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 Table of Contents
 Acronyms and abbreviations
 People and partnerships to build...
 Financial tables
 Project portfolio






Group Title: CIMMYT Medium-term plan ...
Title: CIMMYT Medium-term plan, 3003-2005
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Title: CIMMYT Medium-term plan, 3003-2005
Series Title: CIMMYT Medium-term plan ...
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Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2003
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Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
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Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        i
    Copyright
        ii
    Table of Contents
        iii
    Acronyms and abbreviations
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    People and partnerships to build sustainable livelihoods
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Financial tables
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
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        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Project portfolio
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
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Full Text








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People and Partnerships to

Build Sustainable Livelihoods


Medium-Term Plan of the
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(CIMMYT)
2003-2005+


September 2002












CIMMYT (www.cimmvt.org) is an internationally funded, nonprofit, scientific research and
training organization. Headquartered in Mexico, CIMMYT works with agricultural research
institutions worldwide to improve the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of maize
and wheat systems for poor farmers in developing countries. It is one of 16 food and
environmental organizations known as the Future Harvest Centers. Located around the world,
the Future Harvest Centers conduct research in partnership with farmers, scientists, and
policymakers to help alleviate poverty and increase food security while protecting natural
resources. The centers are supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural
Research (CGIAR) (www.cgiar.org), whose members include nearly 60 countries, private
foundations, and regional and international organizations. Financial support for CIMMYT's
research agenda also comes from many other sources, including foundations, development
banks, and public and private agencies.

Future Harvest builds awareness and support for food and environmental research for a
world with less poverty, a healthier human family, well-nourished children, and a better
environment. It supports research, promotes partnerships, and sponsors projects that bring the
results of research to rural communities, farmers, and families in Africa, Asia, and Latin
America (www.futureharvest.org).

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 2002. All rights reserved.
The opinions expressed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors. The
designations employed in the presentation of materials in this publication do not imply the
expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT or its contributory
organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area, or of its
authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. CIMMYT encourages
fair use of this material. Proper citation is requested.

Correct citation: CIMMYT. 2002. People and Partnerships to Build Sustainable
Livelihoods: Medium-Term Plan of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(CIMMYT), 2003-2005+. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.

Printed in Mexico.











Contents


Acronyms and Abbreviations
People and Partnerships to Build Sustainable Livelihoods: CIMMYT Research Plan
and Budget, 2003-2005+
Agricultural Research, Poverty Reduction, and the Role of CIMMYT
Research Highlights
Financial Highlights
Financial Tables
Project Portfolio


Project 1 (Gl):
Project 2 (G2):
Project 3 (G3):
Project 4 (G4):
Project 5 (G5):
Project 6 (G6):
Project 7 (G7):
Project 8 (G8):
Project 9 (G9):


Project 10 (R1):
Project 11 (R2):
Project 12 (R3):
Project 13 (R4):
Project 14 (R5):
Project 15 (R6):
Project 16 (Fl):
Project 17 (F2):
Project 18 (F3):
Project 19 (F4):
Project 20 (F5):
Project 21 (F6):


Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for humanity
Improved maize for the world's poor
Improved wheat for the world's poor
Maize for sustainable production in stressed environments
Wheat for sustainable production in marginal environments
Wheat resistant to diseases and pests
Impacts of maize and wheat research
Building human capital
Conservation tillage and agricultural systems to mitigate poverty
and climate change
Food and sustainable livelihoods for Sub-Saharan Africa
Maize for poverty alleviation and economic growth in Asia
Sustaining wheat production in South Asia, including rice-wheat systems
Food security for West Asia and North Africa
Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America and the Caribbean
Restoring food security and economic growth in Central Asia
New wheat science to meet global challenges
Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers
Biotechnology for food security
Biofortified grain for human health
Reducing grain losses after harvest
Technology assessment for poverty reduction and sustainable resource use











Acronyms and Abbreviations

ADB Asian Development Bank
ACIAR Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
ANU Australian National University
APS American Phytopathological Society
APSRU Agricultural Production Research Systems Unit, Department of Primary Industries,
Queensland, Australia
ARIs Advanced research institutes
BSPP British Society for Plant Pathology
CAAS Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
CABI CAB International
CAC Central Asia and the Caucasus
CDRI Crop Diseases Research Institute, Pakistan
CENTA Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria y Forestal, El Salvador
National Agricultural Technology Center
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
CIAT Centro Intemacional de Agricultura Tropical
CIRAD Centre de cooperation international en recherche agronomique pour le d6veloppement
CIP Centro Intemacional de la Papa
CORAF Conseil Ouest et Centre Africain pour la Recherche et le D6veloppement Agricoles
CRCMPB Collaborative Research Centre for Molecular Plant Breeding, Australia
CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia
CML CIMMYT maize line
DFID Department for International Development, UK
DICTA Direcci6n de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Honduras
EARO Ethiopian National Agricultural Research Organization
EC European Commission
EGPs Eastern Gangetic Plains
EGPSN Eastern Gangetic Plains Screening Nursery
EGPYT Eastern Gangetic Plains Yield Trial
EMBRAPA Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Brazil
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
GDP Gross domestic product
GFAR Global Forum on Agricultural Research
GIS Geographic information systems
GRDC Grains Research and Development Corporation
GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft fuir Technische Zusammenarbeit
GxCA Genotype x conservation agriculture
HLB Helminthosporium leaf blight
IAC International Agricultural Centre
IACR Institute of Arable Crops Research
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IARCs International agricultural research centers
IBSRAM International Board for Soil Research and Management
ICAR Indian Council of Agricultural Research
ICARDA International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
ICIPE International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology
ICRAF International Centre for Research in Agroforestry
ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
ICTA Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agricola, Guatemala
IDB Inter-American Development Bank
IDIAP Instituto de Investigaci6n Agropecuaria de Panama
IDRC International Development Research Centre, Canada
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development











IFDC
IFPRI
IICA
IITA
ILRI
INIA
INIAP
INIFAP
INTA
IPGRI
IPR
IPTT
IRD
IRMA
IRRI
iSC
ISTRO
IWIN
IWIS
IWMI
JIRCAS
KARI
LA
LTCA
MAS
NARSs
NGOs
OPEC
OPV
PCR
PERC
PPB
PRA
PVS
QPM
QTL
R&D
RRA
RW
RWC
SADC
SADLF
SAT
SNP
SPIA
SSR
TSBF
UAAAN
UNAM
UNDP
SAID
USDA
WANA
WECAMAN
WECARD


International Fertilizer Development Center
International Food Policy Research Institute
Institute Interamericano de Cooperaci6n para la Agricultura
International Institute for Tropical Agriculture
International Livestock Research Institute
Institute de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Ecuador
Institute Nacional Aut6nomo de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Ecuador
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricolas y Pecuarias, mexico
Institute Nicaragiiense de Tecnologia Agropecuaria
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
Intellectual property rights
International Progeny Testing Trial
Institute de Recherche pour le D6veloppement
Insect Resistance Maize for Africa
International Rice Research Institute
Interim Science Council, CGIAR
International Soil Tillage Research Organization
International Wheat Improvement Network
International Wheat Information System
International Water Management Institute
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
Kenya Agricultural Research Institute
Latin America
Long-term conservation agriculture
Marker-assisted selection
National agricultural research systems
Nongovernmental organizations
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
Open-pollinated variety
Polymerase chain reaction
Productivity-enhancing, resource-conserving
Participatory plant breeding
Participatory rural appraisal
Participatory variety selection
Quality protein maize
Quantitative trait loci
Research and development
Rapid rural appraisal
Rice-wheat
Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains
Southern African Development Community
Southern African Drought and Low Soil Fertility
Stomatal aperture-related trait
Single nucleotide polymorphism
Standing Panel on Impacts Assessment
Single sequence repeat
Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility
Universidad Aut6noma Agrdria Antonio Narro
Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico
United Nations Development Programme
United States Agency for International Development
United States Department of Agriculture
West Asia and North Africa
West and Central Africa Maize Network
West and Central African Council for Research and Development






























































vi














People and Partnerships to Build

Sustainable Livelihoods:


CIMMYT Research Plan and Budget,
2003-2005+







Agricultural Research, Poverty Reduction,
and the Role of CIMMYT

Of the estimated 1.2 billion people in the world who subsist on less than US$ 1 per day, nearly
three-quarters live in rural areas and support themselves mainly through agriculture. Efforts to
reduce and eventually eradicate global poverty therefore are linked inextricably to the fate of
agriculture. At a time when the attention of the international development community is focused
on more topical concerns-famine relief, AIDS, global warming, resettlement of refugees-we
should not lose sight of the fact that agriculture can play a vital role in poverty reduction by
serving as an engine of economic growth, providing income-generating opportunities for
hundreds of millions of the world's poorest people, and ensuring that natural resources are
managed in a sustainable fashion to ensure the prosperity of current as well as future generations.

How will agriculture play such a role? If global poverty is to be reduced and eventually
eradicated, national economies must grow faster than population. Distribution of wealth affects
the pattern of poverty and its incidence across different groups within the population, but
economic growth per se is needed to ensure that the most disadvantaged groups have the income-
generating opportunities they will need to lift themselves out of poverty. Since agriculture
remains an extremely important sector in many developing countries, overall economic growth in
these countries depends in large part on agricultural growth.

Sources of Agricultural Growth

Historically, agricultural growth has been strong and sustained, at least at the global level. Over
the longer term, production of major food staples such as wheat, rice, and maize has outpaced
population increases, leading to lower food prices and higher real incomes for the poor.
Meanwhile, production variability in these crops has stabilized, reducing the frequency and
severity of supply disruptions and enhancing food security at the household level and beyond.










These generally positive aggregate trends have masked significant regional disparities, however,
especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where per capital agricultural production has fallen during each
of the past three decades and where production variability has actually increased through time.

Given that in many countries agricultural growth will play a leading role in ensuring the overall
economic growth needed to reduce poverty, where will agricultural growth come from? While the
sources of agricultural growth are many and varied, clearly one of the most important is research.
Economic studies have shown conclusively that investment in agricultural research is one of the
key drivers of long-term growth in agricultural productivity (for a recent summary of the
evidence, see Alston et al. 2000).

Agricultural Research:
A Victim of Its Own Success?

Unfortunately, the importance of agricultural research is not always appreciated. In a sense,
agricultural research has been a victim of its own success. Following the large and sustained food
production increases that were achieved during the latter half of the 20th century, many people
have become complacent about the need for continuing to invest in agricultural research,
particularly public international research. This complacency has its origins in three widespread
perceptions: (1) governments invest too much in agricultural research, (2) structural adjustment
reforms have paved the way for the private sector to assume many of the research activities
formerly performed by the public sector, and (3) science in the South is rapidly catching up to
science in the North.

A recent IFPRI study makes clear that all three perceptions are misguided (Pardey and Beintema
2001). At the global level, investment in agricultural research has grown much more slowly than
overall economic growth. Investment has particularly lagged in developing countries, where
research investment intensities-the value of agricultural research and development (R&D)
spending expressed as a proportion of total agricultural GDP-remain well below 1%, compared
to over 2.5% in industrialized countries. Private investment in agricultural R&D has indeed
accelerated in recent years in many industrialized countries, but contrary to popular opinion it has
been very slow to take off in developing countries, where it presently accounts for less than 6% of
total investment, compared to nearly 52% in industrialized countries. As a result of these trends,
the gap in scientific capacity between the North and the South has widened, not narrowed.

Left unchecked, the present complacency about the need to invest in agricultural research could
have serious negative consequences over the longer term. Agricultural production systems in the
North and South should be able to respond to significant further increases in demand for food,
feed, and fiber. However, the response will not come automatically. The agricultural production
increases needed to feed and clothe a growing world population will depend critically on the
emergence of diversified, intensive farming systems that are technically efficient, socially
acceptable, economically profitable, and environmentally sustainable. Without continued
investment in research, the technologies needed for these new farming systems are unlikely to
materialize.

CIMMYT: Innovation for Development

Against this background, CIMMYT is positioning itself to continue to play a key role as a leading
source of technical innovations to benefit the poor in developing countries. Despite the belief in
some circles that commodity research on staple foods should no longer be a priority for the










CGIAR, the continuing relevance of CIMMYT's mandate to increase productivity in maize- and
wheat-based cropping systems is strongly supported by two considerations.

First, growth in the productivity of food grain production is still important, especially in
developing countries. World population growth is slowing but has not leveled off. Consequently,
growth in food demand continues to rise. By 2020, the world's population will have grown by an
additional 1.75 billion people (Rosegrant et al. 2001). Fuelled by population gains, demand for
maize will increase by more than 45% over current levels, with more than 80% of the total
coming from developing countries. During the same period, demand for wheat will increase by
more than 30% over current levels, with more than 87% of the total coming from developing
countries (Rosegrant et al. 2001). For the foreseeable future, it will be necessary to squeeze
additional maize and wheat production from an increasingly strained resource base.

Second, consolidating past productivity gains in cereal crops will be a major challenge. Even after
global food demand eventually stabilizes, maintaining existing productivity levels will require a
lot of hard work to develop resilient crop varieties and sustainable production systems. Over time,
insect pests and disease pathogens evolve to overcome the natural defenses of most plant
varieties. As a result, yields achieved by maize and wheat farmers will decline unless older,
susceptible varieties are periodically replaced with new varieties with improved sources of
resistance. A significant proportion of all maize and wheat breeding will continue to be designed
to protect current yield levels by identifying new sources of stress resistance or tolerance, as well
as the capacity to use water, nutrients, and other inputs more efficiently. Yields may also erode as
soil fertility declines in the absence of sustainable practices. Complementary to the breeding
effort, crop and natural resource management research will continue to be directed at developing
practices that protect yields in other ways-for example, by improving soil fertility, conserving
water, or reducing the use the of agricultural chemicals, or even by enhancing the diversity of
farming systems and thereby improving their capacity to cope with evolving diseases and pests.
The importance of this yield-protecting research will not decline over time; on the contrary, the
continuing intensification of maize and wheat production systems will only increase pressure
from pests and diseases.

The future viability of maize- and wheat-based production systems in the developing world will
depend on investments in research to address these twin challenges. Even so, it is reasonable to
ask, "But why is CIMMYT needed? Won't this research be provided by other organizations-by
public national agricultural research systems (NARSs) on the one hand, and by private companies
on the other?"

Public Research for the Poorest of the Poor

Experience and logic suggest that alternative sources of supply will not address the technology
needs of the poor, at least not for the foreseeable future. In many developing countries, public
NARSs lack the resources to develop locally adapted cultivars as well as improved crop and
resource management technologies needed by small-scale producers. While it must be a priority
to strengthen the capacity of these NARSs, over the short and medium term they simply will not
be able to get the job done.

What about the private sector? It has been fashionable to argue that where NARSs have failed,
private companies will fill the gap. This view, too, is misguided. By definition, private companies
exist to generate a return on shareholders' capital. In pursuit of this goal, they invest in areas in
which they have a reasonable expectation of generating returns on their investment. Yet research
has shown that generating technologies for small-scale, subsistence-oriented farmers usually is










not a money-making proposition for private firms. Demand for improved technologies is too
weak and too variable, and the commercial returns to meeting that demand are too meager, to
warrant sustained investment by profit-oriented companies. Even though the returns to these
kinds of investments for society as a whole can be enormous, private companies do not invest
because they cannot capture many of those returns. Economic incentives are particularly lacking
at the "upstream" end of the research spectrum-in the case of plant breeding, in the areas of
genetic resource conservation, pre-breeding, and basic trait development (Morris and Ekasingh
2002). The lack of economic incentives leads to market failure, with the result that the poorest
farmers are often bypassed by private-sector technology providers. This leaves them completely
dependent on public research organizations, both national and international.

In addressing the continuing need for public research targeted at the poorest of the poor,
CIMMYT will continue to press its traditional advantage in crop genetic improvement (plant
breeding). Of course, the way in which we do our plant breeding will continue to evolve in the
face of changes in the external environment (see "New Research to Address New Trends in Our
External Environment"). These changes include but are not limited to the emergence of active
private-sector breeding programs in many developing countries, the advent of genomics and
information technology as powerful plant breeding tools, the implementation of new international
agreements regarding the ownership and control of global plant genetic resources, and the
strengthening of intellectual property rights (IPRs) relating to the products of public and private
plant breeding programs. CIMMYT will continue to respond to these developments by regularly
reassessing its role in the international plant breeding system and making appropriate adjustments
to its portfolio of research activities and network of strategic partnerships.

At the same time, it is clear that improved maize and wheat germplasm alone will not solve the
complex problems of global poverty, persistent inequality, and environmental degradation. For
this reason, CIMMYT will continue to strengthen its work in the areas of crop and resource
management research, social science research, institutional strengthening, and policy advocacy.
To retain our focus, we will ensure that our work in these areas retains its relevance to the maize-
and wheat-based cropping systems that lie at the core of our mandate.

Not only the focus, but also the nature of our activities continues to evolve. Just as a stronger
integration of disciplines and specialties within CIMMYT is needed to meet these more complex
challenges, so too a stronger integration is needed at the regional and global levels for merging
our contributions with those of our proliferating array of partners. We therefore continue to
expand and strengthen our historically strong links to NARSs, other CGIAR Centers, and centers
of research excellence in the North. At the same time, we are developing new relationships with
partners. Partners from the private sector may offer access to the cutting-edge science and
resources needed to deliver the best possible technology to the poor. Partners from non-
governmental organizations (NGOs) and rural community groups can help us understand the
needs of the people they serve and ensure that technology reaches them.

In the near future, two developments will also significantly influence CIMMYT's research
agenda. First, our vision of CIMMYT's mission, its role in development, and its research
portfolio will be sharpened as we develop a new strategic plan. This ambitious and very important
undertaking will clarify the strategic decisions we must take over the next 20 years and will serve
as the framework for our next short-term operational plan. Second, the form and content of that
operational plan will reflect CIMMYT's involvement in the Challenge Programs currently under
development in the CGIAR.













New Research to Address New Trends in Our External Environment

Changes in the external environment have led CIMMYT's social scientists to give increased
attention to four new areas of research.

Managing intellectual property rights in public breeding programs. Intellectual property
rights (IPRs) relating to plant genetic resources now strongly affect plant breeding programs, both
public and private, national as well as international. While IPRs appear to have succeeded in
strengthening incentives for private firms to invest in plant breeding research, they appear also to
be constraining public plant breeding programs by limiting access to technology and information.
Concern has been raised that this trend could result in a largely privatized international plant
breeding system that will cater mainly to the needs of commercial producers while essentially
ignoring small-scale, subsistence-oriented farmers, who do not represent an attractive market.
Concern has also been raised that, as pubic research institutes increasingly make use of
proprietary technology in developing their products, restrictions on the use of such technology
may prevent those products from being made available to poor farmers at little or no cost.
CIMMYT has initiated new research on these and other IPR issues, with the goal of generating
information to devise effective strategies for managing public-sector plant breeding programs.

How does globalization affect local agricultural decisions? Globalization-the lowering of
international barriers to flows of goods and services, coupled with standardization of regulatory
systems and legal regimes-could significantly affect world agriculture. Until now, the impacts of
globalization on agriculture have been relatively modest. While theoretically committed to
removing distortions in their agricultural sectors, governments in many industrialized countries
have been slow to phase out policies that have led to chronic overproduction of maize, wheat,
and other crops. If they comply with their commitments, the impacts for the developing world's
maize and wheat farmers could be tremendous. CIMMYT has initiated studies to clarify how
macro-level policy changes associated with globalization could affect micro-level (farm-level)
production decisions in developing countries.

Restoring productive capacity in Central Asian agriculture. Under centralized Soviet
planning, the use of input-intensive practices in Central Asia was not always efficient, but farmers
received essential production inputs, including seed, fertilizer, and machinery. Following
independence, these supplies virtually dried up, and many farmers have reverted to low external
input production practices. The parlous state of agriculture in Central Asia is a major concern to
the CGIAR in general and to CIMMYT in particular, because Central Asia formerly served as one
of the breadbaskets of the former Soviet Union. The recent steep decline in wheat productivity
has deprived the region of a major source of export earnings and undermined food security in a
number of countries. CIMMYT is working to help restore productive capacity in the national wheat
economies while rebuilding the institutions needed to support agricultural research and extension.

Productivity-enhancing, resource-conserving technologies. Growing concern over the
environmental impact of agriculture has given environmental and natural resource issues greater
prominence in the research agenda. Several crop and resource management technologies,
including zero- and reduced tillage and green manure cover crops, may reverse the negative
environmental impact of agriculture in developing countries (see the section on the rapid diffusion
of zero-tillage practices in South Asia). These so-called productivity-enhancing, resource-
conserving (PERC) technologies have diffused successfully in industrialized countries, but uptake
has generally lagged among poor farmers in developing countries. CIMMYT is analyzing the
technical, economic, social, and institutional factors that influence the development, adoption, and
diffusion of PERC technologies in Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa.











Highlights of Recent Research

The global, regional, and frontier projects described in this publication indicate how research is
integrated across disciplines within CIMMYT. They also show the many links with historical and
new research partners that enable us to fulfill our mission. Before presenting our portfolio of
projects, however, we highlight some recent research activities to convey an idea of the scope and
diversity of our research program.

Resource-Conserving Technology for Small-Scale Farmers

Over the past two decades there has been a remarkable spread of a new type of agriculture. This
type of agriculture has many names (no-tillage, zero tillage, direct seeding, conservation tillage),
all of which try to convey two basic requirements: residue cover and seeding into residue without
soil inversion (e.g., plowing, disking, and raking), with as little soil movement as possible. Today
about 59 million hectares worldwide are sown under zero-tillage. The tillage revolution has
required scientists and farmers to reassess much conventional wisdom on crop and soil
management. This paradigm shift has influenced many aspects of CIMMYT's research as well as
our regional technology transfer and training programs.

In the vast gravity- or surface-irrigated areas that account for well over 50% of wheat area and
production in the developing world (in Bangladesh, the Central Asian Republics, China, Egypt,
India, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Turkey, and Sudan, among other countries), large- and small-
scale farmers alike had few appropriate reduced or zero-tillage technologies until recent advances
by CIMMYT and its national research partners. If, as pointed out in the introduction, diversified,
intensive, and sustainable farming systems are essential to meeting demand for local livelihoods
and wider economic growth, technologies such as zero-tillage will be increasingly important.

One area where the effects of recent changes in tillage technology are being felt is South Asia.
The tillage revolution in South Asia, described in last year's Medium-Term Plan, has continued
this year at an accelerated pace. Zero-tillage for wheat planted after rice now covers a very
substantial area in India and Pakistan. Zero- and reduced tillage and other resource-conserving
technologies (green manure cover crop and mulch systems, and bed planting) have been adopted
in new areas, including eastern India, the Terai (lowlands) of Nepal, and parts of Bangladesh.

The immense advantages of resource-conserving technologies in South Asia continue to be
confirmed (lower costs, higher yields, lower input use, higher profits, lower emission of
greenhouse gases, and higher savings of scarce water resources). Much of the work on resource-
conserving technologies in South Asia is conducted through the Rice-Wheat Consortium for the
Indo-Gangetic Plains (RWC), convened by CIMMYT and featuring partnerships with four
national research systems, four other CGIAR Centers, and numerous advanced research institutes
(ARIs), NGOs, and farmers' groups.

Resource-conserving technologies have tremendous potential to help South Asian farmers cope
with drought, a recurring and increasingly severe problem in the region. For example, it has been
estimated that the use of zero-tillage in wheat after rice in South Asia enables wheat to take
advantage of residual moisture from rice and saves farmers around 1 million liters of water per
hectare, compared with conventional practices. These kinds of technologies are helping South
Asian farmers to prepare for a future with much less water. According to the International Water
Management Institute (IWMI), by 2025 Pakistan and large parts of India will lack the fresh water










needed to maintain current levels of irrigated agriculture and will have to shift water out of
agriculture to meet other demands.

The success of resource-conserving technologies in South Asia has spurred efforts to adapt these
technologies to the conditions of small-scale farmers elsewhere, including Central Mexico and
Eastern and Southern Africa. In Mexico, a major new project ("Sustainable Agriculture Based on
Direct Seeding"), featuring multiple stakeholders and institutions and convened by the State
Government of Guanajuato, is moving swiftly to tailor resource-conserving technologies to the
conditions of farmers in that state. The severe drought affecting Southern Africa has served to
highlight the importance of CIMMYT's Risk Management Project in that region to identify and
disseminate technologies that improve water-use efficiency and soil fertility for smallholder
farmers.

CIMMYT and its partners will continue to develop appropriate technology to address three major
constraints to the adoption of zero-tillage on small farms: (1) the lack of adequate seeding
equipment, (2) lack of crop varieties bred specifically for zero-tillage on small farms, and (3)
manual harvesting and subsequent threshing away from the field.

Social Dimensions of Gene Flow

The alleged introduction of transgenic maize into Mexico raised a number of questions
surrounding the ways in which genetic resources move between and within countries. Although
biological propagation mechanisms have been subject to extensive study, social propagation
mechanisms have received relatively little attention. This is an important omission, because quite
clearly gene flows are affected as much by social as by biological factors. CIMMYT economists,
maize researchers, and biotechnology researchers recently launched a research initiative designed
to shed light on the social dimensions of gene flow in Mexican maize.

Stronger Maize Seed Supply Systems

Seed is a precious resource for farmers. It is commonly viewed as a symbol of the health and self-
sufficiency of rural communities. Among agricultural inputs, seed has the greatest potential to
enhance farm productivity and household food security. The genetic properties of seed help
determine a plant's response to stress, set the upper limit on yield, and influence the productivity
of other agricultural inputs.

Farmers obtain maize seed through formal, commercial channels or-more commonly in the
developing world-through informal means, largely through the community or family.
Commercial seed production and delivery is a complex process, requiring the successful
conjunction of numerous technical, institutional, economic, social, and political factors and the
cooperation of numerous organizations. Although community-based seed production and delivery
is generally simpler, it involves many of the same factors. Sustainable systems to supply quality
seed of suitable varieties at affordable prices have failed to materialize in many low-income
countries, and most smallholders continue to use seed of low-yielding, unimproved varieties.

The work by CIMMYT and its partners to develop improved maize varieties is ultimately
fruitless if seed of those varieties does not reach the farmers who need it most. The lack of
sustainable systems for supplying seed is especially worrisome in sub-Saharan Africa, where seed
markets and infrastructure are weak, private seed companies have few incentives to supply seed
to poor, subsistence farmers, and public seed agencies are often ineffective.










CIMMYT has approached this problem in two ways, leveraging the long and broad experience of
several of its scientists in maize seed production and its linkages with relevant regional
organizations worldwide. We have raised awareness in the donor community and developed
proposals for projects that specifically address farmers' needs for quality seed. For example, as of
1999, with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, CIMMYT has worked with national
research programs and community action groups in more than 20 villages of western Kenya and
Uganda to help small-scale farmers produce and market quality seed of improved maize varieties
they themselves select.

A similar effort, whereby our scientists work through regional organizations to facilitate the
production of seed of improved maize varieties selected by African farmers, is part of the
Southern Africa Drought and Low Soil Fertility (SADLF) Project, funded jointly by the Swiss
Agency for Development and Cooperation and the Rockefeller Foundation. A project recently
funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) is developing the means to
deliver improved maize seed to poor farmers in southern Africa within two years. In fact, seed
sector development has become a basic component of most CIMMYT project proposals for
maize.

It is important to emphasize that CIMMYT does not compete with the private sector in areas
where private companies are effectively producing seed. Instead, the Center's objective is to work
in areas where seed companies do not serve resource-poor smallholders. By seeking alternatives
for providing seed to farmers, CIMMYT hopes to generate awareness of the value of improved
seed, increase the demand for seed, and ultimately create local opportunities for seed suppliers.

For these reasons, CIMMYT allocates a significant portion of resources-not the least being staff
time-to building capacity for maize seed production and supply. This includes training and
technical support for national research and extension programs, national seed certification
agencies, NGOs involved in seed distribution, the private sector, and farmer associations.
Practical training materials have been developed and utilized throughout the developing world.
Two adjunct scientists, based in India and Zimbabwe, were recently hired to strengthen maize
seed supply systems in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.

CIMMYT breeders sometimes provide quality breeder seed and foundation seed to help selected
suppliers get a business started, where this will clearly improve farmers' access to affordable
seed. They also support national programs that are doing the same or, occasionally, those that are
producing and selling seed. Finally, CIMMYT has often geared up rapidly to produce seed of
improved maize varieties for introduction into war- or disaster-torn areas-the most recent cases
being Afghanistan and East Timor.

Progress in Developing Apomictic Maize

Apomixis-asexual reproduction through seeds-results in plants that are exact clones of the
mother plant. This research has tremendous potential to benefit small-scale farmers; they could,
for example, recycle hybrid maize seed without losing its hybrid characteristics.

Research to obtain apomictic maize is conducted though a partnership established between
CIMMYT, France's Institut de Recherche pour le D6veloppement (IRD), Pioneer Hi-Bred
International, Groupe Limagrain, and Syngenta. The research is organized into four subprojects
aiming at (1) the recovery of apomictic maize via either interspecific hybrids or genetic
engineering, (2) the elucidation of the molecular bases of apomixis, (3) the development of an
engineered apomictic process in maize, and (4) the understanding of the mechanisms governing










deleterious dosage effects in the maize endosperm, an undesirable consequence of the expression
of apomixis.

The work in interspecific hybrids now focuses entirely on the analysis of maize-Tripsacum
addition forms (i.e., combining the maize chromosomes and a few Tripsacum ones) derived from
apomictic mother-plants. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization and progeny testing
revealed that some of them might have retained at least part of the apomictic process.
Characterization of diplospory, the apomixis type in Tripsacum, at the molecular and cellular
levels has produced new knowledge regarding both the mechanisms of apomixis and their
regulation. Such work allows us to identify candidate genes whose involvement in apomixis will
be determined using genomic tools already developed at CIMMYT (mutagenesis populations).
Cloning and identification of one of the best candidates has been completed, and characterization
(full sequence, expression studies) continues.

Within the engineered apomixis subproject, the search for genes and promoters whose
manipulation could result in the formation of somatic embryos in the nucellus is being
undertaken. Critical information was gained from our private sector partners and will be used in
forthcoming experiments.

Deleterious dosage effects in the maize endosperm, an undesirable consequence of the expression
of apomixis, have been shown to result from alterations in cell cycle regulation. Candidate genes
were identified and will be characterized through expression studies and the use of a mutagenized
population developed at CIMMYT.

Sustainable Livelihood Strategies for Poor Rural Households

Interest has grown in understanding poverty at the household and community levels. This partly
explains the rise in popularity of the "sustainable livelihoods" paradigm, initially promoted by the
UK Department for International Development (DFID) and now used by many other research and
development organizations. By calling for a systematic assessment of the physical, financial,
institutional, and social assets available to members of poor households, the sustainable
livelihoods paradigm provides clues to potential avenues out of poverty. To gain fresh insight into
the problems of developing agricultural technology, CIMMYT social scientists are conducting
case studies in Mexico and sub-Saharan Africa based on the sustainable livelihoods approach.
The case studies explore the role of maize production in the livelihood strategies of poor rural
households, with the ultimate objective of improving the effectiveness of technology
development.

Drought: The Continuing Challenge

CIMMYT researchers are well aware of the pressing need to provide alternatives, such as
drought-tolerant varieties and water-conserving management practices (such as zero tillage,
described earlier), to small-scale farmers in areas where drought is already endemic or increasing.

Wheat for drought-stressed areas. CIMMYT dedicates a good part of its resources to breeding
wheat adapted to a wide range of drought stress conditions. Drought stress occurring before
anthesis is believed to affect an estimated 3 million hectares of wheat in the developing world;
post-anthesis drought stress affects another 6 million hectares, typically in West Asia and North
Africa (WANA).










On a further 20 million hectares, mostly in Central Asia and western Siberia, little or no rainfall
occurs after planting. The wheat crop relies on stored soil moisture and is often severely drought
stressed. To develop wheat for these areas, CIMMYT uses the most widely grown cultivars and
elite breeding lines from collaborating national programs, crossed to elite CIMMYT lines that
posses high yield potential, disease resistance, and grain quality.

CIMMYT is also developing new, drought-resistant wheat varieties, descended from crosses
between different types of wheat and goat grass, one of wheat's wild relatives (see "Important
Traits from Wild Relatives of Wheat"). The new wheats produced up to 30% more grain for two
years running in tests comparing them to one of their parents under tough dryland conditions.
These wheats are grown using only a single irrigation that supplies 120 millimeters of water. (An
additional 50 millimeters are probably available from the atmosphere and soil.) The new wheats
are meant for dry locations where producers are changing the way they farm to make better use of
water, control soil erosion, and maintain soil fertility. Some farmers have started doing very little
or no plowing and leaving the straw of the previous crop on the soil surface. Depending on
climate, other farmers may plant their wheat deeper than usual to take advantage of rainwater
stored in the soil.

As one of the core partners in Australia's Collaborative Research Centre for Molecular Plant
Breeding (CRCMPB), CIMMYT has been mapping genes for drought tolerance in wheat. In
addition, wheat plants containing the DREB1A gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (provided by
JIRCAS, Japan's International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences) have been produced
and show an increased level of tolerance to drought stress.

The adaptation of wheat germplasm to areas rendered marginal by drought involves much more
than drought tolerance, however. Root health often determines a plant's ability to perform well
under drought. Root growth and health can be influenced by a number of biotic and abiotic
factors, including nematodes, root rots, and micronutrient toxicities and deficiencies. The
importance of these stresses (once considered minor) is increasingly apparent. CIMMYT is
assisting national agricultural research programs to better characterize these stresses, and our
researchers are also using molecular markers, where they are available, to select germplasm that
can withstand these stresses.

Maize for drought-stressed areas and infertile soils. The SADLF Project, mentioned earlier, is a
collaborative effort between CIMMYT and national agricultural research programs of the
Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) region. The Project has developed stress-
tolerant, open-pollinated maize varieties (ZM421, ZM521, and ZM621) that have been released
in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. In trials grown from Ethiopia to South Africa
in 1999, ZM521 produced an average 34% more grain than other improved varieties farmers
currently grow. Since 2000, CIMMYT and partners from national programs and NGOs have
channeled more than 70 tons of seed of these varieties into community-based seed production in
Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. More than 500
tons of commercial seed of these varieties have been produced so far-enough for planting
25,000-30,000 hectares, some of it for further seed production.

A newer generation of drought-tolerant, open-pollinated varieties, whose productivity exceeds
that of ZM421, ZM521, and ZM621 by 15%, is being tested. The SADLF Project has also
developed hybrids that produce over 50% more grain at the 1 ton per hectare yield level-the
typical yield in many farmers' fields-and continue to exceed the best check hybrids from private
companies by an average of 1 ton per hectare up to the 10 ton per hectare level (measured from
35 trials conducted across eastern and southern Africa in 2001).











The SADLF Project's goal-to provide smallholder farmers with more appropriate stress-tolerant
maize varieties-is being achieved through the establishment of a testing system in which any
breeding program in the SADC region (CIMMYT, national programs, private companies) can
evaluate its maize for qualities important to resource-poor farmers, especially tolerance to
drought and poor soils (low nitrogen, acidic, low phosphorus) and resistance to diseases and
insect pests.

Biotechnology approaches to improving drought tolerance in maize, wheat, and other crops.
Considerable effort has been dedicated to the genetic dissection of drought tolerance in maize
through quantitative trait loci (QTL) identification of yield components, secondary morphological
traits of interest (e.g., anthesis-silking interval), and more recently physiological parameters. By
the end of 2002, QTLs for drought-related traits will have been identified in five crosses and
more than 20 environments. This information is being compiled in a consensus linkage map for
maize. Particular emphasis is given to genomic regions where consistent QTLs for a given trait
are identified among crosses, as well as the regions where QTLs for different traits of interest are
identified. As such regions are identified, this information is used to develop efficient marker-
assisted selection (MAS) strategies that do not require the construction of linkage maps for each
new cross or field evaluation to identify the target QTL.

This quantitative genetic approach provides very little information about the mechanisms and
pathways involved in drought tolerance or about the multitude of genes involved in the plant's
response under water-limited conditions. Functional genomics, however, allows the simultaneous
study of the expression of several thousands of genes and should help overcome these problems;
new work in this area is being supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. With the ultimate
objective of accelerating, sustaining, and complementing conventional breeding programs,
research aimed at identifying and characterizing genes and pathways that are over- or under-
expressed in water-limited conditions has been initiated. This work makes use of the candidate
gene approach and profiling experiments on contrasting materials derived from segregating
populations (the profiling experiments are a collaboration with Pioneer Hi-Bred International). A
strategy that combines phenotypic germplasm characterization, QTL identification, and gene
expression profiles will lead to efficient and effective strategies to develop cereals with higher
productivity under water-limited conditions.


Important Traits from Wild Relatives of Wheat

As wheat became domesticated, it acquired the ability to yield more and bigger grain, but it lost a
good part of its wild relatives' genetic protection from drought, cold, heat, waterlogging, diseases,
and pests. To broaden the genetic basis for stress tolerance, CIMMYT has incorporated useful
traits from Aegilops squarrosa, a wild relative of wheat, into the adapted wheat genepool that
breeders use to develop new varieties.

This increased genetic variability has resulted in new sources and combinations of genes for
resistance to six or seven diseases at the same time, plus tolerance to such problems as drought,
salinity, and waterlogging. This genetic difference gives them a huge advantage in most
environments where wheat is grown. These materials also have a much broader, and different,
genetic diversity than their "normal" counterparts. In farmers' fields this translates into more stable
yields.











Marshalling Molecular Diversity for Maize and Wheat Improvement

Crop genetic diversity is an important resource (see "Crop Genetic Diversity: What Is Its
Economic Value?"), not only for the global community of plant breeders, who take advantage of
genetic diversity in selecting for economically desirable traits, but also for the farmers and
consumers who grow and consume improved varieties. With detailed knowledge of the genetic
diversity in a set of genotypes, breeders are better equipped to avoid developing plants that are
vulnerable to stresses or incapable of yielding more than their predecessors.

Maize improvement may be aided by placing lines with an unknown heterotic pattern into the
correct heterotic group without extensive crossing. Wheat improvement may be speeded by
association analyses, which help researchers determine exactly which chromosomal segments
contribute to traits of interest, without the need for extensive mapping. Both maize and wheat
improvement will benefit from rapid, efficient testing of germplasm for the presence of
translocated segments, transposable elements, transgenes, and other genetic elements added to the
genomes under study.

High-throughput fingerprinting of maize lines using single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and
automatic DNA sequencers allows CIMMYT to fingerprint as many as 200 lines per week once
DNA is extracted. All CIMMYT maize lines (CMLs) available to our partners have been
fingerprinted with at least 50 markers, and the data are available in public databases (the database
efforts are funded by the US Department of Agriculture and involve USDA-University of


Crop Genetic Diversity: What Is Its Economic Value?

Although genetic diversity is widely acknowledged to be important, assigning an economic value
to its importance is very difficult, because the benefits of genetic diversity are difficult to measure.
The benefits consist partly of an "option value," which relates to the value of a genetic resource in
some as-yet undetermined future use (e.g., providing a source of resistance to a disease that
does not yet exist). In addition, genetic diversity affords some "insurance value" to farmers, in the
sense that farmers who grow genetically diverse crops are less vulnerable to catastrophic losses
from a breakdown in resistance to specific biotic or abiotic stresses.

The fact that the benefits of genetic diversity are challenging to measure poses a problem,
because maintaining diversity is costly. Ex situ conservation requires investment in the
construction and operation of genebanks, and in situ conservation requires that incentives be
maintained for farmers to continue growing and managing traditional cultivars. To invest in a
socially optimal level of genetic resource conservation, the costs must somehow be related to the
expected benefits. CIMMYT is conducting several studies to shed light on the economics of
genetic resource conservation and use. On the conservation side, we are estimating the cost of
preserving maize and wheat resources in CIMMYT's genebank and identifying optimal search
strategies that plant breeders can use to screening the extensive genebank collections for
economically valuable traits. On the use side, we are conducting case studies in selected
countries to understand farmers' incentives for preserving genetic diversity and to assess the
relationship between farmers' seed and varietal management practices, the genetic diversity of
their cultivars, and aggregate measures of productivity (e.g., level and variability of yields). The
information generated through these studies should improve the efficiency of genetic resource
management practices at CIMMYT and elsewhere.










Missouri collaboration). All newly released CMLs, as well as up to 200 under development, will
be fingerprinted every year. The current strategy is to quickly fingerprint heterogenous maize
populations and characterize them based on allele frequencies of each SSR marker. We have
begun characterization of genebank materials (lines, populations, and races) and have finished the
characterization of more than 200 maize populations.

For wheat, the recent availability to CIMMYT of a large number of high-quality, mapped SSR
markers from Dupont will allow us to adopt the same high-throughput technologies available for
maize, using the DNA sequencer to multiplex many markers at the same time. We have almost
completed the optimization of two SSR markers per chromosome arm in wheat for fingerprinting.

CIMMYT researchers continue to evaluate the efficiency of new marker types, such as diversity
arrays and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to determine if they will be useful in
CIMMYT's diversity studies.

Striga Tolerance in Maize

As mentioned in previous Medium-Term Plans, CIMMYT has undertaken a great deal of research
to develop maize that tolerates Striga, a parasitic weed that limits maize production in many parts
of sub-Saharan Africa. This year we focus mostly on achievements with non-conventional
breeding approaches. Much of this research has been funded by the Rockefeller Foundation.

Teocinte and Tripsacum accessions showing good levels of tolerance to Striga have been
identified. A number of maize-Tripsacum hybrids will be screened in the field and laboratory to
determine whether the sensitivity of the hybrids to Striga is enhanced as the balance of Tripsacum
genes present in the hybrids is reduced. The screening will also identify which Tripsacum
chromosomes are responsible for limiting Striga germination and attachment and/or for
alleviating the impact of Striga infection on the host plant.

Researchers are using a proteomic approach to investigate differences in protein expression
between maize and Tripsacum roots and to determine what changes in protein expression are seen
in the roots of Striga-infected plants. Differences in protein expression may indicate a
mechanistic basis for tolerance to Striga in Tripsacum.

Transposon tagging has been used to generate a population of maize plants in which the
expression of a number of random genes has been limited by the insertion of transposon DNA
into the genes. A small number of these transposon-tagged maize lines show no or limited
emergence of Striga in the field. In further tests at the University of Sheffield, infection by Striga
had very little impact on the growth of transposon-tagged hosts, in contrast to susceptible maize
controls.

Efforts are underway to stabilize transposon-tagged genotypes that demonstrate tolerance to
Striga by immobilizing the transposable elements. We are beginning to convert a set of 5-10
inbred lines, including some of the best locally adapted inbred and CIMMYT maize lines, with
transposon-tagged material. A genetic marker for the tolerant phenotype would speed conversion,
so work is underway to develop markers for eventual use in marker-assisted selection. To fully
characterize tolerant transposon-tagged lines, we aim to clone genes that have null function
because of the inserted transposon. This information will enhance our understanding of the
biology of the host-Striga relationship and will also provide the opportunity to generate more
Striga-tolerant maize lines and introgress the trait into other cereals.










In a complementary research effort, CIMMYT and the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute
(KARI) are adapting a Striga control technology developed by Israel's Weizmann Institute of
Science to Kenyan conditions. The technology is herbicide-resistant maize seed. The seed is not
genetically modified; its resistance comes from a naturally occurring maize gene obtained from
Pioneer Hi-Bred International. The seed is coated with the herbicide imazapyr, developed by
BASF. Entire fields can be kept Striga-free with as little as 30 g of herbicide seed coating per
hectare, at a cost of around US$ 4. Research shows significant yield increases and a benefit:cost
ratio as high as 20:1 for farmers.

Physiology Research to Improve Wheat Yield

Over the past few years, evidence has been accumulating that physiological traits such as
stomatal conductance, canopy temperature depression, and spectral reflectance have potential to
be used as indirect selection criteria for improving yields of grain and biomass in wheat. To
further boost yield in irrigated environments, it is widely believed that genetic improvement must
come from simultaneously increasing photosynthetic assimilation capacity (i.e., "the source") as
well as improving the partitioning of assimilates to reproductive (i.e., grain) "sinks." CIMMYT
researchers have tracked a number of traits that have potential to improve both "source" and
"sink".

Rust Resistance in Wheat

One of CIMMYT's most important areas of yield-protecting research is the effort to develop
wheats that resist the rust diseases, which are globally important foliar fungal diseases. Enhanced
resistance to these fungal pathogens, especially those that cause leaf and yellow rusts, plays a
major role in the adaptation of improved cultivars with high yield potential to different
agroclimatic regions.

CIMMYT's strategy has been to incorporate "slow iuiLing" or "durable" resistance into its wheat
germplasm. Slow rusting allows the rust pathogen to continue feeding on plant cells but fights it
within the cells, meaning that infection is reduced to a level that does not seriously damage the
plant or reduce yields. This type of resistance is not subject to breaking down, although crop
losses can be significant if a rust epidemic is severe.

CIMMYT researchers are characterizing genes that confer durable resistance to the rusts, as part
of the effort to incorporate durable rust resistance into CIMMYT wheats. Although 10-12 slow
rusting genes are known to be present in CIMMYT spring wheat germplasm, only two of these
genes, Lr34 and Lr46, have been designated. We have further characterized Lr46 and pinpointed
its genomic location using bulked segregant analysis and partial linkage mapping based on
existing linkage maps. This genomic region (as is the case with the Lr34/Yrl8/Bdvl complex) is a
complex of genes that commonly affect leaf rust, yellow rust, and perhaps other diseases.
Markers have also been identified for the Lr34/Yr18 complex.

CIMMYT has characterized several loci conferring durable resistance in its improved wheats,
including Pavon 76, Parula, and Tonichi. New gene designations have been obtained for two such
genes (Yr29 in chromosome 1BL and Yr30 in chromsome 3BS). Researchers are also using
resistance-like sequences isolated from rice and maize to find possible homologies with genes
conferring resistance in wheat. Better characterization of gene complexes in wheat that confer
durable resistance to the rusts would improve our understanding of the functional aspects of
disease resistance, not only to the rusts but quite possibly to other pathogens, since these genes










are known to confer resistance to multiple diseases. CIMMYT is exploring the possibility of
utilizing markers identified for Lr46/Yr29 and Lr34/Yr18 in applications for wheat breeding.

Helping Farmers Protect Stored Maize Grain

Maize farmers around the developing world routinely list post-harvest losses among their top five
productivity constraints. Harvested maize in low-income nations is often kept in slatted bins,
piled in dank storage rooms, or even hung from the rafters. It is open to attack by one or several
insect pests that can consume 15-to-20% of the harvest and ruin much of the rest, in cases where
the variety is susceptible, the environment harsh, or drying and storage facilities poor.

Based partly on studies by graduate students on the inheritance of resistance in maize to one key
pest-the maize weevil-CIMMYT scientists and associates, with support from the Rockefeller
Foundation, identified maize lines that serve as sources of not only weevil resistance but also
resistance to grey leaf spot and maize streak virus, the most widespread diseases of maize in sub-
Saharan Africa. Among other things, breeders will draw on these resistance sources in developing
elite lines for making hybrids. In 2001, more than 500 elite CIMMYT maize genotypes were
tested for resistance to maize weevil and to another insect that infests stored grain, the larger
grain borer, in laboratory and field experiments. Among the best hybrids were those containing
lines from CIMMYT. Following an Asian workshop on post harvest technologies for maize,
plans are in place to screen germplasm from CIMMYT and India for resistance to other storage
pests important in Asia. Several important quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids and lines were
among the most susceptible entries, and the entomology unit is currently screening over 400
tropical QPM hybrids to identify those that possess good levels of resistance to storage pests. Of
the open-pollinated varieties tested, several from the tropics performed well, but results of the
study also underlined the need to screen breeding populations regularly for post harvest
resistance. Correlations between resistance and physical traits enabled the identification of a new
screening methodology that will speed the evaluation process.

With support from the Canadian International Development Agency and in collaboration with the
University of Ottawa, center scientists have also begun to understand the biochemical bases of
pest resistance-important both for food safety and to determine the potential limitations of
resistance factors. For example, good correlations between pest resistance and kernel hardness are
also correlated with elevated levels of diphenolic acids in the pericarp of the kernel, but at grain
moisture levels above 14%, kernel hardness no longer works and otherwise resistant genotypes
become susceptible to pests. This finding emphasizes the importance of drying grain before
storing it, a practice that will be promoted with farmers as part of integrated pest management.

The team has investigated numerous commercial and traditional technologies for safely storing
maize grain. The most attractive is use of small, hermetically sealed silos, an alternative already
taking hold among small-scale farmers in the tropics. Once the silo is closed, oxygen within is
exhausted by the respiration of organisms that remain inside, and all storage pests suffocate in
little more than a week. Because the grain must be fairly dry for proper storage, CIMMYT
researchers and partners have designed a low-cost maize drying system that requires only a metal
barrel, stove piping, gravel, and a wood fire.

The scientists are also homing in rapidly on the areas in the maize genome associated with pest
resistance. Through DNA mapping of weevil and grain borer resistance, they have identified
three important genome regions that overlap with those tied to biochemical factors important for
resistance. The aim is eventually to combine marker-assisted selection with conventional
breeding to speed the development of high-yielding, pest-resistant maize for Africa.










As new knowledge and products emerge from these efforts, CIMMYT has sought to share them
with partners through training and consulting activities. One example is a workshop on post-
harvest technologies, focusing on the role of germplasm and simple storage technologies suitable
to resource poor farmers, that was organized in collaboration with the Directorate of Maize
Research, Indian Agricultural Research Institute. In addition to its theoretical grounding, the
event afforded participants from public and private institutions and non-government organizations
in eight countries substantive opportunities to see practical techniques in action and understand
their limitations. As a spin-off of the workshop, a training manual on screening maize for storage
pest resistance was developed, and a CD containing all workshop presentations was prepared for
use in future training activities.

Insect Resistance in Maize

The reduction of losses to insect pests is the also the chief goal of the Insect Resistant Maize for
Africa (IRMA) Project. The IRMA Project, a broad-based partnership between CIMMYT and
KARI, funded by the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture, has five general goals.
* Combine conventional and biotechnology-based strategies (particularly Bt maize) to develop
maize varieties resistant to the major stem borer species in Africa. These varieties will initially
be developed in Kenya; in the development of Bt maize, Kenya's biosafety protocols are
strictly observed. (For an idea of the potential impact of this research, consider that in Kenya
alone stem borers cause 15% losses in maize grain yields, equivalent to US$ 90 million
annually.)
* Establish procedures for disseminating those varieties to resource-poor farmers.
* Assess the impact of the varieties in smallholders' farming systems.
* Document and communicate experiences with the technologies so that other countries,
particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, can learn from the project.
* Transfer technologies from Kenya to other interested countries in sub-Saharan Africa through
training and infrastructure development.

To date, baseline data have been gathered for monitoring and evaluating the eventual use of
insect-resistant maize in Kenya. Suitable Bt genes have been acquired or synthesized, and Bt gene
events containing only the gene of interest and no antibiotic or herbicide resistance markers, have
been developed by CIMMYT-Mexico. Through bioassays on Bt maize leaves introduced from
CIMMYT-Mexico, the Cry-proteins with the greatest effectiveness against the major maize stem
borers in Kenya were identified. For Bt maize to be used safely and effectively, researchers are
studying its prospective impact on target and non-target arthropods by initially characterizing and
quantifying the insect species found in resource-poor farmers' fields. Strategies for managing
insect resistance are also being developed by assessing the effectiveness of various plant species
used as refugia. Locally adapted maize varieties are identified and developed through
conventional breeding, using locally adapted and exotic germplasm. Materials that perform well
will be used as recipients for the best Bt events, enabling breeders to pyramid genes for resistance
and reduce the chance that borers will develop resistance to the Bt genes.

Socioeconomic impact studies are determining which factors influence the adoption of Bt and
other improved maize in Kenya-information vital for developing products that farmers want and
can use. A relatively unusual feature of this project, compared to others normally undertaken by
CGIAR Centers such as CIMMYT, is the special attention given to developing effective ways of
communicating about the new technology with farmers. This and other capacity building efforts
(the project is currently establishing a biosafety greenhouse facility and quarantine field site in
Kenya) are integral to the project.











References


Alston, J.M., P.G. Pardey, C. Chan-Kang, T.J. Wyatt, and M.C. Marra. 2000. A meta-analysis of rates of
return to agricultural R & D: ex pede Herculem? Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research
Institute.

Morris, M.L., and B. Ekasingh. 2002. Plant breeding research in developing countries: What roles for the
public and private sectors? In D. Byerlee and R. Echeverria (eds.), Agricultural Policy in an Era of
Privatization. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Pardey, P., and N. Beintema. 2001. Slow Magic: Agricultural R&D a Century after Mendel. Washington,
D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Rosegrant, M.W., M.S. Paisner, S. Meijer. 2001. Global Food Projections to 2020: Emerging Trends and
Alternative Futures. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.










Financial Highlights

Revised Budget Estimate for 2002

Our budget estimate for 2002 is US$ 39.6 million, about 4% higher than the level initially
projected in August 2001. Additional resources in 2002 have essentially come from new special
project funds, including grants from USAID (research on stress-tolerant maize in Africa), the
Rockefeller Foundation (quality protein maize), GTZ (wheat regional network); AusAID (wheat
and maize for Afghanistan), GRDC (Australian cereal rust control program), DFID (plant
participatory breeding), and the Mathile Family Foundation (training maize researchers).

Projected Trends over the 2003-2005 Planning Period

At this time, we anticipate no major deviation from the research plans outlined in last year's
Medium-Term Plan (2002-2004+), but we do anticipate changes in the financial resources
available to support CIMMYT's planned research activities. Given the volatility of traditional
funding resources and the increased competition for resources, both inside and outside the
CGIAR System, CIMMYT's budget estimate for 2003 is more conservative than the projection
issued in the last Medium-Term Plan.

More specifically, CIMMYT and other CGIAR Centers will be affected by changing conditions
in the World Bank's general support allocation (replacing the matching formula with a fixed
contribution based on the past three years' funding outcomes), most probably starting in 2003. In
addition, as instructed by the CGIAR Secretariat, we have budgeted no funds in these projections
for the implementation of the Challenge Programs.

During the 2003-2005 planning period we foresee a steady budget at the level of about US$ 35
million. Most of CIMMYT's support will continue to come from traditional CGIAR investors,
but to achieve greater flexibility in responding to new challenges and opportunities, we will
continue to pursue a resource mobilization strategy focusing on non-traditional sources of
research support.

Based on current trends, it is clear that targeted funding will constitute a continually growing
share of research resources. We anticipate that more than 65% of the income from donors will be
targeted in one form or another during 2003.

Total expenses for salaries and allowances are projected to remain below 60% of the total
operating budget, as mandated by Center policy. Other operating costs are projected to remain
consistent with long-term trends.

We will continue to maintain a conservative approach to exchange rates for our budget
projections. About half of CIMMYT's expenditures are in Mexican pesos, and for several years
the peso has been performing strongly against the US dollar (between 1996 and March 2002, the
peso appreciated about 43% in real terms), with a slight adjustment since last June. One result of
this trend is that the costs of maintaining national support staff in Mexico are increasingly heavy.
A trend with potentially more positive implications for Center funding is the recent weakening of
the US dollar against some of the currencies of our major supporters.










Center Staffing


To continue to contain labor costs, CIMMYT implemented several savings measures in 2002.
These measures included a freeze on all external recruitment of national and international staff as
well as voluntary resignation and voluntary retirement schemes for national staff in Mexico.
Fifty-two employees qualified for voluntary resignation or retirement, and we will not fill those
positions externally during 2003. In the areas of highest priority, internal recruitment and
promotion will be implemented to fill vacant positions.

The number of internationally recruited staff is projected to remain steady during the planning
period. Among international staff, the number of adjunct staff posted to CIMMYT by agreement
with other institutions will almost certainly grow, as CIMMYT expands its range of partnerships
and increases its access to complementary expertise in advanced research institutes.

Capital Investment and Financial Indicators

During the planning period we do not propose any capital expenditures above the normal amount
based on depreciation. For the past two years, CIMMYT has budgeted savings of US$ 700,000
per annum on capital and depreciation. An internal cost recovery scheme for vehicle purchase and
maintenance will be fully operational in 2003, thereby freeing capital for high-priority corporate
capital needs, such as the strengthening of our information technology infrastructure and the
maintenance of our research facilities.

Our most important capital investment in 2002 was the establishment of Agua Fria, the new
lowland tropical maize research station that replaces the Poza Rica station. By 2003, all of the
research and administrative infrastructure of the new station should be installed.

Partly owing to some of the funding trends mentioned earlier, working capital stood at 50 days on
31 December 2001, a figure well below our Board-mandated guideline of 90 days. There is no
doubt that CIMMYT's Board and management would like to have a higher level of working
capital, and we are continuing to address this issue. Working capital expressed in days is a
function of both total budget and reserves. CIMMYT's budget increased by US$ 10.7 million
(37%) between 1997 and 2001; given that sort of increase, it is very hard to increase working
capital by the same amount when much of the additional finding is project-based and not
fungible. Another aspect of working capital relates to cash flow, and we have addressed the cash
flow issue through a flexible line of credit which in effect adds a further 30 days to our working
capital.







Financial Tables











Table la. CIMMYT -- Research Agenda Requirements, by Output, 2001 (Actual)
(expenditure in $ million)

Germplasm Germplasm Sustainable Enhancing PROJECT
Center Projects Improvement Collection Production Policy NARS TOTALS

001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for humanity 0.687 1.641 0.000 0.328 0.328 2.984
002. Improved maize for the world's poor 0.956 0.435 0.527 0.000 0.460 2.378
003. Improved wheat for the world's poor 1.601 0.676 0.818 0.000 0.463 3.559
004. Maize for sustainable production in stressed environments 0.416 0.237 0.602 0.000 0.151 1.406
005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal environments 0.718 0.374 1.508 0.000 0.225 2.826
006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests 0.457 0.497 1.310 0.000 0.230 2.494
007. Impacts of maize and wheat research 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.664 0.243 0.907
008. Building human capital 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 4.415 4.415
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural systems to mitigate poverty and climate change 0.094 0.000 0.376 0.094 0.063 0.627
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for Sub-Saharan Africa 1.925 0.386 1.369 0.129 0.470 4.279
011. Maize for poverty alleviation and economic growth in Asia 0.808 0.327 0.272 0.106 0.380 1.893
012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia, including rice-wheat systems 0.285 0.114 1.119 0.114 0.265 1.898
013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa 0.654 0.300 0.302 0.000 0.359 1.615
014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America and the Caribbean 1.568 0.296 1.356 0.194 0.822 4.236
015. Restoring food security and economic growth in Central Asia 0.180 0.090 0.079 0.045 0.054 0.448
016. New wheat science to meet global challenges 0.511 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.060 0.571
017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers 0.597 0.113 0.097 0.000 0.000 0.807
018. Biotechnology for food security 0.743 0.340 0.870 0.000 0.169 2.122
019. Biofortified grain for human health 0.191 0.000 0.070 0.000 0.065 0.326
020. Reduced grain losses after harvest 0.117 0.000 0.191 0.000 0.019 0.327
021. Technology assessment for poverty reduction and sustainable resource use 0.234 0.000 0.092 0.130 0.091 0.548

OUTPUT TOTALS 12.744 5.826 10.959 1.804 9.333 40.666











Table lb. CIMMYT -- Research Agenda Requirements, by Output, 2002 (Estimate)
(expenditure in $ million)

Germplasm Germplasm Sustainable Enhancing PROJECT
Center Projects Improvement Collection Production Policy NARS TOTALS

001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for humanity 0.785 1.878 0.000 0.375 0.375 3.414
002. Improved maize for the world's poor 0.977 0.445 0.539 0.000 0.471 2.432
003. Improved wheat for the world's poor 1.315 0.555 0.672 0.000 0.380 2.923
004. Maize for sustainable production in stressed environments 0.524 0.298 0.759 0.000 0.190 1.772
005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal environments 0.643 0.335 1.349 0.000 0.201 2.528
006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests 0.415 0.451 1.190 0.000 0.209 2.265
007. Impacts of maize and wheat research 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.813 0.298 1.111
008. Building human capital 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 3.412 3.412
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural systems to mitigate poverty and climate change 0.146 0.000 0.583 0.146 0.098 0.973
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for Sub-Saharan Africa 1.796 0.360 1.277 0.120 0.439 3.991
011. Maize for poverty alleviation and economic growth in Asia 0.746 0.302 0.251 0.098 0.350 1.748
012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia, including rice-wheat systems 0.419 0.168 1.643 0.168 0.389 2.787
013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa 0.601 0.276 0.277 0.000 0.329 1.483
014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America and the Caribbean 1.174 0.222 1.016 0.145 0.616 3.173
015. Restoring food security and economic growth in Central Asia 0.356 0.178 0.156 0.089 0.106 0.883
016. New wheat science to meet global challenges 0.411 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.048 0.458
017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers 0.649 0.123 0.106 0.000 0.000 0.878
018. Biotechnology for food security 0.754 0.345 0.883 0.000 0.172 2.153
019. Biofortified grain for human health 0.192 0.000 0.070 0.000 0.066 0.328
020. Reduced grain losses after harvest 0.117 0.000 0.191 0.000 0.020 0.328
021. Technology assessment for poverty reduction and sustainable resource use 0.222 0.000 0.088 0.123 0.087 0.520

OUTPUT TOTALS 12.243 5.935 11.050 2.077 8.256 39.561











Table lb. CIMMYT -- Research Agenda Requirements, by Output, 2003 (Plan)
(expenditure in $ million)

Germplasm Germplasm Sustainable Enhancing PROJECT
Center Projects Improvement Collection Production Policy NARS TOTALS

001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for humanity 0.755 1.804 0.000 0.361 0.361 3.280
002. Improved maize for the world's poor 0.901 0.410 0.497 0.000 0.434 2.242
003. Improved wheat for the world's poor 0.958 0.404 0.489 0.000 0.277 2.128
004. Maize for sustainable production in stressed environments 0.360 0.205 0.522 0.000 0.131 1.218
005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal environments 0.591 0.308 1.240 0.000 0.185 2.324
006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests 0.334 0.363 0.958 0.000 0.168 1.824
007. Impacts of maize and wheat research 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.533 0.195 0.728
008. Building human capital 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.591 2.591
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural systems to mitigate poverty and climate change 0.179 0.000 0.717 0.179 0.121 1.197
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for Sub-Saharan Africa 1.257 0.252 0.894 0.084 0.307 2.794
011. Maize for poverty alleviation and economic growth in Asia 0.558 0.226 0.188 0.073 0.262 1.307
012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia, including rice-wheat systems 0.454 0.182 1.784 0.182 0.422 3.025
013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa 0.532 0.244 0.246 0.000 0.292 1.314
014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America and the Caribbean 1.043 0.197 0.902 0.129 0.547 2.818
015. Restoring food security and economic growth in Central Asia 0.185 0.093 0.081 0.046 0.055 0.461
016. New wheat science to meet global challenges 0.350 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.041 0.391
017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers 0.467 0.089 0.076 0.000 0.000 0.632
018. Biotechnology for food security 1.192 0.545 1.396 0.000 0.271 3.405
019. Biofortified grain for human health 0.064 0.000 0.023 0.000 0.022 0.109
020. Reduced grain losses after harvest 0.080 0.000 0.130 0.000 0.013 0.223
021. Technology assessment for poverty reduction and sustainable resource use 0.215 0.000 0.085 0.120 0.084 0.504


OUTPUT TOTALS 10.478 5.322 10.229 1.707 6.780 34.516











Table 3. CIMMYT Research Agenda Project & Output Cost Summary, 2001-2005
(in $ million)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Project (actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)

001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for humanity 2.984 3.414 3.280 3.280 3.280
002. Improved maize for the world's poor 2.378 2.432 2.242 2.242 2.242
003. Improved wheat for the world's poor 3.559 2.923 2.128 2.128 2.128
004. Maize for sustainable production in stressed environments 1.406 1.772 1.218 1.218 1.218
005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal environments 2.826 2.528 2.324 2.324 2.324
006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests 2.494 2.265 1.824 1.824 1.824
007. Impacts of maize and wheat research 0.907 1.111 0.728 0.728 0.728
008. Building human capital 4.415 3.412 2.591 2.591 2.591
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural systems to mitigate poverty and climate change 0.627 0.973 1.197 1.197 1.197
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for Sub-Saharan Africa 4.279 3.991 2.794 2.794 2.794
011. Maize for poverty alleviation and economic growth in Asia 1.893 1.748 1.307 1.307 1.307
012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia, including rice-wheat systems 1.898 2.787 3.025 3.025 3.025
013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa 1.615 1.483 1.314 1.314 1.314
014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America and the Caribbean 4.236 3.173 2.818 2.818 2.818
015. Restoring food security and economic growth in Central Asia 0.448 0.883 0.461 0.461 0.461
016. New wheat science to meet global changes 0.571 0.458 0.391 0.391 0.391
017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers 0.807 0.878 0.632 0.632 0.632
018. Biotechnology for food security 2.122 2.153 3.405 3.405 3.405
019. Biofortified grain for human health 0.326 0.328 0.109 0.109 0.109
020. Reducing grain losses after harvest 0.327 0.328 0.223 0.223 0.223
021. Technology assessment for poverty reduction and sustainable resource use 0.548 0.520 0.504 0.504 0.504

Total 40.666 39.561 34.516 34.516 34.516

Summary by Output: 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
(actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)

Germplasm Improvement 12.744 12.243 10.478 10.478 10.478
Germplasm Collection 5.826 5.935 5.322 5.322 5.322
Sustainable Production 10.959 11.050 10.229 10.229 10.229
Policy 1.804 2.077 1.707 1.707 1.707
Enhancing NARS 9.333 8.256 6.780 6.780 6.780

Total 40.666 39.561 34.516 34.516 34.516











Table 4b. CIMMYT Allocation of Project Costs to CGIAR Activities, 2001-2005 (in $ million)


2001 2002
Project Activity Actual Estimate


001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for
humanity






002. Improved maize for the world's poor







003. Improved wheat for the world's poor







004. Maize for sustainable production in stressed
environments


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Saving Biodiversity
Improving Policies
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
Production Systems (Maize)
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information


Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Production Systems (Wheat)
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Networks


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
Production Systems (Maize)
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt
Strengthening NARS--Networks


0.328
0.328
1.671
0.328
0.150
0.179
2.984

0.955
0.119
0.219
0.434
0.434
0.217
2.378

1.602
0.070
0.748
0.711
0.143
0.285
3.559

0.415
0.076
0.525
0.200
0.038
0.076
0.038
0.038
1.406


0.375
0.375
1.912
0.375
0.172
0.205
3.414

0.977
0.121
0.224
0.444
0.444
0.222
2.432

1.315
0.058
0.614
0.584
0.117
0.234
2.923

0.523
0.096
0.662
0.252
0.048
0.096
0.048
0.048
1.772


0.361
0.361
1.837
0.360
0.165
0.197
3.280

0.901
0.112
0.206
0.409
0.409
0.205
2.242

0.958
0.042
0.447
0.425
0.085
0.170
2.128

0.360
0.066
0.455
0.173
0.033
0.066
0.033
0.033
1.218


0.361
0.361
1.837
0.360
0.165
0.197
3.280

0.901
0.112
0.206
0.409
0.409
0.205
2.242

0.958
0.042
0.447
0.425
0.085
0.170
2.128

0.360
0.066
0.455
0.173
0.033
0.066
0.033
0.033
1.218


0.361
0.361
1.837
0.360
0.165
0.197
3.280

0.901
0.112
0.206
0.409
0.409
0.205
2.242

0.958
0.042
0.447
0.425
0.085
0.170
2.128

0.360
0.066
0.455
0.173
0.033
0.066
0.033
0.033
1.218











2001 2002 2003 2004 200!
Project Activity Actual Estimate Plan Plan Plar


005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal
environments







006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests







007. Impacts of maize and wheat research






008. Building human capital





009. Conservation tillage and agricultural systems
to mitigate poverty and climate change


Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Production Systems (Wheat)
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Strengthening NARS--Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt
Strengthening NARS--Networks


Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Production Systems (Wheat)
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Strengthening NARS--Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt


Improving Policies
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt
Strengthening NARS--Networks


Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt
Strengthening NARS--Networks


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Improving Policies
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Networks


0.606
0.107
1.402
0.374
0.113
0.113
0.113
2.826

0.456
0.229
1.081
0.497
0.116
0.116
2.494

0.546
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.120
0.907

3.504
0.136
0.646
0.129
4.415

0.094
0.254
0.122
0.094
0.037
0.025
0.627


0.542
0.096
1.254
0.334
0.101
0.101
0.101
2.528

0.415
0.208
0.981
0.451
0.105
0.105
2.265

0.668
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.147
1.111

2.709
0.105
0.499
0.100
3.412

0.146
0.395
0.189
0.146
0.057
0.039
0.973


0.498
0.088
1.153
0.307
0.093
0.093
0.093
2.324

0.334
0.168
0.790
0.363
0.085
0.085
1.824

0.438
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.096
0.728

2.057
0.080
0.379
0.076
2.591

0.180
0.486
0.233
0.180
0.070
0.049
1.197


0.498
0.088
1.153
0.307
0.093
0.093
0.093
2.324

0.334
0.168
0.790
0.363
0.085
0.085
1.824

0.438
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.096
0.728

2.057
0.080
0.379
0.076
2.591

0.180
0.486
0.233
0.180
0.070
0.049
1.197


0.498
0.088
1.153
0.307
0.093
0.093
0.093
2.324

0.334
0.168
0.790
0.363
0.085
0.085
1.824

0.438
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.096
0.728

2.057
0.080
0.379
0.076
2.591

0.180
0.486
0.233
0.180
0.070
0.049
1.197











2001 2002
Project Activity Actual Estimate


010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for Sub-Saharan
Africa









011. Maize for poverty alleviaton and economic growth
in Asia









012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia,
including rice-wheat systems







013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
Production Systems (Maize)
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Improving Policies
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS-- Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt
Strengthening NARS--Networks


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
Production Systems (Maize)
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Improving Policies
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt
Strengthening NARS--Networks


Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Production Systems (Wheat)
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Improving Policies
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information


Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt
Strengthening NARS--Networks


1.925
0.641
0.728
0.386
0.129
0.011
0.009
0.129
0.321
4.279

0.503
0.222
0.344
0.168
0.183
0.152
0.052
0.100
0.168
1.893

0.285
0.455
0.644
0.114
0.114
0.171
0.114
1.898

0.651
0.301
0.207
0.264
0.038
0.074
0.079
1.615


1.796
0.598
0.679
0.360
0.120
0.011
0.009
0.120
0.300
3.991

0.465
0.205
0.318
0.155
0.169
0.140
0.048
0.092
0.155
1.748

0.419
0.668
0.946
0.168
0.168
0.251
0.168
2.787

0.598
0.276
0.190
0.242
0.035
0.068
0.073
1.483


0.743
0.328
0.508
0.248
0.270
0.224
0.077
0.147
0.249
2.794

0.347
0.154
0.238
0.116
0.126
0.105
0.036
0.069
0.116
1.307

0.454
0.725
1.027
0.182
0.182
0.272
0.182
3.025

0.530
0.245
0.169
0.215
0.031
0.060
0.065
1.314


0.743
0.328
0.508
0.248
0.270
0.224
0.077
0.147
0.249
2.794

0.347
0.154
0.238
0.116
0.126
0.105
0.036
0.069
0.116
1.307

0.454
0.725
1.027
0.182
0.182
0.272
0.182
3.025

0.530
0.245
0.169
0.215
0.031
0.060
0.065
1.314


0.743
0.328
0.508
0.248
0.270
0.224
0.077
0.147
0.249
2.794

0.347
0.154
0.238
0.116
0.126
0.105
0.036
0.069
0.116
1.307

0.454
0.725
1.027
0.182
0.182
0.272
0.182
3.025

0.530
0.245
0.169
0.215
0.031
0.060
0.065
1.314











2001 2002 2003 2004 200!
Project Activity Actual Estimate Plan Plan Plar


014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin
America and the Caribbean












015. Restoring food security and economic
growth in Central Asia








016. New wheat science to meet global challenges




017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers






018. Biotechnology for food security


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Production Systems (Maize)
Production Systems (Wheat)
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Improving Policies
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt
Strengthening NARS--Networks


Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Production Systems (Wheat)
Saving Biodiversity
Improving Policies
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt
Strengthening NARS--Networks


Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Strengthening NARS--Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Production Systems (Maize)
Production Systems (Wheat)
Saving Biodiversity


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Protecting the Environment


1.155
0.289
0.464
0.116
0.680
0.366
0.101
0.358
0.204
0.274
0.230
4.236

0.180
0.032
0.067
0.045
0.067
0.011
0.022
0.022
0.448

0.512
0.029
0.029
0.571

0.299
0.299
0.048
0.048
0.113
0.807

0.488
0.255
0.870


0.865
0.217
0.347
0.087
0.509
0.274
0.075
0.268
0.153
0.205
0.172
3.173

0.355
0.062
0.133
0.089
0.133
0.022
0.044
0.044
0.883

0.411
0.024
0.024
0.458

0.325
0.325
0.052
0.052
0.123
0.878

0.495
0.258
0.883


0.768
0.192
0.309
0.077
0.452
0.243
0.067
0.238
0.135
0.182
0.153
2.818

0.185
0.033
0.069
0.046
0.069
0.012
0.023
0.023
0.461

0.350
0.020
0.020
0.391

0.234
0.234
0.038
0.038
0.089
0.632

0.783
0.409
1.397


0.768
0.192
0.309
0.077
0.452
0.243
0.067
0.238
0.135
0.182
0.153
2.818

0.185
0.033
0.069
0.046
0.069
0.012
0.023
0.023
0.461

0.350
0.020
0.020
0.391

0.234
0.234
0.038
0.038
0.089
0.632

0.783
0.409
1.397


0.768
0.192
0.309
0.077
0.452
0.243
0.067
0.238
0.135
0.182
0.153
2.818

0.185
0.033
0.069
0.046
0.069
0.012
0.023
0.023
0.461

0.350
0.020
0.020
0.391

0.234
0.234
0.038
0.038
0.089
0.632

0.783
0.409
1.397











2001 2002
Actual Estimate


019. Biofortified grain for human health








020. Reducing grain losses after harvest







021. Technology assessment for poverty reduction
and sustainable resource use


Saving Biodiversity
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Production Systems (Maize)
Production Systems (Wheat)
Strengthening NARS--Training
Strengthening NARS--Information
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)
Production Systems (Maize)
Production Systems (Wheat)
Protecting the Environment
Strengthening NARS--Information


Enhancement and Breeding (Crops)
Production Systems (Crops)
Protecting the Environment
Improving Policies
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt


2001 2002
estimate Estimate


Summary by Undertaking:


Increasing Productivity
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Improving Policies
Strengthening NARS
Total:


Project


Activity


0.362
0.084
0.063
2.122

0.130
0.061
0.047
0.023
0.021
0.024
0.021
0.326

0.059
0.059
0.011
0.012
0.168
0.020
0.327

0.131
0.098
0.098
0.158
0.064
0.548
40.666


0.367
0.085
0.064
2.153

0.130
0.062
0.047
0.023
0.021
0.024
0.021
0.328

0.059
0.059
0.011
0.012
0.168
0.020
0.328

0.124
0.093
0.093
0.150
0.060
0.520
39.561


0.580
0.135
0.101
3.405

0.043
0.020
0.016
0.008
0.007
0.008
0.007
0.109

0.040
0.040
0.007
0.008
0.114
0.014
0.223

0.120
0.090
0.090
0.146
0.059
0.504
34.516


0.580
0.135
0.101
3.405

0.043
0.020
0.016
0.008
0.007
0.008
0.007
0.109

0.040
0.040
0.007
0.008
0.114
0.014
0.223

0.120
0.090
0.090
0.146
0.059
0.504
34.516


0.580
0.135
0.101
3.405

0.043
0.020
0.016
0.008
0.007
0.008
0.007
0.109

0.040
0.040
0.007
0.008
0.114
0.014
0.223

0.120
0.090
0.090
0.146
0.059
0.504
34.516


14.883
8.061
5.791
1.697
10.233
40.666


14.469
8.002
5.936
1.960
9.194
39.561


11.751
7.608
5.445
1.815
7.897
34.516


11.751
7.608
5.445
1.815
7.897
34.516


11.751
7.608
5.445
1.815
7.897
34.516











Table 5. CIMMYT Research Agenda, 2001-2005
Investments by Sector, Commodity, and Region (in $ million)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Production Sectors & Commodities (actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)


1/ Germplasm Improvement

Crops
Barley
Maize
Wheat

Livestock
Trees
Fish

TOTAL

1/ Sustainable Production

Crops
Barley
Maize
Wheat

Livestock
Trees
Fish


TOTAL


21 Total Research Agenda

Crops
Barley
Maize
Wheat

Livestock
Trees
Fish


TOTAL


12.744


6.438
6.306


12.744



10.959

8.219
2.740


10.959



40.666

18.942
21.724


40.666


12.243

6.185
6.058


12.243



11.050

8.287
2.762


11.050



39.561

18.427
21.134


39.561


10.478

5.293
5.185


10.478



10.229

7.672
2.557


10.229



34.516

16.077
18.439


34.516


10.478

5.293
5.185


10.477

5.293
5.185


10.478



10.229

7.672
2.557


10.477



10.228

7.672
2.557


10.229



34.516

16.077
18.439


10.229



34.516

16.077
18.439


34.516


34.516


2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
REGION (actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)

Central/West Africa 1.626 1.581 1.380 1.380 1.380
Eastern/Southern Africa 13.421 13.056 11.391 11.391 11.391
East/Southeast Asia 2.439 2.373 2.070 2.070 2.070
South Asia 8.947 8.704 7.594 7.594 7.594
Central America/Caribbean 6.100 5.934 5.177 5.177 5.177
South America 4.067 3.956 3.452 3.452 3.452
West Asia and North Africa (WANA) 4.067 3.956 3.452 3.452 3.452
TOTAL 40.666 39.561 34.516 34.516 34.516











Table 6. CIMMYT Research Agenda, 2001-2005
Expenditure by Functional Category, and Capital Investments (in $ million)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
OBJECT OF EXPENDITURE (actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)

Personnel 20.070 19.528 17.035 17.035 17.035
Supplies and Services 17.431 16.915 14.583 14.583 14.583
Operational Travel 1.767 1.718 1.498 1.498 1.498
Depreciation 1.398 1.400 1.400 1.400 1.400

TOTAL 40.666 39.561 34.516 34.516 34.516

2000 2002 2003 2004 2005
CAPITAL INVESTMENTS (actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)

Physical Facilities
Research 0.470 0.850 0.200 0.150 0.100
Training
Administration
Housing
Auxiliary Units
sub-total 0.470 0.850 0.200 0.150 0.100

Infrastructure & Leasehold
Furnishing & Equipment
Farming 0.148 0.100 0.200 0.200 0.150
Laboratory & Scientific 0.085 0.100 0.190 0.150 0.200
Office 0.010 0.020
Housing
Auxiliary Units
Computers 0.289 0.250 0.350 0.320 0.350
Vehicles 0.766 0.580 0.710 0.650 0.500
Software 0.082 0.080 0.090 0.100 0.100
sub-total 1.380 1.130 1.540 1.420 1.300
TOTAL 1.850 1.980 1.740 1.570 1.400

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
CAPITAL FUND CASH RECONCILIATION (actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)

Balance, January 1 -0.154 -0.154 -0.154 -0.074 0.006
plus: annual depreciation charge 1.398 1.400 1.400 1.400 1.400
plus / minus: disposal gains/(losses) -0.046 0.030 0.050 0.000 0.000
plus / minus: other 0.559 0.550 0.370 0.250 0.150
minus: asset acquisition costs -1.911 -1.980 -1.740 -1.570 -1.400

equals: Balance, December 31 -0.154 -0.154 -0.074 0.006 0.156











Table 7. CIMMYT RESEARCH AGENDA FINANCING SUMMARY, 2001-2003
(in $ million)


($ actual)


(nat. ($ estimated) (nat. ($ plan) (nat.
currency) currency) currency)


Unrestricted Contributions
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Brazil
Canada
China
Denmark
Germany
India
Japan
Korea
Mexico
Netherlands
Norway
Peru
Philippines
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Thailand
USA
World Bank
World Bank Additional
WB 2002 Japan adjustment
subtotal


0.112



0.079

0.020


0.232

4.300
3.950
0.830
0.000
14.085


0.419
0.150
0.067
0.040
0.670
0.120
0.533
0.187

1.779
0.050
0.065
0.200
0.176

0.012
0.050
0.000
0.236
0.400
0.009


0.850

3.000

1.035

4.500
0.400
0.113
233.000


0.086
1.600
0.020



2.500
0.2340

4.300
3.300
0.270
0.230
12.896


0.436
0.000
0.076
0.040
0.658
0.120
0.663
0.239

1.412
0.050
0.090
0.091
0.212

0.012
0.050
0.000
0.277
400
0.009



28.950


0.850 0.377
0.000
0.087 0.087
0.040
1.035 0.662
0.120
5.000 0.661
0.250 0.250


0.113
175.100


0.091
1.600
0.020


1.459
0.050
0.090
0.091
0.211


0.012
0.050
0.000
2.800 0.266
0.269 0.400
0.009
4.300
2.500
0.000
0.000
11.635


Member


($ actual)


(nat.
currency)


2002
($ estimated) (nat.
currency)


2003
($ plan) (nat.
currency)


Targeted Contributions


ADB
APN
Argentina
Azerbaijan
Australia
AusAID
Australian Centre for International
Agricultural Research
CRC Molecular Plant Breeding
Grain Research and Development
Research Centre
Southern Cross University
Austria
Bangladesh
Belgium
Bolivia
Protrigo
Brazil


0.745
0.000
0.050
0.158

0.115

0.221
0.259

0.448
0.005
0.010
0.065
0.507

0.449
0.060


0.859
0.040
0.000
0.043

0.197

0.358
0.194

0.660
0.005
0.000
0.000
0.421

0.191
0.000


0.651




0.159

0.374
0.272

0.736



0.325

0.191


Member












2001 2002 2003
Member ($ actual) (nat. ($ estimated) (nat. ($ plan) (nat.
currency) currency) currency)

Canada
Agriculture and Agri-Food 0.063 0.034 0.035
Canadian International Development Agency 0.543 0.668 0.716
International Development Research Centre 0.058 0.008
China
CAAS 0.293 0.313 0.313
Colombia
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development 0.132 0.139 0.120
Corpoica 0.087 0.031
FENALCE 0.000 0.029 0.037
Denmark 0.153 0.185 0.102
Foundations
Carter Centre 0.080 0.000
Eiselen Foundation 0.064 0.000
Ford Foundation 0.056 0.006
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce A.C. 0.059 0.048 0.019
Fundacion Hidalgo 0.030 0.041 0.007
Fundacion Sonora 0.228 0.127 0.079
Hilton Foundation 0.012 0.000
Monsanto Fund 0.500
Nippon Foundation 0.251 0.676 0.672
Novartis Foundation 1.644 1.829 0.644
Other Foundation 1.337 0.917 0.632
Rockefeller Foundation 2.405 2.723 1.999
Sasakawa Global 2000 0.037 0.005
France 0.960 1.115 1.027
Germany 0.952 1.031 0.790
IAEA 0.000 0.009
India 0.050 0.000
Indonesia 0.069 0.000
International Fund for
Agricultural Development (IFAD) 0.441 0.519 0.635
Inter American Development Bank (IDB) 0.300 0.089 0.089
Iran Islamic Republic of 0.227 0.239 0.230
Japan
Japan 0.035 0.015
JIRCAS 0.112 0.070 0.070
Kenya 0.078 0.000
Korea 0.090 0.098 0.080
Mexico 1.072 0.365 0.363
Miscellaneous Research Grants 0.149 0.195 0.028
Netherlands 0.319 0.276 0.292
New Zealand 0.100 0.151 0.100
Norway 0.092 0.019
OPEC Fund for International Development 0.050 0.050
Peru 0.040 0.040 0.040
Portugal 0.100 0.100 0.100












2001 2002 2003
Member ($ actual) (nat. ($ estimated) (nat. ($ plan) (nat.
currency) currency) currency)

Private Sector
Agrovegetal, S. A. 0.102 0.075
Bimbo 0.038 0.035 0.040
Club Cinq 0.153 0.088 0.050
Fideicomisos Instituidos en Relacion con
la Agriculture 0.045 0.000
ICAMEX 0.054 0.098 0.035
Lamsoo Milling Company 0.011 0.009
MAHYCO 0.020 0.037 0.030
Monsanto Company 0.229 0.164
Pioneer 0.025 0.000
Private Sector Consortium 0.717 0.815 0.585
SANREM 0.156
SCOPE 0.037 0.082 0.075
South Africa
Agricultural Research Council 0.041 0.106 0.057
National Department of Agriculture 0.094 0.049 0.050
Spain 0.223 0.214 0.210
Sweden 0.116 0.000
Switzerland 1.448 1.504 1.237
Tajikistan 0.005 0.000
UK 1.295 1.422 1.469
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
(Africa Bureau) 0.413 0.209
United Nations Development Programme (SEED) 0.093 0.000
Universities
Cornell University 0.036 0.003
Kansas State University 0.000 0.015
Oklahoma State University 0.028 0.093 0.076
Stanford University 0.116 0.083
University of California 0.015 0.000
University of Hohenheim 0.013 0.005
University of Reading 0.024 0.000
Washington State University 0.000 0.090
Uruguay 0.150 0.150 0.150
USA
United States Agency for International
Development 0.583 1.953 2.295
United States Department of Agriculture 0.547 0.418 0.200
Undentified 0.284 0.277
World Bank 0.247 0.395 0.398
subtotal 25.530 25.714 21.931

TOTAL CONTRIBUTIONS 39.616 38.610 33.566

2001 2002 2003
Total Agenda Financing ($ actual) ($ estimated) ($ plan)

Member Contributions 39.616 38.610 33.566
+ Center Income 1.050 0.950 0.950
= Total Financing 40.666 39.560 34.516












Table 8a. CIMMYT Allocation of 2001 Member Financing to Projects by Undertaking
(in $ million)


Project
001. Maize and wheat genetic resources:
use for humanity


002. Improved maize for the world's poor


Total


003. Improved wheat for the world's poor
























Total


Member
Australia
Canada
Denmark
EC
France
Germany
IDRC
Japan
MAHYCO
USDA
Undentified
unrestricted + center income

Canada
Carter Center
Colombia
France
Germany
IFAD
India
Japan
Mexico
Nippon Foundation
Novartis Foundation
OPEC
Other Foundations
Sweden
Switzerland
UNDP (Africa Bureau)
UNDP SEED
United Kingdom
SAID
unrestricted + center income


Australia
Austria
Bimbo
Brazil
China
Club Cinq
Eiselen Foundation
Fundacion Guanajuato
Fundacion Hidalgo
Fundacion Sonora
Germany
ICAMEX
Iran
JIRCAS
Mexico
Monsanto
Norway
Other Foundations
South Africa
Stanford University
University of California
SAID
unrestricted + center income


Total
0.150
0.150
0.153
1.023
0.100
0.225
0.020
0.250
0.020
0.065
0.100
0.728
2.984
0.120
0.080
0.050
0.060
0.145
0.101
0.050
0.200
0.280
0.151
0.200
0.020
0.350
0.030
0.120
0.213
0.045
0.118
0.045
0.000
2.378
0.160
0.010
0.038
0.035
0.193
0.153
0.064
0.059
0.030
0.228
0.195
0.054
0.035
0.112
0.055
0.229
0.092
0.227
0.055
0.101
0.015
0.035
1.384
3.559











Project
004. Maize for sustainable production in stressed
environments












Total
005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal
environments






Total
006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests












Tntal


007. Impacts of maize and wheat research






Total
008. Building human capital











Total
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural
systems to mitigate poverty and climate change


Member
Colombia
Germany
IFAD
Kenya
OPEC
Rockefeller Foundation
Sweden
Switzerland
UNDP (Africa Bureau)
UNDP SEED
United Kingdom
SAID
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Canada
Hohenheim University
Iran
Oklahoma State University
Portugal
Spain
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Belgium
France
IDB
Japan
Korea
Miscellaneous Research Grants
Spain
Switzerland
United Kingdom
USDA
unrestricted + center income


France
Rockefeller Foundation
Stanford University
Switzerland
United Kingdom
World Bank
unrestricted + center income

ADB
Australia
Bangladesh
Indonesia
Iran
Other Foundations
Pioneer
Rockefeller Foundation
USDA
World Bank
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Colombia
France
New Zealand
United Kingdom


Total
0.080
0.140
0.080
0.078
0.015
0.375
0.045
0.100
0.200
0.048
0.200
0.045
0.000
1.406
0.090
0.153
0.013
0.052
0.028
0.100
0.165
2.225
2.826
0.120
0.157
0.190
0.150
0.235
0.090
0.149
0.038
0.149
0.153
0.216
0.847
2.494
0.150
0.350
0.015
0.070
0.104
0.083
0.135
0.907
0.395
0.105
0.030
0.069
0.090
0.760
0.025
0.585
0.195
0.042
2.119
4.415
0.068
0.039
0.080
0.060
0.153


Total











Project


Total
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for
Sub-Saharan














Total
011. Maize for poverty alleviation and economic
growth




Total
012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia,
including rice-wheat systems


013. Food security for West Asia and
North Africa

014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in
Latin America and the Caribbean


Member
SAID
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Canada
EC
IFAD
Netherlands
Nippon Foundation
Novartis Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
Sasakawa Global 2000
South Africa
Sweden
Switzerland
United Kingdom
World Bank
unrestricted + center income

ADB
Australia
IFAD
OPEC
Switzerland
unrestricted + center income

Bangladesh
Belgium
China
Cornell University
Japan
Lamsoo Milling Co
Netherlands
New Zealand
United Kingdom
University of Reading
SAID
unrestricted + center income

Australia
unrestricted + center income


Agrovegetal
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
EC
Ecuador (Promsa)
FIRA
Ford Foundation
France
Hilton Foundation
IDB
IDRC
Mexico
Peru
Protrigo
Switzerland
United Kingdom
Uruguay
SAID


Total
0.227
0.000
0.627
0.090
0.120
0.423
0.120
0.040
0.100
0.930
0.820
0.037
0.039
0.041
0.440
0.383
0.083
0.613
4.279
0.350
0.050
0.140
0.015
0.286
1.052
1.893
0.035
0.350
0.100
0.036
0.200
0.011
0.238
0.040
0.048
0.024
0.136
0.680
1.898
0.060
1.555
1.615
0.102
0.050
0.025
0.050
0.183
0.023
0.045
0.056
0.060
0.012
0.100
0.018
0.440
0.040
0.449
0.195
0.136
0.150
0.09











Project


Total
015. Restoring food security and economic
growth in Central Asia





Total
016. New wheat science to meet global
challenges


Total
017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers


018. Biotechnology for food security


019. Biofortified grain for human health


020. Reducing grain losses after harvest


Total
021. Technology assessment for poverty
reduction and sustainable resource use


Total


Member
USDA
unrestricted + center income

Azerbaijan
FAO
Germany
Tajikistan
World Bank
Undentified
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Iran
Undentified
unrestricted + center income

France
Mexico
Private Sector Consortium
unrestricted + center income


Total
Australia
EC
France
Germany
Japan
Netherlands
Novartis Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
Southern Cross University
Spain
unrestricted + center income
Total
Mexico
unrestricted + center income
Total


Agriculture and Agri-food
Switzerland
unrestricted + center income

ARC
EC
France
IDB
IDRC
SCOPE
unrestricted + center income


Total
0.071
1.936
4.236
0.158
0.021
0.090
0.005
0.040
0.084
0.050
0.448
0.120
0.050
0.100
0.301
0.571
0.050
0.040
0.717
0.000
0.807
0.030
0.750
0.130
0.157
0.200
0.041
0.514
0.275
0.005
0.020
0.000
2.122
0.257
0.069
0.326
0.063
0.088
0.176
0.327
0.041
0.045
0.140
0.050
0.020
0.037
0.215
0.548


Grand Total 40.666

Center Totals Total

Total Targeted Funding 26.581
Total Unrestricted Funding 13.035
Total Center Income 1.050
Total Allocations 40.666











Table 8b. CIMMYT Allocation of 2002 Member Financing to Projects by Undertaking
(in $ million)

Project Member Total


001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for
humanity


Total


002. Improved maize for the world's poor
















Total
003. Improved wheat for the world's poor





















Total
004. Maize for sustainable production in
stressed environments


Australia
Canada
Denmark
EC
France
Germany
Japan
MAHYCO
Rockefeller Foundation
USDA
World Bank
unrestricted + center income


Canada
Colombia
Germany
IFAD
Japan
Mexico
Monsanto
Nippon Foundation
Novartis Foundation
OPEC
Rockefeller Foundation
Switzerland
UNDP (Africa Bureau)
United Kingdom
SAID
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Bimbo
China
Club Cinq
France
Fundacion Guanajuato
Fundacion Hidalgo
Fundacion Sonora
Germany
IAEA
ICAMEX
Iran
JIRCAS
Mexico
Monsanto
Other Foundations
Rockefeller Foundation
South Africa
Stanford University
Undentified
unrestricted + center income

Colombia
Germany
IFAD
OPEC
Rockefeller Foundation
Switzerland


0.238
0.228
0.088
1.413
0.150
0.026
0.250
0.037
0.019
0.163
0.200
0.601
3.414
0.096
0.042
0.044
0.044
0.200
0.040
0.001
0.298
0.525
0.010
0.278
0.440
0.125
0.100
0.189
0.000
2.432
0.097
0.035
0.145
0.088
0.142
0.048
0.041
0.127
0.049
0.009
0.059
0.039
0.070
0.138
0.134
0.219
0.019
0.024
0.083
0.100
1.257
2.923
0.097
0.201
0.095
0.020
0.620
0.332











Project


Total
005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal
environments







Tnotal


006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests













Total
007. Impacts of maize and wheat research













Total
008. Building human capital











Total
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural
systems to mitigate poverty and climate change





Total


Member
UNDP (Africa Bureau)
United Kingdom
SAID
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Canada
Hohenheim University
Iran
Oklahoma State University
Portugal
Rockefeller Foundation
Spain
unrestricted + center income


Australia
Belgium
France
IDB
Japan
Kansas State University
Korea
Miscellaneous Research Grants
Rockefeller Foundation
Spain
United Kingdom
USDA
unrestricted + center income

Denmark
France
Germany
IFAD
Japan
Norway
Novartis Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
Spain
Switzerland
United Kingdom
World Bank
unrestricted + center income

ADB
Australia
Ford Foundation
Iran
Miscellaneous Research Grants
Other Foundations
Rockefeller Foundation
USDA
World Bank
Undentified
unrestricted + center income

France
Germany
New Zealand
Rockefeller Foundation
United Kingdom
SAID
unrestricted + center income


Total
0.084
0.123
0.200
0.000
1.772
0.161
0.096
0.005
0.050
0.093
0.100
0.019
0.063
1.941
2.528
0.219
0.252
0.170
0.045
0.200
0.015
0.048
0.028
0.019
0.146
0.192
0.162
0.769
2.265
0.096
0.102
0.007
0.095
0.015
0.019
0.256
0.172
0.005
0.100
0.041
0.078
0.123
1.111
0.273
0.031
0.006
0.100
0.093
0.698
0.085
0.062
0.039
0.100
1.925
3.412
0.117
0.037
0.091
0.019
0.132
0.577
0.000
0.973


Total











Project
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for
Sub-Saharan Africa












Total
011. Maize for poverty alleviation and economic
growth in Asia





Total
012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia,
including rice-wheat systems















Total
013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa



Tntal


014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in
Latin America and the Caribbean


Member
Australia
Canada
Germany
IFAD
Nippon Foundation
Novartis Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
Sasakawa Global 2000
South Africa
Switzerland
United Kingdom
World Bank
unrestricted + center income

ADB
Australia
IFAD
OPEC
Rockefeller Foundation
Switzerland
unrestricted + center income


ADB
APN
Australia
Belgium
China
Cornell University
IFAD
Japan
Lamsoo Milling Co
Miscellaneous Research Grants
Netherlands
New Zealand
Rockefeller Foundation
United Kingdom
SAID
unrestricted + center income


Australia
Germany
Rockefeller Foundation
unrestricted + center income


Agrovegetal
Colombia
Ecuador (Promsa)
FENALCE
France
ICAMEX
IDB
IDRC
Mexico
Miscellaneous Research Grants
Monsanto
Peru
Protrigo
Rockefeller Foundation
Switzerland
United Kingdom
Uruguay
SAID
USDA


Total
0.197
0.224
0.134
0.061
0.378
0.457
0.729
0.005
0.025
0.160
0.386
0.078
1.157
3.991
0.149
0.019
0.152
0.020
0.252
0.200
0.956
1.748
0.437
0.040
0.022
0.168
0.168
0.003
0.071
0.200
0.009
0.039
0.265
0.060
0.019
0.297
0.969
0.018
2.787
0.029
0.022
0.019
1.413
1.483
0.075
0.031
0.025
0.029
0.049
0.039
0.020
0.008
0.072
0.035
0.029
0.040
0.191
0.073
0.272
0.151
0.150
0.018
0.032











Project


Total
015. Restoring food security and economic
growth in Central Asia





Total
016. New wheat science to meet global
challenges


Total
017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers



Total
018. Biotechnology for food security












Total
019. Biofortified grain for human health


Total
020. Reducing grain losses after harvest



Total
021. Technology assessment for poverty
reduction and sustainable resource use


Member
Undentified
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Azerbaijan
FAO
Germany
Rockefeller Foundation
Washington State University
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Iran
Rockefeller Foundation
unrestricted + center income

France
Private Sector Consortium
Rockefeller Foundation
unrestricted + center income

Australia
EC
France
Germany
Japan
Korea
Mexico
Netherlands
Novartis Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
Southern Cross University
unrestricted + center income

Mexico
Rockefeller Foundation
unrestricted + center income


Agriculture and Agri-food
Canada
Rockefeller Foundation
unrestricted + center income


ARC
France
IDB
Rockefeller Foundation
SCOPE
unrestricted + center income


Total
0.078
1.759
3.173
0.185
0.043
0.021
0.481
0.019
0.090
0.045
0.883
0.116
0.050
0.019
0.273
0.458
0.044
0.815
0.019
0.000
0.878
0.096
0.740
0.201
0.030
0.200
0.050
0.065
0.011
0.590
0.165
0.005
0.000
2.153
0.050
0.119
0.159
0.328
0.034
0.024
0.019
0.250
0.328
0.106
0.139
0.024
0.019
0.082
0.150
0.520


Grand Total 39.561


Center Totals Total

Total Targeted Funding 26.765
Total Unrestricted Funding 11.846
Total Center Income 0.950
Total Allocations 39.561












Table 8c. CIMMYT Allocation of 2003 Member Financing to Projects by Undertaking
(in $ million)

Project Member Total


001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for
humanity











Total
002. Improved maize for the world's poor


003. Improved wheat for the world's poor


Total
004. Maize for sustainable production in stressed
environments


Total


005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal
environments


Australia
Canada
Denmark
EC
France
Germany
Japan
MAHYCO
Monsanto Fund
Rockefeller Foundation
USDA
unrestricted + center income

Canada
Colombia
Germany
IFAD
Japan
Mexico
Monsanto Fund
Nippon Foundation
Novartis Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
Switzerland
United Kingdom
SAID
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Bimbo
China
Club Cinq
France
Fundacion Guanajuato
Fundacion Hidalgo
Fundacion Sonora
Iran
JIRCAS
Mexico
Other Foundations
Rockefeller Foundation
South Africa
unrestricted + center income

Colombia
Germany
IFAD
Rockefeller Foundation
Switzerland
United Kingdom
SAID
unrestricted + center income


Australia
Canada
Iran
Oklahoma State University


0.135
0.104
0.045
1.492
0.053
0.052
0.250
0.030
0.200
0.262
0.060
0.596
3.280
0.280
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.200
0.040
0.150
0.359
0.208
0.142
0.248
0.190
0.275
0.000
2.242
0.156
0.040
0.145
0.050
0.060
0.019
0.007
0.079
0.070
0.070
0.040
0.229
0.005
0.025
1.133
2.128
0.025
0.125
0.225
0.191
0.225
0.200
0.227
0.000
1.218
0.104
0.052
0.040
0.076













Project MemberI_ Total


Total
006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests


Total


007. Impacts of maize and wheat research


008. Building human capital


Total


Total
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural
systems to mitigate poverty and climate change





Total
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for
Sub-Saharan Africa











Total
011. Maize for poverty alleviation and economic
growth in Asia


Total


Portugal
Rockefeller Foundation
Spain
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Belgium
France
IDB
Japan
Korea
Rockefeller Foundation
Spain
United Kingdom
USDA
unrestricted + center income


Denmark
France
IFAD
Novartis Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
United Kingdom
World Bank
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Iran
Monsanto Fund
Other Foundations
Rockefeller Foundation
SAID
unrestricted + center income

France
Germany
New Zealand
Rockefeller Foundation
United Kingdom
SAID
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Canada
Germany
IFAD
Nippon Foundation
Novartis Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
South Africa
Switzerland
United Kingdom
SAID
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Rockefeller Foundation
Switzerland
unrestricted + center income


0.100
0.005
0.125
1.822
2.324
0.312
0.098
0.060
0.033
0.200
0.030
0.005
0.085
0.168
0.140
0.694
1.824
0.057
0.075
0.067
0.064
0.105
0.050
0.198
0.111
0.728
0.059
0.090
0.150
0.403
0.055
0.100
1.735
2.591
0.075
0.408
0.060
0.005
0.350
0.300
0.000
1.197
0.100
0.240
0.125
0.225
0.314
0.097
0.327
0.025
0.184
0.350
0.304
0.503
2.794
0.013
0.132
0.300
0.862
1.307


Proiect


Member


Total











Member


012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia,
including rice-wheat systems


013. Food security for West Asia and
North Africa

Total
014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in
Latin America and the Caribbean


015. Restoring food security and economic
growth in Central Asia


ADB
Australia
Belgium
China
Japan
Netherlands
New Zealand
Rockefeller Foundation
United Kingdom
SAID
World Bank
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Rockefeller Foundation
unrestricted + center income

Colombia
FENALCE
ICAMEX
IDB
Mexico
Miscellaneous Research Grants
Peru
Protrigo
Rockefeller Foundation
SANREM
Switzerland
United Kingdom
Uruguay
unrestricted + center income

Australia
Germany
Rockefeller Foundation
unrestricted + center income


Total
016. New wheat science to meet global challenges Australia
Iran
Rockefeller Foundation
unrestricted + center income
Total


017. Apomixis: seed security for poor far




018. Biotechnology for food security


mers


France
Private Sector Consortium
Rockefeller Foundation
unrestricted + center income


0.317
0.014
0.228
0.168
0.200
0.292
0.040
0.005
0.105
0.900
0.200
0.557
3.025
0.036
0.005
1.273
1.314
0.045
0.037
0.035
0.055
0.200
0.028
0.040
0.191
0.005
0.156
0.233
0.057
0.150
1.585
2.818
0.284
0.030
0.105
0.042
0.461
0.110
0.030
0.005
0.246
0.391
0.042
0.585
0.005
0.000


Total 0.632
ADB 0.334
Australia 0.218
EC 0.899
France 0.660
Japan 0.200
Korea 0.050
Mexico 0.035
Novartis Foundation 0.274
Rockefeller Foundation 0.500
Switzerland 0.045
USAID 0.190
unrestricted + center income 0.000
Total 3.405


Proiect











Member


019. Biofortified grain for human health


Total
020. Reducing grain losses after harvest



Total
021. Technology assessment for poverty
reduction and sustainable resource use


Mexico
Rockefeller Foundation
unrestricted + center income

Agriculture and Agri-food
Canada
Rockefeller Foundation
unrestricted + center income


Rockefeller Foundation
SCOPE
unrestricted + center income
Total
Grand Total


0.048
0.005
0.056
0.109
0.035
0.040
0.004
0.144
0.223
0.057
0.067
0.129
0.075
0.176
0.504
34.516


Center Totals Total

Total Targeted Funding 22.981
Total Unrestricted Funding 10.585
Total Center Income 0.950
Total Allocations 34.516


Proiect












Table 9: CIMMYT Research Agenda Staff Composition, 2001-2005

2001
(actual) (est
Hired by: Hil
Center Other Center


2002 2003
imated) (plan)
red by: Hired by:
Other Center Other


2004 2005
(plan) (plan)
Hired by: Hired by:
Center Other Center Other


Internationally- Recruited Staff (IRS)
Research & Research Support
of which:
Post-Doctoral Fellows
Associate Professionals

Training I Communications
of which:
Post-Doctoral Fellows
Associate Professionals

Research Management
of which:
Post-Doctoral Fellows
Associate Professionals
TOTAL IRS

Support Staff
Outreach National Staff
Mexico National Staff*
TOTAL SUPPORT STAFF

GRAND TOTAL STAFF


89 27

11 4
7 6

6 0




7 0



102 27


110
640
750

852 27


28 84

4 15
4 10

0 6


6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0



98 28 96 30 96 30 96 30


ma3


105
550
655

28 751


105
550
655

30 751


105
550
655

30 751


30


GRAND T









Project Portfolio


CIMMYT's portfolio of multidisciplinary research projects is divided into global, regional, and
frontier projects. Global (G) and regional (R) projects, as their titles indicate, encompass research that
is best conducted from either a worldwide or specifically regional perspective, though the interaction
between the two kinds of projects is considerable. (For example, many of the experimental maize and
wheat varieties developed through global projects find their ultimate testing ground in the regions,
and information from the regions often proves valuable for orienting global breeding efforts). In line
with agreed CGIAR initiatives, there will be greater regional input into the priorities and planning for
both our global and our regional projects. Frontier (F) projects, on the other hand, often involve more
novel research approaches or more specialized research objectives than global or regional projects,
but all frontier projects are designed to produce results with specific regional and/or global
applications.

It is important to note how CIMMYT's project portfolio has changed since our first Medium-Term
Plan was published in 1997. The titles of the projects have been altered over the years to reflect new
content. Some projects have increased in significance and scope as the research has progressed. For
example, a frontier project on resource degradation ("Learning to more effectively confront problems
of resource degradation in maize and wheat systems") has become a global project on conservation
tillage (Project 9 in this Medium-Term Plan). A special-focus project on "Wheat germplasm
development in the newly independent states" is now a regional project to restore food security and
economic growth in Central Asia and the Caucasus (Project 15). Readers who are interested in more
details on the evolution of CIMMYT's medium-term strategy and project portfolio over the past
several years are encouraged to consult previous plans.










Gl: Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for humanity

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Productivity of resources in maize and wheat Global food security is increased. In studies of the impact of
production is increased, and the sustainable Environmental well-being is improved. germplasm improvement
management of natural resources is improved. This research, improved food security
goal reflects CIMMYT's commitment to the Global and environmental well-being
Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food can be attributed to the use of
and Agriculture as a means of implementing the genetic resources.
Convention on Biological Diversity.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Agrobiodiversity in sustainable farming systems is Continued conservation and ex situ management of maize, Policy environment is conducive
enhanced through research involving the collection, wheat, and related genetic resources. to international exchange and
conservation, evaluation, prebreeding, and Increased evaluation and utilization of maize, wheat, and dissemination of genetic
enhancement, and equitable sharing of genetic related genetic resources by researchers and farmers. resources, information, and
resources of maize, wheat, triticale, and appropriate Increased information for researchers, farmers, and collaborative research.
related species. policymakers on social, economic, and policy issues in Funding for prebreeding and
maize and wheat genetic resource management and enhancement is increased.
conservation, ex situ and in situ. Collaborative research with
Support to prebreeding and enhancement of useful genetic NARS genetic resources
resources is strengthened. programs is enhanced with
Interaction with NARS genetic resources programs is respect to seed conservation
increased. and prebreeding and
enhancement.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
CIMMYT researchers and partners worldwide obtain, Reduced genetic vulnerability in farmers' fields, leading to
maintain, and share germplasm, information, and improved production and food security.
other products needed to develop superior,
genetically diverse seed for farmers' maize and wheat
production systems.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Better conservation of genetic resources ex situ The safe, sustainable care of genetic resource collections. Sustained funding for managing
and in situ. Measurably enhanced conservation and utilization of genetic seed conservation is
2. Improved characterization and evaluation of diversity, guaranteed.
germplasm. Measurable increase in genetic diversity available to Crop network for conservation is
3. Improved methods for conservation, evaluation, breeding programs. funded and strengthened, in
and economic assessment of genetic resources. Measurable increase in productivity, genetic diversity in working with NARS genetic
4. Novel germplasm with new genes/desirable traits farmers' fields, or other crop improvement and natural resources programs.
for future breeding efforts is developed through resource management goals.
novel conventional and molecular technologies.
5. Improved and more widely available information
agronomicc, economic) on genetic resources.
6. Information for policy related to genetic resources
and genetic diversity.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Dynamics of diversity on farm: conserving and Over the planning period:
utilizing genetic diversity (contributes to outputs 1 Improve the methodology for interaction between breeders
and 3-6). and farmers, including access to and use of farmers'
extensive knowledge of crops and crop varieties, breeding
criteria, and consumption and production constraints.
Develop methods for assessing the economic value of
accessions in the wheat collection, the economic impact of
different types of genetic resources and their diversity on
productivity and yield stability at aggregate and household
levels, and the economic and genetic impact of on-farm
improvement of landraces in rural communities.
Develop methods to assess the feasibility of in situ
conservation strategies and the implications of policy
alternatives for farmers' behavior.
Explore possible economic incentives for conservation of
genetic diversity on the farm.
Assess morphological and genetic changes of improved
maize varieties and landraces under farmer management.
Analyze the structure and function of farmers' social
networks in relation to seed flows.
2. Maize conservation, ex situ: landraces and wild Maize genetic resource holdings will exceed 24,000 Development of prebreeding
relatives of maize are collected and maintained; accessions with introductions from Latin American Maize database is supported in relation
improved lines and populations are preserved; Regeneration Project; most of these will be bar coded. to MZBANK.
prebreeding techniques-conventional as well as Techniques are developed/refined for prebreeding and put
cytogenetic and molecular-are developed to into use.
enable researchers to incorporate diversity into Heterotic maize germplasm pools developed and improved.
new germplasm (contributes to outputs 1 and 4). Some enhanced germplasm accessions will be incorporated
in gene pools.





























3. Wheat conservation, ex situ: Landraces and wild
relatives of wheat are collected and maintained;
improved lines and populations are preserved;
prebreeding techniques-conventional as well as
cytogenetic and molecular-are developed to
enable researchers to incorporate diversity into
new germplasm (contributes to outputs 1, 2, 4,
and 5).


4. Development of new tools for the characterization
and evaluation of genetic resources (contributes
to outputs 1-5).


* S3 bulks of selection cycles of some gene pools will be
deposited in the Bank for distribution.
* Local races in Latin America will be collected to fill the gap in
the Latin American maize collections and promote on-farm
conservation.
* In addition to the LAMP core subsets, some 1,500 maize
accessions are designated and published as a race-oriented
breeding core from the evaluation trials.
* Workshop will be held among principal investigators of the
regeneration project.
* Some teosinte in-situ populations as well as maize races in
situ will be monitored.
* Preliminary core subsets of some maize races will be
published in CD-ROM.
* Maize genetic resources database will include information
generated by prebreeding.
* Documentation of MZBANK: structure, function, and user
manual.
* By 2004, further evaluate material selected from screening
10,000 wheat landraces from Iran, Turkey, and Oaxaca and
characterize it for yield components and physiological and
agronomic traits.
* By 2003, evaluate about 500 synthetics derived from emmer
wheat for resistance/tolerance to Russian wheat aphid, leaf
and yellow rust, and septoria leaf blotch.
* By 2004, evaluate the D-genome hexaploid synthetics
(durum based) for drought, salinity, scab and
helminthosporium leaf blight.
* By early 2004, complete initial germination tests of all
material grown out to eliminate Karnal bunt disease. Check
these lines for "orange" color to identify accessions with high
carotene to produce "golden" wheat.
* Over the planning period, cross selections from the 5,000
accessions of Triticum spp. evaluated for resistance to
yellow rust, tan spot, and fusarium head blight with improved
wheats and distribute to cooperators.
* Over the planning period, verify the identity of cultivars in the
overall wheat collection and identify gaps in the collection
(on-going activity).
* Over the planning period, develop/refine and implement
techniques for prebreeding.
* Over the planning period, supply improved germplasm from
the prebreeding programs to the user community.
* Over the planning period, improve passport information by
allocating coordinates to place names.
* Over the planning period, improve access to germplasm and
information through improvements in the IWIS.
* Distribute improved germplasm to wheat improvement
nroarams aloballv through the IWIN.


+ +


Over the planning period:
* Continue to test new molecular genetic technologies to
define suitability for use in maize and wheat germplasm.
* Continue with fingerprinting as an ongoing project; compile
and analyze results.
* Create a link for automatic uploading of molecular data to
public databases such as MaizeDB and GrainGenes and
test links to other databases of interest (i.e., IWIS,
GeneFlow).
* For prebreeding, evaluate part of the core subset collections
of maize for heterotic patterns using molecular markers.
* Develop new screening techniques for aphid resistance in
wheat.
* Develop reliable, efficient screening technique to test for the
presence of transgenes in genebank materials and screen
all new maize germplasm being put into the genebank.


Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs, IARCs, NGOs, ARIs
Costs: US$ 3.414M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (22%), Germplasm collection (56%), Policy (11%), Enhancing NARSs (11%)


*Public database based in IWIS
will become available for use to
store and disseminate
evaluation and prebreeding data
in wheat. Improved germplasm
to be made available for
distribution.


Public database will become
available for use to store and
disseminate molecular data in
maize and wheat.










Project 2 (G2): Improved maize for the world's poor

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
To enhance the productivity and nutritive value of Impact surveys will indicate a 5% increase in maize grain Governments in Latin America
maize and the sustainability of maize-based farming yields in target countries, and Africa will implement
systems in the developing world. Nutritional levels of poor farmers in developing countries will policies in support of agriculture.
improve in countries with CIMMYT maize presence. Maize imports will be reduced.
Prices of maize in the
international market will remain
favorable for farmers.
Decreased malnutrition.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
New, high-yielding, input-efficient, biotic and abiotic Progress reports will provide evidence of the efficiency of Comprehensive national
stress-tolerant maize germplasm and innovative maize breeding methods. agricultural research policies will
technologies will be developed and partially adopted CIMMYT impact studies will indicate adoption of new hybrids follow national development
and varieties. plans in developing countries.
Use of CIMMYT germplasm in the seed industry and NARSs Credit and agricultural inputs are
will be documented. available at the national level.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
A network of maize scientists in the developing world The research capacity of national maize programs will be Private seed companies will
will provide high-yielding, input-efficient, stress- enhanced. disseminate varieties containing
tolerant germplasm, as well as information CIMMYT's stress-resistant inbred lines used by 80% of CIMMYT germplasm.
concerning its proper use and ways to increase the maize breeders in NARSs and the seed industry. National programs will receive
productivity and sustainability of maize-based farming Seventy percent of the improved varieties in developing support from the public and
in general. countries contain some CIMMYT germplasm. private sectors.
Outputs Indicators Assumption and risks
1. High-yielding, input-efficient, stress-tolerant, 1. By 2005 and in collaboration with NARSs and via The budget of the CIMMYT
lodging-resistant, stable, highly nutritive, and international testing, the CIMMYT Maize Program will have Maize Program will remain
environmentally compatible cultivars for maize- developed and identified new hybrids and synthetics with stable.
based systems in the developing countries. 20% higher yield than the current best seed industry checks. CIMMYT Maize Program staffing
2. Stable experimental germplasm with broad 2. By 2005, the CIMMYT Maize Program will have developed will remain stable.
adaptation, superior performance, and stress inbred progenitors, hybrids, and synthetic varieties with Collaboration with the private
tolerance. excellent grain yield stability and resistance to biotic and sector will be enhanced.
3. The enhanced global exchange of germplasm abiotic stresses. NARSs, in collaboration with CIMMYT, will Public and private extension
and capacity for creating novel genotypes. have released hybrids and synthetics with broad adaptation, services will improve.
4. A forum for the efficient exchange of germplasm, added nutritive value, and 20% higher grain yields than the
experiences, and information among global maize best seed industry checks.
scientists. 3. The exchange of germplasm and information will improve.
5. Through NARSs and CIMMYT's regional 4. Farmers will have quicker access to useful outputs of maize
programs, the more efficient transfer of CIMMYT's research.
research outputs to benefit resource-poor 5. Information on the performance of new experimental
farmers. varieties, as well as on the relative advantages of
6. Information on population and line performance in conventional and non-conventional breeding approaches,
a broad array of environments and on efficient will be available.
means to develop broadly adapted germplasm 6. Information on the relationships among important maize
using molecular and conventional approaches. germplasm groups will be available.
7. Information on relationships among important 7. By 2004, CIMMYT-Mexico will have completed the studies
maize germplasm groups from NARSs, advanced of testers and heterotic groups and will have distributed
research institutes, and CIMMYT, resulting in the results to partners in the public and private sectors.
more efficient development of superior cultivars 8. Analysis through years, locations and experiments will show
and international use of improved maize CIMMYT progress in developing new cultivars.
germplasm.
8. NARSs and CIMMYT maize germplasm classified
according to heterotic patterns.
9. Information system (DATABASE) for fast flow of
important data from yield trials, pedigrees, seed,
and other sources.
Activities Milestones Assumption and risks
1. Generate, evaluate and select among early and Over the planning period, provide partners with 130 broadly Resources (staff and budgets)
late maturing white and yellow maize inbred lines adapted, stable inbred lines that possess good general will continue to be available.
adapted to tropical, subtropical, midaltitude, and combining ability and known heterotic response; general
highland environments (contributes to outputs resistance to major foliar diseases, ear rot, insect pests, and
1,2). abiotic stresses; and added nutritive value.
2. Assemble and evaluate nurseries for early (9,000 Over the planning period, form and evaluate 3 different Weather conditions permit
lines), advanced (900 lines), and elite (200 lines) nurseries, effective work.
generations of inbred lines (contributes to outputs
1-5).
3. Germplasm development and population Over the planning period:
improvement: evaluate early (including IPTTs) Develop 7 new populations, introgress landraces and exotic
and advanced generation testcrosses (contributes germplasm, and provide data.
to outputs 3,6). Test 2,000 hybrids.










4. Evaluate testcrosses simultaneously under abiotic Over the planning period:
stresses (drought, low N, high density) and biotic Data become available.
stresses (foliar diseases, ear rots, and insects; Yield stability enhanced.
contributes to outputs 1,2,3).
5. Generate, evaluate, and select among synthetics Over the planning period, develop and test some 150 new Collaboration between the
with the following characteristics: early maturity, OPVs and synthetics of both normal and quality protein CIMMYT seed health and
late maturity, disease resistance, tolerance to maize (QPM) through international trials, international testing units will
drought and low N, and midaltitude and highland continue at its current, high level.
adaptation (contributes to outputs 1,2). Mexican quarantine authorities
will issue import permits on time.
6. Generate and evaluate advanced single-cross Over the planning period, develop and test about 200 new, The CIMMYT Seed Health and
and testcross hybrids for subtropical, midaltitude, high-yielding, stable hybrids (normal and QPM) through International Testing Units will
and highland regions; form and evaluate stress- international trials, maintain their current level of
resistant hybrids (contributes to outputs 1,2). efficiency.
7. By 2005, respective national agencies will release Over the planning period: Effective seed providers will be
QPM hybrids in Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Approximately 40 inbred lines and 25 OPVs and hybrids in place.
Venezuela, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, (normal and QPM) will be released by national and private Extension services will be active
Malawi, and normal hybrids and OPVs in eastern seed companies. in target countries.
and southern Africa, Asia, and Latin America Characterize all products for abiotic and biotic stress
(contributes to outputs 1,2,4). tolerance.
In collaboration with G4, R2, R5, and F4, release normal
and QPM hybrids, synthetics, and lines resistant to stress.
8. Continue improvement of 2 white and 2 yellow Over the planning period, in close collaboration with G4,
heterotic maize populations with tolerance to identify 10 source OPVs with specific stress tolerance and
acidic, aluminum-toxic soils and adaptation to the excellent performance through testing in Mexico and
lowland tropics (contributes to outputs 1,2). elsewhere.
9. Select among 440 testcrosses between inbred Over the planning period, in close collaboration with G4,
lines and 2 testers under low N for the 10% best identify 20 inbred lines with good general combining ability,
lines for hybrid formation and pedigree projects specific abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, and excellent
(contributes to outputs 1, 2). performance potential in unstressed environments.
10. Evaluate and select tropical lines with tolerance to In collaboration with G4 and R5 identify 20 inbred lines with
acid soils under low P conditions tolerance to low P levels.
11. Select and evaluate subtropical, tropical, and Over the planning period, marker-assisted breeding used Activities of the CIMMYT Maize
highland QPM lines with the assistance of routinely for at least two traits. Program and Applied
molecular markers (contributes to outputs 1,2,5). Biotechnology Center will be
fully integrated.
12. Evaluate QPM and normal maize for industrial Over the planning period, food quality traits (color, flour Effective relationships between
quality (tortillas) in Mexico, Central America, and recovery rate, cooking time, texture) assume greater the milling industry and maize
Venezuela (arepas), (contributes to outputs 1,2). importance in breeding. grower associations will be in
place.
13. The respective CIMMYT maize subprograms Over the planning period, major heterotic patterns in tropical CIMMYT reports will reach all
undertake detailed studies on the heterotic and subtropical maize are identified, reported widely, and intended audiences.
patterns in tropical, subtropical, and highland used by several NARSs to guide their work.
germplasm (contributes to outputs 1,2,7).
14. During 2003, conduct three types of training: 1) Over the planning period, train about 80 national Potential trainees will be
maize breeding courses in Spanish and English at researchers in applied maize breeding. available in developing
CIMMYT-Mexico; 2) advanced breeding course countries.
for NARSs leaders at CIMMYT-Mexico; and 3)
visiting scientist appointments to CIMMYT maize
subprograms and to national programs in Africa,
Latin America, and Asia (contributes to outputs
3,4); 4) QPM training course.
15. Develop DATABASE System available through Collect all available data of CIMMYT germplasm around the NARS will have access to
Internet on the CIMMYT web site. world in last 5 years. INTERNET.
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs: Including KARI, Kenya; EARO, Ethiopia; ICAR, India; CAAS, China; EMBRAPA, Brazil; La Molina, Peru; CENTA, El Salvador; ICTA,
Guatemala; INTA, Nicaragua; DICTA, Honduras; IDIAP, Panama; INIAP, Ecuador; INIA, Peru; INIFAP, Mexico; and UAAAN, Mexico; CORPOICA, Colombia.
IARCs: CIAT, ILRI, ICRISAT, CIP. NGOs: Including Sasakawa-Global 2000, World Vision. Universities: Including Texas A&M University, USA; Iowa State
University, USA: and Oklahoma State University, USA. Private companies: Including MASECA, Mexico; Pioneer; Monsanto Worldwide; Cristiani, Latin
America.
Costs: US$ 2.432M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (55%), Germplasm collection (18%), Sustainable production (7%), Enhancing NARSs (20%)










Project 3 (G3): Improved wheat for the world's poor

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
To increase food production and enhance food Increased wheat, triticale, and barley production in the Governments in developing
security in the irrigated and high rainfall environments irrigated and high rainfall regions of the developing world. countries will continue with
of the developing world while protecting the Increased adoption of resource-conserving technologies by policies that support agricultural
environment and preserving the biodiversity of wheat, farmers. development, although an
triticale, and barley. Greater diversity in the wheat, triticale, and barley varieties actual, continual decline is
sown in farmers' fields. noted.

Intermediate goals Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Improved food production through the introduction Higher wheat, triticale, and barley yields of higher quality. NARSs will use CIMMYT
of higher yielding, disease-resistant, good quality Farmers adopt higher yielding wheat, triticale, and barley germplasm to develop and
wheat, triticale, and barley varieties in irrigated varieties with improved disease and pest resistance. release adapted varieties to
and high rainfall environments of the developing Farmers adopt improved crop management practices that go farmers.
world. with improved varieties. NARSs have reduced resources
2. Enhanced food security as a result of greater Greater genetic diversity of sown varieties, which as a result for crop improvement.
yield stability in farmers' fields. are less vulnerable to diseases, pests, and environmental
3. Improved crop management strategies to ensure variability.
that farmers take full advantage of the improved
characteristics of modern varieties.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
To produce high-yielding, disease-resistant, good Superior yielding, disease-resistant, good quality wheat, NARSs will continue to evaluate
quality wheat, triticale, and barley lines that NARSs triticale, and barley germplasm with broader genetic diversity and release germplasm adapted
can use to develop and release varieties adapted to is developed and distributed to NARSs. to local conditions.
local conditions, and to generate sustainable crop Improved, sustainable crop management strategies are
management practices that allow varieties to reach developed and transferred to NARSs.
their full yield potential.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. High-yielding, disease-resistant, good quality 8. Improved germplasm of appropriate adaptation CIMMYT resources for the
germplasm combining stability, input efficiency, disseminated to cooperators in irrigated and high rainfall development of wheat, triticale,
and input responsiveness for irrigated and high environments, and barley germplasm are
rainfall conditions. 9. Improved resistant germplasm disseminated to cooperators. maintained at current levels,
2. Improved levels of durable resistance to diseases 10. Germplasm with improved quality disseminated to adjusted annually for inflation.
(the three rusts, Karnal bunt, tan spot, Septoria cooperators. Germplasm exchange remains
tritici, Fusarium head blight, barley yellow dwarf, 11. Improved germplasm that performs well under different free and open, although a small
among others). cultural practices disseminated to cooperators. reduction is noted, partly owing
3. Wheat, triticale, and barley germplasm with 12. Genetic stocks available, to quarantine issues and partly
improved industrial and nutritional quality. 13. Development of 42-chromosome wheats containing "small" due to wider global IPR
4. Genotypes that are better adapted to current and alien segments carrying traits relevant for irrigated and high adoption.
future management situations, and perform better rainfall wheat production.
under reduced tillage, residue retention, reduced 14. Management systems being promoted.
irrigation practices, and other relevant cultural
practices.
5. New genetic sources of selected traits available
from the germplasm bank.
6. New stocks in 42- or 28-chromosome
backgrounds, including new translocations from
alien species and wheat relatives, provided to
NARS breeders.
7. Improved integrated nutrient management
systems that increase nutrient use efficiency and
minimize adverse environmental effects.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Empirical breeding combined with trait-oriented Every year, transfer to NARSs in target environments lines See above.
analytical and molecular approaches, including with improved yield potential, resistance to the most
breeding simulation, to develop parental stocks important biotic and relevant abiotic stresses, plus increased
for irrigated and high rainfall production conditions quality.
(contributes to outputs 1, 3). Exotic genetic stocks identified, including related genera,
wheat wild relatives, landraces, and unadapted cultivars, for
incorporation into germplasm adapted to irrigated and high
rainfall wheat production.
Each year, 50 lines derived from crosses involving diverse
genetic stocks.
2. Prebreeding to produce new genetic stocks in 42- Each year, 10 lines derived from new genetic stocks.
or 28- chromosome backgrounds (contributes to
outputs 5, 6).

3. More efficient quality procedures developed and Implement improved quality procedures, and distribute lines
implemented to facilitate the development of with considerably increased industrial and end-use quality.
better quality and more specific germplasm
(contributes to output 3).










4. Transfer of newly identified sources of adaptation, Distribute lines derived from new sources of diversity with
yield traits, disease resistance and quality using improved yield potential, resistance to the most important
new sources of diversity such as synthetic wheats biotic and relevant abiotic stresses, plus increased quality.
(contributes to outputs 2, 4, 6).
5. Germplasm distributed through the International Each year, distribute international nurseries, yield trials and
Nursery System to NARSs in target environments segregating populations targeted towards the irrigated and
for testing and collection of performance data high rainfall mega-environments.
(contributes to outputs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6).
6. Conduct, implement, and disseminate results of Disseminate promising crop management strategies to
strategic crop management research to identify NARSs.
management solutions to factors limiting
production and productivity in irrigated and high
rainfall environments (contributes to outputs 4, 7).
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs: 100 NARSs in 30 countries (larger national research systems include Argentina, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Mexico, Pakistan,
and South Africa), IARCs: ICARDA, IRRI, ARIs: Kansas State University, Oklahoma State University, USA; University of Queeensland, Australia; Autonomous
University of Chapingo, Mexico; among others.
Costs: US$ 2.923M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (43%), Germplasm collection (13%), Sustainable production (24%), Enhancing NARSs (20%)










Project 4 (G4): Increasing the productivity and sustainability of maize in the presence of stress

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Contribute to food security, natural resource Greater and more sustainable food security and economic Socioeconomic, climatic, and
conservation, and poverty reduction by increasing the stability of maize-based farming communities across edaphic factors dictate that the
productivity, stability, and sustainability of maize in countries and regions of the developing world, also as majority of maize in the
the presence of abiotic and biotic stresses. climate change increases the area and frequency of developing world continues to
unfavorable production conditions. be produced in the presence of
abiotic and biotic stress factors.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Stabilize and increase maize production in a Increased and more stable aggregate maize production in Genetic variability and
sustainable manner in tropical and subtropical regions characterized by large variability in pests, weather, agronomic options exist, and
environments that are affected by abiotic and biotic and other production factors. information can be developed
stresses, with special emphasis on research targeted Maize production maintained and stabilized in regions that and compiled, to increase the
at resource-poor farming systems and at will be affected by climate change. maize productivity and
environments that will likely be affected by climate Higher and more stable family incomes in unfavorable sustainability in the presence of
change. environments, benefiting the poorest, especially women and abiotic and biotic stresses,
children. especially in view of climate
Reduction in the unfavorable environmental impacts of change and the specific
maize farming systems in stress environments, socioeconomic circumstances
Enhanced biodiversity through the deployment of diverse and preferences of resource-
genetic resources, reduced use of pesticides, and reduced poor farmers.
expansion of maize farming systems into valuable ecologies.
Trained researchers familiar with research options for stress
environments, to accelerate the development of sustainable
maize farming systems for a wider range of environments.
Larger impacts of maize-related research, particularly in
stress environments.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
Achieve increased, more stable, and sustainable Adoption of improved and sustainable maize production See above.
maize production in the presence of abiotic and biotic systems by resource-poor farmers in unfavorable
stresses and climate change. environments.
More appropriate use of genetic and natural resources in
stress environments.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Characterization of the relative importance of 1. Quantitative estimates available of the importance of various Continued development and
biotic and abiotic stress factors in maize growing abiotic and biotic stresses for maize production, food availability of GIS databases
environments, and of farmers' preferences in security, economic stability, the status of natural resources and related information.
stress environments, and predicted impacts of climate change, resulting in Genetic variability in maize
2. Conventional and molecular breeding improved priority setting by research managers and maize germplasm; access to that
methodologies for identifying germplasm with researchers. variability.
resistance/tolerance to major biotic and abiotic 2. Accelerated development of maize germplasm that is more New scientific options are and
stresses. appropriate for stress environments and that meets the continue to become available;
3. Germplasm that tolerates/resists stresses such as specific needs of resource-poor farmers. access to those options.
acidic and phosphorus-deficient soils, drought, 3. Maize germplasm sources available that carry Interest by NARS partners in
low N, insects, and diseases. tolerance/resistance to the most relevant biotic and abiotic achieving increased, more
4. Agronomic interventions and decision support stresses and that are adapted to the major agroecologies. stable, and sustainable maize
systems for stress environments (in conjunction 4. Environment-specific agronomic interventions and decision production.
with projects R1, R2, R4, R5). support systems are available that are attractive to resource- Constant-to-increased
5. Information on germplasm resources, breeding poor farmers in unfavorable environments and that manage commitment by donors to
methodologies, and crop management options for natural resources sustainably. contribute to greater and more
stress environments, and information on their 5. NARS scientists and policy makers are aware of and use sustainable food security and
potential impact. maize germplasm and research methods to increase, economic stability of maize-
6. Capacities to work with national researchers to stabilize, and sustain maize production in unfavorable based farming communities in
access germplasm and apply technologies that environments, countries and regions across the
increase maize productivity and sustainability in 6. Maize researchers are trained in technologies that increase developing world.
stress environments (in conjunction with projects maize productivity and sustainability in stressed
G2, G8, R1, R2, R4, R5, F3). environments, and facilities for developing stress-tolerant
maize germplasm are available to NARS breeders in
different agroecological zones.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Compile and make available geo-referenced data GIS information that is relevant for maize research (data on Further development of GIS
on environment, population, and maize production climate, soil, elevation, land use, population, nutrition, and databases by other public
in the tropics and subtropics to increase research maize production compiled at the continental level) made institutions.
effectiveness and the sustainable use of genetic available in a user-friendly manner to researchers in Africa, Continued access to GIS
and natural resources, particularly in stress Asia, and Latin America. databases developed by public
environments (contributes to output 1). Country-specific GIS information developed for 20 countries, institutions.
Release of new maize cultivars facilitated in Africa through Collaboration and continued
the use of GIS information that demonstrates similarities funding of partner institutions.
among countries. Increased funding.
Through collaboration with other institutions, better access
to improved geo-referenced soils and maize distribution
information.










2. Compile information on the importance and Standard maize nurseries for identifying the presence and Collaboration and continued
distribution of major insect pests and diseases of variability of pathogens and insects developed and funding of partner institutions.
tropical maize and their interactions with the distributed to collaborators, who return geo-referenced site Continued-to-increased funding.
environment and management factors data.
(contributes to output 1). Hot spots for disease and insect stress identified; similarity
maps for those sites developed.
Survey completed of major insect pests of maize, based on
published reports and information from local experts.
Survey completed on pathogen diversity of the Cercospora
spp., Exserohilum turcicum, Puccinia sorghi, maize streak
virus, downy mildews.
3. Enhance knowledge of the physiology and Relationship between promising physiological mechanisms Collaboration and continued
genetics of mechanisms that confer and tolerance/resistance to abiotic and biotic stress factors funding of partner institutions.
tolerance/resistance to major biotic and abiotic established. Continued-to-increased level of
stresses in maize (contributes to outputs 2 and 5). Relationship established among mechanisms that confer funding.
tolerance to several abiotic stress factors for more effective Other public and private
selection of maize germplasm adapted to complex stress institutions progress on
environments (focus on flowering process; root technologies that identify and
development; leaf senescence/stay-green). isolate genes, and are willing to
Inheritance studies completed in relevant germplasm for share that knowledge and to
mechanisms that confer tolerance/ resistance to drought, give access to technologies.
low soil N, acid soil/low pH, low soil P, suboptimal
temperatures, E. turcicum, Cercospora spp., P. sorghi,
Phaeospaheria leaf spot, downy mildews, corn stunt
complex, Rhizoctonia solani, and Physopella zeae.
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) identified in relevant germplasm
for mechanisms that confer tolerance/resistance to drought,
low soil N, low soil P, E. turcicum, Cercospora spp., maize
streak virus and downy mildews.
QTLs identified that are related to drought tolerance and are
stable across maize materials.
Significant progress towards identifying and isolating genes
and physiological pathways of traits associated with drought
tolerance and stem borer resistance.
Twenty publications in referred journals.
Fifty contributions to scientific conferences.
4. Develop improved and more efficient selection Cost-effectiveness of marker-assisted selection (MAS) Collaboration and continued
methodologies for identifying maize with compared to conventional selection for stress funding of partner institutions.
resistance and tolerance to major stresses, which tolerance/resistance mechanisms where QTLs have been Continued-to-increased funding.
is acceptable to resource-poor farmers identified, and cost-effective strategies implemented in
(contributes to outputs 2 and 3). breeding programs of G2.
Application of MAS strategies to improve
resistance/tolerance of selected germplasm to drought,
downy mildews, and maize streak virus.
Develop and disseminate user-friendly statistical design and
data analysis and management techniques that improve
efficiency of maize breeding programs by 30%.
Selection for leaf toughness implemented in selected
breeding programs of G2, enabling selection for multiple
borer resistance where insect rearing is not possible.
Cost-effective methods developed for testing cultivars at the
release stage in a manner that better considers stress
environments and preferences of resource-poor farmers.
5. Develop sources that provide highest levels of Thirty synthetics or open-pollinated varieties and 250 inbred Collaboration and continued
resistance and tolerance to various stresses on a lines recommended to national research programs, NGOs, funding of partner institutions.
broad genetic background; focus on priority and private seed companies because of relevant/superior Continued-to-increased funding.
stresses in different environments (eastern Africa; tolerance/resistance in adapted genetic background.
southern Africa; South American lowlands; Genetic sources with elite genetic background and highest
Mesoamerican lowlands; Asian lowlands; stress tolerance/resistance available for drought, low soil N,
highlands; and subtropics) (contributes to output low soil pH/AI toxicity, low soil P, Spodoptera frugiperda,
3). Diatrea spp., B. fusca, C. partellus, E. turcicum, Cercospora
spp., Phaeospharia leaf spot, banded leaf and sheet blight,
maize streak virus, downy mildews, F. moniliforme, and Mal
de Rio Cuarto Virus.
Fifty countries releasing stress-tolerant maize germplasm
based on these sources.
6. Develop environment-specific agronomic See descriptions of R1, R2, R4, and R5 in this publication. Most environment-specific
interventions and decision support systems that agronomic interventions and
are attractive to resource-poor farmers in decision support systems are
unfavorable environments and that manage developed as part of regional
available natural resources in a sustainable projects.
manner (in collaboration with R1, R2, R4, and R5) Collaboration and continued
(contributes to output 4). funding of partner institutions.
Continued-to-increased funding.










7. Analyze interactions between cultivar, Cultivarx management practices evaluated under farmers' Collaboration and continued
management practices, and farmers' preferences conditions, obtaining farmers' evaluation as well as funding of partner institutions.
under the influence of unfavorable environments assessment of socioeconomic and institutional constraints of Increased funding.
(in collaboration with R1, R2, R4, and R5) improved and sustainable maize production systems, with
(contributes to output 5). priority given to: acid-soil-tolerant germplasm and related
agronomic practices, Latin America; drought- and low N
tolerant germplasm and related resource management
techniques, eastern and southern Africa; stem borer-
resistant germplasm and pest management strategies,
Mexico and eastern Africa; Striga-tolerant germplasm and
related management practices, eastern Africa (see R1).
Global scientific workshop on approaches that achieve
increased, more stable, and sustainable maize production in
the presence of abiotic and biotic stresses.
8. Provide partners with easily accessible Regional and global trials and networks used for Collaboration and continued
information on stress-tolerant maize germplasm systematically and collaboratively evaluating elite maize funding of partner institutions.
and molecular information (in collaboration with germplasm for the most important stresses for that ecology, Continued-to-increased funding.
G2) (contributes to output 5). and for establishing and using molecular information.
Annual publication on stress tolerance/resistance of globally
and regionally available elite maize germplasm from
CIMMYT.
9. Develop training material/technical reports on Training material/technical reports developed that document: Collaboration and continued
selection methodologies and agronomic 1) proven breeding techniques for selecting maize tolerant to funding of partner institutions.
interventions that increase maize productivity and low soil pH/AI toxicity; 2) insect resistance breeding and the Continued-to-increased funding.
sustainability in stressed environments use of leaf toughness as a surrogate for artificial
(contributes to output 5). infestations; 3) inoculation techniques for important maize
diseases; 4) use of improved statistical design and analysis
techniques for trials executed under the complex and difficult
conditions of stress environments; and 5) options for farmer
participatory variety selection in stress environments.
Revised field guide on tropical maize diseases.
Web-based expert system for the identification of major
pests and diseases in tropical maize growing environments
developed.
For training material/technical reports on agronomic
interventions that increase maize productivity and
sustainability in stressed environments, see R1, R2, R4, R5.
10. Train maize scientists in technologies that One hundred scientists trained in the use of GIS data, Increased funding.
increase maize productivity and sustainability in resulting in more appropriate planning and execution of
stress environments (in collaboration with G8) agricultural research projects and in increased collaboration
(contributes to output 6). across country boundaries.
One hundred NARS scientists trained through short courses,
workshops, or visiting scientist fellowships in 1) developing
and identifying stress-tolerant maize cultivars suited to
resource-poor farmers' conditions and preferences; and 2)
developing agronomic interventions suited to stress
environments and resource-poor farmers' socioeconomic
conditions (in collaboration with R1, R2, R4 and R5).
African NARS scientists trained in the identification of
genotypes presenting high and moderated resistance to
maize streak virus using molecular markers.
Fifteen PhD/MSc students finishing their thesis on subjects
related to increasing maize productivity and sustainability in
stress environments.
11. Develop facilities that NARS breeders in different Regionally accessible sites established for: 1) MAS in Increased funding.
agroecological zones can use to develop stress- Kenya, Zimbabwe, and selected Asian countries; 2) drought,
tolerant maize germplasm (in collaboration with low N, and low pH screening in Africa, Asia, Latin America;
R1, R2, R4, and R5) (contributes to output 6). 3) screening for Striga in Africa (see R1); 4) screening for
stem borers in Africa, Asia, Latin America.
National research programs supported in use of artificial
inoculation or infestation techniques for screening regionally
relevant germplasm.
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs of Africa, Latin America, and Asia; Universidad Nacional de Sao Paulo, Brazil; University of Ottawa, Canada; Universidad Nacional de
Colombia; University of Hannover, Germany; European research team in INCO-DC project; John Innes Center and Natural Resources Institute, UK; Punjab
Agricultural University, India; Colegio de Posgraduados and UNAM, Mexico; University of the Philippines; Swiss Institute of Technology and Universit6 de
Neuchatel, Switzerland; Cornell University, Iowa State University, University of Minnesota, Mississippi State University/USDA, Ohio State University, Texas
A&M University, and Texas Tech University, USA; CIAT, ICIPE, ICRAF, ICRISAT, IITA, ILRI, and IRRI; private seed companies; and NGOs.
Costs: US$1.772M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (45%), Germplasm collection (10%), Sustainable production (30%), Enhancing NARSs (15%)










Project 5 (G5) Wheat for sustainable production in marginal environments

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Generate benefits for resource-poor farmers in Improved rural livelihoods in marginal environments. Wheat genetic resources for
marginal areas subject to abiotic stress by improving marginal environments are
yield, stability, profitability, and sustainability of wheat available.
production system.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Develop and disseminate superior wheat and triticale Adoption of improved wheat and triticale germplasm in Resources continue to be
germplasm, in conjunction with crop management developing country areas subject to abiotic stress. available for the development of
technologies, appropriate for abiotic stress Adoption of improved crop management technologies, improved germplasm and crop
environments of developing countries. management.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
CIMMYT and NARS partners collaborate to obtain, Improved wheat and triticale germplasm available for See above.
maintain, and share germplasm and information researchers and farmers in developing countries.
needed to develop and disseminate superior wheat
and triticale germplasm suitable for abiotic stress
environments.
Outputs Indicators Assumption and risks
1. New sources of drought adaptive traits identified More productive, drought-tolerant, input-responsive varieties Genetic resources and
and incorporated into adapted elite germplasm. available to farmers growing wheat and triticale in variable, screening methodologies
2. Germplasm that performs better under different risky rainfall environments, available.
moisture-conserving crop management Wheat and triticale varieties suitable for reduced tillage and Active collaboration with
technologies (e.g., reduced tillage) and suitable other management strategies available to farmers in research partners.
residue retention. variable, risky rainfall environments. Germplasm exchange
3. New sources of adaptation for heat and cold Germplasm with heat and cold tolerance characterized and unrestricted.
tolerance identified, incorporated into adapted made available for farmers in areas suffering heat and cold Data available for mapping.
germplasm, and disseminated to NARS extremes. Adoption encouraged by locally
collaborators. Geographical information on nutrient stress available for available, inexpensive
4. Environments suffering nutrient stress mapped, technology development and dissemination. implements, no competing uses
and technologies to reduce nutrient constraints Germplasm with adaptation to nutrient stress made available of crop residues, and other
made available, to NARSs. important conditions for
5. Genetic resources with tolerance to nutrient Adoption of more efficient selection methodologies by success.
stress identified and incorporated into germplasm. CIMMYT and NARS breeding programs. Suitable data and resources
6. New, more efficient methodologies for selecting Information available on residue management, and adoption available to develop information
wheat and triticale cultivars under abiotic stress of reduced tillage by smallholder farmers. system.
conditions. Adoption of a crop information concept that increases
7. Improved crop management technologies- research efficiency in developing wheat and triticale cultivars
including reduced tillage systems and for abiotic stress environments.
implements, residue management, and nutrient
management-developed for rainfed wheat and
triticale cropping systems.
8. A crop information concept that provides decision
support through improved characterization of
wheat germplasm and of production and selection
environments with respect to abiotic stresses, and
which increases the efficiency of experimental
trials.
Activities Milestones Assumption and risks
1. Development of new parental materials using By 2005, identify > 150 sources of drought tolerance. See above.
genetic diversity from a range of sources
containing relevant traits for grain yield, biotic and
abiotic stress tolerance, and end-use quality
(contributes to output 1).
2. Drought adaptive traits will be incorporated using By 2005, CIMMYT and national breeding programs See above.
trait-oriented analytical and molecular approaches investigate and adopt improved screening methodologies.
together with empirical breeding methods
(contributes to output 1).
3. Germplasm distributed through the International Over the planning period, provide improved drought-tolerant See above.
Nursery System and information about germplasm to NARSs.
performance in targeted environments
incorporated into a crop information concept
(contributes to output 1, 8).
4. Parental materials tolerant of heat and cold Over the planning period, identify 100-200 sources of heat See above.
identified and evaluated (contributes to output 3). and cold tolerance.
5. Crop improvement using empirical, analytical, and Over the planning period, adapted germplasm with heat and See above.
molecular approaches, shuttle breeding, genotype cold tolerance available.
x management interactions, and multilocation
testing (contributes to output 3)
6. Germplasm and related information disseminated Over the planning period, increased understanding of See above.
(contributes to output 3, 8). environments with heat and cold stress.










7. Characterization of potential progenitors and Over the planning period, determine nutrient status of See above.
development of new parental materials adapted to collaborating research sites. Determination of inheritance
nutrient stresses, including N, P, Zn, BN, Mn, Cu and GE interaction of tolerance to nutrient stresses.
stresses (contributes to output 5).
8. Crop improvement using empirical, analytical, and Over the planning period, determine nutrient status of See above.
molecular approaches to develop tolerant collaborating research sites
germplasm and appropriate management
practices (contributes to output 5)
9. Specialized International Adaptation Trial (IAT) Over the planning period, deployment of the IAT to global Support from collaborating
developed to better understand target drought test locations and data collection. institutions available.
environments, moisture stress patterns, and
underlying traits to better tailor germplasm
(contributes to outputs 1, 3, 5, 6, 8).
10. Identification of potential stress adaptive traits, By 2005, implementation of selection of identified relevant See above.
evaluation of field screening methodologies, and stress adaptive traits.
determination of genetic basis of these traits
(contributes to output 6).
11. Development of molecular, physiological, and By 2005, CIMMYT and national breeding programs See above.
conventional selection tools (contributes to output increasingly adopt more efficient selection methodologies.
6).
12. Develop and adapt improved crop management Over the planning period, test machinery for conservation Support from collaborating
strategies, including reduced tillage, residue tillage. institutions available.
management, machinery, rotations, nutrient
management, and bed systems (contributes to
output 7).
13. Disseminate crop management strategies to Over the planning period: Limitations to dissemination not
NARSs, NGOs, and farmers (contributes to output Information on appropriate strategies available, present (e.g., inadequate
7). Smallholder farmers adopt reduced tillage systems. extension infrastructure,
Inappropriate policies).
14. Advise CIMMYT and NARS breeding programs Over the planning period, adaptation of conservation tillage
on appropriate management practices for practices in CIMMYT's breeding programs.
germplasm screening (contributes to output 7).
15. Study the biological basis of genotype x abiotic Over the planning period, improved characterization of See above.
stress interactions, and improve the wheat germplasm and greater research trial efficiency.
characterization of germplasm, production
environments, and selection environments for
abiotic stresses (contributes to output 1, 5, 8).
16. Develop a crop information concept as a decision Over the planning period, better utilization of data and Resources available for system
support system (contributes to output 8). information by breeding programs in research on abiotic development.
stresses.
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs, IARCs, ARIs
Costs: US$ 2.528M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (15%), Germplasm collection (5%), Sustainable production (60%), Enhancing NARSs (20%)










Project 6 (G6): Wheat resistant to diseases and pests

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Wheat, triticale, and barley productivity is increased, Results of CIMMYT impact studies.
yield stability is enhanced, and the impact of
agriculture on the environment is reduced.

Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Increase the stability of wheat, triticale, and barley Better understanding of global epidemiology and improved Patents on molecular markers
production through the strategic deployment of more knowledge of the disease resistance present in wheat, and techniques may prevent
genetically diverse germplasm with durable disease triticale, and barley cultivars on the part of CIMMYT their unrestricted use.
and pest resistance, and the dissemination of researchers and NARS partners.
relevant epidemiological information. Identification of diverse sources of resistance to wheat,
triticale, and barley diseases and pests.
Wheat, triticale, and barley germplasm with more durable
disease resistance distributed to NARSs.
Reduced application of chemical pesticides due to the use of
disease-resistant cultivars.
Development of molecular markers and marker-assisted
selection (MAS) strategies for use in disease resistance
breeding.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
Genetic vulnerability in farmers' fields is reduced and High-yielding, disease-resistant wheat, triticale, and barley Limited research capacity of
yield stability is increased as NARSs release varieties developed and released by NARSs from CIMMYT's certain NARSs in the areas of
improved,disease-resistant varieties and are better improved, disease-resistant germplasm. disease and pest etiology and
able to manage the diseases and pests that attack Improved global and regional pathogen surveillance, epidemiology.
wheat, triticale, and barley. Global and regional networking and strengthening of
NARSs' capability to conduct their own disease surveys and
forecast important changes in pest populations.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. New sources of resistance to important diseases 1. Availability of germplasm with better genetic resistance. Limited capacity of NARSs to
and pests of wheat, triticale, and barley cultivars 2. Disease and pest control strategies under development use efficient resistance
made available. 3. Information on disease and pest distribution and pathogen screening techniques and apply
2. Cultivars with broader based genetic resistance to variation made available to CIMMYT researchers, NARS modern biotechnological tools.
emerging and mutating pathogens that could partners, and other collaborators.
cause extensive crop losses. 4. PCRs, QTLs, and other markers available for multigenic
3. Strategies for the effective control of diseases and resistance traits.
pests in current and changing production 5. Application of molecular markers increases efficiency of
systems. selection for resistance to biotic stresses.
4. Information on occurrences at the global and
regional levels of diseases, pests, and new
virulences, as well as of their relevance to
cultivars sown in farmers' fields.
5. More efficient field and lab diagnostic techniques
and better characterization of pathogens and
pests.
6. MAS strategies effective for incorporating various
resistance genes.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Advanced wheat, triticale, and barley lines plus Each year, identify and distribute new sources of resistance. Germplasm exchange remains
materials from the Wide Crosses Unit and the free and open.
CIMMYT genebank rigorously screened for
resistance to various diseases and pests at hot
spots in Mexico and around the world (contributes
to outputs 1, 2, 3,4).
2. Continuous determination of the distribution and Annually, data on crop losses caused by targeted diseases
importance of targeted diseases and pests, and of and pests are available for making strategic crop protection
the crop losses they cause (contributes to outputs and breeding decisions.
1,2,3,4).
3. Strengthening NARSs' capability to conduct their Assess strategies for effectively controlling newly emerging
own disease surveys and forecast changes in diseases and pests, and make them available to NARSs
pest populations that could affect the stability of routinely.
crop production (contributes to outputs 1, 2, 3,
4,5).
4. Tagging of genes conferring resistance to biotic Apply MAS in breeding on a regular basis.
stresses to develop diagnostic markers
(contributes to outputs 5, 6).

5. Mapping genes that confer resistance to leaf rust, Each year, provide information on the number, location, and
yellow rust, fusarium head blight, and Karnal bunt, effect of genes conferring resistance to leaf rust, yellow rust,
among other diseases (contributes to outputs 5, Fusarium head blight, and Karnal bunt.
6).










6. Pathogen surveillance through sampling, Data available. Support (financial, human
diagnostic surveys, disease monitoring, and resources) and skills available.
virulence analyses at the global and regional
levels (contributes to outputs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs, IARCs, NGOs, ARIs,
Costs: US$ 2.265M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (70%), Germplasm collection (20%), Enhancing NARSs (10%)










Project 7 (G7): Impacts of maize and wheat research

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Enhance the rate of adoption of agricultural Increased adoption of agricultural technology in developing Developing countries remain
technology to improve the productivity, equity, and countries, committed to raising agricultural
environmental sustainability of maize- and wheat- More efficient allocation of agricultural research resources in productivity as a way of
based cropping systems. developing countries, improving the welfare of the
poor.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Improve our understanding of the adoption of Information documenting impacts of research and factors Sharing of data and information
agricultural technology and spell out the implications affecting technology adoption. is unimpeded.
for improving research resource allocation by Information to guide strategies for deploying new Other organizations may not
studying the processes through which improved technology, acknowledge their use of
germplasm and improved crop and resource Information for more efficient research resource allocation. CIMMYT germplasm.
management practices diffuse in developing Methods for conducting impact and resource allocation
countries. studies.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
Evaluate the impact of research done by CIMMYT See above. Impacts assessment function
and its partners in order to improve general will be insulated from public
understanding of the factors affecting technology relations function (impacts data
adoption, accelerate deployment of new technology, will not be manipulated for
and improve research resource allocation. publicity).
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Updated and expanded knowledge about the Information on the productivity, equity, and environmental Same as above
development and diffusion of improved maize and impacts associated with adoption of improved maize and
wheat germplasm in developing countries, wheat germplasm in developing countries.
2. Updated and expanded knowledge about the Information on the productivity, equity, and environmental
development and diffusion of crop and resource impact impacts associated with adoption of improved crop
management practices in developing countries, and resource management practices in developing
3. Improved understanding of factors affecting the countries.
adoption and diffusion of new technology in Case studies documenting the adoption of agricultural
maize- and wheat-based cropping systems. technology and exploring specific issues related to the
4. Updated and expanded knowledge about the adoption process.
impacts of CIMMYT's research programs. Information used for public awareness and resource
5. Improved capacity to set research priorities, mobilization.
Information used for the priority setting component of project
F6.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Global wheat breeding impacts study By 2004, collect data; analyze data; publish report;
documenting the diffusion and use of improved disseminate information via technical publications, non-
wheat germplasm developed by CIMMYT technical reports, public awareness materials, funding
(contributes to outputs 1, 3, 4, 5). proposals.
2. Ex post case studies documenting adoption and During 2003, conduct adoption case studies in collaboration Funding available.
impacts of improved maize and wheat varieties in with national research programs.
Africa, Asia, and Latin America (contributes to By 2003, produce policy briefs and recommendations to
outputs 4, 5). enhance the uptake of improved maize germplasm
technologies in southern Africa, including comparative
analysis on the economics of OPV, hybrid and recycled
maize.
By 2005, produce synthesis report analyzing the
organization and performance of maize seed markets and
the implications to access improved maize seed and use by
resource poor farmers in selected countries of southern
Africa
By 2005, produce report estimating the benefits realized by
resource-poor households in southern Africa through
adoption of drought-tolerant and N-efficient maize.
By 2005, develop database containing empirical impacts
indicators for selected countries in southern Africa.
3. Ex ante case studies projecting likely future By 2006, assess likely impact on human nutrition and farmer Funding available.
impacts of improved maize and wheat varieties in well-being of introduction of QPM maize in eastern and
Africa, Asia, and Latin America (contributes to southern Africa.
outputs 4, 5). By 2004, assess likely economic benefits of Bt maize for
small-scale, medium-scale, and large-scale maize producers
in Mexico.
4. Case studies of the effectiveness and impacts of During 2003, carry out case studies of the effectiveness and
participatory plant breeding methods (contributes impacts of participatory varietal selection methods in the
to outputs 4, 5). Indo-Gangetic Plains.
5. Evaluation of crop and resource management During 2003, continue to document performance and
technologies generated at the national and adoption potential of a range of improved soil fertility
regional levels, including processes used to management practices in southern Africa.
generate and promote technologies (contributes
to outputs 2, 3, 4, 5).










6. Dissemination, through networks and workshops, During 2003, manage SoilFertNet in southern Africa;
of the results of the activities listed under output 4 implement workshops and technology promotion initiatives.
(contributes to outputs 2, 3, 4, 5). By 2004, produce reports on the adoption of soil fertility
technologies in Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and
Mozambique.
7. Case studies of the adoption and impacts of crop By 2003, complete field data collection for one or more case
and resource management technologies at the studies on adoption and impacts of conservation tillage
national and regional levels (contributes to practices in the rice-wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic
outputs 2, 3, 4, 5). plains.
By 2003, complete field data collection for one or more case
studies on adoption and impacts of improved seedbed
establishment practices in the rice-wheat systems of the
Indo-Gangetic Plains.
By 2003, complete field data collection for one or more case
studies on adoption and impacts of power tillers and
improved wheat seeding implements in the rice-wheat
systems of the Indo-Gangetic plains.
8. Case study of the economic impact of wheat By 2003, publish report on the economic impact of wheat
disease resistance breeding (contributes to disease resistance breeding.
outputs 4, 5).
9. Case study of the impact of genetic resource use By 2003, publish reports; disseminate information via
on wheat productivity in China and Australia technical publications, non-technical reports, public
(contributes to outputs 1, 3, 4, 5). awareness materials, funding proposals.
10. Case study of the relationships between maize During 2003, conduct case studies, produce working papers,
technology adoption and poverty in southern journal articles, and (perhaps) proceedings.
Mexico (component of a SPIA study) (contributes
to outputs 4, 5).
11. Study of the impact of intellectual property rights During 2003-04, conduct parallel case studies in five Funding available.
(IPRs) on national plant breeding programs in developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
selected developing countries (contributes to
outputs 1, 3,4,5).
12. Training and capacity strengthening countries During 2003-5, train NARS researchers in carrying out
(contributes to outputs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). applied impacts assessment research (survey design, field
data collection, data cleaning and analysis, report writing).
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs: Various; IARCs: IPGRI, IFPRI, and CGIAR Special Panel on Impact Assessment (SPIA) of the Interim Science Council (iSC);
Universities: North Carolina State University, USA
Costs: US$1.111M
System linkages: Policy (63%), Enhancing NARSs (37%)










Project 8 (G8): Building human capital

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Develop an effective corps of scientists in the public Greater development, dissemination, and adoption of The kinds of training offered by
research sector of developing countries to address technologies that improve the productivity, profitability, and CIMMYT continue to be valued
emerging challenges to the productivity, profitability, sustainability of maize and wheat in developing countries, and supported.
and sustainability of maize and wheat. National agricultural research
programs will not be further
weakened by reduced budgets,
high staff turnover, an inability to
bridge the knowledge and
information gap between
developing and industrialized
country research organizations,
and the funding challenges that
weaken support from
international public research
institutes.
National research systems are
not prevented from functioning
by civil disorder.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Enhance the capacity of scientists in national Higher quality, more relevant maize and wheat research in Continued availability of in-
agricultural research systems (NARSs) to improve NARSs. service training and strong,
their use of research resources through human Technology is more rapidly available to farmers. sustainable human resource
resource development and research partnerships. Researchers in NARSs can increasingly address locally development programs in
important constraints and increasingly contribute to NARSs.
strategically important research at the regional and global
levels.
Stronger strategic research partnerships established as a
result of links between alumni of CIMMYT training efforts
and CIMMYT.
As a result of CIMMYT training initiatives, there is increased
international awareness of, and support for, research by
CIMMYT and its partners.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
Empower researchers in NARSs to conduct research See above. See above.
more efficiently, share expertise with others, and
improve collaboration across disciplines and
institutions.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Specialized group training on advanced research 1. Improved capacity in NARSs to conduct more innovative The kinds of training offered by
tools and methods in research related to maize and strategic research as needed. CIMMYT continue to be valued
and wheat (including crop improvement, 2. Sharing of research skills between national researchers and and supported, and suitable
agronomy, economics, natural resource CIMMYT staff; achievement of mutually important research candidates are identified for
management, and biotechnology), objectives; improved collaboration between national training.
2. On-the-job training in areas of mutual interest and research programs and CIMMYT. Support exists for regional and
high priority for national research programs and 3. Improved capacity for local and regional training by NARSs. local training.
CIMMYT. 4. Improved communication and collaboration among
3. National agricultural research systems are researchers from many different organizations, including
supported in efforts to develop local training national programs, advanced research institutes,
capacity and conduct regional training initiatives, international centers, and NGOs (plus dissemination of
4. Greater communication among researchers research results through proceedings, Internet, and other
supported through international fora, such as media).
conferences and workshops.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Offer courses in strategic research areas at Every year, approximately 80 researchers attend 5-7 The kinds of training offered by
CIMMYT headquarters (contributes to output 1). courses in strategic research areas at CIMMYT CIMMYT continue to be valued
headquarters. and supported, and suitable
candidates are identified for
training.

2. Offer courses relevant to needs of particular Every year, approximately 8-12 courses are held in The kinds of training offered by
countries or regions (contributes to output 1). individual countries or sponsored by CIMMYT regional CIMMYT continue to be valued
programs. and supported, and suitable
Ongoing in-country activities on Asian Maize Biotechnology candidates are identified for
Network (AMBIONET), a major research and training training.
initiative.
3. Curriculum is reviewed and new courses and New headquarters-based group training on sustainable Resources are available to
training materials are developed as needed systems offered to senior researchers from national develop new courses of
(contributes to outputs 1 and 3). agricultural research programs. immediate value to national
Training materials (based on case studies) developed for research programs.
sustainable systems training.










New course on advanced wheat training research.
New course on Quality Protein Maize (QPM).
Identification of NARS/international center courses to which
CIMMYT could contribute through distance learning
technology.
4. F-ii i iii ,, i ':e, I i l. to work on research of Each year, CIMMYT hosts 100-200 visiting researchers. Suitable candidates are
mutual interest (contributes to output 2). identified for visiting scientist
fellowships and support is
available.
5. Supervise and/or support research towards MSc Each year, approximately 18 theses are produced. Suitable candidates are
or PhD (contributes to output 2). identified and support is
available.
6. Offer postdoctoral fellowships in major research At any given time, CIMMYT has from 10-15 postdoctoral Suitable candidates are
efforts at CIMMYT (contributes to output 2). fellows, identified and support is
available.
7. Support the availability of crop management Courses ongoing. Funding available for regional
research training at the local level in Africa, Latin and local training; effective
America, and Asia (contributes to output 3). partnerships with national
programs or other organizations
result in high-quality local
training.
8. Offer international conferences and workshops Each year, approximately 10 international conferences and
(contributes to output 4). workshops are organized and hosted.
9. Human resource development opportunities at Course announcements sent each year.
CIMMYT announced to national program Course announcements posted on the web all year round.
researchers and other potentially interested Conference and workshop announcements sent as needed.
persons worldwide (contributes to outputs 1-4).
10. Maintain database of CIMMYT training alumni Database made available for consultation by headquarters
(contributes to outputs 1-4). and outreach staff.
Data available for analysis of impact of CIMMYT's human
resource development efforts.
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs: Every national research program conducting research related to maize or wheat; IARCs; NGOs; ARIs
Costs: US$ 3.412M
System linkages: Enhancing NARSs (100%)










Project 9 (G9): Conservation agriculture to mitigate poverty and climate change

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Poverty reduced, livelihoods improved, soil and water Evidence of livelihood improvement, together with more Poverty reduction, agricultural
conserved, fuel use reduced, soil organic carbon loss fertile agricultural soils and reduced emissions of sustainability and climate
slowed or reversed, and climate change mitigated, greenhouse gases, linked to adoption of conservation change mitigation continue to
through more productive and sustainable maize and agriculture, receive high priority in civil
wheat systems based on conservation agriculture. society.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Practices of conservation agriculture, including zero Data on the pace and incidence of adoption of conservation Government policies do not
and reduced tillage, mulch-systems, and green agriculture in maize and wheat systems. discriminate against
manure cover crops, used widely in maize and wheat conservation agriculture.
systems. Inputs (e.g., prototypes of
implements, herbicides, and
green manure seed) available to
farmers.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
CIMMYT and its partners and stakeholders, including Networks of stakeholders working in partnership to develop Transaction costs can be kept
NGOs and farmer groups, collaborate to develop and and promote conservation agriculture, acceptably low.
accelerate the use of conservation agriculture around Participatory methodologies are
the world. adopted by network members
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Catalyze the development and/or dissemination of 1. Implements and practices available and characterized. Resources are available for
prototype conservation agriculture practices and Research gaps and adoption constraints documented. participatory adaptive research.
implements, for evaluation and adaptation in 2. Publications, databases on technology performance and Resources available for
regional projects, in order to overcome identified adoption. synthesis work.
research gaps and adoption bottlenecks. 3. Publications, datasets, verified models on longer-term and Stakeholders are willing to share
2. Updated and synthesized knowledge available environmental consequences data.
and disseminated on research methods, 4. Publications, training manuals, reports on training courses Resources are available for data
performance and adoption of conservation 5. Datasets on germplasm x management interactions used analysis and modeling.
agriculture practices in different environments, by breeders Models adequately portray
3. Improved understanding attained of the longer- 6. Publications, web pages, distributed databases developed future consequences of
term biophysical and environmental and used. Study tours conducted. conservation agriculture
consequences of introducing conservation adoption.
agriculture technologies, especially with re Resources available for training
4. spect to land and water quality, input use and publications.
efficiency, agro-ecosystem diversity, and climate Genetic variability exists
change. relevant to performance of
5. Improved efficiency of scaling up conservation germplasm with conservation
agriculture adoption achieved through relevant agriculture practices.
training, networking, and stakeholder
participation.
6. Improved knowledge gained on interactions
between conservation agriculture practices and
maize and wheat germplasm.
7. Processes in place for systematic sharing with
partners and stakeholders of knowledge on
conservation agriculture options.


Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Assemble information and data on experiences Soil Health Special Report on soil-borne pathogens in Resources available for
with conservation agriculture from different sites conservation agriculture published in early 2003. synthesis and methods
and regions, draw conclusions, develop Document on factors affecting adoption of conservation development work.
principles, and use these to help scale out agriculture in Central America published by mid 2003.
conservation agriculture practices. (Contributes to Catalog of technical conservation agriculture components
Outputs 1, 2, 3 and 4.) prepared by the end of 2003.
Checklist of key issues for stakeholder identification and
participation prepared by 2005.
Importance of catalyzers in conservation agriculture success
stories documented by December 2004.
2. Assemble information on existing long-term Long-term conservation agriculture (LTCA) experiments Resources available to survey
conservation agriculture experiments, and worldwide surveyed, evaluated, and catalogued by long-term experiments,
catalyze the implementation of necessary further December 2003. implement further trials, and
trials and the capture of adequate data to quantify Minimum data set for LTCA experiments defined by March upgrade data collection.
changes in soil and water quality and greenhouse 2003.
gas emissions. (Contributes to Outputs 2 and 3.) Funding available to upgrade data collection in selected
LTCA experiments by December 2003.
Three projects involving LTCA experiments, and including
advanced institutions, in operation by December 2003.
Summary of available information on key parameters
measured in LTCA experiments summarized by December
2005.










3. Validate and, where necessary, develop models Key study sites to monitor and understand N, H20, soil Existing models are capable of
of the effects of conservation agriculture on soil organic matter dynamics and GHG emissions in diverse portraying and forecasting
organic matter, soil moisture, soil N and conservation agriculture environments selected by mid- impacts of conservation
greenhouse gas emissions, and use these 2003. agriculture on greenhouse gas
models to assess alternative conservation Partnerships to set data protocols, collect and analyze data emissions.
agriculture scenarios for different environments, developed by March 2003. Resources available for data
(Contributes to Output 3.) Summary of utility of different models for predicting CA analysis and model
effects on soil N, H20, organic matter dynamics, and development.
greenhouse gas emissions prepared by December 2004.
4. Identify, assess, help improve and disseminate Together with ISTRO and the GFAR GP-DMC, develop an Resources available for
prototype implements for use in conservation initial database of conservation agriculture implements equipment adaptation and
agriculture. (Contributes to Output 1.) relevant for developing countries by December 2003. distribution.
Database maintained continuously.
Three conservation agriculture implements tested and
performance documented by June 2004.
Modifications on two zero-tillage seeders documented by
June 2003.
Funding available for the global exchange of relevant
equipment by June 2003, and augmented in 2004 and 2005.
5. Collate and conduct studies of germplasm Existing data sets on genotype x conservation agriculture (G There are important
performance as affected by conservation x CA) interactions reviewed by early 2003. management x germplasm
agriculture practices in different environments. Initial information on G x CA interactions documented by interactions.
Use this in breeding improved varieties for use December 2003.
with conservation agriculture. (Contributes to Key traits for adaptation to conservation agriculture
Output 5.) technologies in maize and wheat identified by 2005.
6. Help identify, together with CIMMYT Regional Inventory of conservation agriculture research gaps and Regional stakeholders give a
Projects, conservation agriculture research gaps adoption constraints available by June 2003. priority to poverty reduction,
and adoption constraints, including institutional Effects of water policy changes on production systems and natural resource husbandry, and
failures, and foster the use of conservation adoption of conservation agriculture in El Bajio, Mexico, climate change mitigation.
agriculture practices with CIMMYT programs and documented by the end of 2003.
associated stakeholders. (Contributes to Output
1.)
7. Together with other conservation agriculture G9 web page prepared and functional by early 2003. Resources available for study
networks, increase stakeholder and public Funding available by December 2003 for three study tours tours, information publication,
awareness and knowledge of conservation for conservation agriculture stakeholders, including G9 and international workshops.
agriculture technologies, their management and members, researchers, extension agents, and farmers.
their benefits. (Contributes to Output 6.) One document for the general public on conservation
agriculture available by December 2003 and a second by
December 2004.
8. Promote and catalyze the development of Supplementary training funds to organize and conduct Resources are available for
expertise to research and adapt conservation practical training courses on conservation agriculture relevant training activities and
agriculture technologies to local conditions and to available by June 2003. the publication of training
stimulate their adoption. (Contributes to Output 4.) List of international training opportunities on conservation materials.
agriculture compiled by June 2003. Organizations are willing to
Database of resource people for conservation agriculture share, and allow CIMMYT to
training constructed by June, 2003. distribute, their training
Three training manuals on conservation agriculture materials.
technologies prepared by December 2003.
Curriculum for undergraduate university courses prepared
and distributed by December 2004.
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs, IARCs; NGOs; ARIs
Costs: US$ 0.973M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (15%), Germplasm collection (60%), Sustainable production (15%), Enhancing NARSs (10%)










Project 10 (R1): Food security and sustainable livelihoods for African households

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Enhance food supplies, food security and livelihood Greater and more sustainable food security and economic Food security, livelihoods and
opportunities for the rural and urban poor in sub- stability of maize and wheat-based farming communities increased food supplies are a
Saharan Africa. across countries and regions of sub-Saharan Africa. priority for governments of
countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
National economies and political
stability do not deteriorate
substantially.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Enhance the development and use of efficient, Increased development and dissemination of improved maize Genetic resources and
productive, and sustainable maize and wheat and wheat varieties, management options exist, and
technologies and systems, including germplasm with Increased use of better cereal-legume and cash crop information can be developed
resistance to pests and diseases and tolerance to production systems, especially for soil fertility maintenance and disseminated, to promote
environmental stresses, natural resource and pest management, that conserve natural resources and sustainable maize and wheat
management technologies, and human resource increase productivity, farming systems.
development. Increased understanding of the economics and impacts of
improved maize-based and wheat farming systems in sub-
Saharan Africa.
Trained researchers from NARSs who contribute to the
development of sustainable maize and wheat farming
systems.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
CIMMYT and NARS partners in sub-Saharan Africa Adoption of improved and sustainable maize and wheat See above.
collaborate to develop improved maize and wheat cropping systems by resource-poor farmers in sub-Saharan Farmers and other clients find
germplasm, technologies, and systems for resource- Africa. maize and wheat cropping
poor farmers. system technologies attractive.

Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks


1. At least 20-30 high-yielding maize cultivars,
including cultivars with enhanced nutritional quality
and herbicide resistance, with resistance to biotic
stresses (e.g., maize streak virus, grey leaf spot,
turcicum, Striga, and stem borers) and tolerance
to abiotic stresses (drought and low N).
2. Comprehensive maize germplasm development
and evaluation program fully implemented with
partners in eastern and southern Africa.
3. More than 800 on-farm testing sites developed in
collaboration with public extension agencies,
NGOs, and universities to screen maize
germplasm for drought and low N tolerance.
4. Maize seed provided to NGOs for production and
distribution in Mozambique, Angola, Zimbabwe
Ethiopia, and Malawi.
5. New wheat cultivars (2 durum, 10 bread wheat)
with waterlogging adaptation developed for
Ethiopia and with rust resistance for eastern
Africa.
6. "Best bet" soil fertility technologies identified and
disseminated to 5,000 farm advisers and 40,000
farmers.
7. Policy guidelines and economic information
developed on soil fertility issues.
8. Improved farming systems developed and tested
with farmers: 5 alternate crop management
options, and N management strategies for maize
and legumes in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania,
Uganda, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Zambia.
9. In western Kenya, five thousand farmers
participating in Striga management
demonstrations.
10. Trained maize and wheat researchers.
11. Impact studies showing benefits of improved
maize and wheat production technologies for
resource poor farmers.
12. Policy briefs and recommendations that
encourage improved maize and wheat production
systems in the region.
13. Key NARS networks managed, allowing more
efficient use of staff and funds.


1. NARS releases of CIMMYT-derived germplasm.
2. Maize germplasm evaluation sites established across
eastern and southern Africa for a range of traits.
3. On-farm testing sites established with a range of partners.
4. NGOs deploy improved maize seed in Mozambique,
Angola, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and
Uganda.
5. Wheat cultivars released in Ethiopia and eastern Africa.
6. Smallholder farmers adopt a range of cereal-legume,
organic, and mineral "best bet" technologies for improving
soil fertility.
7. Small farmers adopt soil moisture conservation methods
(e.g., tied-ridges, pot-holing) and crop management options
for improved stress-tolerant cultivars.
8. Information on the costs and benefits of external inputs
such as seed, fertilizer, and lime available to NARS
researchers.
9. Farming systems that provide at least 20% marginal rate of
return above current practice adopted in Malawi and
Zimbabwe.
10. Farmers use Striga management strategies, including
herbicide-coated IR-maize seed technology, in western
Kenya.
11. Maize and wheat researchers trained in eastern and
southern Africa.
12. Information on benefits and impacts of improved maize and
wheat production technologies available.
13. Policy briefs and recommendations available.
14. NARS researchers and extensionists are more productive.
15. Field testing of maize developed using biotechnology tools
initiated in Kenya.
16. QPM maize having demonstrated human nutritional
benefits in the region.
17. Large amounts of drought-tolerant OPV and hybrid seed
produced and marketed to smallholder farmers.


* NARSs and donors continue to
invest in maize and wheat plant
breeding and crop management
programs.
* Risk that human resources in
NARSs will continue to decline.
* Clients find the seed and natural
resource management
technologies attractive.
* Recipients will use economic and
policy outputs.
* NARSs have in place the
appropriate framework for the
use of biotechnology tools.










14. At least 5% of farmers growing stem borer
resistant maize in Kenya and other interested
countries.
15. At least 5 farmer associations growing seed of
open-pollinated maize varieties in Western Kenya
and Uganda.
16. QPM and other grain quality trait maize available
and widely used by farmers in region.
17. Drought-tolerant open-pollinated and hybrid maize
(and relevant production information) widely grown
on smallholder farms in southern Africa.
18. Soil moisture conservation strategies with drought-
tolerant varieties tested and adapted with farmers
in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Development of maize germplasm adapted to During 2003-05, make a wide range of improved maize As above.
biotic and abiotic stresses in sub-Saharan Africa, source populations and experimental varieties available to Funding for maize breeding can
through a range of funded projects in the region, breeding partners, directly and in regional trials, be maintained.
including: 1) characterization of the region for During 2003-05, announce at least 20 elite lines as CMLs for Component breeding projects
maize stresses, using GIS, models, and crop hybrid development, continue to consolidate.
distribution data; 2) development and evaluation By 2003, release 20 maize cultivars yielding at least 10% Continue to find useful sources
of maize germplasm for resistance to Striga and more than the best local checks. of tolerance to biotic and abiotic
stem borers; tolerance to drought and low N; By 2003, a systematic eastern and southern Africa maize stress in maize.
herbicide-resistance to control Striga; and early germplasm testing structure for a range of traits and sites
maturity; 3) development of nutritionally rich will be fully operational.
maize cultivars (QPM, micronutrients) adapted By 2005, establish a QPM germplasm base in eastern and
to regional biotic and abiotic stresses; 4) southern Africa, identify elite materials for the region, and
establishment of collaborative maize breeding verify and release the best QPM hybrids.
programs with NARSs through exchange of By 2004-05 developed QPM versions of at least 20 popular
germplasm in regional trials, and through maize OPVs and hybrids in eastern and southern Africa.
exchange of technical information; 4) By 2003-04, characterize, develop, and exchange disease-
development of maize germplasm adapted to resistant source germplasm with NARS cooperators and
highlands; 5) development of adapted, share the best inbred lines throughout the region.
herbicide-resistant cultivars to control Striga By 2004, make well-adapted, insect-resistant maize
using herbicide as a seed treatment; 6) available in region.
standardization of contracts and material By 2004-05, superior early maturity maize germplasm
transfer agreements for germplasm and evaluated in niche environments such as early/late planting
intellectual property issues, and 7) development for off-season dimbas (drying river beds) and other residual
of stem borerresistant maize for the region moisture wetlands in southern Africa.
(contributes to outputs 1, 2, 3, 4, 14). By 2004, have a herbicide-resistant hybrid and OPV pre-
released.
By 2003, develop and deploy MaizeFinder GIS in southern
and eastern Africa to combine CIMMYT maize trial data with
GIS information.
By 2003, REGNUR collaborators developed a series of
posters and calendars in local languages on important
diseases of maize.
2. Deployment of maize germplasm adapted to During 2003-2005, maize cultivars, including QPM, become Regional and national testing and
sub-Saharan Africa, including: 1) on-farm more widely available with high and stable yields, as well as release mechanisms maintained
evaluation of new maize hybrids and open- excellent resistance to maize streak virus, gray leaf spot, or improved.
pollinated varieties (OPVs); 2) establishment, and increased and more stable production under drought On-farm testing conditions
with NARSs, of seed production activities; 3) and low N, yielding 10% or more than the best local checks suitable.
seed delivery and seed testing procedures; 4) in intended environments. Farmers and seed agencies
promotion of farmer participatory methods for By 2003, expand farmer participatory on-farm testing of demand seed.
the improvement and deployment of maize; 5) drought and low N tolerant maize germplasm, in Sufficient extension service,
demonstration of nutritional value of QPM collaboration with public extension, NGOs and universities at NGOs and other quality partners
through animal feeding trials and 6) economic 1,000+ sites per year in southern and eastern Africa. can be found.
analysis of on-farm experiments (contributes to By 2003-04, extensive farmer participatory on-farm testing of Private seed companies are
outputs 3, 4, 16, 17). QPM and other grain quality trait maize (involving at least willing to provide information on
800 trials) and their agronomic management, underway use of CIMMYT germplasm.
throughout region.
By 2003, seed storage facilities for a total of 20 t of breeder
seed established with CIMMYT-Zimbabwe and selected
NARSs of SADC member states.
By 2005, QPM maize widely deployed and grown in eastern
and southern Africa.
By 2004, major stakeholders have developed a region-wide
testing, information, seed production, training and
dissemination strategy for maize OPVs in the SADC region.
During 2003-05, make maize seed available to NGO seed
production and distribution initiatives in Angola, Ethiopia,
Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, and
Zimbabwe.










By 2003, develop cultivar descriptors relevant to
smallholders and use them on seed packs.
By 2003-04, a wide range of small-scale commercial and
farmer seed production initiatives underway, particularly for
stress-tolerant OPVs and for quality traits, including QPM.
By 2004, seed production of stress-tolerant OPVs and
hybrid seed will increase by 10,000 t in southern Africa, and
a significant amount in eastern Africa.
By 2004, 250,000 farm households in southern Africa benefit
from seed of stress-tolerant maize varieties.
By 2004, 10,000 pamphlets and posters on the
recommendation domain for stress-tolerant, well-accepted
maize varieties made available to NGO and extension staff
in the SADC region.
3. Development and deployment of wheat By 2003, release 2 durum wheat cultivars for waterlogged CIMMYT continues to undertake
germplasm adapted to sub-Saharan Africa, conditions in Ethiopia with a yield advantage of 15%. wheat breeding for the region
including: 1) shuttle breeding program between By 2003, release 2-5 bread wheat cultivars with resistance with partners.
Ethiopia and CIMMYT-Mexico for durum wheat; to stem and stripe rust.
2) regional collaboration through the exchange By 2003, release 2-5 additional well-adapted cultivars in
of wheat germplasm and information; and 3) on- African countries where wheat is an important food
farm demonstrations of new wheat varieties commodity.
utilizing farmer participatory approaches Establish a regional testing site to improve the efficiency of
(contributes to output 5). selecting for durable resistance to yellow rust (part of the
international testing scheme as described in G6.)


4. Promotion of sustainable maize- and wheat-
based systems in sub-Saharan Africa, involving:
1) investigating long-term trends in productivity
and sustainability of cropping systems; 2)
studying the dynamics of nutrients in smallholder
fields, measuring organic efficiency of N inputs,
and determining "best bet" soil fertility
improvement technologies; 3) identifying and
evaluating soil and moisture conservation
technologies and integrating appropriate
methods with soil fertility management practices;
4) evaluating organic practices for the control of
Striga; 5) evaluating herbicide-coated seed of
herbicide-resistant maize for Striga control,
devising strategies to manage the development
of herbicide resistance, and evaluating
integrated approaches to Striga control; 6)
developing NARSs' capacity to undertake
economic evaluation, priority setting, and policy
research for "best bet" management
technologies; and 7) synthesizing information on
"best bet" technologies and preparing
management brochures, research reports, and a
newsletter (contributes to outputs 6, 7, 8, 9, 18).


* By 2004, accumulate results on complementarity of maize +
agroforestry systems (with ICRAF).
* In 2003-04, publish soil fertility maintenance effects of maize
+ green manure and maize + groundnut rotation systems on
smallholder farms in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda,
Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
* By 2004, identify a further 15 soil fertility technologies for
smallholder farmers that are promising for improved
productivity, sustainability, household needs, and income in
region.
* By 2003, continue to promote at least 12 "best bet" soil
fertility technologies, through partners, with 5,000 farm
advisors and 40,000 farmers.
* By 2003, publish and distribute information brochures and
research reports on "best-bet" soil fertility technologies.
* By 2003, provide economic assessments and policy
guidelines for soil fertility interventions including seed,
fertilizer, and lime.
* By 2003, APSIM model and farmer participatory risk
assessments show several whole-farm legume and N
management scenarios for maize systems that provide
significantly greater investment returns than current
practices in Zimbabwe and Malawi.
* In 2003-04, scale-out several risk management technologies
with smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe and Malawi.
* By 2004, preliminary GIS capacity developed in region to
undertake natural resource management technology
mapping.
* By 2004, farmers will adopt at least 5 other types of crop
management options for maize, providing 20% gains in
returns.
* By 2003, results synthesized on the N response of drought-
tolerant and N-use efficient maize, from on-farm
experiments in Zimbabwe and eastern Africa (with G4).
* By 2003-04, determine soil- and rainfall-specific parameters
of tied-ridge technology for moisture conservation for maize
in on-farm trials with eastern African farmers.
* During 2003-05, promote conservation agriculture
techniques, including conservation tillage and water
management, for maize systems in southern and eastern
Africa (with G9).
* By 2003, determine farmer acceptance and economic
feasibility of tied-ridge technology for moisture conservation
for maize in eastern Africa.
* By 2003-04, have a plan in place for the commercial
development of imazapyr (IR) herbicide technology for
Striga management in the region.
* By 2003, document costs and benefits of Striga control via
herbicide-coated IR-maize seed.


* Several new projects under
development (including jointly
with other IARCs) will be
implemented.
* CIMMYT staff specializing in
natural resource management
will be recruited for region.
* A sufficient number of promising
soil fertility and crop
management technologies can
be found.
* Increased funding and partners
for technology dissemination
can be found.










* By 2005, IR-maize seed coating technology fully
S commercialized.


5. Enhancing human resources and partnerships
by: 1) identifying training opportunities for
graduate students; 2) establishing links with
other training institutions in the region; 3)
developing training materials; 4) developing and
presenting short courses for scientists/personnel
of NARS, NGOs, regulatory agencies, seed
companies, extension services and farmers;
NARS scientists; 5) organizing and conducting
regional maize and wheat conferences; and 6)
facilitating networks on crop improvement and
crop systems research and development
(contributes to outputs 10 and 13).


6. Impact assessment and socioeconomic analysis,
including 1) studies to describe, understand and
document socioeconomic change in maize and
wheat production systems; 2) studies to assess
economic profitability of improved germplasm
and new natural resource and crop management
technologies; 3) develop policy information and
advocacy on the above, and 4) support capacity
building efforts of NARS socioeconomists
through regional networking and training
(contributes to outputs 7, 11, 12).


* Over 2003-05, identify and implement a range of short
courses and other training opportunities with NARSs (on
seed production, plant breeding, environmental economics,
economic analysis, on-farm and participatory research
methods, survey design, field data collection, data cleaning
and analysis, and report writing, livelihood approaches, GIS)
(with G8).
* In 2003-04, put more emphasis on training staff from NGOs,
extension, and seed services in good practices for local
seed production and marketing, and develop a training
manual for this.
* Over 2003-05, provide research facilities and supervision for
at least 10 higher degree research students and for visiting
scientists and/or post-doctoral fellows to increase practical
experience in research methodologies.
* By 2003, establish new networks and integrated projects
with regional partners (including FARA SROs) and with
other IARCs.
* During 2003-05, networks on crop improvement, systems
research and development and soil fertility and soil moisture
conservation issues show increased quality and quantity of
work and results, leading to more impact.
* By 2004-5, document the impacts, benefits and welfare
effects of a range of profitable and sustainable maize and
wheat production technologies for resource-poor farmers
(with G7).
* By 2003, produce several additional reports on the adoption
of soil fertility technologies in Zimbabwe, Malawi, and
Zambia (with G7).
* By 2004-05, produce reports on adoption and impacts of
maize germplasm and soil fertility technologies in Zambia
and Mozambique.
* By 2003, develop policy guidelines and economics
information on soil fertility issues, particularly for external
inputs such as fertilizer, lime, and seed (with G7).
* By 2003, produce policy briefs and recommendations to
enhance the uptake of improved maize germplasm
technologies in the region, including comparative analysis
on the economics of OPV, hybrid, and recycled maize (with
G7).
* By 2005, generate detailed information on the organization
and performance of maize seed markets in selected
countries of southern Africa.
* 2003-04, continue to incorporate a sustainable livelihoods
strategy into CIMMYT's work in southern Africa.
* By 2003, research results from the Soil Fert Net Economics
and Policy Working Group fully developed and disseminated
in several southern Africa countries.
* By 2003-04, at least 4 Economics and Policy Working Group
collaborative proposals for Zambia and Mozambique will be
funded.
* By 2006, establish impact on human nutrition and farmer
well-being of introduction of QPM maize in eastern and
southern Africa.
* 2003-5, organize 3 regional training workshops on socio
economics research methods.
* By 2003, produce report on the impact analysis of insect
resistant maize aermDlasm in Kenva.


* Increased funding available to
meet training needs.
* Risk that losses of NARSs staff
from resignations and illness are
greater than the ability to build
capacity through training.
* Regional research organizations
and donors enable current
networks to be maintained and
new regional networks to begin.


Project members contribute fully
in these activities.
Smallholder farmers show
continued interest in using soil
fertility technologies.
Risk that policy failures and high
economic costs prevent
adoption of soil fertility and crop
management technologies.
Additional resources become
available to allow more
sophisticated impact
assessments.


Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: Smallholder farmers, farmer groups, and farmer unions in most countries of the region; Secondary schools in the region; NARSs: Government
agricultural research institutes in all countries of eastern and southern Africa, and extension organizations in many of them; IARCs: Especially ICRISAT,
ICRAF, ILRI, IITA, CIAT, IFPRI, TSBF-CIAT, IFDC and IBSRAM; NGOs: Local and international, including Sasakawa-Global 2000, World Vision, Care
International, Concern Universal, Intermediate Technology Development Group, and Action Aid, especially in Kenya, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique,
Angola and Malawi; Universities: Including Alemaya University, Ethiopia; Egerton, Kenyatta, and Nairobi Universities, Kenya; Makerere University, Uganda;
University of Zimbabwe and Africa University, Zimbabwe; University of Malawi; University of Zambia; Sokoine University, Tanzania; Natal, University of the
North and Natal, Pretoria, and Free State Universities, South Africa; Gbttingen, Kassel, London, Reading, Sheffield Universities in Europe; and Michigan
State, Texas A&M, Tuskegee, Cornell, Kansas State, and Oklahoma State Universities in the USA; ARIs: APSRU, Australia; Silsoe UK; Weizmann Institute,
Israel; Seed companies: Local and international, private and public, including SENSAKO, Seedco, National Tested Seeds, PANNAR, Pioneer Hi-Bred
International, Ethiopian Seed Enterprise Agency, Zamseed, Kenya Seed, and SEMOC; Close links with networks: ASARECA, SADC (SACCAR), WECAMAN
(CORAF/WECARD)
Costs: US$ 3.991M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (45%), Germplasm collection (8%), Sustainable production (30%), Policy (6%), Enhancing NARSs (11%)

71










Project 11 (R2): Maize for poverty alleviation and economic growth in Asia

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Enhanced productivity, profitability, sustainability, and Increased maize production. Adequate policy support for
nutritional quality of maize-based systems in South Increased incomes derived from maize production. the agricultural sector in
and Southeast Asia and China. Increased area grown to QPM genotypes. countries of the region.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Efficiently develop and disseminate maize Increased use of cost-effective, efficient breeding methods and Adequate funding and
germplasm and crop management practices that strategies. government policies that
increase the productivity, sustainability, and economic Increased focus on hybrid development and stress-tolerant favor maize/agricultural
and nutritional value of maize systems in the region. germplasm. Greater adoption of improved germplasm, research and production.
particularly hybrids. Seed and technology delivery
Increased requests for products of CIMMYT systems are in place and
international/regional maize trials, functional.
Increased use of CIMMYT germplasm by NARSs and private Policies favor the adoption of
sector. new technologies by farmers.
Better understanding of constraints and processes affecting
maize production
Enhanced development and adoption of improved crop
management practices.
Adoption of QPM varieties.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
Enhance cooperation among maize researchers in Increased maize research collaboration, including greater See above.
the region to develop germplasm products, crop participation of public and private sector research organizations Continuous seed industry
management practices, and policies that address in regional networks. growth and NARSs ability to
clearly defined constraints to maize production, CIMMYT-developed OPVs, inbreds, and inbred-based maize obtain support for some
sustainability, and profitability in the region, using germplasm are increasingly used (directly and indirectly) by the activities requiring active
efficient research techniques and methodologies, public and private sectors. collaboration.
Research agendas of national research programs reflect
farmers' constraints and potential for impact through research.
Greater interest in securing and using germplasm from
CIMMYT, particularly germplasm possessing downy mildew
and other stress-resistance traits.
More diverse germplasm available at farmers' level to reduce
genetic vulnerability to biotic stresses.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Hybrid-oriented germplasm with the desired 1. New and better synthetics and hybrids available with Sustained levels of budget
grain color, texture, and maturity and with enhanced yield performance comparable to or better than and staffing in NARSs and
tolerance/resistance to major biotic and abiotic commercial hybrids and other local checks (identified via IARCs.
stresses prevalent in different maize production global maize testing system). New releases of 30-40 tropical Collaboration with NARSs
environments, maize inbreds for strengthening hybrid development efforts in and private sector maintained
2. Superior general and special trait OPVs and different maturity groups. Reliable sources of donor stocks for or further enhanced.
synthetics. transferring stress resistance to other potentially useful Availability of good testing
3. More trained researchers in breeding, hybrid germplasm. Stress-tolerant inbreds available. Sufficient maize sites in NARSs.
development, biotechnology, crop management, inbred testers in different maturity groups and colors to Enough trained and skilled
socioeconomics research, and seed production. strengthen breeding efforts in population improvement and to maize researchers in NARSs.
4. New methodologies and tools that improve the develop specific hybrid combinations. Improved sources of Methods can be developed
efficiency of research are developed and germplasm with improved tolerance/resistance to several and adapted for use in a
disseminated. biotic and abiotic stresses. range of national program
5. OPVs and hybrid-oriented germplasm with 2. NARSs test and release OPVs and synthetics. settings.
enhanced nutritional quality (QPM) are 3. Scientists in the region attend training courses. Interest and funding available
developed and disseminated. 4. More rapid development of improved maize germplasm for to support seed production,
6. Increased availability at the farm level of seed of Asia. especially for a wider range
improved varieties and hybrids through 5. QPM genotypes are tested and released by NARSs. of farmers.
increased production and distribution by the 6. Greater availability of improved seed for farmers. Availability of skilled
public and private sector, NGOs, and 7. RRA and baseline survey synthesis reports. researchers and support for
community-based seed growers. 8. Country-specific maize technology R&D plans. interdisciplinary collaboration.
7. Better characterization of maize production 9. Published policy recommendations. Institutions and
environments and constraints and the 10. Recommendations on crop management practices and arrangements for technology
characteristics farmers prefer in maize varieties, research reports. dissemination are in place
8. Country-specific maize technology R&D plans. and working properly.
9. Policy options that enable sustained increased
maize production.
10. Crop management practices that improved the
productivity, sustainability, and profitability of
maize-based systems.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Improvement of source populations for hybrid- Two additional cycles of selection completed in 4 early and 4 No budgetary constraints.
oriented traits and stresses, particularly downy late maize populations. Cropping cycles favorable for
mildew (contributes to output 1). Expectations for further improvement of 2.5% per cycle in yield progeny regeneration and
and reduced percentage of plants affected by downy mildew. evaluation.
Improved inbreeding tolerance for better extraction of inbred
S lines.










Increased use of germplasm by several countries.
2. Formation and evaluation of synthetics and Eight to ninety synthetics formed and tested. Seed increase of Normal cropping season for
OPVs (contributes to output 2). 6-8 superior ones for further testing in NARSs. growth, and no serious
Two OPVs released in Nepal. climatic hazards.
3. Inbred line development and evaluation Fifty to sixty inbred lines identified for release having good
(contributes to output 1). combining ability and hybrid performance.
4. Development of general and special trait Announcement of 80-100 S3 bulks for accelerating inbred line
pedigree populations as sources for extracting development efforts.
lines (contributes to output 1).
5. Screening germplasm for resistance/tolerance to Six to ten superior inbreds identified for each stress. Good environment for
abiotic (drought, low N) and biotic stresses evaluation of stress(es)
(downy mildew, BLSB, stalk rots, leaf blights) under natural and/or artificial
(contributes to outputs 1, 2). conditions.
6. Hybrid formation and evaluation (contributes to Identification of 12-15 superior early and late maturity hybrids Good retrieval of data from
output 1). for further extensive testing and release in different countries, well-conducted experiments.
One hybrid released in Nepal.
7. Identification of inbred testers that improve the Identification of at least 4 early yellow and 4 late yellow inbred Good field experimentation
efficiency of identifying superior hybrids testers for accelerating hybrid development efforts. and retrieval of data.
(contributes to outputs 1,4).
8. Strengthen regional testing of hybrids, lines, and Evaluation of 100 early and 100 late yellow pretested promising Enough seed for testing each
OPVs (contributes to outputs 1, 2, 3). hybrids; 150 early and late yellow lines in each category; and trial at 25-30 locations.
about 100 early and late synthetics.
9. Development and testing of QPM hybrids, Five QPM hybrids released at least in 3-4 countries in the Need support in QPM
inbreds, and OPVs (contributes to output 5). region. germplasm and in
One QPM OPV released in Nepal. collaborative efforts.
10. Support activities of regional networks: Early and late hybrid trials constituted and tested across the Adequate seed quantities,
AMBIONET (contributes to outputs 1, 5). region. Ten to twelve superior hybrids identified for further testing sites, and cooperation
testing and release in some countries. of NARSs and private sector.
11. Evaluation of RILs and transfer of stress Identification of QTLs and line improvement (drought, downy Functioning of biotech
resistance using molecular marker assisted mildew, and viruses) through MAS. laboratories and availability
selection (MAS) techniques (contributes to of lab supplies and
outputs 1, 5). appropriate germplasm.
12. Strengthening human resources in hybrid maize Give courses to 150-200 participants. In-country interest and
technology, crop management research, Conduct 5 in-country courses in Nepal dealing with research availability of resource
biotechnology approaches, problem techniques and seed production. persons.
identification, research prioritization, and seed Train socioeconomists from 7 countries in conducting PRAs Availability of information and
production (contributes to output 7). and RRAs. suitability of researchers for
Conduct seed production and field trial training for 200-250 training.
participants in 6-7 countries.
Train breeders and other scientists from 6 countries in
biotechnology.
13. RRAs, surveys, and GIS tools used to Conduct PRAs in 7 countries. In-country interest and
characterizing production environments and Publish synthesis reports on production systems and availability of resource
identify and prioritize production constraints, constraints in 7 countries, persons.
(contributes to output 7). Prioritize researchable constraints in 7 countries.
14. Country-specific maize technology R&D plans Design specific maize technology R & D plans for 7 countries In-country interest and
(contributes to output 7). and identify research and investment priorities for relevant availability of resource
organizations to pursue. persons.
15. Participatory, community-based seed production Twenty communities produce certified seed of improved Demand for seed of
facilitated (contributes to output 6). varieties in Nepal. improved OPVs exists.
16. Crop management research on priority Identify 2 or 3 new post-harvest management options for hill Good and relevant testing
constraints is conducted in Nepal (contributes to farmers in Nepal. sites for making general
output 9). Develop recommendations on manure/compost management recommendations exist.
and use of inorganic fertilizers in combination with organic
fertilizers in Nepal.
Determine major limiting nutrients to maize growth for each
region of Nepal.
Conduct 10 experiments to determine the best combinations of
maize and millet, soybeans and other legumes.
Test strategies for the control of white grubs in Nepal.
17. Design of country-specific key policy Conduct a number of key policy dialogues based on specific Governments are interested
recommendations for sustainable and equitable recommendations and policy briefs, in the sustainable productivity
maize productivity growth in the Asian uplands growth of upland maize.
(contributes to output 8).
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: Progressive farmer groups: Including Tuki Association; NARSs: Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, National Center for Agricultural
Economics and Policy Research-India, Nepal Agricultural Research Council; NGOs: Li-Bird, Nepal Agro-Tech and Input, and ECARDS, Nepal; Other
development projects in the region: Hill Agriculture Research Project and Sustainable Soil Management Project, Nepal; Universities: University of Philippines-
Los Banos; Chiang Mai University, Thailand; University of Agriculture and Forestry-Ho Chi Minh City, and Hanoi Agricultural University, Vietnam; Seed
companies: Local and multinational
Costs: US$1.748M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (50%), Germplasm collection (10%), Sustainable production (10%), Policy (10%), Enhancing NARSs (20%)










Project 12 (R3): Sustainable wheat production in South Asia, including rice-wheat system

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Contribute to the alleviation of poverty and increased More productive, profitable, and sustainable technologies are Conducive policy environment
sustainability of agriculture in South Asia through the available and adopted by farmers, whose welfare and for the diffusion and adoption of
development and dissemination of more efficient, livelihoods improve, more efficient, productive, and
productive, and sustainable technologies for the sustainable technologies.
wheat production systems in this densely populated, New technology available for
impoverished region. farmers to experiment.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Reverse declining productivity and improve yields to Productivity trends stabilize or improve. Unrestricted exchange of
meet growing demand for food in 2 distinct wheat Increased adoption of efficiency-enhancing crop germplasm and crop
production environments in the region, through a management practices and well-adapted varieties, management technologies.
combination of efficiency-enhancing, cost-reducing Improvement in natural resource properties. NARSs have sufficient research
crop management practices and well-adapted and extension capacity to
varieties that help slow or reverse resource develop and extend new
degradation. technologies.
Timely availability of suitable,
good quality, local machinery
and agricultural products and
credits for farmers.
Robust methods, models, and
techniques for assessing long-
term productivity trends.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
Overcome declining productivity in wheat-based Availability of more productive, profitable, and sustainable See above.
systems and help South Asia meet increasing food technologies and adapted varieties.
demand, especially for the region's 500 million poor
people.
Outputs Indicators: Assumptions and risks
1. The agroecologies of wheat systems in South 1. More effective use of GIS and crop modeling, user- National programs committed to
Asia are characterized and a project friendly almanacs, web-based database programs, and providing resources, mobility,
management information system (PM IS) is web pages to improve targeting of technologies, and incentives for working in
developed for handling information from RWC 2. Wheat productivity and farmer income increase with partnership with the many
partners. greater availability of suitable cultivars for wheat cropping stakeholders in project activities
2. Improved wheat germplasm adapted to the systems and enhanced wheat diversity in farmers' fields, at specific sites.
eastern Subcontinent. reducing the risks of serious epidemics and yield losses. Unrestricted exchange of
3. Participatory Varietal Selection (PVS) and 3. Higher, more stable on-farm yields, resulting from the germplasm and crop
Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approaches development of more resistant germplasm and better management technologies.
used. New wheat varieties adopted. Increased information on agronomic factors, HLB incidence, and NARSs have sufficient research
diversification of varieties in farmers' fields in problems. and extension capacity to
South Asia. 4. Wheat varieties with improved rust resistance used by develop and extend new
4. Epidemiological, crop surveillance, and crop loss farmers. technologies.
assessment studies for the Helminthosporium 5. Recommendations used by farmers to reduce yield losses Project participants can interact
leaf blight (HLB) complex and the rust diseases from soil-borne factors. Methods for soil and root health with other service providers in
of wheat. studies available. the NGO and private sector.
5. Better understanding of soil health in relation to 6. Rapid adoption of resource-conserving tillage practices, Timely availability of suitable,
the sustainability of rice-wheat systems. with accompanying benefits for :i : i- :l: i n it'il, good quality, local machinery
6. Reduced and zero-tillage systems for timely profitability, productivity, natural resource use and and agricultural products and
planting, improved crop stands, increased water degradation, the environment, and farmer welfare. credits for farmers.
and nutrient efficiency, and higher yields in rice- 7. Greater adoption of bed planting systems, with Robust methods, models, and
wheat systems. accompanying benefits as listed in point 6 above, techniques for assessing long-
7. Bed planting systems to increase the efficiency 8. Based on a better understanding of causes of declining term productivity trends.
and productivity of irrigated wheat systems in productivity, solutions to productivity problems are Sufficient funding available.
South Asia. developed; farmers adopt them.
8. An assessment of productivity trends in rice- 9. Improved national program capacity to identify and
wheat systems. address farm-level and policy constraints to sustained or
9. A better understanding, through enhanced social improved productivity.
science input, of factors affecting rice-wheat 10. Accelerated adoption of technology because of farmer
system productivity and profitability, and farmer participation in the diagnostic process from the early
welfare. stages of technology development through
10. Use of participatory approaches and community- experimentation and identification of suitable innovations;
based assessments to identify and accelerate better-trained national multidisciplinary research teams
adoption of key technology interventions, using participatory approaches.
11. Community-based assessment of farmer needs so
farmers in all economic strata have access to the benefits
of new technologies.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Develop data and information management tools By the end of 2003: Data of acceptable quality and
to facilitate research and handle the large Make 200 copies of the RW Atlas V0.9 and 1,200 of V1.0 scale are available and shared
quantity of data from partners in the region, available for RWC partners; post data on websites. by NARSs.
including 1) a "rice-wheat atlas," 2) a rice-wheat Have a test copy of the Bangladesh Country Almanac NARSs scientists cooperate in
component for country almanacs, and 3) an available for circulation. compiling and sharing data.










effective PRISM web-based database Test Country Almanacs in all 4 countries in the region; GIS specialists available in
management system. Train researchers and GIS provide more complete datasets for the RW component of partner countries.
specialists in their use and maintenance, country almanacs. Equipment and trained
Encourage programs to develop effective web Hold a workshop for GIS specialists and site users to scientists available in the
sites for exchange of information. (Contributes to characterize rice-wheat systems. NARSs.
output 1). Hold familiarization workshops to promote use of Atlases NARS cooperate in loading and
and Almanacs. making available data for the
Provide a tested web-based information system (PRISM) on PRISM and web pages.
the RWC website for handling rice-wheat data.
Improve and link various web pages presently in existence
in the region in 2003 for better exchange of information.

2. Develop and identify improved wheats through: By 2003: Unrestricted sharing of
regional nurseries and yield trials for the Distribute 15 sets each of 6th EGPSN and 4th EGPYT in germplasm in the region.
Eastern Gangetic Plains (EGPs); the use of HLB region by November 2003. Analyze and distribute data on Germplasm sent and received
and leaf rust resistance from synthetics and wild grain yield, adaptation, and phenology from 5th EGPSN and on time through the proper
relatives of wheat; evaluation of varieties' 3rd EGPYT. channels.
performance under surface seeding and zero- Make 100 new single and top crosses with high grain yields Cooperative partnerships
tillage establishment; identification of varieties and grain quality, and combined resistance to HLB, leaf develop among wheat scientists
with good performance under maize-wheat rust, and heat. (including data sharing) and
systems; evaluation of breeding methodologies; Identify 50 parental lines with combined resistance to the with extension.
conducting research on late heat stress, wheat biotic and abiotic stresses in the EGPs;. Funding.
sterility, P-efficiency, lodging tolerance, Information on salinity, wheat sterility, and lodging tolerance Suitable disease resistance
waterlogging, and salinity; and visits in the available, available.
region and to CIMMYT-Mexico for scientists and HLB epidemiological and inheritance studies initiated. Suitable methods and
farmers. (Links with G3, G5, G6, G8, G9, R2 and Nutritional and industrial quality data shared with equipment available for testing
other R3 activities; contributes to output 2.) cooperators in the EGPs. germplasm.
New sources of HLB resistance exploited. Physiologists and other
Appropriate methodologies adopted by network members in scientists available.
EGPs.
Preliminary physiological studies on late heat stress
available as a selection aid.
Scientists and farmers have increased awareness of
varietal development activities.

3. Conduct participatory varietal selection (PVS) By 2003: Cooperative farmers and
trials in farmers' fields with elite wheat lines Conduct and evaluate 25 PVS/PPB trials in South Asia. scientists.
and/or released varieties in EGPs and Pakistan Increase farmers' awareness/adoption of superior varieties. Mobility and funding.
under current and reduced tillage; assess the Modify technologies based on farmers' feedback and an Suitable material available for
impact of the trials and farmer preferences improved understanding of constraints to adoption. testing and multiplication.
through farmer field days. In more remote, less Identify at least 5 new farmer-preferred improved wheat
productive areas, conduct participatory plant lines and provide information on preferred traits to breeders.
breeding (PPB) trials using targeted bulk Develop 12 wheat populations to initiate PPB trials.
populations and farmers' feedback. Multiply and Increased diversity of new wheat lines in farmers' fields.
disseminate seed of farmer-preferred wheat Increased participation of NGOs, extensionists, seed
varieties. Expand research on genotype x tillage producers, and other stakeholders working on PVS/PPB in
interactions in South Asia and promote South Asia.
responsive varieties. Monitor the impact of the Document use of improved germplasm, and improved
last two years of PVS/PPB activities. (Links with wheat production in selected locations.
G3 and other R3 activities; contributes to output Over 2003-04:
3.) Publish reports on the results and potential value of these
technologies and methods.
4. Identify pathogen populations associated with By early 2003: NARS cooperation and
HLB, pathogen aggressiveness and virulence, Obtain a better understanding of the epidemiology of HLB availability of trained scientists.
primary source of inoculum, and effects of complex in the region to develop better germplasm and Funding available.
alternate hosts, crop residue (especially under management practices for rice-wheat systems. Sources of resistance available.
reduced tillage), or soil in pathogen survival. Identify agronomic factors and stresses interacting with Resistance or tolerance to HLB
Study the effect of soil fertility and heat stress on HLB. available.
HLB severity. Evaluate new sources of genetic Identify agronomic practices to reduce losses from HLB for
resistance and advanced germplasm for farmer testing.
resistance to the HLB complex. Conduct the Evaluate the effect of seed treatment on foliar blight.
HLB monitoring nursery in the eastern Gangetic Develop germplasm with improved HLB resistance and
Plains and quantitative HLB disease surveys. make it available for testing.
(Links with other R3 activities; contributes to Identify 350 parental lines with combined resistance to HLB
output 4.) and heat tolerance.
Evaluate 50 sources of resistance to HLB complex.
Improve the characterization of HLB prevalence in wheat
systems.
Prepare two publications on resistance to HLB.
Prepare proceedings of Tan spot and Spot Blotch meeting
held in Minnesota in Summer 2002.
Prepare one key paper for APS international committee.
Identify genetic stocks with HLB resistance for further
evaluation.












5. Conduct epidemiological and rust surveillance
studies in the region; test potential sources of
resistance; screen for slow disease progress
and durable resistance; strengthen national
capacity to monitor rust virulence and
characterize rust races; improve national links
with centers of excellence in rust genetics;
increase the flow of information on rust in the
region and from neighboring countries; and
evaluate genotypes developed by national
programs in areas where new yellow rust
virulence has developed. (Links with G3, G6,
G6, and other R3 activities; contributes to output
4.)


6. Identify soil-borne nematode and fungal
pathogens and microbiota associated with rice-
wheat systems (and provide training in
identification); identify putative soil health bio-
indicators under changing cropping practices in
relation to soil organic matter; identify the impact
of tillage practices on soil health indicators;
evaluate soil health in long-term experiments;
develop information on how farmers can
overcome soil health problems and extend this
information through participatory approaches.
(Links with other R3 activities; contributes to
output 5.)

7. To develop, fine-tune, extend, and monitor new
resource conserving zero- and reduced tillage
technologies for establishment of wheat after
rice in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia.
Promote the development of appropriate
equipment; promote longer-term monitoring of
new tillage options in farmers' fields where they
have been adopted; promote technology through
use of national and regional traveling seminars;
conduct medium-term experiments to evaluate
the effects of reduced tillage on soil and biotic
factors (including use of dry-seeded rice
establishment); and develop public awareness
and training materials for farmers,
administrators, and other interested parties.
(Links with G3, G5, G9, and other R3 activities;
contributes to output 6.)

8. Quantify short- and long-term benefits of bed
planting systems; encourage local manufacture
of improved prototype equipment; introduce
prototype equipment from outside the region;
arrange traveling seminars and visits to improve
awareness of work on tillage and bed planting
and exchange ideas; collect data from tillage
experiments to provide a better understanding of
the longer-term implications of these systems;
through GIS determine areas suitable for bed
planting and resource-conserving tillage
practices; test and develop technology and
assess the benefits of planting rice, maize, and
other crops on permanent beds. (Link with other
R3 activities; contributes to output 7.)


Support the research of 4 MSc in Nepal with IAAS and
I UCL. I


By the end 2003:
* Reduce wheat yield losses through faster deployment of
durable resistance to emerging rust races.
* Evaluate 400 leaf-rust-resistant advanced lines (adapted to
ME1) for use as parental material.
* Identify rust pathotypes at Simla, India.
* Assess training needs in Pakistan for monitoring rust and
evaluating development of yellow rust epidemic in North
West Frontier Province.
* Implement a system to predict changes in rust virulence.
* Provide sets of differentials to NARSs.
* Send results of IDTN to Mexico and send SAARC nursery
to Iran
* Evaluate genotypes for yellow rust resistance.
* Test 200 advanced lines from Nepal for resistance to new
yellow rust races at CDRI-Pakistan.
* Tentatively install a micro-sprinkler system in Nepal to
increase rust/foliar disease pressure and make screening
more efficient


i +


By early 2003:
* Identify fungal pathogens and micro-biota and relate them to
tillage and management options.
* Develop and validate isolation and quantification methods.
Improve scientists' skill in identifying soil-borne pathogens.
* Identify putative soil health bio-indicators for different
cropping systems; assess the indicators' significance and
their relative prevalence in rice-wheat systems.
* Clarify the role of tillage in soil health, and determine
whether soil health parameters limit yields in continuous
rice-wheat systems; if so, develop recommendations for
controlling soil pathogens.
* Results of soil health project summarized by/with CABI for
BSPP meeting.
By 2003:
* Publish recommendations on reduced and zero-tillage
options for rice-wheat farmers; obtain farmers' feedback to
improve the technologies.
* Farmers use tillage equipment extensively and a network of
engineers and manufacturers exchange information on how
to improve equipment.
* Publish information on farmers' adoption and use of the
new technology based on assessment surveys. Quantify
benefits and problems (socioeconomic and environmental)
of the new technologies.
* Produce videos for farmers and others on resource-
conserving technologies; produce bulletins for extension
workers and NGOs to accelerate adoption.
* Various traveling seminars arranged.
* Incorporate information on the technologies into curricula for
universities, colleges, training centers, and farmer training.

By the end of 2003:
* Disseminate data on quantifiable agronomic and economic
benefits of bed planting.
* Disseminate in large quantities suitable bed planting
equipment to farmers in sufficient numbers and quality for
experimentation.
* Expand the local manufacture and sale of quality equipment.
* Continue to identify prototype equipment from within and
outside the region to make better machinery.
* Continue the established network of scientists motivated to
conduct good research on tillage and bed planting practices
in rice-wheat systems.
* Improve awareness of the benefits of resource-conserving
technologies among stakeholders.
* Develop recommendations and publish data for planting
rice, maize, and other crops on permanent beds and assess
the benefits of this system on productivity and sustainability
of the system.


* Cooperation of NARSs and
sharing of information.
* Availability of scientists for
research and training.
* No problems importing plant
material through national
channels.
* NARSs make germplasm
available in time to be sent to
cooperators.


* NARS collaborators identified
and cooperate at the site level.
* Scientists available for training;
suitable lab equipment available;
samples can be sent for
identification.
* Assume that there is a soil
health problem, that prospective
solutions are available to
farmers, and that participatory
approaches can be used.
* Project funding needs to be
secured to continue.

* Cooperation of all project
participants and free exchange
of information.
* Equipment and funds
available.
* NARS scientists have the
resources and mobility to get to
field, and the training and
facilities to make the various
measurements.
* Suitable land and resources
available to conduct
experiments and monitoring.
* Professional videographers and
facilities in the region.



* Bed planting equipment is
available for farmer
experimentation, farmers are
willing to experiment, and
scientists are trained and
available to take the proper
measurements.
* Local manufacturers invest in
developing appropriate
equipment.
* Equipment can be imported.
* Scientists and manufacturers
are aware of bed planting and its
advantages.
* Scientists are allowed to travel,
especially outside their
countries; travel funding is
available.










9. Quantify and interpret trends in rice-wheat By the end of 2003: Data from long-term
system productivity as a basis for developing Continue to publish papers on new methodology and experiments available for
strategies to reverse negative productivity techniques for trend and socioeconomic analysis of long- additional analysis.
trends; assess the roles of nutrient mining, term experiments and agronomic monitoring data. GIS facilities and trained
degradation of soil physical properties, declining Continue to make recommendations to farmers to overcome scientists available.
organic matter, and root and soil health in problems of declining productivity. A suitable model is available.
negative productivity trends; and conduct soil Develop more district-level maps showing agronomic Funds and facilities are
solarization experiments to quantify the role of monitoring data in relation to soil survey data. available.
soil-borne pathogens in yield declines. (Links Continue to develop methodologies for conducting soil and
with other R3 activities; contributes to output 8.) root health studies in long-term trials.
Publish a report on the extent of productivity declines,
factors involved, and suggestions on how to reverse
declines.
Try to develop a set of sustainability indicators to help
explain productivity declines.
10. Identify farm-level constraints that are limiting By 2003: Resources available for
productivity growth in the Indo-Gangetic Plains Continue to organize and motivate networks of social scientists to get to the field.
of India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh and scientists to address constraints to productivity in rice-wheat Social scientists available.
identify policy interventions needed to facilitate systems. Funding available.
the adoption of technologies that will ensure As newer conservation technologies are adapted, continue
sustainable intensification. Foster better to identify policy and macro-level constraints to
interaction between social and biological enhancing/sustaining productivity growth in these new tillage
scientists. (Contributes to output 9). rice-wheat systems.
Continue to identify any new farm-level constraints to
technology adoption through multidisciplinary research in
farmers' fields.
Continue to identify technology and policy instruments for
enhancing/sustaining rice-wheat productivity growth.
Continue to work with the mitigation of arsenic
contamination/problems in Bangladesh and its effects on soil
and crops that ultimately affect the human population.
11. Strengthen farmer participatory approaches and National programs use farmer participatory research and Ability to organize efficient
gender analysis methods in R3 research. Using community assessment approaches to develop technologies stakeholder participatory
participatory approaches and community and recommendations and accelerate adoption of resource- approaches.
assessments, develop recommendations for the conserving technologies. Availability of suitable social
tillage options promoted for rice-wheat systems Conduct a large number of whole family training programs; scientists and willingness of
so that all social strata can use and benefit. farmers use information obtained from the training, biological scientists to work
Continue work on a food systems approach to Work with Cornell University with their SM-CRSP Phase II together.
improving human nutrition in Bangladesh using upscaling technologies in South Asia. Incentives from national
whole family training methods. Continue to work with participatory stakeholder groups in programs to promote this
conservation tillage in each of the 4 South Asian countries extension methodology.
(groups composed of growers, agricultural engineers, farm
machinery manufacturers and operators).
Work with nutritionists to continue to develop nutrient-
delivery systems for communities experiencing nutrient
deficiencies, e.g. Ca-deficiency induced rickets in Chakaria
Bangladesh.
Actively engage in scientific debate for GMOs within South
Asia e.g. ring spot resistant papaya in Bangladesh, so that
when GMO wheat or maize is introduced, the debate would
be fully engaged and possibly won.

Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: Farmers; NARSs (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and China) including universities and research centers and stations in the region;
IARCs: CIP, CIAT, ICRISAT, IRRI, and IWMI; NGOs; Universities and advanced institutions: Cornell University (USA), CABI (UK), IAC Wageningen
(Netherlands), IACR Rothamsted (UK), CIRAD (France), CSIRO (Australia), Massey University (New Zealand), University of Adelaide (Australia), Michigan
and Ohio State Universities (USA), IAEA, (Vienna) University of Wales, Bangor, (UK); Texas A&M University (USA), University of Louvain la Neuve (Belgium),
USDA Hawaii, (USA); and others; and local equipment manufacturers; private sector consultants; donor agencies (DFID, Netherlands, ADB, ACIAR, IFAD,
The World Bank, USAID).
Costs: US$ 2.787M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (20%), Germplasm collection (5%), Sustainable production (40%), Policy (5%), Enhancing NARSs (30%)










Project 13 (R4): Food security for West Asia and North Africa


Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Greater food and feed self-sufficiency and poverty Cereal imports in the WANA countries will not increase as Population growth will be
alleviation in West Asia and North Africa through domestic production starts to rise and keeps pace with the brought under control.
increased productivity and stability of wheat growing population.
production systems, which will reduce pressure to Contribution to poverty alleviation through increases in farm
cultivate marginal lands, thus protecting the income brought about by higher on-farm productivity.
environment.

Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Cereal productivity in WANA increased through the Modern varieties sown in regions of WANA, where large Government policies support
development and dissemination of improved bread areas are still under unimproved cultivars. dissemination of improved
wheat and durum wheat germplasm. Replacement of old improved cultivars with new bread and agricultural technologies.
durum wheat varieties with better resistance to biotic and Improved agronomy practices
abiotic stresses and acceptable quality characteristics, developed and adopted by
farmers.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
Farmers and consumers in WANA benefit from Increased productivity, fewer disease epidemics, and use of Commitment of NARSs and
increased crop productivity, as a result of bread and wheats with improved grain quality in farmers' fields. support from local institutions.
durum wheats with higher yield potential, greater
stability, improved disease resistance, improved
tolerance to abiotic stresses, and better end-use
quality.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Winter and facultative bread wheats with 1. Improved winter and facultative bread wheats available for See above.
enhanced yield potential, yield stability, disease cooperators; wheats of desirable quality available to local
resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and better processing industry.
end-use quality. 2. Improved spring bread and durum wheats available to
2. Spring bread and durum wheats with higher cooperators; wheats of desirable quality available to local
yield potential, resistance to biotic and abiotic processing industry.
stresses, and better grain quality developed for 3. Efficiency of breeding methodologies improved .
dryland conditions. 4. Utilization of physiological traits, doubled haploids, and
3. Application of new conventional breeding molecular tools in breeding bread and durum wheats.
methodologies 5. Classification of environments within WANA improved.
4. Integrate the use of physiological traits, doubled NARSs receive better targeted nurseries and increased
haploids, and molecular tools in conventional selection efficiency for specific traits.
breeding and pathogen diagnostics. 6. Greater genetic diversity available to breeders.
5. Better classification of WANA into mega- 7. New wheat varieties in WANA with resistance to root
environments to allow more targeted distribution diseases; reduced losses from root diseases and
of nurseries, identification of locations most nematodes in farmers' fields.
suitable for selecting for specific traits and for 8. System established for exchanging winter and facultative
shuttle breeding. durum wheat germplasm.
6. Use synthetic wheats in bread wheat and wild 9. Trials in Syrian farmers' fields established.
relatives in durum for widening genetic diversity. 10. Post-course employment assignment in NARSs for
7. Resistance to root diseases (rot rots and trainees.
nematodes) incorporated into elite wheat 11. Greater and faster acceptance of new varieties by farmers.
germplasm. 12. Data linked to IWIS and databases can be searched for
8. A regional germplasm exchange system for genetic distances and pedigree data.
winter and facultative durum wheats established.
9. Increased productivity through durum-vetch
/barley rotations
10. NARS research capabilities enhanced.
11. Improved information on consumption and
production characteristics of priority to farm
households
12. DNA fingerprinting of advanced winter wheat
lines and landraces.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Selection and promotion of facultative and winter By 2005, identify 10 winter and facultative bread wheat CIMMYT continues to maintain
wheat germplasm with tolerance to abiotic (heat, cultivars with high yield potential, disease resistance, and resources for activities in
cold, drought, zinc) and biotic (rust, bunt and acceptable quality for promotion for irrigated and rainfed WANA.
smut) stresses and improved quality traits for areas. NARSs and other CGIAR
WANA (contributes to output 1). Centers give more emphasis to
agronomy research.
2. Selection and promotion of spring bread and By 2005, identify 10 bread and 10 durum wheat cultivars CIMMYT continues to maintain
durum wheat germplasm tolerant to prevailing with high yield potential, disease resistance, and acceptable resources for activities in
abiotic (drought, cold, heat) and biotic (rust, quality for promotion. WANA.
septoria, Hessian fly, sawfly, Russian wheat NARSs and other CGIAR
aphid) and improved quality traits for WANA Centers give more emphasis to
(contributes to output 2). agronomy research.










3. Use single seed descent, selection on raised By 2005 single seed descent, raised beds, and deep sowing
beds and deep sowing (contributes to output 1,2 integral part of breeding program
and 3).
4. Use doubled haploids, molecular tools for By 2005, MAS for 2 nematode resistance genes in winter
pathogen diagnostics and incorporating bread wheat; QTLs for quality traits and drought tolerance
nematode resistance in bread wheat, and for applied in durum breeding and 200 doubled haploid
quality and drought tolerance in durum wheat populations developed by the CIMMYT/ICARDA bread
(contributes to outputs 1,2,3,4,6,7). wheat and durum breeding programs, as well as by three
NARSs in the region.
5. Classify winter wheat growing environments By 2005, all nurseries distributed based on mega-
(contributes to outputs 1, 5). environment classification and shuttle breeding established
with Iran for rainfed winter wheat improvement.
6. Evaluation of synthetic wheats from CIMMYT's By 2003, evaluate 20 synthetic wheats.
Wide Crosses Unit. (contributes to 1,2,6)
7. Conduct surveys to species level and yield loss Document frequency and distribution of root diseases in Greenhouse functioning.
trials for root diseases; establish resistance Turkey.
screening protocol; evaluate wheat germplasm Quantify the economic losses from soil-borne pathogens.
for resistance to root diseases; Resistance sources to root diseases identified.
8. Establish crossing program to transfer Crossing program established to transfer resistance sources
resistance genes into elite winter wheat cultivars into elite winter wheat germplasm.
(contributes to output (1,7).
9. Cultivars and elite winter and facultative durum Distribute 20-30 genotypes per year to NARSs.
wheats from the region distributed to NARSs
upon request (contributes to output 8).
10. Durum-vetch / barley mixture trials established in Adoption of cereal-vetch rotation by Syrian farmers.
farmers fields in Syria
11. Human resource capacity of regional NARSs Over 5 years, train 10 NARS scientists.
developed through research collaboration and
training in sustainable crop management
practices (contributes to output 9).
12. Investigate current technology use, technological Farm-level surveys implemented to collect primary data for
and institutional constraints, factors influencing economic analysis of household decision-making behavior.
farmers' choice of variety, and implications for Develop an understanding of the specific requirements for
income equity, genetic resource conservation, wheat and wheat products and the ability of existing
and future breeding and research priorities varieties (traditional and improved) to satisfy household
(contributes to output 10). requirements.
Identify obstacles to adoption of improved varieties and
analyze implications for crop breeding research in regions of
widespread landrace cultivation.
Estimate and understand the impacts of technology adoption
on household wealth.
13. DNA fingerprinting of up to 300 winter wheat Data placed into a CIMMYT-wide accessible database for
cultivars, breeding lines, and landraces. molecular marker and database linked to IWIS.
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs, IARCs, NGOs, ARIs
Costs: US$1.483M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (50%), Germplasm collection (12%), Sustainable production (9%), Policy (5%), Enhancing NARSs (24%)










Project 14 (R5): Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America and the Caribbean

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
To enable resource poor maize/wheat farmers in The relative number of farmers participating successfully in The strength of research and
Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to move from the market increases, extension organizations in the
an economy of subsistence and resource degradation region is not further eroded by
to one based on surplus and market economy while loss of trained staff, by
conserving natural resources. unreliable funding, or other
factors.
Exchange of germplasm, other
technology, and information is
not restricted by intellectual
property legislation.
Political will exists to support
regional research, extension,
and/or policy initiatives.
The strength of agricultural
innovation systems increases
thanks to a greater interaction
among agents
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
To increase the profitability and sustainability of the See above. See above.
most important maize and wheat cropping systems in
Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
Build on CIMMYT's extensive experience with Increased adoption of agricultural technologies that increase See above.
regional research networks to develop, validate and productivity and profitability while ameliorating problems with
promote the adoption of profitable and sustainable the natural resource base.
maize and wheat technologies and processes in Latin
America and the Caribbean (LAC).
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Innovation and production systems are 1. Improved characterization of maize and wheat production Mechanisms for sharing data
characterized, major problems diagnosed, and systems (e.g., economic and social importance of system; and information can be
priorities established for research. status of natural resources; factors affecting system established and accessed.
2. Technological components (technology and productivity and sustainability; factors affecting technology Genuine commitment by
processes) for those production systems are adoption, system competitiveness) leads to the organizations in the region to
generated and made available to partners in the development of workplans to address prioritized devise more effective means of
region. constraints. working together.
3. Adoption and impact of past and current R5 2. Appropriate technologies (e.g., germplasm, crop Exchange of germplasm, other
activities assessed. management and resource conservation practices, technology, and information is
4. Regional research partners, including national integrated pest management strategies) for high priority not restricted by intellectual
innovation systems, strengthened. regions/problems are developed; they are disseminated property legislation.
through a greater effort in extension and information
dissemination-promotion, publications, bulletins,
seminars, workshops, and other media.
3. The adoption and impact of technologies developed for
increased, more stable, more profitable, and more
sustainable crop production are documented; researchers
and policymakers have better knowledge of factors that
influence adoption and impact of such technologies.
4. More effective partnerships formed to achieve R5
objectives. Stronger innovation, research, and extension
capacity among regional partners achieved through
traditional means, such as training and consulting, and new
institutional arrangements, all enhanced by CIMMYT
serving as an honest broker on issues related to intellectual
property legislation, biotechnology, and biosafety. Stable
and more long-term regional research arrangements
improve the likelihood of achieving the overall goal of R5
transgenic cultivars.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Develop a better understanding of regional Over the planning period:
cropping systems and their productivity and Diagnose problems in maize production systems in Central
sustainability challenges (contributes to output 1; America.
links with CIMMYT's Natural Resource Group). Develop GIS and modeling interface in Honduras and
Mexico; conduct site similarity analysis for Bolivia.
Deliver country almanac (GIS application and data base) for
Papaloapan (Mexico) and Ecuador.
Diagnose problems in wheat production systems in Bolivia.
Characterize competitive areas of sustainable maize
production in Central America.










2. Develop, test and promote maize/wheat Over the planning period: Regional mechanisms for
germplasm. (contributes to outputs 2 and 4; links Release of at least 10 wheat varieties during 2001-03 in the germplasm exchange and
to other global and regional CIMMYT projects). Southern Cone region based on CIMMYT germplasm. technology extension function
Collect, test, characterize and save in genebanks advanced well.
wheat germplasm from NARSs in Southern Cone
germplasm bank.
Reanalyze wheat breeding efforts in Paraguay.
Advance breeders trials seeded under zero tillage at some
sites in lowland Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
Identify CIMMYT wheat germplasm that combines diverse
traits necessary to produce new, value-added wheat
varieties in LA and distribute it among NARSs for breeding
purposes and for testing in local crop systems.
Develop and release maize QPM germplasm in Central
America, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru.
3. Carry out strategic research on maize and wheat Over the planning period: Germplasm exchange remains
germplasm development (contributes to output 2 Release maize and wheat germplasm w/tolerance to biotic free and open
and 4; links to global and regional CIMMYT stresses in selected countries in South America Proper quarantine regulations
projects). Release maize germplasm with tolerance to corn stunt do not hinder key location
disease in specific countries screening
Identify and distribute to NARS New sources of disease and
pests resistance in wheat
Identify new sources of resistance to wheat blast in Bolivia
and Brazil
Test and screen for toxin production new sources of
resistance to Fusarium head blight
Generation of data base with regards to pathotypes and
efficient screening methodologies
4. Promote production of improved seed of maize Over the planning period: Private companies have an
and wheat (contributes to output 2). Attain wider availability and adoption of improved interest in producing seed of
germplasm. germplasm appropriate for
Evaluate international and national wheat nurseries at more farmers who are not yet
than 10 locations. commercial producers.
Assistance with seed multiplication of new varieties to
Paraguay and Bolivia.
Characterize maize seed markets in selected Central
American countries.
5. Conduct strategic agronomic research on main By 2003: Regional/local mechanisms exist
production constraints. (contributes to output 2; Develop recommendation for reducing risks of wheat for testing and extending
links to other global and regional CIMMYT seeding in lowland Bolivia based on soil moisture and complex technology.
projects). rainfall probabilities.
Over the planning period:
Establish rotation and preceding crop trials in the lowlands
of Bolivia.
Develop and test mechanistic models for
understanding/extrapolating key technologies.
6. Conduct applied participatory agronomic Over the planning period: Regional/local mechanisms exist
research. (contributes to output 2). Test methods for efficient participatory technology to develop/adopt component
development, technologies
Suitable germplasm, agronomic practices, and laboratory Local capacity to conduct on-
facilities become available for evaluating and testing. farm research exists.
7. Conduct applied participatory research on Over the planning period: Markets for important rotation
conservation technologies (contributes to output Test animal-drawn seeder for no-till seeding of wheat tested crops, especially maize, exist.
2). in 10 communities of the Bolivian valleys
Test machinery for conservation tillage (animal drawn and
motorized) in Southern Mexico.
8. Conduct applied participatory research on Over the planning period, develop an improved strategy for
integrated pest management (contributes to defining chemical disease control of diseases of wheat
output 2). developed in lowland Bolivia and Uruguay.
9. Conduct strategic and applied research on the Over the planning period, assess the long-term physical and
long-term consequences of conservation economic consequences of conservation tillage in selected
technologies. (contributes to output 2; links to sites.
G9).
10. Conduct studies of the adoption and impact of Over the planning period: Information can be obtained
technologies developed through this project Better knowledge of factors affecting adoption becomes from private seed companies on
(contributes to output 3; links with G7). available to improve the adoption of productivity-enhancing, their use of CIMMYT
resource-conserving technologies. germplasm.
Develop a common framework for analyzing the adoption
and impact of conservation tillage.
Assess the impact of germplasm research in Latin America.
By 2003:
Publish a synthesis of factors affecting adoption of new
technologies by small farmers in Central America.










Complete a final impact survey of PROTRIGO in the
Bolivian valleys.
11. Carry out strategic and applied research on the Over the planning period:
organization of agricultural innovation systems in Publish reports on the organization of 7 Latin American
selected Latin American countries. (contributes agricultural innovation systems.
to output 4, links with FP6). Produce report on sources of productivity in public breeding
institutions.
Produce report on incentives systems in Latin American
public research institutions.
12. Carry out in country, regional tin service training. Each year, 20 participants attend short courses on Suitable candidates and funding
and support academic training in universities conservation tillage, participatory technology development available for training.
(contributes to output 4; links with G8). (including breeding), and modeling.
Over the planning period, develop instructional material on
key themes; offer seed production courses.
Fifteen participants each year in specialized in-service
Two researchers receive graduate training.
During the planning period, carried out 10 training
workshops (5 in Mexico and 5 in Ecuador) on the use of
country almanacs. It is expected that approximately 100
national scientists will participate.
13. Contribute to the development of special Conduct 10 field days/workshops on special topics.
research skills. (contributes to output 4; links
with G8).
14. Establish effective, efficient alliances with key Over the planning period: Funding, staffing, and legal
regional partners, including national innovation Establish relations at specific sites with public and private framework enables networks to
systems. (contributes to output 4). partners to transfer technologies developed through R5. be established.
Establish agreements with private companies and NGOs for Possible to identify topics of
seed and machinery production. mutual interest for collaboration
Establish additional projects with ARIs, farmer groups, and with advanced research
other CGIAR Centers to achieve goals of R5. institutes, NGOs, farmer groups.
15. Develop, manage, and search for funding of Over the planning period, develop stable and more long- Governments recognize that it is
regional projects. (contributes to output 4). term research arrangements. in their long-term interest to
Over the planning period, participate actively in establishing devise more sustainable
research priorities for Latin America (with FORAGO, research arrangements for the
FONTAGRO, IICA, and other regional and international region.
institutions. Ministry of Agriculture has little
Promote interest of official institutions to continue financing clout under globalization!
the development of improved germplasm (Peru, Colombia).
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: Farmer groups, NARSs, IARCs, NGOs, Universities, ARIs, Private companies
Costs: US$ 3.173M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (37%), Germplasm collection (7%), Sustainable production (32%), Policy (5%), Enhancing NARSs (19%)










Project 15 (R6): Increasing cereal food production in Central Asia and the Caucasus (CAC)

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Poverty will be alleviated, food security enhanced, and An invigorated agricultural sector will produce more food Countries of CAC provide
the ecology of the region protected through increased and generate more income for resource-poor farmers and policy support for their
wheat production as a result of using higher yielding consumers, thereby acting as an engine of growth for the agricultural sectors.
wheats in conjunction with sustainable crop economies of CAC.
management practices and renovating the research
infrastructure.

Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Wheat production in the region will increase through the The average wheat yield per hectare in CAC will increase NARSs of CAC have
development of higher yielding, disease- and pest- as a result of improved varieties and more appropriate appropriate germplasm and
resistant varieties, and sustainable cropping systems. cropping systems. related management
technologies.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
The national wheat breeding and dissemination NARSs benefit from improved wheat germplasm and better NARSs have the capacity to
activities in CAC countries will be strengthened to coordinated regional testing activities, deliver improved germplasm
enable NARSs to deliver new, more appropriate Farmers benefit from new varieties that have improved and cropping practices to
varieties and cropping practices to farmers. resistance to diseases and pests. farmers.

Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Superior winter and facultative wheat germplasm 1. New wheat cultivars with resistance to pests and diseases Exchange of germplasm at
for CAC. tested in farmers' fields; enhanced quality and diversity of the regional level continues.
2. Superior high-latitude spring wheat germplasm wheat germplasm adapted to CAC; segregating NARSs have sufficient staff
targeted to northern Kazakhstan. populations for selecting lines adapted to rainfed and resources.
3. Modern, sustainable cropping practices for high irrigated conditions.
latitude spring wheat and irrigated 2. New high-latitude cultivars adapted to northern
facultative/winter wheat. Kazakhstan.
4. Regional wheat improvement and genetic 3. Cropping practices available.
resources network established. 4. Exchange of information among NGOs, CIMMYT, and
5. Strengthened NARS wheat breeding/research ARIs on regional ecology, disease spectrum, and soil and
capacity. plant performance.
6. Economic analyses of wheat production in CAC. 5. An active, targeted training program operating in CAC.
6. Economic analyses available.
Activities Milestones by 2004 Assumptions and risks
1. Identification and promotion of winter wheat At least 50 lines identified to be included in advanced See above.
germplasm suitable for the region, its formal testing by regional NARSs.
testing, and promotion among farmers (contributes At least 20 lines included in official varietal testing in at
to output 1). least 7 countries and promoted with farmers through on-
farm trials and demonstration plots.
Regional winter wheat improvement network established.
Effective models of wheat variety promotion and seed
multiplication tested in four countries.
2. Characterization and classification of breeding Three documents describing environment and important
environments in winter wheat and spring wheat constraints.
regions (contributes to outputs 1, 2). Winter and spring wheat breeding programs in Mexico and
Turkey re-oriented based on identified constraints.
3. Breeding suitable spring wheat germplasm and Preselected segregating populations regularly sent to the
establishment of shuttle breeding program region for testing under local conditions.
(contributes to output 2). Shuttle breeding program Kazakhstan-Mexico established.
Best germplasm identified in region will be yield tested.
Regional spring wheat network established.
4. Identification and promotion of new technologies Experiments to identify suitable technologies for promotion
through on-farm trials and demonstrations conducted in 3 countries.
(contributes to output 1, 2, 3). Wide-scale on-farm trials and demonstrations to promote
new technologies in 8 countries.
At least 30 on-farm trials with less advantaged farmers will
be established in 3 countries.
Training courses on how to promote new technologies.
5. Improved wheat breeding capacity and renovation Review of wheat breeding and development of a plan for its
of machinery and equipment (contributes to improvement in three countries.
outputs 4, 5). Support in providing machinery, equipment, and
infrastructure in 3 countries.
Introduction of new breeding approaches in 6 countries.
Introduction of Competitive Grant Scheme for priority
research areas in 1 country.










6. Analyses of prospects and policies for wheat Analyses of current production practices and future
production in the region (contributes to output 6). prospects in the region.
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: Other CGIAR centers:, ICARDA; NARS: Ministry of Agriculture, Armenia, Ministry of Agriculture, Azerbaijan, Georgian Academy of Agric.
Research, Georgia, National Academic Center of Agric. Research, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Agricultural Academy, Kyrgyzstan Tajik Academy of Agric. Research.
Tajikistan, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Turkmenistan, Scientific Production Center of Agriclture, Uzbekistan; NGOs: CARE International,
Aga-Khan Foundation, Armenian Technology Group, German Society Golbshtadt
Costs: US$ 0.883M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (15%), Germplasm collection (10%), Sustainable production (25%), Policy (5%), Enhancing NARSs (45%)










Project 16 (Fl): New wheat science to meet global challenges

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Global food security is improved thanks to increased Greater production of wheat grain from the same amount of Population growth predictions
wheat production through the use of higher yielding cultivated land contributes to meeting growing food demand and food demand projections
wheats, offsetting the need to bring new land under in the developing world. are correct.
production, thus protecting natural ecosystems.

Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Wheat yield potential is raised over current thresholds Greater understanding of the physiological and genetic Suitable markers can be found
through conventional breeding assisted by new mechanisms that determine yield in wheat through for traits of interest.
physiology-based technologies and molecular integration of physiology and genetics (e.g., functional Conventional breeding is not
approaches genommics). already optimal in efficiency.
The use of physiological selection criteria and MAS as tools
for improving yield potential becomes more common in
conventional breeding programs at CIMMYT and elsewhere.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
NARS scientists and other researchers have access Farmers realize higher, more stable wheat yields through Public sector continues to
to improved wheat germplasm with higher yield the adoption of higher yielding, more input efficient cultivars support agriculture.
potential and better yield stability, as well as to more developed and released by NARSs from CIMMYT
efficient methods for selecting and developing higher germplasm with improved yield potential.
yielding plants.


Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Technologies to facilitate breeding, such as 1. These technologies are applied in wheat breeding NARSs will continue to have
physiological selection criteria and molecular programs worldwide at different stages of breeding. unrestricted access to
markers, identified and developed. 2. Information available. germplasm and information.
2. Identification of yield-enhancing traits and genes 3. Improved cross-pollination between female and male lines
from a broad genetic resource base. in hybrid seed production.
3. Inbred lines with good male traits developed and 4. Data on Vrn and Ppd interaction with environment
improved for use in wheat hybrid production. available.
4. Improved understanding of how major genes
(Vrn and Ppd) interact with the environment to
modify wheat phasic development.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Evaluate genetic gains associated with using By 2003, clarify conditions permitting most efficient and
physiological selection criteria such as stomatal reliable quantification of SATs within a large germplasm
aperture-related traits (SATs) (contributes to improvement program.
outputs 1, 2).

2. Determine the association of physiological traits By 2005, understand the physiology of the link between
such as SATs with yield in a set of historic lines SATs and yield in CIMMYT material.
with different yield potential (contributes to
outputs 1, 2).

3. Assess the potential of genetic sources of By 2003, quantify traits such as leaf chlorophyll content
variation in physiological traits (e.g., dark green during grain filling, grain filling rate, and spike size on a
leaves, high biomass production, large spikes) small set of lines.
that could become additional selection criteria
useful in breeding for increased yield potential
(contributes to outputs 1, 2).

4. Cross CIMMYT lines with other materials known By 2003, lines found to be good general combiners Risk that male inbred lines
to have good male traits to develop inbred lines converted to male lines with good anther extrusion and developed by CIMMYT breeders
for use in hybrid combinations (contributes to pollen production. will not produce the highest
output 3). yielding hybrids.

5. Global yield trials through CIMMYT's By 2003, determine the adaptive role of the Vrn and Ppd
International Nurseries network (contributes to genes across diverse wheat-growing mega-environments of
output 4). the developing world.

Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: Universities: ANU, Australia; Technical University, MOnchen; ARIs: John Innes Centre, UK; CSIRO, Australia
Costs: US$ 0.458M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (90%), Germplasm collection (5%), Enhancing NARSs (5%)










Project 17 (F2): Apomixis: Seed security for poor farmers

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
The development and adoption of apomictic maize Reduced genetic vulnerability in farmers' fields, leading to Policies, regulations, and/or
that will enable resource-poor farmers to retain improved production and food security, consumer/farmer acceptance do
superior seed for sowing from one production cycle to Farmers retain superior seed from apomictic varieties, not impede research or prevent
the next, leading to reduced genetic vulnerability in farm-level adoption of apomictic
farmers' fields, improved production, and greater food maize.
security. Apomictic varieties can be
developed, manipulated, and
deployed successfully.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Successful introduction and use of apomixis in a crop Better information on the biology of apomixis in wild Resources and technology allow
background, based on a clear understanding of the apomicts compared to maize-Tripsacum hybrid derivatives, a sufficient understanding of the
regulation of the apomictic mode of reproduction. Increased knowledge of factors regulating the expression of regulation of apomixis in wild
apomixis in wild apomicts and maize-Tripsacum hybrids. apomicts.
Improved understanding of the potential for farm-level Apomixis can be successfully
adoption and impact of apomictic maize, obtained through introduced into a crop species.
ex ante impact assessment.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
Enable poor farmers to recycle seed without losing Same as for overall goal, above. See above.
part of the beneficial traits embodied in their varieties
by identifying the components of apomixis and their
genetic regulation, identifying other constraints to the
expression of apomixis in grain crops, and
introgressing apomixis into maize.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Apomictic maize. Apomictic germplasm is available to CIMMYT breeders. Outcomes also depend on
2. Improved knowledge of the developmental Genes are made available for expression studies through results of a risk assessment
genetics of apomixis. genetic engineering and reverse genetics. study examining the
3. Identification and isolation of major genes Ex ante study of impact of apomictic maize conducted. mechanisms conditioning
involved in apomixis expression. geneflow between apomictic
4. Improved knowledge of the factors affecting plants/species and other
apomixis expression in grain crops. plants/species.
5. Improved understanding of the potential benefits Resources and technology are
and constraints related to the adoption of available and adequate.
apomictic maize.
6. Improved public knowledge about apomixis
technology.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Produce maize-Tripsacum hybrids (contributes Obtain apomictic maize-Tripsacum addition lines. Crop genomes, particularly
to outputs 1-4). maize, are appropriate
recipients for apomixis.
2. Identify genes and/or regulatory regions/factors Clone or acquire candidate genes. IPR constraints.
involved in apomixis expression (contributes to Determine key regulatory factors and their mode of action.
outputs 1-4).
3. Develop and apply strategies for the molecular Clone or acquire candidate genes. IPR constraints.
analysis of constraints resulting from apomixis
expression on kernel development (contributes
to outputs 1, 4).
4. Functional analysis of candidate genes resulting Select best candidate genes for attempting to produce Genes can be identified.
from activities 2 and 3 (contributes to outputs 3, apomictic maize via genetic engineering.
4).
5. Estimate the potential economic benefits of Publish paper estimating the potential economic benefits of
apomictic maize for poor farmers in developing apomictic maize for poor farmers in developing countries.
countries (contributes to outputs 5, 6).
6. Increase public awareness about the potential Publish journal article and/or CIMMYT monograph Current debate over GMOs and
impacts of apomixis (contributes to outputs 5, 6). describing apomixis research, outlining potential impacts of biodiversity might limit or
apomixis (e.g., on farmers, seed producers, and eventually ban the use of
researchers), and discussing technology ownership and apomixis technology.
control issues.
7. Develop models for assessing the risks of By 2004, assemble the information gained (1) from case
deploying apomictic varieties and dissemination studies of geneflow and seed management projects (e.g.,
of information to the media (contributes to the Oaxaca project) and (2) from the characterization of
outputs 5, 6). apomixis.


Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARS: INIFAP, Mexico; ARIs: IRD, France; Private companies: Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Dupont;
Costs: US$ 0.878M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (85%), Germplasm collection (5%), Sustainable production (10%)


Limagrain Holding; Syngenta










Project 18 (F3): Biotechnology for food security

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
The effective use of biotechnology for the sustainable Maize and wheat production is increased while the pesticide, The current debate over the
production of maize and wheat while reducing the insecticide, and fertilizer load in fragile ecosystems is development and use of
environmental damage to fragile ecosystems. reduced. products derived via
biotechnology leads to policies
that will allow their use and
acceptance in conjunction with
appropriate biosafety measures.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
The identification of appropriate biotechnology-based More efficient and effective pest- and disease-resistant maize Appropriate regulatory
methods that can be applied in the development of and wheat that combine conventional and biotechnology frameworks for biotechnology
maize and wheat varieties with enhanced resistance options developed, products in targeted countries are
to biotic and abiotic stresses. Appropriate conditions in NARSs for evaluating varieties established and implemented.
developed via biotechnology established. Appropriate licenses for release
Appropriate strategies for the deployment of biotechnology- of third-party intellectual property
derived maize and wheat in smallholders' fields developed, can be negotiated.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
NARSs obtain biotechnology-derived maize and Farmers benefit as a result of more efficient and faster
wheat germplasm with improved biotic and abiotic introduction of beneficial traits into maize and wheat
stress resistance, as well as training in the application germplasm.
of biotechnology and in the appropriate biosafety A regulatory framework developed for deploying
measures for testing the varieties, biotechnology-derived maize and wheat.
Appropriate biosafety measures and regulations for
importing and testing materials in greenhouse and field trials
developed by NARSs.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Efficient, effective biotechnology methods for 1. Effective biotechnology methods to improve biotic and The current trend in some
maize and wheat improvement. abiotic stress resistance available, countries towards restricting
2. Biotic and abiotic stress resistance genes and 2. Effective abiotic stress resistance genes identified. biotechnology-derived products is
associated molecular markers. 3. More durable resistance to pests and pathogens through the changed to one of rational
3. Molecular-based breeding strategies for combined application of conventional host plant and application of biotechnology to
transferring resistance genes efficiently to maize biotechnology-derived resistance mechanisms developed, plant breeding.
and wheat germplasm. 4. Researchers trained in biotechnology approaches. Appropriate regulatory
4. NARS researchers trained in the application of 5. Management and monitoring strategies developed, frameworks for biotechnology
biotechnology and associated biosafety measures 6. Information on biotechnology developed and disseminated, products in targeted countries are
in the improvement of maize and wheat and in established and implemented.
evaluating such materials in greenhouse and field Appropriate licenses for release
trials. of third-party intellectual property
5. Strategies for the deployment of resistant varieties are negotiated.
to optimize the effectiveness and durability of
engineered stress resistance.
6. Information on the science and benefits of
biotechnology disseminated among potential
users.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Identify molecular markers associated with genes By 2003, identify markers linked to major leaf rust and other
for resistance to pests and pathogens, and for disease resistance genes in wheat and parasitic weeds in
tolerance to parasitic weeds and abiotic stresses maize.
in maize and wheat (contributes to outputs 1, 2, 3). By 2004, develop a drought consensus map for maize that
combines available information on the molecular,
physiological, and biochemical gene locations.
By 2005, identify markers for major drought tolerance genes
in wheat.
Over the planning period, provide optimized marker systems
for routine use by breeding programs.
2. Identify and acquire genes, promoters, and Over the planning period, acquire genes and/or germplasm
enhancing sequences that confer resistance to containing such genes for incorporation into maize and
major insect pests, pathogens, parasitic weeds wheat.
and abiotic stresses (contributes to outputs 1, 2).
3. Develop strategies to use genomics (gene By 2004, evaluate the use of gene expression studies to
expression arrays, proteomics, metabolomics) for identify genes and pathways involved in abiotic stress
gene discovery in maize and wheat (contributes to tolerance in maize and wheat.
outputs 1, 2, 3). By 2004, evaluate the use of proteomics to identify genes
involved in abiotic stress and parasitic weed tolerance in
maize.
By 2005, evaluate the use of metabolomics to identify genes
and pathways involved in parasitic weed tolerance in maize.
4. Establish necessary bioinformatics capabilities to By 2004, establish and use comparative and consensus
store and analyze the information produced by mapping software to develop biotic and abiotic consensus
genomic studies (contributes to outputs 1, 2, 3). maps for maize and wheat.










Over the planning period, acquire and implement the
database and analysis software and hardware necessary for
proper storage and analysis of genomic information.
Over the planning period, provide training in the use of
bioinformatic software.
5. Develop efficient methods to produce maize and By 2003, adopt positive selection techniques for developing
wheat germplasm that contains only the gene of herbicide and antibiotic marker-free maize and wheat
interest (contributes to outputs 1, 3). germplasm.
By 2004, evaluate alternative transformation methods to
produce new maize and wheat lines more effectively.
By 2005, establish routine, high-efficiency systems for maize
and wheat (bread and durum) germplasm.
6. Develop strategies for the deployment of Over the planning period:
biotechnology-derived maize and wheat in small- Determine the environmental soundness of insect-resistant
scale farming systems (contributes to outputs 4, 5, maize and the measures to be taken in order not to
6). compromise the surrounding environment.
Distribute resistant germplasm to NARSs for incorporation
into breeding programs.
7. Training of NARS scientists in the development Each year, train NARS scientists through in-country,
and deployment of biotechnology-derived regional, and CIMMYT formal and informal courses and
materials (contributes to outputs 1,4, 5, 6). workshops in the development and deployment of
biotechnology products.
8. Establish appropriate infrastructure in selected By 2004, establish in at least one developing country an
NARSs to allow the effective evaluation and use of effective infrastructure for the testing and utilization of
biotechnology-derived materials (contributes to biotechnology-derived products.
outputs 1,4, 5). By 2005, provide guidelines on the efficient establishment of
necessary infrastructure.
9. Provide to NARSs accurate information on the By 2003, provide various fact sheets on the science of
science of biotechnology, including its benefits and biotechnology and its safe deployment to a wide range of
potential risks (contributes to outputs 1,4, 6). stakeholders.
By 2004, provide biotechnology information and links via the
Internet.
Over the planning period, hold workshops to help educate
and inform a range of stakeholders in the science of
biotechnology.
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs, IARCs, NGOs, Universities, ARIs: for example, Cooperative Research Centre for Molecular Plant Breeding-Australia, Private
companies
Costs: US$ 2.153M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (50%), Sustainable production (20%), Policy (10%), Enhancing NARS (20%)










Project 19 (F4) Biofortified grain for human health

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
The effects of poverty are alleviated by helping to Improved nutrition of poor women and children, especially Nutritional status of the poor in
reduce nutrition-related deficiencies, disease, and those whose diet is based primarily on cereals developing countries may be
deaths among the most vulnerable groups in the Reduced morbidity rates and increased growth rates among improved with cereal-based
developing world recently weaned children in areas where cereal-based diets diets.
predominate.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
The nutritional quality of maize, wheat, and triticale Enhanced levels of micronutrients in maize, wheat and Enhanced levels of
grain is enhanced, making a balanced diet more triticale genotypes. micronutrients in maize, wheat,
attainable to poor people. Increased information for breeders on the existing genetic and triticale may be developed.
diversity for micronutrient concentration
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
NARSs will have access to micronutrients enhanced Resource-poor farmers have access to nutrient-enriched NARSs and others are able to
maize, wheat, and triticale germplasm from which to cereal cultivars. disseminate nutrient-enriched
develop cultivars with high concentration of iron, zinc, cereal cultivars.
and vitamin A.
Outputs Indicators Assumption and risks
1. Maize, wheat and triticale germplasm with higher 1. Micronutrient-enriched germplasm for use in breeding
concentrations or improved availability of programs available.
micronutrients for use in breeding programs and 2. Screening methods for use in practical maize, wheat, and
release in developing countries. triticale breeding programs available.
2. More efficient screening methods for selecting 3. Information on the relation ship between nutrient
micronutrient-enriched maize, wheat, and triticale concentration and agronomic performance and quality traits
genotypes. available.
3. Relationship between higher grain micronutrient
concentration and agronomic performance and
quality traits established and documents.
Activities Milestones Assumption and risks
* Examine genotypic variation and genotype x By 2004, identify germplasm with increased grain Genetic variation for the trait
environment interactions for grain Fe and Zn concentrations for improved bioavailability of Fe and Zn in available.
concentrations in improved maize and wheat current improved maize, wheat, and triticale germplasm.
germplasm by 2005 (contributes to output 2)
* Evaluate the genetic diversity for micronutrient By 2005, identify key landraces and wild relatives of maize, Genetic variation for trait
concentration of Fe and Zn in landraces and wild wheat, and triticale as sources of high bioavailable Fe and available.
relatives of maize wheat, and triticale (contributes Zn
to output 3).
* Evaluate the inheritance of increased grain Fe By 2005, develop information to assist breeders in Inheritance and screening
and Zn concentration in maize and wheat incorporating increased Fe and Zn concentrations from methods prove to be sufficiently
(contributes to output 3) source germplasm into adapted germplasm. cost-effective that breeding for
high grain Fe and Zn
concentration (or bioavailability)
can be incorporated in routine
breeding programs.
* Identify molecular markers assisted with high By 2003, identify molecular markers for the multi-aleurone Multi-aleurone trait contributes
concentrations of Fe and Zn in wheat triticale, trait and applied them in backcrossing programs. to increase grain Fe
and maize (contributes to outputs 2,3; depends concentration.
on funding). New funding available
* Develop nonconventional, high-vitamin-A maize By 2003, develop white-grained cultivars with high carotene Yellow-grained maize is rejected
genotypes (contributes to output 1) contents in the embryo. by consumer groups in Africa
By 2003, develop adapted red- or blue-pigmented cultivars and Central America for cultural
with yellow endosperm. reasons.
Access to target genes through
collaboration with the private
sector.
Genotypes high in carotenes are
discovered among colored
maize types
New funding available.
* Evaluate the likelihood of nonconventional, high- By 2003, assess acceptance of white-grained cultivars with Use of transgenic maize for
vitamin-A maize being accepted by African high carotene content in the embryo with selected farmer assessing consumer
consumers (contributes to output 1). groups in Mexico, Kenya, and/or Zimbabwe. preferences in Mexico, Kenya,
By 2003, determine Vitamin A intake from processed flour of and/or Zimbabwe possible.
white-grained cultivars with high carotene content in the New funding available.
embryo. Colored pericarp and yellow
By 2003, assess consumer preferences of different grain endosperm traits can be
color with selected farmer groups in southern Africa; assess backcrossed into adapted maize
the potential for disguising yellow endosperm color with cultivars.
other pigments, such as anthocyanins.
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: NARSs, IARCs, IFPRI, NGOs, ARIs Costs: US$ 0.328M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (80%), Enhancing NARS (20%)










Project 20 (F5): Reducing grain losses after harvest

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Generate benefits for subsistence farmers by Grain losses, quantity, and quality reduced (surveys indicate post- Food security depends on
developing maize and wheat germplasm harvest losses of 20% in maize and 10% in wheat, and grain quality is constant supply of quality
resistant to storage pests and diseases. compromised with insect debris and production of mycotoxin during cereals.
storage). Grain storage systems will
continue to be inadequate for
resource-poor farmers.
Intermediate goals Indicators Assumptions and risks
Quantify the losses associated with post- Models developed and published from which good estimates of Models for predicting losses
harvest pests in developing countries, and post-harvest losses can be derived by NARSs. can extend to other pest
develop new maize and wheat populations and Maize and wheat varieties with improved grain quality, species and maize growing
lines with elevated levels of resistance to Breeding methods which accelerate the development of resistant ecologies.
storage pests and diseases. germplasm. Resource-poor farmers will
Policy makers in national programs endorse the adoption of store improved varieties with
improved storage methods for resource-poor farmers. good levels of resistance to
Extend the use of CIMMYT germplasm in the seed industry and post-harvest pests.
NARSs. NARSs will promote germplasm
with such traits.
Grain will be acceptable for
food preparation.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
To develop source germplasm from which the Resistant sources are two-fold more resistant than elite CIMMYT Resistance is available in
biochemical and genetic basis for such germplasm. CIMMYT's germplasm
resistance mechanisms can be defined and Biochemical resistance mechanisms extend across a wide range collections.
then exploited within the context of traditional of accessions, varieties, and lines. CIMMYT has access to ARI
and marker-assisted breeding programs. Resistance can be transferred in a cost-effective and timely labs for conducting biochemical
manner (based on economic analysis). analysis.
Molecular tools are sufficiently
advanced for monitoring
quantitative grain quality traits.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Stress-tolerant, high-yielding maize and 1. By 2003, the CIMMYT Maize Program in collaboration with CIMMYT Maize and Wheat
wheat germplasm with improved NARSs will have developed and identified (via international Program budgets are sustained.
resistance to storage pests and diseases. testing) new lines and synthetics that are more resistant to post- Collaboration with ARIs is
2. Technical report on breeding harvest pests than local germplasm. enhanced.
methodologies for developing maize 2. By 2004, the CIMMYT Maize Program will have developed National programs receive
varieties with improved resistance to post- inbreds and synthetics with improved drought tolerance and priority and relationships with
harvest pests and diseases. resistance to post-harvest pests for mid-altitude and lowland CIMMYT are strengthened.
3. On-farm testing and training of farmers tropical ecologies. CIMMYT will have access to
and NGOs to improve dissemination of 3. By 2004, the CIMMYT Wheat Program will have developed post-harvest technologies from
resistant germplasm. varieties with elevated levels of resistance to Fusarium ARIs and the private sector for
4. Insure that QPM is moderately resistant graminearum. testing.
to post-harvest pests using rapid 4. By 2003, produce CIMMYT publications on post-harvest
screening technologies, resistance research.
5. By 2003, CIMMYT has strong linkages with NGOs to deliver
improved post-harvest technology to resource poor farmers.
6. Farmers adopt QPM for both its nutritional and storage attributes.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Formation of source populations and By 2002, characterize all CIMMYT elite maize lines for resistance Genetic variation for resistance
synthetics for resistance to the major to ear rots and two storage pests (Sitophilus zeamais and to target pests and diseases
storage pests and pathogens of maize Prostephanus. truncatus), and release maize lines with twice the exists and can be manipulated
(contributes to outputs 1, 2). level of resistance to these storage pests. by conventional breeding
By 2004, make recycled lines available, methods without yield penalty.
By 2004, quantify the genetic gains associated with weevil Molecular mapping funding is in
screening using divergent selection. place and sufficient SSR
Evaluate surrogate selection methodology using divergent markers are available for good
selection studies. coverage of the genome.
Develop two mapping populations by 2004 to identify robust QTLs
for use in MAS to accelerate the movement of storage pest
resistant alleles in maize.
2. Form wheat varieties resistant to Over 2002-04, screen elite wheat germplasm for mycotoxin Genetic variation exists and
Fusarium graminearum (contributes to production under artificial inoculation, screening protocol is in place.
outputs 1, 2).
3. Biochemical characterization of resistant By 2002, elucidate biochemical mechanism for resistance to Access to ARI facilities for
sources to elucidate resistance storage pests of maize and publish results in referred journals, biochemical characterization.
mechanism (contributes to output 1).
4. Characterize the processing qualities of By 2002, establish linkages with ARIs to characterize mycotoxin Access to ARI facilities and or
insect-resistant maize germplasm in levels in wheat and maize and processing qualities of QPM. technology for characterization.
collaboration with ARIs (contributes to
output 1).










5. The economic importance of post-harvest
pests will be defined using GIS and on-
farm surveys over a broad range of
ecologies and storage practices
( ntrih lltf t ~ itnlit 1)


* By 2002, present and publish a report on post-harvest losses in
Mexico.
* Use the models developed to extrapolate losses in Asia and Africa
by 2003.


* Models used in GIS are
sufficiently robust to be adapted
to different regions.


6. Evaluation of the performance of new By 2004, release elite lines and synthetics with both good yield Infrastructure is maintained to
resistant lines/varieties under specific stability and storage potential. support screening.
stresses (drought, low N, high density,
and stem borers) (contributes to outputs
1,2,4).
7. Testing the interaction between alternate By 2002, identify the best storage package, based on ecology and Alternate control
control tactics and kernel resistance; cultural storage practices, which extends the storage time of strategies/technologies exist
including biological controls, "soft- improved varieties, and publish results. which are effective under
technologies" such as diatomaceous tropical conditions.
earth, storage structures, and drying
technologies (contributes to outputs 1, 2,
3).
8. Promoting seed conditioning and storage By 2002, develop/promote drying technologies suitable for small- Drying technology can be made
technologies suitable for CIMMYT scale farmers, and over 2002-04 strengthen links with post- available with minimal capital
germplasm (contributes to output 3). harvest agencies to promote existing storage technology, investment and operational
costs.
9. Test the potential gene products By 2004, publish results of resistance screening using artificial Access to technology that is
(proteins) which could be used in diets and protein toxins, affective against post-harvest
transformation of maize and wheat pests and diseases.
kernels for improved storage capabilities
(contributes to outputs 1, 2).
10. Training of NARS scientists in post- Over the planning period, provide training (doctoral, masters, and Funding for training is
harvest research (germplasm short courses); by 2004, 2 PhD and 4 MSc students will have maintained at current levels.
development, storage technologies) graduated.
(contributes to outputs 1, 2). Train manual will be published in 2003 to provide basic training on
screening maize germplasm for resistance to storage pests.
Regional training courses will be held with a focus on practical
training on post-harvest technologies and germplasm
characterization.
Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: Farmer groups; NARSs; IARCs: IITA; Universities: University of Ottawa, Canada ; ARIs: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Costs: US$ 0.328M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (50%), Sustainable production (40%), Enhancing NARSs (10%)










Project 21 (F6): Technology assessment for poverty reduction and sustainable resource use

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Contribute to poverty alleviation and increased Reduced poverty and increasingly sustainable use of natural New technologies that meet
sustainability in the use of natural resources by resources through the adoption of new agricultural farmers' needs will be
assessing the potential impact of new technologies technologies, developed through the
and agricultural policies Enactment of novel policy approaches that foster development interaction of a number of
and adoption of new technologies that contribute to poverty agents, including NARSs,
alleviation and increased sustainability of agricultural private firms, farmers, NGOs,
production. and IARCs.
The political environment
allows development of new
institutional arrangements.
The political environment
allows implementation of
novel approaches for policy
implementation.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and risks
Technology assessment allows a better identification Economic, social, and institutional issues affecting the The combined efforts of a
of research needs, better targeting of research development and adoption of conservation tillage technologies number of agents will allow
efforts, and building of new policies and institutional identified. development of adequate
arrangements to increase the impact of research Economic, social, and institutional issues surrounding new technologies.
activities. research procedures involving biotechnology identified. Sharing of data and
Policy options for poverty reduction, environmental protection, information is unimpeded.
productivity enhancement, and food security for Asian upland
maize farming systems identified.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and risks
Build on CIMMYT's extensive experience with Better identification of productivity, economic and social issues, See above.
research networks and interdisciplinary projects to and policy options leading to increased impact of research
assess new technologies, research lines, policies, efforts.
and institutional arrangements
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and risks
1. Increased understanding of the links between 1. By 2003, better information to develop a deployment strategy Inter-institutional rivalries
poverty alleviation, resource conservation, for apomictic maize. may delay the establishment
innovation policies, and agricultural research. 2. By 2003, a set of guidelines for integrating MAS into plant of multi-institution research
2. Development of systemic and institutional breeding programs in cost-effective way. programs.
organizational capabilities for the development 3. By 2003, report on the potential impacts of apomictic maize Public polices may hinder the
of appropriate technologies for poverty reduction on: 1) the farmers in developing countries, 2) the seed adoption of new resource-
and increased sustainability of agricultural industry, and 3) plant breeding programs. conserving and water-saving
systems, with emphasis on development of 4. By 2003, guidelines for research decision makers on technologies.
resource conservation technologies, integrating Bt resistance into maize germplasm.
3. Guidelines for targeting biotechnology research 5. By 2004 provide guidelines for the organization of research on
for the poor and sustainability of agriculture in technologies that increase sustainability of agricultural
marginal lands. production.
6. By 2003, a detailed characterization of upland maize
production systems in Asia.
7. By 2004, provide country-specific research and development
plans for upland maize.
8. By 2003, establish a network of researchers and stakeholders
interested in Asian upland maize systems.
9. By 2003, map the innovation system that develops natural
resource conservation technologies in the Bajio region,
Mexico.
10. By 2004, develop new institutional arrangements for the
development of natural resource conservation technologies.
11. By 2004, develop new institutional arrangements for the
_management of irrigation water in selected well groups.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and risks
1. Identify stakeholders engaged in technology Stakeholders identified (2003).
generation and transfer in the Bajio region
(contributes to outputs 1-2).
2. Collect information on factors governing national Report of the structure of the regional innovation system with
and regional innovation systems (contributes to emphasis on the interaction among public and private agents
outputs 1-2). (2004).
3. Organize participatory research programs on Multi-agent research groups work on the development of Incentives that foster
resource management technologies (contributes resource management technologies (2004). participation in the groups
to outputs 1-2). can be developed.
4. Identify institutional issues influencing water Participatory institutional assessment of water management Incentives that foster
management routines at the level of irrigation routines (2004). institutional participation in
wells and the whole aquifer (contributes to the groups can be
outputs 1-2). developed.










5. Develop and try new management rules for
selected irrigation wells.


* Selected well management groups try the new management
rules (2004)


6. Formulate policy recommendations to increase Policy recommendations formulated and written up (2004).
the efficiency of water management at the local Workshop held to disseminate results of activities and policy
and aquifer levels (contributes to outputs 1-2). recommendations developed under outputs 1 to 5 (2004).
7. Evaluate the potential costs and benefits of Report on potential effect of apomixis on maize seed production
apomixis for maize farmers in developing costs (2003).
countries, for the seed industry, and for plant
breeding programs, and generate a deployment
strategy for apomictic maize (contributes to
output 3).
8. Evaluate costs of achieving plant breeding goals Report on the economics of MAS versus conventional plant
through conventional breeding methods breeding (2003).
compared to marker-assisted selection (MAS);
develop guidelines for CIMMYT and others on
integrating MAS into breeding programs
(contributes to output 3).
9. Evaluate costs and benefits of Bt maize for By 2003, release report on the expected returns to investment
breeding programs and farmers in developing in Bt maize research.
countries (contributes to output 3).
10. Identify 1) constraints to sustainable maize By 2003, will have an improved understanding of Asian upland
productivity in Asian uplands, 2) key policy maize farming systems and the key policy issues.
issues affecting upland maize, and 3) maize By 2003, country-specific maize research and development
research and development options (contributes options will be evaluated.
to outputs 1-2).
11. Develop and test participatory methods in By 2003, the contribution of participatory methods in selection
technology development, monitor and quantify of maize for low moisture and low N conditions will be
their impact (contributes to output 1-2). evaluated


Duration: 2003-2005
Collaborators: Other CGIAR Centers, NARSs, and ARIs
Costs: $0.520M
System linkages: Germplasm improvement (43%), Sustainable production (17%), Policy (29%), Enhancing NARSs (11%)




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