• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Background to changes since...
 Programme discussion : 2004 actual...
 Expectations for 2005
 CIMMYT's 5th EPMR
 Highlights of the 2006 project...
 Collaboration
 Internal organization of resea...
 Center financial indicators
 MTP project narratives






Group Title: CIMMYT Medium-term plan ...
Title: CIMMYT Medium-term plan, 2006-2008
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077504/00001
 Material Information
Title: CIMMYT Medium-term plan, 2006-2008
Series Title: CIMMYT Medium-term plan ...
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2005
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077504
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

mtp06_08 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Background to changes since 2004
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Programme discussion : 2004 actual and 2005 estimate
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Expectations for 2005
        Page 11
    CIMMYT's 5th EPMR
        Page 12
    Highlights of the 2006 project portfolio
        Page 13
    Collaboration
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Internal organization of research
        Page 15
    Center financial indicators
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    MTP project narratives
        Page 26
        Program 1: Genetic resources
            Page 26
        Program 2 :Impacts, targeting and assessment program
            Page 27
        Program 3 : African livelihoods
            Page 28
        Program 4 : Rainfed wheat systems
            Page 29
        Program 5 : Tropical ecosystems
            Page 30
        Program 6 : Intensive agro-ecosystems
            Page 31
        Program 7 : The rice-wheat consortium - a NARS-CGIAR ecoregional program
            Page 32
        MTP project logframes
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
Full Text



















CIMMYT Building on Strength
International Crop Improvement: Our contribution
to reduce hunger and poverty


Y T4


P% -










MTP 2006-2008

CIMMYT Building on Strength



International Crop Improvement:
Our Contribution to Reduce Hunger and Poverty



June 2005











CIMMYT (www.cimmyt.org) is an internationally funded, not-for-profit organization that conducts research
and training related to maize and wheat throughout the developing world. Drawing on strong science and
effective partnerships, CIMMYT works to create, share, and use knowledge and technology to increase food
security, improve the productivity and profitability of farming systems, and sustain natural resources.
Financial support for CIMMYT's work comes from many sources, including the members of the Consultative
Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) (www.cgiar.org), national governments, foundations,
development banks, and other public and private agencies.

o International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 2004. All rights reserved. The
designations employed in the presentation of materials in this publication do not imply the expression of any
opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT or its contributory organizations concerning the legal status of
any country, territory, city, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
boundaries. CIMMYT encourages fair use of this material. Proper citation is requested.

Correct citation: CIMMYT. 2005. MTP 2006-2008 CIMMYT Building on Strength. International Crop
Improvement: Our Contribution to Reduce Hunger and Poverty. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.


Printed in Mexico.










Contents




1 Introduction and Context

6 Background to changes since 2004

8 Programme Discussion: 2004 actual and 2005 estimate

11 Expectations for 2005

12 CIMMYT's 5th EPMR

13 Highlights of the 2006 Project Portfolio

13 Collaboration

15 Internal Organization of Research

16 Center Financial Indicators

26 MTP Project Narratives

26 Program 1: Genetic Resources

27 Program 2: Impacts, Targeting and Assessment Program

28 Program 3: African Livelihoods

29 Program 4: Rainfed Wheat Systems

30 Program 5: Tropical Ecosystems

31 Program 6: Intensive Agro-Ecosystems

32 Program 7: The Rice-Wheat Consortium a NARS-CGIAR Ecoregional Program

33 MTP Project Logframes

57 MTP Budget Tables










Introduction and Context


In 2003 CIMMYT began a process of renewal and revitalization. It was designed to keep
CIMMYT's crucial maize and wheat improvement work relevant to the needs of the poorest and
those in fragile environments, where the options and opportunities for a better life are still very
limited. This process of change has refocused CIMMYT, bringing it back to its original roots:
international crop improvement for the alleviation of hunger and poverty.

CIMMYT's core strength and its roots: International crop improvement
In 1970, accepting the only Nobel Peace Prize ever given for work in agriculture, Dr Norman
Borlaug referred to his "army of hunger fighters." He didn't talk about breeders. He didn't talk about
process. He focused on the outcomes that his good science had produced-not yield potential,
varieties released or hectares planted-but the reduction of global hunger. Wheat and maize
improvement meant something only if it led directly to food security improvement and with that a
reduction in poverty.

Years later, Dr Borlaug still held that basic tenet of development, saying, "For more than half a
century I have worked with the production of more and better wheat for feeding the hungry people,
but wheat is merely a catalyst, a part of the picture. I am interested in the total development of
human beings."

To fulfill this vision of improving the livelihoods of the poor and hungry, Dr Borlaug established the
centralized breeding, seed production and international distribution system which was the delivery
mechanism for the improved varieties of the Green Revolution. The improved germplasm and
knowledge in relation to the germplasm and cultivation practices (typical examples of global public
goods) were shared world-wide through the participation of many national and regional
organizations. CIMMYT played a pivotal role in the global effort to improve staple crops. While we
take the process for granted to day, at the time it was revolutionary. Most importantly it had huge
impact on the lives of people, especially those in the areas of the world where intensive farming on
irrigated land with access to inputs was possible.

CIMMYT: repositioning for a changing world
While CIMMYT and our partners have made a huge mark in the high-potential maize and wheat
growing parts of the world (e.g. the Indo-Gangetic plane), many other areas where maize and wheat
are food staples, have yet to benefit from the power of the research work that CIMMYT has done.
Both socio-economic and agronomic conditions in many parts of the world require innovative
approaches. Often the small size of land holdings, lack of access to credit or less favorable
environments dominated by severe abiotic constraints (e.g. lack of dependable water, or a short
growing season, low soil fertility) mean developing more local solutions for wheat or maize
production systems to yield more value. Often these communities have very specific needs in their
cropping systems that have yet to be addressed in a systematic way. Socioeconomic development led
by sustainable productivity increases is essential for those who live in these marginal areas. This is
where CIMMYT's global reach can be sharply focused at the more local level. Identifying the most
effective impact pathways is vital to this process and working with the appropriate partners who can
deliver the impact potential is crucial.

In maize and wheat farming systems, if CIMMYT is to fully do its part in helping meet the first
United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG), halving poverty and hunger by 2015, then it










must work to improve livelihoods in the world's less endowed maize and wheat environments as
well as in the more intensively farmed areas of the developing world. That requires harnessing all the
potential, not only of classical maize and wheat breeding but also of new biotechnological tools,
integrated with knowledge of farming systems and the people who farm.

Impact involves more than breeding. Most small-holder farmers do not depend on single crops or
even on crops alone. They intercrop, raise livestock, and sometimes even fish. This helps spread their
risk and manage better their scarce resources. For example in eastern and southern Africa, maize is
nearly always grown as part of a complex system that also involves livestock. By working at the
farming system level, CIMMYT can target its crop breeding to meet real needs. Sometimes a farmer
will accept a tradeoff in grain yield if it means more stover for animal feed. Also, while yield
potential is traditionally the first trait a breeder seeks, yield stability or eating quality may be the
traits farmers value most in a vulnerable environment. Understanding these complex systems in
regions, where input-driven crop management is not possible, is vital if CIMMYT is to deliver
technologies farmers can and will use. Further, even in high potential areas, successful adoption of
resource conserving technologies-such as zero-tillage-might require new genotypes.

CIMMYT Strategic Goals
CIMMYT's agenda for change may also be looked at in terms of a set of strategic goals. Those
strategic goals have been developed through careful analysis and with extensive consultation in
2004. Each of these goals is outcome-oriented, always keeping in mind the resource poor that it is
our mission to serve.

* Saving and studying maize and wheat genetic diversity for humanity.
CIMMYT takes the maintenance and improvement of the genebank that holds in-trust
collections of maize and wheat very seriously. Continuing genetic resources studies will add
value to the collections. This includes extensive pre-breeding work to transfer specific traits into
forms ready for breeding.
* Developing and delivering better maize and wheat germplasm faster.
We must meet the real needs of our most important clients so that our work can result in
adoption by farmers. That means breeding for yield potential, stability, stress tolerance,
nutritional enhancement, input use efficiency and other valuable traits farmers may need.
* Delivering better cropping practices for maize and wheat systems.
Our work in resource conserving technologies is already well-known. We will continue research
into enhanced technologies farmers in our target regions can use and that will work hand in hand
with the outputs of our breeding initiatives.
* Enhancing the capacity of our partners and networks.
This will lead to more effective delivery and utilization of the products and technologies that
CIMMYT produces. This includes capacity building, knowledge management, the facilitation of
knowledge networks and the fostering of innovation systems.

What are the evolutionary changes?
Maize and wheat are two of the three most important food crops for the developing world. The work
CIMMYT does with these crops and the farming systems that grow them is so important to those
who live in the less advantaged parts of the world-those who for now the developed world has left
behind-that we cannot afford to fail.










The Importance of Maize and Wheat in the Developing world
* Maize and wheat are two of the three principal food crops in the world
* In developing countries maize and wheat account for 40% of the food and 25% of the calories
people consume
* Maize and wheat currently occupy about 200 million hectares or 44% of agricultural land in
developing countries
* Current estimates (IFPRI) are that developing countries will have to increase wheat production
by 1.3% per year to meet demand and do it on the same land base; similarly for maize,
developing country demand will increase by more than 2% per year


For CIMMYT, 2004 was the year of transition, starting the implementation of the new strategic plan
"Seeds of Innovation," which positioned CIMMYT as the world's premiere maize and wheat
research center for the improvement of food security and the reduction of hunger and malnutrition.
The process by which the plan was crafted was participatory in every way. CIMMYT asked for and
received valuable input from all its development investors (donors) and partners as well as other
stakeholders, and from its own scientific and non-scientific staff. CIMMYT listened.

CIMMYT is a global research institute and has global coverage due to the importance of maize and
wheat in many parts of the world. But as the environmental movement constantly reminds us, the
best way is to think globally but act locally. That is why the current CIMMYT research agenda has
both global and local components and why we have a program structure that reflects global and
regional priorities.

There is no doubt that refocusing CIMMYT in a time of extreme financial constraint resulted in
some reduction in traditional breeding strength. To increase strength in other areas vital to the
effective operation of the plan, but where CIMMYT was not as strong as it needed to be, meant
downsizing in other areas. Although there have been some cuts in plant breeding, CIMMYT
recognizes that such work must continue and advance (for example with research to find new,
durable rust resistance in order to mitigate the potential impact of a resurgence of dangerous leaf and
stem rusts).

The sharper research focus required some reorientation in thinking about how we go about our
research work. For example, CIMMYT breeding programs are enhanced by knowledge of the
relevant impact pathways. This is strategic breeding to maximize impact. More broadly, within the
context of Science Council and MDG goals, the CIMMYT impact pathway leads from our most
valuable resource, maize and wheat germplasm, to poverty reduction for poor rural households.
Along the way, priority setting and targeting focuses crop improvement and technology development
activities on traits and problems in order to give maximum impact. Regional programs work closely
with national programs (NARS) to develop and test varieties and technologies, improve knowledge
and train scientists. Feedback loops from each stage fine tune the targeting and priority setting and
add to our resource base of germplasm and knowledge (see Figure 1).












Figure 1.



rm om ll i il 19i'li]i!I miinls 4
Global~| Researc for Loa Impact
ca %J c
SE C,
ZE0

S0 4 ;LFs0









ti '' i o.l
m m -crm
O C.
_u m m





E




E E a
"~ ~ ,~t N -"N m















t! ""m Mi mm .h 0
0 0 0 C/
u a, u ra. .E




















cu CL)
0 0 u
a, 4








o 0
S S I


















U3l
A4B4 -a,--- --
a~~a -~ Cm,~

I WE
*I IE U
I
m~ IuV





*i i
-I a, W
0Emo




I aa i

In
0..
P1 El ~I~ ,,,,,,,,,,,,,I


I M 1V B01 9 1VNOIIH 1VN011N VIIH










There are several key emphases in our new, strategic, genetic enhancement:


* Genetic resources
We must make the best use of the vast and as yet largely untapped genetic diversity we have in
our maize and wheat collections, including wild relatives.
* Germplasm enhancement
While we have always done this, now we are looking to the development of specialized genetic
stocks, parental lines, and populations rather than finished varieties. We will do more efficient
field-oriented crop improvement with a better balance between centralized and decentralized
breeding approaches. We will also better integrate new genetic enhancement tools into our
breeding programs
* Knowledge
CIMMYT has always contributed to the growing global knowledge base for maize and wheat
germplasm. We will, of course, continue to take a leading role in this area. More than that, we
can now begin to tap the knowledge in new ways to enhance and make more efficient our
breeding approaches
* Working with users/ beneficiaries to set objectives and priorities
In many of the environments we are targeting, local knowledge and needs will form an important
component in our planning for crop enhancement. This is part of the impact pathway approach
* Global networks
Enhancing and fostering global networks will help us mobilize external expertise when needed.
For example, our current work includes the Fusarium Head Blight and Global Rust Initiatives

CIMMYT and CGIAR Science Council Priorities (refer to Table 2)
CIMMYT's current research agenda and its 25 major outputs fit very well with the new set of
research priorities identified by the CGIAR Science Council. We have already referred to many of
these in this document. Our work in genetic resources conservation for maize, wheat, and their wild
relatives in the Genetic Resource Program, our breeding work that is a vital component of our
region-based programs, our policy work through the Impacts Targeting and Assessment Program,
and our work to add value in intensive systems in Asia, freeing land for other high value crops, are
examples.

CIMMYT and the Millennium Development Goals
To achieve the main United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG) to reduce by half the
proportion of the world living in extreme poverty and hunger by 2015, more than 22 million people
will have to escape poverty and hunger every year. Clearly many of these people will be in rural
areas and depend on wheat or maize as their staple foods. CIMMYT's work is crucial in producing
the more productive, nutritious varieties, and more resource and land efficient cropping practices to
meet the needs of these people. But better varieties and cropping practices only have impact when
they are adopted and other constraints to production and distribution are addressed. For that reason,
in addition to using the maize and wheat genetic diversity held in our genebank, we are also
advocating appropriate policies to foster food and economic security and are working hand in hand
with partners along the impact pathways. CIMMYT's work contributes primarily to MDG1
(Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger) but also to the other MDG goals, both directly and
indirectly.

CIMMYT has been, is and will continue to be a center of global excellence in maize and wheat
science. That excellence has been honored many times. In 2004, for example, the RWC, an alliance
of national programs with the support of CIMMYT, IRRI and other partners, was recognized by the
awarding of the CGIAR King Baudouin Award. That work began long before the strategic plan was
written. The vision in "Seeds of Innovation" is not revolutionary but evolutionary; a refinement of
focus so that CIMMYT can help deliver not just improved germplasm, but outcomes from that










improved germplasm. That has always been CIMMYT's strength and it is on that strength that
CIMMYT will continue to build.




Background to changes since 2004
CIMMYT has gone through substantial shifts in research program management over the last 12
months that now allows it to more effectively deliver on its mission. This has meant several key
changes in staffing and some shifts in program focus and priorities.

During the last 12 months the center created and filled the position of Deputy Director General for
Research. This position is crucial to the management of the research agenda with responsibility for
overall management and balance of this agenda, staff recruitment and retention, regionalization of
the programs and maintenance of the outstanding science quality that has long been a hallmark of
CIMMYT's work.

The center over the last 12 months was able, in large part, to consolidate the new six program
structure and went through an extensive process to hire new Program Directors. The 5th EPMR in its
report comments on the extraordinary quality of the new staff, and we believe that this bodes well for
CIMMYT to implement its agenda. As part of the continuing regionalization of its programs, so as to
be closer to the stakeholders and to be more effective in partnership-based activities, CIMMYT will,
for the first time in its history, have half of its Program Director positions based outside of its
headquarters in Mexico. We believe this not only will greatly enhance interactions with NARS, but
will also strengthen interaction with key CGIAR sister centers such as IRRI and ICARDA.

The center has also in the last 12 months been going through re-alignment of staffing to deal not only
with changes required due to the financial situation of the center, but also to address shifts in
program and regional balance as well as a demographic "bump" that lead to retirement of a number
of more senior staff members. Once again the feedback from the EMPR has been very positive as to
the outstanding quality of new staff being added to the research programs.

Most new Program Directors joined the center in late 2004, early 2005, and the main business at
hand for the early part of 2005 has been a number of workshops and meetings to focus strongly on
the refinement and implementation of the CIMMYT strategy. This includes very clear indications of
priorities within programs and balance between programs. Given the current funding scenario
(almost two-thirds of CIMMYT's current agenda is determined by restricted or project funding),
with substantial restricted projects being implemented, the center is somewhat limited in its capacity
to affect rapid programmatic change. Changes will be incremental as programs factor new and
changing priorities into project proposals. That said, the programs and the center have been very
focused on developing clear and sound priorities that clearly indicate what work shall be carried out
directly by CIMMYT scientists, what work will be performed primarily by partners, and what work
at the present time is of concern to the overall agenda of CIMMYT but that will not be carried out,
either due to lack of resources, or because the center has no comparative advantage to perform the
work.

Priority setting and focusing the agenda
As just stated, the research staff have conducted multiple, in-depth discussions in relation to program
priorities and a clear agenda. A summary table (see Table 1) is included that addresses some of the
key elements of how work will be divided between CIMMYT staff members and partners. CIMMYT
cannot implement in-house all of the important issues outlined in the "Seeds of Innovation" strategic
plan. That document sets a frame for the vision; the center business plan being developed, and this










MTP, set the operational steps that clarify the specific role of CIMMYT staff in achieving that
vision.

As is the case in any exercise of this nature, it is clear that there are elements of work that will not be
done, due to overstretched resources or lack of comparative advantage. The center is clear what those
areas are and several of them are outlined in the summary table.

Where is the CIMMYT comparative advantage? How do we leverage that to meet our Vision?
In the vision document "Seeds of Innovation" CIMMYT indicates that it will shift its outputs focus
to be more consistent with the CGIAR mission statement of addressing livelihoods and poverty. The
vision document also refers to CIMMYT maintaining its enduring or continuing strengths. The
enduring strength of CIMMYT has always been and will continue to be, in the areas of genetic
resource conservation and use, plant breeding (including the use of new tools), and systems
agronomy. There are however constraints and problems that are created by the need to invest in new
or under resource areas, such as biotechnology, knowledge management, social science and training
/ capacity building. These constraints are further exacerbated by the financial situation of CIMMYT
and a funding environment that is not very conducive to investing in long-term plant breeding
efforts.

The reality regarding plant breeding at CIMMYT
CIMMYT does have a critical mass in plant breeding for both maize and wheat. However, that
critical mass is disturbingly thin. We cannot lose any additional senior staff and must garnish further
donor support to strengthen this area with the addition of more senior breeders. It should be noted
that the financing plan includes provision for the recruitment of four new plant breeders. We believe
from the available data that CIMMYT still invests more in crop improvement than any other CGIAR
center, but given that this is our core business that is not surprising, and it is still in actual dollar
figures an inadequate amount. There is a need for CIMMYT to add experienced field-oriented plant
breeders to complement our investment in biotechnology expertise.

CIMMYT continues to invest in the application of new tools in plant breeding, but realizes that it
needs further capital investment and updating both in its field and laboratory operations supporting
the crop improvement efforts. Some capital improvements are planned in 2005 and further
enhancements will be made in 2006 and beyond, subject to funding support as clearly indicated in
the 5th EPMR report.

Better targeting for CIMMYT research outputs
As indicated above, the major focus of CIMMYT will continue to be the deployment of improved
maize and wheat germplasm, coupled to crop management (with an emphasis on conservation
agriculture); however, there must be a conscious drive to better focus the benefits of these materials
and technologies on the resource poor in order to more effectively deliver on the CIMMYT and
CGIAR mission statements.

CIMMYT does not intend to undertake livestock research; to become a center for poverty research;
to carry out broad based livelihood studies; or, to enter into the field of macroeconomics. We intend
to build on the historic strengths of CIMMYT in the agricultural economics of maize and wheat
systems, but in a way that allows our breeders to better identify crucial traits and to better deploy
technologies, information and products. In this area the role of partnerships with sister centers of the
CGIAR and beyond will be a crucial element of the strategy. CIMMYT has hired during 2005 a new
poverty specialist and an impacts specialist that will spearhead the refining of our strategy and serve
as focal points for interactions with key partners.










There is also a need for more effective information / database management, and knowledge
management and use in relation to the targeting of center outputs. Increased investment in data
management for the breeding work of the center will also be crucial as a way of maximizing
efficiency and improved germplasm development. To that end the center is investing a significant
proportion of its unrestricted funding into crop information systems and database management.

Program cross-linking: major research themes
The current management structure of CIMMYT is designed to put CIMMYT staff closer to the
NARS for whom we work. However, there are problems that flow from having significant staff
deployment in various parts of the world, which go beyond normal communication matters and are
linked to the coordinated development of improved materials and technologies.

CIMMYT has disciplinary mechanisms in place that allow for cross program discussion of center-
wide issues. While this has in the past been strictly focused on areas such as maize and wheat
improvement, we see this evolving over the coming years to enable more specific interactions. These
will include a focus on breeding for drought, and database management of crop breeding and
enhancement and genomic data.




Programme Discussion: 2004 actual and 2005 estimate

Highlights from 2004
In 2004 the center continued to deliver high-quality science for development. On an output by output
basis, all six programs achieved or exceeded research expectations for the year. The quality of
CIMMYT's research was recognized and praised in the recent EPMR. We have selected one output
from each program to illustrate both the range of leading edge research activities and the coherence
among them, all fitting within the vision of "Seeds of Innovation."

Genetic Resources
The team made considerable progress in the development and application of molecular breeding
techniques for integrating improved traits into both maize and wheat varieties. For example drought
tolerance in maize was mapped through large-scale, replicated multi-location trials. That work was
enhanced by the development of advanced methodologies and software support systems for
molecular breeding of drought tolerant maize, based on consensus maps.

Software Support Systems
In 2004 CIMMYT formally amalgamated under single management (through the Genetic Resources
Program) the maize and wheat genebanks. Now we are working to integrate the genebank and
germplasm enhancement data management systems and by 2006 will have invested over $200,000
towards creating this integrated informatics system and initiating the huge associated data curation
activity. The genebank information system will use a range of integrated modules to fully
computerize data acquisition, genebank management, germplasm evaluation (including genomics
data) and database queries across both crops. Several modules have already been completed and a
unified database in support of this system is being created. Nearly three million data points have
currently been computerized for this purpose.

In fact coping and making sense of such large amounts of data, both from the genebank and from
genomics work at CIMMYT in general, is becoming more and more difficult. The CIMMYT
bioinformatics team, working with partners at the National Center for Genome Resources (NCGR)










has just developed a new software tool called the Comparative Map and Trait Viewer that gives
molecular breeders better ways to visualize their data. It can be used in conjunction with crop
information systems such as the International Wheat Information System (IWIS), developed by
CIMMYT and the International Crop Information System (ICIS), the new generation derivative from
IWIS that is becoming a common global platform for crop informatics.

Based on this critical foundation, CIMMYT is also working towards creating a larger overall system
whereby all types of data from the entire spectrum of genetic resources activities can be integrated,
compared and collectively analyzed and/or queried by anyone anywhere. The Generation Challenge
Program and IRRI Alliance offer CIMMYT substantial opportunities to join a framework, utilize
recent advances and access expertise that will help to quickly create a system largely based on the
best components of various pre-existing software systems, while at the same time allowing diverse
users to continue working with their preferred database formats. This will facilitate the development
of a unified system across wheat and maize while also providing opportunities for interfacing with
other cereals, including rice. CIMMYT is investing around $165,000 during 2005 in projects
contributing to this goal that have been prioritized by a committee of ICT-KM specialists and diverse
users across the programs and disciplinary groups (including breeding, genomics and
bioinformatics).


Impacts Targeting and Assessment
In policy strategy work the program completed the development of a framework to estimate the
benefits and risks of introducing transgenic maize varieties into Mexico. The completed report has
been disseminated. On another front, the group is concluding five thematic impact studies, including
the Asian Maize Biotechnology Network (AMBIONET), Training, Participatory Research in
CIMMYT and of the Southern Africa Drought and Low Soil Fertility Program (SADLF).

The elucidation of impact pailh1\\ a1 is another of the ways in which ITA staff are working with
CIMMYT scientists and the center's partners to draw valuable lessons, sharpen priorities, and
identify opportunities for scaling up useful results.

A typical impact pathway
Following the chain of events from research, through adoption, to farmers reaping economic benefits
and, ultimately, to improvements in the quality of life of ordinary rural people is a voyage of
discovery. There are many steps and turnings in such "impact pathways," which yield many direct
and indirect benefits. Scientists in CIMMYT's Impacts Targeting and Assessment Program are now
mapping the pailthm\ ii that link improvement of the humble wheat crop and wheat farming systems
to increased farm incomes, rural economy growth and poverty reduction. They cite, among myriad
others, the case of Anil Singh, a farmer from a remote, relatively poor area of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Singh has benefited in unexpected ways from the efforts of scientists and development agents
working with CIMMYT, national programs of India, and the Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-
Gangetic Plains (RWC), in which the Center participates.

Working closely with CIMMYT and RWC scientists, national breeders continuously develop and
release new, high-yielding, stress-tolerant wheat varieties, and since the late 1990s have conducted
participatory varietal selection with resource-poor farmers in the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains.
Farmers region-wide are also adopting a range of resource-conserving practices promoted by the
Consortium, among them the direct sowing of wheat without plowing, a method being used on more
than 2 million hectares in 2004.










Before adopting the no-till seeding of wheat or participating in the selection of new, high-yielding
varieties, Singh and his family of 13 had formerly scraped by, growing only a rice-wheat rotation on
some six hectares of land. With reduced tillage and direct seeding, he and other early adopters
increased harvests and saved seed, labor, diesel, farm equipment, and irrigation water-all of which
added up to additional cash income. Using the direct seeding implement, Singh hired out his services
to other farmers, and made more money there. Then, the improved wheat he began using yielded
much more than the varieties he used before, providing yet more income. As another parallel
pathway to impacts, zero-tillage allowed earlier sowing of wheat, opening space in the cropping
system for Singh to begin sowing high value cash crops such as okra, tomato, gourd, potato and
mungbean. He also improved his use of non-organic fertilizers, has planted leguminous break crops,
and observes that, as a result, the quality of his soil is improving.

Moving forward along these branching pathways, Singh began to think of yet more ways to benefit
from his extra earnings. His next step was to invest in a new well and irrigation equipment, further
improving the productivity of his cropping system and, ultimately, the value of his land. Around the
same time, with support from local researchers, he launched a rice and wheat seed production and
marketing company. After only a few years of operation, the company produces and sells 25 tons of
quality seed each year and is engaging neighboring farmers in seed production.

Evidence of improvements in Singh's wealth at the end of these pathways is manifold: he has put an
upper story on his home and purchased a used car, to mention just two. As more farmers in the
community adopted the above practices, having seen the success of Singh and other early adopters,
the prosperity has spread throughout the local economy. As recently as the late 1990s, Singh's
village had no telephone or refrigerator, and now it has plenty of both. Perhaps more importantly, the
"boom" has brought increased employment for landless laborers, thereby helping to reduce local
poverty, and the demand for no-till seeding implements has also fueled the manufacturing industry in
this region of northern India, extending the benefits further. .

African Livelihoods
The program provided seed of improved maize materials to national programs, private seed
companies, and community-based seed production projects in Angola, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique,
South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. They in turn produced more than 20,000
tons of seed from the materials. This stimulated the emergence of a more diverse seed sector and
represents the most rapid up-scaling of CIMMYT materials ever in Africa. In spite of resistance from
the formal seed sector, there is now wide availability of open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) which
resource-poor farmers prefer over hybrids.

Rainfed Wheat Systems
Traits related to improved water use efficiency and survival under drought were identified and
transferred to elite, drought adapted, fixed what lines and segregating bulks. A total of 650 fixed
lines and 190 segregating bulks, representing materials adapted to both high and low latitude stressed
environments, were deployed across environments through CIMMYT's international nursery system.

Have Modern Wheats Lost Genetic Diversity?
Wheat varieties released by CIMMYT and its partners starting in the 1950s have been credited with
averting mass starvation in the developing world, but critics have suggested that these wheats,
planted on millions of hectares around the world, have led to genetic uniformity of the wheat gene
pool as they replaced older, low-yielding farmer varieties, known as "landraces." Uniformity poses
potential risks as a new disease, insect, or abiotic stress may cause yield loss on a very large scale.

To assess genetic diversity in CIMMYT wheat varieties over time, DNA markers were used to
characterize landraces, old Green Revolution varieties, varieties released over the past 50 years, and










new breeding lines in yield trials. As expected, wheat genetic diversity fell off significantly in the
1960s, as improved varieties selected primarily for yield replaced landraces. Diversity appears to
have held steady at that lower level through to the late 1980s, when it began to nose upward again.
The upsurge continued throughout the 1990s, and the levels of genetic diversity in CIMMYT-
derived varieties-sown on 75% of developing country wheat lands-are now as high as in the
landraces, but yield and other traits are much improved. The study also shows that recent, improved
varieties provide higher and more robust yields under all conditions, so farmers can sow less wheat
to meet their food needs. Among other benefits, the resources saved improve household economies
and allow farmers to diversify to other food and cash crops.

Several factors may explain the upswing in diversity. Breeders have drawn on more numerous and
diverse breeding materials, including many landraces. This is partly fostered by the CIMMYT global
wheat testing network. Participatory varietal selection and an increased focus on traits other than
yield-stress tolerance, grain quality, and end-use characteristics, to name just a few-may also be
adding diversity to breeders' offerings.

Finally, more and more new breeding lines contain contributions from a type of wheat known as a
"synthetic." These are developed by re-enacting the original, natural cross between wild grasses and
durum wheat that resulted in bread wheat. CIMMYT scientists have created hundreds, using dozens
of wild grasses. The results provide a ready bridge to useful traits from the grasses, including such
qualities as better tolerance to drought or saline soil conditions.

Tropical Ecosystems
Pilot projects were implemented in which farmers in poverty-dense areas were invited to participate
in breeding improved versions of their preferred local varieties. Each farmer was asked which traits
they would like to incorporate into their varieties; most responded "drought tolerance" and "storage
pest resistance". The best first-year successes were in two regions where, despite drought, farmers
achieved yields between 2.5 and 3.3 t/ha when using crosses from the project. A simple field guide
was developed and is being distributed to farmers explaining the basic practice for improving maize
varieties.

Intensive Agroecoystems
A second, greener "green revolution" is beginning in South Asia, the "breadbasket" and "rice bowl"
for more than 1.3 billion people, where hundreds of millions of people derive their livelihoods from
farming. Using small-scale, locally produced mechanization, the region's farmers are doing less
plowing and moving toward "no-till" agriculture. Irrigation efficiency has increased dramatically,
due to increased water penetration and decreased flooding of fields. Water savings range from 30 to
50 percent-amounting to a potential annual savings of 5 billion cubic meters of water. With less
land preparation, wheat can be planted sooner after the monsoon rice crop, increasing productivity
by at least 2.5 t/ha. Earlier harvest means farmers can plant profitable and nutritious legumes-after
wheat and before rice. This improves soil fertility and makes these foods available and affordable for
poor people. Crop diversification results in a more robust rural economy and the environmentally
sound management of a vital agro-ecosystem.

Bringing Conservation Agriculture to the World's Most Disadvantaged Farmers
Building on successful experiences in South America and South Asia, as well as extensive work with
partners in southern Africa on soil fertility, CIMMYT is helping small-scale farmers in sub-Saharan
Africa to test and adopt practices that put more food on their tables, while saving money and natural
resources.

With funding from BMZ, in 2004 the center began promoting conservation agriculture in
smallholder maize-based systems in eastern and southern Africa. Focusing currently on two or three









communities each in Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, activities include farmer
participatory demonstration plots and evaluation of equipment, community awareness meetings,
training for extension agents and researchers, and backstopping through on-farm and on-station
research.

After less than a year of work and despite a severe drought in much of the region during 2004-05,
there are already signs of impact. In the Bazale community in southern Malawi, seven smallholders
formed a group for the crop season, each farm hosting a demonstration plot or on-farm research trial.
Despite the drought, farmers were so impressed by the plots seeded without tillage and with a cover
of maize residue that the group has now grown to 30, all wanting to try conservation agriculture on
their fields next season. As farmer Kingsley Kamwendo told agronomists recently: "The residues
helped to conserve moisture, because other crops seeded at the same time without residues died
during the drought."

Farmers in Zambia and Zimbabwe were excited by an animal-drawn, zero-tillage seeder brought
from Brazil. Farmer John Mwemba in the Malende community near Monze in Zambia has been
managing conservation agriculture manually for several years, with help from the Conservation
Farming Unit (CFU) of the Zambia National Farmers Union. This year he tried the Brazilian seeder
and was astounded that he could sow and fertilize his half-hectare field in just two hours, instead of
the two full days it would take him using conventional practices. Based on farmers' expressions of
interest, both the Zambian CFU and a machinery manufacturer in Zimbabwe have contacted the
manufacturer of the Brazilian seeder to arrange for local manufacture of something similar.

CIMMYT and partners will continue working to help African farmers find ways to retain at least
some of their crop residues, thereby restoring soil organic matter and improving water-use
efficiency.





Expectations for 2005
As we have said earlier in this document, we are continuing to implement the vision of "Seeds of
Innovation", building on the core strengths of the center to deliver outputs most needed by our target
client base.

We will also continue to build on the strength of our experiences with conservation agriculture in
Asia by continuing to enhance our conservation agriculture work in maize systems in Africa.




CIMMYT's 5th EPMR
An external program and management review team has just completed a detailed study of CIMMYT
and the work we do. It was the first EPMR at CIMMYT in eight years and was clearly overdue. The
review panel identified many areas in which they felt CIMMYT could improve. Many of these areas
had already been recognized by CIMMYT and plans to resolve the issues were already in place.
Importantly for CIMMYT, the review panel recognized the continuing value of the high-quality
science for development that CIMMYT conducts. CIMMYT intends to implement recommendations
and suggestions contained in the report. Our detailed response to the EPMR and how we are
addressing each point raised follows later in this document (see Table 3).










Highlights of the 2006 Project Portfolio
Looking to 2006, we continue to see breeding for specific traits important to the most marginalized
poor farmers and their families as vital in the coming years. Our world-leading work in drought
tolerance in both wheat and maize will continue both via traditional channels and in the case of
wheat by the continued exploration of the potential of genetic enhancement with genes from other
drought tolerant species. CIMMYT will also leverage its global leadership position to embark on
mega initiatives such as one to preempt a potential stem rust pandemic in wheat.

Preventing an emerging crisis from developing into a global catastrophe
A recurring theme in CIMMYT's work is 'global research for local impacts'. Impacts are nearly
always local first and only after massive scaling out or up do they become measurable in a macro
sense.

That is equally true when a new pest or plant disease emerges. Here the first impact is always local.
Unfortunately, the difficulty is to keep what is local, localized.

In 1999 researchers in the very local wheat-growing area of Uganda observed the first breakdown in
more than 40 years of stem rust resistance in wheat. A new race of the fungus that devastated wheat
in North America in the 1950s had emerged. According to Dr Norman Borlaug, the 1950s stem rust
threat was a primary reason for establishing CIMMYT's predecessor, the Rockefeller Foundation-
sponsored program in Mexico. The semi-dwarf, stem rust resistant, widely adapted spring wheat
germplasm generated by this program led to the Green Revolution. The development of rust resistant
varieties had a global impact but it was based on a single genetic source. While it was clear the
resistance would not last forever, many national programs became complacent, believing stem rust
was a long past threat.

Today, the Ug99 race has been observed in Kenya and Ethiopia as well as Uganda and wheat
varieties grown in these countries are now susceptible. Recent experiments in Kenya showed that the
new stem rust race could reduce wheat yield by up to 71%. If left unchecked, a 10% global wheat
yield loss would cost the world's economy more than US$9 billion. At the local level, small-scale
wheat farmers in Kenya would be devastated.

A new expert panel report funded by the Rockefeller Foundation has warned that the potential for the
global spread of the fungus on both the wind and by humans is huge, with spread into the 12-million-
hectare wheat-growing areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains almost a certainty.

CIMMYT is assembling a team with partners from ICARDA, national programs, and advanced
research institutes to find a way to prevent a rust pandemic and the subsequent, disastrous loss of
food for developing country inhabitants. The Global Rust Initiative is a comprehensive program that
will identify diverse sources of resistance and incorporate that resistance into wheat varieties for
North Africa and Asia before the new pathogen race migrates to those areas. In addition, the
initiative will establish a monitoring system in eastern Africa to catch new mutations and set up
community-based seed production systems so that resource-poor farmers can obtain new, resistant
varieties.



Collaboration
As indicated earlier, for much of the work outlined in the CIMMYT vision, partnerships will be an
essential element of moving forward. Among others, these partnerships will involve sister centers
ICARDA and IRRI.










Highlights of the 2006 Project Portfolio
Looking to 2006, we continue to see breeding for specific traits important to the most marginalized
poor farmers and their families as vital in the coming years. Our world-leading work in drought
tolerance in both wheat and maize will continue both via traditional channels and in the case of
wheat by the continued exploration of the potential of genetic enhancement with genes from other
drought tolerant species. CIMMYT will also leverage its global leadership position to embark on
mega initiatives such as one to preempt a potential stem rust pandemic in wheat.

Preventing an emerging crisis from developing into a global catastrophe
A recurring theme in CIMMYT's work is 'global research for local impacts'. Impacts are nearly
always local first and only after massive scaling out or up do they become measurable in a macro
sense.

That is equally true when a new pest or plant disease emerges. Here the first impact is always local.
Unfortunately, the difficulty is to keep what is local, localized.

In 1999 researchers in the very local wheat-growing area of Uganda observed the first breakdown in
more than 40 years of stem rust resistance in wheat. A new race of the fungus that devastated wheat
in North America in the 1950s had emerged. According to Dr Norman Borlaug, the 1950s stem rust
threat was a primary reason for establishing CIMMYT's predecessor, the Rockefeller Foundation-
sponsored program in Mexico. The semi-dwarf, stem rust resistant, widely adapted spring wheat
germplasm generated by this program led to the Green Revolution. The development of rust resistant
varieties had a global impact but it was based on a single genetic source. While it was clear the
resistance would not last forever, many national programs became complacent, believing stem rust
was a long past threat.

Today, the Ug99 race has been observed in Kenya and Ethiopia as well as Uganda and wheat
varieties grown in these countries are now susceptible. Recent experiments in Kenya showed that the
new stem rust race could reduce wheat yield by up to 71%. If left unchecked, a 10% global wheat
yield loss would cost the world's economy more than US$9 billion. At the local level, small-scale
wheat farmers in Kenya would be devastated.

A new expert panel report funded by the Rockefeller Foundation has warned that the potential for the
global spread of the fungus on both the wind and by humans is huge, with spread into the 12-million-
hectare wheat-growing areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains almost a certainty.

CIMMYT is assembling a team with partners from ICARDA, national programs, and advanced
research institutes to find a way to prevent a rust pandemic and the subsequent, disastrous loss of
food for developing country inhabitants. The Global Rust Initiative is a comprehensive program that
will identify diverse sources of resistance and incorporate that resistance into wheat varieties for
North Africa and Asia before the new pathogen race migrates to those areas. In addition, the
initiative will establish a monitoring system in eastern Africa to catch new mutations and set up
community-based seed production systems so that resource-poor farmers can obtain new, resistant
varieties.



Collaboration
As indicated earlier, for much of the work outlined in the CIMMYT vision, partnerships will be an
essential element of moving forward. Among others, these partnerships will involve sister centers
ICARDA and IRRI.










The IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance
There are on-going discussions between IRRI and CIMMYT, facilitated by the Rockefeller
Foundation, to explore various models of a stronger alliance between the two centers. Following the
publication of the report of the RF-chaired oversight committee for the IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance in
late November 2004, the Boards of Trustees convened a joint session in Shanghai at the beginning of
January 2005.

At that meeting the Boards agreed to pursue the development of four alliance programs on intensive
production systems in Asia, scientific informatics, climate change, and training and cereal
knowledge banks. Each of these programs is intended to have a unified budget and management
structure involving scientists of the two centers. The two centers will also develop mechanisms for
shared services in a number of areas such as representative offices in certain developing countries.
There have been exchanges of information between IRRI and CIMMYT staff, and a joint research
leaders meeting was held at IRRI at the end of April 2005, with a follow-up meeting held at
CIMMYT in early June.

Detailed project proposals and implementation plans for these alliance programs are being finalized
at the time of submission of this MTP, and as they are firmed up, we will report back to the Science
Council on progress made. CIMMYT fully endorses, and continues to do so, the recommendations of
the IRRI-CIMMYT alliance Oversight Committee and Working Group, including those related to
governance; with this strategic goal in mind, CIMMYT will continue to discuss and negotiate with
IRRI.

CIMMYT and ICARDA
The relationship between CIMMYT and ICARDA has been a complex and frankly problematic one
for many years. There is, however, reason for optimism in terms of how this relationship is moving
forward. It is probably worth indicating the level of interaction that has been ongoing over the last
few years and the significant upturn in progress being made on the ground over the last 12 months
since the previous MTP.

A Timetable of Interactions:
July 2002: Meeting of Directors General, Board Chairs, and Program Directors, Davis.
September 2002: Meeting of Directors General, Board Chairs, and key center staff, Cairo.
February 2003: Directors General meet with Turkish officials to discuss the
Turkey/CIMMYT/ICARDA International winter wheat improvement program, Ankara.
May 2003: Meeting of Directors General and Board Chairs, The Hague.
July 2003: Meeting of Directors General, Tokyo
May 2004: Meeting of Directors General, Tel Hadya, Syria
August 2004: Meeting of Deputy Directors General and Program Directors, Ankara
November 2004: Meeting of Directors and Deputy Directors General and Board Chairs, Mexico
November 2004: Joint center publication on wheat in CWANA (first time ever)
January 2005: Joint planning meeting of center scientists, Amman
April 2005: Joint meeting of Deputy Directors General and Program Directors to discuss cooperative
program
May 2005: CIMMYT shares MTP with ICARDA for review and inputs
June 2005: New MOU to be agreed between the centers

Building of close cooperative links
There is no doubt that both centers can reap substantial gains from effective cooperation, exemplified
by the Turkey / CIMMYT / ICARDA International Winter Wheat Improvement Program. The joint
planning meeting in Amman (to which the chair of the CIMMYT EPMR was invited to attend)
allowed scientists from both centers to develop a detailed matrix indicating areas of work and










comparative advantage. The result of this matrix, as expected by the Program Directors, clearly
showed there were extraordinary complementarities with a minimum of overlap. The scientists
developed a detailed plan of work for 2005-2006. This plan of work was then reviewed internally by
each center and in April 2005 an approval was given by the management of each center to begin
implementation of the agreed plan. At the time of writing this MTP the two centers have just
conducted a joint planning meeting with NARS and have also performed a joint review of the wheat
efforts of a NARS (Algeria).

The two centers have shared advance copies of their MTP's with each other for input and comment
and the centers are in the process of developing a new MOU. The MOU clearly shall indicate to
ICARDA the focus of CIMMYT on wheat improvement and wheat system agronomy. While the
CIMMYT "Seeds of Innovation" talks of the importance of livestock and legumes in addressing
poverty and livelihoods, we have clarified with ICARDA that this shall be achieved through
partnership with them, and with NARS. Finally, the Board of Trustees of CIMMYT will hold its
next meeting at ICARDA in November 2005. CIMMYT is committed to resolving its relationship
with ICARDA.

Other partnerships
The commodities and strategy of CIMMYT also make special relationships with major NARS a key
element of partnership arrangements moving forward. CIMMYT will host in June a mini-summit
with Mexican institutions in order to find mechanisms to more fully engage in deep cooperative
research using the significant levels of expertise available within the Mexican system. CIMMYT
recently engaged EMBRAPA in Brazil with in-depth discussions as to how to work cooperatively
not only for Brazil, but in a broader context of international research cooperation. Similar in depth
discussions are ongoing in India and China and the importance of the commodities that CIMMYT
works with adds urgency to developing effective cooperative research plans, funded in a tripartite
manner. These are examples of how CIMMYT is engaging the larger NARS partners and seeking
more mechanisms for south-south interactions. It must be recognized, however, that CIMMYT has
multiple high quality partnerships with many NARS, and these relationships are a key to farmer
impacts. CIMMYT is also engaged with private sector companies to set up an International Plant
Breeding Symposium to be held in Mexico every two or three years with a focus on field-oriented
plant breeding. CIMMYT's approach to partnerships elaborated in "Seeds of Innovation", however,
is perhaps best typified by the current Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) project involving
the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), CIMMYT and the Syngenta Foundation for
Sustainable Agriculture.

CIMMYT involvement in the Challenge Programs
CIMMYT views its participation in the Challenge Programs as an integral part of our strategy for
partnership development with both developing and developed country partners and sister centres.
CIMMYT's engagement with the Challenge Programs includes:
* Generation- CIMMYT hosts this program and also provides one of the sub-program leaders
* HarvestPlus- CIMMYT provides two crop coordinators; maize and wheat, and participates in
socioeconomic projects
* Water and Food- current involvement in two projects for the Yellow River and Limpopo Basins
* Sub Saharan Africa- participation in planning meetings and other activities.



Internal Organization of Research
The MTP, for reasons of timing and structure, is reported along program lines. We re-emphasize the
tremendous work that has gone into these by all CIMMYT scientific staff under the direction of the
new Program Directors. These log frames, coupled to the earlier summary table of priorities, gives a










clear view of how CIMMYT will build on its existing strengths, together with the energy and skills
of its new staff, to contribute to the mission and goals of the CGIAR and CIMMYT.



Center Financial Indicators
The primary financial and managerial focus of CIMMYT management during the period of this MTP
can be summarized as follows:
a. Maintain a strong commitment to rebuilding the Institute's reserves;
b. Finalize the staff adjustments that were initiated to enable the implementation of the strategic
plan and to seek opportunities to fund 'deepening the pool' of plant breeders;
c. Target investments in assets that will drive significant operational efficiencies;
d. Maintain a concerted fundraising program; and,
e. Implementation of full cost recovery on all CIMMYT projects

CIMMYT Funding Overview
Our grant revenue estimates for unrestricted and restricted grants, as detailed in this MTP
submission, indicate total revenues of approximately $39.08M for 2005 and $36.86M for 2006.
Unrestricted grants from donors are predicted to decline in both 2005 and 2006 due to a combination
of real reductions in investments from certain donors compounded by a retreat of the US Dollar from
the levels of previous years. In addition, certain targeted funding from CIDA and Japan is now
clearly identified as restricted from 2005 onward. Overall unrestricted funding will not decline to any
material degree during this period as the reduction in donor funding will be partially offset by
increased Center interest income resulting from an improvement in our reserves and our overall
liquidity. Unrestricted funding will amount to 38.6% of total funding for 2005 and will increase, in
percentage terms, to 40.8% in 2006 due to the projected decrease in restricted funding for the year.

Projected revenues for 2005 are slightly less than the 2004 actual result and we project a further
reduction for 2006 due to the fact that the short-term impact of expenditures incurred in the
implementation of our strategic plan will reduce significantly in 2006 and future years. As the
restructuring activities are wound down, both revenues and expenditures will decline. We believe
that total revenue projections of $36.8M for 2006 are a conservative but realistic estimate of our
sustainable, long-term funding base.

Given that the preparation of the MTP has been drawn forward again this year, there remains a
higher level of uncertainty in our income predictions than in past MTPs. We have therefore clearly
shown "unidentified" restricted project funding for 2006 amounting to $4M. We remain confident
that this funding will be achieved through active fundraising efforts that are currently being
implemented by the restructured management team. An important part of this unidentified funding -
$1M relates to management's plan to recruit two senior wheat breeders and two senior maize
breeders. A major effort will be undertaken by management to obtain funding for these positions as a
reflection of the high priority that is attached to this development.

Working Capital Reserves
During 2004 year, CIMMYT was able to increase undesignated, unrestricted reserves from
approximately $3M (30 days) to a level in excess of $4.8M (47.5 days). This increase represents a
substantial move towards the Board and management's stated goal of building reserves to the
CGIAR mandated standard of 75-90 days by December 2007.

Despite the substantial gains that have been made during the last two years, there remains much to
do to rebuild reserves to the required level. At this point, CIMMYT has budgeted to put aside $2M
per year over the 2005-06 period to reach the target. It must be noted however, that the need to










improve our reserve position continues to place severe pressure on our annual operating budgets. As
a not-for-profit organization, increases in reserves can only be achieved through the under-spending
of unrestricted funding income. Therefore, given that true operating flexibility is enabled through
maximizing the availability of unrestricted funding, any reduction in the availability of unrestricted
funding is a severe constraint to CIMMYT's ongoing operations.

As a result of the increase in reserves, CIMMYT achieved its stated goal of moving from debt
funding to a cash positive position during 2004. It is anticipated that we will continue to operate in a
cash positive position for the plan period.

Staffing
As reported in the previous year, CIMMYT planned a series of major staff changes to move rapidly
to ensure that it had the core competencies required to implement its new strategy. During 2004 a
total of 20 new IRS were recruited which, following the departure of 25 staff in the same period,
resulted in total IRS staff numbers falling to 95.

The staff changes have continued at a lesser pace during 2005; however, by the end of this year, a
further 14 new staff will have been appointed and there will be additional departures of 19 staff.
Based on these changes, IRS staffing numbers will fall to a level of 90. The change in IRS reflects
the needs of the new research program; the new skills and culture of the centre; and, CIMMYT'
overall human resource goals.

CIMMYT will undertake a further round of recruitments during 2006, if it is successful in its
fundraising strategy. Depending on the availability of funding, an additional seven staff will be
recruited which will bring total IRS numbers to 97, viewed as a sustainable long-term level. Of
particular importance is the plan to substantially boost capacity in plant breeding through the
recruitment of four senior plant breeders.

In response to the stated aim of decentralizing management staff throughout the regions rather than
in one head office, CIMMYT has successfully established two Program Director positions outside of
Mexico with one further position to be relocated during 2006. In addition, several key research
positions have been either relocated or specifically recruited as regional positions.

Following the completion of a detailed training needs analysis during 2004, CIMMYT has developed
a training plan for all NRS staff. To ensure that training is effectively and consistently delivered,
CIMMYT has committed significant financial resources to staff training, starting with 2004 and
continuing through 2005 and 2006.

Infrastructure
Following on from its prior year commitment to increase investment in fixed assets during 2004,
CIMMYT has continued to plan to reinvest amounts equal to depreciation in its fixed assets.
Particular emphasis has been directed at identifying investments that will rapidly lead to enhanced
efficiency and cost savings within our operations. We expect that the results of these investments
will drive future savings that can then be reinvested in further capital improvements. The primary
area of focus has been investments that will improve the efficiency of our plant breeding operations
at the various experimental stations throughout the world. We have recognized the need to adopt
world best practice and are committed to effect the necessary changes.











Table 1: Institutional priorities 2006-2008


What will CIMMYT dol What will CIMMYT do through partnerships2 What CIMMYT will not do3
Conservation of genetic resources Development of crop information system platforms Work on livestock
Identification of useful genetic diversity Cropping system studies involving crops in Work on legumes (except in conservation
Maize and wheat germplasm enhancement addition to maize and wheat agriculture rotations)
Resource conservation technology options for maize Study of livelihood strategies based on Macroeconomic studies
Institution and wheat cropping systems livestock/feed interactions Genetic transformation work (except work
Capacity building and institutional strengthening Livelihood and poverty studies beyond maize and on Bt maize and drought genes)
wheat systems
Development and implementation of knowledge
management strategies
Collection and conservation of crop-related bio- In situ conservation and management of bio- On-farm management of maize and wheat
diversity diversity genetic diversity
Trait and gene-based identification of useful genetic Generic pre-breeding activities General characterization of genebank
diversity Up-stream, basic research entries
Program 1 Development of germplasm characterisation and Trait mapping Analysis of policies related to genetic
Genetic Resources enhancement information systems resources and diversity
Genetic Resources
Methodologies for improved efficiency of germplasm Economic assessment of the value of
utilization and enhancement genetic resources
Development of global trait-based public bioscience
platforms (e.g., drought, rust, Fusarium)

Improved priority-setting and targeting of research in Support to macro-economic studies in countries Advocacy of economic policies related to
wheat-based and maize-based farming systems with national policy constraints to maize and wheat maize- and wheat-based farming systems.
Working guidelines for systems, livelihoods and production Publications in less relevant journals
economic growth and poverty-oriented impact Design of national policy interventions Individual training programs
Program 2 assessment Implementation of policies
t, T t, Ex ante/ ex post impact assessments of CIMMYT Global mentoring service to back up learning and
Assessment research capacity building activities
Assessment
Global impact of CIMMYT's work
Assessment of the role of quality in maize and wheat
value-added chains
Demand driven capacity-building and training

Develop stress tolerant maize and wheat germplasm Deployment of stress tolerant maize and wheat Macro-economic studies on maize- and
Program 3 targeted at resource-poor farmers' needs germplasm wheat-based systems
African Livelihoods Develop maize with improved productivity and Promote approaches that increase farm level Breeding maize with high levels of Iron


1 Work is primarily conducted by CIMMYT employees, but will clearly involve NARS.
2 Work carried out in partnerships with CIMMYT, with the majority of the work being performed by partner organizations.
SWork where CIMMYT does not feel it has any comparative advantage to be involved with the work during the indicated time frame.










What will CIMMYT dol What will CIMMYT do through partnerships2 What CIMMYT will not do3
improved quality productivity and access to markets and Zinc
Facilitating smallholder farmer experimentation with Research into input/ output policies for maize and Production of seed other than maize
resource-conserving technologies wheat markets breeder seed
Strengthen production and marketing of maize seed Development of regional seed laws and Further development of best bet soil
for marginal environments regulations fertility technologies
Assists NARS to address regional maize and wheat Training of farmer/ farmer support groups
research priorities
Spring and winter wheat (bread, durum) advanced Winter wheat improvement Winter wheat breeding in Mexico
lines with enhanced end-use quality and tolerance to (Turkey/CIMMYT/ICARDA) Work on crop-livestock systems (except
stress Screening of wheat germplasm for micronutrient residue management and fodder in
Wheat germplasm with enhanced resistance to rust tolerance and grain levels reduced tillage systems)
and root pathogens Development and promotion of conservation Work on legumes (except in conservation
Program 4 Global monitoring and pre-emptive screening for new agriculture technologies including machinery agriculture rotations)
Rainfed Wheat Systems diseases of wheat and rust virulence Research on soil borne diseases Farm-level surveys aimed at collecting
Facilitating the adoption of resource-conserving Socioeconomic studies on poverty, livelihoods and primary data
technologies gender Rapid methods for assessing soil
Use of landraces and genetic stocks for improving salinity/fertility
drought and heat tolerance

Increased maize productivity in drought-prone areas Participatory evaluation of stress-tolerant Research projects to measure the
of South East Asia germplasm by farmers in several countries of Asia, socioeconomic and ecological
Improved maize productivity and quality (quality Latin America sustainability consequences of new
protein maize) in Latin America Research and technology dissemination to technology adoption
Technology options for impoverished maize farmers mitigate on-farm post-harvest losses Research and promotion of crop
Program 5 in highland areas (especially Mexico) Enhanced capacity to evaluate and breed for management options, including
Tropical Ecosystems Germplasm and "proof of concept" for methodologies stress tolerance of maize germplasm conservation tillage
to enhance pro-vitamin A concentration Population improvement for tropical white,
Germplasm and methodologies to develop maize for non-QPM maize germplasm.
acid soils Population improvement and routine
breeding work in maize physiology

Maize and wheat crops produced more efficiently at Role of crops in diversified systems "Generic" plant breeding
lower cost Food and feed commodity chain research in both Extension, especially as it relates to seed
Diversified cereal-livestock cropping systems maize and wheat delivery systems
Program 6 Resource conserving technologies Fodder/stover quality of wheat and maize Sub-tropical maize breeding in Mexico
Agroecosystems Enhanced regional plant breeding, including germplasm Development projects that lack a research
Intensive Agroecosystems
participatory varietal selection and seed delivery Farm machinery research and development in component
systems Asia
Social science research for technology targeting and
priority setting; diversification; and food security










Table 2: CGIAR Science Council Priority Setting (CSC), CIMMYT Institutional Priority Targets (IPT) and Program Outputs

IPT 1: Saving and studying maize and IPT 2: Developing and delivering better IPT 3: Delivering IPT4: Enhancing the capacity
wheat genetic diversity for humanity maize and wheat germplasm faster better cropping of our partners and networks
practices for maize
and wheat systems
CSC 1: Sustaining GRP 1: Global custodianship,
biodiversity for current characterization and management of the
and future generations genetic resources of maize, wheat and
related species
ITA 2: Analysis of local sustainable
management of genetic diversity
CSC 2: Producing food at GRP 2: Improved methodologies for the ALP 4: More diverse maize
lower cost through identification and utilization of useful maize seed sector in ESA
genetic improvement and wheat germplasm responding to resource-poor
ITA 1: Strategic priority setting for maize farmers' needs
and wheat system improvement and the
identification of enabling policies
ALP 1: Stress tolerant, more nutritious
maize and wheat varieties that increase
food for resource-poor farmers in Sub
Saharan Africa
RWS 1: Wheat germplasm development
and exchange
RWS 2: Tapping new genetic diversity for
rainfed wheat production
RWS 4: Molecular and information
technology tools for more efficient wheat
breeding
TES 1: Stress tolerant maize for tropical
environments
TES 2: Maize with enhanced grain quality
IAP 2: Production technologies and
supporting policies for stressed
environments











CSC 3: Creating wealth ITA 3: Analysis of role of grain quality IAP 1: New maize and wheat production technologies
among the rural poor (micro-nutrients, protein) in the that facilitate diversification
through high-value improvement of livelihoods of rural
commodities and products poor in selected maize and maize
systems
ALP 2: Maize- and wheat-based
systems that increase marketing
options for smallholder farmers
CSC 4: Combining poverty ALP 2: Risk-averting, productivity-enhancing
alleviation and sustainable management practices that restore natural resources
management of water, land in maize- and wheat-based systems
and forestry resources RFWS 3: Resource-conserving rainfed wheat systems
IAP 3: Resource-conserving technologies for maize
and wheat systems
CSC 5: Improving policies RFWS 5: Understanding constraints GRP 3: Enhanced capacity in genetic
and facilitating institutional to technology adoption resources management, maintenance
innovation to support and use
sustainable reduction of ITA 4: Partners strengthened in
poverty and hunger research and development of maize-
and wheat-based systems
ALP 5: Capacity building of partners in
the maize and wheat research-
marketing continuum
RWS 6: Training and capacity building
TES 3: Networking and partnership
building
IAP 4: Training and human resources in
research-for-development strengthened
GRP = Genetic Resources Program
ITA= Impacts Targeting and Assessment Program
ALP= African Livelihoods Program
RWS = Rainfed Wheat Systems Program
TES= Tropical Ecosystems Program
IAP= Intensive Agroecosystems Program











Table 3: Implementation of 5th EPMR recommendations


Recommendation CIMMYT implementation plan

1. The Panel recommends that management and CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and has developed
programme directors undertake a much more rigorous institutional goals for the new strategy (outlined in summary form in the
process to define goals for the new strategy that provide a MTP Overview) along with very clear indications of priorities within
framework within which to organize projects and activities programs and balance between programs (refer to the institutional
and against which progress in meeting the goals can be priorities table).
measured. In addition to strengthening the
implementation of the new strategy, the process will
enable the programme directors as a team to identify a
set of goals that are congruent across the Centre.
2. The Panel recommends that CIMMYT develop a business CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and will develop a business
strategic plan that will support the successful plan that operationalizes the "Seeds of Innovation" vision with clearly
implementation of the new strategy in the face of a stated program goals, milestones, deliverables, focus and balance. The
dynamic financial environment, document will also show clear linkages between the setting of institution
and program goals, resource mobilization and program budgets. This
exercise is also very closely linked to the development of the current
MTP (2006-2008) and attendant financing and resource mobilization
plans. The business plan will be tabled for CIMMYT BOT approval at its
next meeting, November '05

3. The Panel recommends that CIMMYT management and CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and will work with the CGIAR
board undertake a mid-term review in 2007 focused on on the review to be held May/June '06.
the implementation of the new strategy, the efficacy of
CIMMYT's reorganization and the impact of financial
capacity on CIMMYT's programmes and operations.

4. To facilitate the establishment of a multidisciplinary CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and will review staff time
approach to conducting ex ante impact studies, the Panel allocations during 2005. Furthermore, an impacts framework workshop
recommends that increased integration through time was held in May '05 with the participation of scientists from all programs.
allocation be secured between ITA staff and non-social A second workshop on targeting, to be held July/August '05, will focus
scientists in the other programmes, on plans for multi-disciplinary ex-ante impact assessment.


5. The Panel recommends that ITA, in cooperation with the CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and during 2005 will start the
ecoregional programmes, collect data on the variables syntheses to construct the spatial meta knowledge of impact pathways,
that explain the heterogeneity of the existing production in partnership between the ITA Program and the regional programs.
functions and thus, of yields (both potential and actual) Activities will commence in two macro-systems: maize mixed farming
that express differences attributable to productivity gaps systems in Sub-Saharan Africa; and, rice-wheat farming systems across
within the same agroecological region, due to constraints Pakistan and Bangladesh.
that limit the adoption of improved technology.
6. The Panel recommends that ITA initiate macroeconomic CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation insofar as it refers to
studies by 2006 in close cooperation with IFPRI and other analyzing sectoral and rural development policy determinants of wheat-
CGIAR Centres. The highest priority should be assigned and maize-based farming systems improvement and to identify and
to sub-Saharan African countries, advocate appropriate policy and institutional responses. Discussions
have commenced with IFPRI on cooperation, with key meetings
scheduled for May and June '05.

7. The Panel recommends that maize research in CIMMYT CIMMYT accepts the recommendation and has addressed the issue
identify the high priority Marginal Maize Production Areas within the new MTP, consistent with CGIAR system priorities 2 and 5.
(MMPAs) in each mega-environment. Based on such The African Livelihoods Program outputs 1 and 4 directly address the
MMPAs, a seed delivery system for improved cultivars recommendation with a new staff member recruited to work with NARS
should be developedjointly with partners as a vehicle to partners on the improvement of seed delivery systems for outlying
make CIMMYT's upstream maize research results areas.
available to resource-poor farmers.


8. The Panel recommends that maize breeding and research
efforts in the following areas be intensified:
a. Grain quality characteristics of high priority to end users in
MMPAs, combined with more systematic research and
breeding to reduce mycotoxin contamination on the grain;


CIMMYT agrees with this recommendation but, notes the need for
additional, sustainable resources to ensure that new initiatives have a
medium- to longer-term outlook. In the meantime, CIMMYT will explore











CIMMYT implementation plan


b. Testing and evaluation of breeding materials directly in the
MMPAs, for identification of the best material for release;








c. Non-transgenic host plant insect resistance research to
speed up the process of integration of the highly resistant
CIMMYT germplasm into new varieties;






d. Application of fast track breeding techniques (doubled
haploid, MAS, NIR techniques) in all maize breeding
activities in CIMMYT;






e. Acquisition, storage and management of maize breeding
data to eliminate the current back-log.



9. The Panel recommends that:
a. Crop management research in (the) TES (Program) in the
regions be strengthened by allocating NRM (Crop and
Resource Management) staff time from other
programmes, particularly IAP, to TES;



b. CIMMYT, TES in particular, seek collaboration with other
CGIAR Centres in the region, including shared
appointments of agronomists and other natural resources
specialists;


c. The Crop and Resource Management Group, TES and
other ecoregional programmes enhance strategic
research on natural resource management, particularly for
improved water and nutrient use efficiency.


opportunities for collaborative work in this area with IITA. In addition,
CIMMYT will work with partners in various countries to test and promote
simple, inexpensive grain storage structures that can reduce the
deterioration of grain quality during on-farm storage.

CIMMYT notes this recommendation and observes it is routine
procedure for experimental materials to be tested in their target
environments. CIMMYT has made very significant progress in MMPAs
using farmer participatory "Mother-Baby" trials (>1M ha in southern
Africa sown with improved maize using this approach) and
acknowledges the recommendation as being a strong endorsement of
this approach.


CIMMYT notes this recommendation. CIMMYT has invested in host
plant resistance work for at least 30 years and considerable progress
has been made; however, transgenic approaches to insect resistance
are increasingly providing significant technical gains. We will continue to
work on an integrated pest management strategy that is reflected in a
number of ongoing projects. The current emphasis is to improve the
agronomic performance of our best insect resistant sources, thereby
accelerating their use in breeding programs.

CIMMYT partially agrees with this recommendation, as the value of
these technologies should be assessed on a case-by-case basis. The
use of double haploids in maize is a relatively new technique and its
utility for marginal and low-input environments is yet to be proven. MAS
becomes feasible only when several traits may be selected at once and
both double haploids and NIR require considerable start-up work prior to
their routine use. Efforts will be made to develop capacity in partnership
with ARI collaborators.

CIMMYT agrees with this recommendation and notes that decisions
have already been made to allocate more resources to the acquisition,
storage, and management of maize breeding data. During 2005,
$165,000 of additional funding has been allocated to bioinformatics.


CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and notes that there are at
least two avenues to be pursued: a) additional financial resources for
the TES Program; and b) increasing the overall staffing and cross
program assignments of crop and resource management scientists
generally. The recommendation will be implemented as and when extra
resources become available.

CIMMYT agrees in principle with the recommendation. We will follow up
on some initial discussions that have already been held with three other
centers and also on emerging collaboration among centers within the
Water and Food Challenge Program. Additional resources are needed
to fully address this recommendation.

CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation. It is hoped to emphasize
strategic research in future projects with appropriate funding.


10. The Panel recommends that the IAP breeding teams work CIMMYT notes the recommendation and observes that the plant
closely with crop management and social science groups breeding programs in both maize and wheat, in recent years, have
to develop cultivars that are suitable for conservation aimed at the development of germplasm with an emphasis on input use
agriculture, use water efficiently and are resistant to efficiency (water) and resistance to storage losses (maize) and the
storage losses. development of materials suited to conservation agriculture. The


Recommendation











Recommendation CIMMYT implementation plan

breeding programs in Mexico run parallel selection programs under
conservation agriculture and conventional conditions.

11. The Panel recommends that IAP undertake long term CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation insofar as it relates to long-
experiments to evaluate cropping system sustainability term trials conducted on CIMMYT's experiment stations in Mexico and
with the results being fully utilized for strategic research as notes that trials over the past 10 years in Mexico have provided an
well as for demonstration purposes, excellent platform for strategic research and demonstration. In regional
locations, CIMMYT collaborates with research partners to effectively
design, manage and utilize long-term trials.

12. The Panel recommends that IAP increase its research in CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and we will focus attention on
maize cropping systems and their development, the maize producing regions of Asia where demand is increasing at the
fastest rate.

13. The Panel recommends that the data acquisition, data CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and notes that significant
management and genebank user interface be upgraded in steps are already underway through several different system-wide
the CIMMYT genebank for both wheat and maize as a initiatives to develop a range of integrated modules for fully
matter of urgency, computerized data acquisition, genebank management, germplasm
evaluation and database query across both crops. Additional funding
has been allocated to the genebank in '05.

14. The Panel recommends that: CIMMYT notes the recommendation but will retain the training
a. Training coordinator position be relocated to an coordinator position in ITA for a number of strategic reasons.
independent Unit reporting directly to the DDG-R; Performance and effectiveness of the position will be reviewed in
December 2006.

b. The Training Unit working together with programme CIMMYT agrees in principle with the recommendation for training
directors develop a priority setting tool, both thematic and purposes. During 2005 a capacity building strategy will be formulated in
geographical. The resulting priorities should then be used consultation with all program directors. During July/August '05 at a
to allocate resource to the programmes; targeting workshop, mechanisms for priority setting and targeting for
training will be developed.

c. CIMMYT develop innovative alternative funding schemes CIMMYT agrees in principle with the recommendation and during 2005
for training has initiated discussions with public and private sector organizations to
explore possibilities for new funding of training.

15. To help ensure that CIMMYT builds and sustains high The CIMMYT Board had a one-day workshop on governance at its
functioning Boards, the Panel recommends the March 2005 meeting and agreed to reduce its size to no more than
establishment of a governance committee with seven appointed members while maintaining the appropriate mix of
responsibility for a range of activities essential to Board skills, and to enhance the roles of the Audit and Finance and
effectiveness, including defining more clearly the role of Administration Committees as agents of the Board. Rather than create
the board, developing a more strategic process for a separate governance committee, CIMMYT intends to engage a
identifying and recruiting board members, assessing specialist consultant to help the Board and its committees clarify their
board performance on a formal basis, evaluating the roles and put in place a more strategic process for identifying and
performance of members before re-election, recruiting board members, assessing board performance on a formal
recommending improvements to board practice, such as basis, and evaluating the performance of members before re-election.
meeting design and preparation, information flow and The consultant will also provide advice on meeting design and
communication, and developing an orientation and preparation, information flow and communication, and will work with the
ongoing education program for members to enhance their Board to develop an orientation and ongoing education program for
performance trustees. It is anticipated that the consultant will also be engaged to
review the effectiveness of the Board's processes, in the first instance
on an annual basis. In future it is intended that the Board as a whole will
explicitly address governance functions in lieu of a governance
committee.
16. The Panel recommends that a dedicated staff person in CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and has already (effective
the DG's office be identified to serve as the Board March 2005) implemented this recommendation.
Secretary. This position should have sufficient status
within the organization, clear responsibility and also
adequate time to provide support and coordination for the
board.











Recommendation CIMMYT implementation plan

17. The Panel recommends that management review the CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and will implement a range of
staff survey results in detail with special attention to staff measures over the next 12 months aimed at: communicating policies,
morale, communication of policies, clarity of goals, including the OneStaff concept; simplifying our management system and
performance recognition, and staff evaluation, and take refining program and institutional goals; and, demonstrating a clear link
appropriate corrective action as a matter of urgency. between performance evaluation, promotion and professional
development.

18. The Panel recommends that management give priority to CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and has taken the following
reforming financial management at the Centre, including steps:
budget, staffing and related systems, with highest priority The first phase of a human resources system (Eslabon) has been
given to the development of a computerized financial implemented (March '05) and the complete staff database will be
management system that provides real on-time financial finalized by the end of June '05.
information to users; and urgently develop (in We are currently implementing the project manager application of
consultation with programme staff) a transparent CIAT's system and plan to have an effective project management
resource allocation process consistent with needs of the system in place during the 3rd quarter of '05.
matrix management system. Initial investigations have been made into a replacement financial
management system
19. The Panel recommends that management carefully CIMMYT notes this recommendation. Our external auditors have
examine the correctness of the net assets (equity) confirmed that, while the detail that was presented in the 2003 financial
balance for 2004 attributable to the increase in 2003 (of statements was less than clear, the treatment was correct.
approximately US$ 2.0 million) from fixed assets write-off
and revaluation.

20. The Panel recommends that the Board and management CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation. We have discussed and
develop a set of financial indicators for measuring the agreed upon a set of financial indicators at the March '05 Board
Centre financial performance and health. The indicators meeting. These indicators are based on those developed by the CGIAR.
should supplement those developed by the CGIAR
System in close consultation with CGIAR Secretariat and
Centre Finance Directors.

21. The Panel recommends that a full cost recovery/pricing CIMMYT agrees with the recommendation and has already
system for support services be implemented to recover implemented changes within the 2005 budget that will lead to full cost
the full costs from projects and users of services. This recovery from projects and users of services. In addition, a costing
will reduce the pressure on unrestricted funding and template is being developed as part of Project Manager.
make it available for other high priority activities at the
Centre, including building the working capital to the
required level.
22. The Panel recommends that Board and management: CIMMYT agrees and will commit substantial time and effort for the
a. Make substantial efforts and allocate adequate time for careful review of external audit reports for headquarters and regional
the careful review of the external audit (at headquarters offices. The BOT Audit Committee annually receives audit plans, and
and regional operations), management letters and the will review the external audit scope to reflect management's and the
audited financial statements with the notes; Board's assessment of risks, taking into account the changing nature of
b. Carefully review the annual audit plans and scope of the Center's programs at headquarters and in the regions. The Audit
external audit for headquarters and regional operations; Committee will develop and implement a formal plan for assessment of
c. Formally assess annually the performance of the external the External Auditors prior to renewal or selection of new auditors.
auditors before deciding on their re-appointment.

23. The Panel recommends that Board and management The CIMMYT Board and Management agree that CIMMYT must have a
review the scope of internal audit work and the strong internal audit function. The scope and capabilities of the internal
capabilities of the senior internal auditor and make the audit function will continue to be under review and all necessary and
required changes to strengthen this important function. appropriate actions will be taken during 2005.










MTP Project Narratives





Program 1: Genetic Resources

Crop-related biodiversity is the founding asset of the CGIAR and the basic raw material for the
international breeding programs of CIMMYT. Program activities build on this foundation but with
emphasis on bioscience-assisted methodologies to identify value added traits and introgress them
rapidly into elite breeding material. Structured and well-characterized germplasm-introgression
lines, enhanced genepools, genetic mapping populations, mutant stocks-are an increasingly critical
asset. The targeted generation, intensive characterization, and extensive evaluation of these resources
increasingly constitutes the rate-limiting factor for deriving tangible products for developing country
farmers from the outputs of genomics and information technology. The Genetic Resources Program
has a pivotal role in bridging the gap between upstream innovation generators and product
development and delivery providers for resource-poor farmers.

Accomplishing this will depend more and more on effective data management systems. A major,
new, strategic focus in the Program is the creation of a fully-integrated, web-based support system
for the conservation, utilization, evaluation, and enhancement of crop genetic resources. Under the
system being developed, all types of data can be integrated, compared, and collectively analyzed
and/or queried by anyone, anywhere. The Program is working closely with the CGIAR Generation
Challenge Program and within the IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance to build a global framework for
releasing the value of cereal genetic resources.

The overall objective of the Program is developing and validating new methodologies to identify and
manipulate alleles and genes for traits of importance for CIMMYT and partners in national research
systems and small and medium enterprise (SME) breeding programs. The primary emphases include
enhancing resilience to abiotic stresses, yield stability under biotic stress, and improving the
nutritional quality of maize and wheat varieties through the targeted use of genetic resources. The
Program is focusing on five central themes within an 80% demand-driven framework with 20%
technology-driven, solution-searching activities, as described in the program logframe.

Based on the above, the Program is re-emphasizing several primary activities and terminating others.
In particular, generic characterization of germplasm collections, non-specific genetic-base
broadening activities, and genetic in situ conservation efforts will be replaced largely by phenotypic
and molecular genetic characterization of targeted germplasm subsets, establishment of regional core
(working) collections, targeted germplasm enhancement, and fostering targeted in situ landrace
improvement and gene-flow analysis.










MTP Project Narratives





Program 1: Genetic Resources

Crop-related biodiversity is the founding asset of the CGIAR and the basic raw material for the
international breeding programs of CIMMYT. Program activities build on this foundation but with
emphasis on bioscience-assisted methodologies to identify value added traits and introgress them
rapidly into elite breeding material. Structured and well-characterized germplasm-introgression
lines, enhanced genepools, genetic mapping populations, mutant stocks-are an increasingly critical
asset. The targeted generation, intensive characterization, and extensive evaluation of these resources
increasingly constitutes the rate-limiting factor for deriving tangible products for developing country
farmers from the outputs of genomics and information technology. The Genetic Resources Program
has a pivotal role in bridging the gap between upstream innovation generators and product
development and delivery providers for resource-poor farmers.

Accomplishing this will depend more and more on effective data management systems. A major,
new, strategic focus in the Program is the creation of a fully-integrated, web-based support system
for the conservation, utilization, evaluation, and enhancement of crop genetic resources. Under the
system being developed, all types of data can be integrated, compared, and collectively analyzed
and/or queried by anyone, anywhere. The Program is working closely with the CGIAR Generation
Challenge Program and within the IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance to build a global framework for
releasing the value of cereal genetic resources.

The overall objective of the Program is developing and validating new methodologies to identify and
manipulate alleles and genes for traits of importance for CIMMYT and partners in national research
systems and small and medium enterprise (SME) breeding programs. The primary emphases include
enhancing resilience to abiotic stresses, yield stability under biotic stress, and improving the
nutritional quality of maize and wheat varieties through the targeted use of genetic resources. The
Program is focusing on five central themes within an 80% demand-driven framework with 20%
technology-driven, solution-searching activities, as described in the program logframe.

Based on the above, the Program is re-emphasizing several primary activities and terminating others.
In particular, generic characterization of germplasm collections, non-specific genetic-base
broadening activities, and genetic in situ conservation efforts will be replaced largely by phenotypic
and molecular genetic characterization of targeted germplasm subsets, establishment of regional core
(working) collections, targeted germplasm enhancement, and fostering targeted in situ landrace
improvement and gene-flow analysis.










Program 2: Impacts, Targeting and Assessment Program

In an era of scarce resources, research planning should result in achievable priorities based on
relevant and reliable data. To reduce poverty, agricultural research should be prioritized and targeted
to areas and types of farm households where poverty is concentrated. Through strategic assessments
of wheat and maize system improvements, both past and planned, the Impacts Targeting and
Assessment Program (ITA) contributes to mission-effective maize and wheat improvement research
at CIMMYT.

The main outputs of the ITA program are strategic global and local targeting mechanisms for, setting
priorities and identifying impact pathways for improved livelihoods in maize- and wheat-based
systems globally. We will achieve these outputs through the following contributions to CIMMYT's
efforts:

* Strategic targeting mechanisms and policy analysis
* Understanding strategies for the sustainable management of genetic diversity and associated
natural resources
* Methods of analysis and knowledge regarding the role of product quality in value chains and
human nutrition
* Coordinated knowledge sharing and capacity building

The end users of ITA products and services are national agricultural research systems (NARS) in the
broadest sense in developing countries, and CIMMYT germplasm managers, breeders, supporting
science and technology businesses, and public organizations, notably senior policy and decision
makers.

The expected impacts of the ITA program are: Increased local and global food supplies and food
security and sustainable livelihoods for the maize and wheat sectors. The ultimate beneficiaries are
the rural poor working in maize and wheat systems and consumers of maize, wheat and cereal-fed
animal products. The Program collaborates closely with NARS of countries such as India, China,
Brazil, Mexico, Ethiopia and South Africa, and with CGIAR Centers such as IFPRI, ICARDA, IRRI,
and ILRI.










Program 3: African Livelihoods


The African Livelihoods Program utilizes the genetic enhancement of maize and wheat for traits of
relevance in stress-prone environments and of benefit to the resource-poor, along with knowledge of
maize- and wheat-based farming systems in eastern and southern Africa (ESA), to address the
extreme socio-economic and biophysical challenges in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Over 70% of the population in SSA depends on agriculture or related sectors. Maize is the most
important staple and is grown predominantly by smallholder resource-poor farmers for food, feed,
and to generate income. Highly variable rainfall-exacerbated by the impacts of climate
change-and decreasing soil fertility and a wide range of crop diseases and pests are continuous
threats to the resource-poor. Wheat affects national economies as an import commodity and, as a
cash crop, may contribute to the economic development of smallholder farmers and small
enterprises.

The program's research priorities are set in collaboration with sub-regional organizations, in
particular ASARECA and SADC/FANR, taking into consideration the complementary strengths and
expertise of other CGIAR centers and research and development organizations in SSA. As a result,
the program:
* Develops and supports the dissemination of stress tolerant, more nutritious maize and wheat
varieties that increase food and income security among resource-poor farmers in SSA and reduce
the need for food aid
* Develops maize- and wheat-based options that increase marketing options for smallholder
farming products and, through partnerships with other research institutions, integrates and scales
them out into livelihoods systems in ESA
* Develops and scales out risk-averting, productivity-enhancing management practices that restore
natural resources in maize- and wheat-based systems of ESA
* Stimulates the development of a more diverse and stable maize seed industry that is responsive
to resource-poor farmers' needs (articulated as a specific goal based on input by the 5th EPMR,
the 2004 CCER on Maize in Africa, and stakeholders)
* Contributes to the capacity building of partners involved in the maize and wheat research-
extension-marketing continuum, following priorities set by sub-regional networks

Beneficiaries of the program's outputs are resource-poor farmers and decision makers, through
NARS, NGOs and the private sector. The program works in partnership with several CGIAR centers
(CIAT, ICRAF, ICRISAT, IFPRI, IITA, ILRI); contributes to several CGIAR system-wide
initiatives (for example, the Systemwide Livestock Program) and challenge programs (Generation,
Water and Food, HarvestPlus); supports NARS and NGOs in ASARECA and SADC; links with the
private sector on seed dissemination and input/output marketing; and, collaborates with a wide range
of ARIs globally including NRI-UK, Texas A&M University, the University of Hohenheim, and the
Weizman Institute of Science.










Program 4: Rainfed Wheat Systems


Approximately 50 million hectares, or close to 50% of all wheat cultivated in developing countries,
is sown under rainfed systems that receive less than 600 mm of rainfall annually and represent the
most diverse ecologies in which wheat is grown, due to extremes of abiotic and biotic stresses. Some
of the poorest and most disadvantaged wheat farmers live in rainfed areas of less than 350 mm
annual rainfall and their livelihoods depend on income from wheat production. The negative
consequences of climate change (increased drought incidence, heat extremes, and irregular rainfall
distribution) will be particularly harmful in this agro-ecosystem. Nearly all wheat produced in these
areas is for human consumption and, in many countries, wheat as a staple food provides from 40 to
60 percent of the daily caloric requirement.

The goal of the Program is to help assure food security and land conservation in rainfed wheat
systems in Asia, North Africa, and Latin America.

The Program contributes to three CGIAR Challenge Programs: Generation, HarvestPlus, and Water
and Food. The focus of the Program is on the development of high yielding wheat cultivars with
resistance/tolerance to prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses, along with improved end-use quality
characteristics. In addition, the Program aims to produce wheat germplasm that can tolerate climatic
change through increased drought and heat tolerance. To elucidate sources and mechanisms of stress
adaptive traits, the Program also undertakes physiological and genetic characterization of wheat
germplasm and genetic stocks and the identification of new genetic diversity. Finally, the Program
develops and promotes appropriate conservation agriculture technologies for more sustainable
wheat-based production systems in the target areas.

Program priorities and pathways for impact are set through collaboration with Program 2, (Impacts
Targeting and Assessment).

The users of the program's outputs include: farmers; consumers; scientists in NARS, IARCs and
ARIs; NGOs; and, the private sector.

The program works closely with farmers and NARS in rainfed wheat production environments
mainly in Asia and North Africa, together with ARIs and other CGIAR centers. All activities in the
CWANA region are coordinated and agreed upon and implemented, where appropriate, through joint
projects with ICARDA. The International Winter Wheat Improvement Program is a joint program of
Turkey, CIMMYT and ICARDA.










Program 5: Tropical Ecosystems


Global demand for maize is projected to increase 50 percent over 1995 levels by 2020. Within the
Tropical Ecosystem Program's mandate areas, demand for maize will increase 92% in South Asia,
62% in Latin America, and 46% in East and Southeast Asia, over the same period (IFPRI). Drought
is the most widespread abiotic constraint and, together with soil infertility (including acidity, which
affects more than 40% of the tropical areas worldwide), results in chronically low and variable yields
for resource-poor maize farmers. Diseases are another important production constraint that may also
compromise the safety of grain for human consumption. Malnutrition remains an unacceptable yet
prevalent problem among the poor; for example, nearly half of south Asian children under five years
old are moderately to severely underweight and stunted. Thus the objectives of the Tropical
Ecosystems Program are to develop stress tolerant, nutritionally enhanced maize germplasm and to
engage with partners to deliver these to farmers and households whose livelihoods depend critically
on maize production.

The Program outputs are: stress tolerant maize germplasm, maize with enhanced grain quality, and
networks/partnerships to effectively develop, evaluate, and disseminate these.

The end users of Program research products and services are maize farmers and consumers, and
public and private sector agricultural research and extension entities.

The expected impact of the Program is: improved food security and livelihoods for maize farmers; an
improved nutritional status in some populations of maize consumers; and the enhanced effectiveness
of CIMMYT and its partners to achieve these impacts. The program collaborates closely with NARS
in countries such as Brazil, China, Colombia, El Salvador, Indonesia, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua,
Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, and with CGIAR centers including CIAT, IITA, and
increasingly IRRI.










Program 6: Intensive Agro-Ecosystems


The Intensive Agro-Ecosystems Program aims to safeguard food security through sustainable
intensification in densely populated areas where cropping systems are already intensive and complex
and where a large number of the world's poor live. Farmers in these areas grow more than 45million
hectares of spring wheat. Program researchers work through partnerships with NARS, sister CGIAR
centers and other international centers, aiming to provide food and income security options for rural
and urban households in Asia, North Africa, and Latin America. These systems are central to
reducing poverty in Asia, which still has the largest aggregate number of poor people in the world.
Intensive systems are usually irrigated and highly productive, featuring multiple crops (including
large areas of maize and wheat) and livestock. They also face serious problems, including the
exploitation of water and soils, inefficient use of chemical inputs, and emerging or worsening disease
and pest problems. The Program conducts research to overcome these limitations and to ensure that
the key agricultural areas remain productive and ecologically sound into the future.

Farmers in these areas tend to be more market-oriented and driven by the need to sustain local
communities and neighboring cities. Focus regions include the Indo-Gangetic Plains, the
Mediterranean Littoral, the Yellow River Basin, and northwestern Mexico. Maize is an important
component of the cropping systems in many areas where intensive agriculture is practiced and where
there is an increasing demand for maize both for food and feed. Maize in intensive systems usually
has adequate soil moisture (either assured irrigation or good rainfall distribution) and is grown in
productive soils where farmers are willing to apply inputs, if the returns justify the investment.
Approximately 20 million hectares are grown under subtropical and mid-altitude environments, a
major portion of which come under intensive agro-ecosystems mainly in South Asia (India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh and Nepal), China, Afghanistan, Mexico (Bajio, the Pacific Coast), southern Brazil, and
northern Argentina.

The mission of the Program is to undertake research, through partnerships, that promotes intensive
maize and wheat cropping systems that improve rural incomes and livelihoods through agro-
ecosystem productivity and diversity, while minimizing unfavorable environmental impacts of
farming. Beyond a focus on higher grain yield and value-added wheat and maize, the Program will
seek to develop germplasm that uses water and other inputs more efficiently, lower production costs,
manage biotic stresses, and enhance system diversity.










Program 7: The Rice-Wheat Consortium a NARS-CGIAR
Ecoregional Program

The Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains (RWC) addresses issues of this
intensively-cultivated, irrigated cropping system from which more than 300 million people in South
Asia derive their livelihoods and food security. The RWC emerged from years of collaborative
research among CIMMYT, IRRI, and the national research systems of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and
Pakistan. In 1994, with funding from IFAD and other donors, the RWC was established as an eco-
regional initiative of the CGIAR and, in 1998, CIMMYT took on responsibilities as convening
center. Funding has been generously supplied by DGIS of the Netherlands, ADB, DFID, IFAD,
USAID, ACIAR, NZAID of New Zealand, and the World Bank through the CGIAR. Research
partners include advanced research institutes such as Comell University; Ohio State University;
IACR-Rothamsted; AVRDC; IAC-Wageningen; CABI-UK; CSIRO, Australia; Melbourne
University; CIRAD, France; DMC; and IAEA. Other international centers have provided key
inputs-ICRISAT on legumes for crop rotations; CIP on potato.

RWC Structure and Operational Mechanisms. The Regional Steering Committee is chaired by a
chief executive from a national research system. Committee members include the directors general
of the national systems, of IRRI, and of CIMMYT, and a donor representative. The Consortium
Facilitator/and Co-facilitator act as Secretary/and Co-secretary. A Regional Technical Coordination
Committee, which helps formulate programs, is made up of the national rice-wheat coordinators,
focal scientists from participating CGIAR centers, and representatives of advanced institutes and
NGOs. There are national steering and technical coordinating committees in each of the four
countries and site teams to coordinate local implementation.

A Successful, NARS-Driven Initiative. A TAC-commissioned review of Ecoregional Programs
noted that, "The RWC is clearly a NARS-driven initiative with the Centers largely having roles
defined by the Consortium ." Among the notable achievements of the RWC are fostering
partnerships and strengthening stakeholder participation. APAARI chose the RWC as their "best
example of an effective research partnership" for presentation at GFAR, and in 2000 the Consortium
received the CGIAR Chairman's "Award for Outstanding Scientific Partnerships." In recognition of
its contributions to productive, ecologically-friendly agriculture among the poor in Asia, the RWC
was given the prestigious King Baudouin Award of the Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR) in 2004.

Outlook. The success of the RWC in promoting zero-tillage for sowing wheat after rice harvest (as
of 2004, used on more than 1.3 million hectares) has served as a platform for the promotion and
testing with farmers of a suite of resource-conserving practices, such as land leveling, raised beds,
direct seeded rice, residue management, and intercropping systems. National researchers and
CIMMYT are monitoring the effect of the new practices on water savings. The Consortium is also
helping farmers to diversify with crops such as quality protein maize, pigeonpea, mungbean,
chickpea, lentil, faba beans, potatoes and vegetables.











MTP Project Logframes



Program 1: Genetic Resources


Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact

Output 1. Global custodianship, characterization and CIMMYT, IARCs, NARS, Improved access to and utilization of novel traits with More market preferred varieties that reduce farmer
management of the genetic resources of maize, wheat ARIs, SME researchers and value for improving resilience (to abiotic stresses), risks and vulnerabilities, improve farming household
and related species breeders yield stability (under biotic stress) and nutritional livelihoods and health, and, conserve natural
value resources
Output Targets 2006
* Phenotypic data on at least 25,000 maize accessions A 5% increase in the number of requests for maize Improved utilization of maize genetic resources in
available for up to 30 passport and characterization accessions. More than 80% of maize germplasm research and breeding programs worldwide
traits FAO designated

* A fully integrated web-based genebank information, More than 3M passport and characterization data More information available with easier access and
management and distribution system for all maize points available for maize and wheat genebank analysis possible for wheat and maize germplasm
and wheat germplasm (with SGRP) accessions that can be interrogated through a range users across the world
of web-based query and analysis tools
* A 5-10% increase in the number and type of maize A 3-5% increase in the amount of maize genetic Increased genetic and trait-based diversity available
and related species accessions available in the diversity captured in the genebank as assessed by for maize research and breeding programs
genebank from Latin America, Africa and Asia __phenotypic and/or molecular genetic parameters worldwide
Output Targets 2007
* Phenotype data on at least 75,000 wheat and related A 5-10% increase in the number of requests for Improved utilization of wheat genetic resources
species accessions available for up to 25 passport wheat accessions (germplasm and genetic stocks) (including synthetics and other genetic stocks) in
and characterization traits research and breeding programs worldwide
2-3 geographic/ environmental, molecular genetic At least 100 requests for CIMMYT targeted core Improved utilization of wheat and maize genetic
and/or trait-based core sub-sets of both maize and collections or self-selected mini-core collections resources in research and breeding programs
wheat germplasm collections available (using web-based selector system) worldwide

Output Targets 2008
* Targeted phenotyping and molecular characterization A 25% increase in the number and/or value of new Increased number of better characterized and more
of 5,000 accessions of maize and wheat sub-set alleles and genes with importance for priority useful genetic resources for research and breeding
collections agronomic, quality traits programs worldwide


Output 2. Improved methodologies for the identification CIMMYT, IARCs, NARS, More and better new alleles and genes identified for More market preferred varieties that reduce farmer
and utilization of useful maize and wheat germplasm for ARIs, SME researchers and priority traits and introgressed into elite agronomic risks and vulnerabilities, improve farming household
traits prioritized by end users breeders backgrounds identified by end-users livelihoods and health, and, conserve natural
resources










Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact

Output Targets 2006
* Key markers from consensus maps for drought Validated markers available for genes conferring More efficient marker-assisted selection of drought
tolerance in maize independently validated more than 50% of phenotypic variation and providing tolerance in maize
a 2-fold increase in selective power
* Useful maize and wheat germplasm developed with More than 50% of elite wheat lines and more than More market preferred varieties that reduce farmer
traits defined by NARS, SME and CIMMYT regional 25% of elite maize lines containing novel alleles or risks and vulnerabilities, improve farming household
breeding programs such as drought tolerance and genes derived from landraces/wild relatives/novel livelihoods and health, and, conserve natural
resistance to diseases and pests genepools providing enhanced drought tolerance resources
and/or pest and disease resistance
* Genetic engineered component contributions to Field quantification of the positive effect of single More market preferred varieties that reduce farmer
drought tolerance in wheat and insect pest gene insertions for drought tolerance in wheat and risks and vulnerabilities
resistance in maize evaluated under field conditions insect pest resistance in maize plus associated
in 3-5 countries across Latin America, Africa and national biosafety legislation requirements fostered
Asia and/or fulfilled for field release
Output Targets 2007
* Identification of new alleles and genes through Gene-based or linked markers generated for novel More rapid and efficient identification of new
association mapping and or functional genomics allelic and genetic variation conferring improvement in markers for immediate use in molecular breeding of
analysis for key economic traits identified by maize important key agronomic traits in maize and wheat drought tolerance and biotic stress resistance
and wheat end-users
* Consensus maps generated from at least 5 different Markers available for genes contributing more than More efficient marker-assisted selection of Fusarium
populations and/or environments for resistance to 50% of the phenotypic variation for resistance to head blight and rust in wheat, and for insect pest
Fusarium head blight and rust in wheat and for insect Fusarium head blight and rust in wheat, and for insect resistance in maize
pest resistance in maize pest resistance in maize
* Informatics methodologies developed to assist with Targeted methodologies available for the efficient More efficient methodologies for identifying and
the efficient identification and investigation of alleles identification and investigation of alleles and genes validating useful alleles and genes for improvement
and genes contributing to priority target traits in maize contributing to at least 5 priority traits in maize and of priority traits identified by end-users
and wheat wheat
* Logistical and statistical improvements, and A 15% improvement in the cost efficiency of Better, more cost-effective management of maize
simulation models for efficient genebank expansion, managing genetic diversity of maize and wheat and wheat genetic resources, more rapid and better
maintenance and regeneration developed collections, and better structured collections leading targeted access for end-users
to increased utilization
* Low-copy and selectable marker-free events of the Highly efficient gene excision/recombination system New varieties that reduce farmer risks and
most effective constructs for target traits produced for maize and wheat developed vulnerabilities while better attending to consumer
concerns











Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact

Output Targets 2008
* Development and validation of fast-track breeding A 75% reduction in the unit cost and a 10-fold More efficient and rapid methodologies for breeding
techniques: marker-aided introgression, marker- increase in the throughput of molecular breeding market preferred varieties that reduce farmer risks
assisted selection, marker-accelerated backcross services at CIMMYT hubs in Latin America, Africa and vulnerabilities, improve farming household
breeding and double haploid production and Asia. A 5-fold increase in the use of double livelihoods and health, and, conserve natural
haploids in winter wheat breeding programs resources

* Useful maize and wheat germplasm with enhanced More than 75% of elite maize and wheat breeding More market preferred varieties that reduce farmer
abiotic stress tolerance, resistance to pests and products with a landrace or wild relative present in risks and vulnerabilities, improve farming household
diseases, and improved nutritional quality developed their pedigree providing enhanced abiotic stress livelihoods and health, and, conserve natural
tolerance and/or biotic stress resistance resources

* A fully integrated web-based crop information system Data management and decision support systems More efficient methods available for breeding
for all maize and wheat germplasm enhancement and software to improve efficiency with which breeding programs across the world targeting market
breeding data linked with statistical and simulation programs utilize crop information in breeding, preferred varieties that reduce farmer risks and
methodologies developed to assist with the efficient particularly for complex target traits with high vulnerabilities, improve farming household
manipulation of new alleles and genes in maize and epistasis and genotype-by-environment interaction livelihoods and health, and, conserve natural
wheat (with SGRP) resources

Output 3. Capacity in genetic resources management, NARS and SME researchers Latest innovations and best practices in germplasm More market preferred varieties that reduce farmer
maintenance and use enhanced globally and breeders, and farmers management, utilization and enhancement adopted, risks and vulnerabilities, improve farming household
refined and further widely disseminated livelihoods and health, and conserve natural
resources

Output Target 2006
* At least 50 staff trained in at least one new Latest innovations in germplasm management, More market preferred varieties that reduce farmer
technology, methodology or best practice per year utilization and enhancement adopted risks and vulnerabilities, improve farming household
livelihoods and health, and, conserve natural
resources


Output Targets 2007
* Establishment of core collections with 5-10 NARS
partners in key target regions across Latin America,
Africa and Asia


* In situ maize landrace improvement programs
fostered in 3-5 key regions in Latin America with
associated monitoring of gene-flow


CIMMYT regional programs
with NARS researchers and
breeders


Greater depth and breadth of genetic resources
utilization in regional maize and wheat breeding
programs


Introgression of required agronomic traits into
preferred local backgrounds and improved
understanding of local and regional geneflow
dynamics


More market preferred varieties that reduce farmer
risks and vulnerabilities, improve farming household
livelihoods and health, and, conserve natural
resources

More market preferred varieties that reduce farmer
risks and vulnerabilities, improve farming household
livelihoods and health, and, conserve natural
resources










Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact

* Molecular breeding communities of practice CIMMYT regional programs A 2-fold increase in the number of NARS and SME More rapid development of market preferred
generating cooperatively designed and developed with NARS and SME breeding programs actively participating in varieties that reduce farmer risks and vulnerabilities,
seed-based technologies in each mega-environment research and breeding cooperative community activities, including the improve farming household livelihoods and health,
targeted for maize and/or wheat programs working in-house application of molecular tools and other best practice and, conserve natural resources
or through regional hubs in techniques for rapid and targeted crop improvement
Latin America, Africa and
Asia










Program 2: Impacts, Targeting and Assessment


Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output 1. Strategic targeting mechanisms and knowledge for priority setting Managers and scientists in Better priority setting and targeting of Increased effectiveness and focus of
for maize and wheat system improvement and the identification of enabling NARS, CIMMYT, CGIAR research and policy dialogue for maize and research and improved policy
policies and associated partners, wheat system improvement, especially for environments for maize and wheat
agricultural policy makers poor farmers system development for improvement of
and donors rural livelihoods, including enhanced
resources and food security and reduced
poverty

Annual Output Targets 2006-2008
* Individual professional development opportunities such as BSc / MSc / NARS, CGIAR centres Enlarged and stabilized regional and Consolidated capacity of CIMMYT
PhD thesis research, sabbatical stays, visiting scientists' stays, internships, (IIRI, ICRAF, WARDA), international pool of skilled researchers. partners to conduct effective cutting-edge
etc. universities, donors research towards development of maize-
* Global (1), regional (3) or sub-regional (10) networks initiated, promoted, Effective resource mobilization and and wheat-based agricultural systems
supported and/or guided by CIMMYT, e.g., Soil Fertility Consortium for collaboration between CIMMYT and
Southern Africa. partners on different levels.
Output target 2006
* Ex ante/ex post impact assessment platform, methods, and capacity in Managers and scientists in Capacity reinforced in 6 CIMMYT Programs Improved knowledge of impact and
CIMMYT which support assessments with 4 NARS of drought tolerant NARS, CIMMYT, CGIAR and 4 selected NARS to carry out impact innovation pathways of maize and wheat
wheat in two regions community and seed assessments in two main regions. research in 2 regions. Improved
* Initiation of the next global maize impacts study in partnership with NARS company managers and Knowledge and databases available on institutional learning/targeting
and private industry scientists impact pathways in 2 regions. Improved mechanisms.
* Global ex ante impact assessment of a fusarium head blight (FHB or scab) conditions for institutional learning/targeting
epidemic linked to impact assessments.
* Workshop on institutional learning/targeting mechanisms to strengthen
priority setting mechanisms in CIMMYT, NARS and associated partners
* Developed methods and integrated geo-spatial databases and knowledge
bases on impact and innovation pathways, livelihood patterns and
dynamics to support targeting for: Maize mixed farming systems in East &
Southern Africa and the Rice-wheat farming systems in South Asia.


Output target 2007
* Ex ante impact assessment of virulent new rust strains on wheat systems Policy-makers, NARS, Improved basis for designing responses to More effective breeding for wheat rust.
and livelihoods in Eastern Africa, Middle East and South Asia CIMMYT and Challenge rust in 3 regions, including South Asia. Increased reliance on internal expertise
* Ex post assessments of drought tolerant maize with 4 selected NARS in and System-wide Program Increased capacity for impact assessment for impact assessment in 4 selected
marginal areas of 2 regions (East and Southern Africa and Asia) scientists and managers, in 4 more NARS. Comprehensive integrated NARS. More effective maize and wheat
* Establishment of integrated geo-spatial databases and knowledge bases donors community knowledge bases on dominant impact system research in 4 regions. Improved
on impact pathways, livelihood patterns and dynamics covering 80 % of pathways and spatially disaggregated data policy environment for wheat value
maize and wheat farming systems in developing countries bases for 80% of maize and wheat in chains.










Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
* Farm, local and meso-level analyses of key policy bottlenecks and required developing countries accessible and
improvements for wheat adoption and marketing with partners including available. Enriched policy dialogue on
NARS and CG Centers (e.g., IFPRI) in two regions impact pathways for wheat germplasm and
technologies in 2 regions.
Output Target 2008
* Two ex ante impact assessments, of drought tolerant maize and drought Policy makers, NARS, Better understanding of the role of drought More effective maize and wheat breeding
tolerant wheat, across marginal areas in 4 regions CIMMYT and Challenge tolerant maize and wheat germplasm in risk for drought tolerance. Improved impact
* Two local in depth analyses of impact pathways, for wheat in rainfed wheat and System-wide Program management in marginal areas in 4 regions. and innovation pathways for maize &
systems (WANA/CAC) and maize (Central America) managers and scientists, Improved knowledge of livelihoods and wheat research. Improved policy
* Farm, local and meso-level analyses of policy bottlenecks and required donor community local interventions related to wheat and environment for wheat value chains.
improvements for maize adoption and marketing with NARS and CG maize impact pathways in 2 areas in 2
Centers (e.g., IFPRI) in E & S Africa and Asia regions. Enriched policy dialogue on impact
* Support to priority setting for maize and wheat germplasm enhancement. pathways for maize germplasm and
technologies in 2 regions. Identified
priorities for germplasm enhancement.
Output 2. Analyses and appraisals of local sustainable management of genetic Development agents, Better understanding of diversity and Improved development interventions for
diversity and other natural resources for crop management NGOs, NARS, local resource management development sustainable conservation, management
development agencies interventions in selected wheat and maize and utilization of natural resources and
based farming systems genetic diversity in selected locations in
wheat and maize based systems
Output Targets 2006
* Study of household choice and local crop genetic diversity in 2 systems: Policy makers (Ministries of Deeper understanding of household Improved interventions for in situ
maize in Mexico; and wheat in Turkey Agriculture and incentives, feasibility of in situ conservation conservation and sustainable
* Synthesis of appraisals of sustainable intensification of agriculture and the Environment), NGOs, and sustainable intensification dynamics in intensification
non-farm economy in 6 cereal based farming systems in Africa, Asia and CGIAR & NARS scientists 3 regions
Latin America

Output Targets 2007
* Assessments of community seed systems in poor areas of South East NGO and Ministry Lessons from functioning community seed Strengthened interventions for the
Asia, Uganda and Central America development agents, and systems and productive conservation development of local seed systems and
* Regional appraisals of conservation agriculture in 2 regions (Southern NARS scientists agriculture in 3 regions improvement of natural resource
Africa/Zambia, maize) and South Asia/India, rice-wheat) management
Output Targets 2008
* Appraisals of dryland resource management and conservation agriculture Farmers, scientists (NARS, Profitable resource management and Improved approaches to land and water
in Yellow River Basin, China universities, CGIAR), policy farming system diversification options use efficiency in order to decrease effect
* Global synthesis of appraisals of conservation agriculture across 3 regions makers (Ministry of developed and adapted in 4 provinces of wind and water erosion and increase
(Asia, Africa and Latin America) Agriculture & Water productivity and sustainable
* Appraisals of climate change impact on maize and wheat farming systems, Resources), Challenge management, in the short and long run
such as: poor regions of Central America (maize), CWANA (wheat) and Programs Deeper understanding of likely response
Asian uplands (rice-maize) options for farming systems to climate
change










Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output 3. Analyzed and documented roles of grain quality (micro-nutrients, Private sector policy Improved interventions based on high Enhanced human nutrition through
protein, cleanliness) in the improvement of livelihoods of the poor rural makers, partners (including protein maize varieties, micro-nutrient micro-nutrient-enriched grain and
households in 3 selected poor wheat and maize systems NGOs), CGIAR Centers enriched wheat varieties and value-added increased incomes/employment through
chains in selected maize and wheat farming improvements in value chain coordination
systems and efficiency in poor wheat and maize
areas
Output Targets 2006
* Documented value chains for maize systems in poor areas of Latin CGIAR Centers (e.g., Better understanding of the role of quality in Improved value chains leading to
America (building on CIAT's agro-enterprise work) and maize marketing CIAT), business value chains in 2 regions and human increased financial capital for smallholder
systems in Southern Africa (livelihood) service nutrition in 2 regions and how those value farmers and others in the value chains
* Ex-ante impact of Zinc-enriched wheat varieties on micro-nutrient providers, NGOs, and nutrition chains can be made to work
deficiency in Eastern UP (India), Punjab and Pakistan International Labour for effectively and efficiently for farmers and Improved health for different end-users
Organization (ILO), value-added enterprises e.g. agro-
HarvestPlus processing.
Output Targets 2007
* Documented value chains for poor wheat area in South Asia, e.g., East UP NARs, CGIAR centers Greater understanding of constraints and Improved functioning of value chains
(India) and poor upland maize area in South East Asia private sector, small opportunities within the value and nutrient leading to increased financial capital for
* Methodology developed and tested to assess potential benefits of QPM enterprise and market chains (one region each). Identification of value chain actors, especially smallholder
maize on human health in selected poor regions of Central America development sectors, service providers to make value chains farmers
NGOs work better
Output Targets 2008
* Ex-ante impact of bio-fortified maize varieties on micro-nutrient deficiency Health and education Identification of potential health and other Improved nutrition of end-users, greater
and livelihoods in Eastern Africa; and assessment of QPM maize in Central (school meals) policy livelihood benefits from improved income for wheat producers in Central
America makers, partners functioning of wheat value and nutrient Asia
* Documented value chains for marginal wheat systems in Central Asia chains in 2 regions
Output 4. Strengthened partners involved in research and development of NARS, CGIAR, NGOs, Human resource capacity to improve Strengthened partners' capacity to
maize- and wheat-based systems in conjunction with other CIMMYT Programs policy makers, donors, maize- and wheat-based farming systems conduct appropriate R&D towards
universities, international strengthened. Impact, and accessibility to sustainable NRM and poverty alleviation
organizations, public and information, knowledge and technology on regional and global level.
private sector entities developed by CIMMYT and partners
enhanced. Functional collaboration among
CIMMYT and partners towards the common
goal of food security and improved
livelihoods maximized.
Output Targets 2006
* Identify partners, conceptualize and design information portals (cereal CGIAR (IRRI), universities, Identified and analyzed conditions for Improved information and knowledge
knowledge bank) international organizations, improved information and knowledge sharing and networking
* Mapping and review of regional/international and inter-institutional donors, NARS sharing (within and outside CIMMYT) and
partnerships (networks) networking.
* Conduct of appraisals/workshops on knowledge sharing and institutional
learning










Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output Targets 2007
* Implementation and population of portals (cereal knowledge bank) CGIAR (IRRI), NARS, CIMMYT partners' scientific capacity Increased research effectiveness of
* Geographical and thematic assessment of capacity building needs NGO's, universities, enhanced through availability of wheat and CIMMYT partners especially in the key
finalized. international organizations, maize systems knowledge, functional regions.
donors information flow and efficient collaboration
Output Targets 2008
* Cereal knowledge bank fully populated and operational NARS, NGO's, universities, CIMMYT capacity building strategy/plan Reviewed CIMMYT capacity building
donors, policy makers updated targeting, prioritization, activities targeting, effectiveness and
efficiency success











Program 3: African Livelihoods


Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact

Output 1. Stress tolerant, more nutritious maize and wheat Resource-poor farmers through Maize and wheat varieties become available that address Increased food and income security
varieties that increase food and income security among NARS and private seed livelihood concerns of resource-poor farmers in sub- for resource-poor farmers and
resource-poor farmers in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) companies Saharan Africa (SSA) countries in Sub Saharan Africa
(SSA)
Annual Output Targets 2006-2008
* Four CIMMYT maize lines and six regionally important open NARS and private seed Increased use of elite maize germplasm carrying traits Productivity increases among
pollinated varieties (OPVs) or hybrids developed, targeting companies relevant to resource-poor farmers with associated resource poor farmers in ESA;
the main agro-ecologies in Eastern and Southern Africa emergence of small seed entrepreneurs in SSA diversification and expansion of the
seed sector


* Regional trials documenting the performance of new hybrids NARS, NGOs, private seed Increased awareness and use of new maize varieties Productivity increases in particular
and OPVs developed by the private and public sector in ESA sector, organizations involved carrying traits that are beneficial to resource-poor farmers among resource-poor farmers in ESA
for traits relevant to resource-poor farmers in seed relief

* International wheat nurseries accessed by collaborators in NARS in SSA New wheat varieties become available in SSA Productivity increases, reduced
SSA wheat imports, lower wheat prices

Output Targets 2006
* Seed of drought and nitrogen stress tolerant maize OPVs Resource-poor farmers in Reduced impact of drought on maize yields in resource- Reduced need for food-aid
reaches farmers on 1M ha in SSA stress-prone environments poor farmers' fields; increased seed security of resource-
poor farmers due to the availability of improved OPVs


* Striga resistant (IR) maize seed available in Kenya Resource-poor farmers in Restoration of maize production and depletion of Striga Increased food security of resource-
Striga-affected areas seed banks in Striga affected areas in Kenya poor Kenyan farmers

* Maize varieties with stem borer resistance released in Kenya Farmers in Kenya Technology option for areas with high stem borer incidence Increased food security among
in Kenya; reduced need for insecticides, resource-poor Kenyan farmers


* Extent of the stem rust problem in ESA assessed and NARS, wheat growing countries Measures to address global stem rust threat in wheat
strategies for the deployment of varieties with better worldwide initiated
resistance developed


Output Targets 2007
* New drought tolerant, N-use efficient, responsive maize
hybrids and farmer-selected OPVs released in several ESA
countries


Farmers in stress prone-
environments in ESA


Reduced impact of drought on maize yields and national
maize production; improved viability of seed industry in
stress-prone areas


Reduced need for food-aid










Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact

* Striga resistant (IR) maize seed grown by farmers on 20,000 Resource-poor farmers in Restoration of maize production and depletion of Striga Increased food security of resource-
ha in Kenya Striga-affected areas seed banks in Striga affected areas in Kenya poor Kenyan farmers

* More productive, farmer-selected maize highland varieties Resource-poor farmers in the Improved varieties with earlier maturity and increased Increased food security in the highly
released in two eastern African countries highlands disease resistance populated highlands of eastern Africa


* At least 4 farmer-grown maize varieties replaced with high Farmers in eastern and Increasing area of maize grown to QPM Reduced risk of protein malnutrition
lysine (QPM) versions of the same varieties southern Africa in particular among women and
children
Output Targets 2008
* Drought tolerant quality protein maize (QPM) varieties NARS and private seed Technology option that impacts on food security and Reduced need for food-aid
developed companies malnutrition of population groups most at risk

* Striga resistant (IR) maize varieties released in at least 4 Resource-poor farmers in Striga resistant maize varieties become available in an Increased food security of resource-
SSA countries Striga-affected areas increasing number of SSA countries poor farmers

* CIMMYT/KARI-developed Bt maize varieties enter national NARS in Kenya Technology option for areas with high stem borer Increased food security among
maize variety trials in Kenya incidence; reduced need to apply insecticides, resource-poor Kenyan farmers


* Stem rust resistant wheat varieties pre-released in Kenya Wheat farmers in Ethiopia and Wheat varieties combating the threat of crop failure due to Reduced need for wheat imports
and Ethiopia Kenya stem rust
Output 2. Maize- and wheat-based systems that increase Farmers through NARS, NGOs Farm-level productivity increases, environmental Economic development of poor rural
marketing options for smallholder farmers and other farmer support sustainability and diversification of maize- and wheat- maize and wheat-growing
groups based systems in ESA communities in ESA
Output Targets 2006
* QPM varieties released in eight SSA countries Farmers in ESA Increased availability of elite QPM varieties Improved incomes; increased farm
level productivity from QPM-fed non-
ruminants


Output Targets 2007
* Publications highlighting the effects of QPM on community
health indicators and impact as animal feed in selected
regions of ESA
* Dual-purpose maize varieties identified for use in maize-
livestock systems in eastern Africa


NARS, NGOs, policy makers,
donors, farmers

NARS, farmers in maize-
livestock systems


Targeted use of QPM in food relief programs and as
livestock feed

Information on the fodder value of maize varieties in
eastern Africa


Improved human health and
increased income of maize-livestock
producers
Maize-livestock producers increase
productivity










Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact

* Aflatoxin resistance of maize varieties documented NARS, governments in ESA Knowledge of aflatoxin status of maize varieties; strategy Improved human health
countries, maize consumers for breeding resistance

* Output Targets 2008 Farmers interested in contract Contract production of QPM grain for food relief and as Increased income of maize-livestock
* QPM seed available for 250,000 ha in ESA farming and live-stock maize stock feed; increased farm level productivity from QPM-fed producers
systems non-ruminants

Output 3. Risk-averting, productivity-enhancing management Public and NGO extension staff Wider use of sustainable management practices by Environmental sustainability and
practices that restore natural resources in maize- and wheat- and farmers smallholder farmers in ESA increased productivity of maize- and
based systems of ESA wheat-based systems in ESA

Annual Output Targets 2006-2008 NARS and NGOs Increased use of, and farmer experimentation with Improved livelihoods of resource-poor
* Development, demonstration and scaling-out of productivity- resource-conserving maize and wheat cropping practices farmers in a more sustainable
enhancing maize and wheat cropping practices in at least 8 environment
ESA countries
Output Targets 2006 NARS, NGOs, IARCs, ARIs Smallholder farmer experimentation initiated in 4 ESA
* Maize systems synthesis for conservation agriculture (CA) in countries
ESA
* Options and strategies promoted that increase the NARS, NGOs and input More effective implementation of food security programs in Productivity increases and more
productivity and profitability of maize-based cropping suppliers in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe sustainable and profitable use of
systems in Zimbabwe. natural resources

Output Targets 2007
* Recommendations for improved CA practices in four NARS, NGOs, IARCs, ARIs Methods to facilitate the scaling up and adoption of CA Improved environmental sustainability
countries in ESA defined practices
* Appropriate water-conserving technologies to increase crop NARS, NGOs, IARCs, ARIs Promotion of water-conserving technologies among Reduced vulnerability to low-rainfall
productivity in the Limpopo basin smallholder farmers in the Limpopo basin conditions
Output Targets 2008
* Specific CA practices identified for smallholder farmer groups Smallholder farms in maize- Resource-conserving crop management practices; more Increased incomes; reduced need for
in ESA. based systems in ESA efficient water-use by crops labour
Output 4. More diverse maize seed sector in ESA responding to NARS, small-scale seed More sustainable production and marketing of seed in Sustainable reduction of poverty and
resource-poor farmers' needs entrepreneurs, NGOs, policy outlying areas. hunger
makers
Annual Output Targets 2006-2008
* Breeder and foundation seed production of regionally NARS, NGOs, seed producers Improved maize seed for resource-poor farmers Increased productivity and reduced
relevant public maize OPVs vulnerability of resource-poor farmers
* Technical and financial backstopping of maize seed sector NARS, small-scale seed Coordinated public-private strategies that increase farmers' Productivity increases in particular
in six ESA countries entrepreneurs, NGOs, policy access to improved maize seed among farmers in outlying areas
makers










Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact

Output Targets 2006
* Information on barriers that prevent small-scale, resource- Policy and decision makers in Increased awareness of barriers hindering resource-poor
poor farmers from acquiring improved maize seed ESA countries farmers' access to improved maize seed

* Issue papers and technical information on the regionalization Policy and decision makers in Progress in regionalizing seed laws and regulations in ESA More rapid and wide-spread access
of seed laws and regulations ESA countries of farmers to seed of new crop
varieties
Output Targets 2007
* 15 small-scale seed entrepreneurs trained in practical seed Small-scale seed entrepreneurs Increase success rate among emerging seed More wide-spread access of farmers
business skills relevant to initiate successful (maize) seed entrepreneurs to seed
businesses in ESA

* Information describing price risk and the role of OPVs versus NGOs, donors and decision More appropriate choice of strategies that increase Sustainable seed sector development
hybrid seed for farmers' livelihood and seed sector makers farmers' access to improved seed and foster seed sector
development development

Output Targets 2008
* Mentoring of ten small-scale seed entrepreneurs and Small-scale seed entrepreneurs Emerging seed companies making a significant impact on Productivity increases among
community-based seed enterprises the seed market using public maize varieties. smallholders and the resource-poor


Output 5. Capacity building of partners involved in the maize and NARS, small-scale seed Institutions and collaboration among development partners Sustainable reduction of poverty and
wheat research-extension-marketing continuum entrepreneurs, NGOs, policy in ESA strengthened hunger
makers
Annual Output Targets 2006-2008 Increased effectiveness of NARS scientists in addressing
* Skills of 50 NARS scientists improved, prioritized within NARS scientists high priority needs of resource-poor maize and wheat
regional networks farmers in ESA

* Technical and financial support of 100 farmer-participatory NARS and NGOs Regional collaboration on priority research topics
research and extension groups prioritized within regional addressing the needs of resource-poor maize and wheat
networks farmers in ESA

* Development of regulatory skills for deployment of GM crop Regulatory authorities in Kenya Increased ability to assess GM technology options for Reduced productivity losses to pests
varieties in Kenya potential use in Kenya










Program 4: Rainfed Wheat Systems


Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output 1. Wheat germplasm developed and exchanged Farmers, household Measurable increase in productivity and Increased national food security; reduced vulnerability of
consumers, food genetic diversity in farmers' fields; farm families whose livelihoods depends on wheat-based
processors, NARS, reduced losses from diseases and farming systems; improved agricultural productivity, better
IARC ARI, NGOs, increased stability of grain yield; quality of wheat products and more sustainable utilization
private sector enhanced input efficiency of natural resources



* Annual Output Targets 2006 2008 Valuable lines and segregating Improved and genetically diverse wheat germplasm used
* Advanced spring and winter bread and spring durum wheat lines populations used in breeding programs. by breeders. Faster development of improved varieties.
(750) and segregating populations (300) with tolerance to abiotic Data from international wheat Participation in global and regional wheat improvement
(drought, heat, cold, nutrient deficiencies), and biotic stresses improvement network (IWIN) available to networks increases. Global monitoring and pre-emptive
(rusts, septoria, fusarium, tan spot, root rots, nematodes) with co-operators screening against new diseases and new virulences
enhanced seedling vigor and better end-use quality before major epidemics occur

* At least 150 advanced wheat lines tested by partners in multi- Cultivars characterized for relevant traits. Germplasm and information sharing and analysis lead to
locational yield trials. Lines and data used for wheat faster deployment of improved varieties and increased
improvement. Cultivars evaluated by productivity
farmers through participatory varietal
selection
* Candidate lines (40) submitted for national cultivar registration Ten cultivars released and adopted by Farmers and consumers benefit from new wheat varieties.
trials. Seed available for formal and informal multiplication, farmer for areas affected by erratic rainfall Enhanced drought and heat tolerance of these varieties
buffer against possible negative effects from climate
change

Output 2. Tapping new genetic diversity for rainfed wheat NARS, IARCs, ARIs New valuable genes) identified and Livelihoods of farmers living in marginal areas enhanced
production: Wheat germplasm characterized for stress-adaptive incorporated into breeding lines through more drought tolerant and stress resistant
traits with emphasis on drought and heat and resistance to cultivars. Measurable increase in productivity, genetic
diseases, with emphasis on soil borne diseases. diversity in farmers' fields


Annual Output Targets 2006 2008
* Understanding and identification of main physiological and
morphological traits associated with drought and heat tolerance
in synthetics, landraces and various mapping populations.


Enhanced knowledge and applied tools.
Increased selection efficiency


Better drought and heat tolerant varieties delivered faster
to farmers











Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
* New sources (5) of wheat root disease resistance to nematodes Use by partners and stakeholders that Rainfed wheat producers benefit from an increased and
and/or root rots prevalent primarily in rainfed wheat systems lead to increased productivity and more stable production in particular in years with severe
identified per year. 30 lines resistant to soil borne diseases sustainability water stress
distributed

* Genetic stocks (1,500) phenotyped for stress related traits Wheat genetic stocks, mostly with Broadened access to genetic stocks of wheat; common
(drought, physiological traits, zinc efficiency, disease resistance) introgressions from wild wheat relatives in platform for sharing stocks and derived phenotypic and
by CIMMYT and partners. improved backgrounds, evaluated for genotypic data
drought relevant traits New genetic sources utilized globally for wheat
improvement and research
Output Target 2006
* Genetically stable wheat stocks (1,500) in adapted background Sharing and collaborative evaluation of Global utilization in wheat research
provided by partners and CIMMYT multiplied for screening for privately developed genetic stocks
stress relevant traits.

Output Target 2007
* Iranian and Mexican landraces showing adaptation to extreme Wheat cultivars with improved drought Reduced risk and vulnerability for farmers in marginal
abiotic stress (drought, heat) are characterized for physiological tolerance based on novel gene areas through better varieties with greater yield stability in
traits. combinations years with severe stress

Output Target 2008
* Molecular markers identified for canopy temperature depression Increased efficiency to select for drought
(CTD) and stem carbohydrates (with CSIRO) tolerance associated traits

Output 3. Resource conserving rainfed wheat systems: Appropriate Farmers, communities, Increased profitability and sustainability of Farmers benefit from increased profitability, the global
conservation agriculture (CA) technologies and implements for more NARS, IARCs, wheat-based cropping systems; reduced community benefits from more sustainable land
sustainable wheat-based production systems in the target area implement water and wind erosion of soil management and carbon sequestration
developed, evaluated and extended. manufacturers


Output Target 2006
* Initial options for CA under different seasonal conditions defined. More flexible and cheaper options for Principles affecting tailored adoption of Conservation
Problems encountered by farmer-adopters of CA evaluated, weed control in CA conditions available Agriculture (CA) practices
Output Target 2007
* Options to resolve problems encountered by CA adopters NARS research better oriented towards Networks of partners working to develop and promote
developed. CA implements and practices tested, refined in 10 overcoming CA adoption problems conservation agriculture
RFWS affected countries. Locally produced CA implements (7)
countries). Long-term rotation trials maintained (2) and
monitored for sustainability.











Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output Target 2008
* Technology development specific to end-user demands and Increased adoption of CA by farmers with NARS researchers develop flexible recommendations for
preferences (examples, 15+). On-farm promotion (50+) of CA better knowledge of the system CA management. Greater adoption of CA by farmers
technologies and in areas affected by salinity. Two case studies
on CA conducted

Output 4. Molecular and information technology tools for more NARS, IARCs, ARIs Appropriate tools to increase the research Better wheat cultivars developed faster to be used by
efficient wheat breeding: Higher-throughput, lower cost, marker efficiency of CIMMYT and NARS partners farmers. Cost savings from increased selection efficiency
assisted selection (MAS), and double haploid generation
advancement facilities. Information technology database
connectivity and web enabled access

Annual Output Targets 2006 2008
* DNA extraction procedures and marker applied selection Lower cost assay systems for MAS
optimized to run at least 35,000 assays. applications

Output Target 2007
* Options for regional MAS and double haploid laboratory facilities Increased efficiency of regional Enhanced regional partner collaboration
assessed collaborative winter and spring wheat
breeding efforts
Output Targets 2008
* International Adaptation Trial published (4+). Regional/national Characterization of wheat rainfed Better focused, more efficient research and technology
IWIN and GIS studies (2+). Wheat-based production production systems limitations and development by understanding significant points of
environments re-classified (2+). Document (4) development of strategies to reduce intervention
frequency/distribution, biology and economic losses due to root constraints
diseases in Turkey, Iran
* International Crop Information System migration and application Increased access, use and retention of More effective technology and information transfer among
linking the disperse regional locations, and NARS associated data as a global public good and between partners
with RFWS

Output 5. Constraints to Technology Adoption: Investigate NARS, IARC Understanding of local sustainable farm- Increased effectiveness of partner and CIMMYT research,
technology use, constraints to use, factors influencing adoption, household management addressing the needs and constraints of RFWS farmers
implications for income and gender equity, resource conservation,
and anticipated future research priorities
Annual Output Targets 2006 2007
* Farm-level survey (1 country) to collect primary data for
household decision-making behavior. Identify obstacles to
adoption of technologies. Estimate and understand the impacts
of technology adoption on livelihoods











Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
* Adoption constraints will be better understood and documented
(2) with research priorities oriented towards partner/client needs


Output 6: Training and capacity building NARS Increased research effectiveness with Strengthened capacity to improve livelihoods of resource-
CIMMYT's partners; better utilization of poor who depend on rainfed wheat systems
NARS bred wheat lines in neighboring
countries; pre-emptive disease screening
for new diseases and virulences

Annual Output Targets 2006 2008
* Regional and HQ based training courses in breeding, pathology,
quality, physiology, and conservation agriculture (at least 50
NARS scientists trained per year)
* Visiting scientists, BSc, MSc and PhD students
* Support and organize 3 regional networks on testing of NARS-
developed wheat lines (Caucasus, high latitude wheat, Eurasian
winter wheat trial) and one network on soil-borne diseases











Program 5: Tropical Ecosystems


Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output 1. Stress tolerant maize germplasm for tropical Farmers, NARS, NGO's Enhanced productivity, stability and profitability of Improved food security and livelihoods of
environments maize farming systems maize farmers
Annual Output Targets 2006-2008
* Biotic and abiotic stress tolerant experimental germplasm Promising germplasm identified for future research
developed, and results of international trials of promising and testing; elite germplasm available for use by
germplasm summarized and distributed researchers and evaluation by farmers

Output Targets 2006
* Callose staining method implemented in the laboratory and Rapid and inexpensive screening method verified,
validated in the field for use as a rapid screening method to with potential important implications for acid soil
select for aluminum tolerance tolerance breeding efficiency

* Technical and economic assessment of maize-soybean and
Cannavalia rotation for sustainable management of acid soils Promising options for integrating improved germplasm
in Colombia and agronomic management to enhance productivity
of acid soils identified
* Results of drought tolerant germplasm evaluation in at least 3
countries summarized and disseminated
Output Targets 2007
* Mapping populations phenotyped and genotyped, and Enhanced efficiency of germplasm improvement
feasibility of marker-assisted selection to facilitate breeding for efforts for acid soil areas
tolerance to acid soils assessed
* Promising, drought tolerant germplasm identified in at least 3
countries
Output Targets 2008
* Use of improved maize genotypes in highlands of Mexico Greater productivity and/or stability of production of
increased from 10% to 25% maize in highland areas
Output 2. Maize with enhanced grain quality Farmers, NARS, NGOs, Enhanced productivity and value of maize, and Improved food security and livelihoods of
maize consumers contribution to improved nutritional status and/or maize farmers; improved nutritional status
improved profitability of animal production. of some populations of maize consumers.
Annual Output Targets 2006-2008
* New QPM germplasm developed; trials of promising materials
summarized and widely distributed
Output Targets 2006
* HPLC protocol for quantifying concentrations of _-carotene
and other carotenoids operational at CIMMYT Increased research efficiency
* Variation estimated for _-carotene concentration among
BC1S1 lines for 2 African OPVs and 10 biparental populations
* At least 200 elite highland-adapted and insect resistant New genetic information will guide expectations from










Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
germplasm screened for provitamins A concentration breeding work and assist in defining strategies for
* At least 15 new crosses formed between elite lines and increasing _-carotene concentration
sources of high _-carotene concentration
* Two carotenoid mapping populations evaluated
New high -carotene breeding germplasm
Output Targets 2007
* Two generations of intra-population improvement for Development of _-carotene enriched versions of
provitamins A completed for 2 popular African OPVs popular African OPVs advanced.
* Concentration of -carotene and other carotenoids will be
evaluated for at least 20 testcross hybrids grown at 2 or more Enhanced understanding of importance of genotype x
sites environment interaction effects for -carotene
* Assessment of combining ability among best new high _- concentration
carotene lines, and prediction of promising new hybrids and
OPVs.
Output Targets 2008
* _-carotene enriched versions of 2 popular African OPVs Two enhanced _-carotene African OPVs ready for
formed verification with farmers after seed increase.
* Experimental _-carotene enriched hybrids will be included in Suitability of enhanced _-carotene hybrids ready for
international trials for evaluation in 2009 evaluation in several target environments.

* Yellow QPM hybrid with enhanced _-carotene New high _-carotene breeding populations ready for
concentration available for testing further breeding work.
* Improved (E. turcicum resistant) version of popular QPM OPV
'Aychasara' available for farmer evaluation in southern
Ecuador
Output 3. Networking and partnership building Farmers, NARS, NGOs Enhanced effectiveness of CIMMYT and partners Improved food security and livelihoods of
maize farmers
Output Targets 2006
* Established network (including Asia and Latin America) for Researchers in target countries able to develop and
acid soil tolerant germplasm development and evaluation; evaluate drought tolerance of maize germplasm
drought screening facilities active in at least 3 countries
* Participants from at least 4 Asian countries trained in farmer- Project partners ready to initiate farmer-participatory
participatory variety/technology evaluation methods variety evaluations
* Farmer-participatory evaluation of QPM hybrids and OPVs Feedback from farmers will inform future research
conducted in at least 4 countries (El Salvador, Honduras, activities
Guatemala, Nicaragua and Mexico)
* QPM validation plots grown at 400 sites in El Salvador, "Best bet" QPM experimental varieties identified in
Guatemala, Nicaragua and Mexico several countries
* Collaborative, regional breeding projects initiated, involving at Novel technology dissemination methodology
least 3 countries experimented / evaluated by and with farmers










Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output Targets 2007
* Training and extension of callose staining method for acid soil
tolerance breeding work in 2 countries

* Farmer-participatory evaluation of promising, drought tolerant
varieties in at least 2 Asian countries Farmer preferences and likely acceptance/adoption of
drought tolerant germplasm assessed
* Seed of drought tolerant varieties produced for plantings in at
least 2 countries Options for seed provision in drought prone areas
* One new QPM hybrid released in at least 2 countries (El explored
Salvador and Nicaragua) and seed production by the private
sector initiated Growing number of QPM varieties will be available to
farmers
* Farmer-participatory evaluation of promising QPM varieties in
at least 6 countries in Latin America

* Schools providing QPM maize to children in 2 countries (El
Salvador and Guatemala)

* Stress tolerance, productivity and farmer preferences QPM contribution to child nutrition increased
assessed for local varieties improved by farmer-participatory
allele introgression methods in Mexico Suitability assessed for novel approaches to develop
improved germplasm for traditional highland farming
areas
Output Targets 2008
* Promising acid soil tolerant varieties available for farmer- Extensive, farmer assessment of new germplasm and
participatory evaluations in at least 2 countries management options for acid soils

* Farmer-participatory evaluation of crop rotation options for Role of farmer-participatory evaluation in increasing
acid soil management in at least 2 countries relevance and adoption of researcher-generated
technologies recognized
* Farmer-participatory evaluation of promising, drought tolerant
varieties in at least 3 countries

* One QPM OPV released and available to farmers in marginal
regions of each of 2 countries Availability of and farmers' access to seed of QPM
varieties enhanced
* One QPM hybrid released in 2 countries and seed production
by the private sector initiated

* "Basic" seed production unit(s) established in Central America
with emphasis on QPM cultivars and QPM quality control











Program 6. Intensive Agro-ecosystems


Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output 1. New maize and wheat production technologies that Farmers, particularly the rural poor Increase incomes and reduce poverty by expanding Employment for the landless poor and
facilitate diversification developed and adopted in maize- and wheat- intensive employment in rural areas via expanded high-value, higher incomes for farm families through
agro-ecosystems labor-intensive crop and livestock activities in maize diversification
and wheat systems
Annual Output Targets 2006-2008
* Bread, durum and winter wheat international nurseries for NARS, ARI breeders, farmers Shuttle breeding on a global scale to screen Increased efficiency of the breeding
resistance, tolerance traits screened in "hot spots" improved materials in "hot spots" for diseases or programs leading to better varieties, faster,
other stresses in farmers' fields
Output Targets 2006
* Regional wheat nurseries (e.g., EGPSN and EGPYT) NARS from China, South Asia, Increased efficiency of national breeding programs; Higher wheat and maize yields in farmers'
distributed to cooperators, analyzed and data distributed CWANA; ARIs improved understanding of genotype by fields
to NARS; 5-10 elite maize lines released environment interaction; broadening the elite
germplasm base for NARS maize breeding

* End use quality of 200-300 advanced wheat lines with CGIAR center, ARI and NARS New genetic material incorporated into breeding More tasty and healthy food reaching rural
high yield potential and earliness screened researchers materials and urban consumers
*
* Maintenance of existing conservation agriculture field NARS agronomists, trainees Increased knowledge of long-term agronomic and Improved farmers' income, and soil health
station trials in Mexico environmental consequences of CA technologies for and water productivity due to new
maize and wheat systems conservation agriculture technology

Output Targets 2007
* At least two proposals for studying the effects of NARS scientists, farmers and Farmers shifting from excessive tillage to Improve farmers' income, and soil health
conservation agriculture on soil and environmental quality other IARCs conservation agriculture; robust technologies and water productivity through conservation
submitted become available agriculture

* Livelihood implications of resource conserving Policy makers Information to inform the decision-making process
technologies (RCTs) in Indo-Gangetic Plains of South regarding policies and institutions that support RCTs
Asia understood and documented produced and shared with policymakers
Output 2. Production technologies and supporting policies for Urban and rural consumers, Improve food security and reduce vulnerability for Food security for poor consumers
stressed environments particularly the poor poor consumers


Output Targets 2006
* Global stem rust initiative fully functional



* Resistance-related genes for fusarium head blight (scab)
in wheat identified and linked DNA markers developed


Wheat pathologists and breeders



NARS


Monitoring the spread of a new highly virulent stem
rust race from Africa to other areas and testing of
germplasm to identify diverse sources of resistance


Knowledge sharing through articles in international
and national refereed journals


NARS implement proper control strategies
and provide resistant germplasm for wheat
breeding that will translate into stable high
wheat yields worldwide

Farmers benefit through increased wheat
productivity










Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
* Segregating and early-advanced wheat screened for CGIAR centers, ARI and NARS New genetic material incorporated into breeding More tasty and healthy food reaching rural
quality traits and other wheat and triticale for feed and researchers materials and urban consumers
forage quality traits (protein content, energy value)

Output Targets 2007
* Resistance genes that confer race-specific and durable Wheat pathologists and breeders Diversity of resistance to rust diseases in wheat Secured food production
resistance to three wheat rust diseases identified increased

* International tan spot (wheat) initiative stimulated through Wheat pathologists, breeders and Adoption of conservation agriculture more Cost of wheat production reduced and
a new network of partners agronomists sustainable for farm communities resource conservation increased

Output Targets 2008
* Trap nursery efforts on wheat rusts better coordinated Wheat pathologists and breeders Early warning system in place to protect farmers' Timely replacement of cultivars to secure
through information exchange at regional level production food production

* Seed production systems for QPM hybrids and synthetics Small scale seed producers, A sustainable and affordable seed production Enhanced food and nutritional security
in South Asia identified and established farmers cooperatives system for producing QPM in rural areas of South
Asia


* Synergies and tradeoffs of conservation agriculture, Policy makers Information regarding policies and institutions that Social science and policy support for
livestock and livelihood strategies in the Indo-Gangetic affect the use of conservation agriculture in crop- sustainable food security
Plains of South Asia understood and documented livestock systems produced and shared with
policymakers
Output 3. Resource conserving technologies (RCTs) for Civil society users Reduced water consumption in agriculture; more Conserving resources
maize and wheat systems that improve water productivity available for alternative uses (urban, industrial,
and soil health; information for policymakers regarding water ecological and environmental). In addition, foster
use and water productivity in agriculture improved soil health and avoid land degradation
Annual Output Targets 2006-2008
* 100 elite water use efficient bread wheat lines and 100 NARS, ARI breeders Water-use-efficient wheat cultivars adopted by Improved productivity in wheat improves
segregating materials deployed in international nurseries farmers in the intensive agro-ecosystems of the livelihoods of poor farmers
developing world
* Winter and facultative wheat with good quality and NARS
resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses in irrigated
environments developed and tested with NARS

* End use quality of 200-300 advanced wheat lines with CGIAR centers, ARI and NARS New genetic material incorporated into breeding More tasty and healthy food reaches rural
high yield potential and water use efficiency screened researchers materials and urban consumers










Outputs Intended user Outcome Impact
Output Targets 2006
* 100 elite bread wheat lines characterized for water-use Breeders at CIMMYT and NARS, Breeders gain knowledge of water-use efficiency of Increased bread wheat production per unit
efficiency farmers experiencing decline in germplasm and farmers adopt cultivars with better water applied to farmers fields in intensive
water availability water-use efficiency agro-ecosystem target areas

* Appropriate conservation agriculture technologies and NARS, farmers Cost of producing rice and wheat and other crops Farmers' incomes increased; sustainable
implements for non-rice based irrigated production reduced rice-wheat cropping systems
systems developed and promoted

* On farm impacts of zero-tillage in Haryana, India and Policy makers Market, policy analysis of factors governing adoption More water available for alternative uses
Punjab, Pakistan understood and documented of water use efficient crops and practices (urban, industrial, environmental)


Output Targets 2008
* Bed-planting technology of wheat production in cotton- Central Asian small private Reduced water erosion, reduced use of water, Improved profitability of grain production
wheat irrigated systems in 15 regions of 3 Central Asian farmers, cooperatives, grain increased stability of grain production and improvement of rural livelihoods plus
countries accepted companies better soil fertility
* Effects of conservation agriculture practices on system Farmers, environmentalists, Appropriate conservation agriculture systems for Agro-ecosystem productivity enhanced and
productivity, water use efficiency, soil degradation and provincial governments in target smallholder farmers that improve agro-ecosystem soil and water resources conserved
erosion quantified; technologies developed for farmers in areas productivity adapted
rainfed areas in China
Output 4. Training and human resources in research-for- Partners in research-for- Strengthened capacity of partners to conduct NARS capacity strengthened
development (including technology targeting and priority development throughout intensive research for intensification and diversification of
setting) strengthened maize and wheat agro-ecosystems maize and wheat systems


Annual Output Targets 2006-2008
* Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) activities- meetings, NARS, CGIAR centres RWC remains viable to serve its partners and Knowledge and technology reaches end-
publications and web services organized as per stakeholders users in the Indo-Gangetic Plains; food
schedules. production sustained and incomes
enhanced
Output Target 2007
* Participatory maize and wheat varietal selection (PVS) Farmers, scientists, extensionists, Enhanced adoption by farmers of new technologies Increased production and improved
initiative through a wide network of partners stimulated seed producers, machinery (improved maize and wheat cultivars and resource livelihoods of resource-poor farmers. Cost
manufacturers conservation techniques) of wheat production reduced and resource
conservation increased
Output Target 2008
* Seed systems and technology exchange efforts better Farmers, policy makers, scientists, Enhanced adoption of new wheat and maize Improved livelihoods of resource-poor
coordinated at regional level extensionists, seed producers, production technologies farmers. Reduced risk of large scale
machinery manufacturers disease epidemics securing food
production










Ecoregional Program: Improved Livelihoods and Sustainability of Rice Wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP)


Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact

Output 1 Technologies and policies for improved water Farmers in South Asia Alternate sources of productivity growth in IGP increased and
productivity, soil health and enhanced diversity of the rice-wheat rice-wheat systems diversified.
systems developed
* Cultivar choices in new rotations identified, expanded legume
area through use of bed planting systems and improve water
productivity

Output Target 2006
* Multi-crop zero-till seed drills / bed planter developed, tested NARS, CGIAR centers Different prototypes of the multi-crop Livelihoods of farmers in rainfed eastern IGP improved, burning
and refined for seeding into loose residues and farmers seed drills manufactured across the of crop residues reduced and fodder crops grown in systems to
region by private entrepreneurs. Timely improve their availability for livestock.
planting increases cropping intensity in
low-land rice systems.

Output Target 2007 Produce more at less cost, reduce fodder scarcity for livestock,
* QPM maize, short duration pigeon pea, mungbean and dual CGIAR centers, NARS Quality seed (e.g., QPM maize, pigeon improved nutrition through QPM maize and pulses. Increased
purpose wheat introduced to IGP and direct seeded rice and farmers in IGP pea, lentil, mungbean etc.) produced seed replacement rates .Practice of complete burning of
practices developed for double no-till systems locally by farmers. residues replaced by partially retaining them

Output Target 2008
* New drills for seeding into loose residue placed in the hands CGIAR centers ,NARS Capital investment increases. Greater Burning of residues reduced and practice of green manuring
of the farmers to experiment extensively. Co-culturing of rice farmers involvement of private manufacturers, becomes popular for improved soil health and environmental
and other crops with green manure crops is developed, input dealers and service providers, quality

Output 2: Accelerated adoption of resource conserving
technologies in the Indo-Gangetic Plains NARS and farmers in Farmers using yield maximization Sustainability of the rice-wheat system improves.
* Different layers of RCTs super-imposed (laser land leveling, South Asia practices to save on water and other
zero till, surface seeding, bed planting and para-cropping, N inputs and improved soil health and
management, paired row planting and controlled traffic and environmental quality.
residue management) adopted by farmers in the IGP











Outputs Intended User Outcome Impact

Output Target 2006
* New RCT practices developed and popularized amongst the NARS and farmers in Cost of producing rice and wheat and other corps reduced to
farmers South Asia improve farmer incomes.

Output targets 2007
* Congress on conservation agriculture organized to share and NARS, CGIAR centres Information on RCTs is collated and Visibility of the national efforts for promoting RCTs improves
exchange information in South Asia. and farmer associations exchanged to promote conservation globally.
agriculture



Output targets 2008 NARS, farmers Machines become accessible to land More area covered under RCTs and additional employment
* Contract hiring of new RCTs becomes popular in IGP less and small and marginal rental generated
farmers

Output 3. Strengthened capacity of partners to conduct research for NARS and Farmers
sustainable intensification and diversification of rice wheat systems
and make RCT information available to users
* Researchers and extensionists trained in new RCTs practices
for backstopping. National scientists trained in targeting RCTs
appropriately according to location specificity
Output Target 2006
* RWC activities- meetings, publications and web services NARS, CGIAR More skilled human capacity becomes National partners include the RCTs in their regular programs
activities organized as per scheduled. available for new RCTs

Output Target 2007
* GIS, remote sensing techniques and socioeconomic techniques NARS, CGIAR More skilled human capacity becomes In NARS local plans are based on the new databases to
tested for targeting the RCTs in different rice ecologies in IGP. available on new technologies enhance productivity in site specific domains

RCT: Resource conserving technology







cm\Dc ~ Z
OC ~3 -
~ C\ \C
CDl r~l




OC cm l ~
cm m OZ
OC \DC l h
z z z




z rc 1 (0Z
Z -\C Z
z r-~ z
z z


0
0
CN
O0








0C



o
0









4-
01




C)





0
-s E





O

0
75
o

O


I -
>.


0o 0 -I 0




0 0 0 0 OC t1- \C-


ino
moooo


me00










Io g
C Z r \C O


































M a m
Noy













c Z Z





S ? '" 8 8
U Z3 Cl OC C3

- c~ i Z t- OC



















0L CL 0 CJ C
3h m~c
o oEE)
~ ;- 0
o PP~~P


'A =
c 0

0(l3
or
lo



"o

ll
i- 5


a

o
'S3






0

o








0
0
Q









c57
FI





fii
Pi5












oc z -
z ~ ci
I~ ~cl







- 0C\ \
- hl Cl


co
rCl







rCl
0 z










^ z~





C-1







CA
a|








5E 0
'0 <


o o )o







o o 0-
".. m o
\Dr Cl V









(~ o t





























IEMER
88 8








a P "
aU "3 ^ "
n H B B d
*^ E o
a a-g


0 S < ^
^^ ~j m t- i
e e e e e~











CC C Z Z Z






CC 0 0 0



cO
0
0
N o o o mi o oi













So -


0N 6c
a C t0o0 C





c c<










0





0








0
CO
o
































0
t C 3 .C

























O a
U)



33 "O














o Bo
0

ooh ( 0 m m

















oO o
0








v,
.0



rS







0a --

I- SO


08a












- oc \
1~ oc
CC O
Cl ~


0 OC CC C
0l 0 3 0 r
h ^-' 1~


Cl





CA





a
I z

pC


OC r- z *r
tI- CC C
h CC ~


cO
0
0
CN
4
0
0
CN




a






0
0

C)
0



0




0
o


o c











0
SE



0


0

















7-
0
O




O
o
-*i


o l
0 U.






-

o~,


ma o

rm o


zDCI
1~ OC
rCC Z C


Cl Cl ~
r- oc
CC Z l





\C OC
CC Z C
\C OC
CC Z C


OC *(
CC Z Cl


-0 z


C~ CCi




OC CCi


*(1 \C







\C Z
- z\


^t~- CC~
.(l 00
^' o^


- Z C-l Z-



m s Cl-
C \ N C



m ^o O t
30h 0M


OC ~
r- \rC .
Cl \C r
- Z C





~ OC \
\C Z C
- Z Cl


Z tD- C
CC C O


0 -5 Q *
o" o




o o
Q | I QI|I-


Cl Zo
3
OC OC r
- z





0 OC Z
CC l ~
OC OC\C
- z


000 0
z

(~00








0 0
0C 0 00
00 oc 0C
00 00 z



C Z 0C


l W) -
Cl 00 Cl
^ 0C 0


0I
2





H cS



*, ~a ua .




0 0
8
& <


*(c Z oC C
CC CC O
Cl ~ OC
Cl CC Z \


CC \C
- \ IC
rC CC iOC
Cl ~ Z r






0:

0,


H















Cl1
c~
zCl
j r


r- C
Cl t-


m 0
- oc

z n


S 0 O0 O N C o m ^ mC










O0 \ 0 C mC m 0

So
S z
S o




O ( C O T Cl o C
g 0( 0 O H n m N











^o N H m o O o o o








a
2 C

P^





_, ( (N 0 0 0 0






o o















COl
0 0





































a 0





3 030

o1


z *rC
\C Z

CCi





CC \C
Cl \C

CCi







OC \C

CCi





Z CC


CCi







-~ z








o c
.-,



H














oc
00

s z
















PC
3








8






0-1


a,












-
So









PCZ
Pi^ r'l


i^~
s^O


\c- -H ZH Cl O C O O CC i O 0 CC CZ
O\^~~c CC r- r IC x M g rM Zo
. h. I' 0 0 0 0 C 0 C C l C 0 ; CC CZ M o
-~-- Cl~2 ZZZ 4~ & CC Z Cl C 4 ~ -


oo




H H


~c Q
*~~ vl m


O









o
.a
I?


3 y












o o

p, p


Cl Cl CC OC Cl CO Cl CC Z \C CCi Co OC OC \C Z o o 0 O Z )
'n oo O ( ( (N N t-( o^ N(-nMe m W W oo ^ o o
'- C C r OZ C Ci Cl 0 0 CC CC Cl 0 0 C \C \C CC OC rm .r \' \C o
OC ~ ~ rC \C \C \C \C ~ Cl C1 \C Cl rC ~ CCi CCi t- t- t- rc Cl Cl -
S- Cl ^ o O O O Z Z C Z Z Ci Z S Cl Cl CC CC t- -








^O ^ ^O t \ ^O C O CC n Chi ui -^ ZO Z^ ZD Z CC I^ ^ u-i Cl l^ \C C
U. ~ rC D \ D \ O \I11I1 C ~ ~I1\ DCiC Cl O
CCi






\D I^ \D ^t Ci \C t \C t- CC \C 1 Cl C l C C Cl ^^ 00 zo o
(~~ OC OC C ^ 0n 0n 0n CC \C 3 CCN CCN. Cl OC \.
0000 a0





- Cl Zd Z Z Z O &i j CCi Z v Cl Cl 4CC CCi -~1 -
CCi






-D t- OC t3 IC ~I 0 ~O \ CCi \C OC -~ Z D \ Cl Z CCi
CC ^ ^ < ^ 0 0 0 0 ( 0\ -\ 0 CC CC CC Z' Zn rn Cl~ C 0C
(-. ^t. ^t. ^ CC. CCZ i S Or ^ Or n'n^ o
-n -n Cl Z: Z Z Z Z -.Cl Z 4 Cl Cl 4 CC CC -~ ^ 0i m
''N CT


0 z
vCl\
0O




a C


0


O








C
0




O
0



H-


0








0
p^
u

I
(S

i
2
P^


- -,, u

























*( C C C \Ci






t- \Ci












\00 Cl 00
Cl Z OC \D
- CCi









r- CC Cl C
~1~1~ oc
.(~ .( oc z
CC00 C1
- CCi









oc ~ o oc o
Z Cl Cl
CC l ~ C Z






330





H


.m:2 ~


IC











o o

C-1
C1


























2 l
VI










CIMMYT Expenditures by Object,

in $ millions


Object of Expenditure


Personnel
Supplies and Services
Collaboration/Partnerships
Operational Travel
Depreciation
Total


Actual
2004


Estimated
2005


16.870
13.531
5.742
1.858
2.097
40.098


17.583
13.250
5.400
1.600
1.250
39.083


2004-2008


Proposal
2006

17.610
11.900
4.800
1.300
1.250
36.860


Plan 1
2007


Plan 2
2008


18.138
12.257
4.944
1.339
1.288
37.966


18.682
12.625
5.092
1.379
1.327
39.105














N O O t O Z O O Z N O Z O Z t n + -C t- O n
So o t- N Z N Z 0 Z Cl o Z C o n o
0 0 '- 0 0 0 0 0 '- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0- m '- m





ZO ZtO O-O 0 C- O O O O Z OC Z m Z C
- o t- -n ^o -n ^ Zn ^ t- Zn Cl Zo Z CC ^ Z^ o t- C
U- ^^ ^^ O Ht ^^ O m^ O 0 0 (N 0 ( O O m +t 0 'n b ( (m
0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 > 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 O'



O OC Z CC Z O CC CC Z O Z Z O Z t- O l Z C Z


4t 4t oo o m O > (- (- o 'n o o 4t 0 (^ n N ^^ O (N O O
n O > t \C O O O n Cl O n Z C N r m O Z
t N Cl o m Z C o o o O Z N O O m m O Z (N Cl C
0 0 Z 0 0 0 0 Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z -T C
~ 0~~~~~~~~0~~ 0~1-I0


0

00


o .B -I
-I -
;-~ E o rl a 5, a
tS "r T3
r8 I I W I3 B 3 |


vi B
iU U


0 z




o



o C



'3Cl

















0 z
a z


O C



r Cl



oC


Z C \C Z Z C a C Z m C C Z t
O( O O cC O t O m- 0 OC Z \C Z Z Z Z 0 o Z omm o oo

Cl 6 Z Z Cl d Z o C- Cl 0 Z Z C Z c C Z C



o ,- Z ZD Zd dC D ZN d o o o o o o oZ o oo -


00 d O O






CC ( Cl C ol O- O < Z o Z r o o t- Z Cl Zo


















































. o

C Z Z Z


=


-Pue
-4-.













CrC I CC \
z 0z00
^1- ^1- 00
00 0


Sz

C1







5 8
'0 <


z oc oc
- CC CC
z -CC
z z z


z oc z r
- CC Cl
Z CC
z z z


oOC C Z
- z \
z z
z z z


z z z
z *r0 z
z Cl Z
z z z


r- z r-
Z Z\C Z
z z z
z z z


.(r z z
z z
Z Cl Z
z z z


z z ~
Z Z C CC
Z Z Z\C
z z ~


Z Z Cl O
Z CC \C O
z z r-
z z z


CC \ t- O
z z r- ~
Z Z CC
Z Z Cl


0


iz
a




oz U to 0
oo


y 0





05 5 ,


0 *|IIII
I z


Z I Cl
000C1C
0 r- OC \C








r1- 0 o 0 Cl \




0Om '
\coZm-


.(1 z






C\ Cli









Cl1 CCi












.( C -
00z *0r ld

000 0






OC Z Z
z z -
0 00 0


(^ m T)


-;
0O

















co
3C
Vu




aoo


Z C1 \C OC .
I cC tl-tl -
z Cl OC
z z z





Z t- 0cl
\C ZD
z ~ z
z z z


- CC Z
~ Z c Z C
Z Cl~ Z
z z z


CO
O
0
0
CN
4
0
0
C

O
0
0
CN

a,
E
0
o


o


-a


cc
S"






0 .o_
0
SE








0)
C. ._









U-
o






c

c


CC Z Z Z
O0C Z Cl Cl
~ Z C Z
\C Z Z


r- z zo
~o oC l Z
r- z C Z
r- zz z


0 CT N N 't
W 0 0 0


0OC C Z C
Z ~ Z C
z z z
z z z


r- C n O0
(r .in oc CC


\D1~Z -
CC Z C Z
- z z
z z z


0 I

vi 03

o












0
Sa d P^














0


Q
E o





+

a C



a o


z *rorc
00 00 l
CC Z~ C
z z


0 0



o 3




z
*H .










J'L 'E


o C

C)

C)
0

C)
C)












0

2 z













ao
C0l
0
0-1


W%"



o


r- C CC
- C t~ -
r .(r z r-
z z z


z z r
Z Z\C
z *r1
z z







\D CCc
Cl *(
z z


Z o m ( oC
\0 O m m Nl
-Ozra o
0 0 0


Cl Z \C C
Cl Z Cl
CC Z
z z z


t- Z \C C
CC Z C
OC Z Z
z z z


Cl ~ ~
CC OC rC
O0C Cl Z
z z z


\0 0
m O
CC Z


.1 I



L | f | g & I~




^u a, a h ^^ ^fi


0



0



Q

+


Flz
00
cz



Qz 0 Z







QQ
+r

0W


z *rC01 z
Z CC Z
z z z



~ CCZ 0



~ z *r~
Z OrC Z C
z z z z



t- l O O
CCZ Z C


OC CC Z Z
- z -


OC rCC m C
~ CC C -
I~ z r-
z z z


0 0 00 0 \
O \0 m \ m
0 OZ Cl
0 o o


z 0
O z
^--0
o\
CN 0


m \0
00
0 0






CC \C






0 0






- Cl
Cl Z
0 z


a
a,



L( E1







- z z
Cl Z Z
- z z
z z z


0 z








ao


aC


SOON OOO
U 0 0\ 0Z
N hNl N O
00 N Ol 0


Z OC \ t- Z
Z OC l t- c Z
Z Z C Cl
Z Z C ~ Z


Z OC 0 OC Z
- .(C z
- z c Z
Z Z rcl 0Z


.(C z z
- z z c
Cl Z Z
z z z


S00
.c oz m
N OOO
0000


30001
0000
c o c
\C Cl Cl
- 0 0 0
0 0 0 0


z o1C *0
z c ~
z z
z z z





.(C oc z
Oc c -
- z
z z z





~ c~Z *(
cm Z
- Z C
z z z


u


0

o
au


o
0 '^
C



1 s -i
g ^

9 h 3
a p o1

I~~P "'^ ^i
^ 1 1 i 1


a



0 0

0m

o Q o




u1 u1 1 1 11
< ua ( ( ^^ ^ &S


0,
0




Q,
+

0

B


oc rc Z oc
cm OC Z
- ~ z
z z z





z cO OC C
Cl I -
z z
z z z


z z
z z
z z *r
z z





z r-
z -







\D Clh
z ~r- *
z -
z z








Cl Z OC Z O
- Z Z \
z z z
z z z


0 z

2 z
slo
P^








ao
C0l
0
0-1


'^^1



o


\C Z
0000
000








C\100
z00







0014
000
^- C0 0
r1- CC 0l
^t- z z






\Ci OCT
zN 00
OC (
^t- 0 0


.(c z z -
~ z r-
- z -
z z z


z z o
CC Z t-
Cl Z Z -
z z z






oc z ~
OC Cl rCC *3
Cl Z Z -
z z z


Z \C OC Z
Z Z C Z C
Z C Z
z z z


*(c Z l r- C
OC OC Z C
~ Z C Z








Z Z Z C
z z z z z


z z zz z
z z z *rr r
Z Z Z Z Z C
z z zz z






- z z z *r
Z CC CC
z z zz z
z z zz z






Z I CC \ -
Z CC Z Z t
z z zz z
z z zz z


U U







vl o < F



o" s o a
U *1 ) u 0 Z .














I 6


Cl Z C Z
- z 0 z *r
z z z
z z z


00000
*() 0 \C T) ^
- 0 ^-t Cl
0 CC T '- 0
0 0 0 0 0







0 )r 0 00 0 0 ) I( 0
rI C C C C 0 r- 00c \C
--a o a 'n o ^t- c
1\C en r a 0 000 a a0




rl OO


ao














C
3 000 0 0 C 00 0 0
O






,.0 1
U0





o o
















o a










Q Q

*) ti


rJ 2 z
2























0 0
U U





C)S^ i
C)* S '

rJ5a S











CIMMYT Internationally and Nationally Recruited Staff, 2004-2008



Actual Estimated Proposal Plan 1 Plan 2
Staff
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
NRS 653 656 656 656 656
IRS 95 90 97 97 97
Total 748 746 753 753 753










CIMMYT Currency Structure of Expenditures, 2004-2006

in $ millions

Actual Estimated Proposal
2004 2005 2006

Currency Amount $ Value % Share Amount $ Value % Share Amount $ Value % Share

AUD 2.905 1.885 5 2.891 2.089 5 2.878 2.101 6
CAD 3.218 2.421 6 3.040 2.376 6 2.702 2.197 6
CHF 1.763 1.375 3 2.391 1.958 5 2.194 1.798 5
COP 0.309 0.110 0 0.605 0.245 1 0.564 0.230 1
DKK 3.347 0.554 1 2.800 0.461 1 2.800 0.483 1
EUR 4.359 5.303 13 4.461 5.355 14 3.766 4.669 13
GBP 1.228 2.201 5 1.293 2.256 6 1.060 1.907 5
JPY 196.988 1.876 5 303.184 2.707 7 251.370 2.394 6
NOK 2.121 0.312 1 2.000 0.294 1 0.000 0.295 1
Others 0.000 0.025 0 0.000 0.114 0 0.000 0.084 0
SEK 3.086 0.440 1 3.565 0.490 1 2.745 0.385 1
USD 23.596 23.596 59 20.738 20.738 53 20.317 20.317 55
Total 40.098 100 % 39.083 100 % 36.860 100 %







*(~\C l \C Z C ~ Cl
OC CC 0 Z Z Z
- Cl~ CC Z Z ~ OC
~~~~ZZOCC~ClZ
CC Cl -









CCi CCi -






\C \C Z Z Z Z Cl l C ~
\C \C Z Z Z ~ C ~~ C \
z Z Z Z Z Z Z C CC Cl Z
- z z z z z z







~ Z0 ~ Z Z Z 0~ C CC OC
Cl Z c \C Z Z l -\C \C C
\C Z Z Z0 CC t~ \
ClZ--ZZZ0OC~ZZ~
Cl Cl Cl






Z O Z \C l Z C \C Z O
- ~ \C Z Z0 CC Cl Z
t- O t- OC Z Z Z C C
CC ~ ~ fl0 Q~ l 3


N
CO


0
0



-0
c



0






E
CO
i0













0
E

a






4-
U)
4-















0
U,












0

--
E
=<
_e cf
'



a,





a-



,
"To


CO




0


ivl

o o


0
a
E
a,


C)




C) _i C)
M B I

SC U 0
) u C) 0 E C ^ -a L
,~~~~a i 1


i~~~~_ m 8 a l sji-
C) e C) o: a C) -, a
s s C) l 0 s C)
m M l)|l *g^ e ^ ^












CIMMYT Statements of Financial Position at December 31, 2004 and 2003
in $ millions



Assets, Liabilities and Net Assets 2004 2003
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 5.619 7.426
Investments 8.500 0.000
Accounts receivable
Donor 6.480 9.019
Employees 0.067 0.132
Other CGIAR Centers 0.007 0.006
Others 1.067 0.933
Inventories 0.109 0.129
Prepaid expenses 0.004 0.015
Total Current Assets 21.853 17.660
Non-Current Assets
Property, Plan and Equipment 15.307 15.302
Investments 0.000 0.000
Other Assets 0.062 0.062
Total Non-Current Assets 15.369 15.364
Total Assets 37.222 33.024
Current Liabilities
Overdraft/Short term Borrowings 0.000 3.390
Accounts payable
Donor 14.453 9.771
Employees 0.046 0.079
Other CGIAR Centers 0.000 0.000
Others 1.364 0.189
Accruals 0.774 0.605
Total Current Liabilities 16.637 14.034
Non-Current Liabilities
Accounts payable
Employees 0.000 0.000
Deferred Grant Revenue 0.000 0.000
Others 0.417 0.592
Total Non-Current Liabilities 0.417 0.592
Total Liabilities 17.054 14.626
Net Assets
Unrestricted
Designated 15.307 15.347
Undesignated 4.861 3.051
Total Unrestricted Net Assets 20.168 18.398
Restricted 0.000 0.000
Total Net Assets 20.168 18.398
Total Liabilities and Net Assets 37.222 33.024




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs