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CIMMYT Medium-term plan, 2007-2009

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CIMMYT Medium-term plan, 2007-2009
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CIMMYT Medium-term plan ...
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International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
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International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
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Full Text
CIMMYT 2007-2009
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MEDI' UM"T,-ERM PLAN 11 oil
Movinlh"Mision
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CIMMYT
2007-2009
Medium-Term Plan
Moving the Vision
of Seeds oflnnovation into Action
II




Contents
Executive Summary iv
International Public Goods and CIMMYT's Flagship Products Portfolio 1
Highlights of 2005 4
Center Financial Indicators 5
Partnerships: Core Component for the Development and Delivery of Flagship Products 6
Partnering with national programs and regional organizations 6
Partnerships with the private sector and advanced research institutes 7
Partnerships with CGIAR institutions 8
Impact pathways and interactions with partners in innovation systems 10
Shaping CIMMYT's Project Portfolio 11
The Millennium Development Goals and CIMMYT 11
CGIAR System priority setting and CIMMYT flagship products and Projects 11
Highlights of the 2007-2009 Project Portfolio 14
Project 1. Conservation, characterization and targeted access
to maize and wheat related biodiversity. 14
Project 2. Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic improvement. 15 Project 3. Stress tolerant maize. 17
Project 4. Nutritional and specialty traits for maize. 19
Project 5. African livelihoods: Global solutions for maize food
and income security in eastern and southern Africa. 22
Project 6. Maize for Asia and Latin America. 24
Project 7. Water-productive wheat. 25
Project 8. Enhanced wheat for more durable resistance to diseases and enhanced
production potential: Galvanized against rust and tempered for productivity. 28
Project 9. Wheat grain enriched for health and profitability. 31
Project 10. Conservation agriculture for maize and wheat cropping systems:
Safeguarding soils while increasing water productivity and resource use efficiency. 33
Project 11. Knowledge, targeting and strategic assessment of maize and wheat
farming systems. 35
CGIAR Eco-regional Program: The Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic
Plains -A NARSs-led initiative facilitated by CIMMYT. 37
Project Logframes 41
Annex: Progress Report on Implementation of CIMMYT 5th EPMR Recommendations 80
Budget Tables 95




Executive Summary
Following recommendations of the 5th External Program and Management Review (EPMR) panel in early 2005, CIMMYT fleshed out the vision of its strategy document, Seeds of Innovation, in a practical, impact-oriented, operational document: "CIMMYT Business Plan 2006-2010." A transitional document for CIMMYT, it describes the Center's transformation from a structure involving the 6 programs mentioned in the 2006-08 MTP to the present 11 Projects. Within the Projects, CIMMYT and partners will develop 37 outputs -international public goods that relate in diverse ways to the development and delivery of flagship products (see below) defined as part of the Business Plan. Both Center staff and the Board of Trustees helped craft the Business Plan, which reflects input from development investors, research partners, and other stakeholders, and was well received at the CGIAR Annual General Meeting in 2005.
CIMMYT flagship products
" New or improved traits through allele mining and gene discovery to best use global crop
biodiversity.
" Improved tools and methodologies for genetic improvement. Stress tolerant maize for enhanced food security and crop diversification. Bio-fortified maize for improved nutrition and health. Opportunities for income generation from special trait maize. Wheat with enhanced water productivity and appropriate quality profiles. Rust resistant wheat.
" Resource conservation technologies for maize and wheat cropping systems. Capacity building in national agricultural research system breeding programs.
CIMMYT Projects
Projects I and 2 involve the application of advanced tools in the use of crop genetic resources, focusing on value-added traits stress tolerance, disease and pest resistance, micronutrient enhancement, to name several for rapid intro gression into breeding materials. The intermediate breeding materials containing these traits are for direct use by the maize and wheat improvement Projects, P3 through P9, as well as to other partners and beneficiaries. Project 10 involves research on conservation agriculture systems, helping farmers in developing countries to test and adopt more productive, profitable, and resource-conserving practices. Through Project 11, CIMMYT will continue its tradition of excellence in socioeconomic and impacts research, providing support for pro-poor research in the biological sciences, as well as creating and sharing of knowledge in complex innovation systems.
The MTP was developed with careful consideration of CGIAR System priorities and Millennium Development Goals. Permanent feedback and participation from stakeholders will help refine targeting and priority-setting, and will add to CIMMYT and partners' knowledge bases on maize and wheat, related cropping systems, and commodity and value chains. The resource allocations that underpin the work are described in the budget tables and the section on finances.
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Vigorous new partnerships- including the ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program, the IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance, and full participation in Challenge Programs- are both helping CIMMYT better to fulfill its mission and providing an example of integration and cooperation among CGIAR Centers to benefit stakeholders, farmers, and consumers in developing countries.




CIMMYT 2007-2009 Medium-Term Plan
Moving the Vision of Seeds of Innovation into Action
International Public Goods and CIMMYT's Flagship Products Portfolio
CIMMYT has focused its agenda around nine flagship products, an approach that emerged since the last MTP and as a result of developing a Business Plan for the period 2006-2010 during the latter part of 2005. In most cases, the flagship products constitute genetically enhanced, seed-embedded technologies for which pathways to impact on poverty and livelihoods have been mapped out. The flagship products form an exciting portfolio backed by world-class expertise and developed in consultation with clients. They will be delivered through 11 Projects that, with a wide range of partners, will produce 37 outputs- international public goods which relate in various ways to the development and delivery of flagship products detailed below:
New or improved traits through allele mining and gene discovery to best use global crop biodiversity. Crop-related biodiversity is the founding asset of the CGIAR and the basic raw material for the international breeding programs of CIMMYT. An emerging area of comparative advantage for the Center is to develop and apply technology-assisted methodologies to efficiently identify the genetic variation underlying target, value-added traits. The latter include enhanced resilience to abiotic stresses, yield stability under biotic stress, nutritional quality for humans or animals, and simple profitability. As part of this, CIMMYT and partners will develop value-added international public goods such as structured and well-characterized germplasm subsets, methodologies for allele and gene mining in global germplasm collections, internet-based information management, analysis and decision-support systems, the generation and analysis of trait-specific genetic stocks (near-isogenic, introgression, and substitution lines), enhanced gene pools, double haploid lines, synthetic polyploidy genotypes, genetic mapping populations, and mutant stocks. These products will be fully integrated in CIMMYT and partners' commodity improvement efforts.
Improved tools and methodologies for genetic improvement. CIMMYT has a pivotal role to play in the global research community, bridging upstream innovation generators and downstream product development and delivery providers. CIMMYT will continue to develop and validate new tools and methodologies for more efficient manipulation of new alleles and genes for traits prioritized by end-users in CIMMYT regional programs, and in NARSs and small and medium enterprise (SME) breeding programs. The Center will give considerable emphasis to the systemic integration into these programs of diverse fast-track breeding techniques, including molecular genetic fingerprinting, marker-assisted selection, double haploids, genetic transformation, advanced biometrics, informatics, and simulation-based decision support tools. In addition, the Center will provide technical backstopping for targeted enhancement of flagship breeding products by CIMMYT, NARSs, and SME programs.
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Stress tolerant maize for enhanced food security and crop diversification. Maize is grown as a staple crop, often under highly-variable, stress-prone conditions by some of the world's most disadvantaged farmers people frequently constrained to obtaining food and livelihoods from agriculture alone, and with poor access to markets, infrastructure, or social support systems. To achieve reliable food security, many such households allocate a disproportionate area of their land to maize, leaving little for fallows, cash crops, or other beneficial diversification. Human malnutrition and soil degradation are frequent and few escape this poverty trap. CIMMYT is already seeing successes in implementing innovative approaches that generate stress tolerant, nutritious maize strains with significantly increased productivity under such harsh conditions. Among other things, they permit farmers to produce more and healthier food on a smaller land area, leaving more labor and land for growing soil-replenishing legumes or cash crops. This pioneering work requires further enhancement and deployment to a wide range of stress environments worldwide.
Biofortified maize for improved nutrition and health. Poor people often survive on high intakes of inexpensive cereals and nutritionally imbalanced diets. It is estimated that over 3 billion people suffer from protein, iron, or vitamin A malnutrition. Pregnant and breast-feeding women and young children are most affected. Dietary diversification is most desirable, but relatively more expensive vegetables, legumes, and meat are often beyond the economic reach of the poor. Maize provides opportunities for increasing the intake of essential am-ino-acids, pro-vitamins A, and potentially iron and zinc. Quality protein maize (QPM) has 60 to 100% more lysine and tryptophan than normal maize represented a biological value in protein equivalent to that of milk. CIMMYT breeders and social scientists are working with a consortium of partners in Africa, Latin America and Asia to develop and deliver stress-tolerant, agronomically-competitive QPM for food or feed, as well as identifying sustainable delivery chains that ensure impacts on human malnutrition and income generation.
Opportunities for income generation from special trait maize. An increasingly globalized world has left smallholder farmers in developing countries with few comparative advantages for income generation. Drawing on the wealth of maize genetic resources it holds in trust, CIMMYT will seek to offer new income-generating options for farmers through specialty traits, value addition, or multi-purpose uses of maize. Market potential and benefits of feed and specialty maize will be assessed, and analyses of alternate suppliers and incentive-based value chains used to highlight opportunities and recommend priorities for research investments in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America. Possibilities include production of high-protein maize by smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa or Asia for sale to poultry producers, maize types usable for food and feed in maize-livestock systems, or specialty maize produced in Central America for sale in US markets. Options pursued will offer new income opportunities and a competitive edge to poor and often land-constrained maize farmers, where other opportunities are few.
Wheat with enhanced water productivity and appropriate quality profiles. Nearly half the wheat in developing countries is grown under resource-poor, rainfed conditions. Some of the poorest and most disadvantaged wheat farmers live in areas with less than 350 mmn annual
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rainfall and often depend solely on income from wheat production. Wheat in these areas is a staple food, providing around half the daily caloric requirement, and wheat straw is an important source of fodder for livestock. In irrigated areas there is increasing pressure on water resources, driving the need for effective use of applied water and for water-use-efficient germplasm. CIMMYT will intensify work to develop more input-use-efficient wheat, including lines that give more "crop per drop." The genetic basis of drought tolerance in wheat is complex, but CIMMYT is well-positioned to address the issue. Conservation agriculture practices will complement and enhance the value of drought-tolerant wheat.
Rust resistant wheat. Rust diseases arguably pose the most serious pathogen threat to wheat production worldwide. Wheat grain losses of only a few percent globally from a serious rust outbreak would spike prices and disproportionately hit the world's poorest consumers. A 2004 study found that CIMMYT and partner's efforts in leaf rust resistance breeding for spring bread wheat alone over 40 years had generated net benefits valued at over 5 billion 1990 US dollars.1 CIMMYT will draw on sizeable collections of wheat genetic resources, proven expertise in genetic improvement, an extensive network of partners, modern bioscience innovations, and social science capabilities to create a new generation of stable, resilient, and profitable wheat cultivars carrying durable resistance to a range of rust diseases.
Resource conservation technologies for maize and wheat cropping systems. Through
partnerships with NARSs, agri-business, and other CGIAR centers, CIMMYT undertakes research on conservation agriculture and resource-conserving technologies for maize and wheat cropping systems. In the coming years, agronomy research at CIMMYT will focus strongly on conservation agriculture principles and approaches. These technologies improve rural incomes and livelihoods through sustainable management of agro-ecosystem productivity and diversity, while minimizing unfavorable environmental impacts. From a research product perspective, CIMMYT will examine the potential of plant pests and diseases in such systems and look at germplasm enhancements that might reduce vulnerability. Beyond a focus on higher grain production and adapted germplasm, this research will seek more efficient and sustainable use of water and other inputs, lower production costs, better management of biotic stresses, and enhanced cropping system diversity and resilience.
Capacity building of NARSs and SME breeding programs. Impacts at the NARSs and farmer level can only be achieved if adequately trained people manage the process. CIMMYT is committed to providing both improved germplasm and building the capacity of national breeding programs which best serve poor farmers in our target regions. Indeed, with the growing strength of some NARSs and the emergence of a commercial seed sector in several target countries, there are great opportunities for more intimate, interactive, synergistic partnerships. As part of its evolving capacity-building strategy, CIMMYT will give greater emphasis to building the capacity of emerging entrepreneurs to assist in the development of a strong commercial seed sector. It must also be remembered that the capacity of many NARSs
1 Marasas, C.N., M. Smale, and R.P. Singh. 2004. The Economic Impact in Developing Countries of Leaf Rust Resistance Breeding in CIMMYT-Related Spring Bread Wheat. Economics Program Paper 04-01. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
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has in real terms declined over the last decade. This weakness also needs to be addressed directly through training and indirectly through streamlined knowledge-sharing systems. CIMMYT is making a strong commitment to fostering effective activities and linkages with other key players in the overall value chain, including synergizing the development of effective seed systems in our target regions.
Highlights of 2005
The following stories illustrate the diversity of CIMMYT research and partnerships, and help provide an idea of the complex pathways by which the Center's products and interventions contribute to farmers' livelihoods and food security.
The Asian Maize Biotechnology Network (AMBIONET), 1998-2005
The Division of Genetics of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) developed a new, downy mildew resistant maize hybrid now in trials prior to its release. Underpinning this achievement was IARI's participation in the Asian Maize Biotechnology Network (AMBIONET), comprising maize scientists from NARSs in China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. The network helped enhance the capacity for marker-assisted breeding for products such as the Indian hybrid, and assisted national molecular breeding laboratories and staff of China, India, Indonesia, and Vietnam in addressing key maize production constraints. Participants took part in collaborative international trials to identify chromosome regions associated with disease resistance of interest across the region. During the life of AMBIONET, national research systems leveraged approximately US $1.1 million in additional investments for maize breeding. The network was organized by CIMMYT, with funding from the Asian Development Bank
Quality protein maize (QPM) in Asia
Drawing on CIMMYT germplasm and training, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and Vietnam recently released QPM hybrids and open-pollinated varieties (OPVs). Research and commercial investments in QPM are growing in these and neighbouring countries, including China, Nepal and the Philippines. Approximately 200,000 hectares of QPM were grown in India during 2005; lesser areas were planted elsewhere. Throughout the region, the superior nutritional value of QPM appeals to farm households as feed for commercial poultry production, providing increased productivity and profitability. QPM is also advantageous for swine and fish production common in small rural households in China and Bangladesh. Malnourished human consumers of maize can benefit from replacement of normal maize with QPM in their diets. Moreover, QPM represents a source of additional income for seed, grain, and livestock producers, and for all the actors along the maize value chain.
Advanced lines of drought tolerant wheat in national breeding programs During 2005 ten national breeding programs selected 1,194 lines of drought tolerant wheat from CIMMYT's international screening nurseries. Wheat production in countries that reported selection of CIMMYT germplasm (Afghanistan, Bolivia, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Morocco,
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Nepal, Pakistan and Zimbabwe) accounts for 50% of the low potential, drought-stressed, rainfed wheat production in the developing world. Together, these countries have more than 39% of the world's poor, as defined by living on less than US $1 per day. Published evidence of variety releases based on lines bred by CIMMYT (or lines developed using CIMMYT materials as parents for 2005) is usually available two years after the varietal release date. During 2003 more than 100 varieties released in developing countries cited CIMMYT as the origin of the material or the use of CIMMYT parental lines in the development of these varieties. It is expected that 2005 varietal release data, when available, will show a similar order of magnitude. Of these, around 40% were released in countries where drought can limit wheat production.
Bed planting in the Yellow River Basin, China Resulting from a coordinated public-private sector program, the raised-bed planting system has been adopted on nearly 50,000 ha in Shandong Province, providing major savings in irrigation water use. Farmers also obtain higher wheat yields and better grain quality, as a result of reductions in crop lodging and the incidence of powdery mildew and sharp eyespot. The bed planting system cuts production costs by allowing farmers to seed maize directly onto existing beds, relay planting into wheat or immediately following wheat harvest. Several small factories are building appropriate bed planters in response to demand by individual farmers and service providers. In 2005, the Chinese government honored Wang Fahong, Shandong wheat scientist who has promoted bed planting, with a special award and a substantial grant to continue his work. Wang Fahong learned of bed planting through CIMMYT and, along with many Chinese colleagues, has benefited from the Center's technical and other support.
Center Financial Indicators
The primary financial and management aims of CIMMYT during the period of this MTP can be summarized as follows:
" Fully implement the outcomes of the detailed business plan (2006-2010) that was developed
by management during 2005 and formally adopted by the Board of Trustees in January
2006.
" Implement a comprehensive resource mobilization strategy. Complete the rebuilding of the Center's financial reserves during 2006. Address the issues raised by the 5th EPMR. Undertake a strategic review of infrastructural needs and develop a long term sustainable
capital investment plan.
CIMMYT funding overview
Budget tables are located on pages 95-110. Total grant revenues as detailed in this MTP amount to US $35.50M for 2006 and US $37.75M for 2007. Both unrestricted and restricted grants are predicted to decline in 2006 due to a combination of known or expected reductions in donor contributions and continued volatility in currency markets.
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Unrestricted donor funding for 2006 is budgeted at US $12.6M -a decrease of approximately 5% compared to 2005 (Table 6). A major funding concern for the Center remains the ongoing uncertainty with respect to the unrestricted contributions from major donors. CIMMYT has received indications that material reductions may be experienced, however the actual situation will not be resolved until later in 2006.
Restricted donor funding is budgeted at US $22.3M for 2006 a decline of approximately 3.5% compared to 2005. This is the result of the loss of certain targeted donor funding and the completion of a number of large projects. The effects of the initiation of a more active resource mobilization strategy are expected to result in an improving level of restricted project funding in 2007 and future years. As with the previous MTP, the increased level of uncertainty regarding restricted funding is reflected in the unidentified funding category in our donor projections. Unidentified funding as per our submission amounts to US $1.31M for 2006 and US $6.86M for 2007 (Table 6).
Business Plan implementation
Following the completion of a detailed business plan during 2005, the financial tables for this MTP have been constructed in accordance with the eleven (11) MTP Projects that have been developed by CIMMYT management and approved by the Board. It is expected that these Projects will continue to be refined during the life of the MTP.
Working capital reserve
During 2005, CIMMYT increased undesignated, unrestricted reserves to a level in excess of US $7.2M (Table 11). Reserves now approximate 74 days of operating expenditures and during 2006 CIMMYT will achieve the CGIAR mandated level for working capital reserves (75-90 days).
Partnerships: Core Component for the Development and Delivery of Flagship Products
Partnering with national programs and regional organizations
Partnerships with national agricultural research programs have been at the heart of the development and delivery of CIMMYT's improved germplasm and other products. Linkages with national programs in many key countries India, Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey, and China, to name a few date back to Green Revolution and continue to contribute materially, financially, and technically to CIMMYT's global work, as well as benefiting from it to further their and the Center's missions. Here are highlights from just three countries with highly viable NARSs whose interactions with the Center have been particularly productive. These examples highlight the role of CIMMYT in identifying and/or developing technologies that cross borders and regions.
*In Mexico, these include strong partnerships with the farmer organization "El Patronato" and the National Institute of Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock Research (INIFAP) in
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wheat improvement, and with the Institute of Agriculture, Livestock, Water, and Forestry Research and Training of the state of Mexico (ICAMEX) for highland maize, to name just a
few examples. Wheat varieties grown worldwide have derived from this collaboration.
Long-term partners in India include the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), with which CIMMYT has collaborated in research on maize and which is helping to fund
the Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, the delivery of seed of
quality protein maize, and the Global Rust Initiative. Through the RWC, which is hosted in
India, CIMMYT has partnered with institutions such as Haryana Agricultural University,
Punjab Agricultural University, GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, the Agricultural University of Uttar Pradesh, and Banaras Hindu University, as well as state
extension agencies.
" China's wheat researchers have provided more than 1,000 commercial wheat lines to
CIMMYT, and received more than 15,000 of the Center's experimental lines, which
contribute high yield potential, disease resistance, and grain quality to Chinese germplasm
and disease resistance to CIMMYT's wheats. CIMMYT and the Chinese Academy of
Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) jointly operate internationally recognized wheat quality
programs. NARSs and Center scientists have developed shuttle breeding programs for
improving wheat resistance to Fusarium diseases and yellow rust.
As NARSs in specific regions join in partnerships, CIMMYT is working through sub-regional organizations, such as ASARECA and SADC in eastern and southern Africa, and in regional and bilateral networks that bridge public and private efforts and result in international public goods.
Partnerships with the private sector and advanced research institutes
Bioscience research over the last decade has seen a major shift, with an increasing proportion of research in plant science being proprietary and conducted by the private sector or advanced institutes. Public-private and public-public alliances are critical, if relevant research results are to be adapted in ways that enable resource-poor farmers to benefit. The strengths of advanced institutes and the private sector in genomics and biotechnology, and CIMMYT's partnerships and capacity in germplasm development for the resource-poor, provide firm bases and considerable impetus for forming alliances. CIMMYT will enter such alliances when they significantly enhance the Center's ability to develop and make available public goods with particular benefit to the resource-poor. In addition, such arrangements should permit both CIMMYT and partners to retain their own identities and credibility, based on their individual missions and constituencies. Over the next year, CIMMYT will make it a core business to develop a policy statement that further specifies the conditions for engagement in such alliances, with the aim of fostering transparency in the choice of partners.
Market liberalization has led to an increasing number of small- to medium-scale private enterprises (SMEs) interested in marketing public sector maize germplasm in lower margin markets. CIMMYT and NARSs partners are developing joint strategies for strengthening SMEs, to reach farmers who would otherwise not enjoy access to seed of improved cultivars.
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Partnerships with CGIAR institutions
CIMMYT is an active and full partner with other centers of the Future Harvest Alliance through the Challenge Programs (participant in HarvestPlus, Water and Food; host center for Generation; laying groundwork for role in Sub-Saharan Africa Challenge Program), inter-center initiatives and system-wide programs (see highlight below on the Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains). The Center shares research efforts with CIAT, CIP, ICARDA, ICRAF, ICRISAT, IFPRI, IITA, ILRI, IPGRI, IRRI, and IWMI. Two more recent of these endeavors are of special note, and are described here in greater detail.
IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance. In January 2005, the Boards of Trustees of the two centers held a joint meeting in Shanghai and announced the establishment of the IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance and a Joint Board Committee for the Alliance. The Joint Board Committee met in Amsterdam in July 2005 and further defined the governance and the management mechanisms for the Alliance. Extensive discussions among the centers' staff and consultation with partners and stakeholders resulted in an alliance program that facilitates close interaction in three thematic areas: intensive cropping systems in Asia, research informatics, and knowledge management and sharing for cereals production systems. The two centers will jointly develop and implement an Alliance project for each of these areas. Each project will have a unified budget and a project leader. Developing and strengthening this Alliance is an important element of IRRI's strategy to enhance its value as a partner for science and development in Asia. The centers' complementary scientific skills, capital resources, and networks are being focused jointly to address the three areas described below. Further synergies will be pursued once these projects become fully operational.
Intensive cropping systems in Asia. There are over 30 million hectares of cereal crops in intensively cultivated farm lands across Asia that supply 80-90% of the cereals for Asia's food needs. Asian farmers are rapidly adapting intensive, lowland, rice-based agroecosystems to constraints, such as shrinking irrigation water supplies, but also to market opportunities, through diversification to crops such as maize. Traditional, commodity-based research falls short of addressing emerging sustainability and socioeconomic concerns in this setting. This IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance will apply new approaches and foster partnerships among international centers and NARSs to address these concerns. IRRI's Program 2 will be the core contributor to this work. Given the well-established activities for rice-wheat systems within the Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, efforts will focus initially on rice-maize systems, to
" Assess the biophysical potential and feasibility of rice-maize systems across the Asia region,
and impact of introducing maize into intensive rice-based systems on the environment and
sustainability of the production systems.
" Develop and deploy resource management technologies for sustainably optimizing system
productivity (and profitability) for rice-maize and rice-wheat -including value-adding
options.
" Gain understanding of the characteristics of intensive rice-maize systems -including drivers
and modifiers of system change, livelihoods, and impact monitoring and forecasting.
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* Develop and deploy system-tailored rice, wheat, and maize germplasm with value-adding
traits.
Crop Research Informatics Laboratory (CRIL). Responding to the increasing importance of informatics in crop research and breeding and the opportunities for synergy from comparative studies between crops, IRRI and CIMMYT have jointly established a unified Crop Research Informatics Laboratory (CRIL). The laboratory will increase the capacity, efficiency, and efficacy of scientific informatics support for crop research, breeding, and training. The primary pillar of the CRIL vision is the integration and comparative analysis of data across disciplines (within the germplasm enhancement value chain) and across species (within the well-studied cereal crops). IRRI and CIMMYT have established state-of-the-art facilities in the Philippines and Mexico to serve this vision, with regional facilities in India and China. The centers see several areas where this unified facility will help build sufficient critical mass to accomplish previously unattainable goals and help establish a more powerful platform for synergizing progress across cereal species. The development of informatics tools, methodologies, and systems by CRIL will lead to more targeted, efficient, and rapid access to desirable genetic variation in global rice, wheat, and maize biodiversity for IRRI, CIMMYT, NARSs, and small and medium enterprise breeding programs, as well as facilitating use of genetic materials. Currently, CRIL has a total staff of 35, including seven senior IRS, two postdoctoral fellows, and 26 NRS, working in five broad thematic areas:
1. Research support and quality assurance, where differentiation of activities within a unified
group offers considerable efficiency gains.
2. Institutional research data management, a critical Institute-wide activity that has long been
on the agendas of both institutions. CRIL now offers sufficient critical mass to facilitate
rapid progress.
3. Crop information systems for rice, wheat, and maize. With both institutions now committed
to the same informatics platform, there are tremendous opportunities for bringing diverse
datasets together.
4. Computational biology and bioinformatics. Comparative genomics between rice, maize, and
wheat will drive rapid progress in trait dissection and mining of genetic resources.
5. Decision-support tools for crop improvement. The CRIL critical mass provides dramatic
opportunities for developing new tools to facilitate the effective and efficient use of
biotechnologies in plant breeding programs.
Knowledge management. We are jointly developing an open knowledge-sharing platform focused on international public goods, notably knowledge with value across many countries, to be made accessible online using CGIAR ICT/KM-developed portal technology (such as CGXchange). This platform will align knowledge on rice, wheat, and maize production systems covering topics such as cultivars, production, diseases, and pests, with relevant production systems information (including conservation agriculture) in the form of manuals, tools (rice/wheat/maize "doctor" applications and simulators), multimedia presentations, research findings, best practices and ideas, case studies, interactive tests, and fact sheets.
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ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program (ICWIP) for Central/West Asia and North Africa. The Center's partnership with ICARDA is crucial to the work of CIMMYT and NARSs of Central/West Asia and North Africa, where ICARDA plays a major role (see descriptions of Projects 7 and 8 below for details). Staff of both Centers continue to work together closely on the ground, and great complementarities exist in the respective institutional skill packages. A functional agreement formally implemented by the Centers as of January 2006 allows for clear and effective management of ICWIP through a jointly appointed director and offers tremendous scope for product and service delivery. The agreement focuses on wheat improvement as its primary driver, but also addresses management issues such as joint regional offices. It should also be noted that the two Centers have significant interactions in areas such as agronomy and social science, even though these are not part of the written agreement on wheat improvement.
Impact pathways and interactions with partners in innovation systems CIMMYT draws on maize and wheat genetic diversity, world-class expertise, and extensive knowledge of global maize and wheat systems to generate and target improved germplasm and knowledge for farmers in developing countries. For each Project described below, the Center has traced a plausible pathway to better livelihoods and reduced poverty for farmers, along with reduced poverty and enhanced food security for rural townspeople and city dwellers. This is achieved by CIMMYT, NARSs, seed companies, farmers, and local organizations working in complex networks that may be characterized as agricultural innovation systems, rather than linear development chains. The genetic diversity in gene banks and breeding lines worldwide, together with the knowledge of this resource, represent the basic material for maize and wheat breeding. Adapting and applying improved tools in the use of this material, CIMMYT and partners produce experimental maize and wheat lines and varieties for specific purposes -for traits such as yield, adaptation, tolerance to drought or low nitrogen soil conditions, resistance to soil-borne and foliar diseases and pests, and end-user grain and fodder quality requirements.
As farmers incorporate improved maize and wheat cultivars, conservation agriculture practices, and better knowledge into their management systems, cereal productivity increases and stabilizes and household livelihoods and income increase (initial farm-level impacts). Increased productivity and reduced risk frequently foster diversification toward high-value crops or livestock, further augmenting household income and providing funds to pursue farm or offfarm businesses. Secondary impacts include enhanced local economies and rural employment, together with the food surpluses to feed cities.
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Shaping CIMMYT's Project Portfolio
The Millennium Development Goals and the system priorities set by the CGIAR Science Council shaped the flagship products of CIMMYT's 2006-2010 Business Plan and the Project portfolio given in this 2007-2009 Medium-Term Plan.
The Millennium Development Goals and CIMMYT
Many of CIMMYT and partners' joint efforts contribute directly or indirectly to the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals. The following are just a few examples:
" By enhancing maize and wheat grain yields to improve rural and urban food security, while
raising farmers' incomes CIMMYT and partners' efforts contribute to eradicating extreme
poverty and hunger.
" Work in sub-Saharan Africa in support of community seed production by farmer
associations and self-help groups, along with initiatives like whole-family training in
Bangladesh, are empowering women; the Hill Maize Research Project in Nepal especially
targets women and disadvantaged groups, promoting equity and gender equality. CIMMYT
training serves the same purpose.
" The Center and partners breeds for enhanced micronutrient content and protein quality in
the grain of both maize and wheat, providing healthier food that reduces child mortality and
general malnutrition.
" Through the study and promotion of conservation agriculture (for example, the Rice-Wheat
Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains; work in eastern and southern Africa) and as
custodian of one of the largest collections of maize and wheat genetic resources, CIMMYT
and partners foster environmental sustainability.
" The Center cultivates global partnerships for development of proven effectiveness in all of the
areas mentioned above -maize and wheat breeding, conservation agriculture, genetic
resource conservation, biofortified grain, and capacity building-as well as many others.
CGIAR System priority setting and CIMMYT flagship products and Projects More than two-thirds of the Center's investment addresses CGIAR system priority # 2: Producing food at lower costs through genetic improvement (Figure 1). This reflects the needs of maize and wheat farmers for cultivars that withstand biotic or biotic stresses, and for more nutritious and healthy food for consumers. Figure 2 illustrates the relationship between Projects, outputs, and flagship products.
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Table 1. Mapping CIMMYT Project outputs (weight in %) to CGIAR system priorities (SP). CIMMYT 2007-2009 MTP Projects SP1 SP2 SP3 SP4 SP5 DA SAT
P1 Conservation, characterization and targeted access 40 60 to maize- and wheat-related biodiversity.
P2 Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for 100
genetic improvement.
P3 Stress tolerant maize. 100
P4 Nutritional and specialty traits for maize. 20 70 10
P5 African livelihoods. 40 20 20 20
P6 Maize for Asia and Latin America. 90 10
P7 Water productive wheat. 10 90
P8 Enhanced wheat for more durable resistance to 10 80 10
diseases and improved production potential. P9 Wheat grain enriched for health and profitability. 20 70 10
P10 Conservation agriculture for maize and wheat 20
cropping systems.* 10 70
P11 Knowledge, targeting, and strategic assessment of 70 10 20
maize and wheat farming systems.
SP1 Sustaining biodiversity for current and future generations. SP2 Producing food at lower costs through genetic improvement. SP3 Creating wealth among the rural poor through high-value commodities and products. SP4 Combining poverty alleviation and sustainable management of water, land and forestry resources. SP5 Improving policies and facilitating institutional innovation. DA Development activities.
SAT Stand-alone training.
* Includes CIMMYT contributions to the Rice-Wheat Consortium research agenda.
Center resources are also allocated to the four other CGIAR system priority areas (Figure 1), and about 10% for other important areas that contribute to obtaining impacts: seed systems (especially in Africa, as shown in P5), stand-alone capacity building (through P11), and other development activities (through networking in P8, P9, P1O and P11). Finally, a small, unspecified portion of CIMMYT research portfolio is dedicated to exploratory research, whereby scientists test innovations in their particular areas and at their own discretion.
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80 70 60 50
40 30
20 10
SPi SP2 SP3 SP4 SP5 Others
Figure 1. Approximate investments of CIMMYT (% of annual budget) by CGIAR system priority (SP) undertakings. SP1 Sustaining biodiversity for current and future generations. SP2 Producing food at lower costs through genetic improvement. SP3 Creating wealth among the rural poor through high-value commodities and products. SP4 Combining poverty alleviation and sustainable management of water, land and forestry resources. SP5 Improving policies and facilitating institutional innovation.
Project 1. Conservation,
characterization and targeted Stmoerr~ access to maize- and wheat- alleles
related biodiversity.
Identifyd eight
Project 7. Water- productiveFlghprout wheatt
Project 11. Knowledge,
targeting, and strategic Database on
assessment of maize and dmight hotspots
wheat farming systems.
Figure 2. A simple schema of how outputs from MTP Projects (the ovals) contribute to work in other Projects and, ultimately, the development and delivery of a flagship product. All flagship products draw on Project outputs.
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Highlights of the 2007-2009 Project Portfolio
The flagship products described above are embedded as outputs in a focused Project portfolio. The 2007-2009 Medium-Term Plan Projects are described below in highlights and fleshed out in the logframes. Key areas of focus and strategy are also briefly described.
Project 1. Conservation, characterization and targeted access to maize- and wheat-related biodiversity.
Crop-related biodiversity is the founding asset of the CGIAR and the basic raw material for the international breeding programs of CIMMYT. The emerging niche of the CGIAR in the new millennium builds on this foundation, but now with greater emphasis on technology-assisted methodologies and intermediate products associated with the efficient identification of target value-added traits and their rapid introgression into elite breeding material. Structured and well-characterized germplasm subsets, trait-specific genetic stocks (near-isogenic, introgression and substitution lines), double haploid lines, synthetic polyploidy genotypes, genetic mapping populations and mutant stocks, enhanced gene pools, advanced lines, and diverse cultivars are becoming an increasingly critical asset for the global plant research and breeding community. Targeted development, intensive characterization and extensive evaluation (under diverse field conditions) of this germplasm is increasingly seen as the rate-limiting factor for translation of outputs from the genomics and information technology revolutions into tangible products for developing country farmers. Application and translation of upstream research outputs for the development of intermediate products with multi-disciplinary added value will be increasingly dependent upon effective data management systems. Thus, a major new strategic focus in P1 is the creation of a fully integrated web-based support system for partners involved with conservation, utilization, evaluation and enhancement of genetic resources, whereby all types of data can be integrated, compared and collectively analyzed and queried by anyone anywhere.
International public goods:
" Methodologies for trait and gene-based identification of useful crop-related biodiversity. Capacity building and technological backstopping to assist NARS, SMEs, and CIMMYT
breeders to make best use of maize and wheat-related biodiversity.
" Development of fully integrated, public-access, germplasm characterization information
resources.
" Generation and/or characterization of near-isogenic, introgression and substitution lines,
enhanced gene pools, synthetic polyploidy genotypes, genetic mapping populations and
mutant stocks for trait-targeted genetic investigations.
" Targeted collection, conservation, characterization and distribution of crop-related biodiversity.
Impact pathways and partnerships:
Intermediate products from P1 focus on tools, methodologies, and germplasm associated with more targeted, efficient, and rapid access to and use of the most desirable genetic variation for maize and wheat breeding programs. The primary users of these intermediate products -who will also take part in their development- span breeders and other researchers from CIMMYT,
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NARSs, SMEs, and advanced institutes. These intermediate products should have a direct impact on the efficiency and ultimate impact of CIMMYT and partners' maize and wheat breeding programs. Clearly the extent to which activities in this Project can effectively target access to the most desirable genetic variation remains a hypothesis. However, the combined application of genomics and informatics will arguably improve the routine rates of success as compared to historical systematic screening approaches. The extent to which this genetic variation is taken up by CIMMYT, NARSs, and SME breeding programs will also greatly influence the overall contribution of these intermediate products to the final impact of finished varieties and improved cropping systems. Project researchers and other CIMMYT staff will synergize the process through advocacy, facilitation, catalyzing, and technical backstopping. International treaties or national legislation that restrain the Center's ability to fill gaps in germplasm collections represent a long-term constraint for this pathway; this can be addressed through balanced partnerships with countries in key centers of diversity. Similarly, the lack of capacity or willingness of some NARSs or SME breeding programs to adopt products from germplasm enhancement programs (as compared to finished products from conventional breeding programs) also constrains the scope and depth of impact of this approach. Thus, CIMMYT is launching a major effort in communities of practices for technology-assisted breeding, to bridge the gaps in capacity and openness. In general the intermediate products from this Project are likely to have an impact on the productivity, stability, and resilience of new, experimental maize and wheat varieties within 8-10 years. Resultant impacts of new varieties on livelihoods are envisaged within 12-15 years. In most cases, direct impacts will be first on the CIMMYT breeding programs through other CIMMYT Projects (#3 to #10), then through NARSs intimately involved with CIMMYT through globally decentralized shuttle breeding initiatives, and then to other NARSs and SME breeding programs in target countries, with hopefully just I to 2 years between each phase.
In the new vision of P1, NARSs partners -particularly in primary centers of maize or wheat diversity -and CGIAR and other advanced gene banks play a critical role in synergizing P1 activities in germplasm conservation and characterization. Similarly, CIMMYT's participation in the Generation and HarvestPlus Challenge Programs will provide unique access to global germplasm for drought tolerance and biofortification. Finally, our partnerships with advanced institutes such as CRC-MPB (Australia), Cornell University, USA, and NIAB, UK, provide essential access to new technologies for target trait-based access to germplasm, particularly allele and gene mining technologies. General conservation and utilization activities among CIMMYT and other international centers take place under the System-wide Genetic Resource Program (SGRP). CIMMYT predominantly focuses on applying related technologies for its maize and wheat germplasm collections. CIMMYT, NARS, and SME breeders also play a critical role in orientating these efforts toward the highest priority traits. P1 researchers reach up the value chain by committing to provide technical backstopping for the routine application of new tools and methodologies in CIMMYT, NARSs, and SME breeding programs.
Project 2. Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic improvement.
This Project develops and validates new methodologies for more efficient and targeted manipulation of new alleles and genes for traits prioritized by end-users in CIMMYT's regional
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programs, NARSs, and SME breeding programs. The ultimate goal is to enhance resilience to abiotic stresses, yield stability under biotic stress, nutritional quality for human and animal consumption, and the profitability of maize and wheat cultivars, through targeted use of genetic resources. CIMMYT and partners' molecular breeding application facilities urgently need to evolve to a new paradigm that takes maximum advantage of out-sourcing enterprises for genotyping. Similarly, the identification of new marker associations is often better achieved in advanced institutes. Nevertheless, CIMMYT has a primary niche in developing central information resources, coordinated analysis, and facilitation of the overall product development chain. Similarly, it is CIMMYT's role to validate and refine outputs from advanced institutes to ensure robust and efficient application in plant breeding programs. In particular, this will involve applying quantitative knowledge-led phenotyping systems, analyzing environmental and genetic background effects, developing improved methodologies through retrospective analysis of current breeding data, and devising new selection systems based on holistic indices and computation decision support tools.
International public goods:
* Web-enabled integrated data management and analysis systems linking genetic resources,
biotechnology, breeding, and varietal releases.
* Biotechnology and/or computationally-assisted germplasm enhancement tools and
strategies.
* Capacity building and technological backstopping to assist NARS, SME, and CIMMYT
wheat and maize breeders to make best use of new germplasm enhancement tools,
methodologies, and genetic resources.
* Ex ante or cost-benefit analysis of impact from outputs/intermediate products (germplasm,
tools, and methodologies) from CIMMYT's Genetic Resources and Enhancement Unit
(GREU) in flagship projects.
* New genetic engineering methodologies and systems for breeding GM crops.
* New maize and wheat molecular breeding tools through translational genomics from rice
and other model systems.
* New maize and wheat molecular breeding tools through functional genomics analysis of
metabolic pathways important for agronomic traits such as drought tolerance and
developmental biology.
Impact pathways and partnerships:
The development, validation, and facilitated application of new tools and methodologies for genetic improvement programs is a fundamental niche for CIMMYT researchers to improve the efficiency and impact of CIMMYT, NARSs, and SME breeding programs. Along with valueadded genetic resources (P1), these tools and methodologies (P2) are the cornerstone of CIMMYT's intermediate products, which have indirect impacts on stakeholders by improving the speed, precision, and efficiency of crop breeding programs. These tools may be based on tissue culture, genomics, or transgenic technologies; new methodologies increasingly rely on advanced biometrics, informatics, simulation, and modeling. The extent to which the potential benefits of such new tools and methodologies are realized relies heavily upon the scope of uptake and skills of implementers. To ensure maximum impact of intermediate products, P2
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researchers commit not only to develop, validate, and refine tools and methodologies hand-inhand with relevant breeding programs, but also to facilitate their effective uptake and application in CIMMYT, NARSs, and SME breeding programs through intensive and proactive technical backstopping. This will be achieved through the development of communities of practice for molecular breeding, building out from partners in the globally decentralized shuttle breeding initiative. CIMMYT is in the vanguard of the CGIAR evolution to focus increasingly on developing facilitating technologies and assisting partners to take over the traditional mandate of developing elite breeding lines and near-finished products. In this scenario, CIMMYT will increasingly emphasize its role as facilitator, enabler, and advocate in the overall value chain, as opposed to primary provider of advanced breeding materials. This transition will clearly move faster in some countries than others. As stronger NARS and SME breeding programs take on a larger role in product development, CIMMYT will focus more efforts on weaker countries with the greatest need (in terms of poverty alleviation) for advanced breeding lines and near-finished products. In turn, as fewer NARS in general require CIMMYT to play this role, then CIMMYT can again refocus efforts on more upstream germplasm enhancement activities.
In the new vision of P2, advanced institute partners play the foundation role of predominant technology provider, although in rare cases where no institute is interested in a priority trait, tool, or methodology, CIMMYT will take up that role. CIMMYT's founding role in the Generation Challenge Program and the Molecular Plant Breeding Cooperative Research Center provides unique access to a huge range of technology options. CIMMYT focuses predominantly on validating and refining those technologies for application in stakeholders' unique situations and integrating diverse technologies into efficient, new genetic improvement methodologies. CIMMYT, NARS, and SME breeders then validate and refine the methodologies. Finally, GREU scientists commit to provide technical backstopping for the routine application of these new tools and methodologies in CIMMYT, NARS, and SME breeding programs. Intermediate products from the Project are likely to have an impact on the productivity, stability, and resilience of new maize and wheat varieties within 8-10 years; resultant impacts of new cultivars on livelihoods are envisaged within 12-15 years. In most cases direct impacts will be first on the CIMMYT breeding programs through other CIMMYT Projects (#3 to #10), then through NARSs intimately involved with CIMMYT through the molecular breeding community of practice (e.g. in Kenya, China, India, or Brazil), and then to other NARSs and SME breeding programs in target countries; hopefully with just I to 2 years between each phase.
Project 3. Stress tolerant maize.
Tropical maize growing environments are affected by a wide range of stresses worsened by variable weather conditions, infertile and acidic soils, lack of inputs, labor shortages for other control methods, and soil degradation. In particular, the importance of finding genetic approaches which stabilize and increase crop productivity in the face of climate change and increasing water scarcity is widely acknowledged. Also, for some newly emerging or newly important biotic stresses, no sources of resistance can be found in known or improved germplasm. This Project will use breeding methodologies, genes, chromosomal regions, and allelic variation for exploratory incorporation into elite or farmers' own maize germplasm and
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assessment of genotype, gene-by-genotype, and genotype-by-environment effects. It will apply the insights gained to generate strategically important stress tolerant source germplasm and strengthen the capacities of partners to effectively use new and proven tools emerging from other undertakings, such as Projects I and 2 and the CGIAR Generation Challenge Program. Traits of interest in the time-frame of this business plan include drought, low nitrogen stress, acidic soils, host plant resistance to Striga, stem borers, post harvest pests, and mycotoxin generating ear rots, which are among the most intractable stress factors in maize world-wide. As steward of the world's maize genetic resources, CIMMYT has a global responsibility for developing germplasm with new or more durable resistance to environmental stress factors, diseases, and pests. Within this Project, CIMMYT will provide an effective access path for identifying and availing new sources of resistance from the genetic resources and enhanced germplasm managed by CIMMYT. The Center's accumulated maize research and breeding materials targeting stress environments are regarded as successes. This Project builds upon them to contribute to food security and better use of scarce resources (water, nutrients, labor, and land), in particular as climate change increases the area and frequency of unfavorable production conditions.
International public goods:
* Enhanced maize populations and lines that tolerate drought, N stress, and acidic soils and
resist diseases and insects in target areas.
* Maize types with high levels of drought and heat tolerance to offset expected impacts of
climate change in the developing world.
* New sources for host plant resistance to diseases and pests that threaten maize production
and trade in significant regions of the developing world.
* Seed-embedded options for controlling Striga, a parasitic weed that threatens maize
production throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
* Conventionally and biotechnologically-derived stem borer resistant maize cultivars.
* Maize types expressing significantly reduced levels of mycotoxins for the improved health
of high-risk populations.
* Knowledge-sharing on genetic resources and selection protocols to breed maize germplasm
for stress-prone environments and with improved resistance to important biotic stresses.
Impact pathways and partnerships:
The Project develops a variety of improved stress tolerant maize populations and lines, and associated knowledge to contribute to maintain, increase and stabilize farmers' yields in stressed production environments. Breeding of maize germplasm that offers options against intractable traits, and specifically imazapyr-resistant (IR) maize in relation to the threat of the Striga weed, exemplify the nature of impact pathways in P3. IR maize is the result of an international public-private partnership among KARI (Kenya), the Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), BASF, and CIMMYT. CIMMYT's role was to source the resistant gene from BASF which underpins the development of IR maize cultivars adapted to Eastern African environments where Striga damage is extensive, for example in Western Kenya. In a parallel activity, CIMMYT collaborates with the Weizmann Institute to develop and improve a low-cost technology for seed coating which is suitable for resource-poor farmers. To illustrate the next
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steps of the impact pathway for IR Maize, CIMMYT's breeders in partnership with KARI breeders convert available improved maize lines (e.g. CML216, CML312) adapted to eastern Africa to imazapyr-resistance. Generally it would take about 10 years for development, testing and release of a new hybrid. Then, local seed companies in Kenya (such as Western Seed) which operate in areas where Striga is a problem will evaluate the improved varieties, multiply seed and release improved hybrids and open-pollinated varieties or use imazapyr-resistant maize lines in their breeding program. After release (already on-going in Kenya and envisioned in other Striga-affected countries within 2-4 years), NARSs and local seed companies will multiply seed of IR maize for use in field demonstrations, while seed production is scaled up, which would generally require 2-3 years. As the improved IR lines become available, several thousand demonstrations of the new material are expected to be organized and run by NGOs across the Striga-infested areas of Kenya, especially the high population density and impoverished Western districts. Other countries, e.g., Tanzania and Uganda will follow suit as varieties are released nationally. The adoption of IR maize can tremendously boost maize yields in severely infested fields, e.g. a smallholder farmer growing 0.5 ha of maize might produce an additional 1-2 tones of maize which will lead to improved farm household food security, livelihoods and possibly extra income from the sales of surplus maize. The success of IR maize is likely to foster a restoration of maize areas and production in Striga-infested districts of subSaharan Africa. The extra income generated for local expenditure will boost the local economy and create extra off-farm work.
Project 4. Nutritional and specialty traits for maize.
The world's maize genetic resources contain a wealth of benefits, including new opportunities for improving nutrition, and multiple uses of maize and maize products. This Project explores new opportunities for highest-priority genetic traits in demand by beneficiaries, partners, and clients, incorporates them into germplasm usable by the wider community involved in maize genetic enhancement, and develops first experimental germplasm for use and feed-back by clients and beneficiaries. Research is on-going to find new traits to biofortify maize for key micronutrients (vitamin A, zinc, iron). This is just one example of groundwork for eventual breeding programs. Other traits include those related to horticultural uses of maize (green-cob, baby-corn, sweet corn) as important sources of cash for growers in Southeast Asia and others near urban areas in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Likewise, maize with non-food crop uses, such as dual purpose maize (food and fodder) or high-protein maize for poultry producers may provide income-generating options. The Project promotes a strong integration with CIMMYT staff in regional Projects, their clients and beneficiaries, and partners in advanced institutes and Challenge Programs, capitalizing on CIMMYT's comparative advantage to identify in gene bank and breeding materials usable traits for human nutrition and health, horticulture, or multiple purposes. The market potential and benefits of specialty maize will be assessed, and analyses of alternate suppliers and incentive-based value chains used to highlight opportunities and recommend priorities for research investments in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Armed with these socioeconomic analyses, CIMMYT and partners can form consortia that attract funds to implement research that taps the wealth of maize genetic resources to give farmers new income-generating options. Although QPM is no longer new at CIMMYT, Center breeders will continue to incorporate the quality protein trait into improved maize germplasm.
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International public goods:
* Ex-ante impact assessment and analysis of the presence of alternate suppliers for assessing
and targeting CIMMYT involvement in nutritional and specialty trait-specific research.
* Identified source germplasm and allelic discovery in maize genetic resources for specified
high-priority traits.
* Experimental materials (pyramiding proven new, important traits in adapted genetic
backgrounds) for evaluation and use with selected clients and beneficiaries.
* Information about inheritance and breeding methods.
* Publications on recommended pathways (commodity chains) to maximize impact of chosen
value-adding maize research investments.
Impact pathways and partnerships:
Agrosalud, a special project funded by the Canadian International Development Agency and convened by CIAT, offers an example of how P4 works with partners to ensure a complete and successful impact pathway. The goal of this special project is to improve the nutritional status of the rural and urban poor in target regions of Latin America by developing and deploying agronomically superior, micronutrient-dense quality protein maize (QPM). Primary target countries are El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Haiti. Most of the germplasm comes directly from CIMMYT or is derived from Center products. Each country team implements a similar impact pathway, which starts from the substantial maize breeding effort which is conducted at CIMMYT, including breeding methodology development and all stages of applied breeding, from identification and creation of sources of variation to development of experimental hybrid and open-pollinated cultivars for evaluation by interested partners:
" Maize breeders in each country will participate in international trials and in adaptive
breeding of QPM germplasm distributed by CIMMYT which will lead to release of an
estimated 6 cultivars within 5 years.
" Strip-plot demonstration trials will be planted by national program partners (e.g. CENTA in
El Salvador; INTA in Nicaragua; UNA and DICTA in Honduras; etc.) on farmers' fields at multiple locations; over about 2 years the most-promising 2 to 4 cultivars will be selected
with farmer input obtained during field days and via farmer surveys.
" During 2 to 3 years demonstration plots of the promising cultivars and best currentlyavailable commercial cultivars will be planted at 50 to 200 sites by partners in extension
services, NGOs, and farmers' associations. Various stakeholders (private seed companies
and NGOs) and policy-makers will be invited to field days together with farmers.
" Training courses on seed production and nutritive characteristics of the QPM cultivars will
be organized at the regional level, with participants from NARSs, NGOs, and seed
companies.
" Alliances will be developed with private seed, milling, agrochemical, and livestock
companies, as well as with universities, health clinics, and schools, to demonstrate the value
of and promote QPM cultivars.
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* Links to formal or (if necessary) informal seed producers and retailers will be cultivated, to
ensure a supply of seed for the QPM cultivars.
Beneficiaries will be maize farmers in the target (and spill-over) countries. The main benefit will be improved maize production and stability of maize production by using the maize varieties developed and disseminated by the Project. For poorest farmers, previously using unimproved varieties, this can represent a doubling of maize yield, whereas for farmers already growing improved varieties, this Project may result in 10-20% production increases.
Box: Maize, wheat, human nutrition and health
Humans domesticated plants into crops to address their needs for food, feed, dress, shelter, and energy. Among the most important food crops are maize and wheat that together account for 40% of the calories in the diets of developing world citizens. These two crops are pivotal to nutrition, health, income, environmental sustainability, and overall development for lowincome nations. Agricultural researchers continue addressing malnutrition by developing systems that provide more nutritious food or higher incomes to purchase it. For example, plant breeding provides a means for improving micronutrient content and protein quality in crops. The genetic enhancement of crop biodiversity to increase iron content in staple crops that reach a quarter of developing world inhabitants could eliminate up to 100 million cases of iron deficiency every year. Plant breeders are genetically enhancing wheat to produce high-yielding lines whose grain contains 30 to 50% more iron and zinc. The best genetic resources for both micronutrients are grass species that do not cross easily with modern wheat cultivars. Still researchers have been able to hybridize one such grass-Aegilops tauschii-with a micronutrient-rich primitive wheat (Triticum dicoccon), to obtain the micronutrient-enhanced lines. These are being tested widely in India and Pakistan. One day their citizens, particularly the urban and rural poor, will eat biofortified bread. In maize the naturally-occurring mutant gene opaque-2, discovered in a Peruvian maize landrace in 1963, increases levels of the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan, greatly improving the quality of grain protein. Over two decades of meticulous breeding, CIMMYT researchers developed experimental lines and varieties that feature this enhanced quality, without opaque-2's undesirable effects on grain quality and appearance. QPM improves the diets of people who consume a great deal of maize, as well as the productivity of farm animals, when used in feed. Varieties and hybrids of this quality protein maize (QPM) are grown on more than 650,000 hectares in 25 countries throughout the developing world. These are just a few examples of the impacts of maize and wheat breeding on the livelihoods of both farmers and consumers, which are contributing towards the Millennium Development Goals in today's complex global environment.
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Project 5. African livelihoods: Global solutions for maize food and income security in eastern and southern Africa.
Maize is an important lifeline in eastern and southern Africa, where over 340 million people annually consume about 20 million tons or 57 kilograms per capita. Maize production has strategic importance for the food security and socioeconomic stability of the region, which is among the poorest worldwide and afflicted by poor input and output markets, recurring droughts, parasitic weeds, and insect pests. Farmers respond to poor market conditions and variable weather conditions by planting more food crops than needed in an average year and selling surpluses in good years. Land and labor use for cropping maize is to the detriment of legumes, cash crops, or other useful diversification, resulting in human malnutrition and soil fertility depletion. Providing opportunities for farmers to generate healthy food on a smaller land area, in particular as the impacts of climate change become more pronounced, has significant importance for food and income security, market development, and cropping diversification. This Project is an integral part of CIMMYT's maize strategy. Through partnerships with other international centers, NARSs, local NGOs, and entrepreneurs in Africa, as well as linkages with other CIMMYT Projects and advanced institutes worldwide, the Project undertakes research to develop and build the capacity to deliver genetically enhanced maize and resource-conserving practices. These contribute to increased food and income security and cropping diversification in maize-based systems in eastern and southern Africa, as well as creating a sustainable and significant impact on the livelihoods of African farmers. Through its mandate and historically strong presence in eastern and southern Africa, CIMMYT has a comparative advantage and track-record in the use of maize genetic resources, state-of-the-art technologies, and intrinsic knowledge of African farmers' circumstances to generate maizebased solutions that impact livelihoods. CIMMYT is known for developing and applying breeding techniques that improve the tolerance and resistance in maize to intractable stresses (drought, low nitrogen, soil acidity, Striga, diseases, and insect pests), and for using maize genetic resources to enhance the crop's productivity and value for human nutrition and health. Similarly, work on resource-conserving technologies links with the Center's global commitment to make their use sustainable for smallholder farmers.
International public goods:
" Multiple-stress resistant, biofortified maize for enhanced food security, nutrition, health,
and cropping diversification in eastern and southern Africa.
" Resource-conserving technologies that stabilize and increase productivity in maize-based
systems, cognizant of the socioeconomic circumstances of resource-poor farmers in eastern
and southern Africa.
" Regional-based capacity building in eastern and southern Africa for NARSs, NGOs, and
SMEs, to more effectively prioritize, develop, and deliver maize-based technologies and
policies relevant to resource poor farmers.
" Knowledge on more effective, incentive-driven seed delivery pathways to increase the
impact of maize genetic gains among farmers in stress-prone and outlying areas of eastern
and southern Africa.
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" Capacity building in selected NARSs and, particularly, regulatory system staff to
incorporate transgenic technology into the development and stewardship of adapted maize
cultivars.
" Information, publications, and training modules for CIMMYT-wide knowledge
management approaches.
Impact pathways and partnerships:
The New Seed Initiative for Maize in Southern Africa (NSIMA) project, coordinated by CIMMYT and co-funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation and the Rockefeller Foundation, offers an example of how P5 will work with partners to ensure complete and successful impacts. This project will contribute to improving the food security and livelihoods of resource-poor farm families in southern Africa by providing farmer-selected maize varieties with increased productivity under the stress-prone conditions typically faced by resource-poor farmers, and by strengthening stakeholders in the maize seed sector to work towards a more diverse and stable seed industry responsive to resource-poor farmers' needs. The project relies on diverse partnerships to develop and strengthen key components of the impact pathway, as follows:
" A significant effort will be made to strengthen the research capacity of NARSs scientists and
technicians through collaborative research projects and training on topics encompassing all
steps in the impact pathway and ranging from short-duration workshops to supervising
MSc and PhD programs. Agreement with sub-regional priorities and links among actors of
the impact pathway are strengthened through multi-stakeholder steering committees or
coordination units and annual planning meetings at country and sub-regional levels.
" New, stress-tolerant experimental hybrids and open-pollinated varieties will be developed
and entered into regional evaluation trials by CIMMYT scientists and, via a competitive
grant system to support national program breeding projects, by national program partners. In collaboration with the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and other
international centers, the project will work with national seed services, policy-makers, and
donors to support regional harmonization of seed regulations, thereby promoting seed
sector development and enhancing access by resource-poor farmers to seed of improved
varieties.
" NARSs, NGOs, rural schools, farmers' associations, and other partners implement farmerparticipatory trials will generate quantitative and qualitative data used in cultivar release decisions and to inform further research by NARSs and CIMMYT. Institutionalization of this approach will be promoted by devolving coordination and oversight to teams in 10
countries, with technical support from a regional coordinator.
" Formal (private seed companies) and informal (community organizations) seed producers
will be involved as partners at various stages, from farmer-participatory variety testing to
seed production, release, and commercialization of the best cultivars. Training of small-scale
seed entrepreneurs will be a key activity.
CIMMYT will aim to be an active participant in the Challenge Program for Sub-Saharan Africa.
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Project 6. Maize for Asia and Latin America.
Maize is grown on more than 60 million hectares in tropical developing countries, with about 27 million hectares in Latin America and the Caribbean and 16 million hectares in South and Southeast Asia (excluding China, which grows about 25 million hectares). Relative to 1995, by 2020 demand for maize in East and Southeast Asia will have increased by nearly 50% and in South Asia by more than 90%. Much of the demand is for animal feed, but demand for maize as food is also rising, particularly among the poor in densely populated areas. The accelerating demand for maize must be met within the context of increasing competition for water, land, power, and labor resources; innovative science will be required. CIMMYT's wealth of genetically diverse maize is one key to ensuring sustained increases in productivity. Genetic diversity is a fundamental requirement to exploit hybrid vigor and to reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests. As the private sector increasingly meets the demand for improved maize cultivars, issues of germplasm ownership are rapidly narrowing the genetic diversity available to researchers, making CIMMYT an ever-more-crucial source of productivity-enhancing and productivity-protecting genetic diversity. This Project will focus on developing and facilitating the deployment of stress tolerant, nutritious maize adapted to Latin America and South and Southeast Asia. Drought, pest, and disease threats dominate the agenda, with particular attention to emerging constraints associated with agricultural intensification and use of resource-conserving technologies. This Project will facilitate or participate in consortia to develop improved maize technologies (especially germplasm) and to enhance access to them in "poverty peaks" or otherwise marginalized areas in Asia or Latin America.
International public goods:
" Maize germplasm with essential or valuable trait combinations for use in breeding
programs especially in the lowland tropics worldwide.
" Maize germplasm with essential or valuable trait combinations for use in breeding
programs for the highlands worldwide, but especially in Mexico.
" Maize germplasm suited to resource-conserving cropping systems, in general and for
intensive rice-maize cropping in Asia as a contribution to the work of the IRRI-CIMMYT
Alliance.
" Maize germplasm that provides insurance against narrowing genetic diversity and
emerging constraints to maize production.
" An upgraded capacity in researchers, local entrepreneurs, and institutions to effectively
develop and deliver genetic gains and know-how to beneficiaries.
Impact pathways and partnerships:
The Hill Maize Research Project (HMRP), an example of CIMMYT work in P6, is a collaborative project between CIMMYT and the Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC), funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. The goal is to improve farm families' food security and livelihoods through the increased productivity and sustainability of maize and maize-based cropping systems in the hills of Nepal. Specific objectives are to develop a sustained capacity within the National Maize Research Program (NMRP) of NARC and in its research partners to develop maize production technologies with and for poor maize farmers and to facilitate the dissemination of appropriate maize technologies through extension and
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input delivery channels. The HMRP brings together an extensive array of partners to ensure a complete and successful impact pathway, as follows:
" Professional development of NMRP scientists is continuous and multi-disciplinary, and
ranges from short workshops to MSc and PhD programs (e.g., 7 post-graduate students in
2006).
" Stress-tolerant, open-pollinated experimental maize cultivars -introduced mainly from
CIMMYT breeding programs in Africa and Mexico-will be evaluated by thousands of farmers in simple, participatory varietal selection experiments implemented by NGOs,
government extension services, and farmer associations in remote hill areas. It can be
expected that farmers will select 2-4 cultivars each year for further evaluation, and 1-2 new
varieties will be released every 3-4 years.
" Little breeding work is planned, except mass selection or adaptive breeding of farmerpreferred experimental cultivars to improve traits prioritized by farmers (non-lodging, stay
green, high yield, and grain flavor).
" Foundation seed of farmer-preferred cultivars will be produced mainly on NMRP research
stations.
" More than 15 partners, mainly NGOs and District Agriculture Development Offices
(DADOs), have been trained by CIMMYT in order to organize and train farmer groups in
remote hill areas to produce and market seed. More than 300 tons of seed are expected to be produced through such community-based schemes per year. Most seed production groups will receive training in business skills and will be assisted in linking with seed traders and
DADOs to develop marketing networks.
" The HMRP supports competitive small grants program that, among other things, helps
farmers to identify profitable crop diversification options, such as intercropping of tomato,
ginger, soya, or faba beans with maize.
" Training of and by HMRP partners also benefits hundreds of farmers each year on topics
including seed production and small business skills. Tens of thousands of farmers will
benefit directly from HMRP-coordinated activities, and many will be women (>50%) and/or
from disadvantaged groups (e.g., dalits and Janajati).
Project 7. Water-productive wheat.
Approximately 50 million hectares, or close to 50% of all wheat cultivated in developing countries, is sown under rainfed systems that receive less than 600 mm of rainfall annually. Some of the poorest and most disadvantaged wheat farmers live in rainfed areas of less than 350 mm annual rainfall and their livelihoods often depend solely on income from wheat production, with wheat straw or fodder contributing to farm animal sustenance. In rainfed areas, water availability is limited and unpredictable, and indications are that climate change is making this variability more extreme. Agriculture is a major user of water (72% globally), and supplementary rather than full irrigation is becoming common, exposing wheat to water stress. Water productivity is an increasingly important trait for wheat cultivars for irrigated areas. Recognizing water productivity and drought tolerance as priorities for wheat, CIMMYT has worked to disaggregate drought tolerance per se in wheat into distinct components and applies those findings to germplasm improvement. Ongoing research is gaining a better understanding
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of traits which have a major effect on water productivity in dryland wheat areas: these include root architecture and physiological traits, resistance to soil-borne pests and diseases, tolerance to heat and saline, zinc deficient, and boron toxic soils. The use of manipulated, repeatable selection environments in Mexico and the data collected and analyzed for genotype-byenvironment interactions through a unique network of international partners, enable wheat researchers to make real genetic gains in parental and advanced lines. The combination of improved germplasm; the Center and partners' expertise in drought physiology, soil-borne diseases, and agronomy; and the availability of markers for various traits puts CIMMYT in a unique position to develop water-productive wheat with resistance to the important stresses for use by partners throughout the developing world. This Project is conducted in close collaboration with ICARDA, through the ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program (ICWIP).
International public goods:
" Spring and winter bread wheat and spring durum wheat with increased water productivity,
adaptation and performance stability, multiple resistance to soil-borne and foliar diseases,
and appropriate end-user quality, distributed through international nursery trials for
sharing and evaluation by NARSs partners.
" Segregating populations targeted to NARSs-specific germplasm requirements and to
locations where hot spot screening is needed.
" Germplasm developed through targeted shuttle breeding with partners for specific traits
(soil-borne pathogens, micro-nutrient screening, Hessian fly, rust).
" Data and information through the International Wheat Improvement Network. New sources of genetic material and associated knowledge for water-use-efficient
germplasm.
" Effective breeding methodologies for germplasm improvement for variable locations
significantly affected by genotype-by-environment interactions.
Impact pathways and partnerships:
The development of wheat germplasm with broad agro-ecological adaptation will be made possible through selection in diverse environments and at multiple locations. Relevant stresses of major concern to smallholder farmers include tolerance to drought and micronutrient imbalances, nitrogen and other macro-nutrient use efficiencies, and resilience to hot and cold temperatures.
The Generation Challenge Program Consortium is one partner which strengthens the impact pathway for water productive wheat (P7) by using advances in molecular biology to harness the rich global stocks of crop genetic resources to support CIMMYT breeders in creating a new generation of water-productive wheat. The CIMMYT program currently develops some 1,000 lines annually of spring bread wheat, facultative and winter bread wheat, spring durum wheat, and spring triticale, for international distribution. This generally requires 3 to 5 years, substantially quicker than most other wheat breeding programs worldwide because shuttle breeding in Mexico allows two generations per year. Around half of these lines are targeted at regions where water stress occurs, particularly the Asian sub-continent, CWANA and the
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southern cone of South America. The next step in the chain is the International Wheat Improvement Network which will distribute CIMMYT germplasm to NARSs, advanced institutes, and SMEs who will, in turn, test the materials in abiotically stressed locations. The resulting data will be collected by all partners and shared via the internet and at local, regional, and international meetings. The wheat improvement programs at CIMMYT and ICARDA act in partnership throughout CWANA.2
As an illustration of how CIMMYT advanced lines of wheat reach farmers and improve their livelihoods, the Ethiopian national program is a strong partner. Wheat, grown in Ethiopia since 1,300 BC, today is the fourth or fifth most important crop behind teff, maize, sorghum and barley. It is grown in the Abbysinian highlands on rich soils that are prone to waterlogging, hence farmers often postpone planting of crops as the rainy season subsides, thus exposing the crops to terminal drought stress. In addition, population density pressure in the highland areas has forced many farmers to cultivate less favorable areas which are more prone to climate variability, drought and less fertile soils.
Lines selected from the international bread wheat screening nursery by national breeders are tested throughout the country, at least seven locations which are representative of the agroecological zones where wheat is grown in the country. Parallel to this national testing, the same germplasm is tested by at least 80 other national or provincial programs throughout the developing world. Data collected by International Wheat Improvement Network cooperators is returned to Mexico, analyzed and made available to all network cooperators. Hence, performance of germplasm within Ethiopia can be compared to performance in neighboring countries, in similar agroecological regions. This pooling of data, information and knowledge can decrease the time required for local testing, resulting in quicker release of varieties to seed producers and farmers.
From the time a cross is made in Mexico, to the time a new variety is registered for release in Ethiopia can be as short as 8 years. Farmers are often involved with on-farm testing of candidate varieties, and those candidates that excel in performance or farmer preferences are often actively adopted even before formal varietal release occurs. Assurance that a variety will performance as expected, is necessary to build trust between farmer, extension agent and national researcher, hence testing of germplasm through the International Wheat Improvement Network, involving numerous locations and varied environments add weight to the confidence attributed to new, candidate cultivars.
On-farm wheat technology demonstrations remain an important tool for technology dissemination in Ethiopia. The Sasakawa Global 2000 organization has been instrumental in promoting proven technology innovations to farmers, including use of improved varieties, better crop management practices and seasonly dependent fertilizer application. Wheat varieties from CIMMYT in Mexico, tested and approved by the Ethiopian national agricultural
2 The facultative and winter wheat germplasm is developed within the joint MARA/CIMMYT/ICARDA International Winter Wheat Improvement Program (IWWIP) hosted by the National Program of Turkey.
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research program, reach farmers through NGOs, national and local seed producer and retail schemes.
The ultimate beneficiaries will continue to be smallholder farmers, who will receive improved bread wheat, durum wheat, and triticale cultivars suitable to the environments in question. Because farm sizes are small in Ethiopia, it has been estimated that there are over one million farmers that grow wheat in the country every year. Building upon the foundation of modern wheat cultivars, new releases can be expected to deliver 10% yield gain versus older varieties, be more tolerant to variable climate conditions, and produce more straw and important component for animal fodder, home cooking firm fuel, and an important home roofing material. Broad adaptation in cultivars buffers farmers' risks in low or variable rainfall distribution settings, while allowing SMEs and progressive farmers economically to produce and market seed of relevant cultivars.
With the assurance of some yield in drought years, farmers are expected to release land and resources for cash crops such as vegetables, herbs and teff which will generate further household income. The increased production during drought years will cushion the wheat price increase and substantially benefit poor urban consumers.
Project 8. Enhanced wheat for more durable resistance to diseases and improved production potential: Galvanized against rust and tempered for productivity. Until the advent of science-based agriculture, world wheat harvests were held hostage by rapidly evolving fungal pathogens, among the most damaging of which were the rusts (stem, leaf and stripe), other foliar diseases and Fusarium head blight. Modern breeding, combined with the free international exchange of experimental wheat lines, resulted in developing and wide dispersion of genetically enhanced wheat germplasm able to resist the rusts and other diseases for several decades. Durable resistance provides farmers with confidence that they will reap reasonable harvests, despite evolving pathogen populations. But because more virulent pathotypes or strains of a pathogen will likely overcome the crop's resistance at some point and to ensure that production increases stay abreast of population growth, CIMMYT emphasizes research aimed at raising the genetic yield potential of wheat while maintaining its disease resistance. This results in enhanced, seed-embedded technology that gives superior performance in farmers' fields. The foundation is improved wheat germplasm and related knowledge built together by CIMMYT and partners; this combination has had demonstrable impact in farmers' fields.
International public goods:
" Disease resistant cultivars with high yield potential for farmers in all wheat producing
countries.
" Knowledge of rust epidemiology to assist in the fight against a global stem rust pandemic. A global wheat research network: public-private-NGO partnerships among international
and national agricultural research and development organizations. Upgraded institutional capacities for wheat research and extension. Knowledge of the basis for durable resistance to the main pathogens of wheat.
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" Potential "durable", polygenic sources of resistance from the bread and durum wheat
genomes as well as related wild species, for main wheat diseases. New sources of resistance to wheat pathogens.
Impact pathways and partnerships:
CIMMYT will select germplasm, often together with national program cooperators, in specific disease hot-spots in China, Ecuador, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Pakistan, Turkey, and Uruguay in order to protect farmers' yields from rust and other diseases of wheat. CIMMYT breeders generate some 500 lines annually will broadened, often more durable, types of disease resistance, focusing on leaf, stem and yellow rust, Fusarium head blight and crown rots, and Helminthosporium and Septoria spp..
CIMMYT breeders and pathologists will apply representative yet intensive screening pressures through the Mexican Obregon-Toluca shuttle breeding scheme to identify high-yielding, stable, broadly adapted, disease resistant germplasm suitable to the needs of resource-poor farmers. CIMMYT and all 80+ partners in the International Wheat Improvement Network will also monitor the vulnerability of currently-sown wheat cultivars to emerging disease risks such as the new virulent Ug99 stem rust strain from Uganda which could devastate South Asian wheat fields.
Proactive, visionary germplasm development by CIMMYT and ICARDA will allow deployment of naturally-occurring genetic diversity to guard future cultivars against diseases and pests, while reducing pesticide use and thereby cutting production costs and protecting farmers' health and the environment. The International Wheat Improvement Network which is the contact point for the CIMMYT Global Wheat Program and a global network of wheat research partners who evaluate bread wheat, durum wheat, and triticale germplasm. CIMMYT's improved germplasm will continue to be dispatched through nurseries targeted to specific environments. Data collected by partners from the trials will be returned to CIMMYT, catalogued, analyzed and made available to the global wheat improvement community via the internet.
Performance testing for yield, adaptation, resistance to diseases, tolerance to soils with nutrient deficiency / toxicity and end-user grain quality will allows this pool of germplasm to be honed to approximately 500 lines for annual distribution to partners. Germplasm development at CIMMYT is defined by major, representative global wheat agro-ecologies, termed "wheat megaenvironments." The International Wheat Improvement Network distributes mega-environmenttargeted wheat nurseries to NARSs, advanced institutes, and SMEs in approximately 100 countries which include some of the most disadvantaged farmers. These partners collect and share performance and evaluation data. Lines selected by partners are regenerated and retested, often at multiple locations and together with farmers, to identify candidates for cultivar release. In areas where formal cultivar release mechanisms fail to reach all farmers, CIMMYT and ICARDA breeders will use participatory breeding schemes.
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Worldwide, over 100 new wheat varieties are released from or containing CIMMYT germplasm each year. Countries vary in the length of time needed to achieve formal variety release and registration, some achieving release of new varieties in as little as 3 years from the time of receipt of germplasm from CIMMYT, while other countries may use 10-12 years of local testing and validation before lines are formally released to farmers. Systematic wheat seed production is another problem affecting new varieties reaching farmers. Because wheat is a self-pollinated crop, farmers can re-sow seed from one year to the next without substantially altering the identity or performance of a wheat variety. Hence, because of the common practice by farmers to re-sow seed they have produced, LSME are less interested in commercial seed production of new wheat varieties, unless a clear advantage of the new variety to farmers is proven and recognized. CIMMYT views delay of release of improved, new cultivars' seed into the hands and fields of farmers as a major constraint to best-bet technology transfer.
The governments and national wheat improvement programs in countries that may host CIMMYT Global Wheat Program offices: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Ethiopia, Georgia, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Pakistan, Turkey will also be critical actors in the impact pathways. Among other things, they will provide substantial direct and in-kind contributions. The Project will also benefit from their knowledge of their scientists on wheat improvement and developing agricultural practices for a respective target region, along with access to experiment station facilities, and special involvement of extension services.
The ultimate beneficiaries will be farmers, including smallholders, who will receive improved cultivars. Through the increased durable resistance their yields are protected and household vulnerability (to famine and sliding into poverty) is reduced. Among the most important P8 partners are:
" The International Wheat Improvement Network. The contact point for the CIMMYT Global
Wheat Program and a global network of wheat research partners who evaluate bread wheat,
durum wheat, and triticale germplasm. CIMMYT's improved germplasm is dispatched
through nurseries targeted to specific environments. Data collected by partners from the
trials are returned to CIMMYT, catalogued, analyzed and made available to the global
wheat improvement community via the internet. The ultimate beneficiaries are farmers,
who will receive improved bread wheat, durum wheat, and triticale cultivars.
" NARSs. Agricultural researchers, policy-makers, seed producers, and farmers are active
elements in setting CIMMYT's research agenda and breeding goals, and in knowledgesharing through their feedback.
" ICARDA. ICARDA and CIMMYT are committed to improving the welfare of poor people
and to alleviating poverty in CWANA by increasing the production, productivity, and
nutritional quality of wheat. ICARDA has a proven track record in wheat improvement and
agricultural systems research, and maintains special and productive relationships with
NARSs and farmers in CWANA. The ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program
(ICWIP) strengthens these relationships and improves the delivery of relevant wheat
technologies to farmers.
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" The governments and national wheat improvement programs in countries that may host
CIMMYT Global Wheat Program offices: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Ethiopia,
Georgia, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Pakistan, Turkey. Among other
things, they provide substantial direct and in-kind contributions, knowledge of their
scientists on wheat improvement and developing agricultural practices for a respective
target region, access to experiment station facilities, and special involvement of extension
services.
" The Global Rust Initiative (GRI). The GRI is a measured response to the emergence and
spread of stem rust race Ug99 in East Africa. First formally noted in 1999, this race appeared to be a significant threat to global wheat production. A consortium of partners from eastern
and southern Africa, the Near East, Asia, Australia, North America and CIMMYT and
ICARDA, are focusing efforts to breed wheat cultivars with broadened sources of durable
resistance to wheat rusts, while promoting the diversification of cultivars grown by farmers. The Global Fusarium Initiative (GFI). The mission of GFI is to provide a platform for
international collaboration on Fusarium research projects, facilitating information exchanges,
germplasm enrichment, the development of breeding methods and materials, and
communication and cooperation among individuals, institutions, and governments focusing
on this disease.
" The International Winter Wheat Improvement Program. This program is hosted by the
National Wheat Improvement Program of Turkey and jointly carried out by MARA,
CIMMYT and ICARDA and develops the winter and facultative germplasm distributed
though international nurseries.
Project 9. Wheat grain enriched for health and profitability.
Grain quality is a paramount concern for farmers, processors, and consumers. High-value and value-added traits include improved nutritional quality, better milling and processing qualities, safer food products, and improved straw and forage quality for animal feed and fodder. Wheat breeding has always focused on bread-making quality, but increasing attention is now being given to wheat's use in products such as noodles, chapatti, semolina, and pasta. This Project focuses on traits which add value to wheat by improving its quality, increasing its nutritional value, or enhancing the safety of wheat-based foods. Given that farmers and consumers will not select directly for these traits, they are usually coupled as "covert genes" into well adapted wheat cultivars. This Project will identify new traits and incorporate them into elite germplasm accessible to resource-poor farmers. Its impacts will include improved food security and livelihoods. CIMMYT germplasm must meet the quality demands of a range of clients, markets, and beneficiaries. For the poorest of the poor, biofortification of wheat cultivars through increased micro-nutrient content will be pursued. CIMMYT and partners will also work to provide value-added traits that will enable farmers to meet industry standards. Relevant traits include improved micronutrient and protein content and improved quality for specialized food products. Through resistance breeding, CIMMYT and partners will also work proactively to address food health issues associated with contamination from Fusarium mycotoxins.
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International public goods:
" Value-added traits incorporated into CIMMYT elite wheat germplasm of relevance to endusers.
" Safer food from wheat through reduced mycotoxin content. Molecular markers for relevant traits optimized and applied. Wheat processing methods (flour extraction, whole meal flour) optimized to minimize
micro-nutrient losses for whole-meal products such as chapatti and nan.
" New sources of germplasm with increased Fe and Zn grain concentrations, and increased
nutrient bioavailability, protein content, and quality.
Impact pathways and partnerships:
Better food from wheat grain is CIMMYT's ultimate target. Enhanced nutritional characteristics (higher levels of iron, zinc, protein) in grain will benefit consumers' health, these consumers will include the resource-poor. By working closely with NARSs, agricultural researchers, policy-makers, seed producers, and farmers, local preferences for grain type, grain and flour color, and processing quality will be considered in breeding research to foster adoption and use of resulting wheat cultivars. Carrying out participatory value chain mapping and market demand surveys, the Project will identify emerging market trends and will facilitate greater efficiencies and equity within existing and new value chains. As a result, Smallholder wheat producers will be able to grow marketable grain for local sale and to compete with international exports, as well as certain special-quality grain types that fetch a price premium in domestic markets.
In today's global economy, wheat farmers throughout the developing world compete in their local markets with wheat suppliers from the North. In China, international grain marketing companies and consortia can ship wheat from North America or Australia at delivery prices that may be competitive with Chinese wheat produced in the interior of the country. Furthermore, foreign suppliers can target bulk quality requirements, but may not fully appreciate, nor meet, the diverse flour quality standards required by the entire Chinese food industry. CIMMYT has worked with Chinese researchers and food industry to tailor wheat varieties with varying quality characteristics.
Grain with defined quality traits will add value to farmers' access to markets and consumers. CIMMYT's long association with private sector millers and bakers will continue to refine breeders' grain quality standards for leavened and flat breads, noodles, pasta, cakes and cookies, and overall nutritional content.
Because of the global perspective of CIMMYT Global Wheat Program, germplasm from various wheat genepools can be intercrossed. In this process, genetic diversity is mixed, providing breeding programs throughout the developing world a greater array of genetic diversity to be used and tailored in their own national wheat breeding programs. CIMMYT annually distributes approximately 500 advanced wheat lines to China, using a centralized distribution network coordinated by the CIMMYT office in Beijing, with seed multiplied and distributed from the Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Kunming. China has a network of highly
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trained and motivated wheat researchers, who extensively scrutinize and use the genetic diversity provided in CIMMYT wheat germplasm in their own crossing programs. Wheat germplasm with diverse, yet appropriate characteristics, facilitate its used in applied wheat breeding programs.
The most important P9 partners will include milling and food processing small entrepreneurs and larger industries in China, East Africa, India, Pakistan, Iran, Kazakhstan and Turkey. Enduser raw product requirements influence the prices paid to farmers. By addressing market demands, the CIMMYT-bred germplasm and cultivars will ensure that farmers will meet at times stringent quality requirements and will benefit from this increased market access.
CIMMYT will continue to work with the HarvestPlus Consortium. HarvestPlus is an international, interdisciplinary, research program that seeks to reduce micronutrient malnutrition by harnessing the powers of agriculture and nutrition research to breed nutrientdense staple foods that are accessible to marginal farmers and poor urban consumers.
Project 10. Conservation agriculture for maize and wheat cropping systems: Safeguarding soils while increasing water productivity and resource use efficiency.
Through partnerships with NARSs, agri-business, and other CGIAR centers, this Project undertakes research on conservation agriculture combined with other resource-conserving technologies for wheat and maize cropping systems. The aim is to improve rural incomes and livelihoods through sustainable management of agro-ecosystem productivity and diversity, while minimizing unfavorable environmental impacts. The Project will focus on the development of appropriate conservation agriculture technologies that reduce tillage, provide adequate surface retention of crop residues, and stress the importance of diversified crop rotations to reverse soil degradation. For small- and medium-scale farmers, the Project will seek more efficient and sustainable use of water and other inputs, lower production costs, better management of biotic stresses, and enhanced system diversity and production. CIMMYT has the knowledge and practical expertise in public-private partnerships for developing, extending, and assessing conservation agriculture in different environments. This provides an excellent basis to build NARSs' capacity while developing appropriate conservation agriculture technologies, with active farmer participation, in several key, well-delineated areas and agroecosystems. As resource-conserving practices are adopted, research will address some of the following areas: integrated evaluation of long-term conservation agriculture under different agro-ecological conditions (rainfed vs irrigated, viable crop rotations, limiting factors, residue management, threshold levels of residue cover); soil nutrient dynamics (organic matter, optimization of N fertilizer management, fertilization, legumes/ green manures, macro and micro-nutrient balances over time); soil-borne pathogens and pests vs beneficial soil fauna and flora; water management; soil structure dynamics; weed management; impacts on greenhouse gas emissions; adaptive research/policy issues; impacts on household livelihoods, local/regional economies, and food security; and varieties adapted to CA systems.
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International public goods:
" Technologies, including varieties, for conservation agriculture systems that are appropriate
for small- and medium-scale maize and wheat producers, that generate additional food and/or income, and that facilitate system diversification, reverse soil organic matter loss
and soil degradation, improve soil health, and thereby contribute to sustainable production
systems.
" Understanding and synthesizing the effects of conservation agriculture systems and
practices on land, labor, and water productivity; on soil organic matter and soil physical,
chemical, and biological fertility; and on pest and disease dynamics.
" Strengthened capacity of partners (NGOs, NARS, farmer groups, public and private sector
entities, and policy-makers) in conservation agriculture research-for-development; the
formation and management of farmer-focused innovation systems; the scaling out of
conservation agriculture principles and technologies; and the development of local,
regional, and national policies that promote sustainable agricultural practices.
Impact pathways and partnerships:
In collaboration with ICARDA in CWANA and NARS in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, China, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan, Paraguay, Turkey, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, CIMMYT has conducted primary research relating to onfarm conservation agriculture practices. This has resulted among other things in the development of new technologies for soil conservation and increased water productivity. Research and appropriate implement development have been participatory, with farmers assessing their requirements and defining appropriate intervention points to facilitate wider adoption. Access to appropriate planting equipment has been a primary focus, often relying on the exchange of agricultural engineering technologies across continents. The specific approaches used depended on the degree of crop production intensity. Under rainfed environments, efforts with ICARDA have focused on the adoption of minimum and zero-tillage. In more intensive irrigated agriculture, conservation agriculture is coupled with establishment of semi-permanent raised-bed planting. Significant efforts have been made by CIMMYT researchers to demonstrate the advantages of conservation agriculture and raised-bed planting to farmers, extension agents, researchers and policy-makers. Efforts have been made to involve small- and mediumsized enterprises for machinery manufacture or modification, and to supply inputs. Experience has shown that even smallholder farmers see benefit from this technology, hiring local agricultural mechanization entrepeneurs, by contracted, to perform sowing and harvest operations. Beneficiaries include farmers, who will save on their natural and economic resources while ensuring more sustainable farming practices, and communities that depend on the improved sustainability of agricultural production. The many P1O partners include:
" NARSs and farmers. Agricultural researchers, policy-makers, seed producers, and farmers
are active elements in setting CIMMYT's research agenda and breeding goals, and in
knowledge-sharing through their feedback.
" The Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains (RWC; see E-1 below for more
information). A consortium of South Asian NARSs (Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan),
international centers (CIMMYT, CIP, ICRISAT, ILRI, IRRI and IWMI), advanced institutes,
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NGOs, private enterprise, and farmer groups, the RWC was formed to address
sustainability concerns for intensive rice-wheat farming systems.
" ICARDA. ICARDA and CIMMYT are committed to improving the welfare of poor people
and to alleviating poverty in CWANA by increasing the production, productivity, and
nutritional quality of wheat. ICARDA has a proven track record in wheat improvement and
agricultural systems research, and maintains special and productive relationships with
NARSs and farmers in CWANA. The ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program
(ICWIP) strengthens these relationships and improves the delivery of relevant wheat
technologies to farmers.
" As part of its participation in the CGIAR Challenge Program for Water and Food, the Center
is contributing to the project "Yellow River Rainfed Conservation Agriculture."
Project 11. Knowledge, targeting, and strategic assessment of maize and wheat farming systems.
The reality is that more than half of small farmers and poor consumers depend on risky and complex maize- or wheat-based farming systems. For CIMMYT's research to have rapid, lasting impacts on the lives of these poor producers, it is essential to consider the multiple contributions of wheat and maize to the diversified livelihoods of producers and consumers. This goes beyond grain yields, to reliable access to food through stable yields and nutritious grain, through sale or use of by-products for livestock or energy, through high-quality grain for niche markets, and- last but not least- the role of productive maize and wheat in fostering onfarm diversification, feeding the "livestock revolution," and local rural non-farm economy growth.
Through periodic strategic assessments of wheat and maize systems and sharing of knowledge, Project 11 will contribute to mission-effective maize and wheat improvement research by CIMMYT and partners. As the "easy" research gains have been achieved, and as CGIAR and MDG goals place greater emphasis on sustainable poverty reduction alongside global food security, the choice and efficient delivery of maize and wheat traits to small farmers is becoming increasingly difficult. The cultivar and knowledge needs of resource-poor farmers and the food preferences of poor consumers are complex and evolving rapidly against the background of changing trade regimes, the withdrawal of state services, the growth of agri-business, decentralization, the reduction of the agricultural research budgets, the increasing importance of social and economic factors (e.g., farm household costs and cash incomes), pervasive market and institutional failures, and the increasing socioeconomic marginalization of the deep poor m both well-watered and drought-prone environments. In parts of South Asia and the Middle East, the dominant role of wheat (and in some case, of maize) on small farms is changing from staple for home consumption to cash crop, not only to feed the livestock but also in high-value niche products (baby corn, friki, ethnic food markets, specialized breads, biofuel, and bioplastics, to name several). Despite the diversity of maize and wheat systems, relatively homogenous mega-environments, farming systems and research domains can be defined to guide priority setting and targeting. In support to other Projects, P11 develops a number of methodologies (e.g., socioeconomic-environmental characterization) which are international public goods. Moreover, the science knowledge contained in Cereal Systems Knowledge Portal
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being developed as part of the IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance, as well as the knowledge bases of cultivar adoption, systems and poverty, and the reports of assessments of crop genetic diversity, conservation agriculture innovation systems and value chains are international public goods useful to a wide range of public and private research-for-development organizations. Global impact assessments are designed to draw lessons across multiple sites.
International public goods:
" Operational priority setting and targeting mechanisms in CIMMYT and selected NARSs,
including contributions to debates on regional, commodity, and thematic priorities and
methodologies and databases that include geo-spatial information, impact pathways, and
livelihoods.
" Knowledge of ex post and ex ante impact assessments of priority biotic and abiotic stresses
and socioeconomic issues.
" Socioeconomic assessments of key research issues; for example, the contribution of quality
and nutrition to incomes from selected major wheat and maize value chains.
" Analysis, with partners, of sector and sub-sector policy options to scale up impacts of maize
and wheat research.
" Knowledge of key networks and portals and a defined strategy for cereal (maize, rice, and
wheat) systems knowledge management and sharing and institutional learning, to focus a functioning cereal systems knowledge bank linking maize, rice, and wheat, populated and
fully operational at a global level.
" A periodically-updated geographic and thematic assessment of capacity building needs for
maize and wheat research-for-development, to focus the strengthening of capacity of
NARSs and partners through trained maize and wheat systems researchers.
Impact pathways and partnerships:
The immediate users of the products and services (essentially knowledge outputs) of P11 are CIMMYT managers and researchers, for the design and appraisal of their undertakings under P1 to P10. Beyond CIMMYT Projects, the knowledge outputs of P11 are developed with and flow to CIMMYT partners, especially NARSs socioeconomics and senior research managers and supporting science and technology businesses in developing countries.
Consider the specific impact pathway of the publication, Wheat (or Maize) Facts and Futures. After assembling, analyzing and interpreting data assembled jointly with NARSs (and seed companies in the case of maize), P11 provides maize and wheat status and scenarios information to NARSs for use in their strategic priority setting. The outcome, achievable in 3 to
5 years, will be improved knowledge of national research managers regarding commodity distribution, markets, and futures and the improved focus and effectiveness of national wheat improvement programs (this will occur more rapidly in strong NARSs such as India; more slowly in less well-resourced NARSs). In 3 to 10 years the effects could include better cultivars and faster adoption by poor farmers. In 10 to 15 years there could be significant people-level impacts, in improved livelihoods and reduced poverty of marginalized farmers, diversification of farms towards cash crop production (these could be maize or wheat), job creation in the rural non-farm economy, and increased food consumption by poor consumers. Given the nature of
36




knowledge outputs, the farm household benefits will be aligned with the CIMMYT priorities expressed as flagship products and the other Projects. There several assumptions which link these steps: the feasibility of assembling relevant data for the analysis; the availability and credibility of the results; the relevance to national science policy decisions; the effectiveness of crop improvement, seed distribution, and knowledge extension activities; the correspondence with farmers' goals; and the on-farm cost-effectiveness of a specific technology.
In regard to internal partnerships, the collaboration with CIMMYT Projects underpins the delivery of most outputs (especially for P3 to PlO), which in turn lead to partnerships described under those respective Projects, as well as cooperation across the network of CIMMYT social scientists. These contribute to the development and delivery of certain international public goods, such as methodologies, guidelines, and knowledge bases, and add to the quality of outputs. Regarding external partnerships, P11 collaborates strategically with the CGIAR Science Council Standing Panel on Impact Assessment (SPIA) regarding impact assessment approaches. Project participants partner with other CGIAR centers to complement expertise in multidisciplinary and micro-economic analyses of maize, wheat, and conservation agriculture: notably IFPRI, ICARDA, CIAT and ILRI in relation to targeting, environmental characterization, climate change, knowledge bases and impact assessment; IPGRI in relation to crop diversity; CIAT, IFPRI and ILRI for value addition and grain and stover quality; and the IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance as well as many other centers for the knowledge sharing and the Cereal Systems Knowledge Portal. In relation to Challenge Programs, P11 provides analyses of strategies for reaching end users and ex ante impact assessment for HarvestPlus, and with the System-wide Livestock Program in relation to the analysis of emerging maize-related feed gaps. P11 will collaborate closely with NARSs in several different types of partnerships. The development of data and knowledge bases requires cooperation in sharing data on cultivar adoption, financial and economic benefits, impact pathways, and innovation systems, including NARSs from Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, India, China, Nepal and Bangladesh. Universities and NARSs support impact assessments and crop diversity studies. Joint activities with universities, NARSs, FAO, and NGOs are planned on value chain analysis. Active collaboration on the Cereal Systems Knowledge Portal is ongoing with IRRI, as well as a wide range of NARSs, universities, and other public and private sector organizations. P11 staff conduct joint research with advanced universities and also in the field with universities in developing countries.
CGIAR Eco-regional Program: The Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains A NARSs-led initiative facilitated by CIMMYT.
The Rice Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains (RWC) includes the national agricultural research systems of Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan; several international centers of the CGIAR (CIMMYT, IRRI, ICRISAT, CIP, IWMI, and AVRDC) and various advanced international institutions (Cornell University, IAC, Wageningen, IACR, Rothamsted, CABI-UK, CSIRO, ACIAR, and the IAEA). The Consortium was established in 1994 as an Ecoregional Initiative of the CGIAR; in 1998 CIMMYT was assigned convening and leadership responsibilities; more recently, IRRI assumed co-convening responsabilities. The main goal of the RWC is to strengthen existing linkages and partnerships with national research programs,
37




other international centers, advanced institutions and the private sector working in the region to develop and deploy more efficient, productive and sustainable technologies for the diverse ricewheat production systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. As quality land and water resources are being diverted to other sectors of national economies, the Consortium tests and promotes with farmers alternative practices for sustaining productivity growth. Work depends on many local partners including local government agencies and NGOs and the private sector, particularly input suppliers and agriculture equipment manufacturers.
Intensive cereal cropping systems are central to reducing poverty in Asia, home to the world's largest number of poor people. Such systems are usually irrigated and highly productive, featuring multiple crops, including large areas of rice, maize and wheat, and livestock production. These systems suffer from the unsustainable exploitation of water and soils, inefficient use of chen-dcal inputs, and emerging or worsening disease and pest problems. Farmers tend to be more market-oriented and driven by the need to sustain local rural communities and neighboring urban areas. Regional demand for cereals is projected to rise dramatically, and should be met largely through increased yields, freeing land and other resources for diversification into high-value cropping/ enterprises. Markets forces plus policies will drive the pace and form of sustainable diversification for enhanced income and employment generation in rural South Asia.
In line with recommendations from an external review of the RWC in 2004, CIMMYT and IRRI have strengthened farm-level socioeconomic analysis, an impact assessment study was completed for the Science Council SPIA, and new initiatives were taken to integrate the croplivestock sectors and promote crop diversification and intensification of rice-wheat systems, as well as addressing issues of nutrient mining, particularly of potash. Rice-wheat research was also prioritized, and significant efforts made to develop year-round zero- or reduced-tillage systems for rice, wheat, and other crops. Water quality surveys at selected sites were completed to generate benchmark maps for monitoring groundwater pollution. Participants also developed a district-wise spatial database using socioeconomic indicators for poverty-prone areas.
International public goods:
" Conservation agriculture technologies appropriate for small- and medium-scale farmers and
which address concerns such as yield plateaus, water shortages and declining water tables,
resource fatigue, turn-around time for planting of winter crops after rice, climate change,
and pollution.
" Zero-tillage or reduced-tillage options that allow farmers to produce more at lower costs,
conserve land and water resources, and improve environmental quality.
" Improved practices that allow for expanding livestock and horticulture and their gains to
both growers and consumers. The RWC "basket" of crop management option exhibit
divisibility in application and utility for the farmers.
" Follow-up studies and research backstopping on diverse topics under the following themes:
timely crop establishment, soil fertility and crop nutrition, water management, cropping
diversification, integrated pest management, and socioeconomic and policy issues.
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Impact pathways and partnerships:
(For a partial list of partners, see p. 7). The RWC has applied a new model for farm technology development and dissemination in South Asia, encouraging farmers, researchers, and extensionists to work as teams. This is helping to break down the hierarchical boundary once separating researchers from farmers. Farmers actively participate in testing, refining, and promoting promising innovations. They are encouraged and backstopped by researchers, who often go straight to farmers' fields with promising innovations, rather than spending years in sterile testing and refinement on a research farm. Researchers are beginning to take pride and pleasure in working with farmers and seeing their ideas actually put into practice or helping solve mutually-identified problems. As part of this, RWC researchers and extension agents interface with multiple actors including farm implement manufacturers, input suppliers, and others along complex innovation pathways. This has been crucial, for example, in the expansion of zero-tillage and raised-bed cropping, both of which require specialized sowing implement. The RWC facilitation unit has provided stability, continuity, effective coordination, and a non-partisan stance. Among other things, this has fostered the cross-fertilization of knowledge and practices across borders, even in times of regional or local conflict. Laserleveling of fields essential for efficient water use in irrigated areas was first tested and applied in Pakistan, but has since spread to neighboring countries through the Consortium. Traveling semidnars, where researchers and farmers from India and Pakistan visit each others' farm plots and experiment stations, have fostered the sharing of knowledge and helped ignite enthusiasm about new practices. The RWC plays a pivotal and innovative role as true facilitator, information provider, technology clearinghouse, and capacity builder.
In a typical scenario, RWC partners enter a new village. A large (11 member) family which to this point has lived in poverty, growing only a rice-wheat rotation on some six hectares of land, is introduced to zero-tillage for wheat after rice, using a seeder lent by the RWC. Relatives and neighbors scoff at the practice and the displeasing appearance of the field, during early establishment stages. But the harvest is equal to or better than that from traditionally cultivated wheat, and the farmer saves in seed, labor, diesel, farm equipment, and irrigation water all of which represents a significant economic gain. The practice allows earlier sowing of wheat, so the farmer can introduce okra, tomato, gourd, potato, mungbean, or other crops, and grow green-manures to enrich the soil. Other farmers begin adopting the practice, and fight over use of the seeder or seek ways to purchase their own seeder, fueling the local farm machinery industry. Early purchasers contract their services out to neighbors who do not have the zerotillage seeder, thereby earning extra income. Through a participatory varietal selection program supported by the RWC, farmers in the village gain access to the latest, high-yielding wheat varieties. Added income from all of the above may be used by farm families to further diversify, sink a well, conduct home improvement, purchase needed equipment, or underwrite a child's education. An ambitious farmer in the village may launch a seed production and marketing business or other enterprise. Throughout this process, RWC partners provide advice and research backstopping, as well as linking farmers with input suppliers, machine shops, market representatives, local administrators, other researchers, or knowledgeable farmers from other villages. The RWC will arrange for farmers from other villages to visit, talk to peers, and
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observe the progress themselves. Zero-tillage tends to be adopted first by the better endowed farmers, but rental services have made the technology relatively scale-neutral and divisible. The RWC has a diverse basket of options -including animal-drawn and light-duty, modular power tillers, or surface seeding practices -which put zero-tillage within reach of the region's most disadvantaged farmers, and Consortium researchers work with farmers to adapt practices or devise new ones that fit particular circumstances.
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Project Logframes
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Project 1. Conservation, characterization and targeted access to maize and wheat related biodiversity.
Output Intended User Outcome Impact
Output 1 Methodologies for trait and CIMMYT, NARSs and Trait-based identification of Improved efficiency of gene-based identification of SME maize and wheat new genetic variation for access and utilization of
useful crop-related biodiversity breeding programs priority traits in maize and maize and wheat globally wheat breeding genetic resources in
research and breeding
programs worldwide
Output PCR-based markers within CIMMYT and Harvest Identification of new markers Use of beta carotene
Target 2007 genes contributing to improved Plus-affiliated maize and haplotypes for new alleles precursor genes as levels of beta carotenes in breeders of previously identified genes proof of concept for
diverse maize germplasm, contributing to improvement of development of
and, new haplotypes beta carotene levels in maize association mappingassociated with different levels based strategies for
of increased beta carotenes identification of markers
and haplotypes for new
alleles of previously
identified genes
contributing to
improvement of key
I oligogenic target traits
Output New sources of pest and CIMMYT and GCP- Additional alleles and genes Faster release of
Target 2008 disease resistance, and associated maize and affecting drought tolerance in improved drought drought tolerance identified in wheat breeders diverse maize and wheat tolerant breeding
diverse maize and wheat genotypes identified via materials for field testing
germplasm together with association mapping, and PCR
markers for respective key markers for these new alleles
QTL using association and genes optimized
mapping of the GCP minicomposite, full composite and
beyond
Output Use best available gene- Global community Large scale screening of Operationalization of a
Target 2009 based markers for gene access to information genetic resources with validated gene-mining mining of global maize and relevant to International multiplexes of the best trait- methodology for drought
wheat genetic resources for Public Goods specific gene candidates to tolerance in maize and
key pest and disease collections identify new allelic variation wheat lead to an
resistance, and drought associated with enhanced pest efficient trait-targeted
tolerance and disease resistance, and approach of accessing
drought tolerance in maize and maize and wheat
wheat genetic resources for
improvement of complex
traits
Output 2 Fully integrated, public- CIMMYT, NARSs, Global access to and analysis Increase in utilization of access, germplasm SME, IARC and ARI of CIMMYT's entire historical CIMMYT genetic
characterization information researchers and data reserves resources and improved
resources available breeders worldwide germplasm for breeding
by NARSs and SME
partners and analysis by
the global maize and
wheat research
I community
Output Passport data and minimum CIMMYT, IARCs, Improved access to and More accessible
Target 2007 characterization available for NARSs, ARI, SME utilization of novel traits with germplasm accessions accessions in all in-trust researchers and value for improving the provided for worldwide
collections of wheat and maize breeders resilience (to abiotic stresses), breeding programs
to underpin strategic core yield stability (under biotic
subset definition mechanisms stress pressure) and nutritional
value
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Output Statistical and heuristic Germplasm bank New methodologies for Improved efficiency of
Target 2007 techniques for forming mini- collection managers selecting trait-specific targeted access to
core subsets using passport, worldwide, irrespective germplasm subsets, most global maize and wheat
pedigree, generic marker and of crop species and important gaps and areas of genetic resources and
diversity, phenotypic and GCP community redundancy in current identification of
evaluation data collections identified genetically most unique
I material
Output A fully integrated web-based CIMMYT and IRRI More than 5 million passport More information
Target 2008 gene bank information, maize, wheat and rice and characterization data available with easier
management and distribution scientists and their points available for maize and access and analysis
system for all maize and partners and global wheat gene bank accessions possible for wheat and
wheat germplasm developed community with SGRP that can be interrogated maize germplasm users
Implementation of a basic through a range of web-based across the world
gene bank management query and analysis tools
systems for maize and wheat Improved access and use of
at CIMMYT with linkages to gene bank information and
IClS GMS, DMS and GRIMS data
Output System-wide, web-based crop CGIAR collections' Accession duplication, across Improved utilization and
Target 2009 registry completed cataloguing managers, SGRP, collections, is recognized security of global maize
maize or wheat collections users of international allowing rationalized and wheat genetics
held in common among public goods genetic distributed conservation resources
centers resource collections,
NARSs maize and
wheat collections
Output 3 Near-isogenic, introgression NARSs and ARI maize Increase in the use of genetic CIMMYT leveraging its
and substitution lines, and wheat researchers stocks related to CIMMYT opportunity for
enhanced gene pools, double and breeders breeding material by the global encouraging
haploid lines, synthetic worldwide maize and wheat research researchers worldwide
polyploidy genotypes, genetic community, and, increased to work on material of
mapping populations and use of selected genetic stocks direct value to our
mutant stocks for trait-targeted in CIMMYT and NARSs developing country
genetic investigations breeding programs stakeholders
characterized
Annual Introgression of secondary Global maize and 50 newly created primary Continuous pipeline of
Output genepools including wild wheat improvement synthetic hexaploid better maize and wheat
Target relatives into adapated maize communities populations developed in pre-breeding
2007-2009 and wheat primary genepools. wheat, 30 enhanced maize populations with traitTargeting expansion of genetic pools refined with introgressed targeted improvements,
diversity for drought tolerance, Latin American landrace and, increased value of
pest and disease resistance, germplasm, all developed as those populations for
and quality traits in maize and International public goods maize and wheat
wheat genetically enhanced breeding programs
populations worldwide
Output Evaluate maize genetic stocks Global maize Upto 5000 RIL and 10,000 Validated use of largeTarget 2008 with mapped genes/alleles for improvement introgression lines screened scale intensive
drought tolerance for their communities for new major sources of phenotypic screening of
suitability as sources with drought tolerance in maize genetic populations to
large effect for drought identify major new
tolerance and for use in MAS favorable alleles and
projects gene combinations for
maize breeding
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Output Enhanced use of maize and Global maize and NARSs breeders have access More diverse genetic
Target 2009 wheat landraces and wild wheat improvement to elite inbred lines variation for continuous
relatives: Identify new genetic communities incorporating diverse drought improvement of
sources for drought tolerance tolerant alleles, and breeding programs and
amongst and within core expressing 50% increased breeding products
landrace or wild relatives; use productivity under drought (ie.
of candidates for trait targeted far beyond the drought
introgression to enhance tolerance in any released
primary maize and wheat cultivar)
genepools
Output 4 Improved representation of Maize and wheat Improved efficiency of maize Increasingly targeted
global maize and wheat international research and wheat ex situ conservation access of maize and
diversity plus enhanced and and breeding and distribution wheat germplasm users
more systematic information community, and SGRP leading to enhanced
available through targeted access and improved
collection, conservation, efficiency of utilizaiton
characterization and
distribution of crop-related biodiversity
Output IS09000 accreditation for CIMMYT and recipients Public confidence of seed Increased quality and
Target 2007 CIMMYT seed health of seed shipments from health management issues is efficiency of CIMMYT
inspection activities achieved CIMMYT-Mexico maintained. Procedures and germplasm distribution protocols are transparently
defined and applied.
Output Optimized SNP genotyping CIMMYT, NARSs and Optimized panels of SNP More precise parental
Target 2007 platform and analysis tools for SME maize breeders arrays for low density (384) selection and increased
genetic diversity and worldwide including and high density (1536) pace of genetic gain molecular assisted breeding researchers and screening for diversity analysis using SNP-based for
programs breeding in the Maize and/or marker assisted ground and background
Molecular Breeding breeding projects; improved marker selection; Community of Practice integration of datasets from decision support tools to different labs into a common assist in the efficient,
platform; improved economic and timely
cooperation in the Maize application of SNPMolecular Breeding based genotyping
Community of Practice
Output Crop-specific guidelines to Maize and wheat Increased fidelity of all maize Enhanced trust in
Target 2007 both maintain germplasm free international research and wheat gene bank control of transgenic
of transgenes and where community, and SGRP accessions driven by the need germplasm, vis-a-vis
needed conserve germplasm to effectively eliminate conservation of maize
containing transgenes transgene movement between and wheat genetic
available germplasm resources at CIMMYT,
leading to increased
utilization of CIMMYT
I germplasm
Output Actively defined core subsets CI MMYT, ICARDA or Greater depth and breadth of Improved germplasm
Target 2008 from CIMMYT maize and IITA regional programs genetic resources utilization in management and
wheat collections relevant to with NARSs regional maize and wheat utilization through NARS
Africa, Asia, Latin America, researchers and breeding programs and partners
CWANA or specific priority breeders and GCP
traits identified
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Output Phenotype or evaluation data Global maize and A 5% increase in the number Improved utilization of
Target 2008 on at least 25,000 maize and wheat research and of requests for maize and maize and wheat
50,000 wheat accessions breeding community wheat accessions genetic resources in
available for relevant passport research and breeding
or characterization traits up-to- programs worldwide
date and integrated with
molecular characterization of
GCP composite subsets of maize and wheat available
through web-enabled
database
Output Logistical and statistical Germplasm bank A 15% improvement in cost Better and more cost
Target 2009 improvements, and simulation collections, NARSs, efficiency of gene bank effective maintenance of
models for efficient ARIs operations and in the average maize and wheat
maintenance, regeneration viability of accessions genetic resources, and
and improvement of maize more rapid and targeted
and wheat genetic resources access by end-users to
the most relevant
I germplasm
Output Development of a CGIAR plant genetic Confidence enhanced of Increased quality and
Target 2009 collaborative platform in resource collections international public goods efficiency of CIMMYT
support of best practices in the and recipients of plant genetic resource germplasm distribution
safe movement of germplasm germplasm and SGRP collections, and access thereof
is achieved including
quarantine compendia,
pathogen detection research
plans and foresight of
emerging relevant
phytosanitary issues.
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Project 2. Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic improvement.
Output Intended User Outcome Impact
Output 1 Integrated data management CIMMYT, SME and Ability to compare and analize More efficient and analysis systems linking NARSs researchers data from across the entire knowledge-led
conventional and molecular and breeders genetic resources, germplasm utilization
breeding data with all other germplasm enhancement and and breeding systems
available sources of relevant breeding continuum
data
Output Wheat and maize historical CIMMYT, NARSs, Combined collections of gene Simplified, more efficient
Target 2007 breeding information and data SME and ARI bank, pedigree and and more powerful
onto ICIS-compatible researchers and phenotype data as the basis scientific partnerships
databases migrated breeders of developing new amongst maize, wheat
methodologies for crop and rice centers, their
improvement programs partners and
stakeholders, and the
I GCP consortium
Output Spatial and temporal target CIMMYT, NARSs, Improved comparative, Proof-of-concept
Target 2008 environments for abiotic and SME and ARI simulation and modeling regarding the power and biotic stresses as a key researchers and analysis of integrated value of unified analysis foundation of effective breeders databases of diverse datasets that
analysis of genotype-by- have not previously
environment interaction in been brought together
crop breeding programs
characterized and classified
Output Required technology and Researchers in IRRI Efficiency and focus of Increase in research
Target 2009 define metadata standards for and CIMMYT and their research improved by access and breeding advances a comprehensive research NARSs partners to sound research informatics through effective
data management system practices and relevant, high analysis of fully
across all disciplines quality information and data integrated data across
established. First version into from previous research all disciplines
research programs prior to
scaling out to NARSs partners
implemented
Output 2 Technology-based breeding CIMMYT, SME and New technology-based tools Improved efficiency, tools using tissue culture, NARSs researchers for use in CIMMYT, NARSs speed and precision of
transformation, biometrics, and breeders and SME breeding programs maize and wheat genomics, computational breeding systems
biology, translational and
functional genomics,
simulation and modeling
developed
Output Systems for high-throughput CIMMYT, SME and Improve marker genotyping Improved efficiency,
Target 2007 genotyping using SSR NARSs researchers systems for high throughput speed and precision of (wheat), SNP (maize) and and breeders low cost molecular breeding maize and wheat
gene-based markers (maize application in CIMMYT and molecular breeding
and wheat) for molecular partner breeding programs systems
breeding built
Output Key linked markers from CIMMYT, SME and Validated markers available More efficient markerTarget 2007 consensus maps for drought NARSs maize for genes contributing more assisted selection of tolerance in maize, and breeders than 15% of the phenotypic drought tolerance in
generation of bioinformatic variation and providing a 2- maize
resources to drive the next fold increase in selective
generation of gene-based power for drought tolerance
markers validated
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Output An efficient Agrobacterium- CIMMYT, MPB-CRC Improve product development More rapid trait-targeted
Target 2007 mediated transformation and partners pipeline for transgenic wheat improvement in wheat
protocol routinely used for all breeding of priority traits
wheat projects in Mexico
Output Statistical models for CIMMYT, SME and Improved efficiency and Increased power to
Target 2007 assessing gene-by- NARSs researchers scope of genetic improvement analyze and manipulate
environment interactions in and breeders of complex traits, increased genotype-byQTL analyses, microarray genetic gain in pedigree environment interaction
experiments and whole breeding systems, and, in crop breeding
genome scans, and increased application of programs
development of simulation molecular breeding tools in
tools to assist the CIMMYT, NARSs and SME
manipulation of new alleles breeding programs
and genes in wheat available
Output A platform for the rapid and CIMMYT, SME and Rapid evolution of research More efficient markerTarget 2008 routine conversion of non- NARSs researchers domain markers to high assisted selection of a
PCR markers to PCR markers and breeders throughput low cost molecular range of priority traits in
(wheat) established. PCR- breeding tools and effective maize and wheat, and
based markers (wheat & platform for training NARSs meaningful training
maize) developed and gel- and SME scientists and facilities
based markers converted to breeders
array-based markers (wheat
and maize) established
Output An efficient Agrobacterium- CIMMYT, SME and Improve product development More rapid trait-targeted
Target 2008 mediated transformation NARSs maize pipeline for transgenic maize improvement in maize
protocol effective for a range researchers and breeding of priority traits
of maize genotypes breeders
implemented in BECA, Kenya
Output An efficient double haploid CIMMYT, SME and Improved speed, enhanced More rapid and efficient
Target 2008 protocol developed for maize NARSs maize genetic gain and increase development of new
implemented in Mexico and researchers and hybrid vigour of maize maize cultivars
Africa, and better definition of breeders breeding programs
heterotic groups for tropical
maize
Output Statistical models for CIMMYT, SME and Improved knowledge of the Improved efficiency,
Target 2008 assessing association of NARSs maize short and long-term effects of speed and precision of
phenotypic traits with researchers and plant breeding selection using maize and wheat
molecular marker data, and for breeders fully integrated databases molecular breeding
predicting the breeding values across disciplines systems
of genotype using coefficient
of parentage, using wheat and
maize historical trial data
developed
Output Powerful yet simple to use CIMMYT, SME and Ergonomic decision support Enhance speed,
Target 2009 molecular breeding decision- NARSs maize and software systems to improve precision and efficiency
support tools based on wheat researchers and the efficiency with which of wheat and maize
advanced simulation and breeders breeding programs utilize breeding programs to
modeling analysis available crop information in breeding generate market
priority target traits providing preferred cultivars that a potential 2-fold reduce farmer risks and
improvement in cost, time and vulnerabilities, improve selective power farming household
livelihoods and health,
and, conserve natural
resources
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Output 3 Technology-assisted CIMMYT and NARSs Increased efficiency in Better wheat and maize
germplasm enhancement partner breeders germplasm development with cultivars for sustainable
strategies (including use of target traits captured. production systems
transgenic, genomic,
informatic and socioeconomic
tools and methodologies) for the development of improved
flagship products available
Annual Development of more precise CIMMYT and NARSs Increased efficiency of More rapid and efficient
Output higher throughput phenotyping partner breeders genetic analysis and development of new
Targets systems for dissecting improvement of complex maize and wheat
2007-2009 complex abiotic stresses abiotic stress tolerance traits cultivars with improved
including drought tolerance levels of abiotic stress
I tolerance
Annual Molecular and phenotypic CIMMYT, NARSs and Precision phenotyping and New sources of abiotic
Output characterization of ARI researchers and high density genotyping of stress tolerance and the
Targets cornerstone maize and wheat breeders near-isogenic lines (NILs), tools to manipulate them
2007-2009 populations for genetics and substitution lines, developed in maize and
breeding providing a recombinant inbred lines wheat
mechanism for linking diversity (RILs), and mutants in maize
analysis, mapping and and wheat
molecular breeding
Annual Efficient molecular breeding CIMMYT, NARSs and Development of molecular Improved efficiency and
Output strategies and systems for SME breeders breeding strategy to increase pace of wheat and
Targets wheat and maize developed the efficiency of current maize breeding product
2007-2009 for and applied in resource- breeding methodologies in development through
limited environments, wheat and maize for combining phenotype,
combining genotype, multi- resource-limited genotype and pedigree
environment phenotype and environments, including new data
coefficient of parentage methodologies for
including the use structural manipulating genotype-byequations, simulation models environment interaction for
and artificial neural networks complex agronomic traits and
for predicting performance of for using new understanding
breeding lines under stress of the genetic basis of
conditions complex agronomic traits and
their interaction with the
I environment
Annual At least 50 single copy events CIMMYT, CRC and Multilocational field More rapid development
Output for more than 10 new partner breeding quantification of the positive of market preferred
Targets constructs contributing to programs effect of single gene cultivars that reduce
2007-2009 drought tolerance and disease insertions for drought farmer risks and
resistance in wheat available tolerance and disease vulnerabilities through
resistance in wheat enhanced drought
tolerance and disease
I_ resistance
Annual New informatics CIMMYT, NARSs and Targeted methodologies More efficient
Output methodologies applied to ARI researchers and available for the efficient methodologies for
Targets assist with the efficient breeders identification and investigation identifying, validating
2007-2009 identification, investigation and of alleles and genes and manipulating useful
manipulation of alleles and contributing to at least 5 alleles and genes for
genes contributing to priority priority traits in wheat and in improvement of priority
target traits in maize and maize traits identified by endwheat users through linking
diversity analysis,
mapping and molecular
breeding
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Annual Decision-support tools (based CIMMYT, NARSs and Improved efficiency, speed Improved efficiency and
Output on statistical, simulation and SME breeders and precision of trait-targeted pace of wheat and
Targets modeling methodologies) breeding programs through maize breeding product
2007-2009 applied to assist with the linking genetic, crop growth development
efficient development and and whole plant physiology
deployment of maize and modeling analyses
wheat molecular breeding
programs
Output Routine application of a low CIMMYT, NARSs and At least 50% of CIMMYT Highly optimized high
Target 2008 density SNP-based platform SME breeders molecular breeding throughput genotyping
for high throughput, rapid applications achieved through pipeline providing
turnaround, low cost molecular SNP-based out-sourced CIMMYT and NARSs
breeding of maize and wheat genotyping with the breeders with a rapid
at CIMMYT and partners remainder achieved in-house and cost effective
for complex and specialist molecular breeding tool
I_ tasks
Output Routine application of CIMMYT, NARSs and A 75% reduction in the unit More efficient and rapid
Target 2009 validated fast-track breeding SME breeders cost and a 10-fold increase in methodologies for
techniques based on the the throughput of molecular breeding market
integration of technologies breeding applications at preferred cultivars that
such as marker-aided CIMMYT and shuttle breeding reduce farmer risks and
introgression, marker-assisted partners. A substantial vulnerabilities, improve
selection, marker-accelerated commitment to the use of farming household
backcross breeding, and double haploids in the maize livelihoods and health,
double haploids in maize and and wheat breeding programs and conserve natural
wheat of CI MMYT and partners resources
Output Useful maize and wheat CIMMYT, NARSs and More than 75% of the More market preferred
Target 2009 germplasm with enhanced SME breeders CIMMYT elite maize and cultivars that reduce
abiotic stress tolerance, wheat breeding products with farmer risks and
resistance to pests and a landrace or wild species vulnerabilities, improve
diseases, and improved present in their pedigree farming household
nutritional quality generated providing enhanced abiotic livelihoods and health,
stress tolerance and/or biotic and conserve natural
stress resistance resources
Output 4 Capacity building and CIMMYT, NARSs and Newly identified genetic Increased pace, quantity
technological backstopping to SME researchers and resources, latest innovations and value of market
assist NARSs, SME and breeders in germplasm management, preferred cultivars that
CIMMYT wheat and maize novel technology-assisted reduce farmer risks and
breeders to make best use of germplasm enhancement vulnerabilities, improve
genetic resources and new tools and methodologies farming household
technology-assisted routinely adopted by livelihoods and health,
germplasm enhancement CIMMYT, NARSs and SME and conserve natural
tools and methodologies in the breeding programs resources
generation of maize and
wheat elite germplasm and
new cultivars
Annual Information, skills and NARSs, SME and Latest innovations in Increased flow of more
Output technological backstopping CIMMYT researchers germplasm management and targeted maize and
Targets provided through a targeted and breeders utilization adopted. Enhanced wheat germplasm with 2007-2009 and tailored approach in the quality of research, improved greater impact. More
core areas of germplasm publication record, increased market preferred
management and utilization, efficiency and impact of cultivars that reduce
biometrics, data management breeding programs farmer risks and
and bioinformatics, and, tissue vulnerabilities, improve
culture, genomics and farming household
transgenics livelihoods and health,
and, conserve natural
resources
49




Annual At least 50 NARSs, SME or CIMMYT, NARSs, and Latest innovations in Global access to current
Output CIMMYT staff trained in at SME research and germplasm management and information technology
Target least one new technology or breeding programs utilization adopted by that facilitates data
2007-2009 methodology per year, plus CI MMYT and partners. management and
CIMMYT researchers product delivery
providing consultancy in core
areas of biometrics, data
management and
bioinformatics
Output Internet based collaboration Global germplasm Improved speed, scope and CIMMYT as a global
Target 2008 tools deployed to facilitate conservation and depth of uptake of new best leader, linking and
consultation and germplasm practices in IRRI, CIMMT and strengthening our
dissemination of best improvement their partners diverse partners, in the
practices in the application of community with SGRP management of
research informatics for bioinformatics and
germplasm conservation and biodiversity
utilization
Output Molecular breeding CIMMYT regional A 2-fold increase in the More rapid and efficient
Target 2009 communities of practice programs with NARSs number of NARSs and SME development of market
generating cooperatively and SME research and breeding programs actively preferred cultivars that
designed and developed breeding program participating in these reduce farmer risks and seed-based technologies in partners working in- networks driving the vulnerabilities, improve
each mega-environment house or through application of a range of farming household
targeted for maize or wheat regional hubs in Latin technology-assisted livelihoods and health, America, Africa and germplasm enhancement and conserve natural Asia tools and methods resources
50




Project 3. Stress tolerant maize.
Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
Output 1 Abiotic stress tolerant Breeders in NARSs, Increased use of elite maize Increased food and germplasm incorporating private seed germplasm carrying traits income security for
highest priority and often companies and at IITA relevant to resource-poor resource-poor farm
intractable traits in maize farmers families, and decreased
vulnerability to recurrent
droughts and climate
change, and need for
I _food aid
Annual Four CIMMYT Maize Lines Breeders in NARSs, Increased use of elite maize
Output (CMLs) developed and private seed germplasm carrying traits
Targets announced carrying an companies and at IITA relevant to resource-poor
2007-2009 improved expression of farmers
tolerance to drought, N stress,
low soil pH announced
Output Identification of drought NARSs breeders in Drought tolerant germplasm
Target 2007 tolerant inbred lines in lowland Asia, collaborating in product development by tropical yellow germplasm the Asian Drought NARSs breeders in Asia Network
Output Double-haploid technology Intermediary outputs Accelerated breeding
Target 2009 used for extraction of abiotic mostly CIMMYT progress for abiotic stress stress tolerant inbred lines breeders tolerance
Output 2 Knowledge on new methods NARSs and private More effective development Accelerated productivity
for improving abiotic stress seed company and targeting of abiotic stress Increases in farmers
tolerance in maize, and their breeders, decision tolerant maize cultivars fields, decreased
impact on farmers livelihoods makers and scientific vulnerability to recurrent
community at large droughts and climate
change and need for
I _food aid
Output Pilot study on factors Decision makers More effective targeting of
Target 2007 influencing the adoption of drought tolerant cultivars
drought tolerant maize
cultivars completed
Output Value of Southern Africa NARSs breeders in More effective use of maize
Target 2007 landraces as potential sources Malawi, Zambia and genetic resources in stress for drought and N stress Zimbabwe breeding projects
tolerance assessed
Output General and specific Scientific community More effective use of maize
Target 2007 combining ability for genetic resources in stress
phosphorus use efficiency in breeding projects
lowland tropical maize
documented
Output Relationship between acid soil NARSs and private Accelerated selection for acid
Target 2007 tolerant cultivars and callose sector breeders soil tolerance content established targeting acid soil
conditions
Output Morpho-phenological diversity Scientific community More effective use of maize
Target 2008 of Southern Africa maize genetic resources in stress
landraces for abiotic stress breeding projects
tolerance documented
Output Elite germplasm aiming an Breeders in NARSs, Productivity increases in
Target 2008 annual breeding progress private seed drought-prone environments
under drought or N stress or companies and at IITA
soil acidity of about 3% I II
Output Inheritance of callose content Scientific community Information available for
Target 2008 in tropical maize documented I better use of breeding
51




methods.
Output Molecular characterization of Plant breedesr and More effective use of abiotic
Target 2009 landraces linked to abiotic scientific community stress tolerance in maize
stress tolerance genetic resources
Output 3 Host plant resistant germplasm Breeders in NARSs, Increased use of elite maize Increased food and
incorporating highest priority private seed companies germplasm carrying traits income security for and often intractable traits in and at I ITA relevant to resource-poor resource-poor farm maize farmers families, decreased
vulnerability to pests
and health risks, and
improved opportunities
I for trade
Annual Improvement in the Intermediary outputs Improved genetic basis for
Output conventional host plant mostly CIMMYT conventional resistance to
Targets resistance of tropical maize breeders insect pests
2007-2009 germplasm for stem borers
and post harvest pests
Output Six Striga resistant CML lines Breeders in NARSs, Striga resistant germplasm
Target 2007 available private seed companies product development by
and at IITA NARSs and private sector
breeders in Africa
Output Weevil and large grain borer Breeders and seed Use of existing variety
Target 2007 resistance of recommended producers in highlands differences for storage pest
highland OPVs and hybrids of Mexico and Central management
assessed America
Output Aflatoxin resistant sources Intermediary outputs Sources for aflatoxin
Target 2007 identified in drought or insect mostly CIMMYT resistance which are most
resistant germplasm breeders appropriate given conditions
under which aflatoxin
contamination occurs
Output A minimum of 100 Striga Breeders in NARSs, Access to a suite of elite
Target 2008 resistant hybrids and OPVs for private seed companies germplasm which are adapted
evaluation by partners and at IITA to all major agro-ecologies in
available Africa
Output Aflatoxin resistant sources Intermediary outputs Sources for aflatoxin
Target 2008 used in the development of mostly CIMMYT resistance which are most
germplasm targeted at affected breeders appropriate given conditions
areas in Southeast Asia and under which aflatoxin
Africa contamination occurs
Output Hybrids incorporating Bt Breeders at KARl and Humanitarian access to Bt
Target 2009 resistance which is effective CIMMYT events which are effective
against Busseola fusca against all major African stem
developed borers
Output 4 Knowledge on new methods NARSs and private seed More effective development Accelerated productivity
for improving host plant company breeders, and targeting of stress increases in farmers
resistance in maize, and their decision makers and tolerant maize cultivars fields, decreased
impact on farmers livelihoods, scientific community at vulnerability to pests and
large health risks, and
improved opportunities for
trade
Output New events with potential Breeders at KARl and Bt events which are effective
Target 2007 effectiveness against Busseola CIMMYT against all major African stem
fusca assessed borers
Output Four slow-release formulations Seed producers Recommendation for large
Target 2008 to be used in combination with quantity seed production of
Striga resistant [IR] maize Striga resistant maize
cultivars tested
52




Output GIS-based prediction of maize Decision makers More effective targeting of
Target 2008 production areas affected by resistance breeding strategies
aflatoxin contamination
Output Adoption and benefit sharing Decision makers Conditions which improve
Target 2009 assessment conducted for farmers' benefits of
Striga-resistant maize showing proprietary technology better
benefit sharing between understood
farmers, public and private
sector
Output 5 Capacity building of partners NARSs and private seed Increased effectiveness of company breeders NARSs researchers in addressing developing stress
tolerant maize cultivars
Annual Skills of 20 NARSs and private NARSs scientists Increased effectiveness of
Output scientists improved through NARSs scientists in
Targets workshops, visiting scientist addressing developing stress
2007-2009 fellowships and graduate tolerant maize cultivars
research projects
53




Project 4. Nutritional and specialty traits for maize.
Outputs Intended Users Outcomes Impacts
Output 1 Micronutrient-enriched maize for Researchers of Nutritious maize germplasm Improved vitamin A,.
improved nutrition, health and NARSs, private is used and incorporated in Fe, and Zn nutrition in
agricultural productivity, companies, IARCs and breeding and research selected countries ARIs programs, resulting in
biofortified cultivars being
availed to maize farmers and
I consumers.
Annual. Initiate at least 20 new breeding Researchers of Greatly expanding genetic Output populations (mainly bi-parental NARSs, private base of provitamins ATargets crosses) to develop new companies, IARCs and enhanced germplasm 2007-2009 germplasm with enhanced pro- ARIs
vitamins A concentration; and
continue breeding and selection
for populations formed in
I previous years
Output Yield potential, pro-vitamins A Researchers of partner Suitability of the "first Targets concentration, agronomic NARSs and IARCs generation" of enhanced pro2007 performance and genotype by vitamins A maize germplasm
environment interaction for will inform further strategy
these traits evaluated for hybrids development
of early generation mid-altitudeI adapted maize lines
Yield potential, zinc Researchers of partner Suitability of the "first
concentration, agronomic NARSs and IARCs generation" of maize
performance and genotype by germplasm with enhanced
environment interaction for zinc concentration will inform
these traits evaluated for hybrids further strategy development
of highland-adapted maize lines
Agronomic performance, yield Researchers of NARSs Suitability of the "first
potential and pro-vitamins A generation" of enhanced proconcentrations of three cycle- vitamins A maize germplasm
one enhanced pro-vitamins A will inform further strategy
experimental open pollinated development
cultivar (OPV) evaluated by
I partners in Africa.
At least 25 advanced tropics- Researchers of Researchers will have access
adapted inbred lines and 4 NARSs, private to tropically-adapted prosynthetic populations available companies, IARCs and vitamins A enhanced source
for use by researchers as high ARIs germplasm
pro-vitamins A source
germplasm
New, simplified laboratory Researchers of Greatly simplified laboratory
methods for analysis of NARSs, private methods will facilitate QPM
tryptophan, iron (Fe), or zinc companies, IARCs and and micronutrient breeding
(Zn) concentration in maize ARIs and quality monitoring by
grain developed or validated researchers
Output Yield potential, pro-vitamins A Researchers of NARSs Best available hybrids will be Targets concentration and agronomic identified and characterized,
2008 performance evaluated for enabling decisions whether to
three-way and other advanced proceed to on-farm validation
hybrids among mid-altitude- and promotional trails or to
adapted enhanced pro-vitamins await better products
A maize lines
54




Yield potential, Zn concentration Researchers of NARSs Greatly expanding genetic
and agronomic performance base of Zn-enhanced
evaluated for three-way and germplasm
other advanced hybrids among highland-adapted maize lines;
an enhanced Zn, highlandadapted experimental OPV
evaluated in Ethiopia and
I elsewhere
Analysis and interpretation of Researchers of Recommendations about use
carotenoids mapping studies for NARSs, private of molecular markers in
two maize populations and gene companies, IARCs and breeding for enhanced proexpression studies of enzymes ARIs vitamins A concentrations in
involved in the carotenoid maize
synthesis pathway
Analysis and interpretation of Researchers of Recommendations about
studies of the effectiveness of NARSs, private selection of donor lines will
various inbred maize lines as companies, IARCs and enhance effectiveness of donors (sources) of enhanced ARIs researchers breeding for
pro-vitamins A for maize enhanced pro-vitamins A
breeding projects Researchers of concentrations in maize.
NARES, private
companies, IARCs and Greatly simplified laboratory New, simplified laboratory ARIs methods and cheaper will
methods for analysis of facilitate Provitamin A
provitamin A in maize breeding by researchers
I developed or validated
Output Yield potential, pro-vitamins A Researchers of Progress from 3 years of Targets concentration, agronomic NARSs, private breeding will be assessed,
2009 performance and genotype by companies and IARCs informing decisions about
environment interaction for future strategy and likelihood
these traits evaluated for hybrids of success
of second generation (recycled)
I mid-altitude-adapted maize lines
Enhanced pro-vitamins A OPVs Researchers of Assessment of the suitability evaluated at multiple locations, NARSs, private of enhanced pro-vitamins A especially in Africa companies and NGOs OPVs will enable decisions
whether to proceed to onfarm validation and
promotional trails or to await
I better products
Announce first set of elite, Researchers of Greatly expanding genetic enhanced pro-vitamins A and NARSs, private base of nutrient-enhanced
enhanced Zn inbred lines companies, IARCs and germplasm available to ARIs researchers worldwide
New, simplified laboratory Public and private Capacity and efficiency of
methods for analysis of laboratories biofortification partner
tryptophan, Fe, or Zn researchers greatly enhanced
concentration in maize grain
validated and adopted by
partners in at least five countries
55




Output 2 Quality protein maize (QPM) Researchers of NARSs, Nutritious maize germplasm Increased maize
for improved agricultural private companies, is used and incorporated in productivity,.
productivity and health. IARCs and ARIs breeding and research reduced risk of.
programs, resulting in protein malnutrition, biofortified cultivars being especially among. availed to maize farmers and women and children I _consumers
Annual Initiate at least 60 new Researchers of NARSs, Continually expanding
Output breeding populations (mainly private companies, genetic base of QPM
Targets bi-parental crosses) to develop IARCs and ARIs germplasm will enable 2007-2009 new QPM germplasm; and sustained progress by
continue breeding and partners developing and
selection for populations promoting QPM
I formed in previous years
Four QPM CIMMYT Maize Researchers of NARSs, Elite, stress tolerant QPM
Lines (CMLs) developed and private companies, lines will enable sustained
announced carrying an IARCs and ARIs development of high
improved expression of yielding, agronomically
tolerance to drought, N stress, excellent QPM cultivars
low soil pH announced
Output Performance of 8 new QPM Researchers of NARSs, Characterized germplasm
Targets experimental OPVs and 10 private companies, available for use and 2007 hybrids evaluated in IARCs and ARIs possible promotion by
international trials partners
Results and interpretation Researchers of NARSs, QPM germplasm suitable for
completed for testcross trials of private companies & Striga-infested areas of
early generation MSV- and IARCs eastern Africa
imazapyr-resistant QPM lines
in eastern Africa
Results and interpretation NARSs, private QPM germplasm suitable for
completed for yield trials of companies vast, acid-soil regions of
advanced, acid soil tolerant South America
QPM lines in Colombia
Meta analysis of QPM nutrition Agriculture & nutrition This information will help to
studies completed and freely scientific communities inform decisions about available, continued investment in
QPM
Output QPM version (conversion) of Ethiopian researchers, An agronomically improved,
Targets popular Ethiopian hybrid seed industry and nutritious version of this 2008 'BH660' available and tested in farmers already-popular hybrid will
direct comparison with the be available for evaluation
original non-QPM hybrid NARSs, private and possible promotion
companies & NGOs
Results and interpretation QPM germplasm suitable for
completed for yield trials of NARES ,seed industry highlands
advanced, highland-adapted
QPM lines in Ethiopia
New alternatives for hybrids
New generation of three-way with enhanced yield and
cross QPM hybrids available quality protein
I for on-farm testing
QPM seed available for Farmers, seed Conducive conditions for
250,000 hectares in eastern companies enhanced maize production
and southern Africa by farmers and improved
nutrition of consumers.
At least four farmer-grown Farmers, seed Increasing area of maize
maize cultivars replaced with companies grown to QPM cultivars
QPM versions of the same
cultivars
56




Strategy to monitor the quality NARSs, seed Simplified quality assurance
of QPM cultivars developed companies, strategy will facilitate the
and validated with partners in agribusinesses promotion,
at least three countries with commercialization and
commercial QPM cultivars Researchers of impact of QPM
NARES, breeders, seed
Conversion of at least 4 QPM companies Researchers will have
CMLs to blue color (antioxidant access to anthocianin
I nutraceutic compounds). enriched QPM source lines
Output Marker-assisted selection for NARSs & IARCs Enhanced agronomic value
Targets downy mildew resistance of QPM germplasm for Asian
2009 implemented for at least 10 farmers
QPM breeding populations in Researchers of
India NARES, private Improved floury germplasm
companies and farmers tolerant to ear rot New floury QPM variety in the Andean region
available for testing on farmer
fields
Output 3 Dual-purpose, or specialty Researchers of NARSs, Maize with value-added Increased.production.
maize for improved livelihoods private companies, traits or uses is incorporated and income.
and income generation IARCs and ARIs in breeding and research Improved livelihoods.
programs, resulting in of adopters of this. cultivars with increased output
income-generating potential
being availed to maize
I_ farmers and markets.
Output Stover quality assessed for at Researchers of NARSs, This preliminary assessment
Targets least 50 genotypes in Africa, private companies, of available genetic variation 2007 and prediction formulae IARCs and ARIs and of rapid screening
developed for rapid screening methods for maize stover
of maize stover quality quality will inform decisions
about future investments in
I_ this objective
Association of stover quality Researchers of NARSs, New knowledge will inform with primary agronomic traits, private companies, decisions by CIMMYT and
and implications for breeding IARCs and ARIs other maize researchers
dual-purpose maize will be whether to invest in
documented developing and promoting
food/stover dual-purpose
I maize
Analysis completed prioritizing Researchers of NARSs, New knowledge will inform potential areas for impact for private companies & decisions by CIMMYT and
improved food-feed maize in IARCs other maize researchers
agro-ecological zones and whether to invest in
countries developing and promoting
food/stover dual-purpose
I maize
Yield and agronomic Mexican NARSs, seed Recommendations will be Farmers can enjoy.
performance of experimental companies, policy- made about suitable yellow increased income by
yellow maize hybrids will be makers maize hybrids for various supplying yellow.
assessed in about 400 "strip regions of Mexico, and maize to poultry and.
test" plots across four states of breeder's seed of these will other industries
Mexico be availed to farmers' groups
I_ and seed companies.
Output Analysis of farmer perceptions Researchers of NARSs, New knowledge will inform
Targets of best, high stover quality IARCs; and policy- decisions by CIMMYT and 2008 maize genotypes, and of makers other maize researchers
influence of fodder traits on whether and how to invest in
cultivar choice in Ethiopia and developing and promoting
Tanzania food/stover dual-purpose
maize
57




Ex-ante impact assessment Researchers of NARSs Recommendations will be
and prioritization of & IARC; policy-makers; made about investments in
investments in specialty maize donors specialty maize germplasm
completed in at least one enhancement and/or market
country in Latin America and chain development
one in Asia
Dual-purpose maize cultivars NARSs, farmers Farmer acceptance and identified for use in maize- value attribution to duallivestock systems in eastern purpose maize will inform
Africa future investments.
Output Source maize germplasm will Researchers of NARSs, Partners and other actors
Targets be described and publicly private companies & will be empowered to 2009 availed for at least one high- IARCs enhance their research
priority specialty maize type in and/or promotion efforts with
Asia and one in Latin America dual-purpose or specialty
maize
58




Project 5. African livelihoods: Global solutions for maize food and income security in eastern and southern Africa.
Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact
Output 1 Stress tolerant, more nutritious maize Resource-poor Maize cultivars become Increased food and
cultivars that increase food and farmers through available that address income security for
income security among resource- NARSs and livelihood concerns of resource-poor farmers
poor farmers in eastern and southern private seed resource-poor farmers in and countries in
Africa companies eastern and southern Africa eastern and southern
Africa
Annual Six regionally important OPVs or NARSs and Increased use of elite maize
Output hybrids developed and announced private seed germplasm carrying traits
Targets targeting the main agro-ecologies in companies relevant to resource-poor 2007-2009 eastern and southern Africa, and farmers. Availability of elite
carrying an improved expression of CIMMYT germplasm and
traits relevant to resource-poor hybrids fosters emergence of
farmers small seed entrepreneurs in
I_ eastern and southern Africa
Annual Regional trial results documenting NARSs, NGOs, Increased awareness and
Output the performance of new hybrids and private seed use of new maize cultivars
Targets OPVs developed by the private and sector, carrying traits that are
2007-2009 public sector in eastern and southern organizations beneficial to resource-poor
Africa for traits relevant to resource- involved in seed farmers
poor farmers relief
Output Through collaboration with NARSs Farmers in stress Reduced impact of drought
Targets and local seed companies, disease prone- on maize yields and national
2007 resistant drought tolerant, N-use environments in maize production
efficient, responsive maize hybrids eastern and Emerging seed
and farmer-selected OPVs are southern Africa entrepreneurs focusing on
released in several eastern and stress-prone areas become
southern African countries more viable
Output In collaboration with KARl, maize Farmers in Kenya Technology option for areas
Targets cultivars with conventional stem with high stem borer
2007 borer resistance meet release incidence in Kenya
requirements in Kenya
Output In collaboration with KARl, Government of Safe deployment of Bt maize
Targets environmental safety assessment of Kenya, seed technology under 2007 Bt maize in Kenya and insect producers and smallholder farmer
resistance management plan farmers deploying conditions
developed Bt maize cultivars
Output More productive, farmer-selected Resource-poor Improved cultivars with
Targets maize highland cultivars meet farmers in the earlier maturity and 2008 release requirements in two Eastern highlands lacking increased disease resistance
African countries access to become available in the
improved and highlands of Eastern Africa more productive
I_ maize cultivars
Output In collaboration with KARl, potential Government of Informed decisions the use
Targets benefits and risks of Bt maize for Kenya, COMESA of Bt maize in East Africa 2007 Kenya and impact on regional seed
and grain trade assessed
Output In collaboration with NARSs, first NARSs and Technology option with
Targets drought tolerant quality protein maize private seed impact on food security and 2008 (QPM) cultivars enter cultivar release companies malnutrition of population
system in eastern and southern groups most at risk
African countries
59




Output Through collaboration with NARSs, Resource-poor Striga resistant maize
Targets local seed companies and AATF, farmers in Striga- cultivars become available in 2008 adapted Striga resistant (IR) maize affected areas in an increasing number of
cultivars meet release requirements eastern and eastern and southern African
in a minimum of four eastern and southern Africa countries
southern African countries
Output In collaboration with KARl, Bt hybrids Technology option for areas
Targets with resistance against Busseola with Busseola fusca
2009 fusca tested in open quarantine incidence in Kenya
facilities
Output 2 Maize based options that increase Public and non- Farm-level productivity Economic development
marketing options for smallholder governmental increases, environmental of poor rural maizefarming products and, through extension staff sustainability and growing communities in
partnerships with other research and farmers diversification of maize Eastern and
institutions, are integrated and based systems in eastern Southern Africa
scaled-out into livelihoods systems in and southern Africa
I eastern and southern Africa
Output Study highlighting the effects of QPM NARSs, NGOs, Targeted use of QPM in food
Targets on community health indicators and policy-makers, relief programs and as 2007 impact for small-scale poultry and donors, farmers, livestock feed. Recognition
piggery units in selected target seed companies of QPM maize as a mean for
regions in eastern and southern reducing hunger and
Africa. Basic seed production of malnutrition
QPM cultivars with focus on quality
I assurance enhanced
Output In collaboration with ILRI and NARSs, farmers Use of existing variety
Targets NARSs, dual-purpose maize cultivars in maize-livestock differences for optimizing 2007 identified among existing maize systems benefits from dual purpose
germplasm for use in maize-livestock maize
systems in Eastern Africa
Output In collaboration with NARSs, local Farmers Contract production of QPM
Targets seed companies and NGOs, QPM interested in grain for food relief (incl. 2008 seed is available for 250,000 ha in contract farming school-feeding and
eastern and southern Africa. Quality and live-stock HIV/AIDS-programs) and as
control labs and field focus on quality maize systems. stock feed. Increased farm
assurance operating in target level productivity from QPMcountries Seed companies fed non-ruminants
Output In collaboration with ILRI and NARSs and Defined strategies for further
Targets NARSs, influence of livestock related IARCs genetic enhancement and 2008 factors on farmers choice of maize adoption of dual-purpose
genotypes determined in selected maize in maize-livestock
communities in Eastern Africa systems in eastern and
southern Africa
Output Resistance breeding strategy to NARSs and Reducing mycotoxin
Targets decrease mycotoxin contamination of IARCs contamination of maize grain
2009 maize grown in eastern and southern
Africa implemented
Output 3 Risk-averting, productivity-enhancing Public and non- Wider use of sustainable Environmental
management practices that restore governmental management practices by sustainability and
natural resources in maize-based extension staff smallholder farmers in increased productivity of systems of eastern and southern and farmers eastern and southern Africa maize-based systems in
Africa eastern and southern
Africa
60




Annual In collaboration with Challenge NARSs and Increased use and farmerOutput Programs (CPWF, SSA-CP), NGOs experimentation with
Targets networks and consortia (ECAMAW, productivity-enhancing, risk2007-2009 SOFECSA), and advanced research averting maize cropping
institutions, technical and financial practices
backstopping provided to NARSs and NGOs in a minimum of eight
ESA countries to develop, demonstrate and scale-out
productivity-enhancing, risk-averting
maize cropping practices
Output Recommendation domains for NARSs, NGOs, Methods to facilitate the
Targets improved conservation agriculture IARCs, ARIs scaling up and adoption of 2007 practices in four countries in eastern conservation agriculture
and southern Africa defined practices
Output In collaboration with SOFECSA Decision makers Wide spread promotion of
Targets member institutions, economic and financially viable/profitable
2007 financial assessment and policy and sustainable integrated
briefs on best-bet soil fertility soil fertility management
technologies published and practices
promoted
Output New specific conservation agriculture Smallholder Resource-conserving crop
Targets practices identified which are better farmers in maize- management practices 2008 adapted to the circumstances of well- based systems in
defined smallholder farmer groups in ESA
eastern and southern Africa
Output In collaboration with the CPFW, NARSs, NGOs, Promotion of waterTargets appropriate financially viable water- IARCs, ARIs conserving technologies 2008 conserving technologies which among smallholder farmers
increase crop productivity in in the Limpopo basin
smallholder farming communities in
the Limpopo basin identified,
Output Through collaboration with partners Smallholder Smallholder farmers in the
Targets in the CPWF, appropriate and farmers in the Limpopo basin use and 2008 financially viable water-conserving Limpopo basin further experiment with
technologies promoted in the water-conserving
Limpopo basin through field days, technologies
field schools, and information
I brochures
Output Recommended conservation Smallholder Resource-conserving crop
Targets agriculture practices adapted to farmers in maize- management practices 2009 smallholder farmer groups in eastern based systems in
and southern Africa scaled up eastern and
utilizing existing networks in the southern Africa
region (e.g. ACT, SOFECSA,
RELMA).
Output 4 Public-private partnerships for NARSs, small- More sustainable production Sustainable reduction of
increased dissemination of maize scale seed and marketing of seed in poverty and hunger
seed to stress-prone environments entrepreneurs, stress-prone areas NGOs, policymakers
Annual In collaboration with NARSs and the NARSs, NGOs, Breeder and foundation seed
Output private seed sector, breeder and seed producers of regionally relevant public
Targets foundation seed production of maize OPVs
2007-2009 regionally relevant public maize
OPVs
61




Annual Technical and financial backstopping NARSs, small- Agreed and coordinated
Output of National Coordination Units in six scale seed public-private strategies that
Targets eastern and southern African entrepreneurs, increase farmers' access to 2007-2009 countries strengthening stakeholders' NGOs, policy- improved maize seed in
cooperation in the maize seed sector makers outlying areas
Output In collaboration with SADC and other NGOs, donors More appropriate choice of
Targets IARCs, technical backstopping of and decision strategies that increase 2007 regional cultivar release in SADC makers farmers' access to improved
seed and foster seed sector
development
Output 15 small-scale seed entrepreneurs Small-scale seed Increase success rate
Targets trained in practical skills relevant to entrepreneurs among emerging seed 2008 successful maize seed production entrepreneurs
and dissemination in eastern and
southern Africa
Output Value chain analysis quantifying the Decision makers Increase success rate
Targets impact of institutional and market- and local seed among emerging seed 2009 driven bottlenecks in the delivery of companies entrepreneurs
maize seed to stress-prone
environments
Output 5 Capacity building of partners involved NARSs, small- Institutions and collaboration Sustainable reduction of.
in the maize research-extension- scale seed among development poverty and hunger
marketing continuum, prioritized in entrepreneurs, partners in eastern and
the frame of sub-regional networks NGOs, policy- southern Africa strengthened and consortia makers that increase the productivity
and sustainability of maizebased systems in both subI_ regions
Annual Skills of 50 NARSs researchers NARSs Increased effectiveness of
Output improved through workshops, visiting researchers NARSs researchers in
Targets scientist fellowships and graduate addressing high priority
2007-2009 research projects needs of resource-poor
maize farmers in eastern
and southern Africa
Annual In collaboration with NARSs, eight NARSs and Competence to promote and More farmers achieve
Output training courses conducted annually NGOs adjust relevant and food and.
Targets exposing NGO and extension staff to sustainable technologies and income security
2007-2009 know-how on new, relevant and approaches that increase
sustainable technologies and productivity in maize-based
approaches that increase productivity systems
I in maize- based systems
Annual In collaboration with NARSs, simple NARSs and Local professionals and More farmers achieve
Output regionally relevant information, NGOs input suppliers provide food and.
Targets teaching and decision tools relevant information that address income security
2007-2009 to maize systems developed and resource-poor farmers'
disseminated to farmer-support needs
groups
Annual In collaboration with ARIs, regulatory Regulatory Increased competence to
Output skill development for deployment of authorities in assess GM technology
Targets GM crop cultivars in Kenya Kenya options for potential use in
2007-2009 Kenya
62




Project 6. Maize for Asia and Latin America.
Outputs Intended Users Outcomes Impacts
Output 1 Regionally-adapted stress tolerant Researchers of Stress tolerant maize Increased maize.
and nutritious maize for enhanced NARSs, private germplasm is used and production and.
food security and crop diversification, companies, IARCs incorporated in breeding and decreased livelihood and improved nutrition and health and ARIs research programs, resulting vulnerability of maize in cultivars with higher farmers
average yield being availed
I_ to maize farmers
Output Managed drought stress screening Researchers of Enhanced capacity by
Targets sites established, and collaborative NARSs and partners to develop drought 2007 regional drought trials including best private companies tolerant germplasm, and new
CIMMYT germplasm grown in at of 5 Southeast germplasm identified for
least four countries of southeast Asia Asian countries promotion or research
Promising, new agricultural Researchers of Technologies identified that
technologies developed or identified NARSs, private enhance productivity,
by researchers' networks in companies, NGOs sustainability, profitability,
southeast Asia, Nepal, Bangladesh, diversification and other
India, Colombia and Central benefits to maize farmers
America. and consumers.
Promising, new agricultural NARSs, Private Documented farmers' technologies validated and identified companies, perceptions will guide
for promotion via farmer-participatory farmers' decisions about promotion of
research implemented by networks organizations, best germplasm for cultivar
of researchers, extensionists and NGOs release and priorities for
other partners in southeast Asia, further research
Nepal, Colombia and Central
America.
Output Analysis of yield and agronomic NARSs, IARCs, Preliminary
Targets performance of diverse maize private companies recommendations about 2008 germplasm grown under 2 to 3 maize cultivars and
widespread rice-maize cropping germplasm traits suitable for
systems rice-maize systems
New collaborative project initiated in Researcher of Regional collaboration Asia addressing impacts of climate NARSs, IARCs enhanced, addressing
change on intensive maize priority concerns and
production developing solutions or
regional impact
Promising, new agricultural Researchers of Technologies identified that
technologies developed or identified NARSs, private enhance productivity,
by researchers' networks in India, companies, NGOs sustainability, profitability,
Colombia and Central America. diversification and other
Researchers of benefits to maize farmers NARES, private and consumers.
One QPM tropical white hybrid and companies, IARCs
one synthetic variety released in and ARIs, Extensive promotion of QPM
I Nicaragua and El Salvador Farmers cultivars
Promising, new agricultural NARSs, Private Documented farmers' technologies validated and identified companies, perceptions will guide
for promotion via farmer-participatory farmers' decisions about promotion of
research implemented by networks organizations, best germplasm for cultivar
of researchers, extensionists and NGOs release and priorities for
other partners in SE Asia, Nepal, further research
I Colombia and Central America.
Output Breeding and/or selection protocols Researchers of Enhanced effectiveness of
Targets implemented and developing maize NARSs, private researchers to develop or 2009 tailored to rice-maize systems at companies and select maize suitable for
least at three sites. IARCs rice-maize systems.
63




Researchers of
One QPM tropical white hybrid and NARES, private Extensive promotion of QPM
one synthetic variety released in companies, IARCs cultivars
Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. and ARIs, Farmers
Output 2 Strengthened impact pathways for Researchers of Nutritious maize germplasm Increased number of
maize research products in Asia and NARSs, private is used and incorporated in beneficiaries of.
Latin America companies, IARCs breeding and research Output 1
and ARIs programs, resulting in
biofortified cultivars being
availed to maize farmers and
I_ consumers
Annual At least 300 partners and Researchers of Partners and other actors
Output stakeholders in Asia and Latin NARSs, private effectively produce, use and
Targets America participate in targeted companies, deliver Project outputs, 2007-2009 workshops, courses or other farmers, NGOs & thereby enabling
pertinent capacity building activities, others achievement of the desired impact
New project-developed maize Farmers, private Conditions exist for
technologies available to and companies achieving Project impact.
adopted by farmers in at least one
country each of Asia and Latin
America
Output Analysis of current and potential Researchers of This "groundwork" analysis
Targets extent of rice-maize systems in Asia; NARSs, private will lead to or accompany the 2007 knowledge gaps identified, especially companies, IARCs formation of a research
on potential problems or threats of and ARIs network(s) addressing
the rice-maize system to the productivity, profitability,
sustainability of the natural resource sustainability and other key
base and the environment, and aspects of this rapidlyestablish research to fill knowledge expanding cropping pattern.
I gaps.
New partnerships and increased Stakeholders of Market chains strengthened;
participation of seed producers and NARSs, NGOs, increased likelihood of
agribusinesses in at least three private Project impact
countries each of Asia and Latin companies, and
America farmers
Analysis and interpretation of farmer- Partners in New methods of reaching participatory maize landrace NARSs, NGOs marginalized farmers with
improvement project in Mexico improved technologies
validated, thereby informing
decisions about future
investments
Output Analysis of the importance of maize Researchers of Results will inform priority
Targets genotype x management interaction NARSs, private setting by researchers 2008 for rice-maize systems companies developing maize cultivars
for use in rice-maize
cropping systems.
New partnerships and increased Stakeholders of Market chains strengthened;
participation of seed producers and NARSs, NGOs, increased likelihood of
agribusinesses in at least two private companies, Project impact
countries each of Asia and Latin and farmers
America
Output Top leaders in Cental America ( Policy-makers and QPM technologies promoted
Targets Presidents and Ministers of national leaders by governments in the 2009 Agriculture) recognize QPM as a region
technology to reduce hunger and
malnutrition
64




Project 7. Water productive wheat.
Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output 1 Spring and winter bread and spring Farmers, Measurable increase in Increased national food
durum wheat with increased water household productivity and genetic security. Reduced
productivity and heat tolerance, consumers, food diversity in farmers' fields. vulnerability of farm
multiple resistance against the processors, Reduced losses from families whose livelihood
complex of soil-borne and foliar NARSs, IARC ARI, diseases and increased depends on income from
diseases and appropriate end use NGOs, Private stability of grain yield. wheat based farming
quality distributed through differnet sector Enhanced input efficiency. systems. Improved
mechanism including International agricultural productivity,
Nursery Network better quality of wheat
products and more
sustainable utilization of
natural resources. Risk
for disease epidemics
I_ reduced.
Annual Advanced spring bread and durum Valuable lines and Improved and genetically
Output wheat and Triticale lines (750) and segregating populations diverse wheat
Target segregating populations (300) with used in breeding programs. germplasm used by
2007-2009 tolerance to abiotic (drought, heat), Data from International breeders. Faster
and multiple disease resistance to Wheat Improvement development of
biotic stresses (rusts, Septoria, Network available to co- improved cultivars.
Fusarium, soil-borne disease operators. Participation in global
complex) with enhanced seedling and regional wheat
vigor and better end-use quality improvement networks
increases. Global
monitoring and preemptive screening
against new diseases
and new virulences
before major epidemics
I_ occur.
At least 150 advanced wheat lines Cultivars characterized for Germplasm and
tested by partners in multilocational relevant traits. Lines and information sharing and
yield trials data used for wheat analysis lead to faster
improvement. Cultivars deployment of improved evaluated by farmers cultivars and increased
through participatory varietal productivity
I_ selection
Elite spring wheat lines (25) Ten cultivars released and Farmers and consumers
evaluated in national cultivar adopted by farmer for areas benefit from new wheat
registration trials. Seed multiplication affected by erratic rainfall. cultivars. Enhanced
for formal and informal distribution drought and heat
initiated, tolerance of these
cultivars buffer against
possible negative effects
I_ from climate change
Parental lines with desirable quality New lines with better quality Cultivars with improved
for diverse end-uses identified and properties available to wheat end use quality and
deployed. Sprouting-tolerant (high breeders beter marketability;
falling number value) lines identified farmers have higher
and distributed income
65




Advanced winter wheat lines Valuable lines and Improved and genetically
developed by the joint segregating populations diverse wheat
Turkey/CIMMYT/ICARDA winter used in breeding programs. germplasm used by
wheat program (150) and Data from International breeders. Faster
segregating populations (100) with Wheat Improvement development of
tolerance to abiotic (drought, heat, Network available to co- improved cultivars.
cold, Zn-deficient soils), and biotic operators. Participation in global
stresses (rusts, soil-borne disease and regional wheat
complex) and better end-use quality, improvement networks
increases. Global
monitoring and preemptive screening
against new diseases
and new virulences
before major epidemics
I_ occur.
At least 30 advanced wheat lines Cultivars characterized for Germplasm and
tested by partners in multilocational relevant traits. Lines and information sharing and
yield trials, data used for wheat analysis lead to faster
improvement. Cultivars deployment of improved
evaluated by farmers cultivars and increased
through participatory varietal productivity.
I _selection.
Elite winter wheat lines (10) Three cultivars released and Farmers and consumers
evaluated in national cultivar adopted by farmer for areas benefit from new wheat
registration trials. Seed multiplication affected by erratic rainfall cultivars Enhanced
for formal and informal distribution drought and heat
initiated, tolerance of these
cultivars buffer against
possible negative effects
I_ from climate change
High end-use quality parental lines New lines with better quality Cultivars with improved
identified and deployed to combine properties available to wheat end use quality and
desirable traits in the Winter breeders better marketability;
Facultative wheat growing areas of farmers have higher
CWANA. Quality desirable income
genotypes identified from winter/
facultative wheat lines sent to
cooperators in the CWANA
Output 2. Wheat germplasm characterized for NARSs, IARCs, New valuable gene(s) Livelihood of farmers
stress-adaptive traits with emphasis ARIs identified and incorporated living in marginal areas on drought and heat and resistance into breeding lines enhanced through more
to diseases, with emphasis on soil- drought tolerant and
borne diseases stress resistant cultivars.
Measurable increase in
productivity, genetic
diversity in farmers'
I fields
Annual Understanding and identification of Enhanced knowledge and Better drought and heat
Output main physiological and applied tools. Increased tolerant cultivars
Target morphological traits associated with selection efficiency. Wheat delivered faster to
2007-2009 drought and heat tolerance in cultivars with improved farmers
synthetics, landraces and various drought tolerance based on
mapping populations novel gene combinations
Annual New sources (5) of wheat root Use by partners and Rainfed wheat producers
Output disease resistance to nematodes stakeholders that lead to benefit from an
Target and root rots prevalent primarily in increased productivity and increased and more
2007-2009 rainfed wheat systems identified per sustainability stable production in
year, and 30 lines resistant to soil- particular in years with
borne diseases distributed severe water stress.
66




Output Winter wheat lines combining Increased yield stability and Livelihood of farmers
target tolerance to zinc deficient soils and availability of wheat living in marginal areas
2007 resistance to nematodes distributed germplasm for NARSs enhanced through more
to co-operators researchers in drught prone drought tolerant and
areas stress resistant cultivars.
Measurable increase in
productivity, genetic
diversity in farmers'
I fields
Output Genetic stocks (700) phenotyped for Wheat genetic stocks, Broadened access to
target stress related traits (drought, mostly with introgressions genetic stocks of wheat;
2008 physiological traits, zinc efficiency, from wild wheat relatives in common platform for
disease resistance) by CIMMYT and improved backgrounds, sharing stocks and
partners evaluated for drought derived phenotypic and
relevant traits genotypic data New
genetic sources utilized
globally for wheat
improvement and
I_ research
Output QTL that are associated with heat or Knowledge on gentics of More drought or heat
target drought adaptive traits through heat and drought tolerance; tolerant cultivarsd
2009 analysis of phenotypic data Increased breeding available to farmers;
measured on mapping populations efficiency farmers' production less
identified vulnerable to abiotic
stresses
Output 3 Selection methodologies to improve Breeders in More efficient selection Livelihood of farmers
wheat for drought and heat stressed NARSs, IARCs, methods and better living in marginal areas environments ARIs classified parents enhanced through more
drought tolerant and
stress resistant cultivars.
Measurable increase in
productivity, genetic
diversity in farmers'
fields. Breeding methods
with increased efficiency
I_ and effectiveness
Annual MAS procedures optimized to Lower cost assay systems Increased efficiency and
Output increase number of assays by 50% for MAS applications, effectiveness in cultivar
Target annually to 100 000 in 2009 development
2007-2009
Output Molecular markers identified for Increased selection Better drought and heat
Target canopy temperature depression and efficiency for drought tolerant cultivar delivered
2007 stem carbohydrates tolerance associated traits. faster to farmers
Characterize bread and durum Enhanced knowledge and
wheat mapping populations for heat, applied tools. Increased
drought and N-use efficiency in selection efficiency.
durum
Output QTL identified for water use Increased efficiency to Better drought and heat
Target efficiency, heat tolerance in bread select for drought and heat tolerant cultivar delivered
2008 and durum wheat mapping tolerance associated traits faster to farmers
populations and for N-use efficiency
in durum population
MAS strategies optimized by using Enhanced selection Better drought and heat
computer simulations validated with efficiency for breeding new tolerant cultivars
real data. cultivars and populations delivered faster to
farmers.
67




Output Genomic regions associated with Increased efficiency to Better drought and heat
Target heat adaptive traits through analysis select for drought heat tolerant cultivar delivered
2009 of phenotypic data measured on tolerance associated traits faster to farmers
mapping populations
Physiological trait-based breeding for More heat tolerant Better drought and heat
heat tolerance implemented germplasm developed faster tolerant cultivar delivered
and more efficient; faster to farmers
methodology shared with
NARSs resulting in
increased breeding
I efficiency
Genotype x tillage practice Wheat cultivars adapted to Cultivars that can fully
interactions understood and zero-tillage systems exploit the benefits from
extended to global environments CA with higher yield and
reduced production
costs that lead to
incrased farmer income
Output 4 Regional capacity building for NARSs At least 50 NARSs staff Partners research-forbreeding, pathology, quality, trained per year. Increased development capacity
physiology, and conservation effectiveness of partners strengthened to improve
agriculture and CIMMYT research livelihood of people
depending on income
from rainfed wheat
I systems.
Annual Wheat lines selected/developed by Better utilization of NARSs More genetic diversity in
Output NARSs evaluated in regional bred wheat lines in farmers fields that result
Target nurseries (Caucasus, high latitude neighboring countries. Pre- in more stable and
2007-2009 wheat, Eurasian winter wheat emptive disease screening higher production
region); germplasm resistant to soil- for new diseases and their
borne diseases evaluated through virulence
global network on this theme
68




Project 8. Enhanced wheat for more durable resistance to diseases and enhanced production potential.
Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output 1 Genetically diverse wheat Farmers, Measurable increase in Increased national food
germplasm with enhanced consumer household productivity and genetic security. Reduced
and market oriented quality, high consumers, food diversity in farmers' fields. vulnerability of farm
yield potential, resistant to biotic processors, Reduced losses from families whose.
stresses and buffered to tolerate NARSs, IARC diseases and increased livelihood depends on
climatic change ARI, NGOs, stability of grain yield. income from wheat.
Private sector Enhanced input efficiency. based farming systems.
Improved.
agricultural productivity,
better quality of.
wheat products and
more sustainable.
utilization of natural
resources. Risk for.
disease epidemics
I reduced.
Annual Advanced spring and Global Wheat Sustained growth in wheat Improved and
Output facultative/winter wheat and durum Breeding productivity by release of genetically diverse
Target 2007 wheat germplasm (ca. 750 lines) community new spring bread wheat wheat. 2009 and Triticale and segregating cultivars from germplasm germplasm used by
populations (300) for irrigated distributed through breeders. Faster.
environments with durable disease international nurseries and development of
resistance, N use efficiency, high use of improved germplasm improved cultivars.
and stable yield, and end use quality by NARSs in their breeding Participation in global
distributed. programs. and regional wheat.
improvement networks
increases. Global.
monitoring and preemptive screening.
against new diseases
I_ and their virulence.
Annual At least 150 advanced wheat lines Cultivars characterized for Germplasm and
Output tested by partners in multilocational relevant traits. Lines and information sharing and.
Target 2007 yield trials, data used for wheat analysis lead to faster
2009 improvement. Cultivars deployment of improved.
evaluated by farmers cultivars and increased through participatory varietal productivity
I_ selection.
Annual Elite spring wheat lines (25) Ten cultivars released and Farmers and consumers
Output evaluated in national cultivar adopted by farmer for areas benefit from new.
Target 2007 registration trials. Seed multiplication affected by erratic rainfall, wheat cultivars. 2009 for formal and informal distribution Enhanced drought and
initiated, heat.
tolerance of these
cultivars buffer against.
possible negative effects
I_ from climate change
Annual New sources of resistance to stem Global Wheat Diverse sources of spring Development of cultivars
Output rust race Ug99 identified and Breeding and winter bread wheat resistant to Ug99.
Target 2007 distributed worldwide through the community germplasm with information reduce risk of a stem 2009 International Stem Rust Resistance on resistance genes against rust pandemic
Screening Nursery Ug99 made available to
NARSs for either direct
release or for use in their
breeding program
69




Output 100 bread wheat lines adapted to Academy of Sustained productivity Livelihood of farmers
Target 2008 Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces of Agricultural growth in Sichuan and improved through.
China enhanced with durable Sciences of Yunnan Provinces of China increased food security
resistance to yellow rust and Sichuan and through the release of high and income
evaluated for yield potential Yunnan, CAAS yielding spring bread wheat cultivars with durable
I_ resistance to yellow rust
At least 40 new heat tolerant early NWRP/NARC- Genetic stocks with Reduced vulnerability of
maturing lines with resistance to Nepal, combined resistance to farmers through.
Helmintosporium leaf blight and leaf WRC/BARI- these stresses, as well as enhanced wheat
rust identifed and developed for Bangladesh, with yield stability, made productivity and stability
Eastern Gangetic plains DWR/BHU/AAU/B available for further genetic for.
AU-India, CIMMYT diversification tolerance to the effects
breeders of climate change and.
I diseases
Wheat cultivars resistant to Fusarium GFI, USWBSI, Increased availability of Reduced toxin content in
head scab by using MAS and hot- China, INIA- wheat germplasm resistant wheat results in.
spot shuttle breeding with China, Uruguay to scab improved health of
Korea, Japan and the Southern wheat consumers
Cone
At least 5 elite wheat lines resistant Seed producers in Mitigating the threat from Reduced vulnerability of
to Ug99 and adapted to target areas Kenya and Ug99 race of stem rust to farmers in target.
identified and large-scale seed Ethiopia safeguard food security and areas; increased food
multiplication begun. livelihoods in Africa, Middle security through
East and Asia reduced.
risk of a global stem rust
I_ pandemic
Output Adapted wheat cultivars from Africa Seed producers in High acceptance of stem Reduced vulnerability of
Target 2009 and Asia and elite genotypes Kenya, Ethiopia rust resistant cultivars by farmers in target.
enhanced with diverse and durable and Asia farmers since resistance to areas; increased food
sources of resistance to Ug99 race Ug99 introgressed into security through
of stem rust pathogen currently widely grown reduced.
cultivars risk of a global stem rust
pandemic
Output 2 Basis of durable disease resistance
characterized and genetic diversity
enhanced to reduce genetic vulnerability in farmers fields
Annual New race-specific rust resistance NARSs, ARI Better understanding of Increased national and
Output genes in 40 to 50 bread and durum genetic resistance to three regional food security;
Target 2007 wheat cultivars Understanding of the rust diseases of wheat. reduced vulnerability of
2009 genetic basis of durable resistance Enhanced genetic diversity farmers and increased
to three rusts in 4 or 5 bread and for rust resistance in farmers farm income;.
durum wheat fields
Annual Identification of genomic regions NARSs, ARI Increased selection Increased national and
Output (QTL) in bread and durum wheat efficiency; wheat germplasm regional food security;
Target 2007 populations for fine mapping of rust with durable resistance to reduced vulnerability of
2009 resistance genes and marker rust farmers and increased
development farm income.
Annual Identification of resistance-related NARSs; Increased selection Reduced toxin content in
Output genes to scab and development of Cooperators in efficiency and availability of wheat results in.
Target 2007 DNA markers Global Fusarium scab resistant germplasm improved health of
2009 Initiative' wheat consumers
Output New candidate rust resistance genes NARSs with Rust resistant wheat Reduced vulnerability for
Target 2007 (RLG) from rice identified and biosafety germplasm with rust farmers from rust.
expression analysis of RLG genes regulations, ARI resistance from rice epidemic
70




Output Confirmation of RLG as non-host NARSs with Rust resistant wheat Reduced vulnerability for
Target 2008 resistance genes in rice Validation of biosafety cultivars with rust resistance farmers from rust.
RLG as yellow rust resistance genes regulations, ARI from rice epidemic
in wheat
Output 3 Global networks to monitor Farmers less vulnerable
distribution, evolution and migration to losses from.
of pathogens for an early warning of pathogen epidemics,
threats thereby increasing.
their productivity, food
security, wealth.
I_ and health
Annual Early warning networks to alert and NARSs in Asia, Risks from current and Increased regional and
Output to reduce losses from new races of America, Africa., emerging races of three rust national food security;
Target 2007 rust pathogens of wheat. USDA-ARS, pathogens of wheat
2009 Sydney University, reduced. Enhanced
Ag. Canada information on diversity in
rust populations.
Output Multi-purpose International Fusarium Members of GFI, Knowledge of the nature and Reduced toxin content in
Target 2008 Nursery with FHB and crown rot NARSs, USWBSI, distribution of FHB and wheat products.
resistance and informative genetic crown rot causing Fusaria results in improved
stocks such as NILs for 3BS species (including health of wheat
screened in FHB/crown rot hotspots knowledge of new means of consumers
worldwide; data analyzed and made describing pathogenic
available Fusaria- chemotype, DNA
I_ based lineages, etc.)
Output Species and chemotype of pathogen Nature and distribution of Reduced losses from
Target 2009 isolates (scab and crown rot) from FHB and crown rot causing Fusaria species and
nursery determined. Fusaria species determined healthier wheat products
Output 4 Regional capacity for genetically Better informed NARSs and Partners research-forenhancing wheat against pathogens farmers development.
and pests capacity strengthened to
improve livelihood.
of people depending on
income from the.
wheat crop whose risk
from rust epidemics.
I decreased
Output Enhanced laboratory and field Kenyan and Better capacity of Kenya and Increased income of
Target 2007 capacity of KARl (Kenya) and EIAR Ethiopian Ethiopia to monitor rust farmers in Ethiopia and
(Ethiopia) to conduct rust, in researchers pathogens and breed for Kenya due to reduced
particular stem rust research resistance to stem rust. losses from rust
71




Project 9. Grain enriched for health and profitability.
Outputs Intended users Outcome Impact
Output 1 Germplasm developed with Resource poor Wheat germplasm with Improved and safer
enhanced genetic variability for producers and acceptable nutritional and nutrition from grain
increased iron, zinc and protein consumers of end-user traits identified and consumption for rural and
concentration, reduced susceptibility wheat; wheat used urban poor. Enhanced
to mycotoxin contamination, and/or researchers wheat grain market
improved value-added, end-use opportunities for farmers
Quality
Annual Biofortified germplasm distributed, NARSs of India, Germplasm and information Enhanced food and
Output and genotype x environment Pakistan, China, sharing nutritional security
Target 2007- performance determined Iran, Turkey and
2009 Kazakhstan
Germplasm characterized for value- CIMMYT and Enhanced breeding More tasty and healthy
added, market-oriented quality traits NARSs breeders efficiency through well food reaching rural and
(including Pin genes, over-expressed characterized parental urban consumers
glutenins, granule bound starch germplasm
synthase, high protein) or food safety
Straits (e.g. DON)
Annual Germplasm development (>150 NARSs and Biofortified germplasm Improved wheat
Output crosses + >150 segregating CIMMYT breeders development germplasm contributes to
Target 2007- populations) for biofortified, enhanced improved farmer and
2008 iron or zinc concentration consumer livelihoods
Output Wheat genetic resources screened NARSs, ARI and Enhanced genetic variability Genetic diversity
Target 2008 for iron and zinc concentration CIMMYT breeders for biofortified grain contributes to nutritional I improvement security
Annual Farmer participatory evaluation of Farmers in India Improved wheat cultivars Enhanced food and
Output biofortified wheat germplasm and Pakistan reach farmers nutritional security
Target 20082009
Output Biofortified wheat germplasm NARSs of India, Improved wheat cultivars Enhanced food and
Target 2009 evaluated through farmer Pakistan reach farmers nutritional security
participatory trials and seed
multiplication of selected lines
initiated
Output 2 Assessment agronomic or grain High yielding and better Improved health of wheat
processing on grain micronutrient nutritional quality wheat consumers
retention and bioavailability in germplasm
consumed products
Annual Micronutrient fertilizer application to Farmers Crop management options Improved health of wheat
Output enhance grain Zn concentration for biofortification of grain consumers
Target 2007- assessed identified
2009
Annual Micronutrient bioavailability Consumers Optimized processing Improved health of wheat
Output determined for biofortified processed methods defined to retain consumers
Target 2007- grain products nutritional value of
2009 biofortified grain
72




Project 10. Conservation agriculture for maize and wheat cropping systems.
Outputs Intended users Outcome Impact
Output I Better understanding of resource- Farmers Practices of conservation Poverty reduced,
conserving technologies for maize agriculture, including zero livelihoods improved, soil
and wheat systems and reduced tillage, mulch and water conserved,
systems, and green manure fuel use reduced, soil
cover crops, used widely in organic carbon loss
maize and wheat systems slowed or reversed,
______ ___I_________ climate change mitigated
Annual Effects of conservation agriculture Farmers and Appropriate conservation Improved profitability of
Output practices on system productivity, NARSs in Asia agriculture systems for grain production and
Target water use efficiency, soil degradation smallholder farmers that improvement of rural
2007-2009 and erosion quantified improve agro-ecosystem livelihoods plus better
________productivity adopted soil fertility
Bed-planting technology for wheat Farmers in Central Reduced water erosion, Improved profitability of
production in cotton-wheat irrigated Asia reduced use of water, grain production and
systems tested increased stability of grain improvement of rural
production livelihoods plus better
__________ ____________________ soil fertility
Improved understanding obtained Global wheat Conservation agriculture Best-bet, farmer-owned
from long-term trials of CA system agronomy compared to current farmer options identified and
sustainability and environmental community practices used
consequences
Sustainability of soil physical, Global wheat Tools to monitor the Soil fertility improved,
chemical and biological properties agronomy sustainable performance of agricultural sustainability
understood in CA systems community different management ensured
practices
Annual Remote sensing technology used to Agronomists and More skilled human Improved research and
Output access production input efficiency policy-makers ccapacity becomes policy effectiveness
Target available on new
2007-2008 technologies
Output 2 Transfer of appropriate, farmer Farmers Practices of conservation Poverty reduced,
oriented CA production technologies agriculture used widely in livelihoods improved, soil
to safeguarding soils while maize and wheat systems and water conserved,
increasing water productivity and fuel use reduced, soil
resource use efficiency organic carbon loss
slowed or reversed,
climate change mitigated
Annual New prototype conservation Farmers and Small Multi-crop seed drills Livelihoods of farming
Output agriculture implements evaluated Machinery Makers manufactured by private communities improved
Target through farmer experimentation with entrepreneurs
2007-2009 the involvement of multiple
__________stakeholders _____________Improved best-practice knowledge Farmers and Information collated and Visibility of the national
grained about methods for Extension Services exchanged to promote efforts for promoting
developing and scaling up conservation agriculture conservation agriculture
________conservation agriculture _______________improves globally
Options for cereal based crop Farmers Farmers have access to Farmers exposed to less
diversification, including residue more sustainable production risk to environmental
management for more sustainable systems dlegregation and crop
and economic livestock-cereal failure
systems defined
Output Nitrogen status sensor tool used by Farmers Farmers have access to Enhanced economic
Target farmers to manage nitrogen use precision agriculture productivity with reduced
2009 efficiency in irrigated wheat technologies environmental pollution
_________production systems_______________________________73




Project 11. Knowledge, targeting, and strategic assessment of maize and wheat farming systems.
Outputs Intended Users Outcomes Impacts
Output 1 Strategic targeting mechanisms and CIMMYT and Better knowledge of impacts Increased effectiveness knowledge for priority setting System-wide and enhanced targeting of of maize and. wheat Program research and policy for system research-for-.
researchers and maize and wheat systems, development for managers, NARSs, especially for poor farmers improvement, of rural makers, donors livelihoods, food security.
I _and reduced poverty
Output Expansion of spatial knowledge CIMMYT and Strengthened base for Increased reliance on
Targets bases and strategic assessments, system-wide designing and assessing internal expertise for
2007 including Asian Maize Facts and program research and scaling up impact assessment in
Futures and Wheat Facts and researchers and results in CIMMYT NARSs.
Futures. managers, NARSs, Programs, in selected
* Specification of impact pathways makers, donors. NARSs in two regions. Improved targeting and
for two maize and two wheat Improved understanding priority setting of
Projects. and geo-spatial data for key technologies for abiotic
* Improved characterization of abiotic stress environments stress-prone
maize and resource management and vulnerability of farmers. environments.
environments in sub-Saharan Increased capacity for
Africa. impact assessment in More efficient and
* Guidelines for quality assurance NARSs. effective development
for ex post impact assessment at and deployment of
CIMMYT conservation agriculture
technologies in Southern
Africa.
Improved information
I _and knowledge sharing.
Output e Populated spatial knowledge CIMMYT Better understanding of the More effective maize and
Targets. bases for selected hotspots researchers and environments and role of wheat breeding for
2008 including drought areas; and managers, NARSs, drought tolerant germplasm drought tolerance.
improved temporal and spatial CGIAR managers, in risk management in
characterization of maize or investors, marginal areas. Improved impact and
wheat environments. Improved knowledge of innovation pathways for
* Specification of impact pathways livelihoods impact pathways maize and wheat
for two maize and two wheat in two areas in two regions. research.
Projects. Enriched policy dialogue on
* Two ex post and ex ante impact impact pathways for maize Improved policy
assessments of maize and wheat germplasm and environment for wheat
interventions including innovation technologies in two regions. value chains.
systems and impact pathways,
e.g., Ethiopia/Uganda, Central More effective targeting
America, China of germplasm and
* Key policy bottlenecks and technologies to specific
required improvements for cereal environments and
adoption and marketing available improved efficiency of
in two developing regions breeding programs.
74




Output e Enriched spatial knowledge Managers and Better understanding of the More efficient and
Targets. bases in two further priority researchers in environments and impact effective Project
2009 regions hotspots; and Global NARSs, CIMMYT, pathways for maize monitoring and
Maize Facts and Futures. OGIAR and Lessons from ex post and evaluation.
* Specification of impact pathways associated ex ante assessments.
for two genetic resources partners, Lessons from conservation Improved priority setting
Projects. agricultural policy agriculture in selected for germplasm
* Appraisals of climate change makers and regions. enhancement including
impact on maize and wheat donors. intermediate genetically
farming systems initiated, enhanced materials.
* Two documented ex post and ex
ante impact assessments in two
East African countries.
* Global synthesis of conservation
agriculture across Asia, Africa
and Latin America, or CIMMYT
_________ global impact on poverty
Output 2 Analyses and valuations of maize CIMMYT Better understanding of the Improved conservation,
and wheat genes, gene discovery researchers, value of genes, gene management and
and genetic diversity NGOs, NARES, discovery and crop diversity utilization of
local in selected wheat and maize maize and wheat genetic
development based farming systems resources and diversity
____________ ~~~~~agencies_________________________Output Analysis of household valuation Policy makers Deeper understanding of Improved interventions
Targets and choice and local crop genetic (Ministries of household incentives, for in situ
2007 diversity in maize systems in Agriculture and feasibility of in situ maize conservation and
Mexico; review of the valuation of Environment), genetic resources management of maize
genes; briefs prepared on NGOs, conservation and genetic resources
impacts of markets on crop OGIAR and management based on
diversity NARES Mexican experience
____ I__ researchers ______________ ___________Output Analysis of choice and NGO and Ministry Deeper understanding of Improved interventions
Targets management of crop diversity: development household incentives, for in situ
2008 household valuation and choice agents, and feasibility of in situ wheat conservation and
and local crop genetic diversity in NARES genetic resources management of maize
wheat; assessments of researchers conservation and genetic resources
community seed systems in poor arrangement with due
areas of selected regions regard to the performance
of local seed systems
Output Valuation of intermediate Farmers, NARES, Estimates of gene valuation More efficient utilization
Targets products from genetic University and to guide the utilization of of ex situ and in situ
2009 improvements and OGIAR genetic diversity; knowledge maize and wheat genetic
advancements developed with researchers, policy of the interactions between diversity, including
respect to maize. Assessments makers of Ministry seed markets and diversity considerations of seeds
maize seed systems in East and of Agriculture & markets in the latter case
Southern Africa; synthesis of Water Resources,
markets and diversity. Challenge
_________ ________________________Programs________________________75




Output 3 Analyses of the roles of grain quality CIMMYT Improved interventions Enhanced human
and value chains in the improvement researchers, based on high protein maize nutrition through.
of livelihoods of the poor private sector, cultivars, micro-nutrient micronutrient-enriched policy makers, enriched wheat cultivars grain and. partners (including and improved value-added increased incomes and NGOs), CGIAR chains in selected maize employment.
centers. and wheat farming systems. through improvements in
value.
chain coordination and
efficiency in.
poor wheat and maize
I areas
Output Documented value chains for CIMMYT Better understanding of the Improved value chains
Targets. maize systems in poor areas of researchers, role of quality in value leading to.
2007 Meso America (building on CGIAR Centers, chains and human nutrition increased financial
CIAT's agro-enterprise research). business and how those value and capital for.
Market access methodology (livelihood) service nutrition chains can be smallholder farmers and
development initiated for maize providers, NGOs,. made to work for effectively others in the.
seed and inputs markets in International Labor and efficiently for farmers value chains.
Southern Africa. Identified price Organization (ILO), and value-added
premia and trends in demand for HarvestPlus. enterprises e.g. agro- Improved health for wheat quality in selected processing. different end-users.
important wheat producing
countries.
* Review of economic analysis
methodologies and results for the
impacts of maize (QPM) and
wheat (various) nutritional quality
on health
Output e Documented value chains for CIMMMYT Greater understanding of Improved functioning of
Targets. poor wheat areas in South Asia, researchers, constraints and value chains.
2008 and poor maize area in South NARSs, CGIAR opportunities within the leading to increased
and Southeast Asia. Identified centers. value and nutrient chains, financial capital.
means to increase impacts of private sector, Identification of service for value chain actors,
micronutrient-enriched wheat small. providers to make value especially.
cultivars on micro-nutrient enterprise and chains work better. smallholder farmers.
deficiency in South Asia. market.
development
* Methodology developed and sectors, NGOs
tested to assess potential
benefits of QPM in selected poor
regions of Central America
Output e Assessment of QPM maize in Health and Identification of potential
Targets. Central America. education. health and other.
2009 (school meals) livelihood benefits from
* Documented value chains for policy, improved functioning of
marginal wheat systems makers, partners wheat value and nutrient
chains
76




Output 4 Strengthened partners involved in CIMMYT Strengthened professional Strengthened partners'
research and development of maize researchers, capacity to improve maize- capacity to.
and wheat based systems. NARSs, CGIAR, and wheat-based farming conduct appropriate
NGOs, policy systems. Accessibility and research-for-. makers, impact knowledge and development towards
universities, agri- technology developed by improved. business CIMMYT and partners livelihoods and poverty
I enhanced. reduction
Output e Cereal Systems Knowledge CIMMYT and Identified and analyzed Increased research
Targets. Portal (with IRRI and perhaps CGIAR conditions for improved effectiveness of.
2007 other centers). researchers, information and knowledge CIMMYT and its partners
* Coordinated knowledge sharing: NARSs, sharing (within and outside especially in.
implementation of CGIAR universities, CIMMYT) and networking the key regions.
system-wide geo-spatial international CIMMYT partners' scientific
information portal implemented. organizations capacity enhanced through Improved information
* Updated geographical and functional information flow and knowledge.
thematic working strategy for and efficient collaboration. sharing and networking
capacity building and knowledge CIMMYT capacity building
sharing strategy and ensuing plan
updated targeting,
I_ prioritization, efficiency
Output Cereal Systems Knowledge Portal NARSs, NGOs, Improved access to Increased research
Targets. (CSKP) populated and operational universities, CIMMYT dta and effectiveness of.
2008 Functional knowledge sharing: investors, policy information and greater CIMMYT and its partners
* Promotion of CSKP through in- makers capacity of partners. especially in.
country workshops and courses Improved communication the key regions.
between scientists through
CSKP including rice, wheat Improved information and maize and knowledge.
sharing and networking
Output Supporting community of CSKP CIMMYT Strengthened pool of Increased research
Targets. users networks. researchers, scientists in area of wheat, effectiveness of.
2009 Distance learning (e-courses) NARSs maize systems, livelihoods CIMMYT and its partners
program in collaboration with and poverty reduction especially in.
IFPRI and other CGIAR centers the key regions.
functioning.
Improved information
and knowledge.
sharing and networking
77




Eco-regional Program. Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) for the Indo-Gangetic Plains.
Goal Conserve natural resources, improve livelihoods, and alleviate poverty through sustainable increase in productivity of
rice-wheat systems in South Asia
Purpose Strengthen existing linkages and partnerships with NARSs, IARCs, ARIs and local private sector working to develop and deploy more efficient, productive and sustainable technologies for the diverse rice-wheat production systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains so as to produce more food at less cost and improve livelihoods of those involved with agriculture
and as a consequence to decrease poverty
Outputs Intended Users Outcomes Impact
Output 1. Develop technologies and policies to improve water productivity, soil health and enhanced diversity of the ricewheat systems
Output e Legumes and winter maize in Farmers in South More diversified systems in Zero-till drill
Targets eastern Gangetic plains Asia, private seed Eastern Gangetic plains, manufacturing units
2007 introduced, sector, NARSs, Maize seed systems cross 150, and appear in
* Mungbean and cowpea in other research available. More pulses and the eastern sector for
lowland fallows tested. centers. fodder produced. Farmers enhanced adoption of
* Diversification practices that adopted new machines for conservation agriculture
promote sustainability seeding into loose residues. for improved livelihoods,
developed. Saving on water and human and animal
* Multi-crop zero-till seed drills and improving input use health and quality of the
bed planter in eastern Gangetic efficiency. Reliable in- environment.
plains developed, tested and season forecasting of wheat
refined, and rice yields.
* N management practices using
GreenSeeker technology
developed.
* Rice crop establishment
practices for direct seeded rice
refined.
* Laser leveling technologies
demonstrated at large scale.
* GPS surveys, geo-referenced
databases for RCTs adoption
sites available
Annual e New drills for seeding into loose Farmers in South Acreage of zero-till or Diversified rice-wheat
Output residue placed in the hands of Asia, private reduced- till, laser leveling, systems.
Targets the farmers to implement at their sector, NARSs, dual purpose wheat, QPM produce more at less
2008-2009 fields extensively, other research and direct-seeded rice costs and generate new
* Rice crop establishment centers. expands in parts of IGP. sources of income and
practices developed, co-culturing Farmers adopt new employment. Knowledge
of rice with green manure crops machines for seeding into and experiences shared
established, intercrops, dual loose residues. Soil surface among stakeholders.
purpose wheat, maize and covered become Farmers shift to double
legumes promoted. increasingly popular practice No-till systems in
* Laser leveling technology for saving irrigation water sizeable area in ricepromoted at farmers' fields. wheat cropping systems
* N-response curve at farmers'
fields validated.
78




Output 2. Accelerate adoption of resource-conserving technologies. All stakeholders involved for accelerating the pace of
development and adoption of RCTs in farmer participatory research mode in the IGP
Output e Resource conservation NARSs, CGIAR Farmers gain understanding Greater acceptance of
Targets technology (RCT) options and researchers, on benefits of RCT and on direct-seeded rice
2007 diversification practices refined farmer weed management for practices doing away
and promoted among farmers. associations direct-seeded rice. with puddled
* Weeds in direct-seeded rice transplanted rice.
cropping for northwestern and
eastern IGP managed. Underutilized lands of
* Geo-referenced databases for selected sites benefit from
targeting RCTs in underutilized technology targeting.
lands of selected sites generated
Annual RCTs for risk-prone areas (flood NARSs, farmers, Rental services of new Stakeholders adopt a
Output or drought) of the IGP fine-tuned CGIAR and other customized machines of knowledge-sharing and
Targets for up-scaling to risk prone areas. researchers RCTs increasingly become networking culture. More
2008-2009 e Agronomic and crop management popular in IGP. Seed village innovative cropping
practices to climate change concept for QPM Maize and system practiced in IGP
adapted. grain legumes take roots in that could appropriately
* East and northwest. Better address climate change
understanding of global
conservation agriculture
practices in a changing
I_ world
Output 3. Prudent management of the Rice-Wheat Consortium by strengthening the capacity of partners to conduct
research for sustainable intensification and diversification of rice wheat systems and make RCT information
available to users
Annual Spatial knowledge database for Knowledge shared among Line departments in
Output bio physical and socio economic stakeholders. Information NARSs base their local
Targets indicators created. disseminated through developmental plans on
2007-2009 e GIS, remote sensing techniques publications, training the new RCTs and begin
and socioeconomic techniques for materials, website, Radio, to use techniques for
targeting the RCTs in different TV and press. RCT farmers enhancing productivity in
rice eco-systems in IGP tested. and manufacturers directory risk prone areas
* Web-based weed database to created on the web for onidentify and control weeds line surveys, interviews for
extended impact assessment
79




Annex
Progress Report on Implementation of Recommendations, 5th CIMMYT EPMR
Dates of EPMR Report Presentation and Discussion: March 2005 Science Council: April 2005 Executive Council: May 2005 CGIAR Annual General Meeting: December 2005
80




Status of Implementation of 5th EPMR recommendations.
Implementation
Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
1) The Panel recommends CIMMT agrees with the Recommendation Business plan N/A
that management and recommendation and plans to to be addressed formally adopted,
programme directors implement the required actions through Jan '06.
undertake a much more with immediate effect. The development of
rigorous process to define Center, in its Seeds of business plan for goals for the new strategy Innovation document, already the period 2006that provide a framework has planned for such as set of 2010 by January
within which to organize goals and milestones to be '06.
projects and activities and developed during 2005 and for against which progress in there to be a Center led review
meeting the goals can be of the implementation by late
measured. In addition to 2006. Seeds of Innovation
strengthening the should be perceived as a vision
implementation of the new document for the new strategy strategy, the process will that is being implemented and
enable the programme will be complemented, as
directors as a team to originally planned, by a
identify a set of goals that supplemental plan document
are congruent across the entitled From vision to
Center. implementation.
2) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Business plan for Achieved. N/A
that CIMMYT develop a recommendation and sees the the period 2006business strategic plan that value in a business style 2010 developed will support the successful strategic plan document. As with and adopted by
implementation of the new recommendation 1, the Center January'06.
strategy in the face of a will begin implementation of this dynamic financial recommendation with immediate
environment, effect. A business strategic plan
that brings into full operation the Seeds of Innovation vision will
clearly and explicitly state
program goals, milestones,
deliverables, focus and balance. The document will also show
clear linkages between the
setting of institutional and
program goals, resource
mobilization and program
_________________________budgets.__________________________81




Implementation
Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
3) To facilitate the CIMMYT agrees with the Two workshops to Fully implemented N/A
establishment of a recommendation and notes that be held: impacts through workshops,
multidisciplinary approach to a multi-dliscipli nary approach to framework (May thematic meetings
conducting ex ante impact research, embracing bio- '05); and targeting and annual work studies, the Panel physical and social scientists, is (August'06) plan meeting; the
recommends that increased emphasized in Seeds of Annual work plan latter held in Jan
integration through time Innovation, meetings to '06.
allocation be secured specifically address
between ITA staff and non- this
social scientists in the other recommendation.
programmes.
4) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Spatial meta In progress for 2006 Dec '06
that ITA, in cooperation with recommendation and considers knowledge of work plan
the eco-regional this approach to be part of a impact pathways to
programmes, collect data on planned wider research effort to be developed for 2 the variables that explain the assemble and analyse macro-systems: i)
heterogeneity of the existing information on factors mixed maize
production functions and determining pathways for farming systems in
thus, of yields (both potential technology adoption, livelihood sub-Saharan
and actual) that express impacts and poverty reduction in Africa; and ii) ricedifferences attributable to major maize- and wheat-based wheat farming
productivity gaps within the farming systems of developing systems across
same agroecological region, countries. Pakistan and
due to constraints that limit Bangladesh.
the adoption of improved
technology.
5) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Discussions and Meetings held, and N/A
that ITA initiate recommendation insofar as it meetings to be held very productive
macroeconomic studies by refers to analyzing sectoral and with IEPRI during dialogue on-going.
2006 in close cooperation rural development policy '05 (May-June) Continuing
with IEFPRI and other OGIAR determinants of maize- and cooperation a part
Centers. The highest priority wheat-based farming systems of the '06 work plan
should be assigned to sub- improvement and to identify and including finalization
Saharan African countries, advocate appropriate policy and of joint book Maize
institutional responses. policies in Asia and
joint work to monitor
macro-economic
indicators, identify
pathways, and
foster agricultural
policy dialogue on
maize in east and
southern Africa.
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Implementation
Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
6) The panel recommends that CIMMYT accepts the MMPAs verified Achieved N/A
maize research in CIMMYT recommendation to focus on during '05
identify the high priority low-yielding areas caused by
Marginal Maize Production abiotic, biotic and Recruit maize Maize molecular N/A
Areas (MMPAs) in each socioeconomic constraints, molecular breeder breeder recruited,
mega-environment. Based CIMMYT has a comparative to focus on low Feb'06.
on such MMPAs, a seed advantage in the development yielding
delivery system for improved of germplasm for low to very low environments with
cultivars should be yielding environments to which emphasis on the
developed jointly with much of our germplasm following traits:
partners as a vehicle to development efforts in sub- quality; and, host
make CIMMYT's upstream Saharan Africa have been plant resistance
maize research results directed. We agree that seed using nonavailable to resource-poor delivery systems require further transgenic
farmers. development and, towards this approaches.
aim, CIMMYT has recently hired
a seed systems specialist for
our Africa Livelihoods Program.
7) The Panel recommends
that maize breeding and
research efforts in the
following areas be
intensified:
a) Grain quality CIMMYT agrees with this Discussions and Joint project Dec '07.
characteristics of high recommendation however notes joint project proposals under
priority to end users in the need for additional, proposals with I ITA development;
MMPAs, combined with sustainable resources to ensure initiated by June additional funding more systematic that new initiatives have a '06. sources yet to be
research and breeding medium to longer term outlook, identified.
to reduce mycotoxin In the meantime, CIMMYT will Joint project on
contamination on the explore opportunities for mycotoxins to be
grain; collaborative work in this area funded by Dec '07.
with IITA.
83




Implementation Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
b) Testing and evaluation CIMMYT notes this A routine and on- N/A
of breeding materials recommendation and observes going aspect of our
directly in the MMPAs, that it is routine procedure for work.
for identification of the experimental materials to be
best material for tested in their target
release; environments. CIMMYT has
made very significant progress in MMPAs using farmerparticipatory "Mother-baby" trials (> 1 M ha in southern Africa sown with improved maize using this approach) and acknowledges the recommendation as being a strong endorsement of this approach.
c) Non-transgenic host CIMMYT notes this
plant insect resistance recommendation. CIMMYT has N/A
research to speed up invested in host plant resistance
the process of work for at least 30 years and
integration of the highly considerable progress has been
resistant CIMMYT made however increasingly
germplasm into new transgenic approaches to insect
cultivars; resistance are providing
significant gains. We will continue to work on an integrated pest management strategy that is reflected in a number of on-going projects.
84




Implementation
Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
d) Application of fast track CIMMYT partially agrees with MAS to be adopted A maize molecular Further review
breeding techniques (doubled this recommendation as the when several traits breeding position in June '07.
haploid, MAS, NIR value of these technologies may be selected at has been filled; the
techniques) in all maize should be once and double incumbent
breeding activities in assessed on a case-by-case haploids and NIR commenced April
CIMMYT basis. CIMMYT has routinely to be implemented '06.
been using MAS for traits where if and when MAS is additional
more cost-effective than field- resources may be based techniques. Recently, found. CIMMYT has commenced the Capacity to be use of NIR developed in
for assessing stover quality in partnership with maize and we expect to expand ARI' during the this work. The use of double period July'06-June haploids in '07.
maize is a relatively new technique and its utility for marginal and low input environments is yet to be proven. As for our response to 8a) CIMMYT notes the need for additional resources of a medium to
longer term nature to implement areas of research of strategic importance.
e) Acquisition, storage and CIMMYT agrees with this Additional funds to 165K of additional Dec '06
management of maize recommendation and notes that be allocated in the funding allocated for
breeding data to eliminate the decisions have already been '05 budget '05. Further efforts current back-log, made to underway through
allocate more resources to the the joint program
acquisition, storage and (CRIL) with IRRI.
management of maize breeding data within
CIMMYT during the next two years.
85




Implementation
Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
8) The Panel recommends
that:
a) Crop management research CIMMYT agrees with the Reallocation and/or Additional resources Further review
in (the) TES (Program) in the recommendation and notes that additional staff time not yet available, by Dec '06
regions be strengthened by there are at least two avenues as and when extra allocating NRM (Crop and to be resources become
Resource Management) staff pursued: a) additional financial available.
time from other programmes, resources are needed for the
particularly lAP, to TES; TES Program; and b) increasing the
overall staffing and cross
program assignments of Crop
and Resource Management
scientists
generally.
b) CIMMYT, TES in particular, CIMMYT agrees in principle with Development of at The IRRI-CIMMYT Program
seek collaboration with other the recommendation. We will least one joint alliance program on leader
CGIAR Centers in the region, follow up on some initial program by June intensive cropping appointed by
including shared discussions '06. systems for Asia Dec '06
appointments of agronomists that have already been held with has developed a
and other natural resources three other Centers and also on work plan and is in
specialists; emerging collaboration among the process of
Centers within the Water and recruiting a program
Food Challenge Program. leader.
c) The Crop and Resource CIMMYT agrees with the Recruitment of Achieved N/A
Management Group, TES recommendation. Already there additional staff by
and other eco-regional is an increased emphasis on June'05
programmes enhance more strategic
strategic research on natural research through two recent resource management, appointments and we plan to
particularly for improved enhance this approach in future
water and nutrient use projects.
efficiency.
86




Implementation
Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
9) The Panel recommends CIMMYT notes the N/A
that the lAP breeding teams recommendation and observes work closely with crop that activities in the RWC have
management and social embraced genotype by
science groups to develop management (conservation cultivars that are suitable for agriculture) interactions for
conservation agriculture, use some time. The plant breeding
water efficiently and are programs in both maize and resistant to storage losses, wheat, in recent years, have aimed at the development of germplasm with an emphasis on input use efficiency (water) and resistance to storage losses
(maize) and the development of materials suited to conservation agriculture. The breeding
programs in Mexico run a
parallel selection program under conservation agriculture and
conventional conditions.
10) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the N/A
that lAP undertake long term recommendation insofar as it
experiments to evaluate relates to long-term trials cropping system conducted on CIMMYT's
sustainability with the results experimental stations in Mexico
being fully utilized for and notes that trials over the strategic research as well as past 10 years in Mexico have for demonstration purposes. provided an excellent platform for strategic research and
demonstration. In regional
locations,
CIMMYT collaborates with
research partners to effectively design, manage and utilise longterm crop management trials.
11) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Increased research The IRRI-CIMMYT Program
that lAP increase its recommendation and we expect activity in this area alliance program on leader
research in maize cropping to focus attention on the maize by June '06 intensive cropping appointed by
systems and their producing regions of Asia where systems for Asia Dec '06
development, demand is increasing at the has developed a
fastest rate. work plan and is
recruiting a program
leader.
12) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Allocation of CRISCO work plan Dec '06
that the data acquisition, recommendation and notes that additional funding implemented in '05; data management and gene significant steps are already to the genebank in IRRI-CIMMYT joint
bank user interface be underway through several '05 and attendant program for
upgraded in the CIMMYT different system-wide initiatives work plan research informatics
gene bank for both wheat to develop a range of integrated established with a
and maize as a matter of modules to fully computerise program leader (G
urgency. data acquisition, genebank McLaren, IRRI).
management, germplasm
evaluation and database query across both crops.
87




Implementation
Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
13) The Panel recommends
that:
a) Training coordinator CIMMYT notes the CIMMYT has N/A
position be relocated to recommendation. As set forth in retained the
an independent Unit the CIMMYT strategy, training training coordinator
reporting directly to the and capacity building activities within the ITA unit
DDG-R;- are an integral part of the for a number of
knowledge management and strategic reasons. sharing activities of the ITA
Program. These activities are
closely related to broader ITA
thrusts on the orientation of
CIMMYT and its partners to
livelihoods and poverty
reduction; support to the use of
best practices; priority setting
and impact assessment; and,
advocacy of effective policies to
foster impact on the ground. ________b) The Training Unit CI MMYT agrees in principle with Development of Capacity building N/A
working together with the recommendation for training capacity building strategy developed programme directors purposes and will implement a strategy during '05. and workshop held.
develop a priority setting priority setting tool as part of the
tool, both thematic and enrichment of the Resource Targeting
geographical. The Allocation Tool developed workshop for
resulting priorities should during strategic planning, noting CIMMYT
then be used to allocate that priorities for capacity researchers to be resource to the building need to be determined held August '05 to
programmes; within and across programs. develop
mechanisms for
priority setting and
targeting of
________________________ training.
c) CIMMYT develop CI MMYT agrees in principle with Alternate funding Some funding Dec '06
innovative alternative the recommendation and is mechanisms to be support from the funding schemes for actively exploring a variety of actively pursued in private sector for training options internally and with 2005; further training has been
external stakeholders, including review of funding of provided. private sector support. training by Dec '06. Fellowship programs, both
internally and externally funded,
will be implemented to facilitate
capacity building.________14) To help ensure that CIMMYT The Board is committed to New governance CIMMYT Board March '07
builds and sustains high fulfilling its role to the highest model (policies and workshop on
functioning Boards, the possible standards, and will procedures) for the governance held,
Panel recommends the reduce its size to no more than C M MYT Board to March '05; Schedule
establishment of a seven appointed members, be in place by for the reduction of
governance committee with while maintaining the March '06 Board size
responsibility for a range of appropriate mix of skills, and will (currently 8
activities essential to Board enhance the roles of the Audit appointed
effectiveness, including and Finance and Administration members)
defining more clearly the role Committees as agents of the implemented;
of the board, developing a Board. Rather than create a Executive
more strategic process for separate governance Committee of the
identifying and recruiting committee, CIMMYT will engage Board established
88




Implementation
Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
board members, assessing a specialist consultant to help and functioning;
board performance on a the Board and its committees Audit and Finance
formal basis, evaluating the clarify their roles and put in and Administration
performance of members place a more strategic process Committee functions
before re-election, for identifying and recruiting separated; formal
recommending Board members, assessing Board selfimprovements to board Board performance and assessment
practice, such as meeting evaluating the performance of procedures
design and preparation, members before re-election. implemented;
information flow and The consultant will advise on improved practices
communication, and designing and preparing for meetings and
developing an orientation meetings, information flow, and out-of-session
and ongoing education communications, and will work handling of business
program for members to with the Board to develop an matters
enhance their performance orientation and ongoing implemented.
education program for trustees. Finally, the consultant will review (annually at first ) the Board's effectiveness.
In the future, the Board as a whole will explicitly address governance functions, in lieu of a committee.
15) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the N/A
that a dedicated staff person recommendation and has
in the DG's office be already (effective March 2005)
identified to serve as the implemented this Board Secretary. This recommendation.
position should have
sufficient status within the
organization, clear
responsibility and also
adequate time to provide
support and coordination for
the board.
89




Implementation Target date for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
16) The Panel recommends that CIMMYT agrees with the Staff morale With the Dec '07
management review the staff recommendation. Clearly, "indicator" development of the
survey results in detail with CIMMYT is in a period of improved as of business plan for special attention to staff transition and it is inevitable that June'06; staff work CIMMYT, all staff
morale, communication of staff morale has been affected plans clearly have a clear sense
policies, clarity of goals, over the past 2 years and with communicated by of direction of the
performance recognition, the staff downsizings. CIMMYT Jan '05; revised HR Center. The launch
and staff evaluation, and will work extremely hard to policy (OneStaff) of the plan in
take appropriate corrective ensure that all staff have clarity implemented by January '06 during a
action as a matter of on the future and an important Dec '06. very successful
urgency. aspect of this will be a new One science week' and
Staff policy that is already attendant research
agreed in principle by the Board. planning meetings
Consistent with has added further
recommendations 1) and 2) we coherence to our
fully expect that communication agenda including
of roles and responsibilities to the role of staff as
staff, with attendant policies and we move forward.
procedures, will greatly assist All staff appraisals
staff function and morale. in Jan-Feb '05
included plans of work for '05; similarly for '06, with an emphasis on merit-based recognition (salary increases) of performance. Range of
institutional improvements implemented to assist in
development of the social health of the Center, including clarification of some key personnel policies; improved communication (open fora, monthly meetings with staff committees, weekly newsletter). The centre's improved financial health and overall performance ("A" for World Bank 2005 indicators) have helped improve staff morale.
90




Implementation
Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
17) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Integrated human A complete staff Dec '06
that management give recommendation. We have resources database (IRS,
priority to reforming financial already commenced the information system NRS) has been
management at the Center, implementation of the following functional by June finalized as of June
including budget, staffing systems which are the initial '05 '05
and related systems, with building blocks for the
highest priority given to the development of a more Project Manager Project Manager
development of a comprehensive financial system system not
computerized financial management system: implemented by implemented;
management system that Dec'05 instead, Axapta, a
provides real on-time An integrated human Microsoft product
financial information to resource information system New financial which has project
users; and urgently develop (HRIS); the first phase of this management management
(in consultation with project will be implemented by information system capabilities is being
programme staff) a the end of March '05 and the in place by June implemented and
transparent resource complete staff database will '06 will be tested during
allocation process consistent be finalized by the June'06 with the
with needs of the matrix end of June '05. aim for it to become
management system. the basis of our
-CIAT's project manager financial system in
application. We plan to have the second half of
an effective project '06.
management system in place
during the 3rd quarter of '05.
The issues surrounding the
development and
implementation of a completely
new financial management
information system are being
currently reviewed and we are
evaluating options of moving to
a shared service with another
OGIAR Center as a first priority.
91




Implementation
Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
18) The Panel recommends CIMMYT notes the N/A
that management carefully recommendation and has
examine the correctness of reviewed it with our external the net assets (equity) auditors who have confirmed balance for 2004 attributable that while the detail that was
to the increase in 2003 (of presented in the 2003 financial approximately US$ 2.0 statements was less than clear,
million) from fixed assets the treatment is correct. The
write-off and revaluation, disclosure issue has been clarified in the 2004 financial
statements and the relative
balances of C M MYT's net asset categories are correctly stated. ________19) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the N/A
that the Board and recommendation. We have
management develop a set discussed and agreed upon a
of financial indicators for set of financial indicators at the
measuring the Center March '05 Board meeting.
financial performance and These indicators are based on
health. The indicators should those developed by the OGIAR.
supplement those developed
by the OGIAR System in
close consultation with OGIAR Secretariat and
Center Finance Directors.
20) The Panel recommends CIMMYT agrees with the Implementation of Achieved Dec'08
that a full cost recommendation and has project costing
recovery/pricing system for already implemented changes template by Jan '06
support services be within the '05 budget that will
implemented to recover the lead to full cost recovery from Full recovery of 52% of total indirect
full costs from projects and projects and users of services. It indirect costs by costs were
users of services. This will is expected that through a Jan '09, as recovered in '05.
reduce the pressure on combination of restructuring of scheduled in the The main focus to unrestricted funding and our internal costing practices business plan with date has been on
make it available for other and improved project costing an intermediate attribution of
high priority activities at the when submitting proposals to target of 50% depreciation costs
Center, including building the donors, we will be able to recovery by Jan '07 and charging out
working capital to the substantially improve our lOT costs. For '06,
required level, performance in this area. all field station costs
in Mexico have
been fully
apportioned to users
______________________ ____________________ _____________ of the facilities.
92




Implementation
Target date
for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
21) The Panel recommends
that Board and
management:
a) Make substantial efforts CIMMYT agrees that the BOT Audit Achieved- Internal N/A
and allocate adequate external audit function is crucial Committee to audit MTP 2006-08
time for the careful to the fiduciary oversight of the develop an agenda approved by the
review of the external Center by the Board and asserts for audit at BOT.
audit (at headquarters that its Audit Committee takes CIMMYT including and regional its roles in relation to the the development of
operations), External Auditors seriously, an MTP, by Nov
management letters The C IMMYT Board Audit '05
and the audited Committee and full Board will Achieved.
financial statements continue to commit substantial BOT Audit
with the notes; time and effort for the careful Committee to use
review of external audit reports CGIAR best for headquarters and regional practice in the offices. The Committee annually (re)appointment of receives audit plans, and will external auditors, review the external audit scope commencing March to reflect management' s and the '06 b) Carefully review the Board's assessment of risks,
annual audit plans and taking into account the changing scope of external audit nature of the Centers programs
for headquarters and at headquarters and in the
regional operations; regions. The Audit Committee will develop and implement a c) Formally assess formal plan for assessment of
annually the the External Auditors prior to
performance of the renewal or selection of new
external auditors before auditors.
deciding on their reappointment
93




Implementation Target date for
Recommendation Center response Milestones Progress achieved completion
22) The Panel recommends The CIMMYT Board and Review of internal In addition to the N/A
that Board and management Management agree that auditor in '05 development of an review the scope of internal CIMMYT must have a strong internal audit MTP
audit work and the internal audit function. CIMMYT has been
capabilities of the senior The scope and capabilities of actively involved in
internal auditor and make the internal audit function will the recruitment and
the required changes to continue to be under review and placement of the
strengthen this important all necessary and appropriate CGIAR IAU
function. actions will be taken. Associate Director
for the Americas who is now based at CIMMYT with approx. 25% of his time dedicated to CI MMYT-specific audit issues.
94




Budget Tables
Title Page
Table 2. CIMMYT-cost allocation: allocation of project costs to CGIAR system priorities, 2005-2009. 95 Table 3. CIMMYT-undertakings, activities and sectors, 2005-2009. 97
Table 4. CIMMYT-cost allocation: allocation of project costs to CGIAR regions, 2005-2009. 98 Table 5. CIMMYT-expenditures, 2005-2009, object of expenditure. 99
Table 6. CIMMYT-financing, 2005-2007. 100
Table 7. CIMMYT-Financing: Allocation of Members/Non Members Grants to Projects, 2005-2007. 102 Table 8. CIMMYT staff composition: internationally and nationally recruited staff, 2005- 2009. 108 Table 9. CIMMYT-financial position: currency structure of expenditures, 2005-2007. 109 Table 10. CIMMYT statement of activities for the year ended December 31, 2005. 109
Table 11. CIMMYT statement of financial position, December 31, 2005. 110
95