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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Table of Contents
 Acronyms
 Seeds innovation : CIMMYT's proposed...
 Financial tables
 CIMMYT's interim project portf...






Title: Seeds of innovation : interim medium-term plan of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 2004-2006 +
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Title: Seeds of innovation : interim medium-term plan of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 2004-2006 +
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2003
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
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Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00077502
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Acronyms
        Page iv
    Seeds innovation : CIMMYT's proposed research plan and budget, 2004-2006+
        Page 1
        Preamble: Anticipating and adapting to change
            Page 1
        Research highlights
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
        'Seeds of innovation' : the elements of CIMMYT's proposed new strategy
            Page 8
            Page 9
        CIMMYT's new (interim) project portfolio
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Participation and progress in challenge programs
            Page 13
            Page 14
        A note in financing and staffing
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
    Financial tables
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    CIMMYT's interim project portfolio
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
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Full Text










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Seeds


of Innovation


Interim Medium-Term Plan of the
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(CIMMYT)
2004-2006+



September 2003











CIMMYT (www.cimmvt.org) is an internationally funded, nonprofit, scientific research, training, and development
organization. CIMMYT serves as a catalyst and leader in a global innovation network that changes people's lives for
the better. Drawing on effective science and partnerships, CIMMYT creates, shares, and uses knowledge and
technology to improve the livelihoods of the world's poor who depend on maize and wheat. CIMMYT is one of 16
food and environmental organizations known as the Future Harvest Centers (www.futureharvest.org). Located around
the world, the Future Harvest Centers conduct research in partnership with farmers, scientists, and policymakers to help
alleviate poverty and increase food security while protecting natural resources. The Centers are supported by the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) (www.cgiar.org), whose members include nearly
60 countries, private foundations, and regional and international organizations. Financial support for CIMMYT's
research agenda also comes from many other sources, including foundations, development banks, and public and
private agencies.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 2003. All rights reserved. The opinions expressed
in this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors. The designations employed in the presentation of materials
in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT or its contributory
organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the
delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. CIMMYT encourages fair use of this material. Proper citation is requested.

Correct citation: CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center). 2003. Seeds ofInnovation: Interim
Medium-Term Plan of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMVIYT), 2004-2006+. Mexico, D.F.:
CIMMYT.

Abstract: This publication provides details on the general and technical objectives of CIMMYT's interim research
agenda, along with details on financing, staffing, and contributions to the objectives of the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The interim agenda is presented within the framework of seven new
research projects. It reflects the changes in emphasis arising from CIMMYT's new strategic plan, which is under
development.

AGROVOC descriptors: Planning; project management; research projects; research institutions; research support;
budgets; finance; international organizations; trends; technical properties
Additional keywords: CIMMYT; CGIAR
AGRIS category codes: A50 Agricultural Research
E14 Development Economics and Policies
Dewey decimal classification: 658.404

Printed in Mexico.











Contents


iv Acronyms


Part 1
1 Seeds of Innovation: CIMMYT's Proposed Research Plan and Budget,
2004-2006+
1 Preamble: Anticipating and Adapting to Change
2 Research Highlights
8 "Seeds of Innovation": The Elements of CIMMYT's Proposed New Strategy
9 CIMMYT's New (Interim) Project Portfolio
13 Participation and Progress in Challenge Programs
15 A Note on Financing and Staffing

Part 2
23 Financial Tables

Part 3
49 CIMMYT's Interim Project Portfolio














ADB
ACIAR
APN
ARC
ARIs
CAAS
CIDA
CGIAR
CIAT
CONACYT
CODEPAP
CORPOICA
CRCMPB
CSIRO
CWANA
DFID
DGIS
DRIC
EMBRAPA
FAO
FENALCE
GIS
GRDC
GTZ
IAEA
IDB
IDRC
IFAD
IFPRI
ILRI
IPGRI
IP
IWMI
JIRCAS
NARSs
NGOs
OPEC
QPM
QTL
RWC
SADC
SADLF
SAGAR

SCOPE
SPIA
UNDP
SAID
USDA
WANA


Acronyms


Asian Development Bank
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
Asian Pacific Network for Global Change Research
Agricultural Research Council, South Africa
Advanced research institutes
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Canadian International Development Agency
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico
Consejo de Desarrollo de la Cuenca del Papaloapan, Mexico
Corporaci6n Colombiana de Investigaci6n Agropecuaria
Collaborative Research Centre for Molecular Plant Breeding, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia
Central Asia, West Asia, and North Africa
Department for International Development, UK
Directorate General for International Cooperation, Netherlands
D616gation aux Relations Internationales et a la Cooperation, France
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Brazil
Food and Agriculture Organization
Federaci6n Nacional de Cultivadores de Cereales y Leguminosas, Colombia
Geographic information systems
Grains Research and Development Corporation
Deutsche Gesellschaft fir Technische Zusammenarbeit
International Atomic Energy Agency
Inter-American Development Bank
International Development Research Centre, Canada
International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Food Policy Research Institute
International Livestock Research Institute
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
Intellectual property
International Water Management Institute
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
National agricultural research systems
Non-governmental organizations
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
Quality protein maize
Quantitative trait loci
Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains
Southern African Development Community
Southern African Drought and Low Soil Fertility
Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentaci6n,
Mexico
Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment
Standing Panel on Impacts Assessment
United Nations Development Programme
United States Agency for International Development
United States Department of Agriculture
West Asia and North Africa










Part 1
Seeds of Innovation: CIMMYT's Proposed Research
Plan and Budget, 2004-2006+




Preamble: Anticipating and Adapting to Change

CIMMYT has initiated major changes since submitting its last Medium-Term Plan to the
CGIAR for consideration one year ago.

With the advent of a new Director General in July of 2002, CIMMYT's Board of
Trustees recommended that CIMMYT conduct a full-scale strategic planning exercise to
examine the continuing relevance of its mission, define how to position itself to meet the
needs for agricultural knowledge and technology over the next 10-15 years, and
determine the most appropriate organizational structure and operating modalities to
deliver CIMMYT's products and services.

In late 2002 and early 2003, CIMMYT sought the counsel of more than 170 external
stakeholders to orient its strategic planning. Stakeholders from six constituencies
(national research systems, advanced research institutes, NGOs, farmers' groups, the
private sector, and funding agencies) commented on the qualities and actions that would
improve CIMMYT's effectiveness. Six internal task forces were convened to research
broad trends in the global environment and specific trends in science, evaluate the status
of CIMMYT's partnerships and networks, assess the Center's structure and management,
review alternatives for financing the research agenda, and develop future scenarios for
evaluating the robustness of CIMMYT's proposed strategy. These activities and two
"CIMMYT summits" attended by staff and Board members helped forge a consensus
about future needs and directions. This consensus was refined through continuing
consultation as CIMMYT's new strategy was drafted in the latter part of 2003.

As of this writing, CIMMYT's new strategy awaits final consideration by its Board of
Trustees. The strategy is the template for CIMMYT's metamorphosis: it outlines
fundamental changes in CIMMYT's mission, structure, and way of doing business. The
research agenda presented in this Medium-Term Plan reflects these proposed changes. It
is important to emphasize that the Plan constitutes an interim proposal whose lineaments
will be fully developed when CIMMYT's new strategy has been completed and accepted
for implementation.

At the same time that CIMMYT has been critically reassessing its mission and strategy,
the forces of change have been active within the CGIAR, and they have had important
implications for CIMMYT. The CGIAR has created the Challenge Programs and other
mechanisms to further Centers' impact through highly focused, efficient collaborations in










Part 1
Seeds of Innovation: CIMMYT's Proposed Research
Plan and Budget, 2004-2006+




Preamble: Anticipating and Adapting to Change

CIMMYT has initiated major changes since submitting its last Medium-Term Plan to the
CGIAR for consideration one year ago.

With the advent of a new Director General in July of 2002, CIMMYT's Board of
Trustees recommended that CIMMYT conduct a full-scale strategic planning exercise to
examine the continuing relevance of its mission, define how to position itself to meet the
needs for agricultural knowledge and technology over the next 10-15 years, and
determine the most appropriate organizational structure and operating modalities to
deliver CIMMYT's products and services.

In late 2002 and early 2003, CIMMYT sought the counsel of more than 170 external
stakeholders to orient its strategic planning. Stakeholders from six constituencies
(national research systems, advanced research institutes, NGOs, farmers' groups, the
private sector, and funding agencies) commented on the qualities and actions that would
improve CIMMYT's effectiveness. Six internal task forces were convened to research
broad trends in the global environment and specific trends in science, evaluate the status
of CIMMYT's partnerships and networks, assess the Center's structure and management,
review alternatives for financing the research agenda, and develop future scenarios for
evaluating the robustness of CIMMYT's proposed strategy. These activities and two
"CIMMYT summits" attended by staff and Board members helped forge a consensus
about future needs and directions. This consensus was refined through continuing
consultation as CIMMYT's new strategy was drafted in the latter part of 2003.

As of this writing, CIMMYT's new strategy awaits final consideration by its Board of
Trustees. The strategy is the template for CIMMYT's metamorphosis: it outlines
fundamental changes in CIMMYT's mission, structure, and way of doing business. The
research agenda presented in this Medium-Term Plan reflects these proposed changes. It
is important to emphasize that the Plan constitutes an interim proposal whose lineaments
will be fully developed when CIMMYT's new strategy has been completed and accepted
for implementation.

At the same time that CIMMYT has been critically reassessing its mission and strategy,
the forces of change have been active within the CGIAR, and they have had important
implications for CIMMYT. The CGIAR has created the Challenge Programs and other
mechanisms to further Centers' impact through highly focused, efficient collaborations in









areas of strategic importance. Three Challenge Programs have started to operate, and
each has a role for CIMMYT. As these programs become increasingly active, the
implications for CIMMYT's research agenda and budget will be reflected in greater
detail within its Medium-Term Plans.

The pages that follow provide the context for the detailed information presented in Parts
2 and 3 on financing and CIMMYT's project portfolio. They highlight recent research
achievements that illustrate some of the new directions for CIMMYT's science and
partnerships. Next, the likely outcomes of strategic planning at CIMMYT are described,
along with CIMMYT's interim project portfolio. A brief review of participation and
progress in the Challenge Programs, followed by a summary of financing and staffing
issues, concludes Part 1.


Research Highlights

Connecting people to save African lives and livelihoods
For eight years, SoilFertNet (short for "Soil Fertility Management and Policy Network
for Maize-based Farming Systems in Southern Africa," coordinated by CIMMYT) has
developed and disseminated "best bet" soil fertility practices-more efficient use of
mineral fertilizers as well as legume rotations, green manures, and other organic
approaches-through partnerships with research and extension services, farmer groups,
and NGOs in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Mozambique. The practices provide
farmers with greater livelihood opportunities and expand biodiversity in cropping
systems, rendering them more productive and resilient to stresses like drought and
disease. Potential profitability and sustainability of best bet options have been
demonstrated through financial and risk analyses. Network members also assess
constraints to the adoption of new practices and, when necessary, promote policy changes
to reduce those constraints.

National commodity task forces (e.g., on maize in Malawi and soybeans in Zimbabwe)
have focused resources, partnerships, and the attention of government officials and
policymakers on soil fertility and best bet technologies. In Malawi, for example, specific
fertilizer recommendations were developed for hybrid maize. Practices for improving soil
organic matter content were "officially released" by the Ministry of Agriculture and
Irrigation. SoilFertNet members also provided technical input into a multi-donor "Starter
Pack" scheme for farmers, which increased maize production and-in a year of acute
hunger-saved lives.

In Chihota, Zimbabwe, almost 4,000 farmers have learned about new soil fertility
practices, and more than 2,300 have used one or more of them. SoilFertNet members
have also trained private sector dealers to offer smallholders appropriate inputs and
advice. Current SoilFertNet membership surpasses 200, mostly from the region but also
from the rest of Africa and the world.









Plant physiology: A catalyst in the application of biotechnology in genetic
improvement
Biotechnology holds great promise for accelerating and enhancing the efficiency of
genetic improvement. The principal limitation to a more widespread application is the
enormous complexity of traits such as yield potential, which is related not just to the
number of genes involved but also to the fact that genes are expressed differently in every
environment, resulting in genotype by environment interaction (GxE). There is a
significant gap (the genotype-phenotype gap) between the rate of gene identification and
our knowledge of how those genes affect agronomic traits, their underlying physiological
processes, and their interaction with the environment. Interdisciplinary research between
plant physiology and genetics offers a powerful tool for bridging that gap by rigorously
testing physiological hypotheses using appropriate genetic stocks. For example:

Genetic transformation. At CIMMYT, genetically transformed wheat plants are
being studied under drought to show the precise physiological effects of the gene
DREB 1A in different moisture stress situations. Such information will enable
breeders to more strategically deploy the gene to complement the effects of other
traits, allowing stress-adaptive genes to be pyramided more effectively into
modern cultivars.

Molecular mapping. It is nearly impossible to relate genes directly to yield in a
meaningful way because of the vast number of genes involved and their
interaction with environment. Physiological approaches allow yield to be
dissected into traits that are simpler than yield and can be studied more easily at
the level of genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and GxE. CIMMYT is
developing molecular maps of drought-tolerance traits in maize (focusing on the
anthesis-silking interval) and in wheat (focusing on canopy temperature
depression), which show a strong association with performance.

Genomics. Biotechnology tools such as functional genomics have the potential to
unravel the complexities of gene expression and GxE, but they generate an
enormous amount of information. Prior physiological understanding of growth
processes and GxE allows gene expression to be studied in a specific tissue, at a
particular growth stage, at a relevant time of day, and under a defined set
environmental conditions, thereby greatly reducing the amount of information
generated. At CIMMYT physiological studies are focused on elucidating the
genetic basis of spike fertility in wheat and (as noted) on understanding aspects of
drought tolerance in maize.

An effective research setting fosters a new kind of smallholder agriculture
in South Asia
In South Asia, where more than 300 million people depend almost entirely upon rice-
wheat cropping systems, the Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains
(RWC) has been instrumental in helping small-scale farmers use zero-tillage and other
resource-conserving practices (green manure cover crops, mulch systems, and bed









planting). Even very poor farmers in Bihar, one of India's most impoverished and food-
insecure states, are using the technology.

Zero-tillage for wheat planted after rice now covers a very substantial area in India and
Pakistan (surpassing 500,000 hectares in 2002). Experimental data, currently being
validated by farm-level studies, suggest that zero-tillage has tremendous potential in
South Asia, for it saves fuel, raises yields, reduces herbicide use, and saves water. Yields
are higher and costs are significantly lower. The next step is to use some of these
conservation technologies in rice as well as wheat, to save even more water, reduce soil
degradation, increase soil organic matter content, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions
associated with global warming.

The RWC has achieved these results by partnering with national research systems of
Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan; farmer groups; private entrepreneurs; five
CGIAR Centers (including CIMMYT); numerous advanced research institutes; and
NGOs. CIMMYT played an important role by advocating research on conservation
tillage throughout South Asia many years before the formation of the RWC, and
subsequently by becoming a partner and the facilitating research center in the RWC.

Partnering with farmers to speed the adoption of new technologies in South Asia
Five years ago, partners within and outside South Asia (including members of the RWC,
described previously) joined forces to develop and promote participatory adaptive
research methods that would help raise productivity in South Asia's wheat systems.
These systems are an economic mainstay across 35 million hectares in India, Bangladesh,
Nepal, and Pakistan, but their productivity lags far behind their potential.

The partners-a collaborative network of farmer groups, extension agents, NGOs, private
companies, advanced research institutes, CGIAR Centers, and other community and
public-sector organizations-have used participatory methods to develop, identify, and
promote wheat varieties adapted to local needs. They take a holistic approach to their
work, looking at interactions between varieties, tillage practices, diseases, and the
environment to identify and promote the most appropriate combinations of wheat
varieties and resource-conserving practices for farmers' conditions. As a result, farmers
are now sowing their chosen wheat varieties and applying new resource-conserving
technologies.

Soil and root health research
Maize and wheat plants are anchored in soil all their lives, so soil and root health play a
major role in determining their fate. A healthy soil for agriculture must have a balanced
mix of physical, chemical, and biological properties. Intense agricultural production,
particularly in marginal cropping systems based on monoculture, often disturbs the soil's
ecological and structural balance. As a result, significant soil-borne pathogens can arise,
including microscopic nematodes and root-rotting fungi, which, especially if combined
with abiotic stresses such as drought and micronutrient deficiencies, can reduce yields by
as much as 60%.









CIMMYT will devote considerable effort to addressing these "underground problems" in
the years to come. The most economically and environmentally sound means of
controlling subsoil pathogens is to develop cultivars that resist multiple root diseases.
Presently conventional and molecular tools for pathogen identification and resistance
breeding are used to develop such cultivars, but in the future, genetic engineering (based
on a better understanding of gene function) may also play a major role.

Attention will also be given to studying the underlying effects of crop management on
soil health and improving our understanding of which agronomic practices are most
appropriate for maintaining healthy soils. We will also focus on assessing and
maintaining soil health under zero-tillage to ensure that this resource-conserving practice
remains viable over the long term.

Improved nutritional and industrial quality in maize and wheat for new and
traditional foods
One of the realities of globalization is that farmers will increasingly need to meet the high
standards set by industrial manufacturers and exporters if they are to earn income from
their maize and wheat crops. CIMMYT has an important role to play in providing the
value-added traits that will enable greater numbers of farmers to benefit from meeting
those standards. Advances in biophysics, biochemistry, crystallography, and polymer
science, as well as in statistical clustering and ordination analyses, are providing a better
understanding of grain components that influence quality and how they interact during
industrial processes used to manufacture specific products. More in-depth knowledge of
protein and starch functionality for different products will pave the way for breeding
"market-specific" cultivars. This knowledge will not only make it possible for producers
to meet industrial standards, it will enable industry to offer locally important products
made from maize and wheat (for example, the great range of flatbreads and noodles that
are consumed in Asia), thereby preserving important aspects of local culture.

Such is the case in the Central Asian republics (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and
Tajikistan), which, since the breakup of the Soviet Union, have gone back to many of
their old ways, including the type of bread they prefer: tandyr bread. Made of wheat, the
most important staple in the region, tandyr bread is consumed at every meal and a
principal source of nutrients. It usually takes the form of round or oval discs, 5-10 cm
thick, baked on the inner walls of a concave clay oven, or tandyr. Tandyr bread making
requires particular grain quality attributes that the winter bread wheat varieties cultivated
in the region seem to lack.

Before embarking on a breeding program aimed at improving the quality of winter wheat
varieties, it was necessary to investigate people's criteria for good quality bread and
determine the corresponding processing requirements. In September, 2002, a survey was
conducted in the four Central Asian republics to collect information on the requirements
for producing tandyr bread of acceptable quality. It was funded by GTZ (the German
Agency for Technical Cooperation) and conducted by CIMMYT staff in collaboration
with local researchers. The survey clearly indicated that the tandyr bread making quality
of winter wheat varieties currently sown in the region is inferior. The main problems are









low gluten and protein content, and weak gluten type. To evaluate varieties for quality
traits, laboratories have been identified in all countries except Tajikistan, and local
researchers have undergone training at CIMMYT's wheat quality lab in Mexico. The
CIMMYT lab is also assessing the quality traits of winter varieties and recommending
the best ones for use as parents in quality improvement crosses. Systematic work
including breeding and agronomy research and the establishment of a collaborative
quality testing network in the region should substantially improve the tandyr bread
making quality (and local commercial potential) of Central Asian winter wheats.

Multidisciplinary approach and partnership to take on drought
To make better progress in developing drought tolerant cereal varieties, there is a clear
need to understand plants' responses to drought at the gene and physiological pathway
levels. Ten years ago, CIMMYT initiated research on drought tolerance at the flowering
stage of maize, a critical period in its development. Today, thanks to a team of dedicated
CIMMYT scientists and to collaborations with Pioneer Hi-Bred International and Cornell
University, a fuller understanding of plant drought response is emerging.

The three major components of drought tolerance-gene expression, metabolic pathways,
and plant morphology-and their complex interrelationships need to be understood based
on scientific data. Thanks to the input of plant physiologists at Cornell University, QTLs
for key physiological pathways related to the drought response are being identified. As
for gene expression, CIMMYT is collaborating with maize functional genomics experts
at Pioneer Hybrid International on using microarrays to identify key genes with
differential expression under water-limited conditions. Through these collaborations and
"in-house" data, CIMMYT now has those three knowledge components available.

It is hoped that this knowledge will enable scientists to accelerate the development of
drought resistant maize 1) by identifying the key genomic regions involved in drought
tolerance and using the information in marker-assisted selection; 2) by identifying elite
alleles at target genes that could serve as predicting factors for plant breeders; and 3)
through genetic engineering to alter specific genes or pathways.

In wheat, the ABC is strongly involved in the development of drought tolerant varieties
through molecular and comparative studies, and notably through genetic engineering. In
2000, JIRCAS supplied the ABC with a DREB gene from Arabidopsis, which has been
shown to increase tolerance to drought in some plants. CIMMYT scientists successfully
inserted the gene into wheat, but trials on wheat plants provided ambiguous results,
possibly caused by experimental design problems. The design was refined in early 2003,
and results from recent studies suggest that the DREB gene induces a drought tolerant
phenotype that is probably more related to water use efficiency than to drought stress
tolerance per se. This means that a plant will use all available water without incurring
yield losses, before succumbing to extreme drought conditions. These results may also
have promising implications for producing plants that use less water under irrigated
conditions. Dreb plants will undergo further study under field conditions in late 2003.









Inside Mexico's traditional seed sharing networks
Under the auspices of the CGIAR's System-Wide Collective Action and Property Rights
Initiative, CIMMYT is examining the structure and function of traditional farmers'
networks and their role in the evolution and conservation of maize genetic diversity. The
research is based in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico, an area of significant maize
diversity. Researchers initially hypothesized that farmers would have strong incentives
for collective action to maintain access to many different maize landraces. Instead, they
discovered that farmers' custom of routinely selecting and saving seed is central to
understanding why no specialized networks or social institutions have developed to
ensure access to seed. Saving seed is associated closely with being a good farmer. Seed
(like tools and advice) appears to be another resource that farmers provide to each other
through various social relations and networks.

Most seed transactions are motivated by farmers' interest in experimenting with a
particular kind of seed. They rarely occur to recover lost seed. Transactions are bilateral,
and the recipient carefully weighs the tradeoffs involved in obtaining seed from one
source rather than another. Sometimes those relationships enable people to receive
preferential treatment in the transaction. The priority is to obtain seed from someone who
can be trusted to provide reliable information and seed with desirable characteristics. In
comparison to the current, highly flexible, ad hoc approach, a permanent institution such
as a seed club or community seed bank would be relatively costly. A community seed
bank might also draw attention to someone's failure to save seed.

In this research, CIMMYT has employed interviews with farmers, focus groups, a study
to trace seed transactions, and in-depth ethnographic case studies of 18 households in two
villages. It is sometimes thought that this kind of research is too specific and localized to
make a difference, but by making it possible to work with the people of Oaxaca to
conserve the diversity of their traditional maize varieties, it can have an impact of global
importance.

Adding impact to innovation in southern Africa
The Southern African Drought and Low Fertility (SADLF) Project is a collaboration
between national agricultural research programs of the Southern Africa Development
Community (SADC) region and CIMMYT. Involving more than 30 core participants, 80
institutions, and 1,000 farmers in approximately 150 farming communities, the project
engages farmers, extension, community organizations, NGOs, and the private sector in
developing stress tolerant maize varieties and delivering them to smallholders, especially
those with poor access to seed systems.

This project has developed stress tolerant maize varieties and hybrids that use no more
water or nitrogen than other maize varieties but yield better and more reliably under the
conditions of resource-poor farmers, particularly those facing drought and infertile soils.
With less fear of crop failure, farmers may be more inclined to invest in steps to improve
soil fertility and conserve water. Because stress-tolerant varieties ensure improved food
security on a smaller area, farmers can allocate more land and labor to legumes or cash
crops, thereby improving incomes, soil quality, and possibly household nutrition.









To evaluate the varieties, the project adopted a participatory approach based on
experiments called "mother-baby trials," grown by farming communities. Through the
trials, information on farmers' opinions of trial cultivars and data on their performance
flow back to researchers and seed companies, increasing the chances that seed companies
will provide the kind of seed that farmers want. The trials have become a model for
eastern and southern Africa and are also being used in Asia.

One result of the project's approach is that, for the first time, private seed companies-
many of them struggling to survive in the volatile socioeconomic environment of
southern Africa-have been provided with reliable information to develop and
successfully market maize varieties for smallholders' difficult growing conditions and
limited finances. Another result is that relief agencies providing seed to farmers who lost
their seed stocks in the recent drought can supply varieties that will help them withstand
future droughts. The goodwill created among a diverse set of partners is also making it
possible to effect change at the regional level, by, for example, exploring a common
regional policy for releasing new varieties to get them to farmers more quickly.


"Seeds of Innovation": The Elements of CIMMYT's Proposed New
Strategy

The interim project portfolio presented in this Medium-Term Plan is the first step in
implementing CIMMYT's proposed strategy. The driving force behind the strategy is
CIMMYT's proposed mission:

CIMMYT serves as a catalyst and leader in a global innovation network that
changes people 's livesfor the better. Drawing on strong science and effective
partnerships, we create, share, and use knowledge and technology to improve the
livelihoods of the world's poor who depend on maize and wheat.

CIMMYT's strategy for accomplishing this mission rests on four sources, or "seeds," of
innovation.

First, CIMMYT will focus on sustainable livelihoods for the world's resource-poor
maize and wheat producers and consumers-putting the needs of people first.

Second, CIMMYT will draw on the best available science for its work, engage in
advocacy to ensure that research truly leads to sustainable development, and promote and
support scientific excellence in its partners.

Third, CIMMYT is committed to a broad set of partnerships and networks that will
enable it to stay attuned and responsive to the needs of poor people and ensure the impact
of all partners' efforts to promote sustainable development. Global research efficiency
and impact in farmers' fields will be improved through collective priority setting and
shared implementation. CIMMYT will outsource and devolve research wherever
possible.









Fourth, to be effective as a catalyst in partnerships and innovation networks, CIMMYT
will give careful attention to managing the full cycle of innovation and optimizing the
sharing and use of knowledge across scientific, institutional, and national boundaries.

CIMMYT's commitment to these four aspects of innovation is reflected in new ways of
doing business:
* A new organizational structure, in which projects replace commodity and disciplinary
research programs
* Changing priorities across regions and crops
* More autonomy for research leadership across CIMMYT's locations, and stronger
research teams on the ground
* Support to become a learning organization

Organizational structure
CIMMYT has operated under a matrix structure consisting of 21 research projects
(described in our previous Medium-Term Plans) and 5 research programs.

To foster the integrated research perspective and partnerships that CIMMYT will require
to fulfill its mission, its research programs will be replaced by the 7 interdisciplinary
projects described in this Medium-Term Plan.

These projects encourage and reflect the synergies that CIMMYT values among
colleagues, disciplines, and partners. They indicate clearly where CIMMYT focuses its
efforts and impacts, and they highlight complementary efficiencies in the Center's work.
The projects also provide a framework for CIMMYT to alter its research agenda in a
transparent way as needs and objectives change over time. In purely practical terms, the
projects are the medium through which CIMMYT's research is planned, led, and
budgeted.

It is important to emphasize that groups sharing a common disciplinary or thematic focus
will work across these projects. They will foster good communication among staff
working on similar issues; offer counsel for identifying disciplinary expertise; provide
another way to present CIMMYT or liaise with partners; ensure professional quality
control; encourage synergies and collaborative learning across projects; and give a
"voice" to minority disciplines. Membership in these cross-project groups or
"communities of practice" may extend beyond CIMMYT's institutional boundaries to
benefit from and encourage broader partnerships.

A new management group will comprise the project directors, Director of Corporate
Services, Deputy Director General for Research, and Director General, who will draw on
expertise from the various communities of practice and from staff appointed to liaise with
the many countries and institutions with which CIMMYT works.

Changing priorities across crops and regions
Based on a detailed priority setting analysis, which considered such factors as national
maize and wheat supply and demand, poverty indicators, and an assessment of









CIMMYT's comparative advantage, CIMMYT will also shift its allocations of
unrestricted resources by region and crop in the years to come. The Center will continue
to conduct a considerable share of research with global applications, but it will increase
its emphasis on South Asia, maintain efforts in sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, and
Central and West Asia, and reduce the overall emphasis on Latin America, outside of a
few areas of extreme poverty. In the near term, wheat research should receive slightly
more emphasis than maize research; by 2020, if current trends continue, the opposite
should be true. These targets will be reviewed periodically. They may be offset by the
predominance of special project funding for a given region or crop, but they nevertheless
provide an important empirical framework for seeking and allocating research resources.

A stronger research presence on the ground
In conjunction with adopting a new project structure, CIMMYT will reinforce its
research presence, particularly in Asia and Africa, to address problems of poverty more
directly where they are most extensive and severe. Research teams will act as catalysts
for innovation and information sharing-locally, in the region, and throughout the world.
Research leadership (i.e., the project directors) will not be concentrated in one
headquarters location, and the various research locations will have considerable
autonomy to direct their work.

Becoming a learning organization
To encourage the interdisciplinary teamwork and knowledge sharing (within and across
CIMMYT boundaries) that will make this strategy work, CIMMYT will also place much
greater emphasis to organizational/institutional learning, facilitated by investments in
new technologies and infrastructure to improve research efficiency and communications.

In conclusion, CIMMYT's new strategy aims to contribute to, mobilize, and strengthen a
global network for research and technology delivery. The ultimate goal is to fulfill the
responsibility of research to the people it serves: to reduce their vulnerability to poverty
and hunger, increase the probability of a stable transition to a better future, and help the
next generation get ahead-either in or out of agriculture.


CIMMYT's New (Interim) Project Portfolio

CIMMYT's new structure is based on seven projects, each of which is described briefly
here and in detail in Part 3.

Project 1. Maize and wheat genetic diversity for humanity
CIMMYT's pledge to conserve and facilitate the use of crop genetic diversity of maize
and wheat for present and future generations is fundamental to its existence and
mandated by its commitment to the Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources
for Food and Agriculture as a means of implementing the Convention on Biological
Diversity. Through this project, CIMMYT fulfills its pledge through: germplasm
collection for ex situ conservation; characterization of genebank entries; pre-breeding;
genomics; improved and more accessible information on stored genetic resources;









management of intellectual property associated with germplasm; economic assessment of
the value of genetic resources; analysis of policies relating to genetic resources and
genetic diversity; conservation of genetic resources for wild relatives of maize and wheat;
and in situ conservation of maize and wheat genetic resources, including information on
geneflow in these crops under farmers' management.

Project 2. Livelihoods and risk in rainfed, stress-prone, foodgrain systems
Agricultural systems in which food grains are grown under rainfed, stress-prone
conditions have a broad geographical reach, extending from Turkey and Eastern Europe
through Iran, Afghanistan, and northwestern Pakistan to the Central Asian republics and
western China. Similar systems occur in central India, northern, eastern and southern
Africa and South America. Across much of this area, livestock are as important (or more
important) than grain production in sustaining farm family livelihoods. Crop production
often is restricted largely to wheat (winter, facultative and spring types), barley, and
pulses. The growing period is short and options for diversification quite limited. Water is
scarce: some farmers harvest only one crop every two years. In these areas, food security
depends heavily on "wheat security," as wheat alone often provides more than half of the
daily calories consumed. Through this project, CIMMYT and its partners will foster the
development of production and livelihood systems that improve local and regional food
security; reduce the risks associated with recurrent drought; sensibly combine livestock
and crop production activities; make the most of limited or variable water resources; help
reduce land degradation; support the efficient use of scarce inputs; foster improved input
and product markets and related institutions; and contribute to system diversification, for
more stable production of a wider array of crops.

Project 3. Food security, markets, and livelihoods in Africa
The challenges to making sustained improvements in rural livelihoods throughout sub-
Saharan Africa are well known. This is the only region in the world where per capital food
production has declined in recent years. Child malnutrition has increased and widespread
poverty persists. A combination of thin soils of low fertility, uncertain and variable
rainfall, outbreaks of the parasitic weed Striga, and poorly developed markets and rural
infrastructure have stalled efforts to improve the productivity and sustainability of
agroecosystems. In some areas, political unrest, ill-advised policies, and/or a high
incidence of HIV-AIDS have exacerbated these problems. This project focuses on
improving the resilience and productivity of agricultural systems in the face of
considerable biophysical and socioeconomic risk. It fosters the development of
production and livelihood systems that avoid unacceptable levels of loss in bad (e.g.,
drought) seasons; are substantially more productive than existing systems in good
seasons; improve labor productivity to compensate for the loss of family labor;
sustainably exploit relatively favorable niches in the landscape; make the most efficient
use of scarce and expensive inputs; take full advantage of locally available inputs such as
leaf litter, cattle manure, crop residues, and green manure cover crops to maintain soil
fertility and system productivity; and foster market development to reduce input prices
and improve product prices at the farm level.









Project 4. Ensuring world food security through sustainable intensification in
densely inhabited areas
Large numbers of the world's poor reside in densely populated rural areas where
cropping systems are intensive and livelihood systems complex (examples include the
rice-wheat and other cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, and
cropping systems in China's Yellow River Basin). Production from these areas sustains
local farming communities and neighboring cities. On a global level, improved food
security and livelihoods for poor people depend heavily on "getting things right" in those
areas where the poor are concentrated in enormous numbers.

This project will foster the development of farming systems that are more intensive and,
at the same time, more resilient and sustainable than those presently being used; deliver a
more diverse set of higher-value products; use fewer external inputs more efficiently;
generate more employment for the landless; supply less expensive food for poor urban
consumers, and do all of this while conserving and improving the soil and water resource
base. Of special concern is the need to conserve water resources. Improved water
productivity in crop production is needed to free up scarce water for competing uses.
Beyond increasing maize and wheat yields, the project will seek improvements in system
productivity and diversity, which at times may imply a decrease, not an increase, in
resources devoted to cereal production. The project will also seek to improve nutrient and
water use efficiency, for better harvests with fewer inputs.

Project 5. Improving livelihoods and conserving natural resources in tropical
agroecosystems
The rural poor in tropical Latin America, including members of many indigenous groups,
grow maize to avoid purchasing it at times of the year when it is expensive. Part of the
maize may also used to feed small numbers of livestock. Livelihood strategies may
include the production of cash crops (e.g., coffee), manufacture of handicrafts, seasonal
off-farm work, or remittances from family members who have migrated. More recently,
systems based on maize have come to dominate smallholder rainfed agriculture in
tropical Southeast Asia and China, where demand for meat and dairy products is
exploding and demand for feed maize is increasing in proportion. Mounting demand for
tropical maize (whether grown for food in Guatemala or feed in Indonesia) is triggering
an expansion of production in unsuitable areas, such as fragile hillsides and tropical
forests, as relatively poor households seek to improve their livelihoods through maize
production. This project will develop production systems that improve the livelihoods of
poor farm households; exploit ecological principles to help control weeds, pests and
diseases; foster soil and water conservation; and help meet increasing demand for food
maize in Latin America and feed maize in Asia. In contributing to the development of
such systems, CIMMYT is aware that work to improve the productivity of maize in
tropical agroecosystems is only an entry point into the larger question of improving
livelihoods and reducing poverty, and that close collaboration with numerous other
partners will be needed.









Project 6. Policies and institutions that maximize research impact
If CIMMYT is to succeed in meeting its global mandate, research focused on location-
specific problems must be complemented by strategic research focused on issues that
transcend particular regions, ecosystems, or crops. This project will focus on five
activities of strategic global importance to the impact of CIMMYT's work: monitoring
global trends in the economic, political, and institutional environments in which
CIMMYT operates; setting overall priorities based on a comprehensive assessment of
potential research and development activities for CIMMYT worldwide; assessing the
impact of CIMMYT's work at the global level and through targeted case studies to ensure
that CIMMYT's overall portfolio of resources is used efficiently and effectively;
designing policy interventions to improve the likelihood that products and services reach
potential users quickly and effectively; and advocating for change in a consistent,
coherent way.

Project 7. Sharing and managing knowledge
All of the projects described previously support a major long-term objective for
CIMMYT: to become a catalyst and leader in a global innovation network that effectively
mobilizes knowledge about maize and wheat in the service of sustainable development.
This project supports that objective in three ways. First, it will develop comprehensive,
web-based resources to provide the scientific information that supports effective research.
This information includes external resources such as databases and scientific journals, as
well as new tools that enable large amounts of data from CIMMYT and its partners to be
managed in a way that is useful for further research. Second, it will create a virtual
context in which knowledge, information, and other resources (e.g., seed) is shared by
partners, stakeholders, and the general public (e.g., through a digital maize and wheat
information center, communities of practice, and knowledge banks for specific uses, such
as information on the advantages of particular varieties available locally, of new practices
that are locally relevant, or of support programs). Third, it will establish a strong service
to build human capital among research partners, rural communities, and our own staff,
based on a more precise assessment of needs and a more effective use of information
technology.


Participation and Progress in Challenge Programs

Few CGIAR Centers actively participate in all three approved Challenge Programs.
CIMMYT is one. Apart from helping convene the Challenge Program on Unlocking
Genetic Diversity in Crops for the Resource-Poor and serving as a partner in the
Challenge Program on Biofortified Crops for Improved Human Nutrition, CIMMYT
participates in the Challenge Program on Water and Food.

Challenge program on unlocking genetic diversity in crops for the resource-poor
The genomics revolution means that genetic resources available in the public sector,
especially from the CGIAR Centers and their partner organizations in developing
countries, can be used to enhance social welfare as never before. This Challenge
Program, whose development has been led by CIMMYT, IRRI, and IPGRI, will assemble









partners from other CGIAR Centers, national research systems, advanced research
institutes, and the private sector to create a unique public research platform for accessing
and developing genetic resources to reduce poverty. It will enhance the use of genetic
resources in public breeding programs-and ultimately improve livelihoods and increase
food security in developing countries-through a concerted effort to generate, manage,
and apply genomic information derived from comparative studies.

The Challenge Program has been approved by the CGIAR and a payment of US$1.5
million has been made to CIMMYT by the World Bank. The second tranche of World
Bank funding for the Challenge program of $1.5 million has not been factored in yet,
since it is contingent upon the submission of a work plan in early November of this year.
The EC funds for the Genetic Resources Challenge Program will not be received until the
latter part of 2003. The EC is planning to disburse 4.15 million Euro.

To launch this recently approved Challenge Program, more than 40 participants from 19
organizations, including all 15 Program consortium members, attended a technical
planning workshop in Wageningen, The Netherlands, in late August. The participants
approved a research agenda for the Program, along with a detailed workplan for the next
12 months, and determined the objectives to be achieved within the first five years.
Members of the Program Steering Committee also met in Wageningen, where they
discussed a number of issues relating to research, governance, and management, and
endorsed a process for appointing the Program Director. A Director will be appointed by
the end of September 2003. The Committee also resolved that by the end of 2003 the
Program will issue clarifying statements on IP policy and genetic resource stewardship
that are consistent with CGIAR guidelines. The Program will give immediate priority to
building partnerships with national research programs and the private sector.

Challenge program on biofortified crops for improved human nutrition
This Challenge Program, convened by IFPRI and CIAT, will improve the health of poor
people by breeding staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, a process referred to
as "biofortification." The Program grew out of a pilot project in which several CGIAR
Centers, including CIMMYT for maize and wheat, assessed the feasibility of breeding
biofortified crops. Activities are undertaken by an international alliance of CGIAR
Centers, national agricultural research and extension systems, departments of human
nutrition and plant science at universities in developing and developed countries,
advanced research institutes (ARIs) with expertise in micronutrients in plants and animals
as well as in genomics, NGOs, farmers' organizations in developing countries, and
private organizations. The Program has hired a Director, secured its funding base, and is
presently conducting a series of meetings to organize its work, including research on the
various crops and on socioeconomic aspects of their development and adoption.









Challenge program on water and food
CIMMYT and its partners have enjoyed a great deal of success in improving farm-level
water productivity through new maize and wheat system technology. The on-going "zero
tillage revolution" in the Indo-Gangetic Plains is probably the best example. This success
is due in part to resource-conserving technologies (zero tillage, soil mulch cover,
permanent bed systems, laser leveling) as well as to revolutionary new maize and wheat
varieties that are vastly more drought tolerant and water use efficient than alternatives.
After contributing to the design of this Challenge Program through stakeholder meetings,
CIMMYT worked with partners to submit concept notes for competitive grants. Six
grants were approved for work in five river basins: the Indus-Ganges, Kharkheh,
Limpopo, Nile, and Yellow River basins. These are among the few projects that will deal
with food and water dimensions of the Challenge Program, as opposed to water issues
alone.


A Note on Financing and Staffing

CIMMYT funding overview 2002-2003
The governments and agencies that provided the largest share of our funding in 2002 are
shown in Figure 1 (CIMMYT's Top 10 donors). The contributions to CIMMYT's budget
by CGIAR member countries, North and South, as well as foundations and advanced
research institutes (public and private), are presented in Figure 2 (Investors in CIMMYT
2002). Expenditure by object is shown in Figure 3 (Expenses by Object of Expenditure).

Sources of income from grants are presented in Table 1 (page 20). Targeted funding
continues to provide the bulk of CIMMYT's research resources-almost two-thirds
(Figure 4). The trend to declining core unrestricted funding in relation to targeted
contributions continues to provide challenges to management of the Center, as flexibility
is reduced and our capacity to undertake a range of core activities within CIMMYT's
mandate is reduced. Full costing of projects is more important than ever, as is the
recovery of all direct and indirect costs to the Center. Indirect cost recovery is currently
just under 13%.

Funding trends
Funding for 2002 was $35.806 million, of which 81% came from CGIAR investors and
19% from other sources. Expenditure was $43.933 million and the result for 2002 was
($4.946 million).

The result for 2002 has presented CIMMYT with a number of challenges with regard to
financial management of the Center's resources. The larger than anticipated deficit for
the year was a result of some unexpected funding decisions and a more prudent approach
to the write-off of unfulfilled pledges, as recommended by CIMMYT's new external
auditors. The deficit for 2002 comprised an operating loss of $1.441 million, including
staff reduction costs of $1.193 million, in addition to a write-off of unfulfilled pledges
from previous years amounting to $2.312 million. A revised depreciation schedule, in
line with CGIAR accounting standards for a total of $5.269 million, changed the net









assets amount at the end of 2002 to $10.215 million. CIMMYT has responded to ensure
stronger financial management in the Center. Particular attention has been paid to guard
against exchange rate losses through the use of more conservative exchange rate
forecasts; a more stringent review of unpaid funds to avoid multi-year accumulation of
bad debts has been implemented; and, a more conservative approach to the budgeting of
activities funded by core unrestricted and core restricted contributions has been adopted.


Estimated budget for 2003
Our budget estimate for 2003 is US$ 39.02 million. CIMMYT's financial situation has improved
markedly since the last Board meeting in March of this year. Income is up by $0.830 million on
the March Board estimates (excluding the Genetic Resources CP funds) and expenditure has been
constrained.

Since mid year closing there have been a number of positive developments in regard to
income. For example, we have recently signed an agreement with GRDC, Australia, that
will result in AU$ 0.730 million being paid to CIMMYT in the fiscal year 2003-04. In
addition, we have also received a written commitment of US$0.5 million from the
Mexican authorities and there are strong indications that the contribution from Japan will
be at least US$0.1 million higher than the previous forecast.

Prospects for 2003-2004
As a result of a more prudential approach to financial management, mentioned
previously, and vigorous efforts to raise additional income, the Center expects to increase
its working capital reserves by more than $1 million by the end of 2003. CIMMYT has
embarked upon a concerted effort to raise working capital reserves to the level of 90 days
by the end of 2007. CIMMYT's staff reductions over the past 16 months-both voluntary
and involuntary-have provided the Center with a more flexible cost structure while, at
the same time, ensuring that the core competencies of CIMMYT are maintained.

Starting in late 2003, CIMMYT will embark upon a new phase with the implementation
of our new long-term strategy. We are confident that a new, well articulated strategy that
is relevant to today's complex environment will help CIMMYT in its work on behalf of
the resource poor farmers and consumers in developing countries.

CIMMYT is actively participating in the development and implementation of the new
global challenge programs and we expect that participation in the work of the challenge
programs will help to offset changes to the general support allocations by the World Bank
and other donors. We also welcome the introduction of performance-based funding
allocations. Together with our partners, we at CIMMYT will continue to pursue science
that is based on excellence and relevance for developing countries.

Projected financial trends over the 2004-2006 planning period
Our interim research agenda represents a significant change from last year's Medium-
Term Plan by allocating CIMMYT's research activities and resources across 7 rather than
21 projects.









With respect to financing CIMMYT's research agenda, we anticipate that the current
trend for funding agencies to support short-term, highly specific projects will not change
considerably over the planning period. We expect such projects to form the bulk of our
research resources in the foreseeable future.

The funding landscape will also be transformed as the CGIAR Challenge Programs and
other funding mechanisms come into play, and as various donors alter their CGIAR
investment strategies. CIMMYT expects that participation in the CGIAR Challenge
Programs will somewhat offset changes to the general support allocations of the World
Bank and other donors. We also anticipate that the introduction of performance-based
funding allocations will enable CIMMYT to continue to pursue science that is based on
excellence and relevance for developing countries.

Center staffing
In late 2002 and 2003, CIMMYT reduced its staff numbers by 20 internationally
recruited staff and 60 nationally recruited staff to cope with budget shortfalls. These
reductions were taken into account in preparing the interim project portfolio.

Staffing trends are shown in Table 9. We anticipate some movement of staff in the
coming years to bring our human resource allocations into line with priorities under the
new strategic plan. The projections in the table should be considered extremely
provisional, however, until CIMMYT's strategy is implemented.

Capital investment
Based on approval of CIMMYT's strategy and on funding prospects, over the planning
period CIMMYT is committed to investing a greater share of its capital resources in
information and communications infrastructure and in technology to improve the
efficiency of its field operations.














Figure. Top Donors to CIMMYT, 2002







USA
910A


Other Foundations
4%

United Kingdom
5%


France
5%

Australia
6%
Japan
7%
Rockefeller Foundation
8%


World Bank
23%








Switzerland
10%
European Commission
9%


Figure 2. Trends in Grants to CIMMYT (US$000 ), 1996-2002


. ................


0!


-Unrestricted
-Targeted
Total Funding


2000 2001 2002 2003*


00G


000


000


45,


40,


35,


30,


25,


20,


15,


10,


5.(


000


000

000----


000-

'I/U


U


1996 1997 1998 1999


'vu


(















Figure 3. Expenses by Object of Expenditure, 2002


Capital
1% U Others
Depreciation 6%
3%

O Supplies and Services
33%


* Personnel
49%


O Training E Travel
4% 4%


Figure 4. Investors in CIMMYT, 2002


SCGIAR Members (North)
68%


* Advanced research
institute agreements
(Private)
3%
Advanced research
institute agreements
(Public)
6%


SCGIAR Members (South)
4%


O Non CGIAR Members
(South)
1%
O Foundations
(CGIAR Members)
9%

0 Foundations
(Non CGIAR Members)
9%









Table 1. CIMMYT sources of income from grants by country / entity (US $000s), 2002.

1 Investor Grant %


1 ADB (Asian Development Bank)
Australia
1 AusAID
1 Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
6 CRC Molecular Plant Breeding
6 Grains Research and Development Corporation
5 Southern Cross University
Austria
6 IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency)
Azerbaijan
3 Agency for Support to the Development of the
Agricultural Private Sector
Belgium
1 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and
International Cooperation
Brazil
2 EMBRAPA ( Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation)
Canada
6 Agriculture and Agri-Food
1 Canadian International Development Agency
1 International Development Research Centre
CGIAR
1 Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
1 CGIAR Finance Committee
1 International Food Policy Research Institute
1 International Livestock Research Institute
1 International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
1 Standing Panel on Impact Assessment
China
6 CAAS ( Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
2 Department of International Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture
7 Lamsoo Milling Company
Colombia
3 CORPOICA (Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria)
3 FENALCE ( Federaci6n Nacional de Cultivadores de
Cereales y Leguminosas)
2 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
Denmark
1 Danish International Development Agency
European Commission
1 Rural Development and Food Security
Ecuador
3 Promsa
1 FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
4 Ford Foundation
4 Foundation for Harvest Solutions


829
1,773


2.32%
4.95%


7 0.02%

43 0.12%


1.18%


40 0.11%
970 2.71%


190 0.53%


453 1.27%


191 0.53%


2,402


822 2.30%

2,402 6.71%


0.07%
0.06%
0.02%
2.10%










I Investor Grant %
France 1,290 3.60%
1 Ministere de I'Education Nationale, de la Recherche et de la Technologie- 1,191
DRIC (Delegation aux Relations nternationales et a la Cooperation)
7 Club Cinq (Wheat Breeding) 99


Germany
5 Eiselen Foundation
1 Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development
6 University of Hohenheim
India
1 Department of Agriculture, Research and Education
7 Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Co. Ltd. (Wheat Germplasm)
1 IDB (Inter-American Development Bank)
1 IFAD (International Fund For Agricultural Development)
Iran Islamic Republic of
2 Ministry of Agriculture
Japan
6 APN (Asian Pacific Network for Global Change Reseach)
1 Economic Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
5 Nippon Foundation
5 Sasakawa Global 2000
Korea, Republic of
2 Rural Development Administration
Mexico
5 CODEPAP (Consejo de Desarrollo de la Cuenca de Papaloapan)
2 SAGAR ( Secretaria de Agricultura,Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural,
Pesca y Alimentacion)
5 Fundacion Guanajuato Produce A.C.
5 Fundacion Hidalgo
5 Fundacion Sonora
7 ICAMEX (Maize and Wheat Improvement)
7 Grupo Industrial Bimbo ( Industrial Quality in Wheat)
6 Miscellaneous Research Grants
Netherlands
6 DGIS (Directorate General for International Cooperation)
1 Ministry of Foreign Affairs
New Zealand
1 Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Norway
1 Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
1 OPEC Fund for International Development
7 Other
5 Other Foundations
Peru
2 National Institute of Natural Resources
Phillippines
2 Bureau of Agriculture Research, Department of Agriculture
Portugal


886 2.47%


149 0.42%



95 0.27%
439 1.23%

283 0.79%
1,948 5.44%


39
1,428
472
9


154 154 0.43%
706 1.97%
4
324


128 128 0.36%
274 0.77%
11
263

117 117 0.33%


0.80%
0.14%
1.50%
2.77%


60 0.17%

12 0.03%










Investor
Institute for International Scientific and Technological Cooperation
Rockefeller Foundation
SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Enviroment)
South Africa, Republic of
Agricultural Research Council
National Department of Agriculture


I I I I I


_ I I Grant %


169
2,350
73


169
2,350
73
91


0.47%
6.56%
0.20%
0.25%


Spain
7 Agrovegetal, S.A.
2 Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacion
Sweden
1 Swedish International Development Agency
Switzerland
1 Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
5 Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture
Thailand
2 Department of Agriculture
United Kingdom
1 Department for International Development
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
1 Africa Bureau
Uruguay
3 National Institute of Agricultural Research
USA
6 Cornell University
6 Kansas State University
7 Monsanto Company ( Hybrid Wheat)
6 Oklahoma State University
7 Pioneer Hi-Bred International
6 Stanford University
1 United States Agency for International Development
6 United States Department of Agriculture
6 Washington State University
1 World Bank


Total Grants *


293 0.82%


277
2,837


0.77%
7.92%


1,452
1,385


9 0.03%


1,254


1,254 3.50%

209 0.58%


114 114
6,466


7
15
162
91
27
158
5,559
357
90
4,309
35,806


0.32%
18.06%


4,309 12.03%
35,806 100.00%


1) CGIAR Members ( North).
2) CGIAR Members (South).
3) Non CGIAR Members ( South).
4) Foundations (CGIAR Members)
5) Foundations (Non CGIAR Members)
6) Advanced research institute agreements (Public)
7) Advanced research institute agreements (Private)
* Does not include Center Income of $0.736M.


[







Part 2
Financial Tables












Table la. CIMMYT -- Research Agenda Requirements, by Output, 2002 (Actual)

(expenditure in $ million)



Center Projects
001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for humanity
002. Improved maize for the world's poor
003. Improved wheat for the world's poor
004. Maize for sustainable production in stressed environments
005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal environments
006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests
007. Impacts of maize and wheat research
008. Building human capital
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural systems to mitigate poverty and climate chan
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for Sub-Saharan Africa
011. Maize for poverty alleviation and economic growth in Asia
012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia, including rice-wheat systems
013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa
014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America and the Caribbean
015. Restoring food security and economic growth in Central Asia
016. New wheat science to meet global challenges
017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers
018. Biotechnology for food security
019. Biofortified grain for human health
020. Reduced grain losses after harvest
021. Technology assessment for poverty reduction and sustainable resource use


Germplasm
Improvement
0.617
0.859
1.439
0.374
0.646
0.411
0.000
0.000
0.084
1.730
0.726
0.256
0.588
1.409
0.162
0.460
0.536
0.668
0.172
0.105
0.210


OUTPUT TOTALS 1 11.452] 5.23611 9. 8.38 36.


Germplasm
Collection
1.475
0.391
0.608
0.213
0.336
0.446
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.346
0.294
0.103
0.270
0.266
0.081
0.000
0.102
0.305
0.000
0.000
0.000


Sustainable
Production
0.000
0.474
0.735
0.541
1.355
1.178
0.000
0.000
0.338
1.230
0.245
1.006
0.271
1.218
0.071
0.000
0.087
0.782
0.062
0.171
0.083


Policy
0.295
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.597
0.000
0.084
0.115
0.095
0.103
0.000
0.174
0.041
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.117


Enhancing
NARS
0.295
0.414
0.416
0.136
0.202
0.207
0.218
3.968
0.057
0.423
0.341
0.238
0.322
0.739
0.048
0.054
0.000
0.152
0.059
0.018
0.082


PROJECT
TOTALS
2.682
2.137
3.198
1.264
2.540
2.241
0.815
3.968
0.563
3.845
1.701
1.706
1.451
3.807
0.403
0.513
0.725
1.907
0.293
0.294
0.492









Table lb. CIMMYT -- Research Agenda Requirements, by Output, 2003 (Estimate)

(expenditure in $ million)


Center Projects


001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for humanity
002. Improved maize for the world's poor
003. Improved wheat for the world's poor
004. Maize for sustainable production in stressed environments
005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal environments
006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests
007. Impacts of maize and wheat research
008. Building human capital
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural systems to mitigate poverty and climate change
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for Sub-Saharan Africa
011. Maize for poverty alleviation and economic growth in Asia
012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia, including rice-wheat systems
013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa
014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America and the Caribbean
015. Restoring food security and economic growth in Central Asia
016. New wheat science to meet global challenges
017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers
018. Biotechnology for food security
019. Biofortified grain for human health
020. Reduced grain losses after harvest
021. Technology assessment for poverty reduction and sustainable resource use


OUTPUT TOTALS


Germplasm
Improvement


0.659
0.917
1.537
0.399
0.689
0.439
0.000
0.000
0.090
1.848
0.775
0.274
0.628
1.504
0.173
0.491
0.573
0.713
0.183
0.112
0.225


Germplasm
Collection


1.575
0.417
0.649
0.227
0.359
0.477
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.370
0.314
0.110
0.28E
0.284
0.087
0.000
0.10E
0.326
0.000
0.000
0.000


Sustainable
Production


0.000
0.506
0.785
0.578
1.447
1.257
0.000
0.000
0.361
1.314
0.261
1.074
0.290
1.301
0.076
0.000
0.093
0.835
0.067
0.183
0.089


Policy


0.315
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.637
0.000
0.090
0.123
0.102
0.110
0.000
0.186
0.043
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.125


Enhancing
NARS


0.315
0.442
0.444
0.145
0.216
0.221
0.233
4.237
0.061
0.451
0.364
0.254
0.344
0.789
0.051
0.057
0.000
0.162
0.063
0.019
0.088


PROJECT
TOTALS


2.863
2.282
3.415
1.349
2.712
2.393
0.870
4.237
0.602
4.106
1.816
1.821
1.550
4.065
0.430
0.548
0.774
2.036
0.313
0.314
0.526


ha


I 12.229 5.59111 10.516 1.3 8.956 39.0221



















Table Ic. CIMMYT -- Research Agenda Requirements, by Output, 2004 (Plan)

(expenditure in $ million)


PROJECT
Center Projects TOTALS


001. Maize and wheat genetic diversity for humanity 5.830
002. Livelihoods and risk in rainfed, stress-prone, foodgrain systems 6.825
003. Food security, markets, and livelihoods in Africa 5.830
004. Ensuring food security through sustainable intensification in densely-inhabited areas 6.825
005. Improving livelihoods and conserving natural resources in tropical agroecosystems 4.834
006. Policies and institutions that maximize research impacts 4.834
007. Sharing and managing knowledge 4.834

[ OUTPUT TOTALS 39.812








Table 2. CIMMYT Research Agenda Allocation of Resources
(expenditure in $ million)


Allocation of Resources by Output
Logical Framework Format

Outputs:


Germplasm Improvement
(Activity: Germplasm Enhancement & Breeding,
plus Networks, as appropriate)
Germplasm Collection
(Activity: Saving Biodiversity, plus networks, as appropriate)
Sustainable Production
(Activity: Production Systems Dev & Mgmt,
Protecting the Environment and Networks, as appropriate)
Policy
(Activity: Improving Policies, plus Networks, as appropriate)
Enhancing NARS
(Activity: Strengthening NARS the three sub-activities,
plus Networks, as appropriate)


Increasing Productivity
of which:
Germplasm Enhancement & Breeding
Production Systems Development & Management

Protecting the Environment

Saving Biodiversity

Improving Policies

Strengthening NARS
of which:
Training and Professional Development
Documentation, Publications, Info. Dissemination
Organization & Management Counselling
Networks


TOTAL


TOTAL


2002 2003
(Actual) (Estimate)

11.452 12.229


5.236 5.591

9.848 10.516


1.621 1.731

8.388 8.956


36.545 39.022

2002 2003
(plan) (Estimate)

13.326 14.230

10.908 11.647
2.419 2.582

7.023 7.499

5.203 5.555

1.492 1.593

9.501 10.145

5.171 5.522
1.361 1.453
1.580 1.687
1.389 1.483
36.545 39.022











Table 3. CIMMYT Research Agenda Project & Output Cost Summary, 2002-2006


2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Project (actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)
001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for humanity 2.682 2.863
002. Improved maize for the world's poor 2.137 2.282
003. Improved wheat for the world's poor 3.198 3.415
004. Maize for sustainable production in stressed environments 1.264 1.349
005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal environments 2.540 2.712
006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests 2.241 2.393
007. Impacts of maize and wheat research 0.815 0.870
008. Building human capital 3.968 4.237
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural systems to mitigate poverty and climate change 0.563 0.602
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for Sub-Saharan Africa 3.845 4.106
011. Maize for poverty alleviation and economic growth in Asia 1.701 1.816
012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia, including rice-wheat systems 1.706 1.821
013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa 1.451 1.550
014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America and the Caribbean 3.807 4.065
015. Restoring food security and economic growth in Central Asia 0.403 0.430
016. New wheat science to meet global changes 0.513 0.548
017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers 0.725 0.774
018. Biotechnology for food security 1.907 2.036
019. Biofortified grain for human health 0.293 0.313
020. Reducing grain losses after harvest 0.294 0.314
021. Technology assessment for poverty reduction and sustainable resource use 0.492 0.526
Total 36.545 39.022 0.000 0.000 0.000


2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Project (actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)
001. Maize and wheat genetic diversity for humanity 5.830 5.974 6.143
002. Livelihoods and risk in rainfed, stress-prone, foodgrain systems 6.825 6.994 7.191
003. Food security markets and livelihoods in Africa 5.830 5.974 6.143
004. Ensuring food security through sustainable intensification in densely-inhabited areas 6.825 6.994 7.191
005. Improving livelihoods and conserving natural resources in tropical agroecosystems 4.834 4.954 5.094
006. Policies and institutions that maximize research impacts 4.834 4.954 5.094
007. Sharing and managing knowledge 4.834 4.954 5.094
Total 39.812 40.800 41.950

Summary by Output: 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
(actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)
Germplasm Improvement 11.452 12.229
Germplasm Collection 5.236 5.591
Sustainable Production 9.848 10.516
Policy 1.621 1.731
Enhancing NARS 8.388 8.956

Total 36.545 39.022 0.000 0.000 0.000


(in $ million)








Table 4b. CIMMYT Allocation of Project Costs to CGIAR Activities, 2002-2006


2002 2003
Project Activity Actual Estimate
001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: use for Enhancement and Breeding (Maize) 0.295 0.315
humanity Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat) 0.295 0.315
Saving Biodiversity 1.502 1.603
Improving Policies 0.294 0.314
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.135 0.144
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.161 0.172
2.682 2.863
002. Improved maize for the world's poor Enhancement and Breeding (Maize) 0.858 0.916
Production Systems (Maize) 0.107 0.114
Protecting the Environment 0.196 0.210
Saving Biodiversity 0.390 0.417
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.390 0.417
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.195 0.208
2.137 2.282
003. Improved wheat for the world's poor Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat) 1.439 1.537
Production Systems (Wheat) 0.063 0.068
Protecting the Environment 0.672 0.718
Saving Biodiversity 0.639 0.682
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.128 0.137
Strengthening NARS--Networks 0.256 0.273
3.198 3.415
004. Maize for sustainable production in stressed Enhancement and Breeding (Maize) 0.373 0.398
environments Production Systems (Maize) 0.068 0.073
Protecting the Environment 0.472 0.504
Saving Biodiversity 0.179 0.192
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.034 0.036
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.068 0.073
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.034 0.036
Strengthening NARS--Networks 0.034 0.036
1.264 1.349
005. Wheat for sustainable production in marginal Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat) 0.545 0.582
environments Production Systems (Wheat) 0.096 0.103
Protecting the Environment 1.260 1.345
Saving Biodiversity 0.336 0.359
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.101 0.108
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.101 0.108
Strengthening NARS--Networks 0.101 0.108
2.540 2.712


006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests


Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)


0.410


0.438


Production Systems (Wheat) 0.206 0.220
Protecting the Environment 0.971 1.037
Saving Biodiversity 0.446 0.476


(in $ million)








2002 2003
Project Activity Actual Estimate
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.104 0.111
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.104 0.111
2.241 2.393
007. Impacts of maize and wheat research Improving Policies 0.490 0.524
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.072 0.077
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.072 0.077
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.072 0.077
Strengthening NARS--Networks 0.108 0.115
0.815 0.870
008. Building human capital Strengthening NARS--Training 3.150 3.363
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.122 0.131
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.580 0.620
Strengthening NARS--Networks 0.116 0.124
3.968 4.237
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural systems to Enhancement and Breeding (Maize) 0.085 0.090
mitigate poverty and climate change Protecting the Environment 0.228 0.244
Saving Biodiversity 0.110 0.117
Improving Policies 0.085 0.090
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.033 0.035
Strengthening NARS--Networks 0.023 0.024
0.563 0.602
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for Sub-Saharan Enhancement and Breeding (Maize) 1.730 1.848
Africa Production Systems (Maize) 0.576 0.616
Protecting the Environment 0.654 0.698
Saving Biodiversity 0.346 0.370
Improving Policies 0.115 0.123
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.010 0.011
Strengthening NARS-- Information 0.008 0.009
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.115 0.123
Strengthening NARS--Networks 0.289 0.308
3.845 4.106
011. Maize for poverty alleviaton and economic growth Enhancement and Breeding (Maize) 0.452 0.483
in Asia Production Systems (Maize) 0.200 0.213
Protecting the Environment 0.309 0.330
Saving Biodiversity 0.151 0.161
Improving Policies 0.164 0.176
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.136 0.146
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.047 0.050
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.090 0.096
Strengthening NARS--Networks 0.151 0.162
1.701 1.816


012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia,
including rice-wheat systems


Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat)


0.256


0.274


Production Systems (Wheat) 0.409 0.436
Protecting the Environment 0.579 0.618








2002 2003
Project Activity Actual Estimate
Saving Biodiversity 0.103 0.110
Improving Policies 0.103 0.110
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.154 0.164
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.103 0.110
1.706 1.821
013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat) 0.585 0.625
Protecting the Environment 0.270 0.289
Saving Biodiversity 0.186 0.199
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.237 0.253
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.034 0.037
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.067 0.071
Strengthening NARS--Networks 0.071 0.076
1.451 1.550
014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America Enhancement and Breeding (Maize) 1.038 1.109
and the Caribbean Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat) 0.260 0.277
Production Systems (Maize) 0.417 0.445
Production Systems (Wheat) 0.104 0.111
Protecting the Environment 0.611 0.653
Saving Biodiversity 0.329 0.351
Improving Policies 0.090 0.096
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.322 0.344
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.183 0.195
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.246 0.263
Strengthening NARS--Networks 0.207 0.221
3.807 4.065
015. Restoring food security and economic growth in Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat) 0.162 0.173
Central Asia Production Systems (Wheat) 0.028 0.030
Saving Biodiversity 0.061 0.065
Improving Policies 0.040 0.043
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.061 0.065
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.010 0.011
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.020 0.022
Strengthening NARS--Networks 0.020 0.022
0.403 0.430
016. New wheat science to meet global challenges Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat) 0.460 0.492
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.026 0.028
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.026 0.028
0.513 0.548
017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers Enhancement and Breeding (Maize) 0.268 0.287
Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat) 0.268 0.287
Production Systems (Maize) 0.043 0.046
Production Systems (Wheat) 0.043 0.046
Saving Biodiversity 0.102 0.108
0.725 0.774


018. Biotechnology for food security


Enhancement and Breeding (Maize)
31


0.439 0.468








2002 2003
Project Activity Actual Estimate
Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat) 0.229 0.244
Protecting the Environment 0.782 0.835
Saving Biodiversity 0.325 0.347
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.076 0.081
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.056 0.060
1.907 2.036
019. Biofortified grain for human health Enhancement and Breeding (Maize) 0.116 0.124
Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat) 0.055 0.059
Production Systems (Maize) 0.042 0.045
Production Systems (Wheat) 0.020 0.022
Strengthening NARS--Training 0.019 0.020
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.022 0.023
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.019 0.020
0.293 0.313
020. Reducing grain losses after harvest Enhancement and Breeding (Maize) 0.053 0.056
Enhancement and Breeding (Wheat) 0.053 0.056
Production Systems (Maize) 0.009 0.010
Production Systems (Wheat) 0.011 0.011
Protecting the Environment 0.151 0.161
Strengthening NARS--Information 0.018 0.019
0.294 0.314
021. Technology assessment for poverty reduction and Enhancement and Breeding (Crops) 0.117 0.125
sustainable resource use Production Systems (Crops) 0.088 0.094
Protecting the Environment 0.088 0.094
Improving Policies 0.142 0.152
Strengthening NARS--Org & Mgt 0.057 0.061
0.492 0.526
36.545 39.022


Summary by Undertaking:


2002
Actual


2003
Estimate


Increasing Productivity 13.374 14.281
Protecting the Environment 7.244 7.736
Saving Biodiversity 5.205 5.557
Improving Policies 1.525 1.628
Strengthening NARS 9.197 9.820
Total: 36.545 39.022











Table 5. CIMMYT Research Agenda, 2002-2003
Investments by Sector, Commodity, and Region (in $ million)


2002 2003
PRODUCTION SECTORS & COMMODITIES (actual) (estimate)
1/ Germplasm Improvement
Crops 11.452 12.229
Barley


2006
(plan)

0


Maize 5.785 6.177 0.000
Wheat 5.667 6.051 0.000

Livestock
Trees
Fish
TOTAL 11.452 12.229 0

1/ Sustainable Production
Crops 9.848 10.516 0
Barley
Maize 7.386 7.887 0.000
Wheat 2.462 2.629 0.000

Livestock
Trees
Fish
TOTAL 9.848 10.516 0.000

21 Total Research Agenda
Crops 36.545 39.022 0
Barley
Maize 17.023 18.176 0.000
Wheat 19.522 20.846 0.000

Livestock
Trees
Fish
TOTAL 36.545 39.022 0.000
2002 2003 2006
REGION (actual) (estimate) (plan)

Central/West Africa 1.461 1.560 0.000

EasternlSouthern Africa 12.061 12.878 0.000

East/Southeast Asia 2.192 2.340 0.000

South Asia 8.040 8.585 0.000

Central AmericalCaribbean 5.482 5.853 0.000

South America 3.655 3.902 0.000

West Asia and North Africa (WANA) 3.655 3.902 0.000


36.545


39.022


Ii


0.000


TOTAL










Table 6. CIMMYT Research Agenda, 2001-2006
Expenditure by Functional Category, and Capital Investments (in $ million)


2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
OBJECT OF EXPENDITURE (actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)
Personnel 21.528 19.458 20.145 20.649 21.235
Supplies and Services 16.451 16.425 16.455 16.939 17.503
Operational Travel 1.575 1.380 1.500 1.500 1.500
Depreciation 1.293 1.250 1.400 1.400 1.400
TOTAL 40.847 38.513 39.500 40.488 41.638
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
CAPITAL INVESTMENTS (actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)
Physical Facilities
Research 0.503 0.300 0.150 0.100 0.100
Training
Administration
Housing
Auxiliary Units
sub-total 0.503 0.300 0.150 0.100 0.100
Infrastructure & Leasehold
Furnishing & Equipment
Farming 0.215 0.100 0.200 0.150 0.150
Laboratory & Scientific 0.053 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.150
Office 0.019 0.020
Housing
Auxiliary Units
Computers 0.154 0.250 0.320 0.350 0.350
Vehicles 0.412 0.580 0.650 0.500 0.500
Software 0.073 0.080 0.100 0.100 0.100
sub-total 0.926 1.130 1.420 1.300 1.250
TOTAL 1.429 1.430 1.570 1.400 1.350
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
CAPITAL FUND CASH RECONCILIATION (actual) (estimate) (plan) (plan) (plan)
Balance, January 1 18.740 8.525 8.575 8.825 9.075
plus: annual depreciation charge 1.293 1.250 1.400 1.400 1.400
plus / minus: disposal gains/(losses) 0.136 0.050 0.050 0.000 0.000
plus / minus: other -10.215 0.000 0.370 0.250 0.150
minus: asset acquisition costs -1.429 -1.250 -1.570 -1.400 -1.400

equals: Balance, December 31 8.525 8.575 8.825 9.075 9.225
F- -









Table 7. CIMMYT Research Agenda Financing Summary, 2002-2004


(in $ million)
2002


Member ($ actual) (nat. currency)
Unrestricted Contributions
Australia 0.436 0.850
Belgium 0.076 0.087
Brazil 0.040
Canada 0.654 1.035
China 0.130
Denmark 0.663 5.000
Germany 0.239 0.250
India 0.113
Japan 0.763 94.559
Korea 0.050
Mexico 0.090
Netherlands 0.088 0.093
Norway 0.267 2.000
Peru 0.020
Philippines 0.012
Portugal 0.050
Sweden 0.277 2.800
Switzerland 0.234 0.400
Thailand 0.009
USA 4.300
World Bank 3.800
subtotal 12.311

2002
($ actual) (nat. currency)
Targeted Contributions
ADB (Asian Development Bank) 0.829
Australia
AusAID 0.303
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research 0.603
CRC Molecular Plant Breeding 0.179
Grains Research and Development Corporatior 0.247
Southern Cross University 0.005
Austria
IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) 0.007
Azerbaijan
Agency for Support to the Development of the 0.043
Belgium
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and 0.347
International Cooperation
Canada
Agriculture and Agri-Food 0.038
Canadian International Development Agency 0.270
International Development Research Centre 0.008
CGIAR
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropica 0.016
CGIAR Finance Committee 0.005
International Food Policy Research Institute 0.127
International Livestock Research Institute 0.003
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute 0.008
IWMI
Standing Panel on Impact Assessment 0.031
China
CAAS (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences) 0.300
Lamsoo Milling Company 0.023
Colombia


I2003


($ estimated) (nat. currency)

0.377 0.735
0.086 0.086
0.000
1.239 1.950
0.120
0.529 4.000
0.180
0.113
1.009 121.080
0.050
0.090
0.090
0.267 2.000
0.020
0.012
0.000
0.304 2.800
0.291 0.400
0.009
5.000
2.500
12.286

2003


($ estimated)

0.681
1.613







0.002



0.480



0.674


0.053

0.138

0.002
0.063


0.300


(nat. currency)


I I





2004
($ plan) (nat. currency)

0.359 0.700
0.086 0.086
0.000
1.263 1.950
0.120
0.529 4.000
0.180
0.113
1.009 121.080
0.050
0.090
0.090
0.200 1.500
0.020
0.012
0.000
0.301 2.800
0.292 0.400
0.009
4.900
2.500
12.123

2004
($ plan) (nat. currency)

0.700
1.659







0.002



0.493



0.693


0.055

0.142

0.002
0.065


0.308









Member ($ actual) (nat. currency) ($ estimated) (nat. currency)L ($ plan) (nat. currency)


3ORPOICA (Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria 0.041
FENALCE ( Federacion Nacional de Cultivadores de 0.011
-ereales y Leguminosas)
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Developmenl 0.139
Denmark
Danish International Development Agency 0.159
European Commission
Rural Development and Food Security 2.402
Ecuador
Promsa 0.025
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) 0.021
Ford Foundation 0.006
Foundation for Harvest Solutions 0.753
France
Minister de I'Education Nationale, de la Recherche et de la Technologie 1.191
DRIC (Delegation aux Relations nternationales et a la Cooperation
Club Cinq (Wheat Breeding) 0.099
Germany
Eiselen Foundation 0.068
Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Developmenl 0.574
University of Hohenheim 0.005
India
Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Co. Ltd. (Wheat Germplasm; 0.036
IDB (Inter-American Development Bank) 0.095
IFAD (International Fund For Agricultural Development) 0.439
Iran, Islamic Republic of
Ministry of Agriculture 0.283
Japan
4PN (Asian Pacific Network for Global Change Reseach; 0.039
Economic Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs 0.665
Nippon Foundation 0.472
Sasakawa Global 2000 0.009
Korea, Republic of
Rural Development Administration 0.104
Mexico
3ODEPAP (Consejo de Desarrollo de la Cuenca de Papaloapan: 0.004
3ONACYT
SAGAR ( Secretaria de Agricultura,Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, 0.234
Pesca y Alimentacion)
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce A.C. 0.030
Fundacion Hidalgo 0.042
Fundacion Sonora 0.169
CAMEX (Maize and Wheat Improvement) 0.098
Grupo Industrial Bimbo ( Industrial Quality in Wheat] 0.039
Miscellaneous Research Grants 0.128
Netherlands
DGIS (Directorate General for International Cooperation 0.011
Ministry of Foreign Affairs 0.175
New Zealand
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 0.117
Norway
Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs 0.019
DPEC Fund for International Development 0.050
Other 0.538
Other Foundations 0.992
Peru
National Institute of Natural Resources 0.040
Portugal
institute for International Scientific and Technological Cooperatior 0.119
Rockefeller Foundation 2.350


0.108
0.055



0.139

1.796


0.046



1.168





0.763



0.040
0.215

0.380

0.001
0.650
0.750
0.006

0.094

0.012
0.042
0.232

0.013
0.006
0.050

0.036



0.430

0.134


0.050
1.114
1.111

0.040

0.081
2.643


0.111
0.056



0.143

1.848


0.047



1.201





0.785



0.041
0.221

0.391

0.001
0.669
0.772
0.006

0.097

0.012
0.043
0.239

0.013
0.006
0.052

0.038



0.442

0.138


0.051
1.645
1.143

0.041

0.083
2.719









Member ($ actual) (nat. currency)
SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Enviroment) 0.073
South Africa, Republic of
Agricultural Research Council 0.040
National Department of Agriculture 0.051
Spain
4grovegetal, S.A. 0.081
Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacion 0.212
Sweden
Switzerland
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation 1.218
Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture 1.385
United Kingdom
Department for International Developmenl 1.254
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
Africa Bureau 0.209
Uruguay
National Institute of Agricultural Research 0.114
USA
Cornell University 0.007
Kansas State University 0.015
Monsanto Company ( Hybrid Wheat) 0.162
Oklahoma State University 0.091
Pioneer Hi-Bred International 0.027
Stanford University 0.158
United States Agency for International Developmeni 1.259
United States Department of Agriculture 0.357
Nashington State University 0.090
Norld Bank 0.509


subtotal


23.495


($ estimated) (nat. currency)
0.009

0.052


0.073
0.212
0.020

1.119


1.605

0.222

0.186



0.220
0.0381

0.178
3.670
0.299
0.040
1.308
25.460


I1


($ plan) (nat. currency)
0.010

0.054


0.075
0.218
0.021

1.151


1.651

0.228

0.192



0.226
0.039

0.183
3.776
0.308
0.041
1.345
26.689


TOTAL CONTRIBUTIONS


37.746 38.812

2003 2004
($ estimated) ($plan)
37.74 38.81
1.276 1.000
39.022 39.812


Total Agenda Financing ($ actual)
Member Contributions 35.806
+ Center Income 0.739
= Total Financing 36.545









Table 8a. CIMMYT Allocation of 2002 Member Financing to Projects by Undertaking


Project Member Total
001. Maize and wheat genetic resources: Australia 0.130
use for humanity Canada 0.088
Denmark 0.087
European Commission 1.489
France 0.149
Germany 0.109
IFPRI 0.031
IPGRI 0.008
Japan 0.156
MAHYCO 0.036
Monsanto 0.065
Rockefeller Foundation 0.197
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.003
USDA 0.130
World Bank 0.004
Total 2.682
002. Improved maize for the world's poor CIDA 0.004
Colombia 0.038
Germany 0.056
IFAD 0.086
Japan 0.020
Mexico 0.124
Monsanto 0.028
Nippon Foundation 0.049
Novartis Foundation 0.250
OPEC 0.267
Other Foundations 0.010
Rockefeller Foundation 0.253
Switzerland 0.013
UNDP 0.308
United Kingdom 0.164
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.098
USAID 0.269
World Bank 0.100
Total 2.136


003. Improved wheat for the world's poor


Australia 0.156
Bimbo 0.039
China 0.300
France 0.791
Fundacion Guanajuato 0.030
Fundacion Hidalgo Produce 0.042
Fundacion Sonora 0.169
Harvest Solutions 0.165
IAEA 0.007
Iran 0.085
Mexico 0.028
Miscellaneous Research Grants 0.059
Other Foundations 0.238
Rockefeller Foundation 0.013
South Africa 0.037


(in $ million)









Project Member Total
SPIA 0.031
Stanford University 0.158
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.351
USAID 0.494
World Bank 0.005
Total 3.198
004. Maize for sustainable production in Colombia 0.0278
stressed environments Germany 0.1048
IFAD 0.0900
OPEC 0.0200
Rockefeller Foundation 0.5623
Switzerland 0.2384
UNDP 0.0836
United Kingdom 0.1225
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.0100
World Bank 0.0050
Total 1.264
005. Wheat for sustainable production in Australia 0.225
marginal environments CIDA 0.038
Harvest Solutions 0.165
Hohenheim University 0.005
Iran 0.048
Oklahoma State University 0.091
Portugal 0.119
Rockefeller Foundation 0.013
Spain 0.127
Unrestricted + Center Income 1.704
World Bank 0.005
Total 2.540
006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests Australia 0.198
Belgium 0.104
Harvest Solutions 0.170
IDB 0.011
Japan 0.124
Kansas State University 0.015
Korea 0.093
Miscellaneous Research Grants 0.025
Rockefeller Foundation 0.013
Spain 0.085
United Kingdom 0.114
Unrestricted + Center Income 1.125
USDA 0.162
World Bank 0.005
Total 2.241


007. Impacts of maize and wheat research


Denmark 0.072
France 0.231
IFAD 0.208
Japan 0.015
Norway 0.019
Novartis Foundation 0.178
Rockefeller Foundation 0.015









Project Member Total
Switzerland 0.070
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.002
World Bank 0.005
Total 0.815
008. Building human capital ADB 0.829
Australia 0.101
BARI 0.014
Ford Foundation 0.006
Iran 0.110
Miscellaneous Research Grants 0.044
Monsanto 0.049
Other Foundations 0.754
Rockefeller Foundation 0.518
TAC 0.005
Unrestricted + Center Income 1.486
USDA 0.047
World Bank 0.005
Total 3.968
009. Conservation tillage and agricultural systems to France 0.027
mitigate poverty and climate change Germany 0.031
New Zealand 0.070
Rockefeller Foundation 0.013
United Kingdom 0.336
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.081
World Bank 0.005
Total 0.563
010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for Australia 0.074
Sub-Saharan Africa CIAT 0.016
CIDA 0.088
Germany 0.098
IFAD 0.090
IFPRI 0.096
ILRI 0.003
Nippon Foundation 0.222
Novartis Foundation 0.568
Rockefeller Foundation 0.462
Sasakawa 0.009
South Africa 0.014
Switzerland 0.378
United Kingdom 0.432
Unrestricted + Center Income 1.291
World Bank 0.005
Total 3.845
011. Maize for poverty alleviaton and economic Australia 0.041
growth in Asia OPEC 0.020
Rockefeller Foundation 0.100
Unrestricted + Center Income 1.535
World Bank 0.005
Total 1.701


012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia,
including rice-wheat systems


Australia 0.017









Project Member Total
Belgium 0.243
IFAD 0.031
Japan 0.124
Lamsoo Company 0.023
Miscellaneous Research Grants 0.027
Netherlands 0.187
New Zealand 0.047
Rockefeller Foundation 0.013
United Kingdom 0.110
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.045
USAID 0.647
World Bank 0.155
Total 1.706
013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa Australia 0.039
Germany 0.022
Rockefeller Foundation 0.013
Unrestricted + Center Income 1.372
World Bank 0.005
Total 1.451
014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America Agrovegetal, S.A. 0.081
and the Caribbean CODEPAP 0.004
Colombia 0.056
CORPOICA 0.041
FENALCE 0.011
France 0.049
IDB 0.084
IDRC 0.008
INIA 0.114
Mexico 0.143
Miscellaneous Research Grants 0.091
Peru 0.040
PROMSA 0.025
Rockefeller Foundation 0.066
Switzerland 0.215
United Kingdom 0.041
Unrestricted + Center Income 2.489
USAID 0.018
USDA 0.018
World Bank 0.212
Total 3.807
015. Restoring food security and economic growth in Azerbaijan Republic of 0.043
Central Asia FAO 0.021
Germany 0.191
Rockefeller Foundation 0.013
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.040
Washington State University 0.090
World Bank 0.005
Total 0.403


016. New wheat science to meet global challenges


Australia 0.199
Iran 0.040
Rockefeller Foundation 0.013









Project Member Total
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.257
World Bank 0.005
Total 0.513
017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers Apomixis Consortium 0.538
France 0.044
Rockefeller Foundation 0.013
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.126
World Bank 0.005
Total 0.725
018. Biotechnology for food security Australia 0.152
European Commission 0.913
Japan 0.124
Korea 0.011
Novartis Foundation 0.372
Rockefeller Foundation 0.245
Southern Cross University 0.005
Switzerland 0.008
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.073
World Bank 0.005
Total 1.907
019. Biofortified grain for human health Mexico 0.035
Rockefeller Foundation 0.012
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.241
World Bank 0.005
Total 0.293
020. Reducing grain losses after harvest Canada 0.056
Rockefeller Foundation 0.012
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.222
World Bank 0.005
Total 0.295
021. Technology assessment for poverty reduction and ARC 0.040
sustainable resource use Rockefeller Foundation 0.054
SCOPE 0.073
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.320
World Bank 0.005
Total 0.492
Grand Total 36.545

Center Totals
Total
Total Targeted Funding 23.495
Total Unrestricted Funding 12.311
Total Center Income 0.739
36.545









Table 8b. CIMMYT Allocation of 2003 Member Financing to Projects by Undertaking


Project Member Total


001. Maize and wheat genetic resources:
use for humanity


002. Improved maize for the world's poor


003. Improved wheat for the world's poor


Australia


0.119


Canada 0.233
Denmark 0.057
European Commission 1.699
France 0.062
Germany 0.061
IFPRI 0.034
IPGRI 0.002
Japan 0.156
MAHYCO 0.031
MONSANTO 0.088
Rockefeller Foundation 0.184
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.074
USAID 0.026
USDA 0.032
World Bank 0.004
2.863
Canada 0.100
CAPECO 0.023
Colombia 0.043
CONACYT 0.042
Germany 0.061
ICIPE 0.029
Japan 0.124
Mexico 0.024
MONSANTO 0.066
NCGR 0.010
Novartis Foundation 0.606
OPEC 0.010
Rockefeller Foundation 0.284
Novartis Foundation 0.385
UNDP 0.222
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.224
USAID 0.026
World Bank 0.004
2.282
Australia 0.127
BIMBO 0.036
China, Republic of 0.254
France 0.039
Fundacion Guanajuato 0.013
Fundacion Higalgo Produce 0.006
Fundacion Sonora 0.050
Germany 0.265
IAEA 0.002
Iran, Islamic Republic of 0.114
Mexico 0.024
Other Foundations 0.000
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010


(in $ million)









Project Member Total
South Africa 0.02


004. Maize for sustainable production in
stressed environments


005. Wheat for sustainable production in
marginal environments


006. Wheat resistant to diseases and pests


007. Impacts of maize and wheat research


Stanford University 0.178
Apomixis Consortium 0.241
Unrestricted + Center Income 2.026
World Bank 0.004
l 3.415
Colombia 0.022
Germany 0.142
OPEC 0.020
Rockefeller Foundation 0.221
Sweeden 0.020
Switzerland 0.548
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.093
USAID 0.280
World Bank 0.004
l 1.349
Australia 0.247
Canada 0.100
Iran, Islamic Republic of 0.065
Oklahoma State Univ. 0.038
Portugal 0.081
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010
Spain 0.127
Unrestricted + Center Income 1.935
USAID 0.026
USDA 0.080
World Bank 0.004
l 2.712
IDB 0.020
Australia 0.351
Belgium 0.480
Japan 0.124
Korea, Republic of 0.085
Rockefeller Foundation 0.290
Spain 0.085
United Kingdom 0.232
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.696
USAID 0.026
World Bank 0.004
l 2.393
Denmark 0.081
France 0.236
IFAD 0.087
IFPRI 0.073
IWMI 0.063
Novartis Foundation 0.136
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.154
USAID 0.026
World Bank 0.004
l 0.870









Project Member Total


008. Building human capital


009. Conservation tillage and agricultural systems to
mitigate poverty and climate change


010. Food and sustainable livelihoods for
Sub-Saharan Africa


011. Maize for poverty alleviaton and economic
growth in Asia


012. Sustaining wheat production in South Asia,
including rice-wheat systems


Australia 0.248
Iran, Islamic Republic of 0.148
Miscellaneous Research Grants 0.049
MONSANTO 0.066
Other Foundations 0.000
Rockefeller Foundation 0.369
Unrestricted + Center Income 2.062
USAID 0.185
USDA 0.015
World Bank 1.095
4.236
France 0.030
Germany 0.055
New Zealand 0.081
United Kingdom 0.194
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.014
USAID 0.225
World Bank 0.004
0.603
Canada 0.233
CIAT 0.053
Germany 0.142
IFPRI 0.031
Nippon Foundation 0.353
Novartis Foundation 0.106
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010
SASAKAWA 0.006
South Africa 0.026
United Kingdom 0.942
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.020
USAID 0.605
USDA 0.064
USAID 1.512
World Bank 0.004
4.106
Australia 0.041
OPEC 0.020
Rockefeller Foundation 0.905
Switzerland 0.389
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.430
USAID 0.026
World Bank 0.004
1.816
ADB 0.289
APN 0.001
China, Republic of 0.046
IFAD 0.040
Japan 0.124
Miscellaneous Research Grants 0.019
Netherlands 0.430
New Zealand 0.054









Project Member Total
Rockefeller Foundation 0.01(


013. Food security for West Asia and North Africa


014. Agriculture to sustain livelihoods in Latin America
and the Caribbean


015. Restoring food security and economic
growth in Central Asia


016. New wheat science to meet global challenges


017. Apomixis: seed security for poor farmers


United Kingdom 0.186
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.017
USAID 0.471
World Bank 0.134
il1.821
Australia 0.026
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010
Unrestricted + Center Income 1.484
USAID 0.026
World Bank 0.004
l 1.550
IDB 0.020
AGRICOM 0.010
Agrovejetal, s,a. 0.073
CODEPAP 0.012
Colombia 0.043
FENALCE 0.055
France 0.054
INIA 0.186
Mexico 0.122
Miscellaneous Research Grants 0.072
Peru 0.040
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010
Switzerland 0.123
United Kingdom 0.051
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010
Unrestricted + Center Income 3.047
USAID 0.026
USDA 0.108
World Bank 0.004
l 4.065
Rockefeller Foundation 0.021
Australia 0.145
FAO 0.046
Germany 0.037
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010
Washington State University 0.040
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.105
USAID 0.026
l 0.430
Australia 0.087
Iran, Islamic Republic of 0.053
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.368
USAID 0.026
World Bank 0.004
l 0.548
Apomixis Consortium 0.622
France 0.049
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010









Project Member Total
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.061


018. Biotechnology for food security


019. Biofortified grain for human health


020. Reducing grain losses after harvest


021. Technology assessment for poverty
reduction and sustainable resource use


USAID 0.026
World Bank 0.004
0.774
ADB 0.392
Australia 0.224
European Commission 0.097
France 0.699
Japan 0.124
Korea, Republic of 0.009
Mexico 0.032
Novartis Foundation 0.275
Rockefeller Foundation 0.084
Switzerland 0.058
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.013
USAID 0.026
World Bank 0.004
2.036
Mexico 0.030
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.243
USAID 0.026
World Bank 0.004
0.313
Canada 0.007
Rockefeller Foundation 0.010
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.267
USAID 0.026
World Bank 0.004
0.314
Rockefeller Foundation 0.039
ARC 0.009
IFAD 0.087
Rockefeller Foundation 0.120
SCOPE 0.009
Unrestricted + Center Income 0.227
USAID 0.026
World Bank 0.007


Grand Total 39.022

Center Totals
Total
Total Targeted Funding 25.460
Total Unrestricted Funding 12.286
Total Center Income 1.276
Total Allocations 39.022











Table 9: CIMMYT Research Agenda Staff Composition, 2002-2005





Internationally- Recruited Staff (IRS)

Research & Research Support 84 26 74 25 74 25 74 25 74 25
of which:
Post-Doctoral Fellows 9 6 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 5
Associate Professionals 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Training / Communications 5 0 5 5 5 5
of which:
Post-Doctoral Fellows
Associate Professionals

Research Management 5 0 5 5 5 5
of which:
Post-Doctoral Fellows
Associate Professionals


I









Part 3
CIMMYT's Interim Project Portfolio



Draft Project Descriptions with Medium-term Outcomes

Project 1. Maize and wheat genetic diversity for humanity
Featuring CIMMYT in the Challenge Program on Genetic Resources, and the Challenge
Program on Biofortification
CIMMYT's pledge to conserve and facilitate the use of crop genetic diversity of maize
and wheat for humanity, including for future generations, is an essential part of our
mission. The issue is not only one of ethics-but also of institutional requirements, given
CIMMYT's commitment to the Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for
Food and Agriculture as a means of implementing the Convention on Biological
Diversity.

Fulfilling this pledge takes the Center into many areas of research: germplasm collection
for ex-situ conservation; characterization of genebank entries; pre-breeding activities;
applications of genomics; improved and more accessible information on stored genetic
resources; management of intellectual property associated with germplasm; economic
assessment of the value of genetic resources; analysis of policies relating to genetic
resources and genetic diversity; conservation of wild relatives of maize and wheat; and
in-situ conservation of maize and wheat genetic resources, along with information on
gene flows under conditions of farmers' management. Through this project, CIMMYT
aims to engage in these research areas in order to fulfill its pledge and meet its
commitments.

The project will build on CIMMYT's strong commitment to the collection,
characterization, and conservation of the genetic resources of maize, wheat, and their
related species. Attention will continued to be paid to landraces and traditional varieties,
but other materials such as advanced lines, cytogenetic stocks, and genetic populations
will be included. With the advent of genomic technologies that will allow rapid analysis
of large collections of materials, DNA isolated from appropriate materials will also be
considered for inclusion in storage. The project will continue to feature close
collaboration and partnership with the many institutions concerned with the conservation
and proper use of plant genetic resources.

A critical component for facilitating access to and use of the available materials will be
the expanded application of modem information technology. For example, information
on the pedigrees of genebank entries, data on where they were collected, and spatial data
showing where abiotic stresses such as saline soils prevail, can be combined to identify
materials in the genebank with a high likelihood of containing specific traits. Some plant
diseases or physiological responses are driven by strong environmental cues, such as a
sudden increase in rainfall or drop in temperature. Again using GIS, we can develop
maps showing where these environmental cues occur and locate materials from those









regions in our genebank, or even initiate new targeted collecting trips. By coupling these
data with information about the genomic location of genes conferring such traits, it will
be possible to trace which accessions contain such genes, thereby increasing the
efficiency of breeding programs.

In this project, the role of bioinformatics will be especially important. Bioinformatics,
defined as the tools that manage, analyze, and interpret biological information, will
enable us to link vast amounts of data produced through genomics research to other kinds
of data: pedigrees, trial results, and agronomic and socioeconomic data. Because of the
increasing understanding of synteny (genetic similarities) among cereal species, this work
will involve partnerships with many other research organizations. We anticipate that
bioinformatics may transform our approach to crop improvement. Instead of relying on
statistical analyses of large populations of plants to determine the probability that their
progeny will carry certain traits, we may merely identify the desirable genes to be bred
into the next generation of plants, knowing that those genes will be expressed under
certain conditions.

The application of genomics will be an important component of project activities.
Enhanced use of molecular fingerprinting will be needed to deepen the understanding of
maize and wheat resources. As molecular markers are further incorporated into breeding
programs as routine selection agents, additional marker systems and markers linked to
genes of interest will need to be identified. Many of these efforts will be coordinated and
conducted within this project, and the results-linked markers-incorporated into the
other projects, more focused on developing improved varieties.

Beyond the current proven applications of fingerprinting, mapping, and selection,
genomics offers unheralded abilities to investigate the genetic nature of almost any trait,
at the entire genome level. The availability of the entire genome sequence for
Arabidopsis and rice have already provided exciting opportunities, and efforts are
underway in the public sector to sequence significant portions of the maize and wheat
genomes. How exactly to use the entire sequence of a species with vast amounts of
genetic resources still is to be determined, but the potential is clearly here today, and the
project will need to develop appropriate strategies, many of which will involve
partnerships with advanced institutes.

Within the next five to ten years, we will:
Broaden our maize collections to include varieties from the African and Asian
continents.
Assess in situ conservation strategies, the incentives needed to make them
feasible, the effects of gene flow within and between varieties, and the
implications for policy analysis and interventions.
Complete the scheduled regeneration of maize accessions.
Complete the molecular characterization of key accessions of maize and wheat
germplasm.
Include additional materials such as cytogenetic stocks and genetic populations.









Produce, store, and distribute molecular (DNA) samples of the most appropriate
materials for ready use with modern genomic technologies.
Develop and use pre-breeding techniques (conventional, cytological, and
molecular) for maize and wheat.
Identify the genetic bases of key traits (especially drought tolerance and
apomixis) of importance in wheat and maize.
Develop and use a comprehensive database system to enable global web-based
access to information concerning the genetic resources in our care.

Project 2. Livelihoods and risk in rainfed, stress-prone, foodgrain systems
Featuring CIMMYT in the Challenge Program on Water and Food
A vast area in Eurasia is covered by rainfed, stress-prone, food-grain systems. These
systems extend from Turkey and Eastern Europe, through Iran, Afghanistan, and
northwestern Pakistan, to the Central Asian republics and western China. Similar
production systems occur in central India and South America. Areas with comparable
ecologies in southern Africa are included in Project 3 (see below). In much of this area,
agro-pastoral systems are predominant, with livestock at least as important as grain
production in farm family livelihoods. Crop production is often restricted to wheat
(winter, facultative, or spring types), barley, and pulses. Maize production is locally
important in some areas. The growing period is short and options for agroecosystem
diversification limited. In some areas, only one crop can be harvested every two years
due to insufficient rainfall. Food security in these areas depends very heavily on "wheat
security," as the crop often provides more than 50% of the daily calories consumed.

The vast majority of rainfed, stress-prone, food-grain systems experience a rather unusual
climate. The frequency of dry years compared to wetter, more productive years varies
considerably among geographic regions and among locations within regions. In most
rainfed environments it is during the wetter years that farmers make most of their income,
thereby buffering the impact on livelihoods of drier, less productive years. During the
wetter years, diseases can be a greater limitation to yield than water, and farmers need
yield responsive cultivars with resistance to foliar disease. During the drier years, abiotic
stresses (drought, heat, micronutrient imbalances), and root diseases and nematodes
become the major problems.

Understandably, production practices and livelihood systems vary substantially over this
huge area. Still, several common threads emerge:
Rainfall is variable, rainfall use efficiency is low, and drought stress is common.
Yields are low because much of the rainwater is lost through high evaporation
rate from the soil, or from weed competition. On millions of hectares of cropland,
little or no rainfall occurs after sowing, and crops rely on stored soil moisture and
are often severely drought stressed.
Higher rainfall conditions can occur intermittently throughout these agro-
ecosystems but early season disease pressure and waterlogging, and late season
terminal drought stress reduce system productivity.
Land degradation is widespread, provoked by over-grazing of pastures, intensive
tillage of agricultural land, and the grazing of crop residues. Soil erosion reduces









soil fertility and causes millions of tons of sediment to be flushed downstream
annually, at times threatening downstream irrigation infrastructure and dams.
Cereal-fallow monoculture is practiced in large areas to conserve moisture from
one non-crop year to the next production cycle. To be effective, this requires
proper mulch preparation, residue cover, and weed control. Monoculture often
results in increased soil health problems, in particular nematodes and root rots,
and is causing soil fertility to decline rapidly.
Reduced tillage husbandry is slowly gaining acceptance by farmers, given that
tillage energy costs are high, and current farming systems are not sustainable.

The challenge here is to foster the development of production and livelihood systems that
improve local and regional food security; that reduce the risks associated with recurrent
drought; that sensibly combine livestock and crop production activities; that make the
most of limited or variable water resources; that help reduce land degradation; that effect
the most efficient use of scarce inputs; that foster the improvement of input and product
markets, and related institutions; and that contribute to system diversification, for more
stable production of a wider array of crops.

CIMMYT aims to contribute to the development of such systems through this project,
which will be staffed by a multidisciplinary team that includes social scientists, systems
agronomists, and specialists in NRM; plant breeders and pathologists; scientists
knowledgeable about participatory research methods and gender analysis; experts in seed
systems; and specialists in biotechnology, among others. The project will feature five
main themes: development of drought tolerant, input responsive, disease resistant wheat
germplasm; resource conserving production technologies; crop diversification; policy
analysis and advocacy to foster market development; and capacity building, for both
individual scientists and institutions.

Featured in this project will be new, drought-resistant wheat varieties currently being
developed at CIMMYT. These wheats are descended from crosses between different
kinds of wheat and goat grass, one of wheat's wild relatives. The new wheats, with
greatly enhanced seedling vigor, produce up to 30% more grain under tough growing
conditions, even when water availability from all sources is restricted (under controlled
conditions) to less than 200 mm per season. These wheats, currently undergoing
international testing, also feature improved resistance to root rots and nematodes. When
faced by highly variable rainfall patterns, these cultivars tolerate major high-rainfall
diseases and are responsive to inputs, so farmers can benefit from any extra rainfall.
Drought-tolerant maize cultivars developed by CIMMYT in other regions will be tested
for adaptation in target agroecologies.

CIMMYT is also working with partners in Central and West Asia, and North Africa
(CWANA), China, South America, and Ethiopia on reduced tillage, crop residue
management, and conservation agriculture. Crop residues on the soil surface have
numerous advantages: surface soil structure and, therefore, water infiltration rate are
maintained; evaporation is reduced; drought is mitigated; soil biological activity is
increased; biological pest control is enhanced; and soil organic matter, the basis of soil
improvement, is increased. Surface residues also efficiently reduce soil erosion, both by









wind (due to the protective cover and wind impedance) and by water (due to the
improved infiltration rate and reductions in water run-off velocity). Increasing problems
due to micronutrient deficiencies, in particular zinc, are further evidence of the fast
declining soil fertility in West Asia. Moreover, the reduction in soil tillage associated
with residue retention (optimally zero tillage) reduces labor input, benefiting especially
women and children, and allows for more diversification of the farm enterprise.

Research on zero tillage and surface residue retention has shown an increase in crop
yields, but the demand for forage has been an obstacle to widespread adoption of these
systems. Current systems, however, are often unsustainable, as land resources at times
can sustainably support only a fraction of the livestock that graze there.

To break the soil degradation cycle, improve livelihoods, and reduce the downstream
effects of soil erosion, systems must be devised, in conjunction with farm communities,
to reduce tillage and return more organic matter to the soil. Building on past research, the
project will develop conservation agriculture strategies and adapted varieties to increase
system productivity, decrease soil erosion and degradation, and boost labor productivity.
The project will also develop community-based strategies for forage management, as well
as explore public policy options to foster continued progress.

Within the next five to ten years, we will:
Help to increase water productivity and reverse declining soil fertility through
expansion of cereal-legume rotations and increased crop diversification.
Help in achieving the adoption of reduced tillage and other resource-conserving
technologies, together with varieties specifically adapted to those conditions.
Disseminate new wheat cultivars with increased drought tolerance, resistance to
soil-borne diseases, and improved adaptation to moisture-conserving tillage
practices.
Improve the dietary value of wheat through the development of varieties that
produce micronutrient-enriched grains (in particular Zn).
Develop drought and heat tolerant maize germplasm with enhanced protein
quality to help meet the demand for quality livestock feed.


Project 3. Food security, markets, and livelihoods in Africa
Featuring CIMMYT in the Challenge Program for sub-Saharan Africa, and the
Challenge Program for Water and Food
Of all regions of the developing world, sub-Saharan Africa poses the greatest challenge
for sustained improvement of rural livelihoods and agricultural productivity. Only in this
region has per capital food production actually declined over recent years. Child
malnutrition has increased, and widespread poverty persists. A combination of thin,
infertile soils, uncertain and variable rainfall, outbreaks of the parasitic weed Striga, and
poorly-developed markets and rural infrastructure has stalled efforts to improve the
productivity and sustainability of agroecosystems. In some countries, conflict, ill-advised
macroeconomic and agricultural policies, and/or a high incidence of HIV-AIDS have









exacerbated these problems. Recently, a blend of these factors led to widespread hunger
and starvation in eastern, central, and southern Africa.

By choice, maize is overwhelmingly the most important starch staple for smallholder
farm households in eastern and southern Africa. However, much of this maize is not
produced for cash sale at harvest (when prices are low) but rather to avoid having to
purchase maize in the pre-harvest hungry season (when prices are high). Maize is often
produced in rotation or association with groundnut, beans, or other legumes, or cash
crops such as cotton or tobacco. Safe storage of harvested grain is important, but difficult
for farmers to achieve. Stored grain is vulnerable to several aggressive pests that can
destroy food reserves in just a few months.

Livestock are an important household asset in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa,
providing draft power for farm operations, manure to fertilize fields, and milk or meat
products. Animals also serve as a capital asset that can be sold during hard times.
Livelihood systems often feature a close integration of livestock and crop management,
as well as a reliance on migration and remittances as a source of cash income.

The challenge here is to foster the development of production and livelihood systems that
avoid unacceptable levels of loss in bad (e.g., drought) seasons; that are substantially
more productive than existing systems in good seasons; that improve labor productivity
so as to compensate for loss of family labor to migration or HIV-AIDS; that sustainably
exploit relatively favorable niches in the landscape; that make the most efficient use of
scarce and expensive purchased inputs; that take full advantage of locally available inputs
such as leaf litter, cattle manure, crop residues, and green manure cover crops to maintain
soil fertility and system productivity; and that foster market development to reduce input
prices and improve product prices at the farm level.

Through this project, CIMMYT aims to contribute to the development of such systems.
The project will be staffed by a multidisciplinary team that includes social scientists,
systems agronomists and NRM specialists, plant breeders and pathologists, scientists
knowledgeable about participatory research methods and gender analysis, experts in seed
systems, and specialists in biotechnology, among others.

The project will feature national and regional partnerships with the public and private
sectors, and NGOs. It will focus on improving system resilience and productivity in the
face of biophysical and socioeconomic risk. This risk may stem from unfavorable
weather, large changes in the availability or price of fertilizers, Striga outbreaks, soil
exhaustion in some fields, the loss of stored grain, the loss of productive family members
to disease, or political unrest.

One important project component will consist of revolutionary new maize materials that,
compared to alternatives, are substantially more tolerant to drought and low soil fertility,
and/or are more nutritious. The continued development of these breakthrough materials
will be backstopped by CIMMYT's unparalleled global network of maize scientists.
Some of this scientific support will consist of strategic research on the physiology of
drought, and the possible application of molecular markers to rapidly identify stress









tolerant materials. Continued interaction with partners in Ethiopia will aim to provide
suitable wheat germplasm to smallholder farmers in that country.

Participatory varietal selection of these materials through collaborative "mother-baby"
trials will expand. Seed systems to further disseminate these materials will rely either on
private sector entities or community-based seed production. In both cases, CIMMYT will
support efforts to make good seed reliably available at fair prices to smallholder farmers.

The project will match the work on germplasm and seed with complementary research on
crop and natural resource management. Existing CIMMYT-managed networks will help
fit "best bet" soil fertility management practices to clearly defined land types and farmer
categories. Farmer-participatory research, GIS, and crop modeling have been, and will
continue to be, of great assistance in this process. Best bet practices include farm-level
risk aversion strategies, new maize-legume rotations and associations; new approaches
using very low levels of N fertilizer; and conservation agriculture practices for soil
moisture conservation. Work on conservation agriculture will proceed hand in hand with
the African Conservation Tillage Network and partner institutions. Policy and market
analyses will be conducted to foster market development and to better integrate
smallholder systems into national markets.

In Striga infested areas, project activity will include work on maize materials that are
tolerant to a herbicide seed treatment effective in Striga eradication. And in Kenya, work
will continue, in the context of local biosafety regulations and informed deliberation by
civil society, to explore the possible release to farmers of genetically modified maize
varieties resistant to stem borer, a highly damaging insect pest in that country.

A good deal of attention will also be placed on crop-livestock interactions because open
grazing of cattle on crop residues reduces the amount of mulch available for the next crop
cycle. Finally, the project will monitor and assess the consequences and impacts that can
be attributed to project activities-on incomes, livelihoods, soil fertility management
practices and soil health, and longer-term effects on natural resource quality and the
environment.

Within the next five to ten years, we will:
Help foster the adoption of maize germplasm that tolerates drought and low soil
fertility by 20% of farm families managing maize systems in eastern and southern
Africa.
Prove the effectiveness of techniques that combat Striga and grain storage pests,
and promote their generalized use.
Develop a comprehensive set of decision aids for use by farmers and change
agents to match resource-conserving practices with land types and farmer
categories, and foster their generalized use.
Document the medium-term consequences of the adoption of improved practices
for incomes, livelihoods, soil and water resources, and the environment.
Strengthen collaboration among public and private sector institutions and NGOs
to more effectively address priority development concerns.









Understand policy and institutional issues affecting the agricultural sub-sector and
contribute to the policy-making debate.


Project 4. Ensuring food security through sustainable intensification in densely-
inhabited areas
Featuring CIMMYT in the Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, and the
Challenge Program for Water and Food
It is well known that most of the world's poor reside in rural areas of developing
countries. It is, perhaps, less well known that a large proportion of these reside in densely
populated rural areas where cropping systems are intensive and livelihood systems
complex. Production from these areas sustain local farming communities, as well as
neighboring cities. On a global level, improved food security and livelihoods for poor
people depend heavily on "getting things right" in those areas where the poor are
concentrated in enormous numbers. Most, but not all, of these areas feature irrigated
systems. They include the irrigated Indo-Gangetic Plains, the lower Nile Valley, the
irrigated portions of the Yellow River Basin, among others.

The challenge in these areas is to foster the development of farming systems that are
more intensive and, at the same time, more resilient and sustainable than the current ones;
that assure food-grain security while delivering a more diverse set of higher-value
products; that use external inputs more efficiently; that generate more employment for the
landless; that supply less expensive food for poor urban consumers; and, finally, that do
all of this while conserving and improving soil and water resources. Of special concern is
the need to foster efficient water use so as to help conserve water resources. Improved
water productivity in crop production is necessary to free up scarce water for urban,
industrial, ecological, and other competing uses.

Through this project, CIMMYT will contribute to the development of such systems,
relying on a multidisciplinary team that includes social scientists, systems agronomists
and NRM specialists, plant breeders and pathologists, scientists knowledgeable about
participatory research methods and gender analysis, experts in seed systems, and
specialists in biotechnology. The project will go beyond raising maize and wheat yields
and will seek to improve system productivity and diversity, which may at times imply a
decrease, not an increase, in resources devoted to cereal production. Instead of increasing
input use for higher grain yields, the project will seek to improve nutrient and water use
efficiency, which should ultimately lead to better harvests with fewer inputs.

The opportunities for developing such systems are immense. Experience in the Indo-
Gangetic Plains, the irrigated portions of the Yellow River Basin, and similar areas has
demonstrated the enormous potential of new system and resource management practices
to increase yields while reducing input use, especially water. These resource-conserving
technologies include zero tillage of wheat after rice; zero tilled, rice-based rotations on
permanent beds, with rice grown as an aerobic crop followed by wheat, maize, legumes,
or other crops; "parachute" establishment of rice seedlings; surface seeding of wheat after
rice in low-lying, poorly drained portions of the toposequence; accelerated crop
establishment to allow a third crop after wheat; substitution of pulses, maize, or potatoes









for wheat, facilitated by the use of permanent beds; laser-leveling of irrigated fields; and
many, many more. Farmer trials in Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan have
shown farm-level water savings of over 50% with some of these practices, at the same
time as yields increase and the use of fertilizer and other inputs decreases markedly. Fuel
savings for tillage can reach 90%. In the future, fuel use in agriculture might be a small
fraction of what it once was.

These outcomes and achievements are not theoretical: farmers on more than 500,000
hectares of irrigated land in the Indo-Gangetic Plains use these practices on a daily basis,
as do farmers on over 200,000 hectares in China. Adoption is growing so rapidly that
some call this movement the "tillage revolution." The project will foster the expansion of
this revolution, in more areas, with more technical options, with expanded farmer
experimentation, and with close attention to its effects on livelihoods, equity, food
security, system diversity, water use, and land and water quality.

The project will continue to work with partners on developing high-yielding, disease and
pest resistant maize and wheat varieties with high end-use and consumer quality, and in
so doing will apply conventional, marker assisted, and participatory plant breeding, and
participatory varietal selection. The project will focus specifically on developing maize
and wheat varieties that are tailored to new resource-conserving practices such as zero
tillage, crop residue mulch, permanent bed systems, and location-specific nutrient
management. In addition, recently identified sources of novel genetic variation in wheat
wild relatives will aid in the development of new varieties with tolerance to salinity, an
abiotic stress threatening 60 million hectares of irrigated crop land.

Due to its good performance or preferred quality characteristics, a single wheat variety is
often grown over extensive areas, making farmers in those areas more vulnerable to
changes in the virulence of disease pathogens. Deploying a number of wheat varieties
with diverse resistance to disease is one way to reduce "boom-and-bust" cycles in which
high yields are produced until the disease resistance of the predominant variety breaks
down, causing devastating losses over extensive areas. However, the approach used most
by CIMMYT for avoiding such losses is to develop wheat varieties with resistance based
on multiple minor genes that confer durable resistance, effectively protecting the wheat
crop despite changes in virulence.

Given the strength of system interactions in these intensively cropped areas, the project
will cultivate close partnerships with those NARSs and other institutions with skills in
relevant subjects, e.g., rice researchers for rice-wheat systems, agricultural machine
specialists and small private factories to manufacture zero tillage drills and bed former,
and maize and legume scientists to work on diversifying continuous rice-wheat rotations.
At times, system level changes plus policy adjustments will be needed to foster shifts in
cropping calendars and labor use patterns to take advantage of opportunities for
additional diversification.

Finally, the project will energetically monitor and assess the consequences and impacts
that project activities could have on incomes, livelihoods, natural resource quality, and
the environment.









Within the next five to ten years, in collaboration with many partner institutions, we will:
Help achieve the adoption of zero tillage and other resource-conserving
technologies, together with specifically adapted maize and wheat varieties, in a
significant proportion of cropland in densely inhabited and intensively cultivated
areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Help facilitate the adoption of rational crop rotations in target areas, which will
result in more holistic cropping systems that will help the grain supply keep pace
with demand and help ensure that food remains affordable for the poor.
Work towards reducing water use in agriculture by over 20% (though the value of
agricultural production will actually increase, thanks to system diversification)
and substantially decreasing fuel use.
Enhance farmers' market access by providing cereal varieties with specific, value-
added, end-use quality traits, including enhanced dietary value (e.g., wheats with
improved quality for making leavened, steamed, and flat breads, noodles, pasta,
etc., and maize with higher quality protein).


Project 5. Improving livelihoods and conserving natural resources in tropical
agroecosystems
The rural poor in tropical Latin America, including many indigenous groups, have long
regarded maize as having a special, central place in their livelihood systems. In addition
to being a staple food, maize is also an essential part of their cultural heritage. They often
grow it in traditional milpa systems, where maize is associated with beans, squash, and
chiles (in Mexico and Central America), or with cassava (South America). This maize is
normally not produced for cash sale, but rather to avoid having to purchase it when prices
are high. Part of the maize may be used to feed small numbers of livestock. Livelihood
strategies may include the production of cash crops (e.g., coffee), manufacture of
handicrafts, seasonal off-farm work, or remittances from family members who have
migrated to cities or to the US.

Systems based on tropical maize are also pervasive in West Africa. It should be noted
that wheat systems are seldom found in the tropics, except at high altitudes, e.g., the
Quetzaltenango area of Guatemala, the highlands of Ecuador, or Ethiopia.

More recently, systems based on maize have come to dominate smallholder rainfed
agriculture in tropical Southeast Asia and China. In these systems, maize is grown as a
continuous monocrop, in rotation with lowland rice, or in rotation or association with
upland rice or cassava. This maize is grown predominantly for livestock feed (though,
curiously, because of the sheer size of Asian populations, a greater volume of maize is
used in Asia for direct human consumption than in Latin America). Much of it is sold to
market intermediaries, though some may be retained for feeding household livestock. The
demand for meat and dairy products is exploding in East and Southeast Asia, and the
demand for feed maize is increasing in proportion. Whether tropical maize is grown for
food in Guatemala or for feed in the Philippines, a mounting demand for this commodity
is triggering expansion of production into unsuitable areas such as fragile hillsides and









tropical forests. Despite this, households that rely heavily on maize production for their
livelihoods tend to be poor.

Agroecosystems featuring tropical (non-temperate) maize may be distributed around the
world, but they share common problems. Tropical maize in the developing world is
grown at varying latitudes and altitudes-for example, the hot and humid lowlands; the
warm subtropics and mid-altitudes; and the cooler tropical highlands. In the hot lowlands,
high rainfall and temperature often give rise to acid, infertile soils. Weeds grow quickly
and can swiftly overwhelm the crop. Because of extended growing seasons (sometimes
12 months long), pests and diseases can become lethal threats. Pest and disease hotspots
are especially likely to develop when farmers grow maize continuously-up to three
crops annually. Drought or waterlogging can damage crops. Insects and ear rots can spoil
stored grain, which is of special concern to vulnerable households. Finally, soils and soil
fertility can be degraded, particularly when fields are located on hillsides or land tenure is
insecure.

The challenge here is to develop production systems that improve the livelihoods of poor
farm households; that exploit ecological principles to help control weeds, pests, and
diseases; that foster the conservation of soil and water; and that help meet increasing
demand for food maize (in Latin America) and feed maize (in Asia). Through this
project, CIMMYT aims to contribute to the development of such systems. In doing this,
CIMMYT is aware that work to improve the productivity of maize in tropical
agroecosystems is only an entry point into the larger question of improving livelihoods
and reducing poverty, and that close collaboration with numerous other partners will be
needed. Project staff will be a multidisciplinary team made up of social scientists,
systems agronomists and NRM specialists, plant breeders and pathologists, scientists
knowledgeable about participatory research methods and gender analysis, experts in seed
systems, and specialists in biotechnology.

The project will feature the integration of high-yielding, stress-tolerant, nutrient-
enhanced maize germplasm with resource-conserving technologies. It will develop and
disseminate maize germplasm that is adapted to acid soils, tolerant of drought and low
fertility conditions, tolerant of waterlogging, resistant to disease and insect pests, more
nutritious thanks to improved protein quality and higher micronutrient content, and high-
yielding when growing conditions are favorable. Germplasm enhancement will be
implemented in Mexico and the regions, in partnership with key stakeholders. Its
efficiency will be improved through more systematic use of marker assisted selection.
Effective collaboration with the public sector will be essential for research but, given the
rapidly changing intellectual property environment, new approaches will be sought to
work more closely with the private seed sector and accelerate the dissemination of new
varieties.

Weed and erosion control, higher water use efficiency, and improved soil fertility will be
fostered through the introduction of resource-conserving practices, such as direct sowing
without tillage, cover crops, crop residue management, mulch management, and
alternative and more diverse cropping patterns. Development of these practices will
require a substantial level of farmer participatory experimentation, which will also be









important in the iterative design and modification of zero tillage seeders and other
implements that are suitable for smallholders. The project will foster system
diversification to avoid continuous maize cultivation. This will require a combination of
policy analysis and advocacy, market analysis, and farmer experimentation with
alternative crops.

The longer-term consequences of the above practices-for example, on soil health, soil
fertility, organic matter status, rate of erosion, and size and diversity of the weed seed
bank-will be monitored, as will their scale consequences-for example, changes in
water quantity and quality for downstream water users, or the pace and extent of siltation
of downstream irrigation infrastructure. Impacts of technical change on livelihoods and
well-being of the poor will be closely studied.

Within the next five to ten years, in collaboration with many partner institutions, we will:
Improve the productivity and profitability of maize-based agroecosystems in
tropical ecologies.
Foster the adoption of conservation agriculture practices, especially zero tillage
with mulch soil cover, on over one million hectares of tropical lowlands and
uplands; this will bring about corresponding improvements in farmers' incomes
and livelihoods, reductions in their production costs, and reductions in the rate of
land degradation.
Facilitate a substantial reduction in the area devoted to continuous maize
production (especially in unsuitable areas) through successful system
diversification.
Assist in the effective dissemination and adoption of (biotic and abiotic) stress
tolerant and nutritious maize varieties.
Document impacts and consequences for farm family livelihoods and the
environment of technical change in maize systems.


Project 6. Policies and institutions that maximize research impacts
The fact that CIMMYT's mandate is global, rather than regional or ecosystem-specific,
means that research activities undertaken in response to the needs of specific target
groups in particular locations still must make sense in the context of CIMMYT's overall
research portfolio. A strong theme highlighted in CIMMYT's new strategic plan is the
desirability of devolving a greater amount of adaptive research to regional offices, where
it can be located closer to key partners and stakeholders. This does not mean, however,
that there is no longer a need for centralized research on issues of broad strategic
importance. If CIMMYT is to succeed in meeting its global mandate, applied or
"downstream" research focused on location-specific problems must be complemented by
strategic or "upstream" research focused on issues that transcend particular regions,
ecosystems, or crops.

Strategic work based on comparative analysis across countries and regions is needed for a
number of reasons: to understand changes affecting the economic, political, and
institutional environments in which we operate; to identify cross-cutting issues that









transcend national and regional boundaries; to ensure that our overall portfolio of
resources is being used efficiently and effectively; to identify key entry points at which
policy interventions can improve the likelihood that our products and services will reach
potential users quickly and effectively; and to ensure that when CIMMYT speaks out on
issues of importance to the Center and its partners, it does so in a consistent and coherent
way. Because these functions are global in scope and strategic in nature, they cannot be
accomplished easily within the other projects, most of which address problems associated
with particular regions, particular production systems, and in some cases particular crops.

Five activities of strategic global importance will be carried out under this project:
1. Monitoring global trends. With the rise of globalization, the world economy is
becoming increasingly integrated. As borders become more open, international
prices penetrate ever more easily into domestic markets, transmitting important
signals about changes in supply and demand conditions. In response to these
signals, goods, services, and production factors flow from surplus to deficit areas,
altering production, consumption, and employment possibilities and influencing
the nature and incidence of poverty. Producers and consumers of maize and wheat
are affected by these changes, although often in different ways. In many
developing countries, consumers of maize and wheat are benefiting from
increased supplies and lower prices, whereas producers face increased
competition from low-cost imports. In some countries, intensification of maize-
and wheat-based farming systems is generating increased employment
opportunities for agricultural laborers, although rising wage rates together with
falling grain prices are encouraging farmers to reduce input use and shift from
labor-intensive to capital-intensive production methods. All of these changes have
important implications for maize and wheat farmers in developing countries, who
must struggle to survive in an increasingly competitive environment. To ensure
that our research continues to address the priority needs of these farmers, there is
a need to monitor long-term trends in world maize and wheat markets, with an
eye to identifying developments that may call for adjustments to our portfolio of
activities.

2. Setting overall priorities. Like all research organizations, CIMMYT faces
budgetary constraints that compel us to pay careful attention to priority setting.
Research priority setting is a process of elimination: from among a large set of
opportunities, scarce resources must be directed toward those most likely to
generate the greatest amount of desirable impacts. Since CIMMYT holds a global
mandate, priority setting for the Center must be based upon a comprehensive
assessment of potential research and development activities worldwide. These
potential activities must be ranked in terms of attractiveness, taking into account
their expected cost, as well as their expected contribution to achieving
CIMMYT's mission. To ensure that research priorities for CIMMYT as a whole
are set appropriately, there is a need to carry out research priority setting in a
centralized manner.

3. Assessing impact. Most of the donors who provide financial support for CIMMYT
demand credible evidence that their funds are being used effectively. Thus there is









a need for CIMMYT to maintain a strong impact assessment capacity. Although
some impact assessment work can be done at the project level through targeted
case studies, a big disadvantage of case studies is that they cannot always be
combined to provide a complete picture of the overall breadth and scope of the
impact of CIMMYT's work. In order to paint such a picture, impact assessment
efforts must focus not only on the impacts of individual CIMMYT projects, but
also on the global impacts of CIMMYT's work, including the impacts associated
with the "spillover benefits" that accrue as technologies diffuse internationally.
Centralized coordination of the impact assessment function will not only allow
assessment at the global level, it will also help to ensure that targeted impact
assessment case studies carried out within individual projects are
methodologically consistent and generate comparable results.

4. Designing policy interventions. CIMMYT's new strategy includes a renewed
commitment to making sure that improved technologies make their way into
farmers' fields. In the future, we will increase our efforts to strengthen technology
delivery systems and remove constraints to successful adoption, especially of
improved plant varieties and crop and resource management practices developed
by ourselves and our partners. Experience suggests that constraints to adoption
often are caused by bad policies and ineffective institutions-for example, weak
extension systems that impede the flow of technical information, ineffective
marketing systems that prevent farmers from obtaining key inputs, or
inappropriate price policies that distort economic incentives to invest in new
technology. Policy analysis can contribute to design interventions that could help
overcome adoption constraints. Experimentation with alternative institutional
arrangements and "learning by doing" can lead to faster and more widespread
uptake of improved technologies. However, these types of activities are rarely
successful when carried out in a purely local context. They are much more likely
to be effective when based on insights derived from comparative analysis across
countries, economies, and political systems. For this reason, central coordination
is needed to improve the quality and effectiveness of CIMMYT's policy analysis
and institutional design work.

5. Advocatingfor change. Policies can have impact only when they are
implemented, and policies are implemented only when they have political
support. For this reason, CIMMYT's new strategy includes a commitment to
advocacy. Effective advocacy can be carried out at many different levels-local,
national, regional, and global. Regardless of the level at which CIMMYT engages
in advocacy, however, it is critically important that the messages being advocated
be carefully considered, endorsed by management at the highest level, effectively
communicated, and above all consistent. Ensuring these things requires a high
degree of coordination that would be difficult to achieve if responsibility for
advocacy were devolved to individual projects. Central coordination is therefore
needed to ensure the effectiveness of CIMMYT's advocacy work.

Historically in CIMMYT, many of the activities that fall under this project have been
carried out mainly by social scientists. While social scientists will continue to play an









important role in the project, the participation of biophysical scientists will increase
significantly compared to past years. Experience has shown that activities such as
research priority setting, impacts assessment, and policy design cannot be carried out
effectively by external specialists. Opening them up to participation by scientists from a
wide range of disciplines, who are actively involved in CIMMYT's technology
development work, will help to instill a "product delivery" mentality, foster an impact
assessment culture throughout the organization, and strengthen institutional learning and
change processes.


Project 7. Sharing and managing knowledge
Projects 1 through 6 (described above) share a common feature: an emphasis on
knowledge management. In this way, the projects, as a group, support one of CIMMYT's
major long-term goals: to become a key player in a global innovation network that
effectively mobilizes knowledge about maize and wheat systems in the service of
sustainable development.

This project aims to make that goal a reality. It will provide a framework whereby
communities of partners can harness their broad diversity of knowledge to create a public
knowledge base on maize and wheat systems in developing countries. This knowledge
base will be available to all, thereby serving vast numbers of users who were not actually
involved in its development. Within this project, we will efficiently manage our
knowledge and increase our capacity (and that of our partners) to provide a strong, open
base of learning and more efficiently foster improvements in the livelihoods of the poor
in developing countries.

Much of the knowledge created by research has commonly been available to only a
fraction of the people who could potentially benefit from it. However, advances in
information and communications technology are removing barriers to information
sharing, thereby enabling agricultural innovations to have a much wider impact. The
medium-term objectives for this project are to develop comprehensive resources to:
* Make available scientific information needed for effective research.
* Share knowledge developed through the work of CIMMYT and its partners, and other
contributors worldwide.
* Build capacity through learning, collaborative research, and mentoring.

With respect to the first objective, it is obvious that the quality and usefulness of the
knowledge that CIMMYT creates and shares with others depend, to a great extent, on
CIMMYT's own access to information and knowledge. The research needs of CIMMYT
and its partners are increasingly multidisciplinary, diverse, and information-intensive,
especially given our global research mandate. To achieve this objective, we will improve
CIMMYT's access to: information on new science; databases (including bioinformatics
resources); scientific journals; molecular maps; plant pedigrees; genomic data; GIS data;
international trial data; outcomes of systems diagnosis; policy briefs; impact studies; and
other data and information developed through the research of CIMMYT and its partners.
CIMMYT will improve its capacity to do this by upgrading the abilities of its staff and
providing them with new tools and technology for information management. In this way,









information can be more readily made available to our scientists and partners, regardless
of location.

With respect to the second objective, CIMMYT will create an open platform for sharing
knowledge, information, and other resources (e.g., seed) with partners, stakeholders, and
the general public. This knowledge-sharing environment will feature:
* A digital maize and wheat information center in which information resources are
commensurate with the broad expertise of CIMMYT and its partners.
* "Communities of practice" that extend beyond CIMMYT's boundaries to include
researchers and practitioners around the world who are committed to addressing
farmers' needs.
* A knowledge bank that grassroots organizations can use to gain access to useful
information and expertise, e.g., on technologies that may be suitable for the
environment in which they work, or the outcomes of diagnostic or impacts studies.

These features are integral to the success of capacity building, the third objective of this
project. This project will establish a strong service to build human capital among research
partners, rural communities, and our own staff. CIMMYT has a decades-long history of
effective work in human resource development and capacity strengthening, but our future
work in this area must be based on a more precise assessment of needs and a more
effective use of information technology.

A prioritized assessment of needs and demands will guide the development of
instructional materials and media. We will partner with universities, advanced research
institutes, NGOs, and private organizations in industrialized and developing countries to
provide more learning opportunities and resources. Courses will be interdisciplinary and,
at times, may count towards advanced degrees. The focus will be on developing flexible
combinations of short courses that can be locally adapted and taught. Most instructional
materials will be available and searchable through the Internet and other electronic
formats, and will form an integral part of CIMMYT's digital knowledge base. We will
also provide our learning materials in a format that will make them available to the many
people who remain on the other side of the digital divide.

To preserve the personal mentoring and networking that have been strong features of
CIMMYT training, we will continue to offer opportunities for day-to-day interaction with
experienced people in the field and the lab. We will extend the impact of this interaction
by creating and helping to sustain virtual learning communities in which course
participants can benefit from continued interaction with one another and mentoring by
other researchers.

Within the next five to ten years, we will:
* Invest in new information and communications technologies to develop an interactive
information and knowledge sharing portal that gives CIMMYT staff, our partners,
specific communities of practice, and the general public access to: methods, tools,
data, and instructional materials; genetic resources; and expertise available from
CIMMYT and its partners.









* Establish a strong learning and mentoring service that develops new courses and
training modules; facilitates distance learning and the earning of advanced degrees;
offers formal training directly; and establishes a network of local training partners in
a large number of countries where we conduct our work.
* Conduct training needs assessments every two years to ascertain the capacity-building
demands of our partners, and respond as needed.
* Host visiting scientists on short- or medium-term visits in all locations where we
work, and provide them with the information they require.
* In collaboration with universities, provide support for post-graduate students who will
conduct the experimental part of their thesis at CIMMYT or are working in an area
related to our mission.
* Pilot the development of knowledge banks directed at meeting the needs of grassroots
organizations in specific areas.










Draft Logframes for the New MTP Projects



Project 1: Maize and wheat genetic diversity for humanity


Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Genetic resources for maize and wheat will be preserved as a Looking back from a Financial
resource for all humanity, including future generations, and will also distant future date, it will resources will be
be actively used to help solve today's problems of poverty, be concluded that maize forthcoming for
malnutrition, and natural resource degradation. Modern molecular and wheat genetic indefinite
technologies will be used to the extent that they can contribute to resources were properly conservation and
these overarching goals. and effectively conserved use of plant
and used. genetic resources

Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Mechanisms will be in place for the secure preservation of maize and Fully-funded financial, Financial
wheat plant genetic resources, and for their effective and efficient physical capital, and resources will be
use, to foster sustainable livelihoods for farm families in those management structures forthcoming for
agroecosystems of the developing world where maize or wheat are for long-term indefinite
important components. conservation; links conservation and
among genetic use of plant
resources, pre-breeding, genetic resources
and crop improvement.

Purpose Indicators Assumptions and
risks
CIMMYT, other CGIAR centers, NARSs, public ARIs, private Collaborative activity in Willingness of all
institutes, and other stakeholders will collaborate in genetic resource genetic resource stakeholders to
management and the effective application of advanced molecular management; multi- work together in
technologies in crop enhancement for the benefit of developing stakeholder collaboration partnership;
countries. in using molecular intellectual
techniques for problem- property issues do
solving crop not constrain
improvement, collaboration.

Outputs Indicators Assumptions and
risks
1. Better collection, characterization, and conservation of Given the highly
genetic resources ex situ. preliminary nature of this
a. Improved representation of African and Asian project structure, it would
maize germplasm. be premature to propose
b. Completed regeneration of maize accessions. detailed indicators for
c. Molecular fingerprints of maize and wheat outputs.
germplasm.
d. Storage of cytogenetic stocks and genetic
populations.
e. Storage of molecular materials (e.g., DNA) from
critical accessions.










2. Better collection and conservation of genetic resources in
situ.
a. Effective and efficient strategies for in situ
conservation.
b. Information regarding gene flow within and
between farmer varieties.
c. Economics of in situ conservation strategies.
3. Improved and more widely available information on genetic
resources.
a. Web-based database systems for global access
and use of genetic resource information.
b. Information for policy related to genetic resources
and genetic diversity.
c. An information network established for genomic
and phenotypic data integrating advanced
genetic resources, genomic, and crop information
systems, which will increase the efficacy of public
and private plant breeding programs for the
international community.
4. Technologies to facilitate breeding developed and made
available to breeding programs.
a. Physiological methods validated for field
selection of germplasm with improved
physiological phenotypes.
b. Molecular-based breeding strategies for
transferring important genes efficiently to maize
and wheat germplasm.
c. Efficient screening methods for selecting
micronutrient-enriched maize, wheat, and triticale
genotypes. Challenge Program on Biofortification
5. Novel germplasm with new genes/desirable traits for
incorporating into breeding efforts developed through novel
conventional and molecular technologies.
a. Candidate genes and genomic regions
underlying critical traits identified (e.g., drought
tolerance and nutritional quality); functional
characterization of those candidate genes or
genomic regions accelerated. Challenge
Program on Genetic Resources
b. New genetic sources of selected traits available
from the germplasm bank. (3)
c. Identification of yield-enhancing traits and genes
from a broad genetic resource base. (16)
d. New stocks in 42- or 28-chromosome
backgrounds, including new translocations from
alien species and wheat relatives, provided to
breeders. (3)
e. Inbred lines with good male traits developed and
improved for use in wheat hybrid production. (16)
f. Maize, wheat, and triticale germplasm with higher
concentrations or improved availability of
micronutrients (iron, zinc, and vitamin A) for use
in breeding programs and release in developing
countries. (19) Challenge Program on
Biofortification










6. Apomictic maize.
a. Improved knowledge of the developmental
genetics of apomixis in Tripsacum. (17)
b. Identification and isolation of major genes
involved in apomixis expression.
c. Improved knowledge of the factors affecting
endosperm development in grain crops.
7. Capacity among research centers in developing countries
expanded through collaboration and capacity building.
8. An extended global network of CGIAR centers, NARSs,
public ARIs, and private institutes established for the
effective utilization of advanced technologies for crop
enhancement for developing countries.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and
risks
1. Prebreeding to produce new genetic stocks in 42- or 28- Given the highly
chromosome backgrounds. (3) preliminary nature of this
2. Empirical breeding combined with trait-oriented analytical project structure, it would
and molecular approaches, including breeding simulation, be inappropriate and
to develop parental stocks for specific environments. (3) premature to propose
3. Transfer of newly identified sources of yield traits, disease detailed milestones and
resistance, and quality using new sources of diversity such indicators for activities.
as synthetic wheats. (3)
4. Advanced wheat, triticale, and barley lines plus materials
from the Wide Crosses Unit and the CIMMYT genebank
screened for resistance to various diseases and pests at
hot spots in Mexico and around the world. (6)










Project 2: Livelihoods and risk in rainfed, stress-prone, foodgrain systems

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Local and regional food security in target ecoregions will be National level food security National policies
improved, climate-related risk for livelihoods will be reduced, land measures; data from long- not unfavorable to
degradation will be slowed or halted, and the incidence of poverty term experiments or agricultural
will decline. farmer monitoring; results development,
from surveys of poverty including capacity-
incidence. building for
national
institutions.

Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
New conservation agriculture practices, more diverse cropping Adoption studies; National and local
systems, and new wheat varieties, all of these compatible with secondary data on farm policies do not
improved livestock and crop residue management practices and level technology use; time hamper the
less susceptible to the effects of drought, will be widely adopted series studies comparing adoption of
by farm families in target ecoregions. drought years with suitable practices.
favorable years.

Purpose Indicators Assumptions and
risks
CIMMYT and partners will work together in developing new, more Evidence of collaborative Willingness among
stable and more efficient, productivity enhancing, resource research and development all stakeholders to
conserving technologies, with supporting policies and processes activity; evidence of work together in
of institutional development, for those rainfed, stress-prone agro- integration of social partnership mode;
pastoral systems in Eurasia, central India, and Latin America science and biophysical activities to foster
where wheat (and to a lesser extent maize) is exceptionally science; documents seed production
important for local and regional food security, describing research successful.
outcomes; initial favorable
reception by farmers to
technical prototypes.


Outputs Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Information management Documents on Spatially
1. Agroecologies of rainfed stress-prone food grain agroecological referenced data
ecosystems in Eurasia, India, and Latin America characterization, system are available in the
characterized and mapped. and gender diagnostics, public domain;
2. Better understanding of farmers' practices and analysis of the common common property
circumstances, gender roles in agriculture, factors property and collective and collective
affecting system productivity and profitability, and action dimensions of action issues are
factors governing adoption of new technologies livestock and crop residue not utterly
achieved and used in decision making and priority management, results from intractable; suitable
setting. crop models over crop models can
3. Better understanding achieved of the policies and extended time periods, be validated and
institutions that influence livestock management and reliably used for
numbers, and of farm- and community-level crop long-term analysis
residue management. of system
performance.










4. The risk of economic loss from the adoption of new
system and resource management practices, in the
context of highly variable climate, understood and
quantified.

System and resource management
5. Resource conserving technologies developed, tested,
and adopted. These include retaining crop residues on
the soil surface and zero or reduced tillage.
6. Management practices developed and tested by
farmers and farming communities, to resolve conflicts
between using crop residue for fodder and using it for
mulch.
7. Overgrazing reduced through institutional and policy
innovations.
8. Diversity in agroecosystems improved.

Genetic improvement and seed
9. New wheat varieties developed and adopted by
farmers. (Improved maize varieties developed and
adopted in those areas where maize is locally
important.) These include wheat materials that:
a. are high-yielding and input-responsive;
b. are substantially more drought-tolerant than
alternatives;
c. perform well under reduced tillage conditions
with crop residue soil cover;
d. resist root rots and nematodes, and
e. maintain good tolerance to major high rainfall
diseases.


Policies and impacts
10. Soil surface structure, water infiltration into the soil, soil
water levels, soil biological activity, and soil organic
matter improved.
11. Policy and market environment improved in support of
system diversification.
12. Market environment improved in support of faster
dissemination of improved varieties.
13. Near-term consequences of technical change fostered
by the project estimated for incomes, livelihoods, and
soil conservation.
14. Longer-term consequences of technical change
estimated for livelihoods, equity, and trends in land
quality.


Studies of the adoption of
RCTs and of system
diversity; studies of the
outcome of new crop
residue management
practices.


Breeders reports and
adoption studies.


Biophysical process
research publications;
reports from social science
and biophysical impact
studies; policy briefs
published; records of
positive interactions with
policymakers.


Common property
and collective
action issues are
not utterly
intractable;
markets for
diversification
crops can be
fostered.


Global germplasm
exchange is not
hindered.


Policy levers are
available and can
be used to foster
diversification.


Partnerships and capacity building Network reports; NARS Partner institutions
15. Research coordination improved among multiple actors reports; evidence of are willing to
and stakeholders. specialization among collaborate.
research institutions.










Activities Milestones Assumptions and
risks


1. Develop user-friendly GIS systems using publicly
available, spatially referenced data, along the lines of
the Country Almanac series (Output 1)
2. Conduct diagnostic surveys and other system-level
diagnostic activities (Outputs 2 and 3)
3. Carry out community-based action research on crop
residues as a common property and collective actions
needed to reserve some crop residues for soil cover
(Outputs 3, 6 and 7)
4. Conduct simulation modeling of the performance of
strategies featuring zero tillage with residue retention
over extended time frames to assess risk of loss, given
climatic variability (Output 4)
5. Bring in key experts on the management of RCTs to
help initial adaptation of RCT prototypes to new regions
(Outputs 5 through 7)
6. Conduct researcher-controlled trials and farmer
experiments on ways to improve soil structure, water
infiltration, organic matter, and soil health (Output 5, 6
and 10)
7. Use participatory approaches to adapt and accelerate
adoption of key technologies, among them reduced
tillage and mulch systems using crop residues (Outputs
5 through 7)
8. Facilitate interaction and information sharing among
public and private sector entities, NGOs, and farmer
groups (Outputs 5 and 15)
9. Facilitate traveling seminars and farmer-to-farmer
exchange (Outputs 5 and 9)
10. Support proponents of RCT development and adoption
in key locations (Output 5)
11. Facilitate farmer testing of alternative crops (Output 8)
12. Conduct policy analysis and advocacy regarding
marketing opportunities for alternative crops (Outputs 8
and 11)
13. Conduct Mexico-based and regional-based plant
breeding and selection for improved wheat varieties,
including varieties that tolerate drought and resist major
high rainfall diseases, and root rots and nematodes
(Output 9)
14. Screen improved wheat varieties for performance under
zero tillage with crop residue retention (Output 9)
15. Use participatory varietal selection and participatory
plant breeding in tailoring wheat materials to farmers'
circumstances and accelerating their adoption (Output
9)
16. Strengthen seed systems as appropriate (Output 9)
17. Conduct policy analysis and advocacy regarding
opportunities for improving wheat seed markets for
faster varietal turnover (Outputs 9 and 12)
18. Implement farm level monitoring and long-term trials
(Outputs 10, 13, and 14)


Given the highly
preliminary nature of this
project structure, it would
be inappropriate and
premature to propose
detailed milestones and
indicators for activities.










19. Implement strategic research on biophysical processes
concerning zero tillage with residue retention and
implications for soil organic matter, soil structure, soil
water holding capacity, and soil health (Output 10, 13,
and 14)
20. Implement adoption studies at various levels (Outputs
13 and 14)
21. Develop project information management systems and
use them to foster research coordination (Output 15)












Project 3: Food security, markets, and livelihoods in Africa


Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Per capital food availability will begin to increase, the risk of National level time Political and civil
starvation will be reduced, the incidence of child malnutrition will series; measures of food unrest are not
decline, livelihoods will become less risky, and the incidence of availability per capital; excessive; national
poverty will decline. time series measures of policies not
child malnutrition; results unfavorable to
from surveys of poverty agricultural
incidence, development,
including capacity-
building for national
institutions.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
New conservation agriculture and soil fertility management practices, Adoption studies; Civil unrest does not
more diverse cropping systems, new and highly productive maize secondary data on farm make research and
materials with drought tolerance and other virtues, and suitable risk level technology use; development activities
management strategies (that take account of livestock management time series studies excessively difficult;
and off-farm employment) will be widely adopted by farm families in comparing drought years national and local
eastern and southern Africa. with favorable years. policies do not
hamper the adoption
of suitable practices.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and
risks
CIMMYT and partners will work together on developing new input- Evidence of Civil unrest does not
use efficient, low risk, diversified, productivity enhancing, resource collaborative research make collaborative
conserving technologies, with supporting market policies, for and development activities excessively
smallholder agricultural systems in eastern and southern Africa activity; evidence of difficult; improved
where maize is an important food staple and central to farm family integration of social markets for inputs
livelihood strategies. science and biophysical and products can be
science; documents fostered.
describing research
outcomes; initial
favorable reception by
farmers to technical
prototypes.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Information management Documents on Spatially referenced
1. Agroecologies and environments in eastern and southern agroecological data are available in
Africa characterized at various scales, from germplasm characterization; system the public domain;
megaenvironments to land type niches on a farm, and and gender diagnostics; civil unrest does not
updated information obtained and used in decision making the spatial incidence of make diagnostic field
and priority setting, regarding farmers' practices and system problems; studies impossible.
circumstances, gender roles, factors affecting system decision support
productivity and profitability, and factors governing systems; and crop-
adoption of new technologies, livestock interactions.
2. Information gathered and used to define the spatial
incidence and relative importance of biotic and abiotic
stress factors that affect food systems in Africa.










3. Decision support systems developed and widely used to
match improved maize and wheat system technologies
with land types and farmer categories.
4. Interactions between livestock management and crop
management that are widespread in eastern and southern
Africa understood and used in technology design and
testing.

System and resource management Studies on the adoption Improved markets for
5. "Best bet" soil fertility management technologies (including of RCTs and new soil inputs and products
rotations and associations with legumes, use of manure, fertility management can be fostered;
and management of low fertilizer levels) identified, adapted practices; quantitative infrastructure does
by farmers, and disseminated to 5000 farm advisers and information from models not continue to
over 40,000 farm families in Ethiopia (wheat systems) and on downside system risk deteriorate; suitable
in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and for various scenarios; crop models can be
Zimbabwe (maize systems). information on trends in validated and reliably
6. The risk of economic loss or gain that might be system diversity and used for long-term
experienced by farm families during drought seasons when other management analysis of system
using "best bet" soil fertility management practices practices. performance.
understood and quantified, including consequences for
livestock enterprises and related feedback to cropping
systems.
7. New Striga management practices adopted by at least
5000 farm families in Kenya.
8. Within an INRM framework, combinations of soil moisture
conservation strategies (including reduced tillage with
mulch), soil fertility management strategies, and drought
tolerant maize materials tested by farmers, and
consequences tested at watershed or higher levels of
analysis.
9. Innovative strategies for control of storage pests tested by
farmers.

Genetic improvement and seed Breeders' reports and Global germplasm
10. More than 40 maize cultivars developed (and screened in adoption studies; exchange not
farmer tests) that combine the following: documents on civil hindered; suitable
a. drought tolerance, society decision in decisions in Kenya on
b. tolerance to low soil fertility, Kenya on the release of field diffusion of
c. resistance to biotic stresses such as diseases (e.g., GMOs; surveys on seed GMOs; policies do not
maize streak virus) and Striga, availability, hinder private sector
d. resistance to stem borers, and NGO actions in
seed multiplication
e. resistance to storage pests, and distribution
f. high protein quality,
g. good performance when intercropped with legumes to
maximize combined output,
h. very early maturing maize for highly drought-prone
areas,
i. high yields, and
j. suitable wheat germplasm developed and screened for
performance under smallholder conditions in Ethiopia.
11. Insect resistant genetically modified maize materials
developed in collaboration with Kenyan scientists and
released by Kenyan authorities in the context of updated
biosafety regulations and informed debate by civil society.










12. Seed of improved maize materials readily available to
smallholder farmers in Angola, Ethiopia, western Kenya,
Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and
Zimbabwe.
13. Improved maize materials with two or more of the traits
listed above grown by at least 10% of farmers in eastern
and southern Africa.

Policies and impacts Publications on Policy levers are
14. Near-term impacts assessed of new maize and wheat biophysical processes available and can be
system technologies with respect to farm family incomes research; reports from used to foster
and livelihoods and water and input use efficiency. social science and improved input and
15. Longer-term impacts assessed of new maize and wheat biophysical impact product markets.
system technologies on livelihoods, equity, resource studies; policy briefs
quality, and the environment, and system resilience and published; records of
sustainability, in the context of an INRM framework. positive interactions with
16. Policy and institutional issues affecting agriculture policymakers;
understood and used in at least two countries to influence documentation of
the policy debate on technology adoption and input and improved market
product market development, performance.
17. Input markets for fertilizer and seed, and output markets
for maize grain and for alternative cash crops fostered
through provision of information regarding market
opportunities and through strengthening of partners.

Partnerships and capacity building Network reports; NARS Partner institutions
18. Institutional collaboration and research coordination among reports; evidence of are willing to
the public, private, and NGO sectors strengthened in order specialization among collaborate.
to more effectively address priority development concerns, research institutions;
19. Partner capacity strengthened through short courses, numbers of newly
higher degree training, study tours and "learning by doing." trained and enthusiastic
20. Key NARS networks strengthened and supported, and staff.
participation in additional networks or consortia expanded.

Activities Milestones Assumptions and
risks
1. Develop and apply easy-to-use GIS systems using Given the highly
publicly-available spatially referenced data, along the lines preliminary nature of this
of the Country Almanac series (Outputs 1, 2, 3, and 12) project structure, it
2. Use participatory techniques to define land type niches at would be inappropriate
the farm level, for use in technology targeting (Outputs 1, and premature to
2, and 3) propose detailed
3. Develop project information management systems and use milestones and
them to foster research coordination (Outputs 1, 2, 5-13, indicators for activities.
18, and 20)
4. Implement GPS surveys, guided by available secondary
data, to assess the spatial incidence of stress factors
(Output 2)
5. Screen maize germplasm for tolerance to drought and low
soil N via on-farm testing sites with partners from public
sector extension, NGOs, and universities (Outputs 2, 10,
12, and 13)
6. Synthesize information on best bet technologies and
prepare brochures, reports, newsletters, and training
materials (Outputs 3, 5, 6, and 7)










7. Conduct strategic research on long-term trends in the
productivity and sustainability of cropping systems, nutrient
dynamics in smallholder fields, and the N use efficiency
(Outputs 6, 8, 14, and 15)
8. Conduct simulation modeling of the performance of farmer-
developed whole farm nutrient management strategies
over extended timeframes to assess risk (Output 6)
9. Conduct Striga management farmer trials, including
organic practices and herbicide seed treatments, in
western Kenya (Outputs 7, 10, and 13)
10. Use plant breeding to develop adapted, herbicide-resistant
maize cultivars to control Striga using herbicide as a seed
treatment (Outputs 7 and 10)
11. Implement, in collaboration with CIMMYT maize breeding
activities in Mexico, a comprehensive maize germplasm
development and evaluation program with partners in
eastern and southern Africa (Outputs 10, 13, and 18)
12. Implement, in collaboration with CIMMYT wheat breeding
activities in Mexico and elsewhere, a suitable wheat
germplasm development and evaluation program with
partners in Ethiopia (Output 10)
13. Develop nutritionally rich maize cultivars (QPM,
micronutrients) adapted to regional biotic and abiotic
stresses (Outputs 10 and 13)
14. Conduct feeding trials to test the nutritional value of QPM
(Outputs 10 and 13)
15. Facilitate discussion within Kenya civil society of the
advantages and risks of releasing genetically modified,
insect resistant Bt maize in that country (Output 11)
16. Use biotechnology tools to develop, within strict national
and CIMMYT's own biosafety guidelines, Bt maize
materials effective against stem borer in Kenya and safe
for use in farmers' fields (Output 11)
17. Provide maize seed for further multiplication and
distribution to NGOs and farmer associations in Angola,
Ethiopia, western Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania,
Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (Outputs 12 and 13)
18. Collaborate with NARSs on seed production and delivery
(Outputs 12, 13, and 18)
19. Provide short-term training for NARSs and other partners
on economic evaluation, priority setting, and policy
research (Outputs 14-17, and 19)
20. Write and use policy briefs to inform policy debates relating
to the adoption of productivity improving, resource
conserving practices, and input and product market
development (Outputs 16 and 17)










Project 4: Ensuring food security through sustainable intensification in densely-
inhabited areas

Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Food supplies for the vast numbers of urban poor will be assured, National data on trends Technical change for
livelihoods for an immense rural population will be increasingly in urban and rural per non-cereal
diversified and sustainable, rural employment will be generated, the capital food availability; components of
reliance on cereal production in rural livelihood strategies will be surveys on rural farming systems
reduced, water use in agriculture will decline (making water employment and strengthened and
resources available for alternative uses), and rural poverty will be poverty; documents on accelerated; political
reduced. water use in agriculture difficulties across
at the river basin and nations not excessive;
field levels, national policies not
unfavorable to
agricultural
development,
including capacity-
building for national
institutions.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
A greater number of new resource conserving technologies will be Adoption studies; Political awkwardness
adopted by farm families in larger areas within target ecoregions, secondary data on farm across nations does
accompanied by more productive and disease tolerant (and, in the level technology use, not hinder cross-
case of wheat, more genetically diverse) maize and wheat varieties, especially on the "tillage boundary research
The tillage revolution will expand and increasingly feature more revolution," varietal and development
diverse agroecosystems. replacement, and efforts; national and
system diversity, local policies do not
hamper the adoption
of suitable practices.

Purpose Indicators Assumptions and
risks
CIMMYT and partners will work together on developing more Evidence of Willingness among all
resilient, sustainable, diversified, employment-generating, collaborative research stakeholders to work
productivity enhancing, resource conserving technologies (with and development activity together in
supporting policies) for intensive crop production and water (including across partnership mode.
management systems (typically irrigated) in South Asia, southern regions); evidence of
China, the lower Nile Valley and similar areas, with high population integration of social
concentrations, and where wheat and maize are important for local science and biophysical
and regional food security, science; documents
describing research
outcomes; initial
favorable reception by
farmers to technical
prototypes.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Information management Documents on Spatially referenced
1. Agroecologies of densely-inhabited, intensively-cropped agroecological data are available in
irrigated systems characterized and mapped, especially in characterization, system the public domain.
South Asia and North Africa. and gender diagnostics,
and the spatial incidence










2. Better understanding achieved and used in decision of system problems.
making and priority setting, regarding farmers' practices
and circumstances, factors affecting system productivity
and profitability, characterization of agroecologies, and
factors governing adoption of new technologies.

System and resource management Studies of the adoption Policy issues related
3. Crop and resource management practices for intensive, of RCTs and new to improved water
irrigated systems developed, tested and adopted in which system and water management are not
grain yields are increased while water use, input use, and management practices; utterly intractable;
production costs are reduced. These include resource quantitative information policy levers are
conserving technologies (RCTs) such as zero and water use efficiency and available and can be
reduced tillage, permanent bed systems, laser leveling, water savings in used to foster
surface seeding, etc. agriculture; information diversification.
4. Water use efficiency ("crop per drop") and input use on trends in system
efficiency improved. diversity and other
5. Groundwater depletion, salinity, and other processes of management practices.
resource degradation slowed or reversed.
6. More diverse and productive farming and cropping
systems (with a greater variety of high-value products and
a reduced reliance on cereal crops) developed, tested,
and adopted by farmers.

Genetic improvement and seed Breeders' reports and
7. New maize and wheat varieties developed and adopted by adoption studies;
farmers. These include materials that perform well with quantitative evidence of
RCTs, that resist diseases, and that are adapted to such improvements in crop
"problem areas" as the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains. genetic diversity in
8. Risk of disease epidemics reduced for major cereals in farmer's fields.
intensively farmed, irrigated areas, in part through
increased crop genetic diversity in farmers' fields.

Policies and impacts Publications on Policy levers are
9. Policy and market environment improved in support of biophysical research; available and can be
system diversification, reports from social used to foster
10. Near-term consequences of technical change (maize and science and biophysical diversification.
wheat varieties, associated RCTs) estimated for incomes, impact studies; policy
livelihoods, water use in agriculture, and input use briefs published; records
efficiency. of positive interactions
11. Longer-term consequences of technical change estimated with policymakers.
for livelihoods, water use in agriculture, and trends in land
and water quality.

Partnerships and capacity building Network reports; NARS Partner institutions
12. Research coordination improved among multiple actors reports; evidence of are willing to
and stakeholders specialization among collaborate.
research institutions.











Milestones Assumptions and
Activities risks


1. Develop user-friendly GIS systems using publicly available,
spatially referenced data, along the lines of the Country
Almanac series (Output 1)
2. Conduct diagnostic surveys and other system-level
diagnostic activities (Output 2)
3. Use participatory approaches and community-based
assessments to identify, adapt, and accelerate adoption of
key technologies (Outputs 3 through 5)
4. Facilitate interaction and information sharing among public
and private sector entities, NGOs, and farmer groups. In
particular, facilitate interaction between farmer groups and
private machine manufacturers regarding needs and demand
for RCT implements (Outputs 3 through 5, and 12)
5. Facilitate traveling seminars and other means of farmer-to-
farmer exchange (Outputs 3 through 5)
6. Support promoters of RCT development and adoption in key
locations (Outputs 3 through 5)
7. Bring in key experts on RCT management to help initial
adaptation of RCT prototypes to new regions (Outputs 3
through 5)
8. Implement strategic research on biophysical processes
associated with the introduction of RCTs (Outputs 4, 5, and
11)
9. Obtain adapted germplasm of new, alternative crops from
partner institutions, along with assistance in inserting these
alternatives into cropping systems (Output 6)
10. Facilitate farmer testing of new alternatives to high value
crops (Output 6)
11. Conduct Mexico-based and regional-based breeding and
selection for improved maize and wheat varieties, including
varieties adapted to the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains and
other "problem areas" (Output 7)
12. Screen improved maize and wheat varieties under zero
tillage, beds, and other RCTs (Output 7)
13. Use participatory varietal selection and participatory plant
breeding in tailoring materials to farmers' circumstances and
accelerating their widespread adoption (Outputs 7 and 8)
14. Foster improvements in seed systems (Outputs 7 and 8)
15. Conduct epidemiological, crop surveillance, and crop loss
assessment studies for Helminthosporium leaf blight
complex and the rust diseases of wheat (Output 8)
16. Conduct policy analysis and advocacy regarding production
and marketing of higher value products (Output 9)
17. Implement adoption studies (Outputs 10 and 11)
18. Carry out whole basin modeling of water balances (Output
11)
19. Implement farm level monitoring and long-term trials (Output
11)
20. Develop project information management systems and use
them to foster research coordination (Output 12)


Given the highly
preliminary
nature of this
project structure,
it would be
inappropriate
and premature to
propose detailed
milestones and
indicators for
activities.










Project 5: Improving livelihoods and conserving
agroecosystems


natural resources in tropical


Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
For subsistence farmers in target ecoregions, food security will be National data on trends Livelihoods for
assured and family resources will be freed for alternative uses. in land degradation and subsistence farmers
For non-subsistence farmers, production costs associated with in siltation of can continue to be
more diverse agroecosystems will be reduced and (combined with downstream irrigation diversified; cost-
more efficient markets) incomes will increase. Water and land infrastructure; national reducing practices for
degradation will be reduced, off-site effects of erosion will decline, and regional trends in target farmers will be
and poverty will decrease. Maize supply will keep pace with the maize supply and adequate to make
exploding demand for feed maize in Asia, without damaging the marketing; surveys on their products locally
environment. livelihood strategies for and internationally
subsistence farmers. competitive; national
policies not
unfavorable to
agricultural
development,
including capacity
building for national
institutions.

Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
New conservation agriculture practices, more diverse cropping Adoption studies; Information sharing
systems, and new stress tolerant maize varieties will be widely secondary data on farm- between Latin
adopted by farm families in target ecoregions. level technology use America and Asia can
and system diversity, be achieved; national
and local policies do
not hamper the
adoption of suitable
practices.

Purpose Indicators Assumptions and
risks
CIMMYT and partners will work together on developing new, Evidence of Willingness among all
more diversified, productivity enhancing, resource conserving collaborative research stakeholders to work
technologies (and supporting policies) that feature ecological and development together in
principles in pest, disease, and weed control, and that are suitable activity (including across partnership mode.
for rainfed agroecosystems in tropical areas of Latin America and regions); documents
Southeast and East Asia, where maize is important for family food describing research
security or as a source of income, outcomes; initial
favorable reception by
farmers to technical
prototypes.

Outputs Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Information management Documents on Spatially referenced
1. Agroecologies of tropical rainfed ecosystems in tropical agroecological data are available in
Latin America and East and Southeast Asia characterization, system the public domain.
characterized and mapped. and gender diagnostics,










2. Better understanding achieved and used in decision and the spatial
making and priority setting, regarding farmers' practices incidence of system
and circumstances, gender roles, factors affecting problems.
system productivity and profitability, and factors
governing adoption of new technologies.

System and resource management Studies of the adoption Policy levers are
3. Resource conserving technologies developed, tested, of RCTs and new available and can be
and adopted. These include zero and reduced tillage, system and land used to foster
green manure cover crops, and permanent mulch management practices; diversification.
systems. quantitative information
4. Damage to system productivity from weeds, pests, and on the success of
diseases reduced through a combination of ecological ecological practices in
approaches (more diverse agroecosystems, shading pest, weed, and disease
strategies, permanent mulch systems) and pest and control; information on
disease-resistant maize germplasm. trends in system
5. Losses in system productivity (for legumes and maize) diversity and other
from acid and infertile soils reduced through acid-soil management practices.
tolerant maize germplasm and proper management
practices.
6. More diverse and productive cropping systems tested
and adopted by farmers.
7. Food losses from storage insects and ear rots reduced
through a combination of new storage practices and
maize germplasm resistant to storage insects.

Genetic improvement and seed Breeders' reports and Global germplasm
8. New maize varieties developed and adopted by adoption studies; exchange is not
farmers. These include materials that: quantitative evidence of hindered.
a. are high-yielding; varietal performance in
b. are tolerant of acid soils; farmer's fields.
c. perform well under zero tillage conditions;
d. resist stem borers, downy mildew and other
biotic threats; and
e. are tolerant to drought or waterlogging, as
needed.

Policies and impacts Publications on Policy levers are
9. The level reduced of farm family resources (cash, land, biophysical research; available and can be
labor) required to produce maize adequate for annual reports from social used to foster
family food consumption (for households that produce science and biophysical diversification.
maize for their own use and to avoid purchasing it when impact studies; policy
it is expensive). briefs published; records
10. The level increased of net cash income from the sale of of positive interactions
agricultural products emerging from maize based with policymakers;
systems (for households that produce maize to sell for survey or remote
cash). sensing data on trends
11. Policy and market environment improved in support of in land use in hillsides
system diversification. and forest.
12. Expansion of rainfed upland systems into hillsides or
forests slowed or stopped.
13. Soil erosion, reduction in water quality, and other
processes of resource degradation associated with
target systems slowed or reversed.










14. Near-term consequences of technical change fostered
by the project estimated for incomes, livelihoods, and
soil conservation.
15. Longer-term consequences of technical change
estimated for livelihoods, equity (including gender
equity), and trends in land and water quality.

Partnerships and capacity building Network reports; NARS Partner institutions
16. Research coordination improved among multiple actors reports; evidence of are willing to
and stakeholders, especially those with expertise in specialization among collaborate.
lowland or upland rice, cassava, "milpa" systems, crop- research institutions.
livestock interactions, and livelihood strategies for target
farm families.
Activities Milestones Assumptions and
risks


1. Develop user-friendly GIS systems using publicly
available, spatially referenced data, along the lines of
the Country Almanac series (Output 1)
2. Use participatory approaches and community-based
assessments to identify, adapt, and accelerate adoption
of key technologies (Outputs 2 through 8)
3. Facilitate interaction and information sharing among
public and private sector entities, NGOs, and farmer
groups (Outputs 2 through 8)
4. Facilitate traveling seminars and other means of farmer-
to-farmer exchange (Outputs 2 through 8)
5. Support promoters of RCT development and adoption in
key locations (Outputs 3 through 7)
6. Bring in key experts on RCT management to help initial
adaptation of RCT prototypes to new regions (Output 3
through 7)
7. Screen improved maize varieties for performance under
zero tillage, green manure cover crops, mulch systems,
and other RCTs (Outputs 3 and 8)
8. Implement strategic research on biophysical processes
linked with the introduction of RCTs and implications for
land and water quality, and soil land degradation
(Output 4, 5, and 12 through 15)
9. Conduct Mexico-based and regional-based breeding
and selection for maize improved varieties, including
some adapted to acid soil conditions, low soil fertility,
with resistance to storage insects, downy mildew and
other biotic stress, and tolerant to drought or
waterlogging (Outputs 4, 5, 7 and 8)
10. Conduct researcher-controlled trials and farmer
experiments on ways to ameliorate soil acidity,
including, but not limited to, lime application (Output 5)
11. Obtain adapted germplasm of new, alternative crops
from partner institutions, along with assistance in
inserting these alternatives into cropping systems
(Output 6)
12. Facilitate farmer testing of alternative crops (Output 6)
13. Implement adoption studies at various levels (Outputs 9
through 15)


Given the highly
preliminary nature of
this project structure, it
would be inappropriate
and premature to
propose detailed
milestones and
indicators for activities.










14. Use participatory varietal selection and participatory
plant breeding in tailoring maize materials to farmers'
circumstances and accelerating their widespread
adoption (Output 8)
15. Implement farm level monitoring and long-term trials
(Outputs 9 through 15)
16. Conduct policy analysis and advocacy regarding
marketing opportunities for alternative crops (Output 11)
17. Conduct diagnostic surveys and other system-level
diagnostic activities (Output 2)
18. Develop project information management systems and
use them to foster research coordination (Output 16).










Project 6: Policies and institutions that maximize research impact


Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Through strategic global research, policy design, and advocacy, Credible studies showing Improved
increase the impact of work done by CIMMYT and its partners by that CIMMYT research is technologies
improving the allocation of research resources, increasing the having desired impacts developed by
efficiency with which research is conducted, and enhancing the rate while generating CIMMYT and its
of adoption of improved technology to improve the productivity, attractive returns partners will
equity, and environmental sustainability of maize- and wheat-based compared to alternative continue to have
farming systems. investment opportunities. significant impacts
on improving the
productivity and
sustainability of
maize- and wheat-
based farming
systems in
developing
countries.
Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Generate information and analysis that will allow researchers, Information and analysis Affordable methods
research managers, donors, policy makers, and the general public generated by CIMMYT will be available to
to understand changes affecting the economic, political, and being used to inform establish the chain
institutional environments in which international agricultural research research priority setting, of causality linking
is carried out; identify research and development issues that research management, research investment
transcend national and regional boundaries; ensure that the and policy making. to indicators of
resources of CIMMYT and its partners are used efficiently; identify "ultimate impacts."
entry points at which policy interventions can increase the likelihood
that products and services generated by CIMMYT and its partners
will reach potential users quickly and effectively; and ensure that
when CIMMYT and its partners speak out on issues of importance,
they do so in a consistent and coherent way.
Purpose Indicators Assumptions and
risks
CIMMYT and partners will work together on gathering information, Data sets, scientific Developing
conducting analysis, and developing innovative methods that can be publications, policy briefs, countries remain
used by researchers, research managers, donors, and policy and new methods committed to raising
makers to improve research resource allocation, increase research produced by CIMMYT agricultural
efficiency, and enhance the use of research results to improve the and partners. productivity as a
productivity and sustainability of maize- and wheat-based farming way of improving the
systems in the developing world. welfare of the poor.
Outputs Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Global trends analysis Information on global Sharing of data and
1. Long-term trends in the world maize and wheat economies trends in the world maize information is
monitored and documented in reports accessible to a non- and wheat economies. unimpeded.
technical audience
2. Future trends projected for global production,
consumption, and trade of maize and wheat
3. Implications projected for maize and wheat technology
needs in countries that are important producers or
consumers of these crops










Research priority setting
4. Technology needs of maize and wheat producers in
developing countries assessed and documented
5. Likely returns to investment in alternative research and
development activities estimated using ex ante impact
assessment methods
6. Attractiveness of alternative research investments
compared and ranked
7. Methods developed for conducting ex ante impact
assessment and performing research priority setting
8. Capacity of researchers in developing countries to conduct
ex ante impact assessment and priority setting
strengthened

Impact assessment
9. Adoption of improved technologies developed by CIMMYT
and partners documented
10. Productivity gains attributable to adoption of improved
technologies estimated
11. Income gains attributable to adoption of improved
technologies estimated
12. Livelihood benefits attributable to adoption of improved
technologies estimated
13. Methods developed for conducting ex post impact
assessment studies
14. Capacity of researchers in developing countries to conduct
impact assessment strengthened

Policy analysis
15. Role of policies in influencing the effectiveness of
agricultural research analyzed and documented
16. Role of policies in influencing the adoption and diffusion of
improved technologies analyzed and documented
17. Policy constraints to diffusion of improved technologies
identified
18. Policy interventions needed to remove existing constraints
to diffusion of improved technologies identified
19. Capacity of researchers in developing countries to conduct
policy analysis strengthened

Advocacy
20. Role of policies in influencing the effectiveness of
agricultural research communicated to policy makers and
the general public
21. Role of policies in influencing the diffusion of improved
technologies communicated to policy makers and the
general public
22. Policy interventions needed to remove existing constraints
to diffusion of improved technologies communicated to
policy makers and the general public
23. Capacity of researchers in developing countries to
advocate effectively strengthened


Information for more
efficient research
resource allocation;
methods for conducting
research priority setting.


Information documenting
impacts of research and
factors affecting
technology adoption;
methods for conducting
impact assessment
studies.


Information to guide
strategies for deploying
new technology.


Research resource
allocation will be
based on efficiency
considerations,
rather than political
considerations.


Impacts assessment
function will be
insulated from public
relations function
(impacts data will
not be manipulated
for publicity).


Policy interventions
will be effective in
removing constraints
to adoption of
improved
technology.


CIMMYT will be able
to advocate
effectively for policy
reforms.


I I










Activities Milestones Assumptions and
risks
Monitoring global trends Given the highly
1. Monitor data on production and consumption of maize, preliminary nature of this
wheat, and other commodities of global importance project structure, it would
2. Monitor data on international trade in maize, wheat, and be inappropriate and
other commodities of global importance premature to propose
3. Monitor data on prices of maize, wheat, and other detailed milestones and
commodities of global importance indicators for activities.
4. Monitor data on input use in production of maize, wheat,
and other commodities of global importance

Setting research priorities
5. Conduct studies to assess the needs of maize and wheat
producers and consumers in developing countries
6. Develop methods for efficiently eliciting the needs of maize
and wheat producers and consumers in developing
countries
7. Conduct studies to identify research priorities for CIMMYT
8. Conduct studies to identify research priorities for
CIMMYT's partners and stakeholders

Assessing impact
9. Conduct large-scale studies to document global impacts of
improved maize and wheat technologies developed by
CIMMYT and partners
10. Conduct targeted case studies to document local impact of
improved maize and wheat production technologies
11. Conduct studies to assess the returns to investment in
maize and wheat research

Designing policy interventions
12. Conduct comparative multi-country studies to determine
the role of policies in influencing the effectiveness of
agricultural research
13. Conduct comparative multi-country studies to determine
the role of policies in affecting the adoption and diffusion
of improved technologies for maize- and wheat-based
farming systems
14. Design policy interventions to improve the effectiveness of
agricultural research
15. Design policy interventions to accelerate the adoption and
diffusion of improved technologies for maize- and wheat-
based farming systems

Advocating for change
16. Through publications and other communications media,
publicize the policy reforms needed to improve the
effectiveness of agricultural research investments
17. Through publications and other communications media,
publicize the policy reforms needed to improve the
adoption and diffusion of improved maize and wheat
production technologies










Project 7: Sharing and managing knowledge


Overall goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Research for development of agricultural systems will be Studies on rates of return Other factors besides
performed, and widely-shared goals of poverty reduction, to agricultural research information exchange
livelihoods enhancement, biodiversity preservation, and natural and development that are not binding
resource conservation will be achieved more effectively and take into account the constraints to
efficiently, at a lower cost, through the successful application of efficiency of information development.
mechanisms for more rapid sharing of information, flow.

Intermediate goal Indicators Assumptions and
risks
Technical and general use information, and learning opportunities Data on the rate of use of Stakeholders have
will be readily available to CIMMYT staff, partners, stakeholders, the portals; studies on the access to suitably fast
and the general public. pace, incidence, and internet connectivity.
value of information flow
and capacity building.

Purpose Indicators Assumptions and
risks
CIMMYT and partners will collaborate in establishing information Information on the Partners and
portals, communities of practice, and capacity building contributions of different stakeholders are willing
opportunities for more effective sharing of relevant information, partners to building the to share information
new knowledge under the relatively
management structure. informal structure of the
community of practice.

Outputs Indicators Assumptions and
risks
1. On-line technical portal developed and opened, with Portals open, communities Funds will be available
anticipated users including CIMMYT scientists and of practice in operation, for the necessarily large
research partners, featuring technical data and tools training programs being investments in IT capital
required to effectively perform their duties. implemented. and human resources
2. On-line general information portal developed and required to make this a
opened, with anticipated users including students and reality.
the general public, featuring a comprehensive public
knowledge base on maize and wheat systems in
developing countries.
3. On-line technology targeting portal developed and
opened, with anticipated users including NARS, private
companies, and NGOs and other grassroots
organizations, featuring information useful in selecting
tools or technologies that may be attractive under clearly
defined conditions.
4. "Communities of practice" fostered and supported
whereby CIMMYT staff, partners, and global
stakeholders can share information on specific topics or
themes.
5. Ability to use the above knowledge management
resources in capacity building for institutions and
individuals strengthened.










Activities Milestones Assumptions and
risks


1. Invest in updated tools, technology, and infrastructure for
information management (Outputs 1 through 5)
2. Invest in improving the capacity of our own staff to
effectively manage knowledge (Outputs 1 through 5)
3. Develop website and internet portals capable of
providing information and data needed by scientists,
partners, the general public, and grassroots
organizations (Outputs 1 through 3)
4. Populate the technical portal with information on new
science, databases (including bioinformatics resources);
scientific journals; molecular maps; plant pedigrees;
genomic data; GIS data; international trial data;
outcomes of systems diagnosis; policy briefs; impact
studies; and other information developed through
research by CIMMYT and its partners (Outputs 1 and 5)
5. Populate the general information portal with information
and data of use to the general public (Outputs 2 and 5)
6. Populate the technology targeting portal with decision
rules that describe the (biophysical and socioeconomic)
conditions under which particular technologies tend to
perform relatively well-along with GIS data and a easy-
to-use map viewer capable of generating simple GIS
overlays (Outputs 3 and 5)
7. Establish a strong learning and mentoring service that
develops new courses and training modules; facilitates
distance learning and the earning of advanced degrees;
offers formal training directly; and establishes a network
of local training partners in a large number of countries
where we conduct our work (Outputs 4 and 5)
8. Facilitate the formation of thematically based
"communities of practice," to be self-governed (Output 4
and 5)
9. Conduct needs assessment for formal capacity building
activities (Output 5)
10. Develop instructional materials and training modules in
partnership with other stakeholders (Output 5)
11. Identify and establish links with local training partners
(Output 5)
12. Maintain a mentoring service through opportunities to
interact on a daily basis with experienced CIMMYT staff
or other resource persons (Outputs 4 and 5)
13. Host visiting scientists in all locations where we work,
thereby providing opportunities to interact on a daily
basis with experienced CIMMYT staff and other resource
persons (Output 5)
14. In collaboration with universities, provide support for
post-graduate students who will conduct the
experimental part of their thesis at CIMMYT or are
working in an area related to our mission (Output 5)


Given the highly
preliminary nature of this
project structure,it would
be inappropriate and
premature to propose
detailed milestones and
indicators for activities.




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