. In 2003, WG
members communicated frequently concerning critical issues by telephone or email.
One meeting of the WG is scheduled before the end of 2003-to update all
stakeholders on activities completed during 2003 and to plan for 2004.
The Ugandan QPM WG was established during 2003, and met four times during the
year (25 April, 16 May, 23 June, 3 July).
A QPM WG was formed in Tanzania, and met on 18 March 2003.
3.2 Germplasm Development
3.2.1 Highland source germplasm development
Efforts were continued to develop QPM source germplasm for the African highlands, which
as described in the 2002 report, currently lags behind other environments with regard to
availability of elite QPM germplasm. The first and second backcrosses were completed for
51 highland maize lines with turcicum, MSV and GLS tolerance, and already characterized
into three heterotic groups. The conversion will be completed in the off-season of 2003/2004
when the BC2F2 will be formed.
Conversion of elite cultivars
The conversion of a number of cultivars for Ethiopia continued.
QPM conversion of the parental lines of BH660, the most popular hybrid in Ethiopia,
reached the second backcross stage for F-7215 and 142-1-e, and the first backcross for
A-7033. The lines will be advanced to the next stage of conversion in the off-season
of 2003. It is expected that conversion will be completed during 2004.
The first backcrossing of four highland maize synthetics was completed in the main
season of 2003, and the second backcross will be done in the off-season of 2003/2004.
The Ethiopian National Maize Program initiated the conversion of two parental lines
of BH540, the second most popular released single cross for the mid-altitude zone.
Conversion of two popular OPVs (Melkassa 1 and Awassa 511) for the mid-altitude
dry zone was initiated by National Maize Program at Melkassa. The National Maize
Program at Bako also initiated the conversion of Kuleni, a popular OPV for the
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 19
Improvement of Obatanpa
Work continued on the improvement of Sussuma (the Mozambican version of the Ghanaian
QPM variety Obatanpa) for tolerance to rust and leaf blight at Ambo, which is a hot spot for
the two diseases. S1 lines planted in the main season showed a wide range of variability for
tolerance to the diseases, especially for rust, and selected plants were advanced to S2 level.
3.3 Germplasm Testing
The National Maize Program identified three promising CIMMYT QPM hybrids and
entered two of them into their National Variety Trial to generate data to support future
release. The hybrids were (CML144 x CML159) x CML182 and (CML144 x
CML159) x CML181. However, the per se performance of both CML182 and
CML181 was poor and further testing of these lines will be done to ascertain the
viability of the hybrids for commercial production. A third promising hybrid
identified in the national program was (CML140 x CML146) x CML143.
At Bako, in the mid-altitude zone, nine CIMMYT QPM trials (from Mexico, Kenya
and Zimbabwe) were conducted, including two under both optimum and low N
conditions. Three CIMMYT trials were conducted at Melkassa (mid-altitude dry
zone), while two highland QPM trials from CIMMYT-Mexico were evaluated at
3.4 Seed Production/Dissemination
Significant quantities of certified seed of the QPM OPV cultivar Nalongo were produced and
marketed in Uganda during 2003. During the first half of 2003, a total of 270 t of certified
seed of Nalongo was sold by four small local seed companies with details as follows:
NASECO Seeds (1996) Ltd.: 150 t
East African Seed (U) Ltd.: 40 t
Farm Inputs Care Centre (FICA) Ltd.: 60 t
Harvest Farm Seeds Ltd.: 20 t
Furthermore, the QPM WG for Uganda reported that 500 t of certified seed of Nalongo was
available for sale during the second half of 2003 (i.e., season 2003B).
In Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Seed Enterprise (ESE) marketed their entire stock of
approximately 35 t of certified seed of the QPM hybrid BHQP-542 for planting during the
2003 cropping season. This stock of certified seed was produced during 2002 on 10 ha of
ESE land. During 2003, the ESE allocated 40 ha of their seed farm for certified seed
production of the same hybrid.
A report on seed production of QPM varieties in Tanzania during 2003-provided by the
Tanzanian WG members-follows:
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 20
Partner Variety Quantity Seed type
Usagara Women Group Lishe-K1 6,300 Foundation
Monsanto Lishe-H1 500 Certified
Arusha Foundation Seed Lishe-K1 50,000 Certified
AFSF Lishe-K1 2,000 Foundation
Selian ARI Lishe-K1 10,000 Foundation
Ukiriguru ARI Lishe-K1 100 Foundation
Mtwara Lishe-K1 50 Foundation
Zanobia Seed Lishe-K1 500 Foundation
Tumbi ARI Lishe-K1 100 Foundation
Ilonga ARI Lishe-K1 200 Foundation
Selian ARI Lishe-K1 500 Breeder
Selian ARI Parental inbred 30 Breeder
CIMMYT's maize breeders determined that it was critical to conduct a series of site visits
and "hands-on" training to strengthen the capacity of QPM scientists and seed personnel at
various locations throughout the countries of East Africa. Essentially, during 2003, the visits
and training were focused on technical staff involved in QPM breeder and foundation seed
production. The "hands-on" training consisted of:
Provision of basic information on the breeding of QPM
Training technical staff in the use of light tables for QPM seed selection using actual
breeding materials they are working with
Ensuring effective use of the "Fieldbook" software developed and distributed free of
charge by CIMMYT
CIMMYT breeders conducted the "hands-on" training according to the following schedule:
Ambo RC, EARO, Ethiopia Feb. 2003
Kiboko RC, KARI, Kenya Feb. 2003
Bako RC, EARO, Ethiopia May 2003
Melkassa RC, EARO, Ethiopia June 2003
During March 2003, CIMMYT conducted a QPM and seed training course in Uganda for
technical staff of small seed companies and for group leaders (often women leaders) of
farmer/seed grower community-based organizations (CBOs). The course catered to 12
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 21
participants, including 4 women. The course participants comprised representatives from 10
small seed companies and CBOs.
A QPM seed production proposal entitled "QPM Seed Multiplication of Newly-Released
OPV Variety Lishe-Kl" was developed in collaboration with the Usagara Women Group
(UWG) in Kimamba, Kilosa District, Tanzania. Funds were approved, and implementation
began in the second half of 2003. A two-day "hands-on" training course will be given to
UWG members during mid November 2003. An oversight committee for UWG activities
was established, comprising of six women and two men.
3.6 Laboratory Facilities
A call for competitive bids for hosting a sub-regional QPM quality control lab was issued
during the First QPMD Project Management Committee Meeting (Feb. 3-4, 2003, Nairobi).
Subsequently, a review team evaluated the proposals received, and the initiative was awarded
to the Food Science Laboratory at the Melkassa Research Center (EARO) near Nazareth,
Ethiopia. CIMMYT developed a formal Memorandum of Agreement with EARO, which
was signed by the Directors General of both institutions by mid 2003. The Memorandum of
Agreement outlines general terms of collaboration for the regional laboratory facility,
research arrangements, period of the agreement, financial provisions and reporting,
intellectual property rights and ownership, termination of the agreement, and a dispute
Essential equipment and chemicals were ordered (totaling approximately US$29,000 in
value) to facilitate the development and startup of the regional screening facility. The facility
is anticipated to be fully operational during November 2003.
3.7 Nutritional and Economic Studies
Within the ECAMAW network, draft research protocols and workplans were developed and
refined in an iterative process with NARS colleagues at five research institutions within
target countries (see summary table below).
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 22
Country and Partner Research Center and Principal
Ethiopia, EARO Bako and Debre Zeit ARCs
(Dagne Wegary and Alemu Yayi)
Kenya, KARI Embu RRC
(Kangara and Mutinda)
Tanzania, MASF-DRD Selian ARI
(S.D. Lyimo and nutritionist from Hai)
Tanzania, MASF-DRD Ilonga ARI
(J. Assenga and S.D. Lyimo)
Uganda, NARO Namulonge ARI
(George Bigirwa and Cyprian Ebong)
The draft proposals were subjected to a thorough review process by a multi-disciplinary team
of scientists-including nutritionists, breeders, agronomists and economists-to ensure a
high quality end-product. With the exception of the proposal from Ilonga Agricultural
Research Institute in Tanzania, all of the other research proposals received final approval.
The feeding studies in Kenya and Tanzania were swine-based, while the studies in Ethiopia
and Uganda were poultry-based.
Substantial quantities of QPM grain are being produced during the 2003 cropping cycle to
provide the requisite raw material for the feeding trials to begin in 2004.
During 2002-03, ILRI-Ethiopia (at the Debre Zeit campus) conducted several ruminant
feeding studies (with SG2000 funding)-based on whole plant silage with or without grain-
with dairy cows and sheep. Preliminary reports indicate no differences between QPM and
normal maize silage in the dairy cow study. However, significant differences were detected
between QPM and normal maize silage in the sheep feeding studies.
In addition to the formal research activities detailed above, the Ugandan QPM Working
Group (WG)-initiated under the auspices of the SG2000 country program-has established
on-farm QPM pig feeding demonstrations, and plans to produce a documentary on the
demonstrations for promotion of QPM as animal feed. Priority for hosting the pig feeding
demonstrations has been given to vulnerable groups such as people living with HIV/AIDS,
widows and orphans. The demonstrations have been established at strategic locations to serve
A community health study in Ethiopia is being conducted by the Ethiopian Health &
Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI), and is supported financially by the SG2000 Ethiopia
country program. The four principal objectives of this study are:
Nutritional study on a family basis
Laboratory analysis of whole diets
Acceptability of QPM to farmers
Functional (end-use) properties of maize-based products
Relevant details of the study include:
200+ farm families were randomly selected in East Wollega zone
Prescreening and stratification were used to eliminate those better endowed with land
and/or cattle and to focus on families with healthy children <5 years old
Thus, a relatively homogeneous and representative sample of 160 families was
All 160 families received an SG2000 standard 0.5 ha maize production package
Half received seed of normal maize hybrid BH-140 and the other half received the
QPM hybrid BHQP-542. The study was conducted using a double blind approach-
the field workers were assigned seed lots on the basis of a "secret," coded ID.
To avoid ethical criticisms, no modifications were made to family farming operations,
apart from the introduction of the improved maize seed and production package to all
The farmers agreed to consume the maize produced on their 0.5 ha plots. Since the
participants historically consumed a maize-dominated diet, the "experiment" basically
consists of a substitution of QPM for normal maize in the diets of half of the families.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 23
SG2000 facilitated farmer cash flow and maize storage for the farmers by: (a) paying
each farmer for any and all QPM (or normal) maize grain that they wished to market
immediately post-harvest to meet cash needs, (b) storing each farmer's maize grain
safely and clearly identified, and (c) "selling" the farmer his/her own grain as the
season progressed-to avoid dietary contamination by purchased "outside" maize.
Starting in October 2002 (i.e., pre maize harvest) and extending until October 2003,
socio-economic characteristics and child health parameters were recorded on a family
level through questionnaires and visits-including anthropometric measurements such
as child height, weight, upper arm circumference, etc.
Laboratory analyses of the grain samples of BH-140 and BHQP-542 are sponsored by
a German-funded project.
The first annual cycle of this study was completed in Oct. 2003, and the Ethiopia QPM WG
will disseminate the results by the end of 2003.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 24
4. QPM ACTIVITIES IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA
4.1 Collaborative Research Projects by the NARS
The Research Committee of WECAMAN met in the IITA Calavi Station in Cotonou, Benin,
from April 10 to 12, 2003. Two of the three members of the committee, .M. Ouedraogo
(OAU STRC-SAFGRAD), A. Menkir (IITA representative), Ousmane Coulibaly, an IITA
economist who filled in for Kebbeh Mohamed (CORAF-WECARD representative), and B.
Badu-Apraku were present at the meeting. During this meeting, the committee reviewed 32
research proposals submitted by the WECAMAN member countries for funding under the
Nippon Foundation QPM Project. The committee used the criteria established by the steering
committee of WECAMAN for the approval of collaborative research projects since 1994.
The Research Committee approved a total of US$55500 for 22 projects in nine countries to
support research, seed production and promotion of QPM activities for 2003 cropping season.
Funds were released to nine countries in June to support the various activities of the approved
Projects (Figure 5 and Table 3).
In West and Central Africa, harvesting of trials and seed multiplication is normally done
between October and end of November. Every year, scientists from the NARS submit their
progress reports as well as receipts for justifying the use of allocated funds to the coordinator
of WECAMAN in April. For these reason, the progress reports dealing with the network
activities by the NARS in West and Central Africa under the Nippon Foundation QPM
project will be presented by May 2004.
= 2 o
Figure 5. Funds allocated to
Central Africa in 2003
support QPM research activities in nine countries in West and
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 25
Table 3. Summary of fund allocations for 2003 QPM collaborative research Projects of
WECAMAN member countries funded under the Nippon Foundation grant
QPM community- Promotion of adoption of Nutritional and Breeding for
based seed QPM varieties and crop utilization QPM varieties
Countries production management practices studies and hybrids
Benin 2500 2500 2000
Cameroon 2500 2500
Cote d'Ivoire 2500 2500
Ghana 2500 2500
Guinea 2500 2500
Mali 2500 2500 2000
Nigeria 2500 4000 3000
Senegal 2500 2500
Togo 2500 2500
Total 20000 21500 4000 3000
4.2 Germplasm Development
4.2.1 Upgrading the resistance to Maize Streak Virus Disease in elite QPM varieties
A collaborative program with SG2000 was initiated in 2002 in Cote d'Ivoire to upgrade the
level of streak resistance in Obatanpa from Ghana and Susuma and DMRE-SR-W from
Mozambique. Half-sib families of each variety were planted in the screen house under
artificial infestation with maize streak virus. The plants were transplanted to the field about
ten days after planting. The streak susceptible plants were removed and the MSV resistant
plants were selfed at flowering. At harvest, the streak resistant plants with agronomically
desirable characteristics were selfed. The S1 families from each material have been planted in
Ibadan in 2003 under artificial maize streak virus infestation to recombine plants resistant to
MSV. It is anticipated that the upgraded versions of these varieties will be provided to NARS
by the beginning of the 2004-planting season for NF-QPM Project activities. In addition, seed
increase of an extra-early QPM variety, EV 99 QPM, developed in Ghana is currently
underway to make seeds available for on-farm testing in 2004. The EV 99 QPM had been
tested for two years in WECAMAN member countries and proved promising.
4.2.2 Conversion of adapted germplasm to QPM
Early and extra early normal populations and elite varieties
A total of five early and two extra-early white elite varieties and populations were crossed to
DMRE-SRW QPM and EV 99 QPM, respectively, in 2002 in Cote d'Ivoire for conversion to
QPM. The Fl crosses have been planted in Ibadan and are being advanced to F2.
Furthermore, two early and two extra-early yellow varieties and populations were crossed to
Pool 18 SR QPM in 2003 at Ibadan for conversion.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 26
Early maturing populations and elite varieties with increased micronutrient content
A total of five normal early maturing populations and varieties with higher levels of B-
carotene or iron content compared to the mean of all the varieties evaluated for two years in
Nigeria were crossed to two sources of QPM (Pool 18 SR or Pool 15 SR) in the first season at
Ibadan. The resulting Fl crosses have been planted at Ibadan for developing the first
Intermediate and late maturing populations and elite varieties
Nine selected intermediate and late maturing normal maize varieties and populations with
resistance to Striga and diseases or with high bioavailable iron were crossed to two sources of
QPM (POP66 SR and Obatanpa). The resulting Fl crosses have already been planted in the
second season to generate the first backcross populations.
Late maturing elite inbred lines
We selected 15 lowland inbred lines with resistance to Striga and three elite normal lines and
crossed them to two QPM lines (CML144 and CML181). The resulting Fl crosses have been
planted at Ibadan for making backcross populations at the end of this year.
4.2.3 Extraction of QPM varieties and inbred lines
Extraction of early QPM varieties from existing QPM populations with resistance to MSV
Bulk seed of two pools, Pool 18 SR QPM and Pool 15 SR QPM, were planted at Ibadan for
selling to extract early white and yellow QPM varieties. The selected S1 with good
agronomic traits at harvest will be evaluated in multi-location trials in 2004. The best lines
selected based on the results of these trials will be screened under the light/laboratory
analysis and recombined to form an experimental variety.
Extraction of S1 lines from crosses involving mid-altitude inbred lines
A total of 44 normal x QPM lines adapted to the mid-altitude have been planted in the main
season at Jos. Several plants have been selfed from each cross to generate S1 lines, which
will be evaluated under the light in 2004.
Evaluation of lines extracted from diverse sources of germplasm
A total of 55 lowland and 81 mid-altitude adapted lines derived from diverse QPM
populations and crosses have been grown in the main season in single row plots for
evaluation. Outstanding plants selected from the best lines will be screened under the light
box/laboratory analysis in 2004. Based on the results of laboratory analysis, some of the lines
will be used to form hybrids and/or synthetic varieties.
4.3 Germplasm Testing
A trial consisting of single and three-way cross hybrids between inbred lines developed from
a QPM variety, Obatanpa, were grown at three locations in 2003. Results obtained in
Saminaka show marked differences among hybrids for grain yield and other traits (Table 4).
All hybrids involving the Obatanpa lines were as high yielding as or higher yielding than a
normal commercial hybrid, marketed by Premier Seeds in Nigeria. Two single (A0303-2 and
A0303-3) and two three-way (A0303-8 and A0303-9) cross hybrids out-yielded the normal
commercial check by as high as one ton per hectare and had desirable agronomic features.
Once the high lysine and tryptophan content of the parental lines of these hybrids is
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 27
confirmed in the laboratory, the best hybrids will be multiplied and distributed to the NARS
through regional trials.
The Research Committee of WECAMAN had approved funds for on-farm trials of QPM
varieties in 10 countries. The results of these trials will be summarized and submitted in May
Table 4. Mean grain yield and other agronomic traits of single and three-way crosses of
inbred lines derived from Obatanpa tested at Saminaka in 2003
Grain Days Plant Plant Ear
yield to silk height aspect Aspect
Hybrid kg/ha cm (1-5)b (1-5)
A0303-2 8128 58 217 2.0 2.2
A0303-9 7457 58 203 2.2 2.2
A0303-8 7362 58 213 2.0 2.7
A0303-3 7340 56 200 2.0 2.0
A0303-1 7133 57 212 2.8 2.3
A0303-6 7126 60 212 2.7 1.8
A0303-5 6975 57 195 2.2 2.3
A0303-4 6654 57 200 2.3 2.3
A0303-7 6297 63 213 3.0 2.3
Oba Super I 6153 64 215 2.8 2.7
b Plant aspect- A scale of 1 to 5, where 1 excellent plant type with good agronomic traits and 5= poor plant type with poor agronomic
c Ear aspect- A scale of 1-5, where 1= excellent ear aspect and 5= poor ear aspect
4.4 Seed Production/Dissemination
Since the Nippon Foundation QPM project for West and Central Africa was initiated in 2003,
we did not have enough time to produce adequate quantity of seeds of Obatanpa and EV99
QPM for on-farm testing and community-based seed production in WECAMAN member
countries. We thus purchased one ton of Obatanpa seed from Ghana and made it available to
all project member countries on request. Seeds of EV99 QPM, DMRE-SR-WQPM and the
improved versions of Obatanpa and Sussuma for resistance to the maze streak virus disease
will be multiplied in the 2004 dry season for use by the NARS for on-farm testing and/or
community-based seed production.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 28
4.5 Training Workshop on QPM Development and Seed Delivery System
A workshop on QPM development and seed delivery system was organised in Kumasi, 4-15
August 2003 by SG 2000 in collaboration with CRI, WASNET, CSIR, IITA and
WECAMAN. The objectives of the workshop were to review the progress of QPM
development and promotion in WCA and update knowledge of participants on breeding of
QPM varieties, QPM seed production and varietal maintenance and strategies for promotion
of, QPM in WECAMAN member countries. Thirty-one participants made up of breeders,
agronomists, extensionists and seed producers drawn from both the private and public sectors
in 11 countries attended the workshop. The course covered QPM development and
promotion, the role of QPM in human and animal nutrition, QPM laboratory analysis and
light box screening, seed industry in West and Central Africa, seed production, processing
4.6 Laboratory Facilities
During the Steering Committee Meeting of WECAMAN in May 2003, the members looked
into laboratory facilities that are available for analysis of lysine and tryptophan in the region.
It was agreed that the facilities in Ghana and at IITA could be upgraded and used to support
the activities under the Nippon Foundation QPM project in the region. Two of the three
countries selected to breed for QPM, Nigeria and Togo, were encouraged to send their
samples to Ghana for amino acid analysis. Currently IITA is standardizing the protocol for
amino acid analysis so that scientists from Ghana and other countries can come and work in
the laboratory to upgrade their analytical skills. Funds are available from the Nippon
Foundation QPM project to support amino acid analysis by the NARS at the end of this
4.7 Nutritional Studies
The Research Committee of WECAMAN assigned responsibilities to Mali to carry out
utilization of QPM for animal feed and to Benin for evaluation of the potential use of QPM in
the preparation of different traditional food products consumed by the people in the country.
The results of these studies will be summarized and submitted in May 2004.
4.8 Consultation Visit to the National Maize Program of Nigeria.
During the QPM training workshop, A. Menkir and B. Badu-Apraku had opportunities to
visit the QPM breeding nurseries and seed multiplication fields in Kumasi, Ghana. The fields
were managed very well and the seed production fields were adequately isolated form other
maize production fields. Private seed growers of Obatanpa and a QPM hybrid were also
visited. The seed growers maintain good quality seed production fields and have developed
processing facilities to package seeds of the QPM varieties in small quantities to promote
procurement of seed by small-scale farmers and growers. The Ghana Grains and Legume
Development Board, which is also responsible for the production of QPM foundation seed for
the growers, provides storage and processing facilities to growers for a fee.
We also paid a consultation visit to the national Maize Program of Nigeria at IAR on 30
September 2003. The objective of the visit was to monitor progress on collaborative research
projects funded under the Nippon Foundation QPM project and USAID grant and to
exchange experience with the scientists in the national system. Among the activities visited
included community-based seed production of Obatanpa, on-station QPM trials, and on-farm
QPM trials funded under the Nippon Foundation Project. The on-farm trials and community-
based seed production plots had been well established and well managed. B. Badu-Apraku
has planned to visit the QPM activities supported by NF-QPM project in Senegal in early
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 29
5. QPM ACTIVITIES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA
5.1 QPM Networking
A regional meeting of QPM partners and stakeholders was held in Harare in March4.
Representatives of private seed companies, non-governmental organizations, nutritionists and
economists presented the perspective of their institution or discipline to the group. This
provided a foundation of mutual understanding of interests, expectations and potential
contributions to the regional QPM effort by each type of partner.
Maize scientists also briefed the group about the status and outlook for QPM activities in
each of their countries. Highlights of these country reports follow:
Malawi: Have been testing QPM for four years; have conducted extensive farmer-
participatory variety evaluations in partnership with SG2000; have released a
three-way QPM hybrid in 2002, but it has some production problems and
disease susceptibility (MSV); will likely release Obatanpa and/or an Obatanpa
topcross hybrid in 2003; have formed a QPM country working group; have
established two "QPM villages"; have a very limited QPM breeding effort; are
constrained by the lack of protein quality laboratory facilities and lack of
training for technicians.
Have a very substantial QPM breeding effort, focused on early maturing,
white flint OPVs with resistance to MSV and downy mildew; have released
'Sussuma' (improved Obatanpa); are working on developing a QPM version
of 'Matuba'; significant amounts of seed of Sussuma have been produced;
have formed a QPM country working group, but it is not working smoothly;
are constrained by the lack of protein quality laboratory facilities, lack of seed
storage facilities and lack of foundation seed processing equipment.
There are three QPM projects in South Africa, which due to large distance
between them, operate largely independently of each other. 1) Eco Link (in
Mpumalanga) is producing seed of Obatanpa and is working with small-holder
farmers to disseminate QPM. 2) Quality Seeds is developing QPM hybrids in
Natal area; have released about 20 QPM hybrids; are now partnering with
another company interested in QPM OPVs; have had good success using
yellow QPM germplasm from Brasil and white QPM from Ghana; their goal is
to see QPM meal on supermarket shelves, soon; constraints are lack of interest
in QPM by most private companies and government, although it is a good sign
that ARC has revived QPM work. 3) ARC was not represented at our
meeting, but they have initiated a very small effort in QPM breeding; they are
also evaluating QPM trials from CIMMYT.
Swaziland: QPM activities in Swaziland to date are nil. We recommended that they
should evaluate small trials available from CIMMYT, and they should explore
opportunities to form alliances with Mozambique and Eco Link to benefit
from the success of those nearby QPM projects. We recommended against
forming a QPM country working group until there are products ready for
extensive testing and promotion.
4 Detailed minutes of this meeting are available on request from CIMMYT.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 30
Zambia: Started QPM activities in 2002; are evaluating CIMMYT regional trials at 2
sites; plan to link QPM testing to the existing Mother/baby trials; the National
Council for Scientific Research has a program to fortify maize meal (could
link with QPM activities); constraints are lack of resources, very few staff, and
need for training in quality assessment.
Zimbabwe: AREX (government research and extension) and/or Midlands University are
testing QPM under low-N and drought stress; selling in early generation bulks
provided by CIMMYT; would like to convert local yellow varieties to QPM;
would like to conduct feeding demonstrations with dairy, chickens and pigs;
will link QPM testing to ongoing Mother/baby trial scheme. Seed Co has a
substantial QPM breeding research program and expects to have commercial
QPM hybrids on the market soon. A University of Zimbabwe nutritionist is
experimenting with protein quality analyses; is interested in working with
nutrition studies. It was agreed to convene a first meeting of a QPM country
working group for Zimbabwe.
During the regional SADLF (southem Africa drought and low soil fertility network) steering
committee meeting held in September 2003, the steering committee approved funding of
seven proposals: Angola, $2,920; Malawi, $5,570; Mozambique, $5,800; Tanzania, $1,570;
Zambia, $1,000; Zimbabwe(l), $2,000; Zimbabwe(2), $5,200.
5.2 Germplasm Development
The primary objective of the CIMMYT QPM breeding program for southern Africa is to
develop stress tolerant QPM hybrids and open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) suitable for use by
resource-poor farmers in the region. We are pursuing two broad strategies to achieve this
objective: 1) Convert to MSV resistant the best Mexican QPM materials, and 2) develop new
QPM germplasm by partially converting to QPM the best southern African materials.
5.2.1 Conversion to MSV resistant of best Mexican QPM
About 1,300 new experimental lines were evaluated for MSV resistance in Zimbabwe and
sent to Mexico for laboratory analyses of protein quality. At the same time, a few of the most
promising new lines were used to form hybrids to evaluate their yield and agronomic
performance in comparison to the original hybrids (which were developed in Mexico and are
susceptible to MSV). Table 5 compares the performance of the popular hybrid,
CML144/CML159//CML176, which has been released in several countries, including
Ethiopia and Tanzania, with experimental MSV-resistant versions of the same hybrid. Two
of these MSV-resistant versions yielded 22% more grain than the original hybrid across four
locations (6.9 versus 5.65 t/ha), and had acceptable MSV resistance in an artificially, severely
infected field at Harare (symptom score of 3.1, versus 4.55 for the original hybrid).
From this project, new MSV-resistant QPM hybrids have been identified and have been
included in trials that will be distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa during 2004.
5.2.2 Development of new QPM southern African germplasm
Nearly 2000 experimental maize lines, developed from crosses between elite African
germplasm and Mexican QPM lines, were selected for MSV resistance and advanced to
further evaluation. These materials include about 12 elite lines from IITA and 30 elite lines
from southern Africa. During winter 2003, a total of 243 experimental MSV-resistant QPM
lines were used to make hybrids (testcross hybrids) that will be evaluated in multi-location
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 31
yield trials during 2004. Results from those trials, plus laboratory data on protein quality,
will identify the next generation of African, MSV-resistant, QPM lines.
Table 5. Grain yield (across four locations) and maize streak virus disease (MSV) symptom
score (one site with artificial infestation) for selected QPM and normal check hybrids
Pedigree Across Locations MSV
GrainYield Rel GY Rank
% Avg 1-5
CML444/CML443//CZL00003 (normal) 7.7 134 3 2.6
GQL5/CML176//CML181 7.4 126 17 3.5
CML395/CML444//CML442 (normal) 7.3 126 10 1.7
GQL5/CML176//CML181 7.1 121 17 3.1
CML144/CML159//[CML389/CML176]-B-29-2 6.9 120 23 3.1
CML144/CML159//[CML176/CML395]-B-2-2 6.9 118 16 3.1
Normal Commercial Check: 6.6 115 15 2.3
CML144/CML159//[CML176/CML395]-B-1-1 6.6 115 16 3.1
CML144/CML159//[CML205/CML176]-B-2-1 6.5 113 22 3.1
CML144/[CML159/CML395]-B-17-2 6.2 108 27 1.2
CML144/CML159//[CML442/CML176]-B-8-1 6.2 107 30 3.3
CML144/CML159//[CML176/CML395]-B-6sx-1 6.1 106 29 2.8
CML144/CML159 6.1 105 31 4.4
CML144/CML159 5.8 102 37 4.4
CML144/CML159//CML176 5.7 100 38 4.5
CML144/CML159//CML176 5.6 97 47 4.6
Mean 5.8 100 41 2.5
Rel GY is the grain yield relative to the mean of the trial (100%, by definition)
Two QPM diallel mating designs were formed during winter 2003. One diallel, including 14
CIMMYT QPM lines (mostly experimental, MSV-resistant QPM lines), will be used by two
students for their Master's degree thesis research projects. One student (Mr. Langa, from
Mozambique) will evaluate performance of the QPM hybrids grown under low soil nitrogen
fertility at four sites in Mozambique and Zimbabwe. The second student (Mr. Mawere, from
Zimbabwe) will evaluate the hybrids under well fertilized conditions at four sites in
Zimbabwe. The parent lines used to form the hybrids have been sent to the applied
biotechnology center at CIMMYT (Mexico) for "fingerprinting", to enable analysis of
genetic distance among the lines. The information from these studies will be crucial to
identifying a few key, new QPM lines for extensive use in southern Africa during coming
The second diallel experiment includes QPM experimental lines mostly from Seed Co, a
private seed company. The experiment also uses four CIMMYT QPM lines, which are
common to both of the diallel experiments formed during 2003 (to enable comparison of
results between experiments). As with the CIMMYT QPM diallel, the parent lines of this
Seed Co QPM diallel have also been sent to the applied biotechnology center at CIMMYT
(Mexico) for "fingerprinting." This diallel will form the thesis project of Mr. Tembo (maize
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 32
breeder at Seed Co) and will greatly assist Seed Co to develop commercial QPM hybrids for
Zimbabwe and the southern Africa region.
5.3 Germplasm Testing
5.3.1 Farmer-participatory QPM evaluations in Malawi
As follow-up to similar activities during 2001/02, more than 2000 Malawian farmers grew
QPM hybrids and OPVs during 2002/03. Sasakawa Global 2000 (SG2000) and the Malawi
Ministry of Agriculture coordinated this work. Similar to 2001/02, the QPM hybrid
CML144/CML159//CML176 was the highest yielding of the four QPM entries evaluated in
these trials (Table 6). This hybrid was released in Malawi, but problems with seed
production have limited its commercialization. It is important to note that this is the hybrid
being improved through efforts described above (Section 5.2.1 and Table 5), and that better
versions of this hybrid will soon be available.
5.3.2 Regional QPM trials
Results of a QPM hybrid trial grown at 33 sites in eastern and southern Africa during 2001/02
identified four very promising hybrids (Table 7). One of these hybrids, labeled 'A' in Tables
3 and 4, had grain yield equal to the best experimental normal hybrid in 2001/02. Two of the
four best QPM hybrids are double-cross hybrids, which means that four inbred lines are used
to form each of these hybrids. During commercial seed production of double-cross hybrids,
both parents are single-cross hybrids, which means that both parents have considerable vigor
and associated stress tolerance. Double-cross hybrids may be a desirable option in regions
where seed production often occurs in stress-prone environments (e.g. where irrigation is not
Preliminary results (14 sites) for regional QPM hybrid trials grown during 2002/03 confirm
the good performance of the four hybrids identified as promising in 2001/02 (labeled as 'A',
'B', 'C' and 'D' in Tables 7 and 8). Based on the results from both years, National Programs
in Malawi and Zambia have selected one or two hybrids among these four hybrids for
inclusion in on-farm, farmer-participatory evaluations ("mother/baby trials") during summer
Table 6. Summary results from 0.1-hectare plots grown by more than 2000 farmers in
Malawi during summer 2002/03, coordinated by Sasakawa-Global 2000 and the Malawi
Ministry of Agriculture
QPM Variety Number of Average grain
Obatanpa (OPV) 405 4.97
CML144/CML159//CML176 302 5.16
CML182/CML175/Obatanpa 770 4.58
CML144/CML159/Obatanpa 640 4.78
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 33
o% Avg Sidev
Entries with anthesis date between 65 68 days
CZLI:.II:I.6CMLLI CZLi :11'1f. CML 1.1 B 110 9 5
CZLI:III.I16 CML 1 CML615, CML 16 D 108 10 5
CZLI:IIIII.16 CML 1 CML 16 105 11 7
CZLI:11CII.I CML 1 CML 1, 105 12 6
CZLIlIllIf. CML 1,2 CZLII111"I6 99 12 7
CZLIII11C1II6 CML 1 CZLL:11I11 f.CML 1,2 99 14 6
CZLI11c.i16CML -6 CZil:11"'115. 96 14 6
CMLL12 CML1-f.:C:.' B T NP 97 14 5
CML 1-. CML1-6 .C:.b T NP6 89 16 6
CZLI:l11CII6CMLL I PLI f.1C'-C-PCl 85 18 4
CML1-f.CMLI'-. PL I :.: "-::'- ,PC 1 79 20 7
M3lakrhl grJr.:... 3 Er3.JE 97 14 6
Entries with anthesis date > 68 days
CZLI':II.:I'2C 2 ML:12 CML: 9 CIML2',:2 nr.:.rn,3al 120 4 4
CZLII':II$If. CML161 CZLI:11i11: 6 A 122 5 4
CMLII3 CML:.. CML4 in .:.rrn'li 116 7 6
CZLIIII.CII6 CML1 6 CML,61 C 109 10 5
CMLl161 CML1-f. C-:._ TNPt 106 10 5
CML,161 C.ML1$,2 C.ML1-6 105 10 5
L.:..3C ChE.:K 2 103 11 8
CZLI:il: 1:f. CIML 1,1 CML1-6 101 12 7
CML 1. CMLlf.9C::.'BA TNPA 100 13 6
L.:..:31Chr..K 1 92 15 7
CML1, CMILlf. CML1-6 92 16 7
CML 14CML15.9::b. BT NPt 91 16 6
,::B T a P 77 21 2
MIakLr.il r.:.t.'. 3 r3.g; 102 12 6
Mean 100 12 6
Table 7. Results of
evaluation of Quality
Protein Maize hybrids
from CIMMYT and an
OPV from Ghana
across 33 sites in
eastern and southern
Rel GY Rank
% Avg Sldev
Entries with anthesis date between 65 68 days
CMLL161 CML 162 CZLI:11':1'6 109 9 4
L.:..3l Chr..K 1 105 9 7
CZLI-1':1f. CML 1'2 CZL'-:11116 107 10 6
CML161 CZLI-1I'CI.'$ CZLI-1I:'I: I A 107 10 5
CZLI:II':.:1 CML 6 CML 161 CML 12, D 105 11 6
CZL-'IIIICII' CML 1 6 CZLI:'11]':I'. 100 12 7
CML 11 CMLlf.' C'bT:._ TNP` 101 13 6
CZLLII:11116CMLL1 6 CML 1,2 99 14 6
CZLIIII: II6 CMLL 1 CZLI:IclI fCMLL 1,62 96 15 5
CM1,16 CMLC 1- .::.-BTNP 91 16 6
CML 1- CML1- CZLI I1:il 1 90 17 9
CML1-5fCMLI6" PL15f.:'C--PCl 88 18 6
CZLI:IIII CMLL PL1f.C:'-C-PCl 85 19 4
Ma3IthLt gr.-L.aI: 3 e*rge 99 13 6
Entries with anthesis date > 68 days
CMLIII CML,-,I CZL':":":":': 123 4 3
CML:29": CML.a. CMLM2? 119 6 6
L.:..3 Che.:K 2 111 9 6
CZLI:11I 1.:6 CML 1 6 CML 1,1 CZLI:I1']cII. E 105 10 6
2C2-2.", 102 10 7
CML;161 CZLiLil I:'I.I CML1-6 103 11 8
CMLIC,1 CAML1,2 CML1-6 104 12 6
CZL:III:c16' CML 1 CMLl 161 C 103 12 6
CML1M4 CMLlf.1 CML162 89 16 4
CML14M CMLlf.I CML1-6 79 19 4
C:.B T aNP -ZMSP. 1 F2 81 20 5
M3IL It *iJgr.:.Li. 3 3rag; 102 12 5
Mean 100 13 6
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report page 34
Table 8. Preliminary
results of evaluation of
Quality Protein Maize
Hybrids across 14
locations in southern
5.4 Seed Production
We do not have figures available for QPM seed production in southern Africa during 2003.
Production of Sussuma, the Mozambican version of the QPM OPV Obatanpa, was surely
quite substantial, as seed was exported to Malawi and elsewhere. QPM seed production by
CIMMYT, in Zimbabwe, included 2 tons of topcross hybrid seed, 2.5 tons of Obatanpa, 1.5
tons of the hybrid CML144/CML159//CML176, and a total of one ton of seed of 7 QPM
inbred lines (CML144, CML159, CML176, etc.).
The seed produced by CIMMYT has thus far been distributed as follows:
SG2000 Tanzania, 500 kg of CML144/CML159//CML176 for on-farm testing in
SG2000 Malawi, 2,200 kg of hybrids for on-farm testing
GTZ Zambia, 250 kg of Obatanpa for community-based seed production
Anonymous seed company in Zimbabwe, 750 kg of Obatanpa for commercial seed
QPM partners and stakeholders participating in the regional QPM planning meeting held in
Harare in March 2003 agreed that no special QPM training activities would be held in
southern Africa during 2003. This was considered reasonable given the fact that several
technicians from southern Africa attended a QPM and seed production training course in
Ethiopia during 2002. Nevertheless, QPM training funds were used for two purposes during
Several regional scientists were supported to attend the southern Africa plant breeding
planning meetings in South Africa in September. At this meeting, the regional
Steering Committee considered applications for QPM funding to National Programs
for 2004. Seven proposals were approved and funded at a total cost of US$24,440.
The successful proposals were from Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and
One participant, who is also a member of the Zimbabwe QPM country working
group, was funded to attend the Amel R. Hallauer International Symposium on Plant
Breeding, 17-22 August 2003, Mexico City, Mexico.
5.6 Laboratory Facilities
In response to a widely distributed call for proposals, 10 laboratories submitted proposals to
serve as regional QPM laboratory in southern Africa. The proposals were from: Malawi (2),
South Africa (1), Zambia (2) and Zimbabwe (5). The proposals were reviewed by a panel of
four scientists, who then selected a short list of three strongest candidate laboratories. A team
of two scientists visited these laboratories before selecting Zimbabwe Laboratories (Pvt) Ltd
to be awarded an agreement to serve as regional laboratory for the QPM project.
About US$12,000 of equipment and chemicals has been ordered and is gradually arriving for
the regional QPM laboratory. It is expected that the lab will be operational by end of January
2004 and will be ready to process the required volume of samples (about 2000 per year)
before harvest of the maize crop from summer 2003/04.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 35
6. QPM FOR THE TROPICS WORLDWIDE
Since 1997, when the Nippon Foundation helped CIMMYT to reactivate research on quality
protein maize (QPM), 17 developing countries have released dozens of QPM hybrids and
varieties for use by farmers, while more than 30 countries annually request CIMMYT QPM
In the 2003A season, experimental QPM was sown on 4,800 5-m rows at the CIMMYT
research station near Agua Fria, Puebla, Mexico. In 2003B 7,500 rows were planted at Agua
Fria and 2,500 rows at Cotaxtla, Veracruz, Mexico. All plantings were for the purposes of
increasing seed for QPM hybrids, synthetics, pools, and populations; selecting inbred lines;
evaluating hybrids and synthetics; or converting normal lines to QPM.
Research on QPM for the lowland tropics comprises the following components:
1. Incorporation of stress resistance
2. Pedigree breeding
3. Conversion of normal lines to QPM
4. Formation of synthetics
5. Hybrid development and testing
6. New releases and seed production
6.1 Incorporation of Stress Resistance in QPM
The lowland tropics is well known as very stressful environment, with many biotic and
abiotic constraints. The incorporation of resistance for the most important ones could greatly
improve the yield and dependability of QPM. As the Nippon Foundation is focused on
Africa, we oriented our work in CIMMYT-Mexico to select for resistance the constraints
prevailing in this part of the world, crossing tropical germplasm with material resistant to
maize streak virus (MSV) and gray leaf spot (GLS) to form F2 pedigree breeding
populations. We are also creating new heterotic populations with resistance to both stresses.
In 2003A we grew and selected at Agua Fria (a location favorable for different biotic
stresses) among 210 white and 121 yellow S2 lines developed from QPM crosses with donors
for resistance. Of these, 117 white and 85 yellow ears were selected for advancement. In all,
19 F2 populations (QPM x source of stress resistance) were grown at Agua Fria, and 510
(white and yellow) ears were selected based on tolerance to diseases, insects, and other
important agronomic characteristics to be advanced in the next season. In addition 200 white
new F s and 70 yellow Fl crosses between elite QPM germplasm and stress resistant source
material were planted at Agua Fria in 2003B season.
Another important way to incorporate stress resistance in QPM material is to create opposite
heterotic populations. These populations should have as many resistance donors as possible,
while maintaining a significant portion of elite germplasm. Crosses for making these
populations were selected and advanced to F2 at Agua Fria in 2003B season.
6.2 QPM Pedigree Breeding
Pedigree breeding is important for developing new, lowland tropical QPM lines that result in
high yielding and agronomically superior hybrids.
Based on carefully selected parents and to develop stress tolerant QPM, 500 rows of white
and 200 rows of yellow Fis were grown in 2003 for pedigree selection. All Fis were
screened for major diseases (maydis, rust, ear rot) and lodging. The susceptible ones were
discarded. We then grew 816 rows of F2 plants at Agua Fria in 2003B. Selection was
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 36
performed at flowering and based on plants free of diseases, with no lodging, with favorable
ear placement, and with no silk delay. The best 30-40% of the plants were selfed and selected
again at harvest time for ear rot resistance and good levels of QPM modifier genes.
In early generation (S2 to S4) QPM nurseries, 827 tropical, intermediate-to-late maturing,
yellow and white endosperm lines were planted at Agua Fria in 2003B and selection
performed first by row then by plants within rows. The most resistant rows were selfed and
selection was done at harvest based on low incidence of root lodging and resistance to ear rot.
The best lines will be advanced to the next generation and forwarded to CIMMYT offices in
Africa for selection under local conditions and crossing to local testers. After evaluation, the
best lines can be used to form hybrids and synthetics.5 Based on yield trial data from 2002B,
the most promising S5 to S8 white and yellow lines were planted at Agua Fria in 2003B ear-
to-row in 5-m plots at a density of 66,666 plants per hectare. All healthy plants were selfed.
The best lines will be designated as "elite" and sent to Africa, Latin America, and Asia. We
sent 245 S2-S3 lines to Harare.
6.3 Conversion of Normal Lines to QPM
As mentioned in the 2002 annual report for this project, the conversion of two elite CIMMYT
lines (CML264 and CML273) is complete, and the subsequent results of crosses between
these lines and other elite QPM germplasm are very encouraging. Converted line CML264Q
in single-cross and three-way-cross combinations made hybrids with excellent performance
and topped many yield trials. Protein quality data confirmed that conversion was successful.
Table 9 shows head-to-head analysis of CML264 x CML273 (a normal hybrid) versus
CML264Q x CML273Q (QPM hybrid from converted lines) and the best local checks from
2001 and 2002 yield trials. There are no differences between the normal and converted
version, except that the QPM hybrid outyielded the best local check by more than 800 kg/ha
across 28 locations and had much better standability (that is, less stalk and root lodging) and
Table 9. Head-to-head analysis of CML264Q x CML273Q vs. CML264 x CML273 and
the best local check based on data from 28 locations in 2001B, 2002B and 2003
Yield End ER RL SL Mo BH Silk Poll. PH EH EA Pit. Try
Hybrid (t/ha) Hard % % % % % cm cm asp. asp. %
CML264Q x CML273Q 6.68 2.20 6.1 10.9 3.7 20.3 5.2 56.0 56.3 235 120 2.77 2.70 0.083
CML264 x CML273 6.60 2.14 5.9 13.8 3.3 19.6 7.1 55.9 56.1 231 118 2.79 2.58 0.050
Local Check 5.85 1.82 6.2 31.2 10.8 20.2 5.5 54.4 54.4 232 124 2.78 3.40 0.050
Number of locations 28 24 28 24 28 28 25 27 28 28 28 28 22
Prob. QPM vs. Normal 0.68 0.47 0.83 0.23 0.40 0.08 0.17 0.33 0.38 0.07 0.21 0.83 0.32
Prob. QPM vs. Check 0.00 0.02 0.94 0.00 0.02 0.78 0.80 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.12 0.88 0.00
Yield=Grain Yield t/ha; End Hard.= Score for endosperm hardness (1-5); ER= % of Ear Rot; RL=% of Root Lodging;
SL=% of Stalk Lodging; Mo=% of Grain Moisture; Silk=Days to Silk; Poll.= Days to flowering; Plt= Plant height,
EH=Ear Height; EA asp.=Ear Aspect (1-5); Pit. Asp.= Plant Aspect (1-5); Try=Tryptophan in the whole kernel
(average of the parents)
5 "Synthetics" are open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) formed by inter-crossing several inbred lines known to
combine very well (i.e., their progeny are outstanding) among themselves. Synthetics offer yields superior to
those of normal OPVs but, as with all OPVs, seed from the previous harvest can be sown the following season
without significant loss of yield or desirable qualities. This is an advantage for poor farmers, who cannot afford
to buy new seed year after year (a requirement in the case of hybrids, for example).
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 37
In 2003B cycle we planted 116 rows for conversion of another eight elite normal lines (R1,
CML247, CML254, CL-RCW01, CML451, CL-02450, CML287 and CML312SRBC1).
Based on the data from DNA analyses homozygous recessive (o2o2) plants were used for
making backcrosses with recurrent parents. The selected ears (BC3F1) will be planted in next
cycle and selfed to fix the QPM conversion. The QPM donors used in the conversion
correspond to the same heterotic group of recurrent parents. The new converted lines to QPM
will be used to form the QPM versions outstanding normal hybrids already planted in several
hundred thousand hectares in the developing world.
6.4 Formation of QPM Synthetics
Development of quality protein maize synthetics with excellent yield, uniformity, tolerance to
pests and diseases, and high levels of essential amino-acids is a very important task.
Synthetics can be used directly by resource poor farmers for stable yields, as female parents
in creation of non-conventional hybrids, as opposite synthetics in reciprocal-recurrent
breeding schemes, and as source populations for inbred lines.
The best inbreds from 2002B yield trials were used to form 10 white and 6 yellow QPM
synthetics. The lines were planted in 2003B and all possible crosses between selected lines
were made. Series of single-cross hybrids will be planted next cycle to complete the
formation of synthetics. In 2003B we increased seed of 18 QPM synthetics.
6.5 QPM Hybrids and Synthetics Development and Testing
Close to 850 new white and crosses between advanced and elite QPM lines were made in
year 2003. Crosses made in season 2003A were grown in yield trials in 2003B. Total 25 new
white and 10 yellow superior hybrids were grown in international (CHTTWQ and CHTTYQ)
yield trials in 2003B. In addition other 300 hybrids, and 12 new QPM synthetics were
evaluated in yield trials managed by tropical lowland subprogram on 4-5 locations. Trials
from these locations are analyzed, data stored in database, and based on results we planned
our new crosses and breeding nursery plantings for 2004A cycle.
Eight yield trials, including 851 QPM hybrids and varieties, were grown at six different
locations-three in Mexico and one each in Colombia, Guatemala and India. Selected results
are discussed below. In further discussion mean grain yield is expressed as "clean" yield (that
is, total yield reduced according to the % of ear rot); in the tables, this is "Yield 1," unless
otherwise stated. Trypthopan data for QPM hybrids were calculated using average values for
tryptophan from inbred lines, parents of the observed hybrid. Given the expense of chemical
analyses and the high correlation coefficient between tryptophan and lysine (0.954 in our
case, based on more than 300 samples) only tryptophan content for QPM lines was requested
from the laboratory.
6.5.1 TSCWQ02-21: Evaluation of advanced tropical QPM white single crosses
Crosses between late, white, CIMMYT QPM lines and advanced QPM lines were evaluated
at six locations with two replications in a 4 x 8 a-lattice design to identify the best hybrids for
CIMMYT hybrid trials (CHTTs). The 27 crosses between QPM lines, two QPM reference
hybrids, one normal hybrid, and two commercial checks made total 32 entries sown on one-
row plots 5 m long and 0.75 m apart. Scores and counts were taken for several important
ANOVA showed no significant interaction between genotypes and environment, whereas at
individual locations, significant differences were observed among entries for grain yield.
The highest mean grain yield for this experiment were achieved at Agua Fria (7.09 t/ha),
following by Cotaxtla (6.99 t/ha), while New Delhi, India, had the lowest yield (3.08 t/ha.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 38
The highest yielding hybrids were CLQ-RCWQ50 x CML144 (5.99 t/ha) and CLQ-RCWQ01
x CLQ-6316 (5.98 t/ha). These hybrids outyielded the best local checks by 24% percent and
the QPM reference hybrid (CML144 x CML159) by more than 40%. The endosperm
hardness, ear rot resistance, and standability of these hybrids were at high levels. Almost all
advanced hybrids had higher yield performance than the QPM reference check, and 2/3
yielded more than the best normal endosperm local checks.
Besides the statistically significant yield performance of several top hybrids, all QPM hybrids
had almost twice the content of tryptophan as the best local checks, with from 0.089% to
0.108%. The advantages of new generation of QPM hybrids over local check can be easily
seen at Figure 6. The data clearly show that QPM hybrids can compete with the best normal
hybrids for grain yield and most other quality traits. Based on this study the biggest concern
in QPM material is root and stalk lodging.
Figure 6. TSCWQ02-21. Average grain yield (t/ha) and root and stalk lodgings (%) for top
five QPM hybrids, the best normal hybrid, and local check across six locations in Asia and
Latin America 2002-2003.
Yield (t/ha) 25
--- Root lodging
RCWQ50 x RCWQ01 x CLQ- RCWQ01 x CLQ- RCWQ26 x RCWQIO x CLQ- CML264 x Local Check
CML144 6316 6315 RCWQ40 6315 CML273
Partners in national programs are already requesting seed of the best hybrids, and seed will be
increased to meet the demand. Seeds of the best hybrids across locations will be also
increased and included in CIMMYT hybrid tropical trials (CHTT). The best lines will be
used together with other very good advanced and early generations QPM lines to form
6.5.2 TSCYQ02-22: Evaluation of advanced tropical QPM yellow single crosses
Advanced generation, tropical yellow QPM hybrids were evaluated at five locations during
2003B. Thirteen QPM hybrids, a reference entry, and two local checks were grown in a 4 x 4
a-lattice in 5 m long rows with two replications per location to identify the best hybrids for
CHTTs and females for three-way cross (TWC) hybrids. The best lines will also be used to
form new sources for pedigree breeding.
ANOVA across five locations showed significant genotype-by-environment interactions (G x
E) for grain yield, ear and plant aspect, lodging, helminthosporium maydis, and bad husk
coverage. These findings will make general conclusions across locations less dependable.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 39
Six out of thirteen hybrids outyielded reference the QPM hybrid CML161 x CML165 and
will be sent to CHTTQ04. The highest yielding QPM hybrid CML161 x CLQG2404
produced 5.93 t/ha (11% higher than the reference entry) and showed excellent endosperm
hardness scores, low incidence of ear rot, good resistance to observed diseases, and levels of
lodging similar to those of reference entry. In addition to high yields, QPM hybrids CML161
x CLQ-S89YQ06 and CML161 x CLQ-RCYQ22 had the highest standability in the entire
experiment, and showed more resistance to fusarium moniliforme, corn stunt, and general
diseases than the reference entry. At individual locations, at least one QPM hybrid yielded
more than the best local check. These findings are important where G x E is significant (Fig.
7). Additional advantages of QPM hybrids are their higher tryptophan and lysine content. The
best QPM hybrids had tryptophan contents from 0.083 to 0.101% (normal endosperm hybrid
grain contains around 0.050%).
Figure 7. TSCYQ02-22. The grain yields performance of the best QPM hybrids and
the best local check hybrids across five locations 2002-2003.
8.00 o QPM hybrid
7.50h t Normal hybrid
Mexico Mexico Colombia Guatemala India
6.5.3 TTWCWQ02-23: Evaluation of tropical QPM late white three-way crosses
In this experiment 48 new developed three-way cross (TWC) hybrids were evaluated together
with their female components (single-cross hybrids). The objective was to find the best TWC
hybrids for CHTTs. Because it is easier to produce seed of TWCs than of single-cross
hybrids, these represent a good option for farmers in developing country areas not yet served
by effective seed industries. A total 64 entries were grown at six locations in an 8 x 8 a-lattice
design with two replications per location.
ANOVA across locations revealed significant G x E for grain yield, ear rot, plant aspect, stalk
lodging, bad husk cover, and endosperm hardness. At all individual locations significant
differences were observed between entries for grain yield. The highest yield for this
experiment was achieved at Cuyuta, Guatemala (6.73 t/ha), whereas New Delhi, India, had
the lowest average grain yield (1.97 t/ha) due to severe drought conditions.
Two reference entry hybrids were used as standards to compare newly developed TWC
hybrids. The QPM reference entry was (CML144 x CML159) x CML176, which has already
been released in several developing countries, and the normal single-cross hybrid CML448 x
CML449, which is a regular check in normal trials. The results from this experiment are very
encouraging. More than half the new TWC hybrids outyielded the QPM reference entry-the
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 40
best by more than 20%. The new TWCs were also superior for many important agronomic
characteristics (Figure 8).
Figure 8. Average grain yields, aggregate lodgings, and corn stunt for the best five TWC
hybrids and two reference entries across six locations in Asia and Latin America 2002-2003
-- Corn Stunt
(CLQ-203x (CML264Q x (CLQ-6203 x
CML150) x CML264Q CML273Q) x CLQ- CML150) x CLQ-
(CMLI44 x CML159) (CML142 x CML15O) (CML144 x CML159) CML448 x CML449
x CML273Q x CLQ-RCWO01 x CML176
Several TWC hybrids even outperformed and had better standability than the normal, single-
cross tester. The highest yielding TWC hybrids across six locations were (CLQ-6203 x
CML150) x CML264Q with 6.12 t/ha, (CML264Q x CML273Q) x CLQ-RCWQ01 with 6.09
t/ha, and (CLQ-6203 x CML150) x CLQ-RCWQ01 with 5.77 t/ha, which were 10, 9, and 4
% better than normal, single-cross hybrid (CML448 x CML449). All three hybrids also had
the above average performance in drought conditions in India. The female parents of these
hybrids also had high yield performance (4.38 t/ha and 5.13 t/ha), which would ensure
inexpensive seed production. All lines in these three hybrids are unrelated and our guess is
that the new hybrids could play an important role in developing countries and replace
(CML144 x CML159) x CML176. Estimated tryptophan values for the top TWC hybrids
ranged from 0.092 to 0.097%-much higher than in normal endosperm hybrids. All five new
TWC hybrids include new QPM lines in their backgrounds and outyielded (CML144 x
CML159) x CML176, the normal seed industry checks, and the reference entry checks. This
confirms the potential of new QPM hybrids to increase maize productivity and alleviate
malnutrition in Africa and Latin America, where maize is a staple food, and should be tested
6.5.4 TSCWQ02-26: Evaluation of tropical QPM white single crosses
In all, 35 hybrids were evaluated at six locations using a 5 x 7 a-lattice design with two
replications per location. The aim was to identify the best hybrids for advancement in CHTTs
or advanced tropical trials. Several new crosses with advanced and released lines were
evaluated; 16 entries were part of a small design II experiment (2 x 8) with S4 lines.
ANOVA across locations revealed no significant G x E for studied traits, while differences
between entries at individual locations for grain yield were higher than LSD values. The
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 41
highest average grain yield was recorded at Cotaxtla, Mexico (7.49 t/ha). The lowest mean
yield (4.22 t/ha) was observed at New Delhi, India.
The highest yielding hybrid in experiment was CML491 x CML264Q with 6.70 t/ha across
six locations. This hybrid outyielded the best local check and QPM reference entry by 23 and
36% and had better standability, corn stunt resistance, and much more attractive plant and
ears. The hybrid topped the trial in Cotaxtla with a maximum grain yield of 11.73 t/ha and
0.0% ear rot. Seven other QPM hybrids outyielded the local check, while 14 had better
performance than the QPM reference entry. The superiority of the top five hybrids is shown
in Figure 9. Besides higher yield, the new QPM hybrids showed better standability than
Figure 9. Average grain yields, stalk and root lodgings for the best five QPM hybrids,
reference entry, and local check across six locations in 2002B
--- Root lodging 18.0
6.50 Stalk lodging 16.0
5.50 10.0 E
CLQ-RCWQ01 x CML264Qx CLQ-RCWQ01x CML264Qx (CML150xCL- CML144x Local Check
CML264Q CML150 (CLQ-6203 x CML273Q 04321)-B-36-2-1 CML159
CL-04321)-B-24- x (CLQ-
6.5.5 CIMMYT QPM hybrids and synthetics tested internationally
A new generation of QPM hybrids and synthetics was developed and international testing
was initiated in 2002. 40 trials were shipped to 25 countries. Results from testing in 2002 and
2003 are presented separately for hybrids and synthetics.
EVTWQ02-28: Evaluation of tropical QPM white synthetics
New synthetic varieties were tested at more than 30 locations in two different trials (EVT12S
and EVTQ-28) in 2002-2003. The results shown here are from EVT-12S (9 sites) and EVTQ-
28 (5 sites). At Harare, Zimbabwe, four white semi-flint QPM synthetics outyielded the best
check, Otabanpa-ZMSR, by 1,500 kg/ha and showed better standability. These new
synthetics also offer better protein quality. SOOTLWQ-B and S99TLWQ-B yielded 6.6 and
6.5 t/ha, with 0.11, 0.53 and 10% tryptophan, lysine and protein in whole-grain, respectively,
while Obatanpa yielded 4.9 t/ha and had 0.09, 0.43 and 9.5% tryptophan, lysine and protein
in whole-grain, respectively. New synthetics should be tested extensively in Africa and, once
adaptation is proven, seed production should start.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 42
Twelve new white QPM synthetics, two reference QPM synthetics, and two local checks in
EVTQ-28 were grown in a 4 x 4 a-lattice design with two replications per location. The lines
that formed the new QPM synthetics were selected based on their GCA values and other
good characteristics from yield trials in 1999 and 2000.
ANOVA showed that, except for corn stunt, there significant G x E. At each individual
location significant differences were observed between entries. The highest mean grain yield
(5.65 t/ha) was achieved at Cotaxtla, Mexico.
Seven of 12 new QPM synthetics yielded as much as or more than the best reference entry,
POZA RICA 8763. The highest yielding synthetics were S2000TLWQ-B (5.0 t/ha) and
S99TLWQ-HG-AB (4.9 t/ha) across 14 locations; both also had less ear rot (Fig. 5), and their
other agronomic characteristics not significantly different from those of the reference entry.
These synthetics also equaled or bettered the performance of the best normal, local OPVs and
hybrids (Fig. 10).
Figure 10. Grain yield and Ear rot for the best five QPM synthetics reference entry and the
best local check across 14 location in (EVTQ-28 and EVT12S) 2002-2003
S Yield (t/hal 1A
S2000TLW S99TLWQ- S99TLWQ- S99TLWQ- S2000TLW Poza Rica Local
Q-B HG-AB AB HG-A Q-A1 8763 (RE) check
CIMMYT tropical QPM hybrid trial
Newly developed QPM single and three-way cross hybrids were shipped to 60 locations in
2002 and 2003. Based on data from 25 locations in Latin America, Africa, and Asia, the new
hybrids have better potential and stability than QPM hybrids released to date in the
developing world. Three-way cross hybrid (CML142 x CML150) CML491 yielded 8.4 t/ha at
Agua Fria 1.0 t/ha more than the normal check CML247 x CML254. At Turipana, Colombia,
QPM hybrid CML491 x CML147 yielded 6.4 t/ha-40% more than the Monsanto hybrid C-
343 (Fig. 11).
CML144 x CLQ-RCWQ26 topped the trial across 16 locations in 2002. At mid-altitude
locations such as Zimbabwe, this hybrid yielded 8.1 t/ha 17% more than the normal hybrid
check SC633. QPM hybrid check CML181/WW0140811 GQLS yielded 8.6 t/ha but with
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 43
29% ear rot, therefore 2.47 t/ha of ear rot are deducted from the total yield, reducing the clean
yield to 6.1 t/ha. At Mozambique, new QPM hybrid CML491 x CML492 (two new released
lines) outyielded the best normal check, and both parents are highly resistant to ear rot.
At Campeche, Mexico, a drought-prone location, the best QPM hybrid CML491 x CML264Q
yielded 3.0 t/ha, while Pioneer Hybrid P3086 yielded 1.5 /ha. Three QPM hybrids (CML144
x CML147, CML142 x CML147, and CML150 x CLQ-RCWQ31) had total lodgings of less
than 10% (average for the experiment 17.3%), confirming that progress has been made in this
direction. As CML147 was a parent in two out of three of these non-lodging hybrids, the line
probably possesses favorable alleles for standability and should be used as donor in QPM
The mean yield across locations for QPM hybrids was 7.18 t/ha and that for normal seed
industry check hybrids was 5.25 t/ha (Fig. 11), a 36% advantage in yield across 25 locations,
75 replications and two years. This reflects the recent progress in breeding QPM hybrids for
the lowland tropics.
The new single and three-way cross hybrids will be tested in Southern Africa in 2003-2004.
For this purpose 10 trials were shipped to Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Zambia, Malawi and
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 44
6.6 New Releases and QPM Seed Production
6.6.1 New tropical QPM line releases
Four new QPM lines (CML490 to CML493)-three white and one yellow-were released in
June, 2003. The new lines possess special characteristics that make them superior to the old
QPM lines: better yield potential in combination, resistance to ear rot and foliar diseases
(particularly CML491), high yield potential per se (3.6 t/ha), standability, and resistance to
ear rot, tropical rust, and Bipolaris maydis. In hybrid combinations, the lines gave yields of
up to 11.6 t/ha at Cotaxtla, Mexico. The use of these lines by the public and private industry
will contribute to form new hybrid combinations with elevated yield performance (Picture 1).
6.6.2 QPM in Nicaragua
In Nicaragua, Nutrinta Amarillo was released in February 2003 in a ceremony presided over
by President Enrique Bolaios, Dr. Norman Borlaug, Mr. Yohey Sasakawa, Ing. Augusto
Navarro (Minister of Agriculture), the Minister of Foreign Relations, Dr. Noel Pallais
(Executive Director of the Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agricola), and CIMMYT maize
breeder Dr. Hugo Cordova. Dr. Borlaug mentioned CIMMYT's dedication to reducing hunger
and malnutrition in the developing world and encouraged Nicaraguan farmers to plant the
new QPM variety to increase maize productivity and reduce poverty in Nicaragua. The
Minister of Agriculture and INTA Director talked about the dedication of the present
government to support agriculture and help maize farmers, as well as the long-time and
fruitful collaboration with CIMMYT. President Bolaios also emphasized the dedication of
his present government to support the rural and urban poor, and commended CIMMYT's
Maize Program for its contributions to enhance agriculture research and development in
Nicaragua in the past 25 years (Picture 2).
After the release ceremony President Bolaios awarded Dr. Borlaug the Order of Ruben
Dario, the highest honor the Nicaraguan government can bestow upon a foreigner.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 45
QPM Synthetic S99TLYQ-AB is a variety developed by CIMMYT in 2000-2001 through 20
replicated on-farm trials conducted by Nicaragua's Maize Program researchers. The variety
outyielded local and improved checks and was sown in strip tests (a type of demonstration
trial) in 2002 and evaluated at 60 on-farm locations. In the latter tests, it outyielded the
improved variety NB-6 by more than 10% and had 0.10% tryptophan and 14% protein
content in the grain. In winter season of 2002-2003, 10 tons of registered seed are being
produced. INTA authorities say 10,000 hectares of three QPM cultivars will be grown in
Nicaragua during 2003.
After the release ceremony, Ing. Alberto Espinosa, leader of Nicaragua's Maize Program,
conducted a visit of a demonstration plot for NUTRINTA AMARILLO and reported on
swine feeding trials similar to those that have been conducted in El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Colombia, Ghana, Ethiopia and Kenya. In all such trials, use of QPM as opposed
to normal maize in swine feeds results in healthier, faster-growing animals.
Together with maize breeder Daisy Ortega, Espinosa and Cordova spent two days visiting
trials, both on-farm replicated and strip tests, as well as commercial plots with QPM
NUTRINTA, both white and yellow. They also saw seed production and basic seed plots in
the three-year, government financed "pound-for-pound" program, an initiative whereby
farmers can pay for improved seed with grain from their harvests.
In 2000 President Bolafos (then Vice President) presided over the release of NUTRINTA,
which is derived from CIMMYT germplasm. In 2002 the Ministry of Agriculture began
wide-scale efforts to introduce NUTRINTA. INTA produces the basic seed and sells it to
small seed companies, which in turn produces certified seed under the supervision of the seed
unit. In 2002-03A, 200 tons of NUTRINTA seed were produced and in 2003B, enough seed
was distributed to small farmers to sow 7,000 hectares. Prior to its release, NUTRINTA
underwent two years of on-farm trials and strip tests-60 in all-in which it its average yield
of 5.1 t/ha was 10% better than those of Obatanpa and NB-6. The variety's grain also contains
0.087% tryptophan, 0.402% lysine, and 10% protein.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 46
Farmers in Masaya and Leon who grew NUTRINTA expressed expressed their satisfaction
with the benefits it would bring to them and especially their children, whom daily consume a
maize-based drink that will now be enriched by the QPM. They also mentioned that
NUTRINTA AMARILLO has better price on the market because it improves the flavor of the
6.6.3 QPM in India
In India, 300 tons of seed of white endosperm hybrid Shaktiman-1 were produced and sold-
enough to sow 15,000 hectares in 2002. In 2003, 600 tons of seed will be harvested, which
will allow 30,000 hectares to be sown in 2004.
The Directorate of Maize Research has released two new yellow endosperm QPM hybrids
(CML161 x CML163 and CML163 x CML169) and another QPM hybrid will be released in
Kamal Province. The release of yellow QPM hybrids was speeded up by the tremendous
demand in the poultry industry for this product. Seed production of the new yellow hybrids
will start in the winter 2003-2004.
6.6.4 QPM in Vietnam
In Vietnam, seed production of HQ-2000 continues to increase. All seed production in
Vietnam is done by transplanting-a method whereby seedlings from nurseries transferred by
hand to the field. In 2003 400 tons of seed were produced and more than 20,000 are being
planted with QPM maize. A new hybrid HQ-2004 (CML161 x CML493) will be released
soon and replace HQ-2000. Vietnam is also exporting hybrid technology. In 2003, 30 tons of
HQ-2000 seed were exported to Bangladesh.
6.6.5 QPM in Bangladesh
In Bangladesh, on-farm testing of the QPM hybrid CML161 x CML165 began in 2002 and is
now peaking. Bangladesh farmers were demanding more seed at the end of 2002. Ten tons of
seed were imported from Vietnam last October and another 20 tons of HQ-2000 (CML161 x
CML165) were imported again. The Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute began to
increase seed of the hybrid's parent lines in 2003, led by a seed production specialist trained
6.6.6 QPM in Bolivia
In Bolivia, QPM hybrid CML161 x CML165 was approved for release, making this the 23rd
developing country in which QPM is sown.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 47
7. QPM FOR THE SUBTROPICS WORLDWIDE
7.1 QPM Breeding Activities
During 2003, the QPM research activities for the subtropical environments was further
strengthened and expanded compared to previous years. These included:
Developing of new QPM white and yellow lines from subtropical intermediate to late
maturity Gene Pools and broad base improved populations (Pool 31Q, 32Q, 33Q,
34Q, and Populations 67Q, 68Q, 69Q, 70Q) to further broaden the genetic base of
QPM available for the subtropics.
Pedigree breeding in QPM white and yellow germplasm involving elite lines from
elite x elite F2 populations (QPM x QPM, QPM x Normal) at various stages of
High GCA lines which were tested for their combining ability at S3 stage were
advanced to S4 and S5 level of inbreeding. These lines were also screened for their
reaction to the most important diseases and insect pests prevalent in the tropics.
Advanced QPM white and yellow lines were planted at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico
in highland environment and screened for common rust (Puccinia polysora) and
northern leaf blight (E. turcicum) under artificial inoculation conditions.
Elite QPM white and yellow lines at advance level of inbreeding were planted at
Tlaltizapan (Subtropical environment) for seed increase. They were also evaluated
under pressure of insect FAW (Fall Army Worm) and fusarium ear rot in line
Five white and three yellow QPM synthetics were formed by intermating selected
lines with high GCA and better per-se performance. Fl seed was advanced to F2 seed,
which will be evaluated in yield trials during 2004. Also other new QPM synthetics
are being formed and are at Fl seed. Considerable emphasis was put on formation of
synthetics and open-pollinated QPM varieties during 2003.
High yielding QPM white and yellow hybrids identified from previous year's trials
were formed to produce enough hybrid seed for testing in the international hybrid
trials (CHTSWQ and CHTSYQ) for testing in 2004.
During this year, we initiated the project on identifying superior QPM germplasm
which also has high levels of Vitamin-A (B-Carotene) in the grain. Towards this
objective over 200 entries involving lines, OPVs and hybrids were grown in
Tlaltizapan, Mexico in replicated trial and sample plants were hand-pollinated to
produce pure true to type grains for analysis of QPM and B-Carotene.
The newly established QPM lab funded by Monsanto Foundation was inaugurated in
October 2003 and will be fully operational before the end of the year.
In the line conversion program involving normal x QPM lines, we aggressively
continued to use molecular markers to accelerate the breeding cycle and reduce the
number of generations.
Exploited the heterosis between tropical and subtropical germplasm by crossing QPM
lines between lines developed for these two mega-environments.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 48
7.2 QPM Hybrid Yield Trials
During 2003, two international QPM hybrid trials, CHTSWQ (white) and CHTSYQ (yellow)
were evaluated. These QPM trials included 16 white elite and 16 yellow hybrids,
respectively. Preliminary results from the CHTSWQ trial showed that the single cross hybrid
(P501 C1#-886-3-1-1-B x CML311)F2-19-1-BBB x CML175 had the highest grain yield
13.97 t/ha, followed by a three-way hybrid (CML186 x CML142) x CML176. In the case of
the QPM yellow hybrids, the hybrid G34QC22MH135-4-2-BB-4-B*6 x G33QC25MH103-3-
1-5-1-BBBB had the highest grain yield 10.58 t/ha, followed by (G34QC22MH135-4-2-BB-
4-B*6 x G33QC25MH103-3-1-5-1-BBBB) x CML165, which yielded 10.66 t/ha. These
preliminary information demonstrates the potential of three-way hybrids (TWC) that are the
most popular type of hybrid in many developing countries.
About 250 S5 QPM, white, intermediate to late maturity lines derived from recycling elite x
elite QPM x Normal F2 population (CML176 x CML384) and identified using molecular
markers and subsequently confirmed through biochemical analysis for high levels of
tryptophane and lysine were testcrossed with two testers lines CML186 (Subtropical) and
CML149 (Tropical). These crosses were grouped in five different experiments and evaluated
during 2002-2003 year in multiple environments. The top yielding hybrids from each of
these trials out-yielded the best QPM reference hybrids used by more than 1 to 2 t/ha (Fig.
12). The best hybrid yielded 12.53 t/ha, which was 40 and 29 % better than the two reference
QPM hybrids used as checks. All the QPM hybrids evaluated in these trials had very good
endosperm modification, high levels of resistance to ear rot, tolerant to root and stalk lodging
and enhanced levels of tryptophan content in endosperm.
Figure 12. Grain yield (t/ha) and percent ear rot in the best QPM hybrids across three
locations during 2002-2003 in the S3 x tester testcross trial
32 8 6 2
HQ-1 HQ-2 HQ-3 HQ-4 HQ-5 HQ-6 HQ-7 HQ-8 HQ-9 HQ-10 CHK-1 CHK-2
Superior QPM Hybrids
Close to 100 S3 QPM lines from a white early maturity gene pool, Pool27QPM were test-
crossed to CML173 (Subtropical line) and S89G15 (Tropical synthetic) used as testers. The
top-cross hybrid involving Pool27QPM c3-2-1-1 x S89G15Q had the highest grain yielding
8.58 t/ha, was nine days earlier than the best normal endosperm hybrid (P30640) (Table 10).
The six superior yielding hybrids out-yielded the best early maturity normal endosperm
hybrid used as check.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 49
Table 10. Performance of five QPM white early
locations during 2003 summer cycle
maturity single hybrids across three
Yield % of FF Ear End. Try Loc. Trial
best rot Hard.
Pedigree check (%)
t/ha days 1-5 %
Pool27QPMc3-2-1-1 x S89G15Q 8.58 116 74 17.7 1.8 0.076 3 SSCWQ0201
Pool27QPMc3-7-5-1 xCML173 8.29 112 72 16.9 1.6 0.060 3 SSCWQ0201
Pool27QPMc3-3-5-1 x S89G15Q 8.19 111 74 14.2 1.8 0.065 3 SSCWQ0201
Pool27QPMc3-45-2-2 x CML173 8.52 115 78 5.2 2.1 0.080 2 SSCWQ0225
Pool27QPMc3-14-1-3 x S89G15Q 8.01 108 83 12.4 1.8 0.070 2 SSCWQ0225
PSEW-HG-A-cOF8 x PSEW-HG-A- 7.40 100 76 12.2 1.8 0.037 3
P30640 8.56 116 83 14.2 1.8 0.037 2
End.Hardness =Score for endosperm hardness (1-5); Try=Tryptophan in the endosperm kernel (average of the
parents); Loc=Number of locations tested; Trial=Name of each experiment.
Around 80 S3 QPM yellow early maturity lines derived from Pool29QPM gene pool were
testcrossed with two tropical synthetics used as testers (S89G17Q and S86G18Q). The
highest grain yield of 7.74 t/ha was recorded by cross Pool29QPM c9-48-1-3 x S89G17Q,
which showed very low ear rot and was six days more early than the cross S89G17Q x
S86G18Q used as reference check (Table 11). In general all six top yielding hybrids out-
yielded the reference cross involving the two testers by 0.34 t/ha.
Table 11. Performance of five QPM yellow early maturity single cross hybrids across two
locations during 2002-2003
Yield % over check Days to Ear rot End. .Hard.
Pedigree t/ha % silking (%) 1-5
Pool29QPMc9-29-5-1 x S86G18Q 7.35 106 70 5.9 1.6
Pool29QPMc9-6-3-2 x S86G18Q 7.16 103 71 4.8 1.6
Pool29QPMc9-9-1-1 x S86G17Q 7.10 102 67 5.2 1.1
Pool29QPMc9-48-1-3 x S86G17Q 7.74 111 69 6.6 1.4
Pool29QPMc9-38-3-1 x S86G18Q 7.21 104 74 7.6 1.7
Pool29QPMc9-48-1-2 x S86G17Q 7.19 103 69 13.1 1.2
S86G17Q x S86G18Q 6.95 100 75 4.8 1.7
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 50
8. QPM FOR THE TROPICAL HIGHLANDS WORLDWIDE
Elite QPM germplasm adapted to the highlands does not currently exist at CIMMYT nor at
other research institutes. At CIMMYT, we initiated two QPM highland projects in 1998.
The first involves conversion of elite highland CML lines with normal grain type. In a
second project we have made a series of crosses between subtropical, transition zone, and
highland QPM and normal germplasm. Our goal is to develop white and yellow-grained
source QPM germplasm adapted to the highlands including populations, synthetics and
8.1 Conversion to QPM of Elite Highland CIMMYT Maize Lines (CMLs)
The conversion of elite highland CML lines with normal grain type was initiated in 1998 by
crossing 7 highland CMLs (239, 242, 244, 246, 349, 352, 354) (all white grained with early
maturity) to an elite subtropical line (CML176). Through backcrossing and selling, we are in
the process of developing elite highland QPM inbred lines. In all segregating generations we
use molecular markers (MM) to identify families with the opaque 2 allele and the light table
to select grains with good kernel modification. During the 2003 growing season we tested
elite BC4F2 both per se and in hybrid combination. We hope to release several highland
early white QPM lines coming from this work in 2004.
Last year we expanded our QPM line conversion work to include elite lines of later maturity
and with white and yellow-grain color. Eight elite lines were selected to begin this new
8.2 Formation of Elite Highland Source Populations, Synthetics, and Lines
In a second highland QPM project we have made a series of crosses between subtropical,
transition zone, and highland QPM and normal germplasm. Our goal is to develop white and
yellow-grained source QPM germplasm adapted to the highlands including populations,
synthetics and inbred lines.
We now have intermediate generation lines coming out of this highland QPM source
population work. One encouraging example is shown in Table 12 where we evaluated a set
of S4 white-grained QPM lines crossed with the subtropical tester line CML177. Combined
over two Mexican environments, we identified several hybrids that were very competitive
with the best normal check commercial hybrids. Most of these QPM hybrids also had
superior agronomic characteristics such as shorter plant and ear height and less lodging as
compared to the commercial checks. However, ear rot and grain modification were a
problem in some combinations. Superior lines identified are being further inbred and used in
We have now formed two highland white-grained QPM synthetics (one early and the other
late maturing) which were tested for the first time in the 2003 season with encouraging
preliminary results. Seed of these white-grained synthetics are currently being increased in
our winter nursery with plans for more wide-scale testing in 2004. Additionally in our winter
nurseries, we are making a first recombination of a yellow-grained QPM synthetic.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 51
Table 12. Best highland late white S4 topcrosses with CML177 (2003-26 COMB)
(2714-D x 2714-C-#-2-1 x 89[G23Q
33 c25 H276 S6 / EWE 3056]-B-3-1-3-2-1- 8.5 110% 88 226 0.0 29.7 38.5 3.3 2.6
1)-B-1-1TL-2 x CML 177
(2714-D x 2714-C-#-2-1 x 89[G23Q
35 c25 H276 S6 / EWE 3056]-B-3-1-3-2-1- 8.1 105% 86 221 0.0 27.4 33.2 2.8 2.8
1)-B-1-1TL-4 x CML 177
COMPP. 02 DURO DE ALTURA x
30 G9A-#-1-4 x G31 c18 H#-96-1-2-1-B-5- 7.9 102% 89 243 0.0 12.8 34.3 2.0 2.8
1-B-1-B-1-B*4)-B-3-1TL-1 x CML 177
(2714-D x 2714-C-#-2-1 x 89[G23Q
37 c25 H276 S6 / EWE 3056]-B-3-1-3-2-1- 7.5 97% 83 225 0.0 14.6 33.5 3.5 2.6
1)-B-1-2TL-3 x CML 177
43 HS-2 6.5 88 259 21.8 12.5 41.0 2.0 3.5
44 SAN ISIDRO 6.7 85 250 16.4 15.3 38.0 1.8 3.5
45 SAN JOSE 7.7 86 260 18.8 21.4 40.2 3.0 3.3
MEAN 6.3 87 218 1.8 30.3 34.9 3.7 3.0
8.3 Introgression of Subtropical QPM Germplasm into Highland Environments
A new project initiated last year involves extensive evaluations of CIMMYT's subtropical
QPM germplasm in highland environments. While screening a small set of subtropical QPM
synthetics in 2002, we were encouraged to find several materials that performed well with
good resistance to common rust (P. sorghi), leaf blight (E. turcicum), and ear rot (Fusarium),
diseases common in highland environments. During the 2003 major season we evaluated a
larger set of elite subtropical QPM materials. We also initiated selling in the most promising
materials while also crossing them to elite highland populations and synthetics. In 2004 we
plan to study the combining ability of this material while further advancing the early
generation QPM lines.
8.4 Highland QPM the Future
The next few years look exciting for our highland QPM research as we begin to make
available elite highland QPM lines, synthetics, and source populations. At present we are
investing about 25% of our highland resources into QPM research with an emphasis on
white-grained materials. We expect our research allocation to grow up to about 50% in the
next 2-5 years as we build our highland QPM germplasm base, increase yield trial
evaluations of highland QPM, and devote more emphasis to yellow-grained QPM types
which we expect will be increasingly demanded particularly by the feed industry. Links with
CIMMYT outreach, national programs, private companies, and NGO's will be strengthened
to help accelerate the adoption of improved highland QPM OPVs and hybrids.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 52
The Development and Promotion
of Quality Protein Maize
in sub-Saharan Africa
Workplan for 2004
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 53
The development and promotion of QPM in sub-Saharan Africa: Workplan for 2004
Core Project Component
1. QPM Networking
Develop and support national and sub-
regional networks or working groups to guide
and promote QPM research and
Plans for 2004
Regional steering committees will evaluate
progress during 2003 and first half of 2004 and
will recommend funding of proposals for QPM
activities by partners in each of the three sub-
regions of Africa
Milestones for 2004
1) Progress reports from each country that
received funding for 2003/04 will be included in
the 2004 annual report for the project, and 2) a
summary of approved grants for 2005 will be
provided in the 2004 annual report
2. Germplasm Development
Short-, medium- and long-term QPM
germplasm requirements will be addressed
for the major ecologies of sub-Saharan Africa
QPM country working groups will meet in at 3) Country progress reports for QPM activities in
least two countries of each sub-region to at least 4 countries will be included in the 2004
review progress and plan activities for QPM annual report
In Western Africa: 1) Conversion to QPM will 4) Progress from two seasons of breeding
be initiated for 6 normal maize populations with activities will be reported in the 2004 annual
resistance to streak virus, resistance to Striga,
and tolerance to drought, and 2) QPM lines
and hybrids from CIMMYTwill be evaluated
and used to initiate breeding projects
In Eastern Africa: 1) New, improved streak
virus resistant versions of at least four QPM
populations will be formed, and 2) collaborative
development of QPM lines will be continued
with breeders of at least two national programs
In Southern Africa: 1) Streak virus resistant
versions of at least 10 elite southern African
inbred lines will be advanced beyond S5, and
will be evaluated in yield trials, and 2) At least
2 new QPM streak resistant synthetics will be
formed using data from yield trials
In Mexico: Experimental QPM OPVs, hybrids
and inbred lines, will be developed to support
QPM activities in Africa for each of the main
ecologies (lowland, midaltitude and highland)
report, and 5) The selected lines for use in
forming QPM synthetics and hybrids will be
identified in the 2004 annual report.
6) Improved versions of at least 2 QPM
populations will be included in regional trials,
and 7) at least 200 experimental lines will be
sent to the regional quality protein laboratory for
protein content and quality analyses
8) Seed of at least 10 streak resistant QPM
inbred lines will be widely distributed in trials for
2004/05, 9) streak (moderately) resistant QPM
hybrids will be available for extensive testing in
2004/05, and 10) a new QPM MSV-resistant
synthetic will be at F1 stage by October 2004.
11) At least 6 distinct sets of material will be
available for evaluation and use in Africa: OPVs,
hybrids and inbred lines for lowland, subtropical
and highland tropical adaptation.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report page 54
The development and promotion of QPM in sub-Saharan Africa: Workplan for 2004 (Cont.)
Core Project Component
3. Germplasm Testing
4. Seed Production/Dissemination
Experimental QPM germplasm is evaluated
at an adequate number of sites to establish
its merit, and outstanding QPM varieties are
included in on-farm evaluations and
Seed of QPM varieties is produced and
available in most countries of sub-Saharan
Plans for 2004
1) International QPM trials will be distributed
globally from Mexico, 2) regional QPM trials
will be distributed from Harare and Nairobi, 3)
research trials will be grown by breeders in
each of the 3 major ecologies.
1) QPM varieties will be produced in each sub-
region, 2) Community-based seed production
of at least one QPM variety will be undertaken
in at least two countries.
Milestones for 2004
12) Trial results will be summarized and widely
reported. 13) Best OPVs and hybrids will be
identified for seed multiplication and further
testing during 2005.
14) Seed of at least one QPM variety will be
commercially sold in at least 4 countries, and
15) At least one seed company will be a
member of each country-level QPM working
Train researchers, technicians and support Training needs will be agreed at sub-regional 16) At least 12 African scientists working with
staff capable of sustaining QPM research and level, and at least four scientists from each sub- QPM will have participated in relevant training
dissemination efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. region involved in QPM activities will receive activities
professional training in a topic of relevance to
Ensure access to adequate laboratory
facilities to sustain QPM research and
dissemination efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.
7. Nutritional and economic studies Document the potential and actual nutritional
and economic impact of QPM in selected
countries of sub-Saharan Africa.
1) The newly established or upgraded QPM
laboratories in each of the three sub-regions
will be used to evaluate protein content and
quality of at least 1000 samples, and 2) a set
of 25 maize samples will be sent to CIMMYT
Mexico and each of the three regional
laboratories for analyses and comparison of
Develop links with the Harvest Plus (formerly
biofortification challenge program) project and
develop a plan for collaborative activities in the
areas of nutritional advocacy and socio-
17) At least 1000 QPM materials will have been
evaluated for protein content and quality at the
regional QPM laboratories (at least 200 samples
at each lab), and 18) results of evaluations of 25
common samples at all laboratories will be
reported in the 2004 annual report
19) The opportunities for synergies between
QPM and Harvest Plus projects will be reported
in the 2004 annual report, together with an
outline of the proposed strategy.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report page 55
6. Laboratory Facilities
Supplementary Data Tables Al to A5
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 56
Table Al. Grain yield (t/ha), and other important agronomic characters of double topcross QPM hybrids, 2 pre-released 3-way hybrids and 2
commercial checks tested across 5 sites including low N, drought and optimum in Kenya, 2003A.
Entry Pedigree Across DR LN OPT Anth ASI Lodging E.ture Ear Plant
Rel GY Rank Kiboko Across Across Date Root Aspect Aspect
% Avg Stdev tha t/ha t/ha
d d % 1-5 1-5 1-5
20 Phb 3253
0.4 0.8 6.8 69
1.3 0.8 7.5 69
0.6 7.4 70
0.7 0.9 67
0.6 0.7 67
0.5 1.4 7.1 69
0.6 0.8 6.9 70
0.7 1.3 6.7 70
1.0 1.7 6.7 70
0.7 7.7 71
0.1 0.7 6.6 72
1.0 0.7 67
0.9 0.9 7.4 72
0.4 1.0 8.4 70
0.2 1.8 72
0.6 1.4 69
0.9 1.8 72
100 11 3 0.6 1.0 6.9
0.8 0.8 1.1
0.1 0.1 0.2
55.1 32.4 7.0
1 2.4 1.9
2 2.4 1.8
1 2.2 2.0
2 2.7 1.8
3 51 2.5 2.7 1.7
1 1.5 2.8 1.8
3 53 1.8 2.5 2.0
5 2.5 2.6 1.6
2 2.3 2.75 0
3 2.8 2.4 2.0
3 2.5 2.0
3 39 2.9 1.6
1 2.4 2.4
2 37 2.8 1.6
6 2.6 1.9
5 61 2.8 2.0
3 52 1.5 2.0
4 33 1.8
6 46 2.4 2.2 2.0
5 2.1 2.8 M
2.7 53.0 2.5 2.7 1.9
2.8 17.3 0.7 0.5 0.3
1.5 117.0 0.2 0.2 0.0
44.3 20.4 18.3 14.5 10.6
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report page 57
Table A2. Grain yield (t/ha), disease (GLS, turcicum and ear rot) reaction and other agronomic characters of QPM OPVs along with QPM and
normal OPVS and hybrids, tested across 4 sites including low N and optimum in Kenya, 2003A.
Entry Pedigree Across OPT LN Anth Plant Ear Ears/ Husk Ear GLS E.turc Ear Plant
Rel GY Rank Across Across Date Height Height Plant Cover Rot Aspect Aspect
% Avg Stdev t/ha t/ha
12 WH403- Normal Hybrid
13 ECAVL-1 Normal OPV
14 LOCAL CHECK Normal OPV
3 M 2.7
2 7.5 3.5
1 M 2.8
3 7.2 2.2
3 6.0 2.4
3 5.7 2.2
1 M 3.4
4 5.6 2.8
5 6.5 2.5
100 8 2 6.2 2.4
d cm cm # % % 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5
70 247 123 1.06 22 1.9 3.3
72 248 126 1.05 1.7 2.2 2.6
72 261 122 12 1.6 2.4 2.7
71 262 132 1.10 27 22 1.6 2.3 3.3
72 252 119 1.02 32 1.6 1.9 3.3 2.7
72 256 107 1.03 28 25 2.5
73 233 128 1.06 25 11 1.9 2.4
75 241 100 1.02 28 27 2.3 2.3
77 260 1381 12 11 3.6 2.4
65 211 109 27
72 254 128 1.04 29 1.7 3.2 2.5
74 272 120 1.00 7 2.5
73 255 121 1.06 25 27 1.6 2.3 2.9 2.5
77 306 178 14 20 1.6 2.8
72.4 254.0 125.1 1.05 28.2 23.0 1.8 2.2 3.3 2.6
1.7 19.3 19.9 0.12 11.2 13.7 0.3 0.4 0.9 0.3
3.3 105.2 111.7 0.00 106.4 52.6 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.0
2.5 4.0 8.4 5.84 36.6 31.5 14.8 17.7 15.3 7.4
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report page 58
Table A3. Grain yield (t/ha), and other agronomic characters of QPM hybrids, 2 normal checks and 2 commercial hybrids tested across 6 sites
including optimum and low N conditions in Kenya, 2003A.
Entry Pedigree Across LN OPT Anth ASI Ear GLS P.sorg E.turc MSV Ear Plant
Rel GY Rank Across Across Date Rot Aspect Aspect
% Avg Stdev t/ha t/ha
1 CZH01029 89
2 CZH01031 117
3 CZH01030 81
4 CZH01025 106
5 CZH01027 87
6 CZH99051 119
7 CZH99052 80
8 CZH01021 98
9 CZH01023 94
10 CZH01033 60
11 CZH01034 74
12 CZH99055 80
13 CZH99061 81
14 CZH02016 70
15 OBATANPA-ZMSRclF2 70
16 CZH01022 112
17 CZH01024 133
18 CZH01032 130
19 CZH01028 119
20 02C3728 124
21 CZH00026 (Normal Checkl) 109
22 CZH01008 (Normal Check2) 128
23 Local Check 1 131
24 Local Check 2 108
2.8 6.9 76
3.7 8.0 75
3.2 8.0 73
3.6 8.7 74
3.0 7.1 75
2.9 7.1 74
3.8 7.6 73
4.4 7.8 75
3.9 8.4 74
3.8 7.3 75
3.0 8.3 76
4.4 8.4 77
96 14 4 3.0 6.9
d % 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5
2 1.5 2.4 2.4 0.7 2.5 2.6
2 13 1.5 1.7 2.4 2.8
2 1.5 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.6
2 7 1.6 2.2 2.2 1.3 2.8 2.6
1 10.5 2.1 2.1 2.6 2.5
3 3 1.8 2.2 1.0 2.8 2.9
2 B 1.8 2.3 2.1 2.7
2 16 1.5 2.1 1.3 2.4 2.9
0 6 1.5 2.5 2.3 2.0 2.7 2.6
4 14 3.3 2.3
2 13 1.5 2.5 2.5
4 8 2.7 0.7 2.7 2.8
1 1.5 2.6 2.2 2.0
2 16 1 2.0 2.7 2.3
3 8 0.7 2.9
2 17 1.6 2.2 1.8 1.0 2.8 2.9
1 10 1.5 2.5 2.0 1.7 2.7 2.9
1 9 1.4 1.7 2.7
3 1.6 2.5 2.2 1.3 2.7 2.6
2 18 2.7 1.9 2.7 2.6 2.6
2 7 1.4 1.0 2.0 2.9
3 3 1.4 2.3 1.8 3.0 2.9
5 7 2.0 2.0 2.3
6 5 2.4 2.0
2.3 12.7 1.7 2.5 2.2 2A 2.6 2.8
2.2 13.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 2A 0.5 0.4
1.7 65.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 2.0 0.2 0.1
57.4 63.5 21.3 12.7 21.7 59.2 18.6 13.7
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report page 59
Table A4. Grain yield (t/ha) and other important agronomic traits of QPM CMLs tested across 3 hot spot sites in Kenya, 2003A.
Entry Pedigree Across Grain Yields Anth ASI Plant Ear Lodging Earnl Husk Ear GLS E.turc Ear Plant
Rel GY Rank Across Alupe, Kenya Kakamega Embu Date Height Height Root Stem Plant Cover Rot Aspect Aspect
% Avg Stdev t/ha Rank t/ha Rank t/ha Rank t/ha Rank d d cm cm % % # % % 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5
1 CML 141
2 CML 142
3 CML 143
4 CML 144
5 CML 145
6 CML 146
7 CML 147
8 CML 148
9 CML 149
10 CML 150
11 CML 151
12 CML 152
13 CML 153
14 CML 154
15 CML 155
16 CML 156
17 CML 157
18 CML 158
19 CML 159
20 CML 160
21 CML 161
22 CML 162
23 CML 163
24 CML 164
25 CML 165
26 CML 166
27 CML 167
28 CML 168
29 CML 169
30 CML 170
31 CML 171
32 CML 172
10 1.7 24 0.4
6 2.2 14 0.6
12 1.9 19 0.5
3 1.9 17 0.7
23 1.6 28 0.0
3 37 0.2
4 34 0.3
5 37 0.3
2 32 0.4
6 34 0.4
13 2.5 12 0.9
8 2.2 15 0.6
3 27 0.5
16 1.5 26 0.4
9 2.1 15 0.6
10 30 0.5
8 1.6 21 0.6
9 27 0.6
7 1.9 18 0.7
14 2.4 16 0.5
15 1.8 22 0.3
19 25 0.4
13 1.7 20 0.8
7 25 0.7
6 2.5 11 0.7
6 1.6 25 0.4
15 1.5 31 0.2
11 25 0.7
8 1.7 18 0.7
9 32 0.5
9 1.9 13 1.0
2 2.2 8 0.9
9 33 0.6
13 1.8 16 1.0
10 7 1.1
2 2.5 6 0.8
1 4 1.0
16 27 0.8
6 1.7 19 0.7
7 9 0.8
14 30 0.7
9 2.0 14 0.8
100 22 9 1.7 22 0.6
81 1 147
85 0 170
80 1 155
84 0 160
92 10 0
88 6 154
79 3 143
85 3 177
82 4 157
80 3 132
82 2 145
84 3 166
80 3 150
81 7 147
79 4 122
88 1 98
82 2 103
82 3 157
83 2 129
81 6 67
81 2 144
78 8 160
82 5 171
79 2 170
84 2 157
81 3 162
77 0 170
79 1 150
80 4 141
80 2 122
77 5 180
78 3 163
73 2 110
83 0 149
80 -1 161
84 -1 160
77 2 157
81 1 128
80 1 157
82 0 146
81 3 105
83 0 139
78 0.0 1.2 1.37 M 25.9 M 2.2 3.3 2.0
73 0.0 1.1 1.01 -0.2 3 1.7 2.2 2.9 2.1
63 5.6 -2.2 0.96 0.7 6.6 2.0 3.2 1.9
54 0.0 1.53 5.9 27 2.0 3.4 2.2
0 12.7 2.5 3. 2.2
52 0.0 -2.0 -0.4
39 0.0 -1.2 1.28 12.6 5.0 1.8 3.1 1.4
87 12.5 5.0 1.38 5.0 1.53.4 2.1
60 10.0 8.5 1.09 23.5 25.0 2.3
37 6.3 -1.0 18.1 2.1 2.0
66 0.0 3.7 1.06 7.5 13 1.8 1.8 2.7 2.2
73 3.5 6.2 0.90 25.9 18 2.3 2.0 3.1 1.7
63 5.0 1.8 0.88 16.6 .3.8
54 5.6 9.3 -0.9 1.6
40 6.7 3.8 0.96 2.3 0 2.3 2.1 3.5 1.5
45 0.0 2.3 -0.8 3.2 1.7 2.2 3.3 1.5
42 8.4 3.9 1.04 0.6 29.2 2.0 2.0 3.4 1.7
67 5.6 0.1 0.92 3.4 2.1
41 10.1 0.8 0.88 14.6 1.8 2.1 3.5 2.2
28 0.0 0.0 1.28 -1.2 17 3.0 1.7
62 0.0 -0.4 1.4 26.7 2.2 2.3 3.4 1.9
32 0.0 9.8 5.1 9.4 2.1 1.4
89 1.18 9.6 10.5 1.9 1.8 3.5
87 0.0 9.2 1.03 0.4 12.4 1.9 2.0 3.3 2.2
67 = 1.8 1.56 2.2 18 1.4 1.4 3.2 2.0
66 3.4 1.11 1.6 3.0 1.6
73 0.0 -1.4 1.16 207 20 2.1
59 12.1 1.08 2.0 6.7 2.3 1.9 3.5 2.3
50 4.6 2.6 1.26 15.6 2.1 3.8 2.1
59 0.0 1.8 n 12.4 14.9 3.2 2.0
58 4.2 3.2 1.01 1.7 2.1 2.9 2.1
62 12.5 1.7 1.06 1.8 2.2 2.9 1.8
35 0.0 9.1 0.96 10.0 1.5
65 1.09 0.1 26 2.3 1.8 2.8 1.9
69 0.0 -1.6 1.01 10.8 27 1.4 1.4 3.4 1.8
54 -0.6 1.17 5.9 14 1.4 3.0 1.4
55 4.6 2.0 1.6 3.6 2.0
57 3.2 2.4 1.4 16.1 2.2 1.6 3.7 2.3
77 0.0 0.2 1.30 3.6 7 1.8 1.4 2.9 1.2
48 0.0 7.1 9.7 1.8 2.1
56 0.0 8.3 1.16 0.1 6 1.5 2.5 1.2
81.4 2.5 142A 57.1 5.8 5.1 1.04 16.4 20.9 2.0 2.1 3A 2.0
2.5 2.5 41.0 29.3 15.4 10.8 0.36 26.7 17.8 0.6 0.5 0.9 0.7
4.5 4.4 401.0 205.5 56.2 56.0 0.06 3412 151.4 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.3
2.6 83.4 14.1 25.1 129.0 146.8 23.86 112.8 58.9 22.3 18.7 22.5 29.1
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report page 60
Table A5. Grain yield (t/ha) and disease reaction of different versions of Obatanpa tested
across 2 sites including optimum and low nitrogen in Kenya, 2003
Entry Pedigree OPT LN Anth Ear E.turc Plant
Alupe, Kenya Date Rot Aspect
t/ha Rank t/ha Rank
1 SUSSUMA (Obatanpa-Moz) 6.6
2 OBATANPA (Ghana) 7.3
3 OBATANPA-SRclF3# 6.4
4 S91SIWQc1 F3 6.0
5 ZM611=[P501-SR/P502-SR] F2 5.6
6 ZM621-FLINT F2 6.3
d % 1-5 1-5
71 4 3.1 2.8
72 4 3.6 2.8
72 4 3.3 2.8
66 7 2.9 1.3
71 16 1.9 1.5
71 10 3.0 2.0
70.3 7.5 3.0 2.2
1.8 0.5 0.9
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.5 0.0 13.3
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 61
Tentative Workplan for 2004
QPM Research for the Lowland Tropics Worldwide
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 62
Tentative Workplan for 2004
QPM Research for the Lowland Tropics Worldwide
Training activities will take place in Mexico and Southern and Eastern Africa.
Evaluation of QPM hybrids and OPVs in collaborating countries
9 different types of trials involving white and yellow QPM hybrids and synthetics will be
distributed in several countries (see description of trials) during summer and winter 2004
Seed increase of QPM hybrids, varieties and inbred line parents
1000 rows 5 meters long will be planted in 2002 at the Agua Fria in Mexico to increase
seed of synthetics, hybrids and inbred parents and to form new hybrid combinations. This
will include forming new synthetics, and increasing seed of new synthetics and new inbred
parents of tropical hybrids.
Analysis of varieties and hybrids trials for quality traits
Data from international trials mentioned above will be put into the database of the CIMMYT
international maize testing unit and analyzed by sites and across locations. Stability analysis
will be performed for yield, endosperm hardness, and ear rot. Superior hybrids and synthetics
will be identified for on-farm validation trials in 2004. Inbred parents showing stability for
yield and endosperm hardness in hybrid combinations will be included in crossing blocks for
pedigree breeding and recycling activities.
QPM pedigree breeding selection
100 Fl QPM crosses that involve QPM lines and normal lines with resistance to insects,
drought, low-N, corn stunt, downy mildew, and soil acidity, will be planted at Agua Fria,
during the 2004 A cycle.
QPM F2 population
100 F2 QPM populations (S lines) that involve QPM lines and normal lines with resistance
to insects, drought, low-N, cor stunt, downy mildew, and soil acidity, will be planted at
Agua Fria, during the 2004 B cycle
QPM early generation nurseries S3 to S5
400 tropical, intermediate-to-late white and yellow QPM lines will be planted at Agua Fria
during the 2004 A and B cycles.
QPM advanced generation nurseries S6 to S8
200 QPM lines, tropical white and yellow heterotic groups A and B selected by performance
with testers, will be planted at Agua Fria during 2004 A and B cycles.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 63
QPM elite inbred line nurseries S8 to S10
Approximately 20 QPM lines (10 white and 10 yellow) will be planted at Agua Fria during
2004 A and B cycles.
Conversion of elite line (normal hybrid parents) to QPM
BC1 and BC2 and BC3 line conversion QPM will be practiced in various tropical white and
yellow normal lines, plants carrying the o2 o2 gene, will be identified using molecular
markers light table. BC3 converted lines will be selfed further to fix the hard endosperm.
QPM hybrid development and testing
More than 300 new yellow tropical, intermediate-to-late maturity QPM hybrids were will be
form in Agua Fria during the 2004 A cycle. In addition, 15 white and 15 yellow QPM elite
hybrids will be form for seed increase in Agua Fria during the 2004 B cycle for evaluation in
local and international yield trials (CHTT's)
A total of 8034 five meter long rows including tropical lowland materials will be planted at
Agua Fria stations in 2003A and 2003B and 3000 at Campeche and Cotaxlta, Mexico,
Guatemala, Colombia, India, Kenya.
Formation of QPM synthetics F1
15 QPM synthetics (10 white and 5 yellow) will be formed in Agua Fria during the 2004 A
cycle to make Fl and advance to F2 in 2004B.
Four isolations will be planted at Agua Fria, at a ratio 2:1 female rows will be planted with
early generation, advanced lines and single crosses and male rows will be the testers.
Description of Lowland Tropical Maize Subprogram QPM
Trials, 2004 B
Includes the evaluation of 28 advanced tropical white late QPM single
crosses, and two checks for a total of 30 entries, under 5x6 Alpha lattice
design, 2 row, 5 meters long plot, 2 replications per location.
Includes the evaluation of 23 advanced tropical yellow late QPM single
crosses, and two checks for a total of 25 entries, under 5x5 Alpha lattice
design, 2 row, 5 meters long plot, 2 replications per location.
Includes the evaluation of 28 new three-way tropical white late QPM hybrids,
and two checks for a total of 30 entries, under 5x6 Alpha lattice design, 2
row, 5 meters long plot, 2 replications per location.
Includes the evaluation of 23 three-way tropical yellow late QPM hybrids,
and two checks for a total of 25 entries, under 5x5 Alpha lattice design, 2
row, 5 meters long plot, 2 replications per location
Includes the evaluation 100 single crosses among early generation tropical
late white QPM lines heterotic group "A" and heterotic group "B", under
10x10 Alpha lattice design, 1 row, 5 meters long plot, 2 replications per
Includes the evaluation 70 single crosses among early generation tropical late
yellow QPM lines heterotic group "A" and heterotic group "B", under 10x7
Alpha lattice design, 1 row, 5 meters long plot, 2 replications per location.
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 64
* Key Sites
Includes the evaluation of 18 elite tropical white late QPM hybrids, and two
checks for a total of 20 entries, under 4x5 Alpha lattice design, 2 row, 5
meters long plot, 3 replications per location.
Includes the evaluation of 14 elite tropical yellow late QPM hybrids, and two
checks for a total of 16 entries, under 4x4 Alpha lattice design, 2 row, 5
meters long plot, 3 replications per location.
Includes the evaluation of 18 tropical white late QPM OPV's, and two checks
for a total of 20 entries, under 4x5 Alpha lattice design, 2 row, 5 meters long
plot, 3 replications per location.
Table 1. Description of tropical QPM trials for 2004
Code Design Ent/ Reps Rows Total Loc Trial
Trial Type Num. Plot Rows Name
TSCWQ04-1 5x9 30 2 2 120 10 Tropical advanced
generation SC late white.
TSCYQ04-2 5x5 25 2 2 100 10 Tropical advanced
generation SC late yellow.
TTWCWQ04-3 6x6 30 2 2 120 10 Tropical three-way crosses
TTWCYQ04-4 5x5 25 2 2 100 10 Tropical three-way crosses
TSCWQ04-5 10x10 100 1 1 200 10 Tropical late white SC early
TSCYQ04-6 7x10 70 1 1 140 10 Tropical late yellow SC
CHTTWQ04 4x5 20 3 2 120 40 Tropical late white hybrids
CHTTYQ04 4x4 16 3 2 96 40 Tropical late yellow hybrids
EVTWQ04 4x4 20 3 2 120 25 Tropical late white varieties
QPM in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2003 Annual Report -page 65