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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Context
 Project narratives
 MTP 2008-2010 log-frames
 Annex






Group Title: CIMMYT Medium-term plan ...
Title: CIMMYT Medium-term plan, 2008-2010
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Title: CIMMYT Medium-term plan, 2008-2010
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Context
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Project narratives
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    MTP 2008-2010 log-frames
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
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    Annex
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
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Full Text





v CIMMYT
MEDIUM-TERM PLAN


Ni


Translating Strategic

Vision to a

Vibrant Work Plan


IF









CIMMYT MTP 2008-2010

Translating Strategic Vision to a Vibrant Work Plan










Contents


1 Introduction

1 CIMMYT flagship products

3 2006 Highlights
3 Flagship product development and delivery

8 Context
8 Project 1: The conservation, characterization, and utilization of maize and
wheat genetic resources
8 Project 2: Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic improvement
9 Project 3: Stress tolerant maize
9 Project 4: Nutritional and specialty trait maize
9 Projects 5 and 6: Incorporated into Projects 3 and 4
9 Project 7: Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality
10 Project 8: Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and quality
10 Project 9: Primarily subsumed into Project 7
10 Project 10: Maize and wheat cropping systems
10 Project 11: Knowledge, targeting and strategic assessment of maize and wheat
farming systems

10 New frontier research to address emerging global issues

12 The CGIAR and CIMMYT

12 Aligning CIMMYT's agenda to the CGIAR system priorities

13 Center financial indicators

13 CGIAR financial health indicator benchmarks

15 Project narratives

35 MTP 2008-2010 Log-frames

65 Annex: Progress Report on Implementation of
Recommendations, 5th CIMMYT EPMR


77 Budget Tables










CIMMYT MTP 2008-2010
Translating Strategic Vision to a Vibrant Work Plan






Introduction

The new vision and strategy for CIMMYT to increase its contribution to reducing poverty and
hunger by 2020 was articulated in the center's strategic plan: "Seeds of Innovation" (2004),
which asked that CIMMYT undertake research "more sharply [focused] on reducingpeople 's
vulnerability to poverty by looking at the entire context in which poor households operate and not
exclusively at maize or 1 heir," [see Box 1]

As outlined in CIMMYT's Business Plan (2006-2010), the center's MTP Project portfolio
addresses the needs of poor producers and consumers through eco-regional and cropping systems
approaches, but within the framework of a global maize and wheat research-for-development
agenda. The MTP Project portfolio reflects internal structure and delivery mechanisms within a
product-oriented framework that sets out nine complementary flagship products (see below).
Each Project includes a flagship product, through which CIMMYT science and innovation deliver
impact across one or more eco-regions. The MTP Projects embody interdisciplinary research and
the decentralization of undertakings across the locations where CIMMYT and its partners work to
develop and deliver products. Each Project is an operational unit with clearly-defined goals,
membership responsibilities, and leadership. The main undertakings are guided by eco-regional
priority setting and impact targeting analysis, with a focus on research activities that deliver
effective and sustainable impacts to beneficiaries. Many CIMMYT core products involve value-
added germplasm addressing major production and use needs. The center also generates tools and
methodologies to help national programs make best use of strategic germplasm in adaptive
breeding research and provides training in key aspects of crop improvement. Other disciplinary
activities support cropping system resource management and socio-economic analysis and
advocacy.

CIMMYT flagship products

Stress tolerant maize for enhanced food security and crop diversification
Wheat with enhanced water productivity and appropriate quality profiles
Rust resistant wheat
Bio-fortified maize for improved nutrition and health
New or improved traits through gene discovery and allele mining
Improved tools and methodologies for genetic improvement
Capacity-building in NARS and SME breeding programs
Resource-conserving technologies for maize and wheat cropping systems
Opportunities for income generation from special trait maize


Page 1










Box 1 CIMMYT in 2020:


"Building 'Seeds of Innovation' to address the Globalization Challenge"
CIMMYT acts as a catalyst and leader in a global maize and wheat innovation network that serves the
poor in the developing world. Drawing on strong science and effective partnerships, CIMMYT
researchers create, share, and use knowledge and technology to increase food security, improve the
productivity and profitability of farming systems and sustain natural resources. This people-centered
mission does not ignore the fact that CIMMYT's unique niche is as a genetic resources enhancement
center for the developing world. As the CGIAR Science Council pointed out in their comments about
the Business Plan and the previous rolling Medium-Term Plan (MTP): "Overall CIMLYT has focused
its research in areas where it has a clear competitive advantage. Furthermore, ;h, ingh ,,lit the MTP, it
emphasizes the role NARS play in the delivery of impacts from CIMMYT programs. It appears that
CIMMLYT is taking on the concepts of alternative suppliers and moving upstream as responsibilities are
handed over to the stronger NARS. It emphasizes its role as facilitator and enabler in the overall value
chain while moving away from being a 'primary provider of advanced breeding materials'. The SC
encourages this shift."

CIMMYT value proposition' resides in its use of maize and wheat genetic diversity: conserving it,
studying it, adding value to it, and sharing it in enhanced form with clients worldwide. The main
undertakings include:

Long-term safe conservation of world heritage of maize and wheat genetic resources for future
generations, in line with formal agreements under the 2004 International Treaty on Plant Genetic
Resources for Food and Agriculture.
Understanding the rich genetic diversity of two of the most important staples worldwide.
Exploiting the untapped value of maize and wheat genetic resources through discovery of specific,
strategically important traits required for current and future generations of target beneficiaries.
Development of strategic maize and wheat germplasm through innovative genetic enhancement.

The Center needs to ensure that its main products reach end-users and improve their livelihoods. In this
regard, CIMMYT remains as the main international, public source of seed-embedded technology to
reduce vulnerability and alleviate poverty, helping farmers move from subsistence to income-generating
production systems. Maize and wheat cropping systems have different technology and policy concerns.
The Center's socioeconomic and policy research on such systems fosters its catalytic role, improving
the targeting of traits (from discovery to delivery) and of beneficiaries, and assessing the impacts on
livelihoods of the Center's efforts. Beyond a focus on higher grain yields and value-added wheat and
maize germplasm, CIMMYT's plays an "integrator" role in crop and natural resource management
research, promoting the efficient use of water and other inputs, lower production costs, better
management of biotic stresses, and enhanced system diversity and resilience.













SThe unique added value an organization offers customers through their operations

Page 2









2006 Highlights


Flagship product development and delivery

The flagship products are international public goods, align with the CGIAR priorities, and
embrace a broad range of research partnerships worldwide. In most cases they constitute
genetically enhanced, seed-embedded technologies for which pathways to impact on poverty and
livelihoods have been mapped out.

Stress tolerant maize for enhanced food security and crop diversification: CIMMYT received
the 2006 CGIAR King Baudouin Award for an innovative, ongoing series of maize-breeding
projects in eastern and southern Africa that have resulted in more than 50 new cultivars that are
grown on at least one million hectares. The work has produced not only plant types that tolerate
drought, low soil fertility, parasitic weeds, and other common plant stresses; it has revolutionized
the way in which new cultivars are developed and selected. In a fundamental change from the
customary practice of testing new breeding materials under well-fertilized and well-irrigated
conditions, CIMMYT researchers, national agricultural research centers, and private sector
partners created a network of regional "stress breeding" sites that, for the first time, provide
objective information on how well maize cultivars perform under conditions faced by poor
farmers, especially drought and infertile soils. By working in partnership with local communities
and by replicating the poor conditions found in farmers' fields, the approach is tailored to meet
the needs of poor farmers who have not benefited from conventional breeding programs. [System
Priorities 2A, 2B, 2C]

Wheat with enhanced water productivity and appropriate quality profiles: CIMMYT continues
to develop and distribute relevant wheat germplasm products. During 2006 partners received 750
lines of advanced spring and winter wheat and spring durum wheat. A further 300 segregating
populations with tolerances to various abiotic and biotic stresses were distributed, in line with the
increasing emphasis on intermediate products for wheat breeders in national programs. CIMMYT
researchers have also continued important efforts to develop methodologies and associated
knowledge. A key area recently is research to integrate physiological trait-based approaches into
conventional breeding schemes, as part of work on complex traits associated with yield and stress
adaptation. CIMMYT wheat researchers are also using comprehensive environmental and
phenotypic data to expand knowledge of genotype x environment interactions. This research will
be catalyzed by new tools and methodologies in geographic information systems, advanced
statistics, modeling, and bioinformatics [see Box 2-Wheat Phenome Atlas]. [System Priority 2B]

Rust resistant wheat: The Global Rust Initiative was launched with ICARDA and national
partners in 2005 to tackle a real threat posed by a new, highly-virulent stem rust strain: Ug99. In
trials on the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) station at Njoro, CIMMYT and
partners have recently found that more than 85% of the entries-which included widely-sown
cultivars from major wheat-producing regions of the world-succumbed to Ug99, and certain
wheat lines which appeared resistant to Ug99 a year ago now show susceptibility. This suggests
that Ug99 represents a much greater risk to world wheat production than originally thought, and
projections of potential losses for Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia run at US$ 3 billion per
year, if the strain spreads to major wheat lands there. CIMMYT is scaling up efforts with partners
to test new germplasm for yield, local adaptation, and stem rust resistance. There is reason for
optimism, given that as much as 10% of the lines tested thus far show resistance to Ug99. In


Page 3









2006, CIMMYT distributed the first stem rust resistance screening nursery, comprising some 100
resistant lines. [System Priority 2A]

Biofortified maize for improved nutrition and health: The main focus of this work continues to
be the development of germplasm, methodologies, and knowledge associated with B-carotene and
provitamin A concentrations. Last year CIMMYT researchers fully implemented an HPLC
protocol for B-carotene analysis. Progress to develop and deploy quality protein maize (QPM)
cultivars continues; special emphasis has been given to building partners' capacities to
accomplish this. CIMMYT is supporting local seed companies with training in QPM seed
production. The Western Seed Company and Freshco Ltd of Kenya have produced and marketed
seed of an extra-early, drought-tolerant, open-pollinated QPM cultivar and two QPM hybrids.
[System Priority 2C]

New alleles and genes from global crop biodiversity for priority trait improvement: During 2006
CIMMYT and partners have focused on the preservation of populations of teosinte, a wild
relative of maize. A collecting mission in Mexico, led by INIFAP, has found a new teosinte
population (perhaps Zea luxurians) that seems to have been grown since the 1930s in river beds
under very wet conditions. Further research will be conducted to see whether the teosinte carries a
flood adaptation trait that could be useful in the rice-maize cropping systems in Asia or in other
regions of the world. In addition, CIMMYT and partners from ICTA-Guatemala and Cornell
University, USA, undertook an in-situ monitoring mission for Tripsacum in Guatemala. The team
found T. lanceolatum, T pilosum, T. jalapense or T. dactyloides ssp. hispidum, T. latifolium or T.
maizar intermediate, and T. laxum. DNA samples as well as herbarium samples will be used for
further taxonomic research. Due to the threat of extinction of these species, future work will aim
at rescuing the plants and transplanting them to ICTA field stations. Seed samples will later be
harvested for preservation in genebanks. [System Priority 1A]

Improved tools and methodologies for genetic improvement: In collaboration with the
University of Hohenheim, Germany, DNA-marker-aided research has shown that modem
breeding techniques at CIMMYT have restored genetic diversity in CIMMYT's improved wheat
germplasm and brought wheat's wild relatives back into the gene pool. By examining the DNA of
the landraces of wheat grown by farmers before modern breeding and comparing it with DNA
from the most popular modem cultivars and the newest breeding materials from CIMMYT, the
team was able to confirm the decline in diversity in popular, current wheat varieties, while
demonstrating that new wheat lines from CIMMYT had genetic diversity similar to that in the
pre-Green Revolution landraces, with the improved yields, disease resistance, and other beneficial
traits of the modem wheats. The research shows that the successful incorporation and re-mixing
of genetic diversity from wheat's wild relatives has created wheat containing more variation than
has ever been available to farmers and breeders-possibly since hexaploid wheat first appeared
8,000 years ago.

CIMMYT continued association genetics research using DNA markers and data from
international, elite wheat trials. The aim is to dissect variation and map it onto the wheat
genome-the first step in a major global wheat research partnership (see Box 2-Wheat Phenome
Atlas for details). Grain yield, maturity, and leaf and stripe rust were analyzed across several
locations. Preliminary results are very promising, with 23 significant markers found for grain
yield. [System Priority 1A, 2A, 2B]


Page 4










Box 2- Wheat Phenome Atlas


The emergence of molecular genomic technologies has created opportunities to develop new and
revolutionary approaches for future plant and animal selection and breeding. The power of molecular
genomics will be fully realized when used in combination with classical quantitative genetics to
integrate and comparatively analyze phenotypic, pedigree, and genotypic information for important
traits. Nearly half a century of world-wide research into breeding and selection by CIMMYT has
resulted in a vast accumulation of knowledge and genetic resources. CIMMYT has collated extensive
historical phenotypic and genealogical information on approximately 13,000 elite wheat breeding lines
and seed has been conserved from all these lines. The phenotypic data were derived from more than 40
years of international trials (since 1964) and 25 years of the International Rust Nurseries (from 1950
until 1974). These trials are organized by CIMMYT and conducted by NARS partners in over 70 wheat-
producing countries. Ten or more nurseries containing from 50 to 400 entries each, targeted to 6 global
agro-ecological zones, are distributed each year. There are about 17 million phenotypic data points for
over 80 economically important traits across the 13,000 wheat lines evaluated in more than 10,000 field
trials. The full pedigrees and selection histories of all entries are known and the data cover yield and
agronomic, pathological, and quality traits. A conservative estimate puts the value of reproducing these
pedigree and phenotypic data at over US$500 million. This unique combination of large information
resources and a comprehensive germplasm collection will allow wheat to become the first crop species
in the public sector for which a new paradigm of knowledge-led plant breeding will be applied. In 2006,
the University of Queensland (UQ, Australia) and CIMMYT started a small pilot project with their own
limited funds to develop technology for future genetic improvement of wheat applying their
accumulated interdisciplinary knowledge and skills in plant breeding, quantitative genetics, plant
molecular genomics, and bioinformatics. CIMMYT and UQ are seeking additional resources to
genotype all relevant lines in CIMMYT's germplasm bank, develop integrated wheat phenome maps,
and release a Wheat Phenome Atlas. The latter is expected to revolutionize wheat selection and
breeding, particularly through the modeling of the historical data to create predicative, simulation-based
decision support systems for molecular breeding. More resources are needed for this team and new
research partners to produce a Phenome Atlas Toolbox. This will comprise a publicly-available
information management system, an analysis system, and all publicly available data. It should result in a
much improved understanding of gene x genotype x environment interactions, of great use in breeding.


Capacity building in the breeding programs of national agricultural research systems (NARSs)
and small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs):2 There were many capacity building activities
in 2006: almost 2,000 participants took part in 8 field days and some 1,250 scientists and
extension workers participated in a range of workshops, conferences, and traveling seminars (26
in total). In addition to the various training and other events already mentioned, CIMMYT places
high importance on graduate students; last year 96 students conducted their thesis work under the
co-supervision of CIMMYT researchers. CIMMYT is continually assessing training needs and
increasing the diversity of training approaches. Towards this aim, significant progress has been
made with internet-based knowledge-sharing products, including MaizeDoctor and WheatDoctor,
under one of the three joint alliance project with IRRI. [System Priority 2A, 2B, 2C]



2 Here national agricultural research systems is understood as the gamut of players contributing to agricultural research
and development in a country: publicly-funded research and extension programs, ministries of agriculture, national
universities, non-government and civil society organizations (the latter including farmer associations), and others. The
term may also be understood to include small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs), such as local seed companies,
although CIMMYT has chosen to mention the latter separately in recognition of their important role in provide farmers
with access to quality seed in difficult settings and the center's commitment to support their efforts.


Page 5









Resource conservation technologies for maize and wheat cropping systems: Zero- or reduced-
tillage for growing wheat after rice saves water, diesel, and other inputs, and allows earlier
sowing of wheat, which raises yields. The practice has been adopted by farmers in South Asia
over the past six years. This is largely a result of work to test and promote zero-tillage and other
resource-conserving practices by the Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains [see
Box 3 below with more details], which includes the national agricultural research systems of
Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan; several centers of the CGIAR (with CIMMYT as the
facilitator), and various advanced research institutes.

Soil infertility is a serious and widespread bottleneck to agricultural development and food
security in sub-Saharan Africa. Resource-poor farmers are especially vulnerable, because their
plots are traditionally the least fertile, and they lack the money or credit to purchase inorganic
fertilizers. They stand to benefit the most from the various soil-fertility-improving techniques
provided by the Soil Fertility Consortium for Southern Africa (SOFECSA), a regional partnership
convened by CIMMYT. "Best bet" soil fertility approaches being promoted include manures (leaf
litter, farm, and woodland), inorganic fertilizers, lime, and rotation and intercropping with various
legumes and green manure crops (soybean, sugar bean, sun hemp, mucuna, pigeonpea,
groundnut, and cowpea). The consortium has determined that increasing the intensity of legume
cropping in maize-based systems through systematic rotations and intercrops can provide double
the level of nitrogen that is typically provided by the limited use of inorganic fertilizers. [System
Priority 4D]

Opportunities for income generation from special-trait maize: Baby corn, sweet corn, and green
maize, or maize on the cob are among the most important vegetables in many locations
worldwide. Moreover, green maize (fresh on the cob) is eaten parched, baked, roasted or boiled
and plays an important role in filling the hunger gap after the dry season in Africa. CIMMYT is
exploring options for special-trait maize, especially as a means by which maize may be value-
added. Maize genetic enhancement for vegetable uses, children's food and other products (e.g.
silage and bio-ethanol -see Box 5 below) that add value to the commodity chain depends on the
allele diversity from farmers' fields. [System Priority 1A, 3A]


Box 3- The Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) for the Indo-Gangetic Plains: 2006 Highlights
The rice-wheat cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains are crucial for food security in South Asia.
These cropping systems are difficult to manage sustainably due to complex rice ecologies and the
contrasting edaphic requirements of rice and wheat. System sustainability is likewise threatened by the
inefficient use of water, declining water tables, nutrient mining, and resource fatigue. Current estimates
suggest that nearly 4 million hectares in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh are sown to wheat and
other crops using surface seeding or zero- or reduced tillage, largely as a result of RWC efforts to test
and promote those and other resource-conserving practices. A study by CIMMYT and RWC partners in
Haryana, India, and Punjab, Pakistan, has confirmed significant savings in farmers' use of diesel and
tractor time through adoption of zero-tillage for wheat cultivation. The results also suggest savings in
irrigation water across 3 million hectares may approach 1.18 billion m3--equivalent to nearly two weeks
of domestic water use in the USA. In financial terms, if zero-tillage is practiced on just 3 million
hectares, the net income increase totals US$ 239 million per season (US$ 146 million in costs savings
and an additional US$ 92 million in yield gains). National programs partners are institutionalizing RWC
technology dissemination approaches which, among other things, strongly emphasize farmer
involvement in innovation networks through participatory on-farm trials and diverse other means.


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Box 4- Climate Change Can Wheat Beat the Heat?


Page 7


Climate change could strongly affect the global wheat crop, which accounts for 21% of food and 200
million hectares of farmland worldwide. Future climate scenarios suggest that global warming may be
beneficial for the crop in some regions but could reduce productivity in zones where optimal
temperatures already exist. For example, as a result of possible climate shifts, by 2050 as much as 51%
of the Indo-Gangetic Plains-currently part of the high-potential, irrigated, low-rainfall global mega-
environment that accounts for 15% of the world's wheat production-might be reclassified as a heat
stressed, irrigated, short-season mega-environment. This shift would significantly reduce wheat yields,
unless appropriate cultivars and crop management practices were offered to and adopted by South Asian
farmers. To adapt and mitigate climate change effects on wheat supplies for the poor, CIMMYT
researchers and partners are developing heat-tolerant wheat germplasm and cultivars for conservation
agriculture. As RWC research results suggest, conservation agriculture and other resource-conserving
practices are expected to help offset water shortages already threatening the region and which will
intensify as global temperatures rise. The practices also provide better soil cover, moderate soil
temperatures, and reduce the evaporation of irrigation water. Mitigation research promises to reduce
emissions of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas generated through use of manure or nitrogen
fertilizers. Results show that emissions can be halved in intensive, irrigated wheat crops with no loss of
yield by applying the correct amounts of nitrogen at the right time. This can be achieved by using
infrared sensors and a normalized differential vegetative index that determines the right times and
correct amounts of fertilizer to apply, a practice now being tested with and adopted by farmers in the
Yaqui Valley of northern Mexican, an intensive irrigated wheat zone. As described previously in this
document, CIMMYT researchers are also assessing wild relatives of wheat as potential sources of genes
with inhibitory effects on soil nitrification. Through existing global and regional research-for-
development networks featuring wheat, this and other technology and knowledge can enable farmers to
deal with the effects of climate change.


Box 5- Bio-energy: Bringing perennial traits into maize and wheat?

Converting crops to produce energy as well as food has become an important and well-funded global
research goal, as petrol eum reserves fall and fuel prices rise. But the use of crop biomass-both grain
and other plant parts-to produce bio-energy may compete with food and feed supplies and the alternate
use of plant residues to sustain soil productivity and structure and avoid erosion. Agricultural research
can mitigate these trade-offs by developing new biomass crops for marginal lands where there is less
competition with food crops and developing sustainable livestock management systems that are less
dependent on biomass residuals for feeds. Growing biofuel crops on lands not suitable for food
production-for example, those affected by drought, salt, or temperature stresses-would substantially
reduce fuel-food competition. Frontier research in genetic enhancement and crop physiology should
explore the advantages of perennial biofuel crops that can generate more annualized net photosynthesis
and lower input costs. Their longer life can lead to beneficial symbiotic interactions facilitating nutrient
input and lower fertilizer run-off and where nutrients and organic matter can remain in the soil after
harvesting. A perennial trait has been identified in wild relatives of maize and wheat.









Context


In October of 2006, based on feedback from the 5th EPMR mini-review and stakeholders,
CIMMYT reduced the number of MTP Projects from 11 to 8, to improve the clarity and synergy
for internal research management of its portfolio and to better align the Projects and flagship
products with CGIAR system priorities (Table 1, p. 10). Specifically, former MTP Projects 5
(African livelihoods: Global solutions for maize food and income security in eastern and southern
Africa) and 6 (Maize for Asia and Latin America) have been subsumed into Projects 3 (Stress
tolerant maize) and 4 (Nutritional and specialty trait maize). Former MTP Project 9 (Wheat grain
enriched for health and profitability) has been incorporated into Project 7 (Water productive
wheat). At the time of writing, CIMMYT's Board is assessing the findings of a study on Maize in
Asia. Implementation of recommendations from this study will be within the context of the
existing Project structure.

For the planning period 2008-2010, CIMMYT will continue to focus on core competencies in
support of delivering flagship products that align with CGIAR priorities. As such, there will be no
major variation from what has been previously proposed in MTP 2007-2009. There will,
however, be greater focus on Priorities 1 (Sustaining biodiversity for current and future
generations); and 2 (Producing food at lower cost through genetic improvement). Associated with
the focusing of CIMMYT's research agenda, a strategic staffing plan is currently under
development. Specific Project highlights are summarized in the following section.


Project 1: The conservation, characterization, and utilization of maize and wheat genetic
resources

Crop-related biodiversity is the founding asset of the CGIAR and the basic raw material for
CIMMYT's international breeding programs. The emerging strategy of the CGIAR in the new
millennium builds on this foundation, with emphasis on technology-assisted methodologies and
intermediate products from the efficient identification of value-added traits and their rapid
introgression into elite breeding material. Structured and well-characterized germplasm subsets,
trait-specific genetic stocks (near-isogenic, introgression and substitution lines), double haploid
lines, synthetic polyploidy genotypes, genetic mapping populations, enhanced gene pools,
advanced lines, and diverse cultivars are becoming an increasingly critical asset for the global
plant research and breeding community. Targeted development, intensive characterization, and
extensive evaluation under diverse field conditions of this germplasm is increasingly seen as the
rate-limiting factor for translation of outputs from the genomics and information technology
revolutions into tangible products for developing country farmers. Much of the above depends in
turn upon effective data management. Thus, a major new strategic focus in Project 1 is the
creation of a fully-integrated, web-based support system for CIMMYT and partners involved in
the conservation, utilization, evaluation, and enhancement of genetic resources, whereby all types
of data can be integrated, compared, and collectively analyzed and queried by anyone anywhere.


Project 2: Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic improvement

This Project develops and validates new tools and methodologies for more efficient and targeted
manipulation of novel alleles and genes for traits prioritized by end-users in the maize and wheat
improvement programs of CIMMYT and NARSs (the latter including SME breeding programs).


Page 8









The ultimate goal is to enhance resilience to abiotic stresses, yield stability under biotic stress,
nutritional quality and the profitability for resource-poor maize and wheat farming communities,
through targeted use of genetic resources. CIMMYT and partners' molecular breeding facilities
urgently need to take advantage of out-sourcing enterprises for genotyping. Conversely, the
identification of new marker associations has previously been considered better achieved in
advanced institutes. However, based on new tools and methodologies that allow discovery,
validation, and application in breeding populations, these activities can likely be carried out by
CIMMYT and partners. In addition, CIMMYT has a primary niche in developing central
information resources, coordinated analysis, and the facilitation of the overall product
development chain. Similarly, it is CIMMYT's role to validate, refine, and optimize outputs from
advanced research institutes to ensure their robust and efficient application in plant breeding. In
particular, this will involve applying quantitative knowledge-led phenotyping systems, analyzing
environmental and genetic background effects, developing improved methodologies through
retrospective analysis of current breeding data, and devising new selection systems based on
holistic indices, on modeling and simulation, and on computational decision-support tools.


Project 3: Stress tolerant maize

Food security and poverty alleviation are most difficult to achieve in rainfed, stress-prone
environments, where the resource-poor lack market access, rainfall is highly variable, and soils
are degraded. Project 3 uses breeding to modify genes, chromosomal regions, and allelic variation
to improve maize germplasm. The Project works closely with Projects 1 and 2 and the CGIAR
Generation Challenge Programme.


Project 4: Nutritious and specialty trait maize

Project 4 identifies traits in demand from beneficiaries, partners and stakeholders, and
incorporates these traits into maize germplasm that is usable by the wider community. CIMMYT
has a comparative advantage in identifying usable traits for human nutrition, horticulture, and
multiple purposes and during the period of this plan, work on assessing the market potential and
benefits of specialty maize will be strengthened to provide resource-poor farmers with new
income generating options.


Projects 5 and 6: Incorporated into Projects 3 and 4.

Project 7: Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality

Globally, almost 50% of the wheat cultivated in developing countries (50 million hectares) is
sown under rainfed systems that receive less than 600 mm per annum and some of the poorest and
most disadvantaged farm families live in areas of less than 350 mm per annum. Furthermore, in
irrigated areas, supplementary rather than full irrigation is becoming common, exposing wheat
systems to water stress. Project 7 is addressing the increasing need for water productivity and,
during the period of this plan, the Project will continue to place emphasis on disaggregating
drought tolerance per se into distinct components to apply the findings to germplasm
improvement programs. In particular, work on root architecture and physiological traits,
resistance to soil-borne diseases and tolerance to heat, salinity and inhospitable soils will be
strengthened. Of particular note for Project 7 is the strengthened relationship with ICARDA and


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implementation of joint ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program (ICWIP) in the
CWANA region.


Project 8: Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and quality

This Project is built on the center's long-term emphasis on research aimed at raising the genetic
yield potential of wheat while maintaining disease resistance. The resultant seed-embedded
technology is critical to ensuring that resource poor farmers benefit from improved wheat
germplasm under conditions where diseases can potentially inflict very severe losses. A recent
reminder of the threat posed by diseases is the discovery of a virulent form of stem rust (Ug99),
first isolated in Kenya but now spreading eastwards and most recently found in Yemen. Diseases
of wheat are an old problem; the need for germplasm and exotic sources of resistance remains and
Project 8 will continue to perform a crucial role in its capacity as key member of a global network
of wheat researchers. In particular, the countries of the north have a role to play in helping to
combat diseases that impact on the resource poor.


Project 9: Primarily subsumed into Project 7

Project 10: Maize and wheat cropping systems

This Project undertakes systems agronomy and resource-conserving technology research with the
aim to spread the principles of conservation agriculture for the benefit of smallholder maize and
wheat smallholder systems. In particular, the Project will focus on the continuing development of
appropriate conservation agriculture technologies that reduce tillage, provide adequate surface
retention of crop residues, and stress the importance of diversified crop rotations. CIMMYT has
the knowledge and practical expertise in public-private partnerships to develop, extend, and
assess conservation agriculture in a wide range of different environments.


Project 11: Knowledge, targeting and strategic assessment of maize and wheat farming
systems

Many resource poor farmers and consumers in developing countries depend on risky and complex
maize- and wheat-based farming systems for their survival. For related crop research to
sustainably reduce poverty, it must reflect the diverse production, consumption and livelihood
roles of maize and wheat. This Project contributes to mission-effective maize and wheat
improvement research by CIMMYT and partners. During the period of this Plan, Project 11 will
emphasise the development of key methodologies such as socioeconomic and environmental
characterization, impact pathway analysis, value chain mapping, and knowledge sharing.


New frontier research to address emerging global issues

Previously (MTP 2007-2009) the Science Council asked for comments addressing the point "to
see targeting in some new research explicit in the plans." This section provides an update on
some undertakings and proposed work; the latter subject to attracting additional resources.

Global warming: The role of wild species in adapting cropping systems to climate change: A
third of the world's nitrogen fertilizer is applied to wheat crops whose efficiency of use is only


Page 10









about 33%. The resulting nitrification of soils causes annual losses in the order of US$ 6 billion in
over-use of fertilizers, as well as untold costs in environmental pollution. Artificial and biological
control of nitrification can improve nitrogen recovery and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE), and
synthetic nitrification inhibitors have been used in wheat to boost NUE and reduce environmental
load. However, the potential to improve the release of biological nitrification inhibitors (BNI) in
wheat root exudates or to apply such a trait is unknown. Partnership research with the Japan
International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) shows that Leymus racemosus,
a distant relative of wheat, has a high capacity for producing effective BNI, and this trait has been
introduced to cultivated wheat via inter-specific crosses. Preliminary results are encouraging:
using recombinant luminescent Nitrosomonas europaea to quantify BNI released in plant-soil
systems, the research team has found that L. racemosus releases about 20 times more BNI than
wheat in an NH4+ enriched environment. By introducing the high-BNI release capacity of L.
racemosus into cultivated wheat, breeders could develop cultivars whose genetic capacity to
inhibit nitrification would allow more sustainable, ecologically-friendly farming in intensive
cereal cropping systems, with significant economic and ecological benefits, including reduced
emission of nitrous oxide which is a highly potent greenhouse gas.

Food Safety: Linking agriculture to human health and global trade: Many millions of people
(both adults and children) suffer from food-borne toxins, especially in the developing world. In
the tropics, staple crops such as maize can be the source of mycotoxins, which are highly toxic
metabolites produced by a number of fungi especially in drought-prone environments,
unseasonably rainy environments, or high moisture during and after harvest. CIMMYT maize
breeders have been working at combining biotic and abiotic stress resistance to identify stress
tolerant lines or hybrids that have a reduced incidence of aflatoxin; this broader approach to
reduce mycotoxin loads is proving successful.

Scab (or Fusarium head blight) adversely affects wheat grain quality due to both lower weight
and higher mycotoxin contamination, which can cause vomiting, breathing problems, cancer,
reproductive disturbance of animals, and at times death. These negative effects produce economic
hardship for wheat growers due to low grain yield and poor market quality. Because of the above
effects in humans, animals, and the crop, CIMMYT provides a global platform for international
collaboration on Fusarium research by facilitating sharing of knowledge and genetically
enhanced wheat germplasm as well as other breeding materials and tools. This global platform, in
alliance with other research partners worldwide, capitalizes on the knowledge accumulated
regarding both host plant resistance as well as genetic enhancement of the wheat crop against
Fusarium. For example, DNA markers are being mapped and used for incorporating the distinct
resistance types against the pathogen, namely to initial infection or penetration (Type I
resistance); to fungal spread within plant tissues (Type II resistance); and, to mycotoxin
degradation (Type III resistance). Research efforts on screening methods, coupled with the
advances in genetic enhancement, should lead to novel resistance sources with genetically
characterized new resistance loci.

A holistic fight against mycotoxins is envisaged, with a focus on integrated crop management
(including genetic enhancement), low-cost detection technology, and a participatory assessment
process to ensure food safety and to overcome potential trade barriers for the export of grains
from the developing world. Such an approach should develop and implement a large-scale
research-for-development program with the international human health research community, to
improve human health through agricultural innovations. [System Priority 2C]


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The CGIAR and CIMMYT


CIMMYT is an active and full partner in the Alliance of CGIAR Centers through the Challenge
Programs (host center for Generation and participant in HarvestPlus, Water and Food, and Sub-
Saharan Africa), inter-center initiatives and system-wide programs. The Center shares research
efforts with CIAT, CIP, ICARDA, ICRAF, ICRISAT, IFPRI, IITA, ILRI, IRRI, IWMI and
Bioversity. More specifically, CIMMYT has developed close linkages with IRRI and ICARDA.

CIMMYT and IRRI: The two centers continue to enhance their alliance program that includes
three (3) projects:
Crop research informatics laboratory
Intensive production systems for Asia
Cereal systems knowledge portal

CIMMYT and IRRI have formed a joint Board sub-committee to provide oversight to the alliance
program. Similarly, CIMMYT and ICARDA have made good progress with the joint ICARDA-
CIMMYT wheat improvement program for the CWANA region. Planning of research and
capacity building activities for the CWANA region has included the development of a joint MTP
and a Director of the joint program has been appointed.


Aligning CIMMYT's agenda to the CGIAR system priorities

CIMMYT investments are mostly addressing genetic enhancement of both maize and wheat,
conservation agriculture in maize- and wheat-cropping systems, and optimizing participatory
maize- and wheat-value chains. Throughout the project portfolio, capacity building is provided.
Frontier research and development activities also get small resource allocation as a means for
exploring new emerging issues affecting global agriculture, and ensuring impacts of CIMMYT
knowledge and ensuing technology in maize and wheat farms, respectively.

Table 1. Mapping CIMMYT MTP Projects (weight in %) to CGIAR system priorities
CIMMYT 2007-2009 MTP Projects SP1 SP2 SP3 SP4 SP5 DA SAT FR
P1 Conservation, characterization and targeted access to maize- and 40 60
wheat-related biodiversity
P2 Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic 100
improvement
P3 Stress tolerant maize 70 10 10 10
P4 Nutritious and specialty traits for maize 10 80 5 5
P7 Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality 10 90
P8 Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and quality 15 75 10
P10 Maize and wheat cropping systems* 10 70 20
P11 Knowledge, targeting, and strategic assessment of maize and 70 10 20
wheat farming systems
SP1 Sustaining biodiversity for current and future generations.
SP2 Producing food at lower costs through genetic improvement.
SP3 Creating wealth among the rural poor through high-value commodities and products.
SP4 Combining poverty alleviation and sustainable management of water, land and forestry resources.
SP5 Improving policies and facilitating institutional innovation.
DA Development activities.
SAT Stand-alone training
FR Frontier research not fitting in today's SP
* Includes CIMMYT contributions to the Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) research agenda


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More than two-thirds of the Center's investment addresses CGIAR system priority # 2: Producing
food at lower costs through genetic improvement (Table 1). This reflects the needs of maize and
wheat farmers for cultivars that withstand biotic or biotic stresses, and for more nutritious and
healthy food for consumers. Center resources are also allocated to the four other CGIAR system
priority areas (Table 1), and a small percentage for other important areas that contribute to
obtaining impacts; e.g., seed systems or stand-alone capacity building-including conservation
agriculture knowledge and technology sharing, and other development activities. Finally, a small
portion of CIMMYT research portfolio is dedicated to exploratory research; for example, in P1
and P2, whereby scientists test innovations in their particular areas and at their own discretion.


Center financial indicators

The primary financial and management aims of CIMMYT during the period of this MTP can be
summarized as follows:

1. To complete the implementation of the outcomes of the detailed business plan that was
formally adopted by the Board of Trustees in March 2006. During 2006, the rationalization of
administration and the move to Project-based budgeting and reporting have been substantially
implemented and will be completed in 2007. In addition, full costing of all activities has been
implemented for 2007 and beyond.
2. To continue the development of a comprehensive resource mobilization strategy that is
responsive to both the funding opportunities and potential risks that may arise.
3. To maintain the Center's financial reserves, which have finally reached the CGIAR mandated
levels as of the end of 2006, after several years of aggressive action by management to rebuild
them (capital reserves of 80 days).
4. To complete the strategic review of research infrastructure and begin implementation of a
medium-long-term, sustainable capital investment plan.

CIMMYT funding overview
Detailed budget tables are set out on pages 77 to 92. Total grant revenues for the Center in 2007
are projected at US$ 34.1M, increasing to US$ 35.1M for 2008. These figures are slightly lower
than forecast originally for the MTP 2007-2009, due to continued pressures on unrestricted
funding, lower than expected growth in restricted funding, and conservative budgeting due to
currency market volatility.

Business plan implementation
Last year's MTP narrative noted that the 11 MTP projects developed within CIMMYT's business
plan would continue to be refined during the life of the MTP. This has occurred in various ways,
one being the reduction in the number of Projects from 11 to 8.


CGIAR financial health indicator benchmarks

a) Long-term financial stability
During 2006, CIMMYT increased undesignated, unrestricted reserves to a level in excess of US$
7.57M. Center reserves now equal 80 days of operating expenditures, which is within the CGIAR
mandated level for working capital reserves.


Page 13










b) .\lN, t-term solvency
As of the end of 2006, CIMMYT's short-term solvency amounted to 94 days, within the range
mandated by the CGIAR. This indicator has improved substantially over the past four years.

The above indicators will be impacted by any capital investment decisions arising from current
infrastructure reviews and will drive investments priorities during 2007. While CIMMYT's
management and Board will try to minimize the impact of such investments by carefully
sequencing timing and amounts, it is inevitable that large capital investments in a given year to
redress past years' under-investments will impact on both cash and unrestricted reserves.


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Project narratives


Project 1: Conservation, characterization and utilization of maize and wheat genetic resources

Crop-related biodiversity is the founding asset of the CGIAR and continues to be the basic raw
material for the breeding programs of CIMMYT and its partners. The new name and output
structure for Project 1 reflects an increased commitment to developing and applying new tools
and methodologies for utilizing genetic resources in trait-based germplasm enhancement.
Structured sets ofgermplasm are becoming an increasingly critical asset for the global plant
research and breeding community. Characterization and distribution of this germplasm is a major
niche for CIMMYT, as is the coordination of associated web-enabled informatics resources. New
technology-assisted methodologies are facilitating targeted access to new beneficial alleles, genes
and traits. However, intensive characterization and precise evaluation (under diverse field
conditions) is now the rate-limiting factor for effective utilization of outputs from the genomics
and information technology revolutions. CIMMYT has a major role to play in this area and in
subsequent interdisciplinary integration of resultant outputs. Germplasm enhancement provides
the mechanism for incorporating new added-value traits (such as pest and disease resistance),
meta-traits (such as drought tolerance), and pyramided traits (such as resistance to root health
complexes and multiple sources of resistance to the same disease) into acceptable genetic
backgrounds that can be readily adopted by the pre-breeding programs. All Project 1 activities are
directly related to CGIAR System Priority 1A and support Priorities 2A, 2B and 2C. Many of the
activities in this Project are carried out in close collaboration with SGRP and the Generation and
HarvestPlus Challenge Programs.

The new Project 1 structure is designed to improve the flow of the intermediate products from
Project 1 to end-user breeding programs in CIMMYT (Projects 3 to 6) and NARS, including
SMEs. In this context, germplasm enhancement will focus on crosses with landraces or wild
species, traits that are difficult to handle until they reach homozygosity, traits that require
intensive use of genomics, tissue culture, transgenics or informatics, and experimental traits that
have been newly added to the priority list, such as those required for biofuel production, climate
change, novel quality parameters or ideotype-led initiatives.

International public goods:
Genetic resources conservation, characterization, informatics and distribution
* Conservation and characterization of genetic resources: Germplasm accessions from
global sources (including related wild species, genetic stocks and improved breeding lines)
available from the genebank.
* Informatics systems for global biodiversity: Fully integrated, public-access,
multidisciplinary germplasm information resources with powerful query and analysis tools.
* Distribution of improved germplasm: Globally recognized and accredited guidelines for the
maintenance, regeneration, purification, distribution and documentation of germplasm
regarding pests, pathogens and transgenes.

Targeted access to useful genetic variation
* Sequence-based allele mining: New allele mining methodologies (and outputs thereof) for
using gene-based PCR markers to identify beneficial genetic variation for well studied target
traits in maize and wheat improvement.


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* Dynamic germplasm subsets: Improved interdisciplinary methodologies (and resultant web-
enabled resources) for the development of end-user defined maize and wheat germplasm
subsets, maximizing genetic variation for priority traits.
* Association mapping-based gene discovery: New added-value alleles and genes identified
from germplasm subsets through marker-trait association analysis of precision multilocation
phenotyping and genomewide genotyping data.

Trait-based germplasm enhancement
Wheat germplasm enhancement: Beneficial genetic variation introgressed into elite wheat
breeding lines focusing on client breeding program priorities in abiotic and biotic resistance,
quality, and agronomic adaptation traits.
* Maize germplasm enhancement: Trait-based enhancement of maize genetic resources for
end-user priorities in abiotic and biotic resistance, quality and agronomic adaptation traits,
within geographically assigned heterotic patterns.
* Capacity building and backstopping implementation: Information, skills development and
assistance provided to NARS, SME, and CIMMYT breeders to enable their best use of maize
and wheat-related biodiversity.

Impact pathways and partnerships:
The outputs of Pl are intermediate products such as tools, methodologies, and enhanced
germplasm associated with more targeted, efficient, and rapid access to and use of the most
desirable genetic variation for maize and wheat breeding programs. The primary users of these
intermediate products-who will also participate in their further development-includes breeders
and other researchers from CIMMYT, NARS, SMEs, and ARIs. A fundamental task of P1 is to
search for genetic diversity that is not readily accessible through conventional breeding
approaches, using novel tools and methodologies to identify crop-related genetic diversity
beneficial for improvement of specific priority traits. Facilitating a better collation of genetic
variation across national and international genebanks is a critical prior role for CIMMYT in this
area. Similarly, intimate and iterative linkages with advanced institutions are essential for proper
orientation of their strategic research and early access to resultant outputs relevant to germplasm
enhancement for stakeholders. Thus, P1 builds close alliances with all actors in the maize and
wheat improvement value chain and impact pathway: national genebanks curators, breeders and
trait specialists in P3-P7, and NARS and SME breeding programs. In addition, collaborations
with P8 facilitate appropriate cost-benefit analysis and impact assessment of intermediate
products to assist in prioritizing investments across different types of interventions and end-user
trait needs. P1 has a major role to play in coordinating information networks to help ARIs,
NARSs, and SMEs focus on the most important needs of resource-poor clients.

Achieving regular constructive feedback from primary end-users is fundamentally important.
Conversely, information from the farmers and ultimate beneficiaries is generally indirect, and
interpreted by the other projects. However, the connection between P1 and the other projects is
important to strengthen these networks and make sure the right questions are being asked about
end-users' needs. Particularly in terms of the priority traits, issue include the nature of the most
desirable genetic backgrounds for introgression of those traits and the range of tools required for
effective utilization the traits in mainstream breeding programs


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Genetic resources information sharing and databases are helpful in facilitating the efficient access
of ARIs, NARS, and SMEs to useful germplasm. CIMMYT has a comparative advantage in
facilitating this, coordinating networks to share knowledge and skills focused around the
generation of enhanced germplasm products. P1 has a role in creating and then maintaining new
networks, since many of the ones set in national chains exist for different purposes.

In the Center's new vision, NARS partners-particularly in primary centers of maize or wheat
diversity-and other CGIAR and advanced germplasm banks play a critical role in synergizing
P1 activities in germplasm conservation and characterization. Similarly, CIMMYT's participation
in the Generation and HarvestPlus Challenge Programs provides unique access to global
germplasm for drought tolerance and biofortification. Partnerships with advanced institutes such
as CRC-MPB (Australia), Cornell University (USA), and NIAB (UK) provide essential new
technologies for targeted trait-based access to germplasm, particularly allele and gene mining
technologies. General conservation and utilization activities among CIMMYT and other
international centers take place under the System-wide Genetic Resource Program (SGRP) and
the Global Crop Diversity Trust. CIMMYT predominantly focuses on applying various
technologies for its maize and wheat germplasm collections. CIMMYT, NARS, and SME
breeders also play a critical role in orientating these efforts towards the highest priority traits. P1
researchers reach up the value chain by committing to provide technical backstopping for the
routine application of new tools and methodologies in CIMMYT, NARS, and SME breeding
programs.

The intermediate products from P1 are likely to have an impact on the productivity, stability, and
resilience of new, experimental maize and wheat varieties. Resultant impacts of new varieties on
livelihoods are envisaged and, in most cases, direct impacts will first reach the CIMMYT
breeding programs through P3-P7, then through NARS intimately involved with CIMMYT
through globally decentralized shuttle breeding initiatives, and then to other NARS and SME
breeding programs in target countries. The extent to which new genetic variation, together with
the tools and methodologies to use it, is taken up by CIMMYT, NARS, and SME breeding
programs will greatly influence the overall contribution of these intermediate products to the final
impact of finished varieties and improved cropping systems.

Project 2: Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic improvement

Future gains in crop improvement will be increasingly dependent on the timely and appropriate
implementation of technology-assisted tools and methodologies. The new Project 2 output
structure reflects an increased commitment to the translation, validation, and facilitated
application of strategic research outputs for the development of intermediate products with
interdisciplinary added value. Biotechnology-based tools and resources are becoming a mainstay
of all modem crop improvement programs. CIMMYT has a primary role in facilitating the
development of a variety of biotechnology-based options for client breeding programs in NARS,
SME, and CIMMYT. Molecular breeding decision-support tools have become the rate limiting
factor for effectively integrating multidisciplinary interventions into modern breeding systems.
CIMMYT has a comparative advantage in this area by virtue of the close interaction and
comparative strength of its biotechnology, bioinformatics, and global maize and wheat
improvement programs. Capacity building and technical backstopping is a fundamental priority
for CIMMYT to ensure adequate uptake of outputs from Project 1 and 2, and to provide an
iterative mechanism to empower end-users to orientate future efforts. All Project 2 activities are


Page 17









directly related to CGIAR System Priorities 2A, 2B and 2C. Many of the activities in this Project
are carried out in close collaboration with CAS-IP, GTF and the Generation and HarvestPlus
Challenge Programs.

The new Project 2 structure reflects attempts to adjust the research agenda in line with the
business plan, in particular improving the prioritization and impact of efforts to develop
interventions that enhance the pace, scope, and value of outputs from maize and wheat
improvement activities in Projects 3 to 6. In this context, Project 2 develops new tools and
methodologies, as well as validating them and facilitating their application, for more efficient and
targeted manipulation of new alleles and genes for traits prioritized by end-users in maize and
wheat improvement programs in CIMMYT, NARS, and SMEs. Intermediate products from
Project 2 ultimately enhance the crops' resilience against abiotic stresses, yield stability under
biotic stresses, nutritional quality, agronomic adaptation, and profitability for resource-poor maize
and wheat farming communities.

International public goods:
Development of biotechnology-based tools and transgenic resources
* Underlying genetics of priority traits: Increased understanding of drought tolerance, pest
and disease resistance, quality traits and agronomic adaptation based on in-house marker-
assisted genetic dissection and/or collaborative functional profiling analysis.
* Trait-specific markers: New SSR or SNP markers developed and/or validated through in-
house efforts or acquired from outside sources associated with traits prioritized by end-users
in NARS, SME, and CIMMYT breeding programs and background selection.
* High-throughput marker genotyping systems: In silico gene-based marker development
methodologies, high-throughput single-seed-based DNA extraction system, and high-
throughput SSR, SNP, and gene-based marker detection systems.
* Rapid cycling technologies: Optimized large-scale doubled haploid systems for use as an
integrated research and breeding tool to combine marker discovery, validation, and
implementation within breeding populations.
* Transgenics: Efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for wheat and
maize integrated with large-scale MAS introgression systems for rapid transgene functional
validation and effective molecular breeding product development systems.

Molecular breeding methodologies and facilitating computational systems
* Informatics: Fully integrated, web-enabled data management and analysis system linking
genetic resources, biotechnology, germplasm enhancement, variety development and GIS data
sources for improved knowledge-led crop improvement.
* Precision phenotyping methodologies: More precise, higher-throughput phenotyping
systems for dissecting complex traits, improving trait manipulation, and enhancing field
selection.
* Biometrics: New tools developed for improved the understanding and ability to manipulate
genotype-by-environmental interaction effects through combining advances in informatics,
genomics, phenotyping, and genetics with biometrics.
* Molecular breeding: Efficient molecular breeding strategies and implementation systems
developed and applied that effectively integrate multidisciplinary interventions for enhanced
scope, cost efficiency, and impact (that is, crop improvement gains).


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Capacity building and technical backstopping of technology-assisted breeding interventions
* Capacity building skills development: NARS, SME, and CIMMYT staff trained in new
technologies and methodologies, including genetic resources, biotechnology, computational
systems, and germplasm enhancement.
* Capacity building backstopping implementation: Information, skills, and technological
backstopping provided to assist NARS, SME, and CIMMYT breeding programs to make best
use of new tools, methodologies, and genetic resources.

Impact pathways and partnerships:
The outputs of P2 are intermediate products such as new tools and methodologies, which have
direct impacts on the scope, speed and precision of crop improvement programs. This is a primary
niche area for CIMMYT researchers to improve the efficiency and impact of CIMMYT, NARS,
and SME breeding programs. The extent to which the potential benefits of these intermediate
products are realized relies heavily upon the extent of uptake and the skills of implementers. To
ensure appropriate uptake and optimum impact, P2 researchers will not only develop, validate,
and refine tools and methodologies hand-in-hand with relevant breeding programs, but also assist
implementation through intensive technical backstopping. CIMMYT will achieve this through
proactive involvement in regional hubs, international shuttle breeding initiatives, and associated
molecular breeding communities of practice. In this way, the Center will foster and synergize
national programs' confidence to take a larger role in adaptive breeding. CIMMYT will
increasingly emphasize its role as facilitator, enabler, and advocate in the overall value chain.
Similarly, intimate and iterative linkages with advanced institutions are essential for proper
orientation of their strategic research and early access to outputs relevant for germplasm
enhancement. Thus, P2 builds close alliances with all up and downstream neighbors in the maize
and wheat improvement value chain and impact pathway: genetic resources specialists, breeders
and trait specialists in P3 to P7, and NARS and SME breeding programs. In addition,
collaborations with P8 facilitate appropriate cost-benefit analysis and impact assessment of
intermediate products to prioritize investments across different types of interventions and end-
user trait needs. Finally, P2 has a major role in coordinating information networks to help ARIs,
NARSs, and SMEs focus on key needs of resource-poor clients.

CIMMYT and partners' molecular breeding programs urgently need to evolve to a new paradigm
that takes maximum advantage of out-sourcing enterprises for genotyping and other
biotechnology-based services. Conversely, the identification of new marker associations has
previously been considered better achieved in advanced institutes. However, based on new
approaches that allow us to combine discovery, validation, and application in breeding programs,
these activities can likely be carried out more rapidly and with less redundancy by CIMMYT and
partners. In addition, CIMMYT has a primary niche in developing central information resources,
coordinating analysis, and facilitating the overall product development chain. Similarly, it is
CIMMYT's role to validate, refine and optimize outputs from advanced research institutes to
ensure their robust and efficient application in plant breeding.

The intermediate products from P2 are likely to have an impact on the productivity, stability, and
resilience of new, experimental maize and wheat varieties. Direct impacts will first reach the
CIMMYT breeding programs through other CIMMYT Projects (#3 to #7), then NARS and SME
breeding programs intimately involved with CIMMYT through globally decentralized shuttle


Page 19









breeding initiatives, and then to other NARS and SME breeding programs in target countries. In
the new vision of P2, advanced research institute partners play a fundamental role of predominant
technology provider, although in some cases where there is no ARI provider or where CIMMYT
retains the comparative advantage in developing a particular tool or methodology, the Center will
take up that role. CIMMYT's founding role in the Generation Challenge Program and the
Molecular Plant Breeding Cooperative Research Center provides unique access to a wide range of
technology options. CIMMYT focuses predominantly on validating and refining those
technologies for application in stakeholders' situations and integrating diverse technologies into
efficient, new genetic improvement methodologies. CIMMYT, NARS, and SME breeders then
validate and refine the methodologies.

Project 3: Stress tolerant maize
Achieving the Millennium Development Goals is most difficult in rainfed, stress-prone
environments where communities are confronted by poor market access, erratic rainfall, and soil
degradation. Tropical maize growing environments are affected by a wide range of stresses
worsened by variable weather conditions, infertile and acidic soils, lack of inputs, labor shortages
for other control methods, and soil degradation. In particular, the importance of finding genetic
approaches which stabilize and increase crop productivity in the face of climate change and
increasing water scarcity is widely acknowledged. Also, for some newly emerging or newly
important biotic stresses, no sources of resistance can be found in known or improved germplasm.
This Project uses breeding methodologies, genes, chromosomal regions, and allelic variation for
exploratory incorporation into elite or farmers' own maize germplasm and assessment of
genotype, gene-by-genotype, and genotype-by-environment effects. It applies the insights gained
to generate strategically important, stress tolerant source germplasm and to strengthen partners'
capacities to use effectively new and proven tools from this Project and other undertakings, such
as Projects 1 and 2 and the CGIAR Generation Challenge Program. As steward of the world's
maize genetic resources, CIMMYT provides through this Project an effective access path for
identifying and availing new sources of resistance. The Center's accumulated maize research and
breeding materials targeting stress environments are regarded as successes. This Project builds
upon them to contribute to food and income security and better use of scarce resources (water,
nutrients, labor, and land), in particular as climate change increases the area and frequency of
unfavorable production conditions.


International public goods:
* Stress tolerant maize with improved performance and adaptation to smallholder growing
environments world-wide; they provide increased food security to resource-poor farmers,
enabling them to break out of the poverty spiral and also engage in soil fertility-enhancing
crop diversification strategies.
. Maize types with high levels of drought and heat tolerance to offset expected impacts of
climate change in the developing world.
* As an insurance against narrowing genetic diversity and biotic constraints, new and diverse
sources for host plant resistance to pre- and post-harvest diseases and pests that threaten
maize production, health, and trade in significant regions of the developing world.


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" Seed-embedded options for controlling Striga, a parasitic weed that threatens maize
production throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
* Integrated into the CIMMYT-IRRI Alliance, maize germplasm suited to resource-conserving
cropping systems, in particular intensive rice-maize cropping in Asia.
. Knowledge-sharing on genetic resources and selection protocols to breed maize germplasm
for stress-prone environments and with improved resistance to important biotic stresses.
. Knowledge on more effective, incentive-driven impact and seed delivery pathways to increase
the impact of maize genetic gains among farmers in drought-prone and outlying areas.


Impact pathways and partnerships:
A significant proportion of this Project's research is conducted through a wide range of holistic,
multi-stakeholder, specially funded projects3 that feature close collaboration with national
researchers, local entrepreneurs, and institutions to develop and deliver genetic gains and know-
how to beneficiaries. Summarized and world-wide, we link in this way with 150-200 partner
organizations, including NARSs, sub-regional organizations, NGOs and CBOs, seed companies,
universities, ARIs, IARCs, and FAO.
These multi-stakeholder projects develop and embed new traits in client and farmer-preferred
maize germplasm that carries essential or valuable trait combinations defined through stakeholder
priority setting, client surveys, participatory rural appraisals, and genotype-by-environment
analyses. The research and delivery capacity of NARSs, local seed companies, and NGO staff is
strengthened through collaborative research projects, short workshops, and MSc and PhD
programs on pace-limiting issues in the impact pathway. Effective links among actors of the
impact pathway are enhanced through annual planning at the country and sub-regional levels, and
financial and technical support to partner activities. Such support includes:
. Backstopping to collaborative and farmer-participatory breeding projects and variety trials
executed at the national and sub-regional level by NARSs, NGOs, and seed companies in
Africa, Asia, Central and South America and leading to the release of stress tolerant varieties.
* Advice and training for staff of emerging and small seed companies and community-based
maize seed production schemes, crucial to providing farmers with wider access to seed of new
stress tolerant maize varieties.
* In collaboration with other international centers, technical input to the work of national seed
services, policy-makers, and donors to harmonize regional seed regulations and promote seed
sector development.
. Information on stress tolerant maize varieties targeted at partners with large client outreach,
such as government and non-governmental organizations involved in seed relief, the private
seed sector, and extension.
In addition to national agricultural research programs and local universities, partners for upstream
activities of the Project include the Generation Challenge Program, the Universities of
Hohenheim and Hanover, the Weizman Institute, Comell, Purdue, and Texas A&M University,
ICIPE, IITA, IRRI, multinational life science companies and several donor organizations.

3Such projects include: Africa Maize Stress Project (AMS); Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa Project (DTMA); Nepal
Hill-side Research Maize Project (HRMP); Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA); Improving Livelihoods through
Stress Tolerant Maize; New Maize Seed Initiative for Southern Africa (NSIMA); Stewardship of IR Maize (Striga).


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Project 4: Nutritious and specialty trait maize

The world's maize genetic resources contain a wealth of benefits, including new opportunities for
improving nutrition, and multiple uses of maize and maize products. This Project explores new
opportunities for developing genetic traits in greatest demand for beneficiaries, partners, and
clients. Participants incorporate the traits into germplasm usable by breeding programs
worldwide, and develops experimental germplasm for use by clients and beneficiaries and to
obtain their feedback. Research also focuses on finding new traits to biofortify maize for key
micronutrients (vitamin A, zinc, iron) and laying the groundwork for related breeding programs.
Other traits include those associated with horticultural uses of maize (green cobs, blue corn) as a
cash crop for peri-urban growers in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, or non-food uses, such as
high-protein maize for poultry producers or dual purpose maize (food and fodder). The Project
promotes a strong integration with CIMMYT staff in regional projects, their clients and
beneficiaries, and partners in advanced institutes and Challenge Programs, capitalizing on
CIMMYT's comparative advantage to identify useful traits for human nutrition and health,


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Box: Role ofpartners and impact pathways in the Africa Maize Stress project for eastern
Africa


Priority setting of research: ASARECA.
Project oversight: Steering Committee of the East and Central Africa Maize and Wheat Improvement
Network (ECAMAW).
Financial support: BMZ, IFAD, the Rockefeller Foundation.
Input to the targeting of germplasm development: Representative farming communities, experts
from NARSs, local seed companies, NGOs, CIMMYT staff
Physiological and genetic studies: CIMMYT, MSc and PhD students enrolled in the Universities of
Hanover, Hohenheim, Nairobi, and Texas A&M.
Socioeconomic studies: CIMMYT and NARSs staff from KIPRA, KARI, EIAR, and SARI.
Germplasm development: CIMMYT and NARSs in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.
Farmer-participatory varieties testing and release: NARSs, NGOs, seed companies and seed
services in eastern and central African countries, representative farming communities.
Seed production: Community-based seed producers (e.g., Bakamusekamanja Womens Group) and
local seed companies (e.g., Ethiopia Seed Entreprise, FICA Seed, Freshco Seed, Kenya Seed,
Lagrotech, PANNAR, Seed-Co, TanSeed, Western Seed).
Seed dissemination and promotion: Local seed companies, NGOs (e.g., Catholic Relief Services) and
CBOs (e.g., Bakamusekamanja Womens Group), FAO, the Millenium Development Project, USAID,
and Rockefeller Foundation-supported seed dissemination projects in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda.
International dissemination of germplasm: CIMMYT.
Input from and link to other germplasm projects: QPM-D and Striga-related projects in eastern
Africa, NSIMA in southern Africa, CIMMYT International and IITA.









horticulture, or multiple purposes in gene bank and breeding materials. The market potential and
benefits of specialty maize will be assessed, and analyses of alternate suppliers and incentive-
based value chains used to highlight opportunities and recommend priorities for research
investments. Center breeders will continue to incorporate the quality protein trait into improved
maize germplasm.

Project 4 addresses CGIAR priorities 2C (enhancing nutritional quality), 2A (maintaining and
enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples), and 2B (improving tolerance to selected
abiotic stresses, in collaboration with Project 3, all related to producing more and better food at
lower cost through genetic improvements. Priority 1A is addressed by characterizing maize
germplasm for important nutritional traits, and priority 3B is addressed in collaboration with ILRI
by developing maize with improved suitability for use as feed. Project 4 is seeking resources to
address priority 5B (making international and domestic markets work for the poor), by analyzing
value chains in collaboration with Project 11. Project participants work with Projects 1 and 2 to
apply molecular techniques that enhance the efficiency of germplasm characterization and use.

International public goods:
* Source germplasm and allelic discovery in maize genetic resources for specified high-priority
traits, especially for nutritional enhancement.
* Experimental materials pyramiding proven new, important traits in adapted genetic
backgrounds for evaluation and use with selected clients and beneficiaries.
* Information about inheritance and breeding methods for nutritional or specialty traits.
* Ex-ante impact assessment and analysis of the presence of alternate suppliers for assessing
and targeting CIMMYT involvement in nutritional and specialty trait-specific research.
* Publications on germplasm, breeding methods, and recommended pathways (commodity
chains) to maximize impact of the value-adding maize research investments chosen.

Impact pathways and partnerships:
P4 works mainly to produce two nutritional and specialty maize outputs: quality protein maize
and micronutrient enriched maize. Aside from ensuring the development and incorporation of
current germplasm with key nutritional traits, P4 also aims to raise awareness and appreciation of
the importance of the nutritional value of commodity maize. In terms of increasing farmers'
income generation potential, there is a strong link between P3 and P4: by helping to provide
farmers with resources for inputs like improved seed and fertilizer, service providers will have
incentives to better serve farmers. The increased purchasing capacity of farmers also has a
positive, indirect impact on diet, as farm households have increased access to a more varied and
nutrient-rich diet. Certain environmental constraints that limit the diet options for the poor will be
addressed indirectly through the combination of the P3 and P4 efforts, as abiotic and biotic stress
tolerant varieties are combined with nutritional enhancement to produce highly nutritional maize
for a variety of stressed agro-ecologies.

As always capacity building is a current that runs through all the Project objectives, in relation to
education and creating awareness of the importance of a diverse diet.


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Agrosalud, a special project funded by the Canadian International Development Agency and
convened by CIAT, offers an example of how P4 works with partners to ensure a complete and
successful impact pathway. The goal of this special project is to improve the nutritional status of
the rural and urban poor in target regions of Latin America by developing and deploying
agronomically superior, micronutrient-dense quality protein maize (QPM). Primary target
countries are El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and
Haiti. Most of the germplasm comes directly from CIMMYT or is derived from Center products.
Each country team implements a similar impact pathway, which starts from maize breeding at
CIMMYT-including methodology development and applied breeding-from identification and
creation of sources of variation to development of experimental hybrids and open-pollinated
cultivars for evaluation by interested partners.

Beneficiaries will include maize farmers in target and spill-over countries. The main benefit will
be improved productivity and stability of maize crops, through use of varieties developed and
disseminated by the Project. For the poorest farmers using local varieties, adoption of the new
varieties could allow them to double yields. For farmers already growing improved varieties,
Project outputs will result in 10-20% production increases.

For scaling up, the Project's strongest partners are often the donors who, besides funding the
work, serve an advocacy role for bio-fortified and nutritional maize and use their influence in
other ways. The media are also partners in advocacy.

The variety release network is led by cultivar developers, typically public or private sector
breeders collaborating with CIMMYT. A government department evaluates data and authorizes
the eventual release of a variety. Extension services are often involved in the evaluation of the
germplasm and in data collection, as part of assembling the information the variety release
process.

For scaling out, NARS researchers traditionally work through extension programs, where those
are linked to NGOs, farmer associations, and farmers, or directly with NGOs and farmer
associations, where extension is weak or non-existent. It is the same in the case of links to the
private companies. The Project may also have direct connections to the private sector and will
foster NARSs-private company linkages.


Project 7: Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality

Approximately 50 million hectares-close to 50% of all wheat cultivated in developing
countries-is sown under rainfed systems that receive less than 600 mm of rainfall annually.
Some of the poorest and most disadvantaged wheat farmers live in rainfed areas of less than 350
mm annual rainfall and their livelihoods often depend solely on income from wheat production,
with wheat straw or fodder contributing to farm animal sustenance. In rainfed areas, water
availability is limited and unpredictable, and indications are that climate change is making this
variability more extreme. Water productivity is an increasingly important trait for wheat cultivars
for irrigated areas. Recognizing water productivity and drought tolerance as priorities for wheat,


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CIMMYT has worked to disaggregate drought tolerance per se in wheat into distinct components
and to apply those findings to germplasm improvement. Ongoing research is gaining a better
understanding of traits with major effects on water productivity in dryland wheat areas. These
include root architecture and physiological traits, resistance to soil-borne pests and diseases,
tolerance to heat and saline, zinc deficient, and boron toxic soils. The combination of improved
germplasm, the Center and partners' expertise in drought physiology, soil-borne diseases, and
agronomy, and the availability of markers for various traits place CIMMYT in a unique position
to develop water-productive wheat with resistance to the important stresses for use by partners
throughout the developing world.

International public goods
Spring and winter bread, and spring durum wheat germplasm
* Wheat germplasm with increased water productivity, adaptation and performance stability,
multiple resistances to soil-borne and foliar diseases, and appropriate end-user quality,
distributed through international nursery trials for sharing and evaluation by NARS partners.
* Segregating populations distributed, targeted to NARS-specific germplasm requirements and
to locations where hot spot screening is needed.
* Expanded validation and use of high-throughput, marker-assisted selection for soil-borne
pathogen resistance, durable quantitative resistance to foliar pathogens, and improved market-
oriented and nutritional quality, using publicly available markers.

Germplasm characterized for abiotic and biotic stress adaptive traits
* Germplasm developed through targeted shuttle breeding with partners for specific traits (soil-
borne pathogens, micro-nutrient screening, Hessian fly, rusts).
* Data and information through the International Wheat Improvement Network.
* New sources of genetic material and associated knowledge for water-use-efficient germplasm.

Selection methodologies to improve wheat for drought stressed environments
* Effective breeding methodologies for germplasm improvement for variable locations
significantly affected by genotype-by-environment interactions.
* Refined application of physiological tools such as canopy temperature depression, stem
carbohydrate remobilization, real-time spectral reflectance in applied breeding at CIMMYT
and by NARS colleagues.
* Validation of international crop information systems (ICIS) data management applications,
and expanded use of automated planting, harvesting and seed packeting technologies,
including barcode unique identity tracking.

Regional capacity building; breeding, pathology, quality and physiology
* The capacity of NARS researchers in wheat physiology, industrial quality, and food safety,
and improvement for biotic and abiotic stress resistance/tolerance will continue to be
enhanced and upgraded through visits of scientists and training.


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Impact pathways and partnerships:
P7 research targets traits that convey resistance/tolerance in wheat cultivars to biotic and abiotic
stresses in rainfed areas. The four chief ones are drought tolerance, heat tolerance, cold tolerance,
and resistance to soil-borne pathogens. Resulting germplasm must also preserve a range of quality
traits to meet users' needs. P7 works closely with P1 to address the lack of genetic variability or
molecular tools that will allow efficient breeding for the above. By understanding morphological
traits and physiological traits associated with water productivity, participants aim to improve the
productivity of rainfed wheat systems and to enhance grain quality. Together with building the
capacity of NARSs and other partners, this research will help reduce the vulnerability of wheat
farmers in marginal conditions due to yield variation. The Project is also linked to P11
(resilience) and P10 (conservation agriculture).

CIMMYT and ICARDA are committed to improving the welfare of poor people and to
alleviating poverty in CWANA by increasing the production, productivity and nutritional quality
of wheat. The joint ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program for CWANA (ICWIP) is a
good example of a strategic alignment between a global commodity center (CIMMYT) and an
eco-regional center (ICARDA) working on the same commodity (wheat). Given its high per
capital wheat consumption and status as the center of origin and diversity for the wheat, CWANA
represents one of the most important regions of CIMMYT's global mandate for wheat
improvement. The new joint program has improved services to NARSs and, ultimately, wheat
producers. This has come partly through economies of scale and optimal use of resources and
greater efficiency and effectiveness of research, taking advantage of synergies/complementarities
in the Centers' programs.

Another example of a global network to develop, test, and distribute germplasm is the
TURKEY/CIMMYT/ICARDA Winter Wheat Program in Turkey (Figure 1). Participants receive
germplasm from a diverse array of public and private sector programs. From Turkey, the breeding
materials go to most other winter wheat growing countries. Collaborators in these countries
evaluate the materials and send the results to IWIN, where the data are compiled and distributed
to partners to help guide further research and variety testing.

The Generation Challenge Program Consortium applies molecular biology to global stocks of
wheat genetic resources in support of CIMMYT's work to create a new generation of water-
productive wheat. The CIMMYT programs currently develop some 1,000 lines annually of spring
bread wheat, facultative and winter bread wheat, spring durum wheat, and spring triticale for
international distribution. This generally requires 3 to 5 years, which is substantially quicker than
most other wheat breeding programs worldwide because shuttle breeding in Mexico allows two
generations per year. Around half of these lines are targeted for regions where water stress occurs,
particularly the Asian Subcontinent, CWANA, and the southern cone of South America.

Grain quality is a paramount concern for farmers, processors, and consumers. High-value and
value-added traits include improved nutritional quality, better milling and processing qualities,
safer food products, and improved straw and forage quality for animal feed and fodder. Wheat
breeding has always focused on bread-making quality, but increasing attention is now being given


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to wheat's use in products such as noodles, chapattis, semolina, and pasta. This Project focuses on
traits that add value to grain by improving its quality, increasing its nutritional value, or
enhancing the safety of wheat-based foods. CIMMYT germplasm must meet the quality demands
of a range of clients, markets, and beneficiaries.

The ultimate beneficiaries will continue to be smallholder farmers, who will receive suitable,
improved bread wheat, durum wheat, and triticale cultivars. Building upon the foundation of
modern wheat cultivars, new releases can be expected to deliver 10% more yield than older
varieties, be more tolerant to variable climate conditions, and produce more straw (an important
component for animal fodder, home cooking fuel, and roofing material). Broad adaptation in
cultivars buffers farmers' risks in low- or variable rainfall settings, while allowing SMEs and
progressive farmers to produce and market seed of relevant cultivars economically.


Project 8: Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and quality

Until the advent of science-based agriculture, world wheat harvests were held hostage by rapidly
evolving fungal pathogens, among the most damaging of which were the rusts (stem, leaf and
stripe), other foliar diseases and fusarium head blight. Modern breeding, combined with the free
international exchange of experimental wheat lines, resulted in developing and wide dispersion of
genetically enhanced wheat germplasm able to resist the rusts and other diseases for several
decades. Durable resistance to common wheat diseases provides farmers with confidence that
they will reap reasonable harvests, despite evolving pathogen populations, and without the need
to use expensive chemical inputs. But because more virulent pathotypes or strains of a pathogen
will likely overcome the crop's resistance at some point and to ensure that production increases
stay abreast of population growth, CIMMYT emphasizes research aimed at raising the genetic
yield potential of wheat while maintaining its disease resistance. This results in enhanced, seed-
embedded technology that gives superior performance in farmers' fields. The foundation is
improved wheat germplasm and related knowledge built together by CIMMYT and partners; this
combination has had demonstrable impact in farmers' fields.

International public goods:
Genetically diverse wheat germplasm with enhanced consumer and market oriented
quality, high yield potential, resistant to biotic stresses, and buffered to tolerate climatic
change and variability.
* Disease resistant cultivars with high yield potential for farmers in wheat producing agro-
ecologies where adequate or supplementary irrigation is used.
* Basis of yield potential expanded, addressing important associated traits such as resistance to
lodging, spike "sink" capacity, stay-green, and heat tolerance.
* Potential "durable", polygenic sources of resistance from the bread and durum wheat
genomes, as well as related wild species, for main wheat diseases.


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The basis of durable disease resistance characterized and genetic diversity enhanced to
reduce genetic vulnerability in farmers' fields.
* Knowledge of the basis for durable resistance to the main pathogens of wheat.
* Knowledge of rust epidemiology to assist in the fight against a global stem rust pandemic.
* New sources of resistance to wheat pathogens confirmed.

Global networks to monitor distribution, evolution and migration of pathogens for an early
warning of threats.
* A global wheat research network: public-private-NGO partnerships among international and
national agricultural research and development organizations.
* CIMMYT's improved germplasm is dispatched, through nurseries targeted to specific agro-
ecological environments, to a cadre of wheat researchers participating in the International
Wheat Improvement Network.

Regional capacity for genetically enhancing wheat against pathogens and pests.
* The enhanced laboratory and field capacity ofKARI (Kenya) and EIAR (Ethiopia) to conduct
research on rust, in particular stem rust.
* The development and application of high-throughput doubled haploid, single seed descent or
microspore systems to speed up the development of fixed lines, to rapidly respond to partners'
emergency needs.

Impact pathways and partnerships:
P8 works with intensive, fully or supplementally irrigated agro-ecosystems. The Project's goals
are addressed through understanding physiological traits such as those related with yield and heat
tolerance, while keeping in mind the issue of quality: low mycotoxin contents and traits that result
in good storage possibilities for the grain are the main examples. Often together with NARSs,
CIMMYT will select germplasm in disease hot-spots in China, Ecuador, Ethiopia, India, Iran,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Pakistan, Turkey, and Uruguay to protect farmers' yields
from rust and other diseases of wheat. CIMMYT breeders generate some 500 lines annually with
broadened, often more durable disease resistance, focusing on leaf, stem, and yellow rust,
fusarium head blight and crown rots, and Helminthosporium and Septoria spp.

CIMMYT breeders and pathologists will apply representative yet intensive screening pressures
through shuttle breeding schemes to identify high-yielding, stable, broadly adapted, disease
resistant germplasm suitable to the needs of resource-poor farmers. Together with more than 80
country partners in the International Wheat Improvement Network, Center staff will also monitor
the vulnerability of currently-sown wheat cultivars to emerging disease risks such as the new
virulent Ug99 stem rust strain from Uganda.

These issues are addressed while maintaining end-user grain quality.

Worldwide, over 100 new wheat varieties containing CIMMYT germplasm are released each
year. Time to variety release and registration after receiving experimental germplasm varies
considerably by country, from as little as 3 years to as much as 10-12 years. Lack of effective


Page 28









seed production also limits farmers' use of new varieties: wheat is a self-pollinated crop, so
farmers can re-sow seed from one year to the next without substantially altering the identity or
performance of a variety, and this constitutes a disincentive for commercial seed production.

This Project will identify new traits and incorporate them into elite germplasm accessible to
resource-poor farmers. Its impacts will include improved food security and livelihoods. CIMMYT
germplasm must meet the quality demands of a range of clients, markets, and beneficiaries. For
the poorest of the poor, biofortification of wheat cultivars through increased micro-nutrient
content will be pursued. CIMMYT and partners will also work to provide value-added traits that
enable farmers to meet industry standards. Relevant traits include improved micronutrient and
protein content and improved quality for specialized food products. Through resistance breeding,
CIMMYT and partners will also work proactively to address food health issues associated with
contamination from Fusarium mycotoxins.

P8 has strategic alliances to other CIMMYT projects on topics such as the inefficient use of
nitrogen fertilizers and enhanced use of conservation agricultural practices. Activities in P8 are
integrated and contribute to the Global Rust and the Global Fusarium initiatives. Problems of
non-sustainable cropping systems and improved systems, like fully irrigated raised bed cropping,
are addressed together with P10. This Project's outputs directly address the enhanced genetic
variability and the molecular tools that will improve breeding efficiency (with P1 and P2). Project
participants also contribute to capacity building in NARSs.

The ultimate beneficiaries will be farmers, including smallholders, who will receive improved
cultivars. Through the increased, durable resistance of their crops, their yields are protected and
household vulnerability to famine and extreme poverty is reduced.


Project 10: Maize and wheat cropping systems

Through partnerships with NARSs, agri-business, and other CGIAR centers, this Project
undertakes systems agronomy and resource-conserving technology research with an ultimate
vision of widespread sustainable smallholder wheat and maize systems based on the principles of
conservation agriculture (CA). The aim is to improve rural incomes and livelihoods through
sustainable management of agro-ecosystem productivity and diversity, while minimizing
unfavorable environmental impacts. The Project will focus on the development of appropriate
practices tending to reduce tillage, provide adequate surface retention of crop residues, and
underline importance of diversified crop rotations to reverse soil degradation. For small- and
medium-scale farmers, the Project will seek more efficient and sustainable use of water and other
inputs, lower production costs, better management of biotic stresses, and enhanced system
diversity and production. As resource-conserving practices are adopted, research will promote an
integrated evaluation of the effects of long-term conservation agriculture under diverse agro-
ecological conditions, both rainfed and irrigated. Studies will focus on such factors as pest, weed,
and disease dynamics; the effects of crop rotations and green manure cover crops; residue
management and threshold levels of residue cover; soil nutrient dynamics and nutrient


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management; water management; soil structure dynamics; impacts on greenhouse gas emissions;
adaptive research/policy issues; impacts on household livelihoods, local/regional economies, and
food security; and varieties adapted to CA systems.

International public goods:
* Technological components for conservation agriculture systems that are appropriate for small-
and medium-scale maize and wheat systems that generate additional food and/or income, that
facilitate system diversification and improve soil health and productivity, and thereby
contribute to sustainable production.
* Knowledge of the effects of conservation agriculture systems and practices on land, labor, and
water productivity; on soil organic matter and soil physical, chemical, and biological fertility;
on pest and disease dynamics; and on farm household incomes and livelihoods.
* The strengthened capacity of partners (NGOs, NARS, farmer groups, public and private
sector entities, and policy-makers) in conservation agriculture research-for-development; the
formation and management of farmer-focused innovation systems; the scaling out of
conservation agriculture principles and technologies; and the development of local, regional,
and national policies that promote sustainable agricultural practices.

Impact pathways and partnerships:
In collaboration with ICARDA in CWANA, CIAT in Southern Africa and NARS and NGO's in
Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, China, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Malawi,
Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Pakistan, Paraguay, Turkey, Tajikistan Uzbekistan,
Zambia and Zimbabwe, CIMMYT has conducted primary research relating to the design and
implementation of on-farm conservation agriculture practices. This has resulted among other
things in the development of new technologies for soil conservation and increased water
productivity, while reducing labor requirements and production costs. Research and appropriate
implement development have been participatory, with farmers, extension workers and NARSs
assessing their requirements and defining appropriate intervention points to facilitate wider
adoption. Access to and development of appropriate planting equipment have been primary
focuses, often relying on the exchange of agricultural engineering technologies across
continents. The specific approaches used depended on the degree of crop production
intensity. Under rainfed environments, efforts have focused on the adoption of minimum and
zero-tillage mostly on the flat, with residue retention. In more intensive irrigated agriculture,
conservation agriculture is coupled with establishment of (semi-)permanent raised-bed planting as
a first step toward CA. Significant efforts have been made by CIMMYT researchers to
demonstrate the advantages of conservation agriculture and raised-bed planting to farmers,
extension agents, researchers and policy-makers. Efforts have been made to involve small- and
medium-sized enterprises for machinery manufacture or modification and to supply inputs.
Experience has shown that even smallholder farmers see benefits in this technology, in some
cases hiring local agricultural mechanization entrepreneurs to sow and harvest. Beneficiaries
include farmers, who save natural and economic resources while ensuring more sustainable
farming, and communities that depend on the improved biophysical and economical sustainability
of agricultural production. The many P10 partners include:


Page 30









* Farmers and farmer organizations, who are direct beneficiaries and active elements in setting
CIMMYT's research and agenda, and in knowledge-sharing through their feedback.
* Private enterprises, including seed producers and machinery manufacturers.
* NARSs and NGOs, who serve as principle contacts for adapting, implementing, and spreading
technologies (e.g., CGIAR Challenge Program for Water and Food, and the project Yellow
River Rainfed Conservation Agriculture).
* National and local policy-makers, who cooperate and create enabling institutional
environments.
* Regional agricultural R&D organizations (e.g., Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic
Plains).
* International agricultural R&D organizations (e.g., CG Centers such as ICARDA and IRRI,
and FAO).
* Advanced institutions (universities), which collaborate with CIMMYT on basic research of
technology design and the evaluation of economic and biophysical effects of these
technologies.

Project 11: Knowledge, targeting, and strategic assessment of maize and wheat farming
systems

Most poor farmers and consumers in developing countries depend on risky and complex maize-
or wheat-based farming systems for their survival. For related crop research to have rapid, lasting
impacts on poverty reduction, it is essential to consider the diverse production, consumption, and
livelihood roles of wheat and maize, which go far beyond household and national food security to
include cash income from sales of grain and speciality products, the reduction of vulnerability
through stable grain yields, the stimulus of animal production through the provision of fodder and
feed, the creation of bioenergy from low cost feedstocks, and the improvement of human health
through nutritionally-enhanced grain. In addition, there are a range of secondary, indirect benefits
not widely recognized: for example, the intensification of maize and wheat fosters on-farm
diversification and local rural non-farm economy growth.

Through strategic assessments of wheat and maize systems and knowledge sharing, this Project
will contribute to mission-effective maize and wheat improvement research by CIMMYT and
NARS. As the "easy" research gains have been achieved and as the international community
places greater emphasis on sustainable poverty reduction, sustainable management of resources,
and other MDG goals, the choice and efficient delivery of maize and wheat traits and
management technologies to small farmers requires more careful analysis of options. In many
developing regions, the dominant role of wheat and maize on small farms is changing from staple
for home consumption to cash crop for domestic sales and export, both in well-watered and
drought-prone environments. The technological and knowledge needs of resource-poor farmers
are evolving rapidly as a result of changing trade regimes, the withdrawal of state services, the
transformation of food systems, the reduction of the agricultural research budgets, and pervasive
market and institutional failures.

Despite the diversity of maize and wheat systems, relatively homogenous mega-environments,
farming systems and research domains can be defined to guide priority setting and targeting and
supporting spatial knowledge bases assembled. The synthesis of ex post and ex ante impact


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assessments, conducted in the normal course of research, identifies key lessons for research
targeting and operations. The Project develops key methodologies (e.g., socioeconomic and
environmental characterization, impact pathway assessment, value chain mapping, knowledge
sharing). Science knowledge sharing platforms are being developed under the IRRI-CIMMYT
Alliance.

International public goods:
The Project produces international public goods in the following areas:
* Spatial knowledge bases and strategic assessments to support priority setting, targeting, and
scaling up for CIMMYT and partners.
* Syntheses of ex post and ex ante impact assessments.
* Better understanding of producer incentives and institutional drivers of maize and wheat
diversity.
* Analyses of maize and wheat value chains to improve marketing efficiency and producer and
consumer benefits.
* Knowledge and associated knowledge sharing mechanisms for maize and wheat science that
provide direct benefits and also support capacity building at CIMMYT.

Impact pathways and partnerships:
The principal users of Project products and services are research managers and scientists for the
design and appraisal of agricultural research and development. The knowledge outputs of the
Project take the form of web products, reports, papers, and databases developed by CIMMYT and
partners, especially NARS socioeconomics and senior research managers and agri-businesses in
developing countries. Sometimes the knowledge flows through other CIMMYT Projects,
sometimes directly to NARS partners. Ultimately, improved NARS understanding, research
methods and targeting lead to improved livelihoods and poverty reduction.

Consider the specific impact pathway of the publication Wheat (or Maize) Facts and Futures.
After assembling, analyzing and interpreting data assembled jointly with NARSs, including seed
companies where appropriate, the Project provides maize and wheat status and scenario
information to NARSs actors. The short-term outcome will be improved understanding, on the
part of national research managers and policy makers, of current and probable future commodity
markets and technologies. The medium-term expectation is improved focus and effectiveness of
national crop improvement programs (this will occur more rapidly in strong NARSs such as
India; more slowly in less well-resourced NARSs), and thus better cultivars and faster adoption
by poor farmers. In the long-term, significant producer and consumer impacts could be expected:
improved livelihoods, reduced vulnerability, and reduced poverty among marginalized farmers,
diversification towards cash crop production, job creation in the rural non-farm economy, and
increased food consumption by poor consumers. The farm household benefits will tend to be
aligned with CIMMYT flagship products.

There are several assumptions that link these steps: the feasibility of assembling relevant data for
the analysis; the availability and credibility of the results; the relevance to national science policy
decisions; the effectiveness of crop improvement, seed distribution, and knowledge extension
activities; the correspondence with farmers' goals; and the on-farm cost-effectiveness of a
specific technology.


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The impact pathways depend on a variety of functional internal and external partnerships that can
be mapped as networks. In regard to internal partnerships, the collaboration with CIMMYT
Projects underpins the delivery of most outputs, which in turn supports the networks of those
respective Projects. The internal network of CIMMYT social scientists also fosters the
dissemination of Project knowledge outputs, including methodologies, guidelines, and knowledge
bases.

Regarding external partnerships, the Project collaborates strategically with the CGIAR Science
Council Standing Panel on Impact Assessment (SPIA) on impact assessment approaches and
methods. Project scientists partner with other CGIAR centers to complement expertise in
multidisciplinary and micro-economic analyses of maize, wheat, and conservation agriculture:
notably IFPRI, ICARDA, CIAT and ILRI in relation to targeting, environmental characterization,
climate change, knowledge bases and impact assessment; IPGRI in relation to crop diversity;
CIAT, IFPRI and ILRI for value addition and grain and stover quality; and the IRRI-CIMMYT
Alliance as well as many other centers for the knowledge sharing and the Cereal Systems
Knowledge Portal. In relation to Challenge Programs, the Project provides analyses of strategies
for reaching end users and ex ante impact assessment for HarvestPlus, and with the System-wide
Livestock Program in relation to the analysis of emerging maize fodder. The development of data
and knowledge bases requires cooperation in sharing data on cultivar adoption, financial and
economic benefits, impact pathways, and innovation systems, including NARSs from Mexico,
Morocco, Turkey, Ethiopia, Kenya, India, China and Bangladesh.

Universities and NARSs support impact assessments and crop diversity studies. Joint activities with
universities, NARSs, FAO, and NGOs are planned on value chain analysis. Active collaboration on
the Cereal Systems Knowledge Portal is ongoing with IRRI, as well as a wide range of NARSs,
universities, and other public and private sector organizations. Project staff conduct joint research
with advanced universities and in the field with universities in developing countries.


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MTP 2008-2010 Log-frames


Project 1: Conservation, characterization and utilization of maize and wheat genetic resources

Outputs Intended users Outcomes Impacts
Output 1 Genetic resources conservation, Maize and wheat Improved efficiency of Increasingly targeted access of
characterization, informatics and international maize and wheat ex situ maize and wheat germplasm
distribution research and conservation and users leading to enhanced
breeding community, distribution access and improved efficiency
and SGRP of utilization
2008 Fully integrated, public-access, CIMMYT, NARSs, Global access to and Increased use of CIMMYT
multidisciplinary germplasm SME, IARC and ARI analysis of CIMMYT's genetic resources and improved
information resource with powerful researchers and entire historical data germplasm for research and
query and analysis tools, linked to breeders worldwide reserves breeding worldwide
a web-based registry of global
maize and wheat genetic
resources
2008 Increasingly targeted and tailored Global maize and Enhanced efficiency of Increase use of CIMMYT genetic
distribution of genetic resources wheat research and maize and wheat resources and improved
and strategic germplasm to breeding community germplasm utilization germplasm for research and
stakeholders worldwide breeding worldwide
2009 Phenotypic and genotypic CIMMYT, IARCs, Improved efficiency of Improved uptake and increased
characterization of the GCP mini- NARSs, ARI, SME access to new genetic impact of utilization of genetic
composite germplasm subsets for researchers and variation for improving resources in breeding programs
maize and wheat available through breeders important agronomic traits, worldwide
an on-line ICIS-based resource particularly yield stability
under abiotic stresses
2009 Identification of important gaps in Global maize and Reduction in germplasm Improved efficiency of maize and
maize and wheat collections, and wheat research and requests that are declined wheat germplasm utilization in
formulation of a 5-year strategic breeding community or inappropriately fulfilled research and breeding programs
plan for future acquisition of novel due to lack of the worldwide
germplasm necessary genetic variation
2009 Logistical and statistical Maize and wheat Increased efficiency of Improved long-term sustainability
improvements through process genebank curators conservation of maize and of maize and wheat germplasm
and genetic modeling for efficient worldwide wheat genetic resources collections
maintenance and regeneration of
maize and wheat genetic
resources
2009 Standard operating procedures for CIMMYT, IARCs, Increased quality and Enhanced public confidence in
genebank operation, germplasm NARSs, and ARI efficiency of CIMMYT seed health and contamination
data curation and quality genebank curators germplasm distribution risk management for global
assurance, and germplasm through transparent recipients of seed shipments
distribution developed in definition of procedures and from CIMMYT-Mexico
coordination with SGRP, including protocols
pathogen and transgene detection
systems
2010 Creation of an active community of CIMMYT, IARCs, Rapid and widespread Increased quality and efficiency
practice of maize and wheat NARS and ARI plant uptake of genebank of maize and wheat germplasm
genebanks, germplasm genetic resource operation best practices conservation, distribution, and
enhancers, and germplasm users collections, recipients and response to end-user utilization
of germplasm and feedback
SGRP
2010 An on-line portal for all genebank Global maize and Global access to and Increased targeted utilization of
and germplasm data wheat research and analysis of CIMMYT's CIMMYT genetic resources and
breeding community entire germplasm-related improved germplasm for
historical data reserves research and breeding worldwide

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Outputs Intended users Outcomes Impacts
Output 2 Targeted access to useful genetic Global maize and Enhanced efficiency of Improved uptake and increased
variation wheat research and maize and wheat impact of utilization of genetic
breeding community germplasm utilization resources in breeding programs
worldwide

2008 Establishment of representative CIMMYT, ICARDA, Greater depth and breadth Increased use of germplasm in
germplasm subsets from global IITA, NARS and of genetic resources the improvement of important
maize and wheat collections based SME breeding utilization in regional maize agronomic traits, particularly yield
on passport, pedigree, genotype, programs and the and wheat breeding stability under abiotic stresses
ecoregional adaptation and/or type GCP research programs
of germplasm data community
2008 New sources of genetic variation CIMMYT, ICARDA, Novel alleles and genes Increased scope and efficiency of
and/or molecular markers for IITA, NARS and ARI affecting pest and disease use of genetic resources in
existing sources of variation researchers and resistance, drought maize and wheat breeding
improve important agronomic traits breeders tolerance, or quality traits programs worldwide
identified in diverse maize and identified in diverse maize
wheat germplasm using and wheat genotypes
association mapping
2008 Identification and characterization CIMMYT, IITA, and New allelic variation of Proof-of-concept value of allele
of new candidate alleles ARI researchers and molecular breeding of grain mining strategies for fueling
influencing grain quality in maize breeders quality in maize future plant breeding gains in
grain quality
2009 Germplasm subsets from CIMMYT CIMMYT, ICARDA, New methodologies for Improved efficiency of targeted
maize or wheat collections IITA, NARS and ARI selecting trait-specific access to global maize and
relevant to target mega- researchers and germplasm subsets, most wheat genetic resources and
environments and/or specific breeders important gaps and areas identification of the most
priority traits identified of redundancy in current genetically unique material
collections identified
2009 New sources of genetic variation CIMMYT, ICARDA, Novel alleles and genes Increased scope and efficiency of
for improvement of new value- IITA, and ARI affecting value-added traits use of genetic resources in
added traits in diverse maize researchers and in maize maize breeding programs
germplasm using association breeders worldwide
mapping
2009 New sources of genetic variation CIMMYT, ICARDA, Novel alleles and genes Proof-of-concept of the value of
for improvement of agronomic IITA, NARS and ARI affecting pest and disease allele mining to foster plant
traits identified in diverse maize or researchers and resistance, reproductive breeding gains for various
wheat germplasm using sequence- breeders traits, drought tolerance, or complex traits
based allele mining and gene quality traits identified in
discovery technologies diverse maize or wheat
germplasm
2010 Web-enabled, dynamic germplasm Germplasm bank New methodologies for Improved efficiency of targeted
sub-set selector available with a collection managers selecting trait-specific access to global maize and
range of analytical tools for real- worldwide, germplasm subsets, most wheat genetic resources and
time targeted selection of maize irrespective of crop important gaps and areas identification of the most
and wheat genetic resources using species of redundancy in current genetically unique material
all passport, phenotype, pedigree collections identified
and genotype data
2010 Validated methodology for linking Germplasm bank New methodologies for Improved efficiency of targeted
from trait hot-spots in mini- collection managers using germplasm access to global maize and
composite subsets to the main worldwide, stratifications to effectively wheat genetic resources
germplasm collection irrespective of crop target access to the entire
species collection
2010 Validated, multidisciplinary Germplasm bank New methodologies for Increased scope and efficiency of
methodologies for trait-based collection managers genomics-based target use of genetic resources in
allele mining and gene discovery worldwide, access to genetic maize and wheat molecular
irrespective of crop resources breeding programs worldwide
species _


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Outputs Intended users Outcomes Impacts
Output 3 Trait-based germplasm CIMMYT, ICARDA, Improved efficiency of Enhanced progress in the
enhancement and facilitating IITA, NARS and utilization of novel sources improvement of agronomic traits
community support SME maize and of genetic variation for in maize and wheat breeding
wheat breeding improvement of agronomic programs worldwide
programs traits
2008 Introgression of new sources of Global wheat New re-synthesized wheat Enhanced improvement of
disease resistance and drought improvement lines available for crossing agronomic traits due to increased
tolerance from secondary wheat communities with elite wheat breeding utilization of wild species in
gene pools into primary gene lines wheat breeding worldwide
pools of wheat germplasm through
artificial re-synthesis
2008 Improvement of eco-regionally Global maize 30 enhanced maize pools Increase scope and efficiency of
targeted strategic germplasm improvement refined with introgressed utilizing landraces in maize
pools communities Latin American landrace breeding worldwide
germplasm
2009 Optimized methodologies for CIMMYT and partner Wheat breeding lines with Increased scope and efficiency of
evaluation and germplasm national wheat improved drought tolerance using transgenic lines in wheat
enhancement using transgenic breeding programs due to transgene breeding
sources of drought tolerance in introgression
wheat

2009 Marker-assisted improvement of CIMMYT and partner Increased efficiency of Increased scope and efficiency of
eco-regionally targeted strategic national maize maize germplasm utilizing landraces in maize
maize germplasm pools breeding programs enhancement activities breeding worldwide
2009 Comprehensive evaluation of cost CIMMYT and partner Increased speed, efficiency Dramatic increases in the
and time efficiency, and rate of national maize and or scope of genetic gain, efficiency of maize and/or wheat
genetic gain achieved through wheat breeding including more efficient breeding systems
double haploid germplasm programs development and
enhancement strategies in maize integration of MAS
and wheat
2010 Validated methodology for CIMMYT and partner More efficient breeding Increased scope and efficiency of
selecting parental genotypes for national wheat systems for utilizing re- utilizing wild species in wheat
generation of re-synthesized breeding programs sysnthesized wheat lines breeding worldwide
wheat lines with beneficial impacts
on disease resistance and drought
tolerance breeding programs
2010 Genomics-based methodology for CIMMYT and partner Improved efficiency of Increased heterosis achieved
defining heterotic patterns among national maize hybrid maize breeding with less breeding effort
strategic maize germplasm breeding programs
2010 National, regional and international CIMMYT, ICARDA, Up to 100 researchers and Increased capacity of CGIAR
researchers and breeders trained IITA, NARS, ARI breeders trained during the centers and NARS partners to
in germplasm conservation, breeding programs life of this MTP in the latest achieve rapid progress in maize
characterization, data innovations in germplasm and wheat germplasm
management and/or utilization management, novel enhancement
technology-assisted
germplasm enhancement
tools and methodologies


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Project 2: Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic improvement

Outputs Intended users Outcomes Impacts
Output 1 Biotechnology-based tools and CIMMYT, SME and New technology-based Improved efficiency, speed and
transgenic resources NARSs researchers tools for use in CIMMYT, precision of maize and wheat
and breeders ICARDA, IITA, NARSs and breeding systems
SME breeding programs
2008 Increased understanding of the Global maize and Proof-of-concept regarding Increased ability to design
genetic basis, epistasis and wheat genetics the power and value of knowledge-led breeding systems
genotype-by-environment research and comparative, simulation accounting for epistasis and
interaction of complex target breeding community and modeling analyses of genotype-by-environment
agronomic traits diverse datasets that have interaction
not previously been brought
together
2008 Validated DNA markers for CIMMYT, ICARDA, Robust markers for High- Improved efficiency, speed and
existing sources of disease IITA, NARS and throughput low cost precision of maize and wheat
resistance, drought tolerance and SME researchers molecular breeding molecular breeding systems
grain quality traits in maize or and breeders applications in CIMMYT
wheat available and partner breeding
programs
2008 LIMS system established for High- Molecular breeders Reduced sample tracking Increased efficiency of molecular
throughput genotyping in maize and genomics time and errors plus breeding programs
and wheat, and linked to ICIS for researchers increased data
automated data curation worldwide management efficiency
2009 High-throughput low cost multiplex CIMMYT, ICARDA Increased speed and More efficient development of
MAS system for large-scale and NARSs wheat decreased cost of rust elite wheat breeding lines with
introgression of resistances to breeders resistance molecular rust resistance including
rusts in wheat available breeding combinations of genes not
previously possible
2009 DNA markers identified for new CIMMYT, SME and Dramatically increased Improved scope and impact of
sources of pest and disease NARSs researchers efficiency of identifying MAS in maize
resistance, drought tolerance or and breeders marker-trait associations for
grain quality in maize through important agronomic traits
large-scale selective genotyping
2009 New maize and wheat transgenic Molecular breeders New sources of disease New options for the development
lines with improved agronomic and genomics resistance, drought of maize and wheat cultivars with
traits available researchers tolerance or grain quality improved resilience, stability and
worldwide for maize or wheat profitability
molecular breeding
2010 Low density genome-wide CIMMYT, ICARDA, High-throughput low cost Improved efficiency, speed and
genotyping system for maize and IITA, NARS and genotyping system precision of maize and wheat
wheat molecular breeding SME researchers available for molecular molecular breeding systems
available and breeders breeding applications in
CIMMYT and partner
breeding programs
2010 Methodologies for large-scale Global maize and Improved pace, genetic Improved efficiency of maize and
double haploid production in maize wheat genetics gain and cost of maize and wheat breeding systems
and wheat available research and wheat molecular breeding including progress towards goals
breeding community programs not previous possible
Output 2 Molecular breeding methodologies CIMMYT, ICARDA, Increased efficiency of Maize and wheat cultivars with
and facilitating computational IITA, NARS and maize and wheat improved resilience, stability and
systems SME maize and improvement, particularly profitability
wheat breeders for priority traits
2008 Integration of germplasm Global maize Ability to compare and More efficient knowledge-led
enhancement, breeding, genomics genetics research analyze data from across germplasm utilization and
and international nursery data into and breeding the entire genetic breeding systems
a web-enabled, ICIS-based community resources, germplasm
resource for maize enhancement and breeding
continuum


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Outputs Intended users Outcomes Impacts
2008 Statistical models for assessing CIMMYT, ICARDA, Proof-of-concept ability to Increased efficiency of
association of phenotypic traits IITA and NARS carry out association identification and validation of
with molecular marker data in maize and wheat mapping in subsets of marker-trait associations
subsets of breeding lines available geneticists and breeding lines
breeders
2008 Simulation models of molecular Global maize and Reduced number of cycles, Improved efficiency of maize and
breeding strategies for maize and wheat breeding population size or wheat molecular breeding
wheat available community phenotyping required to systems
achieve the desired rate of
genetic gain
2009 Integration of germplasm Global wheat Ability to compare and More efficient knowledge-led
enhancement, breeding, genomics genetics research analyze data from across germplasm utilization and
and international nursery data into and breeding the entire genetic breeding systems
a web-enabled, ICIS-based community resources, germplasm
resource for wheat enhancement and breeding
continuum
2009 Precision phenotyping CIMMYT, ICARDA, Improved ability to evaluate Increased accuracy of marker
methodologies for drought IITA, NARSs, SME material during mapping development activities and
tolerance in maize and wheat and ARI researchers studies or screen material selective power of conventional
available and breeders in breeding programs breeding programs
2009 Genotype-by-environment CIMMYT, ICARDA Improved ability to identify Increased ability to design
interaction for abiotic and biotic IITA, NARS, SME underlying genes for knowledge-led breeding systems
stress tolerance in crop breeding and ARI researchers complex biotic and abiotic accounting for epistasis and
programs characterized and and breeders stress tolerances and genotype-by-environment
classified model their interaction with interaction
the environment
2010 Integrated methodologies Global maize and Dramatically increased Improved efficiency of maize and
validated for foreground and wheat research and impact of genomics tools in wheat molecular breeding
background molecular breeding breeding community maize and wheat breeding systems
systems
2010 A fully integrated decision-support CIMMYT, ICARDA, Improved efficiency, speed Improved efficiency, pace and
system available for the design IITA, NARSs and and precision of trait- success of maize and wheat
and implementation of molecular SME breeders targeted breeding programs breeding product development
breeding of wheat and maize through linking genetic,
economic, crop growth and
whole plant physiology
modeling analyses
Output 3 Capacity building and CIMMYT, ICARDA, Newly identified genetic Increased pace, quantity and
backstopping implementation of IITA, NARSs and resources, latest value of market preferred
technology-assisted breeding SME researchers innovations in germplasm cultivars that reduce farmer risks
interventions and breeders management, novel and vulnerabilities, improve
technology-assisted farming household livelihoods
germplasm enhancement and health, and conserve natural
tools and methodologies resources
routinely adopted by
CIMMYT, NARSs and SME
breeding programs
2008 High-throughput DNA extraction National and Increased autonomy of Improved efficiency of maize and
facilities established at four key international partner breeding programs to wheat molecular breeding
maize and wheat breeding maize and wheat engage in molecular systems in regional hubs in
locations breeding programs breeding activities Africa, Asia and Latin America
2008 Coordinated out-sourcing system National and Increased autonomy of Improved scale and cost
for genome-wide genotyping international partner maize breeding programs efficiency of maize molecular
available for maize maize breeding to engage in molecular breeding systems in national and
programs breeding activities international programs worldwide


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Page 40


Outputs Intended users Outcomes Impacts
2009 Training in new technology- NARSs, SME and Modern breeding best Increased flow of more targeted
assisted breeding methodologies CIMMYT researchers practices adopted in maize and wheat germplasm with
through biotech hubs in Africa and and breeders national and international greater impact.
Asia programs worldwide.
Enhanced quality and
efficiency of research and
breeding programs
2009 Molecular breeding communities of NARS, SME, IITA, Cooperatively designed More rapid and efficient
practice established around ICARDA and and developed maize or development of market preferred
biotech hubs in Africa and Asia CIMMYT maize and wheat seed-based cultivars with improved
wheat breeding technologies tailored for agronomic performance
programs use in each target mega-
environment

2009 A comprehensive research data Researchers in IRRI Efficiency and focus of Increase in research and
management system across all and CIMMYT and research improved by breeding advances through
disciplines their NARSs partners access to sound informatics effective analysis of fully
practices and relevant, high integrated data across all
quality information and data disciplines
from previous research
2010 Virtual consultancy service Researchers in IRRI Latest innovations in Global access to current
available for biometrics, and CIMMYT and computational sciences information technology that
computational biology, breeding their NARSs partners adopted by CIMMYT and facilitates data management and
informatics and simulation partners product delivery
2010 Service, support and training unit National and Latest innovations in Improved efficiency of maize and
established in biotech hubs in international partner technology-assisted plant wheat breeding programs
Africa and Asia maize and wheat breeding adopted by worldwide
breeding programs CIMMYT and partners
2010 On-line training resources National and Latest innovations in Improved efficiency of tropical
available for all aspects of international maize technology-assisted plant breeding programs worldwide
molecular breeding and wheat breeding breeding freely available to
programs worldwide anyone










Project 3: Stress tolerant maize

Time Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
Frame
Output 1 Drought tolerant (DT) maize to Breeders in NARS, Use of increasingly drought Increased food and income
enhance food and income security, private seed tolerant, diverse maize security for resource-poor farm
reduce use of scarce irrigation companies and at germplasm; more effective families, decreased vulnerability
water and adjust to climate change IITA, formal and development, and to recurrent droughts and climate
community-based dissemination of drought change, decreased need for food
seed producers, tolerant maize cultivars to aid and irrigation water
NGOs and CBOs, farmers world-wide
decision makers,
scientific community
at large
Output Annual provision of >10 elite new Breeders in NARS Continued increase of Reduced maize yield losses in
Target DT maize genotypes adapted to and private seed drought tolerance in maize drought-affected maize growing
2008-2010 eastern and southern African companies varieties made available to environments in Africa
maize mega-environments farmers in eastern and
southern Africa
Output New phenotyping protocols for Breeders and Inclusion of additional
Target crop water status defined for scientific community selection criteria in maize
2008 maize world-wide drought breeding results in
Greater breeding progress
Output Morpho-phenological diversity of Breeders in SSA, More effective use of maize
Target southern Africa maize landraces scientific community genetic resources in stress
2008 documented for abiotic stress world-wide breeding projects for
tolerance southern Africa
Output Use of DT maize by seed NARS, seed More rapid scale-up of
Target producers in Africa assessed and companies, decision seed production of drought
2008 bottlenecks for variety deployment makers tolerant maize
defined
Output Asian-adapted germplasm (at least NARS and private Drought tolerant maize Productivity increases in Asia
Target 40 lines) with genes for drought seed companies in varieties made available to maize growing environments
2008 tolerance introgressed from elite India, Southern PRC, farmers in East and limited by drought and scarcity of
CIMMYT sources distributed to Indonesia, Southeast Asia irrigation water
national programs in Southeast Philippines, Thailand,
Asia for advanced testing and Vietnam
Output Global characterization of elite Breeders and Accelerated breeding gains
Target maize inbreds from CIMMYT and scientific community for drought tolerance
2009 IITA for drought tolerance and world-wide
genetic diversity
Output Double-haploid technique used to Breeders and Accelerated breeding
Target extract inbreds from drought scientific community progress for drought
2009 tolerant source populations world-wide tolerance
Output Transgenic sources of drought Breeders in SSA, First information on the
Target tolerance incorporated into drought scientific community complementarity of
2010 tolerant CIMMYT maize world-wide transgenic and
germplasm conventional maize drought
tolerance
Output 2 Maize germplasm tolerant to acidic Breeders in NARS, Maize productivity Reduced encroachment of maize
and low fertility soils to enhance private seed increases on acidic and low production into fragile
productivity among resource- companies and at fertility soils environments such as tropical
constrained farmers and reduce IITA, formal and forests
encroachment of maize production community-based
into more fragile environments seed producers,
NGOs and CBOs,
decision makers,
scientific community
at large


Page 41










Time Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
Frame
Output Annual provision of >4 elite, new Breeders in NARS Continued increases in the Maize productivity increases on
Target low-pH tolerant maize genotypes and private seed low-pH tolerance of maize acidic soils in South America
2008-2010 adapted to South American maize companies varieties available to
mega-environments farmers in South America
Output Annual provision of >4 elite new, Breeders in NARS Continued increases in the Maize productivity increases on
Target low-N tolerant maize genotypes and private seed low-N tolerance of maize low fertility soils in Africa, Asia
2008-2010 companies varieties available to and Latin America
farmers
Output Inheritance of callose content in Breeders and Accelerated breeding
Target tropical maize documented and scientific community progress for soil acidity
2008 manual developed world-wide tolerance
Output Evaluation of best acid soil tolerant NARS and private Accelerated breeding
Target maize germplasm from South seed companies in progress for acid soil
2009 America for use in Asia Asia tolerance in Asia
Output Acid soil tolerant screening sites NARS and private Accelerated breeding
Target established and incorporated in seed companies in progress for soil acidity
2010 breeding network for Asia Asia tolerance in Asia
Output 3 Striga resistant maize to restore Breeders in NARS, Maize varieties become Restoration of maize production
maize production in affected areas private seed available which are not on resource-poor farmers' fields
in sub-Saharan Africa companies and at affected by Striga; affected by Striga sp. (parasitic
IITA, formal and reduction of Striga seed weeds)
community-based banks in soils
seed producers,
NGOs and CBOs,
decision makers,
scientific community
at large
Output A minimum of 25 Striga resistant Breeders in NARS, Access to a suite of elite
Target (IR) hybrids and OPVs for private seed germplasm adapted to all
2008 evaluation by partners companies and at major agro-ecologies in
IITA Africa
Output Through collaboration with NARS, Resource-poor Striga resistant maize
Target local seed companies and AATF, farmers in Striga- cultivars become available
2008 adapted Striga resistant (IR) maize affected areas in in an increasing number of
cultivars meet release eastern and southern eastern and southern
requirements in a minimum of four Africa African countries
eastern and southern African
countries
Output Adoption and benefit-sharing Decision makers Conditions that improve
Target assessment conducted for Striga- benefits to farmers of
2009 resistant (IR) maize showing proprietary technology
benefit sharing among farmers, better understood
public and private sector
Output New Mutator-induced sources of Breeders in NARS Wider genetic basis for
Target Striga resistance identified and and private seed Striga resistance in maize,
2010 mapped companies in sub- preventing emergence of
Saharan Africa; IITA resistance in Striga
Output 4 Disease and insect resistant maize Breeders in NARS, Maize varieties with in-built Reduced pre- and postharvest
to reduce pre-and postharvest private seed resistance to new or losses due to new or high-impact
losses companies and at intractable high priority biotic stresses
IITA, formal and disease and insect pests
community-based become available to
seed producers, farmers in tropical
NGOs and CBOs, environments
decision makers,
scientific community
at large

Page 42










Time Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
Frame
Annual Annual provision of >10 elite new Breeders in NARS More diverse and improved
Output tropical maize genotypes with host and private seed conventional resistance to
Target plant resistance to highly virulent companies disease and insect pests in
2008-2010 diseases, stem borers or post- released maize varieties
harvest pests
Output In collaboration with trait providers Scientific community, Knowledge about the
Target and KARl, Bt hybrids with decision makers effectiveness of new
2008 transgenic resistance to Busseola transgenic Bt traits against
fusca tested in biosafety Busseola fusca in eastern
greenhouse facilities Africa
Output In collaboration with trait providers Scientific community, Knowledge about
Target and KARl, Bt hybrids with decision makers effectiveness of new
2009 transgenic resistance against transgenic Bt traits against
Busseola fusca tested in open Busseaola fusca in eastern
quarantine facilities Africa
Output Sources for banded leaf and sheet NARS and private Accelerated breeding
Target blight resistance identified and seed companies in progress for resistance to
2009 shared with breeders in Asian Asia banded leaf and sheet
countries blight in Asia
Output Molecular markers for leaf Breeders in Africa More effective selection for
Target diseases important to sub-Saharan and the scientific background traits (leaf
2010 Africa identified and applied in community world- diseases) in germplasm
marker-assisted breeding projects wide being improved for
intractable traits, such as
drought tolerance
Output Option for market segmenting Decision makers, Humanitarian access to Bt
Target between humanitarian and seed companies events in markets with
2010 commercial use of transgenic Bt commercial interests for
maize seed explored transgenic Bt maize seed
Output 5 Mycotoxin resistant maize for Breeders in NARS, Maize varieties with Increase food safety and trade
increased food safety private seed reduced mycotoxin opportunities
companies and at contamination become
IITA, formal and available to farmers in
community-based tropical environments
seed producers,
NGOs and CBOs,
decision makers, the
scientific community
at large
Output Mycotoxin resistant germplasm Breeders in NARS Increased awareness and
Target sources documented on and private seed use of available genetic
2008 CIMMYT's webpage companies variation
Output GIS-based prediction of maize Decision makers More effective targeting of
Target production areas affected by resistance breeding
2009 aflatoxin contamination strategies
Output Resistance breeding strategy to NARS and IARC Maize varieties with
Target decrease mycotoxin contamination reduced mycotoxin
2010 of maize implemented in Africa contamination become
and Asia, based on newly available to farmers in
available funding Africa and Asia
Output 6 Strengthened impact pathways for NARS, seed Increased effectiveness of Sustainable maize productivity
stress tolerant maize companies, NGOs NARS, seed companies, increases among resource-poor
and CBOs NGOs, CBOs in maize farmers in stress-prone
developing, releasing, environments
targeting and disseminating
stress tolerant maize
cultivars


Page 43











































































Page 44


Time Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
Frame
Annual Stress breeding skills of 25 NARS Scientists from Increased effectiveness of
Output and private sector scientists NARS and private NARS and SMEs in
Target improved through workshops, seed companies developing stress tolerant
2008-2010 visiting scientist fellowships and maize cultivars
graduate research projects
Annual Backstopping of 15 NARS in In-country multi- Agreed and coordinated
Output Africa, Asia and Latin America stakeholder teams public-private strategies
Target through collaborative country- including NARS, that increase the access of
2008-2010 specific maize breeding and seed entrepreneurs, farmers in stress-prone
dissemination projects targeted for NGOs, CBOs and environment to improved
stressed environments farming communities maize seed
Output In collaboration with IITA, a Technicians from Reduced time to the
Target minimum of 100 technicians in NARS and seed release of new stress
2008 sub-Saharan Africa trained in companies in sub- tolerant maize varieties
implementing stress breeding and Saharan Africa
farmer-participatory maize variety
trials
Output 15 small-scale seed entrepreneurs Small-scale seed Increased success rate
Target trained in practical skills relevant to entrepreneurs and among emerging seed
2009 increasing maize seed production leaders of entrepreneurs and reduced
and dissemination in stressed community-based time to the availability of
environments seed production seed of new stress tolerant
Schemes maize varieties to farmers










Project 4: Nutritious and specialty maize

Time Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
Frame
Output 1 Micronutrient-enriched maize for Researchers in Nutritious maize Improved vitamin A, Fe, and Zn
improved nutrition, health and NARS, private germplasm is used and nutrition in selected countries
agricultural productivity, companies, IARC incorporated in breeding
and ARIS and research programs,
resulting in biofortifled
cultivars being availed to
maize farmers and
consumers.
Annual At least 5 new advanced or elite Researchers in Greatly expanding genetic
Output genotypes with enhanced pro- NARS, private base of micronutrient-
Target vitamin A, Zn or Fe concentration companies, IARC enhanced germplasm
2008-2010 and ARIs
Output In collaboration with ARI partners, Researchers in Increased breeding
Target chromosome regions associated NARS, private efficiency and effectiveness
2009 with carotenoids mapped, and companies, IARC for enhanced pro-vitamin A
gene expression studies of and ARIs concentrations in maize
enzymes involved in the
carotenoid synthesis pathway
documented
Output Effectiveness of various inbred Researchers in Increased breeding
Target maize lines as donors (sources) of NARS, private efficiency and effectiveness
2008 enhanced pro-vitamin A for maize companies, IARC for enhanced pro-vitamin A
breeding documented and ARIs concentrations in maize
Output Utility of NIRS laboratory method Researchers in More cost-effective
Target for rapid analysis of pro-vitamin A NARS, private breeding for high pro-
2008 in maize documented companies, IARC vitamin A
and ARIs
Output Consumer preferences for yellow Researchers in Improved targeting of
Target maize documented for Africa NARS, private maize varieties biofortified
2008 (literature review) and measured companies, IARC with pro-vitamin A
and analyzed in Kenya and ARIs carotenoids
Output Effectiveness documented of Researchers in Decisions about future
Target recurrent selection for enhancing NARS, private breeding strategies and
2009 pro-vitamin A concentration in companies and IARC likelihood of success
maize
Output Simple, in-vitro laboratory methods Public and private Enhanced breeder
Target validated for analysis of laboratories effectiveness at improving
2009 bioavailability of pro-vitamin A in nutrition through pro-
maize and manual developed vitamin A breeding
Output In collaboration with NARS, Seed producers and Varieties with enhanced
Target germplasm with enhanced pro- NGOs in target levels of pro-vitamin A
2010 vitamin A content evaluated in countries become available to
variety release trials in a minimum farmers in pilot countries
of four African and Latin American
countries
Output 2 Quality protein maize (QPM) for Researchers in Nutritious maize Reduced risk of protein
improved agricultural productivity NARS, private germplasm is used and malnutrition in groups heavily
and health. companies, IARC incorporated in breeding dependent upon maize,
and ARIs and research programs, especially women and children
resulting in biofortified members; increased income
cultivars being availed to opportunities for smallholder pork
maize farmers and and chicken producers
consumers


Page 45










Time Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
Frame
Annual At least 15 new, elite QPM Researchers in Sustained development of
Output genotypes available NARS, private high yielding, agronomically
Target companies, IARCs excellent QPM cultivars
2008-2010 and ARIs
Output QPM conversion of the popular Ethiopian Accelerated adoption and
Target Ethiopian hybrid 'BH660' and at researchers, seed impacts of QPM germplasm
2008 least one other farmer-grown industry and farmers
cultivar in Africa available and
tested in direct comparison with
Sthe original non-QPM versions
Output New, simplified laboratory Public and private More cost-effective
Target methods for analysis of tryptophan laboratories breeding and quality control
2008 in maize grain validated and of QPM germplasm
adopted by partners in at least four
countries
Output Impact assessment of QPM in NARS, seed Improved targeting of QPM
Target target areas of four eastern African companies,
2008 countries agribusinesses,
nutrition and public
health specialists,
_____ food aid programs
Output Simplified quality assurance NARS, seed Accelerated
Target strategy to monitor the quality of companies, commercialization and
2009 QPM cultivars developed, agribusinesses impact of QPM
validated with partners in at least
three countries with commercial
QPM cultivars, and documented
Output Use of molecular markers Breeders, scientific More effective maintenance
Target implemented for the Opaque-2 community of QPM characteristics in
2010 gene and selected modifiers new breeding projects and
more effective conversion
of high-value germplasm to
QPM
Output 3 Dual-purpose or specialty maize Researchers in Maize with value-added Increased incomes and market
for improved livelihoods and NARS, private traits or uses is competitiveness improve
income generation companies, IARC incorporated in breeding adopters' livelihoods
and ARIs and research programs,
resulting in cultivars with
increased income-
generating potential being
availed to maize farmers
and markets.
Output In collaboration with ILRI and Researchers in Decisions about the future
Target NARS, documentation of farmer NARS, IARC; and development and
2008 perceptions regarding the best, policy makers promotion of food/stover
high-stover quality maize dual-purpose maize for
genotypes and of the influence of maximum livelihood
fodder traits on cultivar choice in impacts
Ethiopia and Tanzania
Output Stover quality assessed for at least Researchers in Simple, rapid, inexpensive
Target 50 genotypes in Africa, and NARS, private selection methods will
2008 prediction formulae developed for companies, IARC facilitate breeding efforts
rapid screening of maize stover and ARIs
quality


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Page 47


Time Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
Frame
Output Ex-ante impact assessment and Researchers in Initiation of focused genetic
Target prioritization of investments in NARS and IARC; enhancement projects with
2009 biofuel or specialty maize policy-makers; high impact potential and
donors benefits to resource-poor
farmers
Output High-throughput laboratory Researchers in Facilitated genetic
Target methods for assessment of NARS, private improvement for emerging,
2009 specialty/nutritional traits (e.g. companies, IARC high-value traits
anthocyanins, oil, starch) validated and ARIs
and documented
Output A minimum of three focused, Researchers in New opportunities for
Target genetic enhancement projects NARS, private income generation by
2010 initiated on specialty maize with companies, IARC smallholder farmers
high impact potential and benefits and ARIs
to resource-poor farmers,
supported by new funding
Output 4 Strengthened impact pathways for NARS and private Increased effectiveness of Impact on nutrition and income of
nutritional and specialty trait maize seed company NARS, seed companies, resource-poor farm families
breeders NGOs, CBOs in
developing, releasing,
targeting and disseminating
nutritional or specialty
maize cultivars
Annual Backstopping of 10 NARS in In-country multi- Agreed and coordinated
Output Africa, Asia and Latin America stakeholder teams public-private strategies
Target through collaborative country- including NARS, that increase farmers'
2008-2010 specific maize breeding and seed entrepreneurs, access in stress-prone
dissemination projects addressing NGOs, CBOs and environments to improved
nutritionally enhanced or specialty farming communities maize seed
maize
Annual Skills of 25 scientists, technicians Scientists from Increased effectiveness of
Output and students improved in NARS and private NARS and SMEs in
Target breeding, participatory research, or seed companies developing stress tolerant
2008-2010 reaching end users through maize cultivars
workshops, visiting scientist
fellowships and graduate research
projects










Project 7. Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality

___ Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
Output 1 Spring bread and durum wheat NARS, IARC ARI, Measurable increases in Increased national food
and triticale with increased NGOs, SME productivity, water-use security. Reduced vulnerability
drought and heat tolerance, breeding and seed efficiency and genetic of farm families whose
multiple resistance against soil- companies. diversity in farmers' fields. livelihoods depend on income
borne stresses and pathogens Reduced losses from from wheat-based farming
and foliar diseases, and diseases and increased systems. Improved agricultural
appropriate end-use quality, stability of grain yield. productivity and profitability,
better quality of wheat products
and more sustainable utilization
of natural resources. Risk of
__disease epidemics reduced.
2008 Advanced spring bread and Valuable lines used in Improved and genetically
durum wheat and triticale lines breeding programs. Data diverse wheat germplasm used
with tolerance to abiotic stresses from International Wheat by breeders. Faster
(drought, heat) and multiple Improvement Network development of improved
disease resistance (rusts, available to cooperators. cultivars. Participation in global
Septoria, Fusarium, soil-borne and regional wheat
disease complexes) and better improvement networks
end-use quality distributed increases. Global monitoring
through the Semi-Arid Wheat and pre-emptive screening
Screening Nursery (150), Semi- against new diseases and new
Arid Wheat Yield Trial (40), virulences before major
International Durum Screening epidemics occur.
Nursery (120) and International
STriticale Screening Nursery (50).
2008 At least 100 advanced wheat Breeding programs, Candidate lines Germplasm and information
lines tested by partners in farmers characterized for relevant sharing and analysis lead to
multilocation yield trials, traits. Lines and data used faster deployment of improved
for wheat improvement. cultivars and increased
Candidate cultivars productivity.
evaluated by farmers
through participatory
varietal selection. Lines
submitted for national
Scultivar registration trials.
2008 At least 5 cultivars released and Farmers, seed Cultivars released and Farmers and consumers benefit
60 new lines used in NARS production adopted by farmers for from new wheat cultivars. The
crossing programs. enterprises, areas affected by erratic enhanced drought and heat
breeding programs rainfall.. Seed available tolerance of these cultivars
for formal and informal buffer cropping systems against
collaboration possible negative effects from
______climate change.
2009 Advanced spring bread and NARS, IARC ARI, Valuable lines used in Improved and genetically
durum wheat and triticale lines NGOs, SME breeding programs. Data diverse wheat germplasm used
with tolerance to abiotic stresses, breeding and seed from International Wheat by breeders. Faster
multiple disease resistance and companies. Improvement Network development of improved
better end-use quality, available to cooperators. cultivars. Participation in global
distributed through the SAWSN and regional wheat
(150), SAWYT (40), IDSN (120) improvement networks
and ITSN (50). increases. Global monitoring
and pre-emptive screening
against new diseases and new
____ virulences.


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___ Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
2009 At least 100 advanced wheat Breeding programs, Candidate lines Germplasm and information
lines tested by partners in farmers characterized for relevant sharing and analysis lead to
multilocation yield trials, traits. Lines and data used faster deployment of improved
for wheat improvement. cultivars and increased
Candidate cultivars productivity.
evaluated by farmers
through participatory
varietal selection. Lines
submitted for national
Scultivar registration trials.
2009 At least 5 cultivars released and Farmers, seed Cultivars released and Farmers and consumers benefit
60 new lines used in NARS production adopted by farmer for from new wheat cultivars. The
crossing programs. enterprises, areas affected by erratic enhanced drought and heat
breeding programs rainfall. Seed available for tolerance of these cultivars
formal and informal buffer systems against possible
collaboration negative effects from climate
S_ change.
2009 Parental lines with desirable NARS, IARC ARI, New lines with better Cultivars with improved end-
quality for diverse end uses NGOs, SME quality properties use quality and better
identified and deployed, breeding and seed available to wheat marketability; farmers have
companies. breeders. higher income.
2009 New sources (5) of resistance to Use by partners and Rainfed wheat farmers benefit
nematodes and root rots stakeholders, leading to from an increased and more
identified per year, and 30 lines increased productivity and stable production, despite the
resistant to soil-borne diseases sustainability. effects of climate change.
distributed through the Root
Disease Screening Nursery.
2010 Advanced spring bread and Valuable lines used in Improved and genetically
durum wheat and triticale lines breeding programs. Data diverse wheat germplasm used
with tolerance to abiotic stresses, from International Wheat by breeders. Faster
multiple disease resistance, and Improvement Network development of improved
better end-use quality, available to cooperators. cultivars. Participation in global
distributed through the SAWSN and regional wheat
(150), SAWYT (40) and IDSN improvement networks
(120). increases. Global monitoring
and pre-emptive screening
against new diseases and new
virulences.
2010 At least 100 advanced wheat Breeding programs, Candidate lines Germplasm and information
lines tested by partners in farmers characterized for relevant sharing and analysis lead to
multilocation yield trials, traits. Lines and data used faster deployment of improved
for wheat improvement. cultivars and increased
Candidate cultivars productivity.
evaluated by farmers
through participatory
varietal selection. Lines
submitted for national
Scultivar registration trials.
2010 At least 5 cultivars released and Farmers, seed Cultivars released and Farmers and consumers benefit
60 new lines used in NARS production adopted by farmer for from new wheat cultivars. The
crossing programs. enterprises, areas affected by erratic enhanced drought and heat
breeding programs rainfall. Seed available for tolerance of these cultivars
formal and informal buffer systems against possible
collaboration negative effects from climate
__ change.


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___ Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
2010 Distribution of F4 and F5 NARS in five Enhanced efficiency to Better adapted and market-
segregating populations targeted regions or wheat exploit wide genetic oriented cultivars with more
at five eco-regions or farming farming systems variability by partners. genetic diversity in farmers'
systems with required market- fields.
oriented end-use quality.
Output 2 Determine the scientific basis of NARS, IARC, ARI, New valuable diversity Livelihood of farmers living in
stress adaptive traits, with SME identified and marginal areas enhanced
emphasis on drought, heat and incorporated into breeding through more drought tolerant
resistance to diseases to lines, and stress resistant cultivars.
develop more efficient selection Measurable increase in
methodologies, productivity, genetic diversity in
farmers' fields.
2008 Main physiological traits Enhanced knowledge and Better drought and heat tolerant
associated with drought applied tools. Increased cultivars delivered faster to
adaptation in diverse wheat selection efficiency. farmers
genetic resources identified. Physiological trait-based
breeding for heat
tolerance implemented.
Wheat germplasm with
improved drought
tolerance based on novel
g__ene combinations.
2008 QTL identified for water-use and Increased efficiency to Better drought tolerant and
N-use efficiency in durum select for drought and input efficient cultivars
populations. heat tolerance associated delivered faster to farmers.
traits.
2008 Improved phenotypic screening Enhanced knowledge and Germplasm developed with
methods identified for soil borne applied tools. Increased multiple levels of tolerance to
pathogen resistance. selection efficiency. water-limited conditions.

2009 Routine application of optimized NARS and CIMMYT Enhanced selection and Germplasm developed more
molecular markers (for soil cyst breeders characterization efficiency quickly and efficiently, with
nematodes, boron tolerance, in breeding improved better adaptation and end-use
cereal rust resistance, fusarium germplasm acceptance characteristics.
head blight, protein quality) and
physiological markers (for
canopy temperature, spectral
_indices) by CIMMYT or NARS.
2009 Available trait data routinely Users of CIMMYT Breeding programs utilize
provided with international germplasm make better germplasm more thoroughly,
nurseries to NARS and SME decisions about the resulting in better cultivars
partners. appropriate, immediate reaching farmers more quickly.
use of co-developed
germplasm.
2009 MAS applied for drought and Knowledge on genetics of More drought or heat tolerant
heat adaptive traits in bread heat and drought cultivars available to farmers;
wheat mapping populations, with tolerance; increased farmers' production less
emphasis on canopy breeding efficiency. vulnerable to abiotic stresses.
temperature and stem
carbohydrates.
2009 Improved understanding of soil Knowledge of biotic Germplasm possessing
borne pathogen frequency, components that affect multiple traits associated with
diversity and economic tolerance to drought resistance to drought and
importance for three countries, stress and input use marginal environments.
efficiency. ___


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___ Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
2010 Genetic stocks and rye Wheat genetic stocks, Available genetic variability is
evaluated for stress related traits mostly with introgressions better utilized with impact in
(drought, physiological traits, from wheat wild relatives, farmers' fields.
zinc efficiency, disease in improved backgrounds,
resistance) by CIMMYT and evaluated for drought
partners. relevant traits.
2010 Identification of new genetic Physiological trait-based Greater efficiency in breeding
variability for physiological traits breeding for heat using fundamental molecular
associated with heat and climate tolerance implemented. pathways and processes is
change adaptation in wheat achieved.
germplasm.
2010 Efficiency of doubled haploids Enhanced breeding Validation and recommendation
versus shuttle selection schemes efficiency. of an optimal breeding strategy
compared. for CIMMYT and NARS
partners.
2010 Genotype by tillage interactions Wheat cultivars adapted Cultivars that can fully exploit
understood and extended to to zero-tillageage the benefits of conservation
selection methodologies, to systems. agriculture with higher yield and
develop germplasm adapted to reduced production costs,
conservation agriculture leading to increased incomes
systems. for farmers.
Output 3 Increased capacity of partners to NARS, SME NARS and partner staff Partner's research-for-
face the challenges of climate trained. Increased development capacity
change in relation to wheat effectiveness of partners strengthened to improve the
improvement in drought and heat and CIMMYT research. livelihoods of people depending
stressed, variable environments, on income from rainfed wheat
systems.
2008 International training on soil Better capacity of North Improved information and
borne pathogens in North Africa African partners to knowledge sharing and
conducted and network of monitor, assess and networking.
researchers in SBP formed. investigate SBP
production limitations.
2008 Multidisciplinary program for Strengthened pool of Increased research
visiting scientists focused on wheat scientists. effectiveness of CIMMYT and
drought tolerance. its partners in key regions and
NARS.
2009 Multidisciplinary program for
visiting scientists focused on
heat tolerance
2010 Multidisciplinary program for
visiting scientists focused on
climate change.
2010 Regional testing networking of Better utilization of NARS More genetic diversity in
NARS wheat lines facilitated, bred wheat lines for farmer's fields, with better
similar agro-ecologies. adaptation to prevalent abiotic
Pre-emptive disease and biotic stresses, more stable
screening for new and higher productivity.
diseases and their
virulence.


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Project 8: Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and quality


Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output 1 Genetically diverse wheat Farmers, household Measurable increase in Increased national food
germplasm with enhanced consumers, food productivity and genetic security. Reduced vulnerability
consumer and market oriented processors, NARS, diversity in farmers' fields. of farm families whose
quality, high yield potential, IARC ARI, NGO, Reduced losses from livelihoods depends on income
resistant to biotic stresses and SME, other private diseases and increased from wheat based farming
buffered to tolerate climatic sector stability of grain yield. systems. Improved agricultural
change Enhanced input productivity, better quality of
efficiency. wheat products and more
sustainable utilization of
natural resources. Risk of
__disease epidemics reduced.
2008 Advanced spring, durum wheat NARS, IARC ARI, Sustained growth in Improved and genetically
and triticale germplasm and NGO, SME, other wheat productivity by diverse wheat germplasm
segregating populations for private sector release of new and used by breeders. Faster
irrigated environments with diverse wheat germplasm development of improved
durable disease resistance, input- distributed through cultivars. Participation in global
use efficiency, high and stable international nurseries and regional wheat
yield, and required end-use and used by NARS improvement networks
quality, distributed through the breeding programs. increases. Global monitoring
Elite Selection Wheat Yield Trial and pre-emptive screening
(40), International Bread Wheat against new diseases and their
Screening Nursery (150), virulence before major
International Durum Yield epidemics occur.
Nursery (40) and International
STriticale Yield Nursery (40).
2008 At least 150 advanced wheat Advanced lines Germplasm and information
lines tested by partners in characterized for relevant sharing and analysis lead to
multilocation yield trials, traits. Lines and data faster deployment of improved
used for global wheat cultivars and increased
improvement. Candidate productivity.
cultivars evaluated by
farmers through
participatory varietal
selection.
2008 Candidate lines (20) submitted Cultivars released and Farmers and consumers
for national cultivar registration adopted by farmer for benefit from new wheat
trials; new lines (100) used in areas affected by variable cultivars. Enhanced drought
partners' crossing programs. input potential and high and heat tolerance of these
disease pressure; cultivars buffers against
partners' breeding possible negative effects from
__programs strengthened. climate change.
2008 Advanced lines resistant to stem Global wheat Diverse sources of spring Development of cultivars
rust distributed in the breeding and winter bread wheat resistant to Ug99 reduces the
International Stem Rust community, Global germplasm, with risk of a global stem rust
Resistance Screening Nursery Rust Initiative information on genes for pandemic and associated food
(150). resistance to Ug99, made insecurity and economic
available to NARS for losses.
either direct release or
use in their breeding
S______programs _


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___ Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
2009 Advanced spring, durum wheat NARS, IARC ARI, Sustained growth in Improved and genetically
and triticale germplasm and NGO, SME, private wheat productivity by diverse wheat germplasm used
segregating populations for sector release of new and by breeders. Faster
irrigated environments with diverse wheat germplasm development of improved
durable disease resistance, input- distributed through cultivars. Participation in global
use efficiency, high and stable international nurseries and and regional wheat
yields, and required end-use used by NARS-own improvement networks
quality, distributed through the breeding programs. increases. Global monitoring
ESWYT (40), IBWSN (150), and pre-emptive screening
HTWYT (30), the IDYN (40), against new diseases and their
ITYN (40) and High Temperature virulence before major
_Wheat Yield Trial (30). epidemics occur.
2009 At least 150 advanced wheat lines Advanced lines Germplasm and information
tested by partners in multilocation characterized for relevant sharing and analysis lead to
yield trials, traits. Lines and data used faster deployment of improved
for global wheat cultivars and increased
improvement. Candidate productivity.
cultivars evaluated by
farmers through
participatory varietal
selection.
2009 Candidate lines (20) submitted for Cultivars released and Farmers and consumers
national cultivar registration trials, adopted by farmers for benefit from new wheat
and 100 new lines used in partner- areas affected by variable cultivars. Enhanced drought
own crossing programs. input potential and high and heat tolerance of these
disease pressure, and cultivars buffer against
partner breeding possible negative effects from
___ __programs strengthened. climate change.
2009 Advanced lines resistant to stem Global wheat Diverse sources of spring Development of cultivars
rust distributed in the International breeding and winter bread wheat resistant to Ug99 will reduce
Stem Rust Resistance Screening community, Global germplasm with informa- the risk of a global stem rust
Nursery (150). Rust Initiative tion on resistance genes pandemic and associated
against Ug99 made avail- damage to economies and
able to NARS for either food security.
direct release or for use in
___ _______their breeding programs
2009 100 bread wheat lines adapted to Sichuan and Sustained productivity Livelihood of farmers improved
Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces of Yunnan AAS, growth in Sichuan and through increased food
China enhanced with durable CAAS Yunnan Provinces through security and income.
resistance to yellow rust and the release of high-
evaluated for yield potential yielding spring bread
wheat cultivars with
durable resistance to
Yellow rust
2009 At least 40 new heat tolerant, Nepal, Bangladesh, Genetic stocks with Reduced vulnerability of
early-maturing lines with BAU-lndia, combined resistance to farmers through enhanced
resistance to Helminthosporium CIMMYT breeders these stresses, as well as wheat productivity and stability
leaf blight and leaf rust identified with yield stability, made for tolerance to the effects of
and developed for the Eastern available for further climate change and diseases.
Gangetic Plains genetic diversification
2009 Wheat germplasm resistant to GFI, USWBSI, Increased availability of Reduced toxin content in
fusarium head scab through MAS China, INIA- wheat germplasm wheat results in improved
and hot-spot shuttle breeding with Uruguay resistant to scab health of wheat consumers.
China, Korea, Japan and the
Southern Cone


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___ Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
2009 Large quantities of seed Farmers and seed Mitigating the threat from Reduced vulnerability of
available of 5 to 10 wheat producers in Kenya the Ug99 stem rust race, farmers in target areas;
genotypes resistant to Ug99 and Ethiopia to safeguard food security increased food and economic
stem rust and adapted to target and livelihoods in Africa, security through reduced risk of
countries. Middle East and Asia a global stem rust pandemic.
2010 Advanced spring, durum wheat NARS, IARC ARI, Sustained growth in Improved and genetically
and triticale germplasm and NGO, SME, other wheat productivity through diverse wheat germplasm used
segregating populations for private sector release of new and by breeders. Faster
irrigated environments with diverse wheat germplasm development of improved
durable disease resistance, distributed through cultivars. Participation in global
input-use efficiency, high and international nurseries and regional wheat
stable yields, and required end- and used by NARS improvement networks
use quality, distributed through breeding programs. increases. Global monitoring
the ESWYT (40), IBWSN (150), and pre-emptive screening
HTWYT (30), the IDYN (40), and against new diseases and their
HTWYT (30). virulence before major
_epidemics occur.
2010 At least 150 advanced wheat Advanced lines Germplasm and information
lines tested by partners in characterized for relevant sharing and analysis lead to
multilocation yield trials, traits. Lines and data faster deployment of improved
used for global wheat cultivars and increased
improvement. Candidate productivity.
cultivars evaluated by
farmers through
participatory varietal
selection.
2010 Candidate lines (20) submitted Cultivars released and Farmers and consumers benefit
for national cultivar registration adopted by farmer for from new wheat cultivars.
trials, and 100 new lines used in areas affected by variable Enhanced drought and heat
partner-own crossing programs. input potential and high tolerance of these cultivars
disease pressure, and buffer against possible negative
partner breeding effects from climate change.
programs strengthened.
2010 Advanced lines (40) with low Global wheat Parental germplasm Reduced vulnerability of
vomitoxin identified and breeding developed that protects farmers and consumers; wheat
distributed to partners in community, Global human and animal health grain of higher nutritional and
countries where consumers are Fusarium Initiative from toxins caused by economic value.
vulnerable. Fusarium pathogens.
2010 Advanced lines resistant to stem Global wheat Diverse sources of spring Development of cultivars
rust distributed in the breeding and winter bread wheat resistant to Ug99 will reduce the
International Stem Rust community, Global germplasm, with risk of a global stem rust
Resistance Screening Nursery Rust Initiative information on genes for pandemic and associated
(150). resistance to Ug99, made economic and food security
available to NARS for effects.
either direct release or for
use in their breeding
program
2010 Adapted wheat cultivars from Farmers and seed High acceptance of stem Reduced vulnerability of farmers
Africa and Asia and elite producers rust resistant cultivars by in target areas; increased food
genotypes enhanced with farmers, with resistance to security through reduced risk of
diverse and durable sources of Ug99 introgressed into a global stem rust pandemic.
resistance to the Ug99 stem rust widely grown cultivars
pathogen. _______


Page 54










Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output 2 Basis of durable disease NARS, ARI Germplasm developed Germplasm developed in
resistance characterized and with better resistance to partnership through global
genetic diversity enhanced to pathogens alliances between CIMMYT,
reduce genetic vulnerability in North and South.
farmers' fields.
2008 Knowledge on the Global Rust Initiative Breeding efficiencies More durable and diverse rust
epidemiological dynamics of employed to rapidly resistance deployed, particular
stem rust in East Africa. develop wheat germplasm to areas where rapid pathogen
for use by GRI partners evolution occurs.
worldwide.

2008 New race-specific rust NARS, ARI, Global Better understanding of Increased national and regional
resistance genes in bread and Rust Initiative genetic resistance to food security; reduced
durum wheat (40) advanced three rust diseases of vulnerability of farmers and
lines. Studies of the genetic wheat. Enhanced genetic increased farm income.
basis of durable resistance to diversity for rust
the three rusts in bread and resistance in farmers'
_durum wheat. fields.
2008 Identification of genomic regions Increased selection Increased national and regional
(QTL) in bread and durum efficiency; wheat food security; reduced
wheat populations for fine germplasm with durable vulnerability of farmers and
mapping of rust resistance resistance to rust. increased farm income.
genes and marker development.
2009 Basis of adult plant resistance to Better understanding of Parental germplasm developed
leaf rust in durum wheat the genetic basis of and used extensively by
determined and APR durum durable rust resistance in CIMMYT and partners.
germplasm (40) distributed to durum wheat, allowing
partners. more rapid and efficient
germplasm development.
2009 Identification of resistance- NARS; Cooperators Increased selection Reduced toxin content in wheat
related genes to scab and in Global Fusarium efficiency and availability results in improved health of
development of DNA markers. Initiative of scab resistant wheat consumers.
germplasm.
Output 3 Global networks to monitor NARS, Policy Responsibility for Farmers less vulnerable to
distribution, evolution and Makers, NGO, IARC, losses from pathogen
migration of pathogens for an ARI epidemics, thereby increasing
early warning of threats. their productivity, food security,
wealth and health.
2008 Early warning networks to alert Risks from wheat rust Increased regional and national
and to reduce losses from new pathogens are reduced. food security;
races of rust pathogens of Enhanced information on
wheat. diversity in rust
populations.

2009 International Fusarium Nursery GFI, NARS, Knowledge of the nature Reduced toxin content in wheat
(FHB and CR resistance and USWBSI, and distribution of FHB products results in improved
informative genetic stocks) and crown rot causing health of wheat consumers
grown in FHB/crown rot Fusarium species
hotspots (including knowledge of
new means of describing
pathogenic Fusarium-
chemotype, DNA based
_lineages, etc.)_


Page 55









































































Page 56


___ Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
2009 Species and chemotype of Nature and distribution of Reduced losses from Fusarium
pathogen isolates (FHB/crown FHB and crown rot species and healthier wheat
rot) regionally determined, causing Fusarium species products
determined
Output 4 Germplasm developed with Resource poor Wheat germplasm with Improved and safer nutrition
enhanced genetic variability for consumers and acceptable nutritional and from grain consumption for rural
increased iron, zinc and protein farmers; processors; end-user traits identified and urban poor. Enhanced
concentration, reduced NARS and used wheat grain market
susceptibility to mycotoxin opportunities for farmers
contamination, and/or improved
Svalue-added, end-use quality
2008 Germplasm characterized for CIMMYT and NARS Enhanced breeding More tasty and healthy food
value-added, market-oriented breeders, efficiency through well reaching rural and urban
quality, nutritional value and food processors, characterized parental consumers
safety traits consumers germplasm
2008 Wheat genetic resources NARS, ARI and Enhanced genetic Genetic diversity contributes to
screened for iron and zinc CIMMYT breeders variability for biofortified nutritional security
concentration grain improvement
2008 Micronutrient bioavailability Processors, Optimized processing Improved health of wheat
determined for biofortified consumers methods defined to retain consumers
processed grain products nutritional value of
biofortified grain
2009 Germplasm development (300) NARS and CIMMYT Biofortified germplasm Improved wheat germplasm
for biofortified, enhanced iron or breeders development contributes to improved farmer
zinc concentration and consumer livelihoods
2010 Farmer participatory evaluation Farmers in India Improved wheat cultivars Enhanced food and nutritional
of biofortified wheat germplasm and Pakistan reach farmers security

2010 High through-put NIR screening NARS, ARI and Enhanced genetic Genetic diversity contributes to
for iron, zinc and protein grain CIMMYT breeders variability for biofortified nutritional security
concentration established and grain improvement
fully functioning










Project 10: Maize and wheat cropping systems


Outputs Intended users Outcome Impact
Output 1 Strategic systems knowledge of NARS researchers Enhanced understanding of Through better technologies
cereal-soil dynamics and supporting breeding G x S and resource- and and knowledge, reduction of
management developed to exploit and crop input-use efficiency poverty and producer risk,
genotype x system interactions (G management underlying conservation enhancement of agricultural
x S) and enhance resource and agriculture (CA), and resources and contributions to
input-use efficiency for sustainable improved design of applied the mitigation of and adaptation
maize- and wheat-based cropping research programs in to climate change
systems. developing countries
(including both breeding and
crop management research)
to better exploit genetic and
management options for
increasing system
productivity and mitigating
the effects of climate change.
Output Published synthesis of G x S in NARS researchers Better understanding of G x Increased productivity and
Target maize and wheat systems supporting breeding S and implications for trial reduced poverty
2008 and crop design
management
Paper on long-run impacts of CA NARS researchers Better understanding of Increased productivity and
technologies on water infiltration supporting breeding water dynamics and stabilized yields; i.e., reduced
and soil water balance in and crop management in CA systems production risk
contrasting environments management
Report on assessment of low-cost, NARS researchers Greater volume of soil quality Enhanced resources and data
reliable methodologies to measure supporting breeding data through lower cost to support climate change
soil physical, chemical and and crop methods to improve mitigation/adaptation practices
biological properties management knowledge of soil-cereal
relationships and to better
define research domains
Output Published manual on simple tests NARS researchers Greater volume of data on Enhanced soil resource
Target to evaluate biological activity in the supporting breeding biological activity management
2009 soil and crop
management
Synthesis of the long-run effects of NARS researchers Greater volume of data on Enhanced soil resource
CA on soil biological activity in supporting breeding biological activity of soils management
contrasting environments and crop under cereal CA systems
management
Documented effects of residue in NARS researchers Better knowledge of Maintained soil resources and
different amounts on the supporting breeding sustainable residue more productive mixed maize
biophysical and socioeconomic and crop management practices or wheat farming systems
components of CA systems, management
especially with respect to crop-
livestock competition
Output Synthesis of the long-run impact of NARS researchers Better knowledge of input- Increased input-use efficiency
Target CA on soil organic matter (soil supporting breeding use efficiency and climate change mitigation
2010 carbon) and plant nutrient and crop and adaptation
availability in contrasting soil types management
and environments
Strategies developed for the NARS researchers Improved knowledge of Increased nutrient use
efficient management of nitrogen supporting breeding fertilizer use practices under efficiency and reduced
in CA systems, including issues of and crop CA systems greenhouse gases
fertilizer placement and management
immobilization, crop rotations and
residue amounts.__


Page 57










Outputs Intended users Outcome Impact
Publication on the effects of CA on NARS researchers Knowledge of CA systems, Reduced greenhouse gases;
greenhouse gas emissions under supporting breeding greenhouse gases, and climate change mitigation
different environments and crop climate change
management
Output 2 Coordinated innovation and NARS scientists and Greater knowledge and Poverty reduced, livelihoods
learning platforms established in policy makers from capacity in NARS to manage improved, soil and water
key farming systems to engage different disciplines, innovation systems and conserved, fuel use reduced,
NARS technology developers and initially in risky develop sustainable maize soil organic carbon loss slowed
associated stakeholders (notably maize-based and wheat-based farming or reversed, functioning
researchers, farmers, policy systems in southern systems through participatory mechanisms for the mitigation
makers) and develop widely Africa; intensive system-oriented research. of and adaptation to climate
applicable technologies, identify maize and wheat change in the domains
policies to increase system systems in Asia (rice- surrounding hubs
productivity and sustainability, wheat, rice-maize,
including improved efficiency of cotton-wheat and
use of water, nutrients, and labor, maize-wheat); and
and soil quality management degraded maize- and
wheat-based
systems in Mexico
Output Functioning networks of NARS scientists and Increased rate of technology Increased productivity and
Target international and national policy makers from development resilience, reduced poverty
2008 researchers, farmers, public and different disciplines
private extension agents, private
companies and local policy makers
established and involved in
developing functional CA systems
in at least 10 contrasting
communities each in southern
Africa, India and China
Strategic assessment of rice-maize NARS associated Efficient targeting of rice Sustainable intensification with
systems in Asia with the rice-maize maize intensification enhanced resource
intensification under research across Asia management and reduced
the IRRI-CIMMYT poverty
Alliance
Analysis of input use efficiency in NARS scientists and Better knowledge of input Increased productivity, reduced
CA systems across different policy makers from use efficiency costs and reduced poverty
environments different disciplines



Case studies on the impacts of CA NARS scientists and Better knowledge of Increased system productivity
on physical and economic system policy makers from determinants of CA system from adapted CA systems for
productivity and livelihoods of early different disciplines productivity across different environments
adopters of CA technologies in environments
southern Africa, India and China
Output Report on technology and policy NARS scientists and Better knowledge of Increased productivity and yield
Target options for increased water-use policy makers from technologies for water-use stability, and thus reduced
2009 efficiency through CA systems different disciplines efficiency poverty
across different environments


Case studies published on the NARS scientists and Better knowledge of Increased system productivity
adoption and impact of CA on the policy makers from adoption, adaptation and from adapted CA systems for
productivity and livelihoods of different disciplines impacts of CA systems different environments, reduced
smallholder adopters in South Asia poverty, improved resource
management


Page 58











































































Page 59


Outputs Intended users Outcome Impact
Synthesis of the impacts of CA on NARS scientists and Better knowledge of the Increased returns to labor and
smallholder labor requirements policy makers from adoption, adaptation and reduced poverty
and use in Africa, Asia and Latin different disciplines impacts of CA systems
America

Documented options for NARS associated Knowledge of plausible, Sustainable intensification with
technologies to improve rice-maize with the rice-maize productivity-enhancing enhanced resource
system productivity in selected intensification under technologies for rice-maize management and reduced
locations across Asia the IRRI-CIMMYT intensification across Asia poverty
Alliance
Output Documented options for residue NARS scientists and Better knowledge of climate Climate change mitigation or
Target management and soil carbon and policy makers change mitigation and adaptation in maize and wheat
2010 nitrogen options to mitigate and adaptation options farming systems in developing
adapt to climate change in different countries
environments
Knowledge of integrated rice- NARS associated Knowledge of integrated, Sustainable intensification with
maize intensification models in with the rice-maize productivity-enhancing enhanced resource
selected locations across Asia intensification under technologies for rice-maize management and reduced
the IRRI-CIMMYT intensification across Asia poverty
Alliance
Report of analysis of similarities NARS policy makers Better knowledge of policy Wider adoption of CA
and differences in policy impacts from different drivers technologies leading to poverty
on the adoption and profitability of disciplines reduction, enhanced resources
CA in selected communities in and mitigation of climate
three continents change
Report on the impact of adoption NARS scientists and Better knowledge of Increased impacts of improved
of CA technologies on the uptake policy makers germplasm CA system maize and wheat germplasm
of improved varieties in Africa, interactions and impacts
Asia and Latin America










Project 11. Knowledge, targeting, and strategic assessment of maize and wheat farming systems

Outputs Intended users Outcomes Impacts
Output 1 Strategic information and data for CIMMYT and Better knowledge of impact Increased effectiveness of
targeting priority setting System-wide pathways and enhanced maize and wheat system,
Program researchers targeting of research and research-for-development for
and managers, policy for maize and wheat improvement of rural livelihoods,
NARSs, policy systems, especially for poor food security and reduced
makers, donors farmers poverty

Output Populated spatial knowledge CIMMYT researchers Better understanding of the More effective maize and wheat
Targets. bases for selected hotspots and managers, environments and role of breeding for drought tolerance.
2008 including drought areas; and NARSs, CGIAR drought tolerant germplasm
improved temporal and spatial managers, investors, in risk management in Improved policies a nd
characterization of maize of marginal areas. institutions for impact and
wheat environments. innovation pathways for maize
Enriched policy dialogue on and wheat research.
Mapping and diagnosis of instruments to enhance
impact pathways for one impact pathways for maize More effective targeting of
maize and one wheat Project. and wheat improvement and germplasm and technologies to
Established system to monitor management practices specific environments and
impacts in two countries in improved efficiency of breeding
East Africa. programs.
Documented opportunities for
high-value utilization of maize
in Mexico and South Asia.
Output Enriched spatial knowledge Managers and Better understanding of the More efficient and effective
Targets. bases in two further priority researchers in environments and impact Project monitoring and
2009 regions/hotspots. NARSs, CIMMYT, pathways for maize. evaluation.
CGIAR and
Specification of impact associated partners, Improved priority setting for
pathways for two genetic agricultural policy Lessons from ex post and germplasm enhancement
resources Projects. makers and donors. ex ante assessments. including, intermediate
genetically enhanced materials
Appraisals of climate change
impact on maize and wheat
farming systems initiated. More efficient utilization of ex
NARS (including situ and in situ maize and wheat
Valuation of intermediate extension), university genetic diversity (including
products from genetic and CGIAR Estimates of gene valuation considerations of seed markets
improvements and researchers, policy to guide the utilization of in the latter case).
advancements developed with makers in ministries genetic diversity; knowledge
respect to maize. of agriculture and of the interactions between
Assessments of maize seed water resources, seed markets and diversity
systems in eastern and CGIAR Challenge
southern Africa; synthesis of Programs
markets and diversity.
Output Two documented ex post and
Targets. ex ante impact assessments
2010 in two eastern African
countries

Past impacts assessed and
strategic investment
pathways identified for
drought tolerant maize in
eastern and southern Africa
Functioning wheat atlas


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Outputs Intended users Outcomes Impacts
Output 2 Functional understanding of value CIMMYT Greater effectiveness of Increased farmer income and
chains and innovations systems in researchers, private crop improvement and crop accelerated adoption of
selected regions sector, policy management research, improved cultivars, and
makers, partners including high protein and increased employment through
(including NGOs), micro-nutrient enriched value chain and innovation
CGIAR centers. maize and wheat cultivars, system effectiveness
and improved value-added
chains in selected maize
and wheat farming systems.

Output Documented value chains for CIMMMYT Greater understanding of Improved functioning of value
Targets. poor wheat and maize areas in researchers, NARSs, constraints and chains leading to increased
2008 South Asia. CGIAR centers, opportunities within the financial capital for value chain
private sector, small value and nutrient chains, actors, especially smallholder
Identified means to increase enterprise and Identification of service farmers.
impacts of micronutrient- market development providers to make value
enriched wheat cultivars on sectors, NGOs chains work better.
micro-nutrient deficiencies in
South Asia and of QPM on
maize/poultry value chains in
India.

Low-cost field methodology
developed and tested to
assess potential benefits of
QPM in selected poor regions
of Central America.

Synthesis of literature on
wheat quality with particular
reference to China.
Output Analysis of wheat chain in CIMMMYT Identification of potential
Targets. Tunisia researchers, NARSs, health and other.
2009 CGIAR centers, livelihood benefits from
Documentation of the impacts private sector, small improved functioning of
of macro- and meso-policies enterprise and wheat value and nutrient
on the maize sector in Mexico market development chains
sectors, NGOs
Synthesis of approaches and
methods of innovation
systems for maize and wheat
farming systems
Output Documented value chains for
Targets. marginal maize systems in
2010 Asia and sub-Saharan Africa

Output 3 Strengthened partners involved in NARS (including Strengthened professional Partners' capacity strengthened
research and sustainable extension), NGOs, capacity to improve maize- to conduct appropriate research-
development for maize and wheat CGIAR researchers, and wheat-based farming for-development to improve
based cropping systems, in policy makers, systems. Accessibility and livelihoods and reduce poverty.
alliance with other CGIAR centers. universities, agri- impact of knowledge and
business, technology developed by
CIMMYT and partners
enhanced.

Output Core of Cereal Systems NARS, NGOs, Improved access to Increased research
Targets. Knowledge Program (CSKP), universities, CIMMYT data and effectiveness of CIMMYT and its
2008 Cereal Knowledge Bank investors, policy information and greater partners especially in the key
populated and operational. makers capacity of partners. regions.
Improved communication

Page 61











































































Page 62


___ Outputs Intended users Outcomes Impacts
Country knowledge banks in between scientists through Improved information and
South and South-East Asia CKB including rice, wheat knowledge sharing and
expanded (maize and wheat and maize. networking.
content) and strengthened.

Functional knowledge sharing
based on promotion of CSKP
through in-country workshops
and courses.
Output Country knowledge bank NARS, NGOs, Strengthened and expanded Increased research
Targets. model adapted by the key universities, pool of scientists in wheat, effectiveness of CIMMYT and its
2009 collaborating NARS in Africa. investors, policy maize systems, livelihoods partners especially in the key
makers. and poverty reduction. regions.
Global community of CKB
users supported by the Improved information and
enhancement of its features knowledge
and utilities (e.g. portal sharing and networking.
application).

Impact assessment of capacity
building 2004-2008.
Output Distance learning (e-courses) NARESs, Strengthened and Extended knowledge of new
Targets. program in collaboration with universities, diversified study curricula of generation of cereal breeders.
2010 universities and other CGIAR partner universities.
centers functioning Diversified possibilities for
continuous professional
Country knowledge bank development.
model adapted by the key
collaborating NARS in Latin
America

Global community of CKB
users continued exchange on
content and adjustment of
portal










Eco-regional Program. Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) for the Indo-Gangetic Plains.

Goal Conserve natural resources, improve livelihoods, and alleviate poverty through sustainable increases in the productivity of rice-
wheat systems in South Asia
Purpose Strengthen existing linkages and partnerships with NARSs, IARCs, ARIs and local private enterprises working to develop and
deploy more efficient, productive and sustainable technologies for the diverse rice-wheat production systems of the Indo-
Gangetic Plains, thereby fostering the production of more food at lower costs, improving the livelihoods of those involved in
agriculture, and overall reducing poverty

Outputs Intended users Outcomes Impact
Output 1. Develop technologies and policies to improve water productivity, soil health and enhanced diversity of the rice-wheat
systems
Output Multi-crop zero-tillage seed Farmers in South More diversified systems in the Zero-tillage drill
Targets drills and bed planters Asia, private seed eastern Gangetic plains. Maize manufacturing units cross
2008 developed, tested and refined sector, NARSs, seed systems available. More 150, and appear in the
in the eastern Gangetic other research pulses and fodder produced. eastern sector for enhanced
plains, centers. Farmers adopt new machines for adoption of conservation
N management practices seeding into loose residues. The agriculture for improved
using GreenSeeker efficiency of use of water and other livelihoods, human and
technology refined for field inputs improved. Reliable in- animal health and quality of
application, season forecasting of wheat and the environment.
Legumes and winter maize in rice yields.
the eastern Gangetic plains
introduced.
Diversification practices that
promote sustainability
developed.
Rice crop establishment
practices for direct seeded
rice refined.
GPS surveys, geo-referenced
databases for RCTs adoption
sites.
Annual New drills for seeding into Farmers in South Area of zero-tillage or reduced- till, Diversified rice-wheat
Output loose residue placed in the Asia, private sector, laser leveling, dual purpose wheat, systems
Targets hands of the farmers to test in NARSs, other QPM and direct-seeded rice produce more at lower costs
2009 eastern IGP, Karnataka and research centers. expands in parts of IGP. Farmers and generate new sources of
AP. adopt new machines for seeding income and employment.
Rice crop establishment into loose residues. Soil surface Knowledge and experiences
practices developed, co- cover becomes increasingly shared among stakeholders.
culturing of rice with green popular for saving irrigation water. Farmers shift to double zero-
manure crops established, tillage systems on a sizeable
intercrops, dual purpose area in rice-wheat cropping
wheat, maize and legumes systems.
promoted.
N-response curve in farmers'
fields validated in new areas.

Annual New drills for seeding into Farmers in South Area of zero- or reduced- tillage, Diversified rice-wheat
Output loose residue available to Asia, private sector, laser leveling, dual purpose wheat, systems.
Targets large number of farmers. NARSs, other QPM and direct-seeded rice produce more at less costs
2010 Additional diversification research centers. expands in parts of IGP. Farmers and generate new sources of
crops tested. adopt new machines for seeding income and employment.
N-management tests by into loose residues. Soil surface Knowledge and experiences
extension workers and covers become increasingly shared among stakeholders.
farmers. popular for saving irrigation water Farmers shift to double zero-
tillage systems on a sizeable
area in rice-wheat cropping
systems.


Page 63










Output 2. Accelerate adoption of resource-conserving technologies (RCTs). All stakeholders involved in accelerating the pace of
development and adoption of RCTs using farmer partici atory approaches in the IGP
Output RCT options and NARSs, CGIAR Farmers gain understanding of Greater acceptance of direct-
Targets diversification practices researchers, farmer benefits of RCTs and weed seeded rice practices doing
2008 refined and promoted in the associations management for direct-seeded away with puddle,
eastern IGP and Central rice. transplanted rice.
India. Underutilized lands at selected
Weeds in direct-seeded rice sites benefit from technology
cropping for eastern IGP targeting.
managed.
Annual RCTs for risk-prone areas NARSs, farmers, Rental services of new Stakeholders adopt a
Output (flood or drought) of the CGIAR and other customized machines for RCTs knowledge-sharing and
Targets eastern IGP fine-tuned for researchers become increasingly popular in networking culture. More
2009 scaling up to other risk-prone the IGP. Seed village concept for innovative cropping systems
areas. QPM maize and grain legumes practiced in the IGP to
Agronomic and crop takes root in the East and address climate change
management practices to Northwest. Better understanding effects.
address climate change are of global conservation agriculture
adapted for the eastern IGP. practices in a changing world.

Annual RCTs for risk-prone areas NARSs, farmers,
Output (flood or drought) of Central CGIAR and other
Targets India maize systems fine- researchers
2010 tuned for scaling up to other
risk-prone areas.
Agronomic and crop
management practices to
address climate change are
adapted for Central India.

Output 3. Prudent management of the RWC by strengthening the capacity of partners to conduct research for sustainable
intensification and diversification of rice-wheat systems and make information on RCTs available to users
Annual Spatial knowledge database for NARS, CGIAR Improved targeting of RWC Line departments in NARSs
Output bio physical and socio economic scientists and policy research. Knowledge shared focus local developmental
Targets indicators created. makers/planners among stakeholders. Information plans on the new RCTs in
2008 Technology knowledge sharing disseminated through publications, specific locations in the
mechanisms tested. training materials, website, Radio, eastern IGP and Central
TV and press. RCT farmers and India.
manufacturers directory created on
the web for on-line surveys,
interviews for impact assessment.
Annual GIS, remote sensing and NARS, CGIAR Knowledge shared among Line departments in NARSs
Output socioeconomic techniques tested scientists and policy stakeholders. Information base their local
Targets for targeting RCTs in different makers/planners disseminated through publications, developmental plans on the
2009 rice eco-systems in the IGP. training materials, website, radio, new RCTs and begin to use
Technology and market TV and press. RCT farmers and techniques for enhancing
knowledge assembled. manufacturers directory created on productivity in risk-prone
the web for on-line surveys, areas.
interviews for impact assessment.
Annual Web-based knowledge sharing NARS, CGIAR Research and extension staff
Output portal extended to identify and scientists use up-to-date technology
Targets control problems (e.g., weeds). knowledge and local
2010 departments base their
development plans on the
new RCTs and begin to use
techniques for enhancing
productivity in risk-prone
areas.


Page 64









Annex


Progress Report on Implementation of Recommendations,

5th CIMMYT EPMR





Dates of EPMR Report Presentation and Discussion: March 2005
Science Council: April 2005
Executive Council: May 2005
CGIAR Annual General Meeting: December 2005










Status of Implementation of 5th EPMR recommendations.


Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved Target date to March 2007
Complete update
1) The Panel recommends CIMMT agrees with the Recommendation to Business plan N/A
that management and recommendation and plans to be addressed formally adopted,
program directors implement the required through development Jan '06.
undertake a much more actions with immediate effect. of business plan for
rigorous process to define The Center, in its Seeds of the period 2006-2010
goals for the new strategy Innovation document, already by January '06.
that provide a framework planned for such a set of
within which to organize goals and milestones to be
projects and activities and developed during 2005 and
against which progress in for there to be a Center-led
meeting the goals can be review of the implementation
measured. In addition to by late 2006. Seeds of
strengthening the Innovation is a vision
implementation of the document for the new
new strategy, the process strategy that is being
will enable program implemented and will be
directors as a team to complemented, as originally
identify a set of goals that planned, by a supplemental
are congruent across the plan document entitled From
Center. vision to implementation.
2) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Business plan for the Achieved. N/A
that CIMMYT develop a recommendation and sees period 2006-2010
business strategic plan the value in a business style developed and
that will support the strategic plan document. As adopted by January
successful with recommendation 1, the '06.
implementation of the Center will begin
new strategy in the face implementation of this
of a dynamic financial recommendation with
environment, immediate effect. A business
strategic plan that brings into
full operation the Seeds of
Innovation vision will clearly
and explicitly state program
goals, milestones,
deliverables, focus and
balance. The document will
also show clear linkages
between the setting of
institutional and program
goals, resource mobilization
and program budgets.
3) To facilitate the CIMMYT agrees with the Two workshops to be Fully implemented N/A
establishment of a recommendation and notes held: impacts through workshops,
multidisciplinary approach that a multi-disciplinary framework (May '05); thematic meetings
to conducting ex ante approach to research, and targeting (August and annual work
impact studies, the Panel embracing biophysical and '06) plan meeting; the
recommends that social scientists, is Annual work plan latter held in Jan
increased integration emphasized in Seeds of meetings to '06.
through time allocation be Innovation. specifically address
secured between ITA this recommendation.
staff and non-social
scientists in the other
programs.
4) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Spatial meta In progress for 2006 Dec '06 Impact
that ITA, in cooperation recommendation and knowledge of impact work plan pathways
with the eco-regional considers this approach to be pathways to be assembled and
programs, collect data on part of a planned wider developed for 2 being published
the variables that explain research effort to assemble macro-systems: i) for rice-wheat
the heterogeneity of the and analyze information on mixed maize farming farming
Page 66










Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved Target date to March 2007
Complete update
existing production factors determining pathways systems in sub- systems across
functions and thus, of for technology adoption, Saharan Africa; and India, Pakistan
yields (both potential and livelihood impacts and ii) rice-wheat farming and
actual) that express poverty reduction in major systems across Bangladesh.
differences attributable to maize- and wheat-based Pakistan and Research on
productivity gaps within farming systems of Bangladesh. livelihoods
the same agroecological developing countries. impacts of
region, due to constraints SG2000
that limit the adoption of technologies in
improved technology. Ethiopia and
Uganda and in
Mexico, on-
going.

5) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Discussions and Meetings held, and N/A
that ITA initiate recommendation insofar as it meetings to be held very productive
macroeconomic studies refers to analyzing sectoral with IFPRI during '05 dialogue on-going.
by 2006 in close and rural development policy (May-June) Continuing
cooperation with IFPRI determinants of maize- and cooperation a part of
and other CGIAR wheat-based farming systems the '06 work plan
Centers. The highest improvement and to identify including finalization
priority should be and advocate appropriate of joint book Maize
assigned to sub-Saharan policy and institutional policies in Asia and
African countries. responses. joint work to monitor
macro-economic
indicators, identify
pathways, and
foster agricultural
policy dialogue on
maize in east and
southern Africa.

6) The panel recommends CIMMYT accepts the MMPAs verified Achieved N/A
that maize research in recommendation to focus on during '05
CIMMYT identify the high low-yielding areas caused by
priority Marginal Maize abiotic, biotic and Recruit maize Maize molecular N/A
Production Areas socioeconomic constraints. molecular breeder to breeder recruited,
(MMPAs) in each mega- CIMMYT has a comparative focus on low yielding Feb '06.
environment. Based on advantage in the environments with
such MMPAs, a seed development of germplasm emphasis on the
delivery system for for low to very low yielding following traits:
improved cultivars should environments to which much quality; and, host
be developed jointly with of our germplasm plant resistance using
partners as a vehicle to development efforts in sub- non-transgenic
make CIMMYT's Saharan Africa have been approaches.
upstream maize research directed. We agree that seed
results available to delivery systems require
resource-poor farmers. further development and,
towards this aim, CIMMYT
has recently hired a seed
systems specialist for our
Africa Livelihoods Program.

7) The Panel recommends
that maize breeding and
research efforts in the
following areas be
intensified:
a) Grain quality CIMMYT agrees with this Discussions and joint Joint project Dec '07. Mega-project
characteristics of high recommendation, but notes project proposals with proposals under on mycotoxins
priority to end users in the need for additional, IITA initiated by June development; under
MMPAs, combined sustainable resources to '06. additional funding development.

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Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved Target date to March 2007
Complete update
with more systematic ensure that new initiatives sources yet to be
research and breeding have a medium-to-longer- Joint project on identified.
to reduce mycotoxin term outlook. In the mycotoxins to be
contamination on the meantime, CIMMYT will funded by Dec '07.
grain; explore opportunities for
collaborative work in this area
with IITA.
b) Testing and evaluation CIMMYT notes this A routine and on- N/A
of breeding materials recommendation and going aspect of our
directly in the MMPAs, observes that it is routine work.
for identification of the procedure for experimental
best material for materials to be tested in their
release; target environments.
CIMMYT has made very
significant progress in
MMPAs using farmer-
participatory "Mother-baby"
trials (> 1M ha in southern
Africa sown with improved
maize using this approach)
and acknowledges the
recommendation as being a
strong endorsement of this
approach.
c) Non-transgenic host CIMMYT notes this
plant insect resistance recommendation. The Center N/A
research to speed up has invested in host plant
the process of resistance work for at least 30
integration of the highly years and considerable
resistant CIMMYT progress has been made, but
germplasm into new transgenic approaches to
cultivars; insect resistance are
increasingly providing
significant gains. We will
continue to work on an
integrated pest management
strategy that is reflected in a
number of on-going projects.
d) Application of fast track CIMMYT partially agrees with MAS to be adopted A maize molecular Further review in Achieved.
breeding techniques this recommendation as the when several traits breeding position June '07. Several MAS
(doubled haploid, value of these technologies may be selected at has been filled; the projects
MAS, NIR techniques) should be once and double incumbent implemented
in all maize breeding assessed on a case-by-case haploids and NIR to commenced April (GLS, MSV,
activities in CIMMYT; basis. CIMMYT has routinely be implemented if '06. QPM, pro-
been using MAS for traits and when additional vitamin A).
where MAS is resources may be Doubled
more cost-effective than field- found. haploids
based techniques. Recently, Capacity to be initiated and
CIMMYT has commenced the developed in inducer lines
use of NIR partnership with ARI' developed with
for assessing stover quality in during the period University of
maize and we expect to July'06-June '07. Hohenheim.
expand this work. The use of New NIR
double haploids in purchased.
maize is a relatively new
technique and its utility for
marginal and low input
environments is yet to be
proven. As for our response
to 8a) CIMMYT notes the
need for additional resources

Page 68










Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved Target date to March 2007
Complete update
of a medium-to-long-term
nature to implement areas of
research of strategic
importance.

e) Acquisition, storage CIMMYT agrees with this Additional funds to be 165K of additional Dec '06 All data
and management of recommendation and notes allocated in the '05 funding allocated for available in
maize breeding data to that decisions have already budget '05. Further efforts MGB (26,000
eliminate the current been made to underway through accessions)
back-log, allocate more resources to the joint program also migrated
the acquisition, storage and (CRIL) with IRRI. to CropFinder
management of maize and web-
breeding data within enabled
CIMMYT during the next two (http://sas.cimm
years. yt.org/CropFind
er) This
includes more
than 2.3M data
points related
to maize
germplasm.
8) The Panel recommends
that:
a) Crop management CIMMYT agrees with the Reallocation and/or Additional resources Further review by The grouping of
research in (the) TES recommendation and notes additional staff time not yet available. Dec '06 crop and
(Program) in the that there are at least two as and when extra resource
regions be avenues to be resources become management
strengthened by pursued: a) additional available, researchers in
allocating NRM (Crop financial resources are MTP 10 from
and Resource needed for the TES Program; Jan'07 will
Management) staff and b) increasing the facilitate cross-
time from other overall staffing and cross- commodity
programs, program assignments of crop assignments.
particularly lAP, to and resource management
TES; scientists
generally.

b) CIMMYT, TES in CIMMYT agrees in principle Development of at The IRRI-CIMMYT Program leader Achieved. The
particular, seek with the recommendation. We least one joint alliance program on appointed by Dec IPSA program
collaboration with will follow up on some initial program by June '06. intensive cropping '06 has a joint
other CGIAR Centers discussions systems for Asia IRRI-CIMMYT
in the region, that have already been held has developed a leader.
including shared with three other centers and work plan and is in
appointments of also on emerging the process of
agronomists and collaboration among recruiting a program
other natural centers within the Water and leader.
resources specialists; Food Challenge Program.

c) The Crop and CIMMYT agrees with the Recruitment of Achieved N/A
Resource recommendation. Already additional staff by
Management Group, there is an increased June '05
TES and other eco- emphasis on more strategic
regional programs research through two recent
enhance strategic appointments and we plan to
research on natural enhance this approach in
resource future projects.
management,
particularly for
improved water and
nutrient use
efficiency.


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Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved Target date to March 2007
Complete update
9) The Panel recommends CIMMYT notes the N/A
that the IAP breeding recommendation and
teams work closely with observes that activities in the
crop management and RWC have embraced
social science groups to genotype by management
develop cultivars that (conservation agriculture)
are suitable for interactions for some time.
conservation The plant breeding programs
agriculture, use water in both maize and wheat, in
efficiently and are recent years, have aimed at
resistant to storage the development of
losses. germplasm with an emphasis
on input use efficiency (water)
and resistance to storage
losses (maize) and the
development of materials
suited to conservation
agriculture. The breeding
programs in Mexico run a
parallel selection program
under conservation
agriculture and conventional
conditions.

10) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the N/A
that IAP undertake long recommendation insofar as it
term experiments to relates to long-term trials
evaluate cropping conducted on CIMMYT's
system sustainability experiment stations in Mexico
with the results being and notes that trials over the
fully utilized for strategic past 10 years in Mexico have
research as well as for provided an excellent
demonstration platform for strategic research
purposes. and demonstration. In
regional locations, CIMMYT
collaborates with research
partners to effectively design,
manage and use long-term
crop management trials.

11) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Increased research The IRRI-CIMMYT Program leader Achieved
that IAP increase its recommendation and we activity in this area by alliance program on appointed by Dec
research in maize expect to focus attention on June '06 intensive cropping '06
cropping systems and the maize producing regions systems for Asia
their development, of Asia where demand is has developed a
increasing at the fastest rate. work plan and is
recruiting a program
leader.

12) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Allocation of CRISCO work plan Dec '06 Wheat
that the data acquisition, recommendation and notes additional funding to implemented in '05; International
data management and that significant steps are the genebank in '05 IRRI-CIMMYT joint Nursery
gene bank user already underway through and attendant work program for System (WINS)
interface be upgraded in several different system-wide plan research informatics is fully
the CIMMYT gene bank initiatives to develop a range established with a operational and
for both wheat and of integrated modules to fully program leader (G a module of
maize as a matter of computerize data acquisition, McLaren, IRRI). ICIS has been
urgency. genebank management, developed for
germplasm evaluation and wheat
database query across both germplasm
crops. inventory
Management.

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Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved Target date to March 2007
Complete update
Maize
Genebank
(MGB)
management
system is fully
operational.
13) The Panel recommends
that:
a) Training coordinator CIMMYT notes the CIMMYT has N/A
position be recommendation. As set forth retained the training
relocated to an in the CIMMYT strategy, coordinator within the
independent Unit training and capacity building ITA unit for a number
reporting directly to activities are an integral part of strategic reasons.
the DDG-R; of the knowledge
management and sharing
activities of the ITA Program.
These activities are closely
related to broader ITA thrusts
on the orientation of CIMMYT
and its partners to livelihoods
and poverty reduction;
support to the use of best
practices; priority setting and
impact assessment; and,
advocacy of effective policies
to foster impact on the
ground.
b) The Training Unit CIMMYT agrees in principle Development of Capacity building N/A
working together with the recommendation for capacity building strategy developed
with program training purposes and will strategy during '05. and workshop held.
directors develop a implement a priority setting
priority setting tool, tool as part of the enrichment Targeting workshop
both thematic and of the Resource Allocation for CIMMYT
geographical. The Tool developed during researchers to be
resulting priorities strategic planning, noting that held August'05 to
should then be used priorities for capacity building develop mechanisms
to allocate resource need to be determined within for priority setting and
to the programs; and across programs. targeting of training.

c) CIMMYT develop CIMMYT agrees in principle Alternate funding Some funding Dec '06 Some private
innovative with the recommendation and mechanisms to be support from the sector support
alternative funding is actively exploring a variety actively pursued in private sector for for fellowships
schemes for training of options internally and with 2005; further review training has been achieved.
external stakeholders, of funding of training provided. Discussions on-
including private sector by Dec '06. going with one
support. Fellowship company on
programs, both internally and development of
externally funded, will be Maize Doctor.
implemented to facilitate
capacity building.
14) To help ensure that The Board is committed to New governance CIMMYT Board March '07 Completed
CIMMYT builds and fulfilling its role to the highest model (policies and workshop on
sustains high possible standards, and will procedures) for the governance held,
functioning Boards, the reduce its size to no more CIMMYT Board to be March '05; Schedule
Panel recommends the than seven appointed in place by March '06 for the reduction of
establishment of a members, while maintaining Board size (currently
governance committee the appropriate mix of skills, 8 appointed
with responsibility for a and will enhance the roles of members)
range of activities the Audit and Finance and implemented;
essential to Board Administration Committees as Executive


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Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved Target date to March 2007
Complete update
effectiveness, including agents of the Board. Rather Committee of the
defining more clearly than create a separate Board established
the role of the board, governance committee, and functioning;
developing a more CIMMYT will engage a Audit and Finance
strategic process for specialist consultant to help and Administration
identifying and recruiting the Board and its committees Committee functions
board members, clarify their roles and put in separated; formal
assessing board place a more strategic Board self-
performance on a process for identifying and assessment
formal basis, evaluating recruiting Board members, procedures
the performance of assessing Board performance implemented;
members before re- and evaluating the improved practices
election, recommending performance of members for meetings and
improvements to board before re-election. The out-of-session
practice, such as consultant will advise on handling of business
meeting design and designing and preparing matters
preparation, information meetings, information flow, implemented.
flow and and communications, and will
communication, and work with the Board to
developing an develop an orientation and
orientation and ongoing ongoing education program
education program for for trustees. Finally, the
members to enhance consultant will review
their performance (annually at first) the Board's
effectiveness.
In the future, the Board as a
whole will explicitly address
governance functions, in lieu
of a committee.
15) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the N/A
that a dedicated staff recommendation and has
person in the DG's already (effective March
office be identified to 2005) implemented this
serve as the Board recommendation.
Secretary. This position
should have sufficient
status within the
organization, clear
responsibility and also
adequate time to
provide support and
coordination for the
board.

16) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Staff morale With the Dec'07 Indications- not
that management recommendation. Clearly, "indicator" improved development of the yet quantified-
review the staff survey CIMMYT is in a period of as of June '06; staff business plan for that staff
results in detail with transition and it is inevitable work plans clearly CIMMYT, all staff morale is
special attention to staff that staff morale has been communicated by have a clear sense improving.
morale, communication affected over the past 2 years Jan '05; revised HR of direction of the
of policies, clarity of and with the staff policy (OneStaff) Center. The launch
goals, performance downsizing. CIMMYT will implemented by Dec of the plan in
recognition, and staff work extremely hard to '06. January '06 during a
evaluation, and take ensure that all staff have very successful
appropriate corrective clarity on the future and an 'science week' and
action as a matter of important aspect of this will attendant research
urgency. be a new One Staff policy planning meetings
that is already agreed in has added further
principle by the Board. coherence to our
Consistent with agenda including
recommendations 1) and 2) the role of staff as

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Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved Target date to March 2007
Complete update
we fully expect that we move forward.
communication of roles and All staff appraisals in
responsibilities to staff, with Jan-Feb '05
attendant policies and included plans of
procedures, will greatly assist work for '05;
staff function and morale. similarly for '06, with
an emphasis on
merit-based
recognition (salary
increases) of
performance.
Range of
institutional
improvements
implemented to
assist in
development of the
social health of the
Center, including
clarification of some
key personnel
policies; improved
communication
(open fora, monthly
meetings with staff
committees, weekly
newsletter). The
Center's improved
financial health and
overall performance
("A" for World Bank
2005 indicators)
have helped
improve staff
morale.
17) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Integrated human A complete staff Dec'06 Achieved
that management give recommendation. We have resources information database (IRS,
priority to reforming already commenced the system functional by NRS) has been
financial management implementation of the June '05 finalized as of June
at the Center, including following systems which are '05
budget, staffing and the initial building blocks for Project Manager
related systems, with the development of a more system implemented Project Manager
highest priority given to comprehensive financial by Dec '05 system not
the development of a management system: implemented;
computerized financial New financial instead, Axapta, a
management system An integrated human management Microsoft product
that provides real on- resource information information system in which has project
time financial system (HRIS); the first place by June '06 management
information to users; phase of this project will be capabilities is being
and urgently develop (in implemented by the end of implemented and
consultation with March '05 and the complete will be tested during
program staff) a staff database will be June '06 with the
transparent resource finalized by the end of June aim for it to become
allocation process '05. the basis of our
consistent with needs of CIAT's project manager financial system in
the matrix management application. We plan to the second half of
system. have an effective project '06.
management system in
place during the 3rd quarter
of'05.


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Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved Target date to March 2007
Complete update
The issues surrounding the
development and
implementation of a
completely new financial
management information
system are being currently
reviewed and we are
evaluating options of moving
to a shared service with
another CGIAR Center as a
first priority.


18) The Panel recommends
that management
carefully examine the
correctness of the net
assets (equity) balance
for 2004 attributable to
the increase in 2003 (of
approximately US$ 2.0
million) from fixed
assets write-off and
revaluation.


CIMMYT notes the
recommendation and has
reviewed it with our external
auditors who have confirmed
that while the detail that was
presented in the 2003
financial statements was less
than clear, the treatment is
correct. The disclosure issue
has been clarified in the 2004
financial statements and the
relative balances of
CIMMYT's net asset
categories are correctly
stated.


19) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the N/A
that the Board and recommendation. We have
management develop a discussed and agreed upon a
set of financial set of financial indicators at
indicators for measuring the March '05 Board meeting.
the Center financial These indicators are based
performance and health. on those developed by the
The indicators should CGIAR.
supplement those
developed by the
CGIAR System in close
consultation with CGIAR
Secretariat and Center
Finance Directors.
20) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Implementation of Achieved Dec'08
that a full cost recommendation and has project costing
recovery/pricing system already implemented template by Jan '06
for support services be changes within the '05 budget
implemented to recover that will lead to full cost Full recovery of 52% of total indirect
the full costs from recovery from projects and indirect costs by Jan costs were
projects and users of users of services. It is '09, as scheduled in recovered in '05.
services. This will expected that through a the business plan The main focus to
reduce the pressure on combination of restructuring with an intermediate date has been on
unrestricted funding and of our internal costing target of 50% attribution of
make it available for practices and improved recovery by Jan '07 depreciation costs
other high priority project costing when and charging out
activities at the Center, submitting proposals to ICT costs. For '06,
including building the donors, we will be able to all field station costs
working capital to the substantially improve our in Mexico have been
required level, performance in this area. fully apportioned to
users of the
facilities.
21) The Panel recommends
that Board and
management:


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Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved Target date to March 2007
Complete update
a) Make substantial CIMMYT agrees that the BOT Audit Achieved- Internal N/A
efforts and allocate external audit function is Committee to audit MTP 2006-08
adequate time for crucial to the fiduciary develop an agenda approved by the
the careful review of oversight of the Center by the for audit at CIMMYT BOT.
the external audit (at Board and asserts that its including the
headquarters and Audit Committee takes its development of an
regional operations), roles in relation to the MTP, by Nov '05
management letters External Auditors seriously.
and the audited The CIMMYT Board Audit BOT Audit Achieved.
financial statements Committee and full Board will Committee to use
with the notes; continue to commit CGIAR best practice
substantial time and effort for in the
the careful review of external (re)appointment of
audit reports for headquarters external auditors,
and regional offices. The commencing March
Committee annually receives '06
b) Carefully review the audit plans, and will review
annual audit plans the external audit scope to
and scope of reflect management's and the
external audit for Board's assessment of risks,
headquarters and taking into account the
regional operations; changing nature of the
Center's programs at
c) Formally assess headquarters and in the
annually the regions. The Audit Committee
performance of the will develop and implement a
external auditors formal plan for assessment of
before deciding on the External Auditors prior to
their re- renewal or selection of new
appointment, auditors.

22) The Panel recommends The CIMMYT Board and Review of internal In addition to the N/A
that Board and Management agree that auditor in '05 development of an
management review the CIMMYT must have a strong internal audit MTP,
scope of internal audit internal audit function. CIMMYT has been
work and the The scope and capabilities of actively involved in
capabilities of the senior the internal audit function will the recruitment and
internal auditor and continue to be under review placement of the
make the required and all necessary and CGIAR IAU
changes to strengthen appropriate actions will be Associate Director
this important function. taken. for the Americas
who is now based at
CIMMYT with
approx. 25% of his
time dedicated to
CIMMYT-specific
audit issues.


Page 75







































































Page 76












Budget Tables




Table 1. Allocation of Project Costs by Priority Area and Priorities, 2008 (in $millions)

Priority Priority Priority
Area 1 Priority Area 2 Area 3 Area 4 Priority Area 5 Non-Priority Area
Development Stand-alone
Project 1A 2A 2B 2C 3A 4D 5A 5B 5C Activities Training Total
Project 01 Conservation,
characterization and utilization of
maize and wheat genetic
resources 1.160 0.725 0.725 0.290 2.900
Project 02 Technology-assisted
tools and methodologies for
genetic improvement 1.260 2.100 0.840 4.200
Project 03 Stress tolerant maize 6.300 1.050 1.050 1.050 1.050 10.500
Project 04 Nutritious and specialty
trait maize 0.350 0.875 0.525 1.400 0.175 0.175 ___3.500
Project 07 Drought tolerant wheat
with enhanced quality 0.310 0.620 1.860 0.310 3.100
Project 08 Disease resistant wheat
with high productivity and quality 0.855 0.855 2.280 1.140 0.570 5.700
Project 10 Maize and wheat
cropping systems 0.250 1.750 0.500 2.500
Project 11 Knowledge, targeting
and strategic assessment of
maizeand wheat farming systems 1.080 0.540 0.270 0.270 0.540 2.700

Total 2.675 4.585 13.790 5.030 0.175 2.975 1.080 0.540 0.270 2.390 1.590 35.100


Page 77











Table 2. Allocation of Project Costs to CGIAR Priorities, 2007-2010 (in $millions)


Projects
Priorities
Project 01 Conlservalion, characlercalion and uill:allon of ma:ce
and wheat genetic resources
1A

2A

2 F:

2'.

Project Total
Project 02 Technology-a.;.;r;led Ioo1; and melhodologie; for
genetic improvement
2A

2 :

2'.i


Project Total


Project 03 '.ress Iolerani mace

2E:

2'C
4I,

Clevelopneni Acilvilie's

'iland-alone Training


Project Total


Project 04 I lulrilnou. and speciallyy Irail mace

1A

2A

2B

2C

/A

4[-


Project Total


Estimated Proposal
2007 2008


1 '.46-






3.866



1 199:

1 90



3.995




11 991

i 991
11 99 1
i '99 1
1:1 '* '. 1



9.908










0 15.6

0I 156

3.122


1 1611

'0I 725

'0I 725



2.900



1 2611:

2 1(00



4.200





1 (13.(1


1 (13.(11

1 (13.(11

10.500





I-I 525

1 4'III'

0 173.

0 175

3.500


Page 78


Plan 1
2009



1 2 III



0 13(



3.000



1 290

2' 15.1



4.300




1 (lr6i)

1 (060

1 (60r

1 (60r

10.600








1 4?0i

1.1 1o5.
(i 13')

11 185.

3.700


Plan 2
2010



1 240




,1 1:1

3.100



1 321

2 2(1(



4.400


6 KI40i

1 (i9(i

1 (I9(i

1 (019)

1 0'9)

10.900














3.800










Table 2. cont'd

Projects Estimated Proposal Plan 1 Plan 2
Priorities 2007 2008 2009 2010
Project 07 Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality
1A 0.230 0.310 0.320 0.330
2A 0.460 0.620 0.640 0.660
2B 1.382 1.860 1.920 1.980

2C 0.230 0.310 0.320 0.330
Project Total 2.302 3.100 3.200 3.300
Project 08 Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and
quality
1A 0.816 0.855 0.870 0.900
2A 0.816 0.855 0.870 0.900
2B 2.175 2.280 2.320 2.400
2C 1.088 1.140 1.160 1.200
Development Activities 0.544 0.570 0.580 0.600
Project Total 5.439 5.700 5.800 6.000
Project 10 Maize and wheat cropping systems
2A 0.339 0.250 0.270 0.280
4D 2.372 1.750 1.890 1.960
Development Activities 0.678 0.500 0.540 0.560
Project Total 3.389 2.500 2.700 2.800
Project 11 Knowledge, targeting and strategic assessment of
maize and wheat farming systems
5A 0.817 1.080 1.120 1.160
5B 0.408 0.540 0.560 0.580
5C 0.204 0.270 0.280 0.290
Development Activities 0.204 0.270 0.280 0.290
Stand-alone Training 0.408 0.540 0.560 0.580
Project Total 2.041 2.700 2.800 2.900
Total 34.062 35.100 36.100 37.200


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Table 3. Summary of Project Costs, 2007-2010 (in $millions)

ProEstimated Proposal Plan 1 Plan 2
Project 2007 2008 2009 2010

Project 01 Conservation, characterization and utilization of maize and 3.86 20 30
3.866 2.900 3.000 3.100
wheat genetic resources
Project 02 Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic 3.995 4.200 4.300 4.400
improvement
Project 03 Stress tolerant maize 9.908 10.500 10.600 10.900
Project 04 Nutritious and specialty trait maize 3.122 3.500 3.700 3.800
Project 07 Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality 2.302 3.100 3.200 3.300
Project 08 Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and quality 5.439 5.700 5.800 6.000
Project 10 Maize and wheat cropping systems 3.389 2.500 2.700 2.800
Project 11 Knowledge, targeting and strategic assessment of maize 2041 2.700 2.800 2.900
and wheat farming systems
Total 34.062 35.100 36.100 37.200




Table 4. Summary of Priority Costs, 2007-2010 (in $millions)

Estimated Proposal Plan 1 Plan 2
Priorities 2007 2008 2009 2010
1A 2.904 2.675 2.760 2.850
2A 4.562 4.585 4.745 4.885
2B 12.933 13.790 14.055 14.465
2C 4.743 5.030 5.180 5.330
3A 0.156 0.175 0.185 0.190
4D 3.519 2.975 3.135 3.240
5A 0.817 1.080 1.120 1.160
5B 0.408 0.540 0.560 0.580
5C 0.204 0.270 0.280 0.290
Development Activities 2.417 2.390 2.460 2.540
Stand-alone Training 1.399 1.590 1.620 1.670
Total 34.062 35.100 36.100 37.200


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Table 5. Investments by Undertaking, Activity and Sector, 2006-2010 (in $millions)

Actual Estimated Proposal Plan 1 Plan 2
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Increasing Productivity 21.336 20.435 21.060 21.660 22.320
Germplasm Enhancement & Breeding 14.224 13.623 14.040 14.440 14.880
Production Systems Development & Management 7.112 6.812 7.020 7.220 7.440
Cropping systems 7.112 6.812 7.020 7.220 7.440
Livestock systems 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Tree systems 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Fish systems 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Protecting the Environment 1.778 1.703 1.755 1.805 1.860
Saving Biodiversity 1.778 1.703 1.755 1.805 1.860
Improving Policies 1.778 1.703 1.755 1.805 1.860
Strengthening NARS 8.890 8.518 8.775 9.025 9.300
Training and Professional Development 3.556 3.406 3.510 3.610 3.720
Documentation, Publications, Info. Dissemination 1.778 1.703 1.755 1.805 1.860
Organization & Management Couselling 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Networks 3.556 3.409 3.510 3.610 3.720
Total 35.560 34.062 35.100 36.100 37.200


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Table 6. Project Investments by Developing Region, 2006-2010 (in $millions)

Project Region Actual Estimated Proposal Plan 1 Plan 2
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Project 01 Conservation, characterization and utilization of Asia 0912 0773 0.580 0.600 0.620
maize and wheat genetic resources
CWANA 1.368 1.160 0.870 0.900 0.930
LAC 1.368 1.160 0.870 0.900 0.930
SSA 0.912 0.773 0.580 0.600 0.620
Total Project 4.560 3.866 2.900 3.000 3.100
Project 02- Technology-assisted tools and methodologies Asia 0508 0999 1.050 1.075 1.100
for genetic improvement
CWANA 0.506 0.998 1.050 1.075 1.100
LAC 0.508 0.999 1.050 1.075 1.100
SSA 0.508 0.999 1.050 1.075 1.100
Total Project 2.030 3.995 4.200 4.300 4.400
Project 03 Stress tolerant maize Asia 0.672 0.991 1.050 1.060 1.090
CWANA 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
LAC 0.672 0.991 1.050 1.060 1.090
SSA 5.380 7.926 8.400 8.480 8.720
Total Project 6.724 9.908 10.500 10.600 10.900
Project 04 Nutritious and specialty trait maize Asia 1.725 1.249 1.400 1.480 1.520
CWANA 0.216 0.155 0.175 0.185 0.190
LAC 1.294 0.937 1.050 1.110 1.140
SSA 1.078 0.781 0.875 0.925 0.950
Total Project 4.313 3.122 3.500 3.700 3.800
Project 07- Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality Asia 2.107 0.921 1.240 1.280 1.320
CWANA 2.107 0.921 1.240 1.280 1.320
LAC 0.527 0.230 0.310 0.320 0.330
SSA 0.527 0.230 0.310 0.320 0.330
Total Project 5.268 2.302 3.100 3.200 3.300
Project 08 Disease resistant wheat with high productivity Asia 2.492 2.176 2.280 2.320 2.400
and quality
CWANA 2.492 2.175 2.280 2.320 2.400
LAC 0.623 0.544 0.570 0.580 0.600
SSA 0.623 0.544 0.570 0.580 0.600
Total Project 6.230 5.439 5.700 5.800 6.000
Project 10- Maize and wheat cropping systems Asia 1.211 1.017 0.750 0.810 0.840
CWANA 1.211 1.017 0.750 0.810 0.840
LAC 0.404 0.338 0.250 0.270 0.280
SSA 1.211 1.017 0.750 0.810 0.840
Total Project 4.037 3.389 2.500 2.700 2.800
Project 11 Knowledge, targeting and strategic Asia 0.600 0.510 0.675 0.700 0.725
assessment of maize and wheat farming systems
CWANA 0.598 0.511 0.675 0.700 0.725
LAC 0.600 0.510 0.675 0.700 0.725
SSA 0.600 0.510 0.675 0.700 0.725
Total Project 2.398 2.041 2.700 2.800 2.900
Total 35.560 34.062 35.100 36.100 37.200


Page 82












Table 7. Summary of Investments by Developing Region, 2006-2010 (in $millions)

Re n Actual Estimated Proposal Plan 1 Plan 2
Region 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

SSA 10.839 12.780 13.210 13.490 13.885
Asia 10.227 8.636 9.025 9.325 9.615
LAC 5.996 5.709 5.825 6.015 6.195
CWANA 8.498 6.937 7.040 7.270 7.505
Total 35.560 34.062 35.100 36.100 37.200



Table 8. Expenditure by Object, 2006-2010 (in $millions)

Obtof Eenditure Actual Estimated Proposal Plan 1 Plan 2
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Personnel 16.596 16.566 16.800 16.900 17.100
Supplies and services 10.352 8.696 9.200 9.500 9.800
Collaboration/ Partnerships 5.588 5.700 5.800 6.100 6.400
Operational Travel 2.035 2.000 2.100 2.300 2.600
Depreciation 0.989 1.100 1.200 1.300 1.300
Total 35.560 34.062 35.100 36.100 37.200


Page 83












Table 9. Member and Non-Member Unrestricted and Restricted Grants, 2006-2008 (in $millions)

Member Actual Estimated Proposal
2006 2007 2008
Unrestricted Grants
Australia 0 568 0 565 0 570
Canada 1044 1034 1030
China 0120 0 120 0 120
Denmark 0 481 0 670 0 670
France 0152 0158 0160
Germany 0 430 0 447 0 450
India 0113 0112 0110
Japan 1045 0 800 0 800
Korea, Republic of 0 050 0 050 0 050
Netherlands 0 795 0 000 0 000
Norway 0318 0325 0330
Philippines 0 008 0 007 0 010
Sweden 0324 0357 0360
Switzerland 0489 0488 0490
Thailand 0010 0010 0010
United Kingdom 1672 1765 1770
United States 4048 3 036 3 040
World Bank 3 204 2 000 2 000
Subtotal 14.871 11.944 11.970
Total Unrestricted 14.871 11.944 11.970
Restricted Grants
ADB 0209 0250 0042
Australia 0 499 0 317 0 236
Canada 1617 0 859 0 600
Denmark 0 023 0 000 0 000
European Commission 0014 1654 1501
FAO 0041 0040 0000
Germany 0 740 0 953 0 473
IDB 0010 0000 0000
IFAD 0678 0445 0150
India 0294 0 408 0 200
Iran 0 060 0 109 0 000
Italy 0031 0 038 0 000
Japan 1 321 1 200 1 224
Korea, Republic of 0 087 0 105 0 090
Mexico 0000 0000 0 100
OPEC Fund 0 064 0 000 0 200
Peru 0036 0040 0070
Rockefeller Foundation 1556 1270 0303
South Africa 0 060 0 035 0 070
Spain 0 323 0 272 0 302
Sweden 0011 0000 0000
Switzerland 0 857 1 011 0799
Syngenta Foundation 0395 0380 0298
Turkey 0165 0 068 0 080
United Kingdom 0430 0126 0150
United States 2033 1661 0 748
World Bank 0 300 0 150 0118
Subtotal 11.854 11.391 7.754


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Table 9. Cont'd
Member Actual Estimated Proposal
2006 2007 2008

Non-member
Agrovegetal 0 079 0 134 0106
BASF, Germany 0 042 0 150 0 000
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 0 190 5 284 7 000
Busch Agrl Research 0 015 0 000 0 000
CIAT 0018 0000 0000
CONACYT, Mexico 0111 0 188 0 000
Cornell University 0 068 0 000 0 000
CRC for Molecular Plant Breeding, Australia 0420 0000 0024
FENALCE 0208 0201 0126
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce A C 0 059 0 014 0 000
Fundacion Sonora 0038 0060 0020
Generation/CP 1 156 0680 0900
Global Diversity Fund 0 092 0 000 0 000
GRDC 0982 0885 0792
HarvestPlus/CP 1026 1037 0 500
ICAMEX 0 063 0 014 0 000
ICARDA 0 040 0 026 0 000
ICRISAT 0087 0080 0080
ILRI 0044 0338 0046
Int'n Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) 0018 0000 0000
IPGRI 0022 0000 0000
IWMI 0 007 0 000 0 000
Kazakhstan 0019 0058 0014
Nippon Foundation 0687 0250 0250
Others 0 912 0110 0 049
Pioneer 0 063 0 150 0150
Private Sector Consortium 0266 0180 0180
Sasakawa Africa Association 0 000 0 014 0 000
Stanford University 0007 0000 0000
Unidentified 0 000 0 000 4600
US Dept of Agriculture 0 239 0 302 0146
Washington State University 0139 0000 0000
Water & Food/CP 0 323 0 478 0 000
Subtotal 7.440 10.633 14.983
Total Restricted 19.294 22.024 22.737
Total Grants 34.165 33.968 34.707


Actual Estimated Proposal
Summary and Statement of Activities Actal Estimat Propal
2006 2007 2008

Total Grants 34165 33968 34707
Center Income 1 789 0 194 0 693
Total Revenue 35954 34162 35400
Total Investment 35560 34062 35 100
Surplus (Deficit) 0394 0 100 0300


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Table 10. Allocation of Member Grants and Center Income to Projects, 2006-2008 (in $millions)

Project Member Actual Estimated Proposal
2006 2007 2008
Project 01 Conservation, Member European Commission 0000 0535 0500
characterization and utilization of Japan 0 344 0 650 0 650
maize and wheat genetic resources Korea, Republic of 0000 0010 0000

United States 0 038 0 028 0 000
World Bank 0078 0150 0118
Bill and Mellnda Gates
Non Member 0 005 0 296 0 000
Foundation
Generation/CP 0 566 0 342 0 400
Global Diversity Fund 0 092 0 000 0 000
GRDC 0120 0000 0000
Pioneer 0000 0000 0000
Private Sector Consortium 0266 0 180 0 180
US Dept of Agriculture 0000 0000 0000
Unrestricted + Center051 1675 1052
Income
Project Total 4.560 3.866 2.900
Project 02 Technology-assisted Member European Commission 0 000 0 638 0 600
tools and methodologies for genetic Korea, Republic of 0 057 0 065 0 060
improvement Rockefeller Foundation 0359 0242 0187

United States 0147 0080 0200
Non Member Bill and Melinda Gates
Non Member 0 015 1 256 0 000
Foundation
CRC for Molecular Plant
0 198 0 000 0 000
Breeding, Australia
Generation/CP 0513 0338 0500
HarvestPlus/CP 0 000 0 032 0 000
Others 0 000 0010 0000
Unidentified 0 000 0 000 1 000
Unrestricted+ Center741 1334 1653
Income
Project Total 2.030 3.995 4.200
Project 03 Stress tolerant maize Member ADB 0 203 0 250 0 042
Canada 0013 0000 0000
European Commission 0000 0 135 0 101
Germany 0025 0 354 0 444
IFAD 0 456 0445 0150
Peru 0 002 0 040 0070
Rockefeller Foundation 0 807 0 770 0 000
South Africa 0 035 0 035 0 035
Spain 0 057 0000 0030
Switzerland 0 857 0 972 0 750
Syngenta Foundation 0 395 0 380 0 298
United Kingdom 0202 0 126 0 150
United States 0268 0 105 0 100
Non Member BASF, Germany 0042 0 150 0000
Bill and Melinda Gates 03 33
0 153 3 233 5 000
Foundation
CIAT 0 012 0000 0000


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Project Member Actual Estimated Proposal
2006 2007 2008
CONACYT, Mexico 0087 0 188 0000
FENALCE 0208 0201 0126

Int'n Center for Insect Physiology 0018 0000 0000
and Ecology (ICIPE)
Pioneer 0063 0150 0150
Unrestricted + Center821 2374 3054
Income
Project Total 6.724 9.908 10.500
Project 04 Nutritious and specialty Member Canada 1 190 0859 0600
trait maize European Commission 0 000 0 026 0 000

Germany 0143 0262 0029
India 0102 0000 0000
Mexico 0000 0000 0100
OPECFund 0064 0000 0200
Peru 0034 0000 0000
Non Member HarvestPlus/CP 0 603 0 430 0 250

Nippon Foundation 0 417 0000 0000
Others 0 054 0100 0000
Unidentified 0 000 0 000 0 800
Unrestricted+ Center706 1445 1521
Income
Project Total 4.313 3.122 3.500
Project 07 Drought tolerant wheat Member Australia 0 237 0 078 0 000
with enhanced quality Canada 0414 0000 0000

IDB 0 010 0000 0000
Iran 0015 0000 0000
Italy 0031 0038 0000
Mexico 0000 0000 0000
South Africa 0 025 0 000 0 035
Turkey 0 165 0 068 0080
United States 0 005 0 038 0 038
Non Member Busch Agrl Research 0015 0000 0000
CONACYT, Mexico 0 024 0 000 0 000
CRC for Molecular Plant 0
0 222 0 000 0 024
Breeding, Australia
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce 0 025 0 007 0 000
AC
Generation/CP 0 077 0 000 0 000
GRDC 0525 0432 0446
ICAMEX 0047 0007 0000
ICARDA 0040 0026 0000
Kazakhstan 0000 0058 0014
Others 0031 0000 0010
Unidentified 0 000 0 000 1 000
US Dept of Agriculture 0019 0111 0000
Washington State University 0 139 0000 0000
Unrestricted + Center202 1439 1453
Income
Project Total 5.268 2.302 3.100


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Project Member Actual Estimated Proposal
Pr2006 2007 2008
Project 08 Disease resistant wheat Member Australia 0 240 0140 0140
with high productivity and quality India 0 048 0 352 0 200
Iran 0 045 0109 0000
Japan 0 977 0 550 0 574
Korea, Republic of 0 030 0 030 0 030
Spain 0 266 0 272 0 272
Sweden 0 011 0000 0000
Switzerland 0 000 0 039 0 049
United Kingdom 0 228 0 000 0 000
United States 0 412 0836 0050
Non Member Agrovegetal 0 079 0 134 0 106
Bill and Melinda Gates
0000 0000 2000
Foundation
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce 0 022 0 007 0 000
AC
Fundacion Sonora 0 038 0 060 0 020
GRDC 0 337 0 342 0260
HarvestPlus/CP 0 417 0575 0250
ICAMEX 0016 0007 0000
Others 0 498 0000 0039
Sasakawa Africa Association 0 000 0 014 0 000
Stanford University 0 007 0 000 0 000
US Dept of Agriculture 0220 0 191 0146
Unrestricted+ Center339 1781 1564
Income
Project Total 6.230 5.439 5.700
Project 10 Maize and wheat Member ADB 0 006 0 000 0 000
cropping systems Australia 0 022 0 099 0 096

European Commission 0014 0000 0000
Germany 0545 0321 0000
IFAD 0 198 0000 0000
India 0144 0056 0000
Rockefeller Foundation 0347 0258 0116

United States 1043 0511 0350
World Bank 0 222 0 000 0 000
Non Member Cornell University 0 068 0 000 0 000
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce 0012 0000 0000
AC
GRDC 0000 0111 0086
ICRISAT 0087 0080 0080
ILRI 0044 0338 0046
Kazakhstan 0019 0000 0000
Others 0007 0000 0000
Unidentified 0 000 0 000 1 000
Water & Food/CP 0 323 0 478 0 000
Unrestricted + Center936 1137 0726
Income
I Project Total 4.037 3.389 2.500


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Project Me r Actual Estimated Proposal
Project 2006 2007 2008
Project 11 Knowledge, targeting Member Denmark 0023 0000 0000
and strategic assessment of European Commission 0 000 0 320 0 300

maize and wheat farming systems FAO 0 041 0 040 0 000

Germany 0027 0016 0000

IFAD 0024 0000 0000

Rockefeller Foundation 0 043 0 000 0 000

United States 0 120 0063 0010
Bill and Mellnda Gates
Non Member B0 0017 0499 0000
Foundation
CIAT 0006 0000 0000

HarvestPlus/CP 0 006 0 000 0 000

IPGRI 0022 0000 0000

IWMI 0007 0000 0000

Nippon Foundation 0 270 0 250 0 250

Others 0125 0000 0000

Unidentified 0 000 0 000 0 800
Unrestricted + Center667 0853 1340
Income
Project Total 2.398 2.041 2.700

Total Restricted 19.097 22.024 22.737

Total Unrestricted + Center Income 16.463 12.038 12.363

Total 35.560 34.062 35.100


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Table 11: Internationally and Nationally Recruited Staff, 2006-2010 (in $millions)

Actual Estimated Proposal Plan 1 Plan 2
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
NRS 555 555 555 555 555
IRS 85 82 82 82 82
Total 640 637 637 637 637


CIMMYT-Table 12: Currency Structure of Expenditure, 2006-2008
in millions of units and percent

Actual 2006 Estimated 2007 Proposal 2008

Currency Amount $ Value % Share Amount $ Value % Share Amount $ Value % Share

EUR 0.000 0.900 3 0.000 0.700 2 0.000 0.800 2
INR 0.000 2.000 6 0.000 1.800 5 0.000 1.700 5
KES 0.000 2.000 6 0.000 2.300 7 0.000 3.000 9
MXN 0.000 9.500 27 0.000 9.400 28 0.000 9.600 27
Others 0.000 0.800 2 0.000 0.700 2 0.000 0.700 2
USD 0.000 19.460 55 0.000 18.362 54 0.000 18.500 53
ZWD 0.000 0.900 3 0.000 0.800 2 0.000 0.800 2
Total 35.560 100 % 34.062 100 % 35.100 100 %


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Table 13. Statement of Financial Position (SFP), 2006-2008 (in $millions)

Assets, Liabilities and Net Assets 2006 2007 2008
Current Assets
Cash and Cash Equivalents 23.645 26.820 26.300
Investments
Accounts Receivable
Donor 4.711 3.000 3.200
Employees
Other CGIAR Centers
Others 1.073 1.200 1.200
Inventories 0.437 0.500 0.520
Pre-paid Expenses 0.055 0.080 0.080
Total Current Assets 29.921 31.600 31.300
Non-Current Assets
Net Property, Plan and Equipment 14.991 15.400 15.800
Investments
Other Assets
Total Non-Current Assets 14.991 15.400 15.800
Total Assets 44.912 47.000 47.100
Current Liabilities
Overdraft/Short Term Borrowings
Accounts Payable
Donor 9.377 11.000 11.200
Employees 1.390 1.600 1.800
Other CGIAR Centers 7.464 7.800 7.000
Others 1.639 1.800 1.800
Accruals and Provisions 1.152 1.200 1.200
Total Current Liabilities 21.022 23.400 23.000
Non-Current Liabilities
Accounts Payable
Employees 0.877 1.000 1.200
Deferred Grant Revenue
Others 0.450
Total Non-Current Liabilities 1.327 1.000 1.200
Total Liabilities 22.349 24.400 24.200
Net Assets
Unrestricted
Designated 14.991 15.400 15.800
Undesignated 7.572 7.200 7.100
Total Unrestricted Net Assets 22.563 22.600 22.900
Restricted
Total Net Assets 22.563 22.600 22.900
Total Liabilities and Net Assets 44.912 47.000 47.100


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Table 14. Statement of Activities (SOA), 2006-2008 (in $millions)

Restricted Total
Unrestricted Temporary Challenge007 2008
Temporary Programs07 2008
r Programs


Revenue and Gains Grant Revenue


Expenses and
Losses














Object of
Expenditure


14.871


16.412


2.882 34.165


33.968 34.707


Other revenue and gains 1.789 0.000 0.000 1.789 0.194 0.693
Total revenue and gains 16.660 16.412 2.882 35.954 34.162 35.400

Program related expenses 10.208 16.412 2.882 29.502 29.385 30.250
Management and general 7.367 0.000 0.000 7.367 7.277 7.450
expenses
Other losses expenses 1.039 0.000 0.000 1.039 0.000 0.000
Sub Total expenses and losses 18.614 16.412 2.882 37.908 36.662 37.700
Indirect cost recovery -2.348 0.000 0.000 -2.348 -2.600 -2.600
Total expenses and losses 16.266 16.412 2.882 35.560 34.062 35.100
Net Operating Surplus / (Deficit) 0.394 0.000 0.000 0.394 0.100 0.300
Extraordinary Items 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
NET SURPLUS / (DEFICIT) 0.394 0.000 0.000 0.394 0.100 0.300

Personnel 9.922 5.861 0.813 16.596 16.566 16.800

Supplies and services 3.881 5.427 1.044 10.352 8.696 9.200
Collaboration/ Partnerships 0.922 3.831 0.835 5.588 5.700 5.800
Operational Travel 0.719 1.197 0.119 2.035 2.000 2.100
Depreciation 0.822 0.096 0.071 0.989 1.100 1.200
Total 16.266 16.412 2.882 35.560 34.062 35.100


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