• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Abbreviations and acronyms
 Acknowledgement
 Executive summary
 Introduction
 Maize research and development...
 Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics...
 Maize production practices and...
 Credit and extension services
 Factors affecting adoption of agricultural...
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Reference
 Back Cover






Title: Adoption of maize production technologies in the Lake Zone of Tanzania
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077498/00001
 Material Information
Title: Adoption of maize production technologies in the Lake Zone of Tanzania
Physical Description: viii, 39 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mafuru, January
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Place of Publication: Mexico D.F
Publication Date: 1999
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Technological innovations -- Tanzania   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 38-39).
Statement of Responsibility: by January Mafuru ... et al..
General Note: "May 1999."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077498
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 43611844
isbn - 9706480307

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        iFront cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    Abbreviations and acronyms
        Page v
    Acknowledgement
        Page v
    Executive summary
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Maize research and development in Tanzania and the study area
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of maize farmers in the study area
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Maize production practices and adoption of recommendations in the study area
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Credit and extension services
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Factors affecting adoption of agricultural technologies in the study area
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Reference
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Back Cover
        Page 40
Full Text




Adoption of Maize


Production


Technologies


in the


Lake Zone of Tanzania




January Mafuru,
Robert Kileo,
Hugo Verkuiji,
Wilfred Mwangi,
Ponniah Anandajaysekeram,
and Alfred Moshi


May 1999


1I
CIMMYT
Sustainable
Maize and Wheat
Systems for the Poor










Adoption of Maize Production


Technologies in the


Lake Zone of Tanzania





By
January Mafuru,
Robert Kileo,
Hugo VerkujlI,
Wilfred Mwangi,
Ponniah Anandajaysekeram,
and Alfred Moshi*





May 1999






* January Mafuru and Robert Kileo are with ARI-Ukiriguru, PO Box 1433, Mwanza, Tanzania. Hugo Verkuijl and
Wilfred Mwangi are with the Economics Program of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(CIMMYT), PO Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ponniah Anandajayasekeram is with SACCAR, Gaborone,
P/Bag 00108, Botswana. Alfred Moshi is with ARI-Ilonga, Box Kilosa, Tanzania. The views expressed in this
paper are the authors' and do not necessarily reflect policies of their respective institutions.











CIMMYT (www.cimmyt.mx or www.cimmyt.cgiar.org) is an internationally funded, nonprofit scientific research and
training organization. Headquartered in Mexico, the Center works with agricultural research institutions worldwide to
improve the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of maize and wheat systems for poor farmers in developing
countries. It is one of 16 similar centers supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(CGIAR). The CGIAR comprises over 55 partner countries, international and regional organizations, and private
foundations. It is co-sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the International
Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and
the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Financial support for CIMMYT's research agenda also comes
from many other sources, including foundations, development banks, and public and private agencies.


F U T U R E CIMMYT supports Future Harvest, a public awareness campaign that builds understanding
1R,,if about the importance of agricultural issues and international agricultural research. Future
H A R EST Harvest links respected research institutions, influential public figures, and leading agricultural
scientists to underscore the wider social benefits of improved agriculture-peace, prosperity, environmental renewal,
health, and the alleviation of human suffering (www.futureharvest.org).

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 1999. Responsibility for this publication rests solely
with CIMMYT. The designations employed in the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the
expressions of any opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT or contributory organizations concerning the legal
status of any country, territory, city, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
boundaries.

Printed in Mexico.

Correct citation: Mafuru, J., R. Kileo, H. Verkuijl, W. Mwangi, P. Anandajayasekeram, and A. Moshi. 1999.
Adoption of Maize Production Technologies in the Lake Zone of Tanzania. Mexico, D.F.: International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), the United Republic of Tanzania, and the Southern Africa Center for
Cooperation in Agricultural Research (SACCAR).

Abstract: This study of the adoption of maize production technologies in the Lake Zone of Tanzania forms part of a
larger study to evaluate the impact of maize research and extension throughout Tanzania over the past 20 years. Using
a structured questionnaire, researchers and extension officers interviewed farmers in June-November 1995. Survey data
were classified by agroecological zone (the low, intermediate, and high rainfall zones). Major factors affecting the
adoption of improved maize practices were technical innovation characteristics and external influences. Tobit analysis
showed that education, farmers' experience, farm size, family labor, extension, livestock units, and use of the hand hoe
were significant factors affecting the proportion of land allocated to improved maize varieties. With respect to adoption
of fertilizer, logit analysis showed that the odds of adopting fertilizer increased by a factor of 6.2 if a farmer received an
extension visit. The use of improved varieties in the study area was low, especially in the low and intermediate rainfall
zones. Suitable maize varieties should be developed for these areas, and hybrids should be developed for the farmers in
the high rainfall zone. Flexible integrated management packages that combine a drought tolerant variety with improved
cultural practices to control diseases and pests could increase yields. An efficient marketing system for inputs and
outputs would benefit farmers by paying higher prices for maize and reducing the cost of fertilizer. Extension should be
strengthened to increase the adoption of fertilizer, and farmers should receive more advice about using organic manure

to supplement chemical fertilizer. Extension efforts should also be directed towards promoting the adoption of improved
varieties, weeding, and management practices for controlling diseases and field and storage pests. In collaboration with
the government and other stakeholders, the formal credit system needs to address the credit problems faced by small-
scale farmers, especially their lack of knowledge (information) about formal credit and the bureaucratic procedures that
often impede access to credit.

ISBN: 970-648-030-7
AGROVOC descriptors: AGROVOC descriptors: Tanzania; Lake Victoria; Plant production; Seed production; Seed
industry; Production economics; Production factors; Socioeconomic environment; Production policies; Marketing policies;
Credit policies; Prices; Demography; Maize; Zea mays; Varieties; High yielding varieties; Cultivation; Cropping patterns;
Cropping systems; Inorganic fertilizers; Fertilizer application; Diffusion of research; Economic analysis; Input output
analysis; Economic viability; Technology transfer; Mechanization; Innovation adoption; Small farms; Research projects
Additional keywords: Northern Tanzania; Agroecological zones; CIMMYT; SACCAR
AGRIS category codes: E16 Production Economics
E14 Development Economics and Policies
Dewey decimal classification: 338.16










Contents

Tables ....................................................................................................................... iv
Figures ....................................................................................................................... iv
Abbreviations and Acronyms ................................................................................................. v
Acknowledgments ....................................................................................................... v
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................ vi

1.0 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Motivation and Objectives for This Study ......................................................................... 1
1 .2 T he Study A rea .............................................................................. ....................... . 2
1 .3 M ethodolo gy .................................................................. ....................................... . 3

2.0 Maize Research and Development in Tanzania and the Study Area ............................ 7
2.1 Maize Research in Tanzania ..................................................................................... 7
2.2 Maize Research in the Lake Zone .............................................. ............................... 8
2.3 The Maize Seed Industry in Tanzania ............................ ...... ................................... 9
2.4 Maize Production Technology Recommendations................... ....... ....................... 10

3.0 Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics of Maize Farmers
in the Study Area.............................................................................................. 14
3.1 Demographic Characteristics ................................................. .................. .......... 14
3.2 Land Resources and Allocation Pattern ................................ ........................................ 15
3 .3 L livestock O w nership ................................................................. ................................. 16
3.4. Farm Mechanization ........................... .............................................. ............. 17

4.0 Maize Production Practices and Adoption of Recommendations in the Study Area...... 18
4.1 Crops and Cropping Systems ..................................................................... ......... 18
4.2 Maize Crop Management Practices...................................................... .................. ..... 18
4.3 Adoption of Improved Maize Varieties............................................................................. 27

5.0 Credit and Extension Services ................................................................................ 30
5 .1 C credit A vailab ility ................................................................................ 3 0
5.2 Sources of Inform action ..................................................... ..................................... 30

6.0 Factors Affecting Adoption of Agricultural Technologies in the Study Area ............. 32
6.1 Definitions .................. ............................. ......... .................. 32
6.2 Rate of Adoption of Improved Maize Varieties and Fertilizer ............................................ 32
6.3 Tobit Analysis of Land Allocated to Improved Maize Varieties .......................................... 33
6.4 Logit Analysis of Fertilizer Use ............................................................................... 35

7.0 Conclusions and Recommendations ........................................................................ 36
7.1 Conclusions .................................... ............ ........... 36
7 .2 R ecom m endations .............................................................. ....................................... 37

References ............................................................................................................... 38










Tables


Table 1. Villages visited during the survey, Lake Zone, Tanzania .............................................. 4
Table 2. Maize production recommendations for the Lake Zone, Tanzania ..................................... 10
Table 3. Demographic characteristics of sample households, Lake Zone, Tanzania ........................ 14
Table 4. Livestock ownership (numbers of animals) by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania ....... 16
Table 5. Livestock herd size by method of land preparation, Lake Zone, Tanzania ......................... 17
Table 6. Number of farm implements owned, by agroecological zone and land preparation method,
Lake Zone, Tanzania .................. ................. ... .. ... ... ... .................. .. 17
Table 7. Maize cropping systems, Lake Zone, Tanzania........................................... ............... 18
Table 8. Time and method of land preparation by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania .......... 19
Table 9. Farmers' adoption of major agronomic practices by agroecological zone,
Lake Zone, Tanzania .................. ................. ... .. ... ... ... .................. .. 20
Table 10. Fertilizer use for maize production by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania ................ 21
Table 11. Other soil fertility management practices by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania ......... 22
Table 12. Major field pests, diseases, and their control by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania .... 23
Table 13. Maize harvesting, transportation, and storage by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania .. 24
Table 14. Recycling of improved maize seed by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania ................ 26
Table 15. Time when maize is sold, by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania ............................... 27
Table 16. Maize varieties planted in the 1994/95 season by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania 28
Table 17. Farmers' preferred maize varieties, by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania ............... 28
Table 18. Reasons for farmers' varietal preferences, Lake Zone, Tanzania ...................................... 29
Table 19. Varieties no longer grown by farmers, by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania ............. 29
Table 20. Sources and use of credit by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania ............................... 30
Table 21. Sources of improved maize technologies and their adoption, by agroecological zone,
Lake Zone, Tanzania .................. ................. ... .. ... ... ... .................. .. 31
Table 22. Tobit model estimates for land allocated to improved maize varieties,
Lake Zone, Tanzania .................. ................. ... .. ... ... ... .................. .. 34
Table 23. Logit model estimates for fertilizer use, Lake Zone, Tanzania ........................................... 35



Figures


Figure 1. The four regions of the Lake Zone of Tanzania ......................... .............................. 2
Figure 2. Survey villages in the Lake Zone of Tanzania ......................... ......... ....................... 4
Figure 3. Trends in farm size and maize area in the low rainfall zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania ............... 15
Figure 4. Trends in farm size and maize area in the intermediate rainfall zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania .... 16
Figure 5. Trends in farm size and maize area in the high rainfall zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania .............. 16
Figure 6. Maize cropping calendar for the agroecological zones in the Lake Zone, Tanzania .............. 26
Figure 7. Amount of local and improved maize sold by agroecological zone, Lake Zone,
Tanzania, 1974-94 ........................ ............ ........ ...... ................... .. ......... ... 27
Figure 8. Maize price before and after harvest, by agroecological zone, Lake Zone,
Tanzania, 1974-94 ........................ ............ ........ ...... ................... .. ......... ... 27
Figure 9. Adoption of inorganic fertilizer by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania ................... 33
Figure 10. Adoption of improved maize by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania ...................... 33










Abbreviations and Acronyms


CAN Calcium ammonium nitrate
CIMMYT Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo
[International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center]
DALDO District Agricultural and Livestock Development Officer
DRT Department of Research and Training
FSR Farming systems research
FYM Farm yard manure
LMV Local maize variety
IMV Improved maize variety
ICW Ilonga Composite White
MASL Meters above sea level
MFEC Mogabiri Farmers' Extension Center
MOA Ministry of Agriculture
MSV Maize streak virus
NALRM National Agricultural Research and Livestock Masterplan
NGO Non-governmental organization
NMRP National Maize Research Programme
OPVs Open-pollinated varieties
RALDO Regional Agricultural and Livestock Development Officer
SA Sulphate of ammonium
SACCAR Southern African Centre for Coordination of Agricultural and
Natural Resources Research and Training
SARI Selian Agricultural Research Institute
SG-2000 Sasakawa Global-2000
TANSEED Tanzania Seed Company
TFA Tanganyika Farmers' Association
TMV Tanzania Maize Variety
TSH Tanzanian shillings
TSP Triple super phosphate
UCA-ST Ukiriguru Composite A-Streak resistant
USAID United States Agency for International Development
VEO Village Extension Officer



Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the support of several individuals and institutions, which enabled this study to be conducted.
Financial, institutional, and logistical support provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MAC), SACCAR,
and CIMMYT is greatly appreciated.

We thank F.M. Shao (former Commissioner for Research and Training, MAC), the Zonal Director of Research and
Training in the Lake Zone, Joel Ransom (of CIMMYT-Nairobi and now CIMMYT-Nepal), T.N. Kirway (Assistant
Commissioner, FSR, MAC), and D. Martella (REDSO/ESA) for assistance rendered with various aspects of this study.

We are also thankful to E. Nkonya (SARI, Arusha) for supervising the data entry and P. Kamuntu, D. Kibani, H.
Kwikwega, M. Mlima, B. Mtilla, F. Nkamu, and J. Ruzo for conducting the survey. We thank all the RALDOs, DALDOs,
DIVEOs, and VEOs who helped during the surveys and the farmers who patiently listened and responded to the questions.

We would also like to thank CIMMYT Publications staff for editing and producing this report. Special thanks go to Wzo.
Aklilewerk Bekele, CIMMYT secretary, for ably typing the draft report.










Abbreviations and Acronyms


CAN Calcium ammonium nitrate
CIMMYT Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo
[International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center]
DALDO District Agricultural and Livestock Development Officer
DRT Department of Research and Training
FSR Farming systems research
FYM Farm yard manure
LMV Local maize variety
IMV Improved maize variety
ICW Ilonga Composite White
MASL Meters above sea level
MFEC Mogabiri Farmers' Extension Center
MOA Ministry of Agriculture
MSV Maize streak virus
NALRM National Agricultural Research and Livestock Masterplan
NGO Non-governmental organization
NMRP National Maize Research Programme
OPVs Open-pollinated varieties
RALDO Regional Agricultural and Livestock Development Officer
SA Sulphate of ammonium
SACCAR Southern African Centre for Coordination of Agricultural and
Natural Resources Research and Training
SARI Selian Agricultural Research Institute
SG-2000 Sasakawa Global-2000
TANSEED Tanzania Seed Company
TFA Tanganyika Farmers' Association
TMV Tanzania Maize Variety
TSH Tanzanian shillings
TSP Triple super phosphate
UCA-ST Ukiriguru Composite A-Streak resistant
USAID United States Agency for International Development
VEO Village Extension Officer



Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the support of several individuals and institutions, which enabled this study to be conducted.
Financial, institutional, and logistical support provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MAC), SACCAR,
and CIMMYT is greatly appreciated.

We thank F.M. Shao (former Commissioner for Research and Training, MAC), the Zonal Director of Research and
Training in the Lake Zone, Joel Ransom (of CIMMYT-Nairobi and now CIMMYT-Nepal), T.N. Kirway (Assistant
Commissioner, FSR, MAC), and D. Martella (REDSO/ESA) for assistance rendered with various aspects of this study.

We are also thankful to E. Nkonya (SARI, Arusha) for supervising the data entry and P. Kamuntu, D. Kibani, H.
Kwikwega, M. Mlima, B. Mtilla, F. Nkamu, and J. Ruzo for conducting the survey. We thank all the RALDOs, DALDOs,
DIVEOs, and VEOs who helped during the surveys and the farmers who patiently listened and responded to the questions.

We would also like to thank CIMMYT Publications staff for editing and producing this report. Special thanks go to Wzo.
Aklilewerk Bekele, CIMMYT secretary, for ably typing the draft report.










Executive Summary


Maize provides 60% of dietary calories and more than 50% of utilizable protein to the Tanzanian population. The
crop is cultivated on an average of two million hectares, which is about 45% of the cultivated area in Tanzania.
Recognizing the importance of the maize crop to the lives of Tanzanians, the government has committed human
and financial resources to developing the industry. A National Maize Research Programme (NMRP) was started in
1974 with the broad objective of developing cultivars suitable for major maize-producing areas. The NMRP and
maize extension services have made considerable impact in increasing food production.

This reports forms part of a larger study to evaluate the impact of maize research and extension in Tanzania over
the past 20 years. The Department of Research and Training (DRT) conducted the study in collaboration with the
Southern Africa Coordination Centre for Agricultural Research (SACCAR) and the International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). To increase data validity and reliability, researchers and experienced
extension officers used a structured questionnaire for interviewing farmers. Interviews were conducted in all seven
agroecological zones of the country between June and November 1995. This report covers survey findings in the
Lake Zone, which includes Kagera, Shinyanga, Mwanza, and Mara regions. The recommended maize varieties
for the low rainfall zone are Katumani, Kito, Staha, and Tuxpeio. Kilima, Staha, Katumani, and Kito maize
varieties are recommended for the intermediate rainfall zone. Ukiriguru Composite A and hybrids are
recommended for the high rainfall zone.

Survey data were grouped into three agroecological zones (low, intermediate, and high rainfall zones), which are
the most important maize production zones. A tobit analysis was used to analyze the factors affecting the
allocation of land to improved maize. Logit analysis was used to test for factors affecting the use of inorganic
fertilizer.

The mean age of the household head in the low, intermediate, and high rainfall zones was about 43, 46, and 43
years, respectively, and household heads had an average farming experience of about 20 years. Farmers' level of
education was low, averaging about 4.5 years in the low and intermediate rainfall zones, and 7 years in the high
rainfall zones. Households averaged about 14, 13, and 11 persons in the intermediate, low, and high rainfall
zones, respectively. The number of female adults and children was higher in the intermediate rainfall zone. The
average farm size was highest in the intermediate rainfall zone (46 acres)1 compared to the low (20 acres) and
high (6.5 acres) rainfall zones. The number of cattle in the intermediate rainfall zone (48) was significantly higher
(p=0.05) than in the low (24) and high rainfall zones (5.6).

Land preparation, planting, and harvesting dates depend on the rainfall pattern. In the low and intermediate
rainfall zones land preparation was done mostly in September-October, while in the high rainfall zone it was
done in November-January. Maize was planted between October and November in the low and intermediate
rainfall zones and between January and March in the high rainfall zone. Farmers in the high rainfall zone used
smaller spacing between rows and hills compared to farmers in the low and intermediate rainfall zones. Most
farmers weeded their maize plot twice. Timing of the first and second weeding depended on the rainfall pattern
and time of planting, but most farmers weeded after the first two weeks of planting and again after the
emergence of weeds. Most farmers in the high rainfall zone weeded between March and June, while farmers in
the low and intermediate rainfall zones weeded mostly between November and January. Maize was harvested
between April and July in the low and intermediate rainfall zones, while farmers in the high rainfall zone
harvested between August and September.

The use of fertilizer for maize production was constrained by its high price and by farmers' lack of knowledge of
the technology. Farmers used mainly urea and calcium ammonium nitrate. The average amount of fertilizer used
was higher in the high rainfall zone (20 kg/ha) compared to the low (13 kg/ha) and intermediate rainfall zones


1 acre = 0.4 ha.











(17.5 kg/ha). To increase soil fertility, farmers plowed crop residues into the soil, mainly in the low and high
rainfall zone. Farmers in the intermediate zone (58.1%) were more likely to use crop residues as livestock feed.
More farmers in the low (76.1%) and high (83.3%) rainfall zones rotated crops compared to farmers in the
intermediate rainfall zone (60.4%). The important field pests and diseases for maize in all zones were stalk borer
and maize streak virus.

In the low (52.4%) and intermediate rainfall zones (78.6%), farmers recycled maize seed for more than ten years.
Farmers in the high rainfall zone (75%) recycled seed for two years. Seed was selected from the previous harvest
based on the size of the cob and lack of pests/diseases. Seed selection was mainly done at home after harvesting.
Seed was stored separately from the main crop, mainly in cribs. Maize was shelled and stored in gunny bags,
cribs, or a local storage structure ',! !i. 1 ) Most farmers in the low (94%) and intermediate rainfall zone (88.6%)
treated their stored maize with industrial chemicals to control storage pests, while in the high rainfall zone only
22% of the farmers treated their maize.

The main maize varieties grown during the 1994/95 farming season in the high rainfall zone were local varieties
and H625 (imported from Kenya). In the low rainfall zone, the main varieties grown in the 1994/95 farming
season were local varieties, Kilima, H614, Tuxpefo, Katumani, H625, and Zambia. In the intermediate rainfall
zone, farmers mainly grew local varieties, Kilima, H625, and Zambia. The improved maize variety preferred by
farmers in the high rainfall zone was H625. Varieties were preferred for yield potential, resistance to drought,
and resistance to field pests. About 29% of the farmers in the low rainfall zone, 25% in the intermediate zone,
and 56% in the high rainfall zone had disadopted improved maize varieties. Farmers in the high rainfall zone
mainly disadopted H625 and Katumani, and farmers in the low rainfall zone mainly disadopted Tuxpefio.
Farmers in the intermediate rainfall zone mainly disadopted Katumani and Tuxpefuo.

None of the farmers in the high rainfall zone used credit, and numbers of credit users were also low in zones of
low rainfall (about 3% of farmers) and intermediate rainfall (about 2% of farmers). Cooperative unions were the
only credit institutions. All farmers in the high rainfall said that credit was difficult to obtain; 82.4% of farmers in
the low rainfall zone and 62.5% in the intermediate rainfall zone said the same thing. In all zones, lack of
knowledge (information) about credit and lack of credit facilities were the main constraints to obtaining credit.
Most farmers had received information on all of the agronomic practices recommended by extension except for
disease control and use of herbicides. The most important sources of information were research and extension
officials.

The tobit analysis showed that education, farmers' experience, farm size, family labor, extension, livestock units,
and use of the hand hoe were significant factors affecting the proportion of land allocated to improved maize
varieties. Extension and education increased the probability of allocating land to improved maize at the means by
about 12% and 1.8%, respectively. Farmers' experience and farm size increased the probability of allocating land
at the means by about 0.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Family labor and livestock units decreased the probability of
allocating land at the means by about 1.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Farmers using hand hoes are 13% less likely
to allocate land to improved varieties. The odds in favor of adopting fertilizer increased by a factor of 6.2 if a
farmer received an extension visit.

Technical innovation characteristics and external influences are the major factors affecting the adoption of
improved maize practices. Field pests limit maize production, and flexible integrated management packages that
combine a drought tolerant variety with improved cultural practices could increase yields. Low-cost technologies
for controlling stalk borer and maize streak virus using cultural practices or environmentally friendly industrial
chemicals should also be developed.











Most improved varieties are responsive to fertilizer, and farmers usually obtain economic yields with fertilizer. But
the use of fertilizer is constrained by its high price and farmers' lack of knowledge of fertilizer. An efficient
marketing system for inputs and outputs would benefit farmers by paying higher prices for maize and reducing the
cost of fertilizer. Such a system cannot be established without policy support from the government. Studies of the
economics of fertilizer use should be undertaken, especially now that input and output markets have been
liberalized.

The use of improved varieties in the study area was low, especially in the low and intermediate rainfall zones.
Farmers in the high rainfall zone mainly grew improved maize varieties imported from Kenya (H625). Also, most
farmers in the low and intermediate rainfall zone recycled maize seed for more than ten years. Suitable maize
varieties should be developed for farmers in the study area, especially for the low and intermediate rainfall zones.
Hybrids should be developed for the farmers in the high rainfall zone.

Extension should be strengthened to increase the flow of information to farmers. More effort should be directed
toward fertilizer technologies, as the majority of farmers use inefficient practices. Farmers should receive more
advice about using organic manure to supplement chemical fertilizer. Furthermore, extension efforts should be
directed towards promoting the adoption of improved varieties, weeding, and management practices for
controlling diseases and field and storage pests. Farmers in the high rainfall zone need to be encouraged to treat
their stored maize against insect infestation.

Credit is not available to most maize farmers through formal channels, although the availability of credit becomes
increasingly important as input prices rise. In collaboration with the government and other stakeholders, the
formal credit system needs to address the credit problems faced by small-scale farmers, especially their lack of
knowledge (information) about formal credit and the bureaucratic procedures that often impede access to credit.
Farmers should also be encouraged to form credit groups, because lending to groups tends to reduce transaction
costs and ensures a high rate of loan recovery.








Adoption of Maize Production

Technologies in the Lake

Zone of Tanzania

January Mafuru, Robert Kileo, Hugo Verkuijl, Wilfred Mwangi,
Ponniah Anandajaysekeram, and Alfred Moshi

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Motivation and Objectives for This Study

Maize is the major cereal consumed in Tanzania. It is estimated that the annual per capital
consumption of maize in Tanzania is 112.5 kg; national maize consumption is estimated to be three
million tons per year. Maize contributes 60% of dietary calories to Tanzanian consumers (FSD 1992,
1996). The cereal also contributes more than 50% of utilizable protein, while beans contribute 38%
(Due 1986).

Maize is grown in all 20 regions of Tanzania. The crop is cultivated on an average of two million
hectares (about 45% of the cultivated area), mostly in the Southern Highlands (46%), the Lake Zone,
and the Northern Zone. Dar Es Salaam, Lindi, Singida, Coast, and Kigoma are maize-deficit regions.
Dodoma produces a surplus in good growing years, when it becomes the number-one supplier of
maize to Dar Es Salaam (FSD 1992; Mdadila 1995).

Maize is not only a staple crop in surplus regions but a cash crop as well. For instance, in the Lake
Zone, maize competes aggressively with cotton for land, labor, and farmers' cash. Realizing the
importance of the maize crop to Tanzanians, the government has been committing significant human
and financial resources to develop the industry. Research and extension focusing on maize started in
1960. Breeding efforts in the 1960s resulted in the release of Ukiriguru Composite A (UCA) and
Ilonga Composite White (ICW). Between 1973 and 1975 Tanzania experienced a severe food
shortage because of drought and the "villagization" campaign, which displaced many farmers
(Maliyamkono and Bagachwa 1990). The food crisis prompted the nation to launch several
campaigns, such as "agriculture for survival" (kilimo cha kufa na kupona), with the objective of
attaining self-sufficiency in food production. The country also initiated a maize project in 1974 with
the assistance of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The project's objective
was to promote maize production in pursuit of food self-sufficiency. The National Maize Research
Programme (NMRP) was given the broad objective of developing cultivars suitable for major maize-
producing areas.

The NMRP and the extension service have made a considerable impact on increasing food
production. This study was conducted to evaluate that impact during the past 20 years. Conducted by
the Department of Research and Training (DRT) in collaboration with the Southern Africa
Coordination Centre for Agricultural Research (SACCAR) and the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT), the study included the nation's seven agroecological zones. The










study was conducted between June and November 1995. This report covers the survey findings in
the Lake Zone. The objectives of the study were to describe the maize farming systems in the Lake
Zone, evaluate the adoption of improved maize production technologies, and, in light of the findings,
identify future themes for research.

1.2 The Study Area

Tanzania is divided into seven agroecological zones (Samki, Miany, and Dewan 1981; NALRM
1991). The Lake Zone is in the northern part of Tanzania and comprises Mwanza, Mara, Kagera,
and Shinyanga regions (Figure 1). The first three regions border Lake Victoria. The zone comprises
25 districts, of which 4 are urban and 21 rural (FSR 1996). The zone occupies 120,271 km2
(Maliyamkono and Bakuchwa 1990) and has a population of 5,942,232 (Government of Tanzania
1988). Maize is the main food crop in the zone, followed by sorghum and cassava. Soil fertility,
precipitation, and the length of the growing period mainly determine an area's suitability for maize
production. Maize is grown throughout the Lake Zone, although sometimes under risky conditions.
Farmers grow maize even under risky conditions, because they prefer to eat maize, can sell it for
cash, and can store and transport it easily. Maize is planted on ridges (in sandy soils) or flat seedbeds
(in heavy soils). It is commonly intercropped with legumes such as cowpeas, groundnuts, green gram,
and bambara nuts. Other crops, including sweet potato, cassava, and pigeon pea, are also commonly
intercropped with maize.

The Lake Zone can be divided into three major agroecological zones: an intermediate zone receiving
low rainfall; an intermediate zone with high rainfall; and a highland zone.

1.2.1 Intermediate zone (950-1,500 masl) with low rainfall (850-1,100 mm)
(Mwanza, Shinyanga, part of Kagera and Mara region)
The cropping system in this zone comprises
U I-- International boundary
several rotations of annual crops. The major ga ......i .-. Regional boundary
food crops are cassava, maize, paddy, beans, Rwand Water
Rwan4 Mara
sweet potatoes, and groundnuts. Cotton is the -. '. Kenya
only major cash crop, although some food crops, Burunj wanza
such as rice, maize, and groundnuts, are also. Shinyanga
sold for cash in local markets. The zone has a
bimodal rainfall pattern. The short rains (vuli) Tanzania
Tanzania
start in October and peak in December, whereas nika
the long rains (masika) start in March and peak
in April. The dry season starts in June and ends z akeRukwa
in September.

The following villages were visited during the Zam
Zambia
survey: Igunda and Bukomela (in Kahama
District); Busekeseke (Sengerema District); .'---...-Moza..mbiqu
Nyamigogo (Geita District); and Bwera
Figure 1. The four regions of the Lake Zone of Tanzania.










(Biharamulo District). These districts (Kahama, Sengerema, Geita) are part of the cotton/cereal/rice-
based cropping system (Sukumaland) of the Lake Zone.

1.2.2 Intermediate zone (950-1,500 masl) with high rainfall (>1,100 mm) (parts of
Shinyanga [Kahama District] and Mara [Tarime and Serengeti Districts])
Maize is an important crop in the intermediate zone, where it is grown by more than 90% of the
small-scale farmers. After the crop was introduced in 1950s, cultivation of maize increased and
cultivation of sorghum declined. In areas with sufficient rainfall, maize offers the opportunity to avert
food shortages because it responds well to improved management practices and unlike other cereals
(e.g., rice, sorghum) is not attacked by birds.

The villages sampled for the survey included Matongo in Bariadi District and Nyang'hwale and
Ilolangulu in Kahama District. These villages are part of the Sukuma agropastoral system that is
predominant in north central Tanzania. Similar characteristics are shared by Mwanza, Maswa, Bariadi,
and Shinyanga Districts. The soils are sandy to sandy clay but vary by location. Soils range from the
shallow, perfectly drained soils found on hillcrests to the moderately deep, well-drained soils on hill
slopes and the deep, imperfectly drained black clay soils of the vast bottomland.

1.2.3 Highland zone (>1,500 masl) with high rainfall (>1,500mm)
(parts of Tarime District and Kagera Region)
The Tarime highlands in northwestern Tanzania range in elevation from 1,500 to 1,850 masl. A
slight gradient in altitude is seen from west to east, the lower areas being located near Tarime and
Sirari towns and the upper areas in the far east (Bakema et al. 1989). A favorable climate and
relatively fertile soils enable farmers to produce most annual crops twice per year. In the long rains,
land preparation for crop production starts in November and ends in the beginning of January. In the
short rains, land preparation for crop production starts in June. Average rainfall is about 1,550 mm a
year.

Maize was introduced into the Tarime highlands by the colonial administration in the 1920s, and now
more than 90% of farmers grow the crop. Topography, soils, and access to markets determine the
land use pattern. Four major land use patterns are distinguished: (1) the densely populated, densely
cropped escarpment area, which has a great diversity of crops, including coffee, banana, maize,
cassava, and fallow for grazing; (2) the densely populated northern hills and plateau, which have a
slightly less diversified cropping pattern (some coffee and banana; cassava is dominant); (3) the central
valley, covered by grasslands mainly used for grazing; and (4) the stony patches on the northern hills,
where granite outcrops covered with acacia bushes and short grasses are used for grazing cattle.

1.3 Methodology

1.3.1 Sampling procedure
The number of farmers interviewed in the nationwide survey was determined by the importance of
maize production in a given zone. About 1,000 maize farmers were interviewed nationwide. The Lake
Zone was allocated 162 farmers or approximately 16% of the national sample. Multistage, purposive










sampling procedures were used to select farmers for the survey. Districts in the zone were selected on
the basis of maize production figures from the Ministry of Agriculture's statistical unit. Eleven districts
were purposively sampled. Within each district, the villages that were important for maize production
were selected with the help of extension staff. Nine villages were chosen (Table 1, Figure 2). From
each village, approximately 18 farmers were randomly sampled from the register of households. To
increase data validity and reliability, farmers were interviewed by researchers and experienced
extension officers using a structured questionnaire developed by a panel of the zonal farming systems
research economists, CIMMYT and SACCAR economists, and national maize breeders and
agronomists. The interviews were conducted between June and November 1995. To maintain
uniformity, data from all zones were compiled at Selian Agricultural Research Institute (SARI) and then
sent back to the respective zones for analysis and completion of the reports.

1.3.2 Analytical -x Bukoba
framework Itiryo.
f m o .. n J ^.LLake Victoria Tarime
Factors influencing the Karagwe I ,( -
adoption of new- -
S Muleba i D -->Musoma Rural
agricultural technologies <' _, Mara
can be divided into three Bunda Serengeti
major categories: farm J seReseke-,
and farmers' Ngara Kagera ('ana Magu
associated attributes; Biharamulo Gta Baradi Matongo
Bwera Giota Bariadi Matongo
attributes associated Nyam ggo isun -
Mwanza
with the technology Kwinba
/* I .. 7i./. I' \ L.-. Maswa ,
(Adesina and Zinnah1992; ( Iolangulu s' Moatu
iNyn9g' hwa. i. .' f '. oa
Misra, Carely, and Fletcher Bukombe ale ShinangaUrban
-, r Kahama \ -
1993); and the farming objective J .Igunda ShingaRura ,
(CIMMYT 1988). Factors in the L Shi ya"fga
first category include farmer's Bukomela Regional boundary
education, age, or family and farm --- District boundary
size. The second category depends on Survey village
the type of technology (e.g., the kind
of characteristics a farmer likes in an Figure 2. Survey villages in the Lake Zone of Tanzania.



Table 1. Villages visited during the survey, Lake Zone, Tanzania
Zone Village District Region
Mid-altitude, Igunda, Bukomela Kahama Shinyanga
low rainfall Bwera Biharamulo Kagera
Nyamigogo Geita Mwanza
Busekeseke Sengerema Mwanza
Mid-altitude, Matongo Bariadi Shinyanga
high rainfall Nyang'hwale and Ilolangulu Kahama Shinyanga
High altitude Itiryo Tarime Mara










improved maize variety). The third category assesses how different strategies used by the farmer
(e.g., commercial versus subsistence farming) influence the adoption of technologies. In this study a
tobit model is used to test factors affecting the allocation of land to improved maize varieties, and a
logit model is used to test factors affecting the adoption of fertilizer. The tobit model (McDonald and
Moffitt 1980; Maddala 1983), which tests factors affecting the incidence and intensity of adoption,
can be specified as follows:

Yt = Xt3 + Ut if Xt1 + U > 0
= 0 if Xt1 + U < 0
t= 1,2,..., N

where:

Yt = expected amount of land allocated to improved maize varieties at a given stimulus level, Xt;
N = number of observations;
Xt = vector of independent variables;
p = vector of unknown coefficients; and
Ut = independently distributed error term assumed to be normal with zero mean and constant
variance o2.

The logit model can be specified as (Gujarati 1988):

In(P/(I-P)) = Xt,3+ E,

where Xt is the index reflecting the combined effect of X independent variables that prevent or
promote adoption. The index level Xt can be specified as:

Xt= P3 + 31X +....+ P38X8+ Ei

where:

Po = constant;
X1 = FARMS (farm size, in acres);
X2 = EXP (farming experience of household head, in years);
X3 = EDUC (education level of household head, in years);
X4 = LUNITS (livestock units, expressed as an index in which livestock numbers are aggregated
using weighting factors: cow = 0.8; goat = 0.4; sheep = 0.4);
X5 = EXT (dummy variable for whether farmer received an extension visit);
X6 = FLABOR (family labor, expressed as an index in which family members are aggregated using
weighting factors: male and female adults above 16 years = 1; children between 12 and 15
years = 0.5);
X7 = HANDHOE (dummy variable for the use of a hand hoe to prepare land; the ox-plow was not
included in the model to avoid multicollinearity (Griffiths, Hill, and Judge 1993; Greene 1993);
Xg = HLAB (dummy variable for hired labor); and
E = error term.










Formation of the model was influenced by a number of working hypotheses. It was hypothesized that
a farmer's decision to adopt or reject a new technology at any time is influenced by the combined
(simultaneous) effects of a number of factors related to the farmer's objectives and constraints
(CIMMYT 1993). The following variables were hypothesized to influence the adoption of improved
maize varieties and fertilizer:

Farm size: Farm size is an indicator of wealth and perhaps a proxy for social status and influence
within a community. A larger farm size is expected to be positively associated with the decision to
adopt improved maize technology. Farm size can also encourage farmers to intensify agricultural
production, in which case a larger farm size is expected to be negatively related to the adoption of
improved maize technology.

Farmer's experience: A farmer's experience can generate or erode confidence. With more
experience, a farmer can become more or less averse to the risk implied by adopting a new
technology; thus this variable can have a positive or negative effect on a farmer's decision to adopt
an improved maize technology.

Education: Exposure to education should increase a farmer's ability to obtain, process, and use
information relevant to the adoption of improved maize technology. Education thus is thought to
increase the probability that a farmer will adopt an improved maize technology.

Livestock ownership: Ownership of livestock is hypothesized to be positively related to the
adoption of improved maize technologies.

Contact with extension: Agricultural extension services provided by the Ministry of Agriculture are
the major source of agricultural information in the study area. It is hypothesized that contact with
extension workers will increase farmers' likelihood of adopting improved maize technologies.

Household size: Because larger households are more likely to provide the labor that might be
required by improved maize technologies, a larger household size would be expected to increase the
probability of adopting improved maize technologies.

Hand hoe: Use of a hand hoe to prepare land should have a negative influence on the adoption of
improved maize technologies.

Hired labor: The use of hired labor is hypothesized to be positively related to the adoption of
improved maize technologies.









2.0 Maize Research and Development in
Tanzania and the Study Area

2.1 Maize Research in Tanzania

About 85% of the maize produced in Tanzania is grown by peasants whose farms are less than 10
ha. Ten percent of maize is produced on medium-scale commercial farms (10-100 ha), and the
remaining 5% is grown on large-scale commercial farms (>100 ha). Between 1961-65 and 1985-
95, national maize production is estimated to have grown by 4.6%, of which 2.4% can be attributed
to growth in area. Despite this yield growth, average yields are less than 1.5 t/ha, although grain
yields tend to be higher in high-potential areas such as the Southern Highlands (Moshi et al. 1990).

Maize breeding and agronomy trials have been conducted in Tanzania for more than 20 years. The
improved open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) ICW and UCA were developed, tested, and released in
the 1960s and are still widely used. During the same period, a few research stations undertook
agronomic research, which later formed the basis for recommendations that were applied to the
entire country.

Before 1966, maize research in Tanzania was conducted at regional centers, each of which was
responsible for a geographical area (Jones and Nyambo 1982), but this system resulted in some
duplication of effort. The National Maize Research Programme (NMRP) was established in the Lake
Zone at Ukiriguru Research Center in 1966 to coordinate maize research and improve the utilization
of research resources. The NMRP coordinates all phases of maize research, from varietal
development and crop management research on the experiment station to verification trials in
farmers' fields. In 1974, the NMRP was moved to Ilonga Research Center in the Eastern Zone. The
NMRP has divided the country into three major agroecological zones for varietal recommendations:

1. The highlands (elevations >1,500 masl), with a growing period of 6-8 months.
2. The intermediate (mid-altitude) zone (900-1,500 masl), which is further divided into "wet"
(>1,100 mm rainfall with a 4-5 month growing period) and "dry" subzones (<1,100 mm
rainfall with a 3-4 month growing period).
3. The lowlands (0-900 masl), with a 3-4 month growing period.

To date several breeding populations have been developed and are being improved through
recurrent selection for specific traits. Since 1974, two hybrids and six OPVs have been released. In
1976, Tuxpefo was released for the lowland areas. Hybrids H6302 and H614, suitable for the
highlands, were released in 1977 and 1978, respectively. In November 1983, three OPVs were
released: Kito, Kilima, and Staha. Staha is characterized by its tolerance to maize streak virus (MSV)
disease, whereas Kilima was recommended for the intermediate zone. Kito is an early maturing
variety adapted to both low and intermediate zones. In 1987 two OPVs, TMV1 and TMV2, were
released. TMV1 has white, flinty grain, is streak resistant, and has intermediate maturity. It is
recommended for the lowland and intermediate zones. TMV2 is also a white flint maize and is
recommended for the high-altitude and high-potential maize-producing areas.










In 1994, the NMRP released MSV-resistant versions of Kilima, UCA, Kito, and Katumani: Kilima-St,
UCA-St, Kito-St, and Katumani-St. Around the same time, two foreign seed companies, Cargill
and Pannar, introduced or released seven hybrids for commercial use. For improvement of
husbandry practices, the NMRP conducted off-station agronomy trials that in 1980 resulted in maize
production recommendations specific to 11 regions. The recommendations related to the choice of
variety, plant spacing, plant density, fertilizer rate, weeding regime, and pesticide use.

2.2 Maize Research in the Lake Zone

For many years, the main food crops produced on the lighter soils of the Lake Zone were bulrush
millet, cassava, sorghum, sweet potatoes, and maize. Sorghum was the dominant crop on the
heavier soils and was often intercropped with legumes groundnutss, cowpeas, bambara nuts, and
beans). Since 1962, however, the cultivation of bulrush millet has declined in favor of maize. During
the last 50 years maize has gradually become the most important crop in the Lake Zone. Farmers
moved away from millet production partly because of the losses from bird damage. The excellent
palatability of maize and its easier management compared to sorghum and bulrush millet have also
helped increase its popularity.

With the exception of some areas, such as the North Mara Highlands, part of Kagera region, and
most of Geita and Bariadi Districts, the Lake Zone is not considered "suitable" for maize production
because of low rainfall at flowering and low soil fertility. Even so, farmers' preference for maize over
other crops has continued to increase. Because dry spells, poor soils, and post-harvest problems
render maize production conditions far from optimal in most parts of the Lake Zone, special
recommendations had to be developed for maize production. More recently, high demand for maize
and its high unofficial market price have also contributed to the increase in maize area and to the
decline in the area planted to other food crops and cotton.

Since Ilonga assumed responsibility for coordinating maize research in Tanzania, Ukiriguru Research
Institute has been responsible for screening progenies, testing varieties and hybrids emerging from
the NMRP, and conducting agronomy trials to solve specific problems. Varieties and hybrids suited to
the Lake Zone can be classified as early maturing (Katumani and Kito/Kito-St), medium maturing
(Kilima/Kilima-St, Staha, and TMV1), and long maturing (UCA and hybrids H613, H614, and
H622). In Tarime highlands, farmers also use hybrid maize imported from Kenya. The choice of
variety depends on farmer's objectives, the length of the rainy season, and the amount of rainfall
received. Varieties suitable for high rainfall areas are hybrids and UCA. Other varieties are available
for a range of sowing dates. In low rainfall areas where the growing season is short, Kito, Katumani,
and TMV1 are considered suitable varieties.

The agronomy program in the Lake Zone has carried out studies on weed control (with special
attention to weeding regimes and Striga control), fertilizer trials in relation to new varieties, planting
densities, other management practices such as intercropping and related cropping systems, and
disease and pest control. On-farm trials and demonstrations of improved technologies are
undertaken in collaboration with the Farming Systems Research Program.










2.3 The Maize Seed Industry in Tanzania


The hybrid CG4141 is multiplied and distributed by Cargill Hybrid Seed Ltd., which is based in
Arusha. Locally bred cultivars have flint grain, good pounding and storage qualities, and yield as well
as CG4141. They are marketed mainly by the Tanzania Seed Company (TANSEED), which has not
done well in the newly competitive seed industry. This has contributed to the reduced adoption of
locally bred hybrids. About 83% of the farmers in the high rainfall areas of the Lake Zone grew
H625 from Kenya, while only 12% and 6% of the farmers in the low rainfall and intermediate
rainfall zones grew imported improved varieties. Before input markets were liberalized in 1990,
locally bred varieties were almost the only improved maize seed planted in Tanzania.

After market liberalization, private companies not only engaged in seed multiplication but also
conducted trials to evaluate the adaptability of imported varieties to the local environment. The
varieties deemed suitable are subsequently released to farmers. CG4141 is competing aggressively
with the locally bred cultivars that are multiplied and sold by TANSEED. Pannar started producing
and marketing maize seed in 1995. The new companies have recruited chains of stockists who sell
their seed in villages and towns, and TANSEED has followed suit. Farmers have reported that seed
sold by the private companies is purer, more uniform, and higher yielding than seed from
TANSEED, which has served to reduce demand for TANSEED products.

The drawbacks of the new varieties sold by Cargill and Pannar are their high price, poor storability,
poor pounding quality, and unsatisfactory taste. Pounded maize is used to make a local dish
prepared from grains whose seedcoat has been removed (kande). Some farmers also pound their
maize before milling to make a whiter and softer dough (ugali). When pounded, maize grain with a
soft seedcoat breaks, and flour losses before milling are greater. This underscores the importance of
the flint trait in farmers' varietal preferences.

The latest development in the maize seed industry is the resumed importation of a once-famous
hybrid, H511, from Kenya, by the Tanganyika Farmers' Association (TFA). H511 yields as well and
matures as early as CG4141; its advantage over CG4141 is its flinty grain. The 1994/95 price for
Cargill (CG4141) and Pannar (PAN 6481) seed was Tanzanian shillings (Tsh) 650/kg, while Kilima,
a composite, sold at Tsh 450/kg. The high prices of maize seed have forced many farmers to
recycle hybrid seed.

Before input liberalization, quasi-governmental institutions and cooperative unions monopolized
input marketing. These institutions were inefficient in delivering inputs to farmers. They suffered
from chronic liquidity problems, because they depended on borrowing money for buying inputs.
This led to delayed input supply and persistent shortages that served as a disincentive to farmers
(Mbiha 1993; Nkonya 1994). Market liberalization has led to a rapid increase in the number of
private businesses that engage in input marketing. Farmers can now obtain inputs from village
stockists who are located much closer to them than prior to 1990. Inputs have also become readily
available on time in villages. As expected, the price of inputs has increased sharply, wiping out the
shortages that existed before.










2.4 Maize Production Technology Recommendations


The recommendations issued by regional and national research programs are related to improved
varieties, optimum sowing dates, the use of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM), weed control, and
disease and pest control. These recommendations are summarized in Table 2.

2.4.1 Varieties
As noted, maize research in Tanzania has resulted in the release of several varieties. The
recommended varieties, fertilizer rates, spacing, pest control, and weeding are shown in Table 2.
Depending on their time to maturity, resistance to diseases, and tolerance to certain weather
conditions, varieties are suitable for different ecological conditions. Local flint varieties are better
adapted to adverse conditions. Staha, Tuxpefo, Kito, and Katumani are recommended for the
lowlands. Kilima, Staha, Katumani, and Kito maize varieties are recommended for the intermediate
zone with low rainfall. Ukiriguru Composite A and hybrids are recommended for the high rainfall
areas.


2.4.2 Land preparation, planting time, method, and spacing
Land preparation should start early enough so that planting can be done on time. Good tillage is
important, as it allows free movement of water and air, which are vital for maize plant growth, and
minimizes weed infestation at the early stages of maize growth. It is recommended that in light sandy


Table 2. Maize production recommendations for the Lake Zone, Tanzania

Last No. of
planting Fertilizer plants Insecticides for
Variety date rate/ha Spacing (cm) per hill stalkborers Weeding

UCA Late Dec.- 3-6 bags of 75x30 1 Thiodan 4% and 2-3 WAP and
early Feb. SA and 2 75x60 2 Cymbush 0.5% 5 WAP
bags TSP 90x25 1 dusts
90x50 2
Kilima Late Dec.- 3-6 bags of 75x30 1 Thiodan 4% and 2-3 WAP and
early Feb. SA and 2 75x60 2 Cymbush 0.5% 5 WAP
bags TSP 90x25 1 dusts
90x50 2
TMV1 Early Feb. 3-6 bags of 75x30 1 Thiodan 4% and 2-3 WAP and
SA and 2 75x60 2 Cymbush 0.5% 5 WAP
bags TSP 90x25 1 dusts
90x50 2
Katumani Early Feb. 3-6 bags of 75x40 2 Thiodan 4% and 2-3 WAP and
SA and 2 Cymbush 0.5% 5 WAP
bags TSP dusts
Kito Early Feb. 3-6 bags of 75x40 2 Thiodan 4% and 2-3 WAP and
SA and 2 Cymbush 0.5% 5 WAP
bags TSP dusts
Hybrids Late Dec.- 3-6 bags of 75x30 1 Thiodan 4% and 2-3 WAP and
(H632, H622, early Feb. SA and 2 75x60 2 Cymbush 0.5% 5 WAP
H6302, H614) bags TSP 90x25 1 dusts
90x50 2

Note: WAP = weeks after planting; SA = sulphate of ammonium; and TSP = triple super phosphate.










soils maize should be planted on ridges to conserve moisture and prevent soil erosion. Ridges can be
prepared by hand hoe, oxen, or tractor. Heavy soils can be cultivated on the flat.

Time of planting is a complex issue in the Lake Zone, where rainfall patterns and distribution vary.
Farmers are advised to plant maize so that flowering and seed setting coincide with the months of
reliable rainfall. The planting date for a given area is chosen depending on the rainfall pattern in the
area and the number of days that a given variety or hybrid requires to reach tasselling. In areas where
there are two rainfall peaks with a dry spell in between, when rainfall is unreliable, maize should be
planted during and up to the end of the first peak so that vegetative growth occurs during the drier
months and flowering occurs at the beginning of the second rainfall peak. The last dates for maize
planting in the different areas of the Lake Zone are:

1. For the Tarime highlands in Mara region, the last planting date for maize in the short rains
should be mid-November. Maize grown in the long rains should be planted before mid-March.
2. In Mwanza and Shinyanga regions, maize should be sown before mid-October for the short
rains and at least before mid-February for the long rains.
3. In Kagera region, maize should be sown before the end of October for the short rains and
before the end of March for the long rains.

Only high quality and well-graded seed should be planted. Seed can be obtained by selecting good
ears from the previous harvest. Seed of open-pollinated varieties (composites) should be dried,
processed, and treated with insecticides to control soil-borne organisms and pests of stored grain.
Unlike seed of open-pollinated varieties, hybrid seed should not be recycled from one season to the
next but should be purchased every year.

Seed should be planted immediately after the soil is ridged or after the soil surface has been loosened
to ensure germination and a good stand. Grain yield is associated with plant spacing and the type of
variety or hybrid. Early maturing varieties require less space between plants than medium and late
maturing cultivars (Table 2). On light soils, farmers prepare larger ridges of 150 cm, and usually two
rows of maize are grown on each ridge. The recommended spacing is 75 x 30 cm or 90 x 25 cm
with one plant left after thinning. A similar plant population can be obtained by sowing maize at 50 x
90 cm or 75 x 60 cm with two plants per hill. The spacing between and within rows can be
manipulated to get similar plant populations of 40,000-50,000 plants per hectare. If rainfall is
reliable, 3 plants per hill at 90 x 75 cm can produce similar yield. For short maturing maize varieties
(Kito and Katumani), a spacing of 75 x 40 cm with 2 plants per hill is recommended.

2.4.3 Fertilizer types and method of application
The maize plant has a relatively high demand for nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus
(P). These nutrients may be obtained through the application of farmyard manure (FYM) or inorganic
fertilizers. Farmyard manure is applied at a rate of 5-10 t/ha by spreading 15 kg of FYM after every
five steps or 4-5 m. The manure is put in the furrow before the ridges are made or spread on the
field before the land is cultivated.










Nitrogen is a major limiting nutrient and is needed in large amounts for higher maize yield. An
adequate supply of N is needed throughout the growing season and is one of the most important
factors for improved soil management practices. In the intermediate and high rainfall areas, where
moisture is reliable, the use of N fertilizers results in greater economic returns. In medium and low
rainfall areas, response to N fertilizers is unreliable and poor.

The recommended rate of N fertilizer is 60 kg N/ha applied as a top dressing (Jones and Nyambo
1982; Mowo et al. 1993). Nitrogen applications may be split by applying about 50% of the total
amount at planting and the remainder just before tasseling. Calcium ammonium nitriate (CAN) or
nitrochalk is the preferred type of fertilizer. Sulphate of ammonium (SA) is not recommended because
it rapidly acidifies the soil. Nitrogen fertilization is not recommended for the heavy mbuga soils.

Phosphorus is also essential for plant growth, as it is involved in the transfer of energy within the
plant and has a structural role in a number of compounds. Farmers are presently advised to apply 40
kg P205/ha as basal fertilizer. Phosphorus should be applied in a single dose at planting.

Fertilizer is normally placed 5 cm below the depth of the seed and about 5-8 cm to the side. This is
accomplished by digging a single hole beside each seed, placing the fertilizer in the hole, and
covering it with soil. Alternatively a continuous furrow is made along the length of the planting row.
Fertilizer is placed in the furrow and covered with soil. The seed is planted on top of this soil and
covered properly.

2.4.4 Weeding time, frequency, and method
Weeds seriously affect maize yield and can cause major yield reductions by competing with the maize
crop for water, light, and nutrients. Some weeds may also harbor insect pests and diseases that
directly infest the plants, also causing yield losses.

Two weedings are recommended for maize production in the Lake Zone, using hand hoes. The first
weeding should be done two weeks after germination and the second before tasseling. The
introduction of the ox-weeder has reduced the labor requirement for weeding if the crop is sown in
rows. For large-scale maize production, the use of herbicide in combination with other practices is an
economical method of weeding if labor is a constraint.

2.4.5 Pest and disease control
The diseases common to maize in the Lake Zone are leaf blight and leaf rust, but resistant varieties
have been released. Maize streak virus still poses a threat to susceptible maize cultivars and can cause
complete crop loss. Cultural practices such as early planting have always been important for reducing
disease losses.










Stalkborer is a major insect pest in some areas and has caused yield losses of 25% or more. These
pests do not breed during the dry season, so the number of larvae surviving the dry season
primarily determines the extent to which the maize crop will be infested at the beginning of a new
growing season. Survival of the stalkborers depends on the amount of maize plant residue left from
the preceding season. Burning maize stalks after harvest is one means of controlling stalkborers.
The recommended chemical control is to apply 5 kg/ha Thiodan 4% dust in the plant funnel when
early evidence of damage appears.

Striga (a parasitic weed) can seriously damage the maize crop. Farmers are advised to uproot all
Striga plants in the field and throw them far away or burn them to ash before they set seed.

2.4.6 Harvesting and storage
Harvesting may begin as soon as maize grain is physiologically mature. This occurs when the grain
contains 30-40% moisture, depending on the variety. The bulk of the crop may be harvested at
25-35% moisture. Large harvest losses from storage pests occur when harvesting is done at a
moisture level below 18-20%.

When seed has dried to about 12-14% moisture content, it should be stored in a cool, dry place
free from rodents and storage pests. One 90-100 kg bag of well-dried maize should be stored with
90-100 g of Actellic Super dust.









3.0 Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics
of Maize Farmers in the Study Area

3.1 Demographic Characteristics

Table 3 lists characteristics of households in the Lake Zone. The average age of the household head
was 43 years in the low and high rainfall zones and 46 years in the intermediate rainfall zone.
However, the average age of farmers was not significantly different between the zones. Farming
experience in all zones was about 20 years, implying that on average farmers started farming in their
early twenties. Farmers in the high rainfall zone had lived significantly longer (36 years, p=0.05) in
the same village than farmers in the low (22 years) or intermediate rainfall zones (19 years). The level
of education of the household head in the low and intermediate rainfall zones was 4.5 years, while in
the high rainfall zone it was significantly longer (7 years, P=0.05). Most farmers in the high rainfall
zone had completed their primary education in the neighboring country (Kenya).

The average household size was highest in the intermediate rainfall zone (14), compared to 13 and
11 in the low and high rainfall zones, respectively. These differences can be explained by the fact
that households in the high rainfall zone tend to have fewer children and that households in the
intermediate rainfall zone have a higher average of female adults. These differences were not
significant, however.

Most adult family members (85% of men and 82% of women) work on the farm permanently. The
remaining adult members of the household (1.5 men and 1.4 women) work on the farm part time. In
the low rainfall zone, 92% of the men in the household participate in farm activities, followed by


Table 3. Demographic characteristics of sample households, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall

Standard Standard Standard
Characteristic Mean deviation Mean deviation Mean deviation

Household head
Age (yr) 43.1 11.8 46.2 14.8 43.4 12.4
Years lived in village 22.1 11.8 19.2 11.7 36.1 11.6
Experience in farming (yr) 20.1 11.2 22.1 14.2 20.3 14.2
Education (yr) 4.5 2.8 4.5 3.0 6.9 1.8

Labor availability (no.)
Male adults 2.7 2.6 3.3 2.8 3.0 2.2
Female adults 2.9 3.0 3.5 2.8 2.7 1.9
Children 7.3 10.5 7.2 6.2 5.4 2.7

Number of Percent of Number of Percent of Number of Percent of
farmers farmers farmers farmers farmers farmers

Off-farm income 8 18.2 3 10.7 0 0.0
Used hired labor 70 78.7 39 73.6 14 77.8










91% of household men in the intermediate rainfall zone and 72% in the high rainfall zone. For women,
the participation rates are 87% in the low rainfall zone, 77% in the intermediate rainfall zone, and 82%
in the high rainfall zone.

Non-farm income was not widely available to the survey respondents. About 18% and 11% of the
farmers in the low and intermediate rainfall zones had access to non-farm income, while no farmers in
the high rainfall zone did. Most of the farmers in all zones used hired labor, however. Farmers in the
high rainfall zone hired labor mainly for weeding (72.7%) and harvesting (38.9%). In the intermediate
rainfall zone, farmers hired labor mainly for land preparation (41.5%) and weeding (62.3%), and in the
low rainfall zone hired labor was used for land preparation (46.7%) and weeding (53.3%).

3.2 Land Resources and Allocation Pattern

Land is not a limiting factor in most parts of the Lake Zone, except in the highlands of Kagera region
and Tarime District (Bakema et al. 1989; FSR 1989). The average farm size is still large enough to
support agricultural production. The largest farm size per household was in the intermediate rainfall
zone, while the smallest farm sizes were observed in the high rainfall zone.

In the low rainfall zone, about 74% of the farm was under cultivation; the corresponding figure in the
intermediate rainfall zone was 65.7%. The remaining arable portion was hired out to neighbors and
friends, left for grazing, and/or used for planting trees. In the high rainfall zone almost the whole farm
was under cultivation (98.4%).

Only a few farmers rented land. Respondents rented about 26.1% of the cultivated area during the
survey season. The largest rented area was 2.0 acres in low and high rainfall zones, followed by 0.5
acres in the intermediate rainfall zone. For farmers who rented land during the survey season, on
average 27% of the farm area was rented to other farmers. The largest area rented out was observed
in the low rainfall zone. In the high rainfall zone none of the households rented out land because of
land shortages. According to farmers it was difficult to rent out land because almost all land was
cultivated.

Figures 3, 4, and 5 show trends in farm size and 25
maize area in the three rainfall zones over the
past 20 years. On average, farm size perFarm size
Farm size
household increased between 1974 and 1994 in 15
all zones. The area under maize shows a similar 2
trend. In the high rainfall zone, however, growth 10
in farm size and maize area has been small, Maize area
because the initial farm sizes were small. Farm 5 -----
size has been expanding rapidly in low and
intermediate rainfall zones, mainly because 194 14
1974 1984 1994
family sizes are larger and because farmers
needed the income. Farmers' responses imply Figure 3. Trends in farm size and maize area in the low
that maize is the main source of both food and rainfall zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania.










income for the farming families in all three zones, and they said they reduced farm sizes only because
of labor and land shortages. Fallow and low soil fertility were mentioned by only 3.1% of farmers in the
low rainfall zone and by no farmers in the other zones.


oU


35 -
S30 -
t 25
20

10
0 --- ----- --------------------
5
0 '
1974 1984 1994

Figure 4. Trends in farm size and maize area in the
intermediate rainfall zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania.


0 !
1974 1984 1994

Figure 5. Trends in farm size and maize area in the high
rainfall zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania.


3.3 Livestock Ownership

Livestock, especially cattle, play important social,
economic, and agricultural roles in the Lake Zone
(Ahmed et al. 1990), and farmers keep large herds
of livestock. The most common livestock were
cattle (kept by about 64% of farmers), goats (kept
by 51.9%), and sheep (29.6%). A few households
kept donkeys. The average number of cattle per
household was 41.5. The low and intermediate
rainfall zones had higher livestock populations
compared to the high rainfall zone (Table 4). The
number of cattle across zones differed significantly
between the intermediate (48.2), low (23.7), and
high rainfall zones (5.6) (p=0.05).


Farmers who used hand hoes kept more cattle
(26.0) than those who used ox-plows (17.6). This
result was surprising, as farmers who used ox-
plows were expected to have more cattle than
hand hoe users. The explanation for this finding is
that most farmers who used ox-plows were from
the high rainfall zone where smaller numbers of
cattle were kept. Farmers using ox-plows had
slightly more goats (8.8) and sheep (6.8) on
average, however, than farmers using hand hoes
(who had about 7 seven goats and 5 sheep).
Livestock ownership was not significantly different
for different methods of land preparation (Table 5).


Table 4. Livestock ownership (numbers of animals) by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall

Standard Standard Standard
Type of livestock Mean deviation Mean deviation Mean deviation

Cattle 23.7 33.6 48.2 54.1 5.6 3.1
Goats 7.2 5.4 9.2 6.0 6.5 3.6
Sheep 4.3 3.6 7.1 6.0 6.0 6.1


Farm size






Maize area










3.4 Farm Mechanization


The most common farm implement used by farmers in the Lake Zone was the hand hoe, followed by
the ox-plow and cutting tools (i.e., machetes) (Table 6). Only two households in Bariadi owned a
tractor. Ox-carts were common in the intermediate rainfall zone but not in the high rainfall zone,
which may have been because the topography makes the use of carts difficult. Farmers who used ox-
plows for land preparation owned about three plows per household, whereas hand hoe users owned
slightly fewer plows. The number of farm implements owned per household was not significantly
different across zones and method of land preparation.


About 49% of the respondents rented farm implements for their farm operations. The number of
farmers renting implements was 58.8% in the intermediate rainfall zone, 44.6% in the low rainfall
zone, and 35.7% in the high rainfall zone. Farmers rented mainly ox-plows and ox-carts. No farmer
rented a tractor.



Table 5. Livestock herd size by method of land preparation, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Hand hoe Ox-plow

Type of Standard Standard
livestock Mean deviation Mean deviation t-statistic

Cattle 26.0 39.3 17.6 25.2 0.96 (NS)
Goats 7.2 4.9 8.8 6.9 1.1 (NS)
Sheep 4.9 4.5 6.8 6.7 0.9 (NS)

Note: NS = not significant.


Table 6. Number of farm implements owned, by agroecological zone and land preparation method, Lake Zone,
Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall
Standard Standard Standard
Implement Mean deviation Mean deviation Mean deviation

Ox-plow 1.5 0.6 2.3 2.0 1.3 0.8
Cart 1.6 0.9 1.3 0.5
Hand hoe 5.2 5.2 6.0 5.1 4.9 2.8

Ox-plow Hand hoe
Standard Standard
Mean deviation Mean deviation t-statistic

Ox-plow 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.0 0.9 (NS)
Cart 1.3 0.5 1.6 0.9 0.7 (NS)
Hand hoe 5.4 2.9 5.0 4.8 0.4 (NS)









4.0 Maize Production Practices and Adoption of

Recommendations in the Study Area


4.1 Crops and Cropping Systems

The main crops grown by survey farmers in the Lake Zone were maize, cassava, sweet potato,
beans, groundnuts, sorghum, millet, cotton, coffee, paddy, tobacco, and bananas. The relative
importance of these crops varied from one district to another. Tobacco was grown in Kahama, which
borders Tabora region. Most farmers grew maize with other crops, mainly legumes (cowpeas, beans,
and groundnuts). Other intercrops included cassava and sweet potato. More than 60% of the
households in all zones intercropped maize with legumes (Table 7). The major reasons for
intercropping maize in the low and intermediate rainfall zones were land scarcity and labor shortages,
while the major reasons in the high rainfall zone were land scarcity and the need for more food/
income.

4.2 Maize Crop Management Practices

4.2.1 Land preparation methods
Land preparation for maize depends on the onset of the rains. Land preparation starts in August and
ends in the beginning of January. About 63% and 62% of the farmers in the low and intermediate
rainfall zones, respectively, prepared their land between September and October, while 61.4% of the
farmers in the high rainfall zone prepared their land between November and January (Table 8). The
high rainfall zone received rain from early August to early January, so farmers could prepare their
land later than farmers in the other zones, where the short rains ended earlier.


Table 7. Maize cropping systems, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
Cropping system of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Cropping pattern
Monocrop 24 28.6 20 40.0 6 33.3
Intercrop 60 71.4 30 60.0 12 66.7
Reasons for intercropping
Land is scarce 28 44.4 21 55.3 6 50.0
Saves labor 18 28.6 10 26.3 1 8.3
Spreads risk 8 12.7 2 5.3 0 0.0
More food/income 3 4.8 4 10.5 4 33.3
Traditional 6 9.5 1 2.6 1 8.3
Cropping system
Maize/legumes 52 61.2 27 51.9 11 61.1
Maize 24 28.2 20 38.5 4 22.2
Coffee/banana 2 2.4 2 11.1
Tuber crops 2 2.4 1 1.9 1 5.6
Other 5 5.9 4 7.2










4.2.2 Seedbed type, planting time, and weeding
Table 9 shows farmers' adoption of major agronomic practices. The most common seedbed type in
the low (95.6%) and intermediate rainfall zones (66.0%) was ridges, mainly because of the sandy
soils. Ridges conserve water and minimize soil erosion. However, seedbed type also depends on the
method of land preparation. Where the ox-plow was used, flat cultivation was common, whereas
the use of hand hoes allowed farmers to make ridges. Most farmers in the high rainfall zone grew
maize on the flat (94.4%) because of their greater use of the ox-plow.

Farmers' major reason for using ridges in the low (40.8%) and intermediate rainfall zones (42.4%)
was that it eased field management. The same reason was given by about 64% of the farmers in the
high rainfall zone who practiced flat cultivation. This type of cultivation increased yields by about
25%, 9%, and 29% for the farmers in the low, intermediate, and high rainfall zones, respectively.

As mentioned previously, maize planting depends on the rainfall pattern. In the 1994 farming
season, maize in the low (62.5%) and intermediate rainfall zones (62.9%) was planted mainly
between October and November, whereas in the high rainfall zone (82.4%) maize was planted
mainly between January and March. All farmers in the zones planted their maize in rows. Farmers
in the low and intermediate rainfall zones used a larger spacing between rows and hills compared to
farmers in the high rainfall zone. Most of the respondents in the low (69.7%) and intermediate
rainfall zones (65.3%) used a row spacing of 90 or 100 cm. In the high rainfall zone, about 45% of
the farmers used a row spacing of 60 or 75 cm. In the low and intermediate rainfall zones, about
70% and 46% of farmers, respectively, had spaces of 30 or 60 cm between hills, while most
farmers in the high rainfall zone (76.5%) used a spacing of 30 cm.

The average number of seeds per hill was significantly higher (p=0.05) in the intermediate rainfall
zone (2.4) compared to the low (1.9) and high rainfall zones (1.7).



Table 8. Time and method of land preparation by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall

Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
Cropping system of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Time of land preparation
August 16 19.1 4 8.0 2 11.2
September 36 42.8 18 36.0 1 5.6
October 17 20.4 13 26.0 4 22.3
November 14 16.7 12 24.0 2 11.1
December-January 1 1.2 3 6.0 9 50.3
Method of land preparation
Hand hoe 82 94.3 37 72.5 4 22.2
Ox-plow 3 3.4 6 11.8 14 77.8
Tractor 4 7.8
Hand hoe/ox-plow 1 1.1 3 5.9
Zero tillage 1 1.1 1 2.0











The time of weeding depended on the time of planting. In the low rainfall zone, about 95% and 40%
of the sampled farmers performed a first and second weeding, respectively. The first weeding was
mainly done (by 67.4% of farmers) between November and December, while the second weeding was
mainly done (75.1% of farmers) between December and January. In the intermediate rainfall zone,
about 96% and 8% of the farmers performed a first and second weeding, respectively. The first
weeding (70.6%) was done mainly between November and January. In the high rainfall zone, about
94% and 89% of the farmers performed a first and second weeding, respectively. The first weeding
was mainly done (by 53% of farmers) between January and March, while the second weeding was


Table 9. Farmers' adoption of major agronomic practices by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Planting time
August-September 5 6.0 3 6.0 3 17.6
October 36 43.3 19 37.3
November 34 19.2 13 25.6
December 8 10.6 3 6.0 -
January-March 13 25.5 14 82.4
Seedbed type
Flat 4 4.4 18 34.0 17 94.4
Ridges 86 95.6 35 66.0 1 5.6
Spacing between rows
60 cm 1 1.1 1 2.0 5 27.8
75cm 7 7.9 7 14.3 3 16.7
90 cm 28 31.5 17 34.7 1 5.6
100 cm 34 38.2 15 30.6 2 11.1
Other 19 21.3 9 18.4 7 38.8
Spacing between hills
30 cm 28 32.2 11 22.9 13 76.5
60 cm 33 37.9 12 25.0 1 5.9
75 cm 2 2.3 6 12.5 1 5.9
100 cm 5 5.7 10 20.8
Other 19 21.9 9 18.8 2 11.7
First weeding
August-October 5 5.9 1 2.0 4 23.6
November 31 36.0 10 19.6 1 5.9
December 27 31.4 17 33.4
January 19 22.1 9 17.6 1 5.9
February 4 4.7 11 21.5 2 11.8
March-April 3 5.9 9 53.0
Second weeding
August-November 2 5.6 4 29.1
December 11 30.6 1 25.0
January 16 44.5 2 50.0
February 3 8.4 1 25.0
March-June 4 11.2 12 70.9

Standard Standard Standard
Mean deviation Mean deviation Mean deviation

Number of seeds per hill 1.9 0.6 2.4 0.6 1.7 0.5
Number of weedings 1.5 0.6 1.1 0.3 2.0 0.0










mainly done (70.9% of farmers) between January and June. The average number of weedings was
significantly higher (p=0.05) in the high rainfall zone (2.0) compared to the low (1.5) and intermediate
rainfall zones (1.1). Also, the number of weedings was significantly higher (p=0.05) in the low rainfall
zone compared to the intermediate rainfall zone.

4.2.3 Soil fertility management
Fertilizer was used by 49%, 48%, and 100% of farmers in the low, intermediate, and high rainfall
zones, respectively (Table 10). The most common type of fertilizer used in the low rainfall zone was
urea (43.8%) and CAN (31.3%). The types of fertilizer used in the intermediate and high rainfall zones
cannot be established because enumerators received few responses from farmers. The amount of
inorganic fertilizer used was about 20 kg/ha in the high rainfall zone, 17.5 kg/ha in the intermediate
rainfall zone, and 13 kg/ha in the low rainfall zone. In the low (48.9%) and intermediate rainfall zones
(36.7%), lack of knowledge about inorganic fertilizers was farmers' major reason for not using it, while
high price (83.3%) was farmers' major reason in the high rainfall zone. Most farmers in the low
(39.1%), intermediate (50%), and high rainfall zones (87.5%) applied fertilizer by making a hole.

Most farmers used organic fertilizer. In the low rainfall zone, about 80% of the sampled farmers used
FYM, while 20% used crop residues. Among farmers in the intermediate rainfall zone, 64.5%
reported using FYM and 37.5% reported using crop residues, whereas 89% of the farmers in the high
rainfall zone used FYM and 11% used crop residues. The amount of FYM used in the low rainfall zone
was about 17 t/ha, while farmers in the intermediate and high rainfall zones used about 9 t/ha and
4 t/ha, respectively. The major reason why farmers did not use FYM was that they owned no livestock.


Table 10. Fertilizer use for maize production by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Use inorganic fertilizer (IF) 38 49.7 19 47.5 18 100.0
Reasons for not using IF
Expensive 20 44.4 4 13.3 5 83.3
Lack of knowledge 22 48.9 11 36.7 1 16.7
Don't need fertilizer 2 4.4 14 46.7
Other 1 2.2 1 3.3 -
Use organic fertilizer (OF)
Farmyard manure (FYM) 35 79.5 18 64.3 16 88.9
Crop residue 9 20.5 10 35.7 2 11.1
Reasons for not using OF
Expensive 6 30.0 1 20.0
No livestock 10 50.0 2 50.0 3 60.0
Other 4 20.0 2 50.0 1 20.0

Standard Standard Standard
Mean deviation Mean deviation Mean deviation

IF used in 1994 (kg/ha) 12.7 9.4 17.5 6.2 19.8 14.7
FYM used in 1994 (t/ha) 17.0 22.7 9.2 7.3 3.6 1.8










About 37% of the farmers in the low rainfall zone, 40% in the intermediate zone, and 22% in the
high rainfall zone fallowed their land (Table 11). The main reasons for fallowing land were to
replenish soil fertility and suppress weeds, particularly Striga. Farmers in the low rainfall zone
practiced fallowing for two years, and farmers in the intermediate and high rainfall zones practiced
fallowing for 1.8 and 1.0 year, respectively. The crop grown immediately after fallowing was maize
(grown by 44% of farmers in the low rainfall zone and 62% in the intermediate rainfall zone). All
farmers in the high rainfall zone grew maize immediately after the fallow cycle. Maize was grown
after fallow because it was the only crop grown. Across zones, the main reason for not fallowing was
land scarcity.

Crop rotation was practiced by about 76% of the farmers in the low rainfall zone, 60% in the
intermediate rainfall zone, and 83% in the high rainfall zone. The most common crop sequence in
the low (52.6%) and intermediate rainfall zones (47.8%) was maize-cotton. The second important
crop sequence was maize-cassava, practiced by 21.4% of farmers in the low rainfall zone and 30.3%
in the intermediate rainfall zone. In the high rainfall zone, the most common crop sequences were
maize followed by millet and/or sorghum (50.6%), and maize-cassava (35.1%). Other crop sequences
observed in all zones were maize-legumes; maize-tobacco was seen in the low and intermediate
rainfall zones.

The major reason for crop rotation in the low (83%), intermediate (92%), and high rainfall zones
(100%) was that the previous crops did not utilize all the fertilizer, which then benefited the second
crop. For farmers in the low rainfall zone (15%), a secondary reason for rotating crops was to break
disease/pest cycles. Land scarcity was the main reason why farmers in the highland zone did not



Table 11. Other soil fertility management practices by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall

Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Fallow maize plots 33 37.1 21 39.6 4 22.4
Reasons for not fallowing
Land is scarce 39 86.7 29 90.6 12 100.0
No need 4 8.9 1 3.1 -
Other 2 4.4 2 6.2 -
Rotate crops 67 76.1 32 60.4 15 83.3
Reasons for not rotating crops
Do not know about practice 5 31.3 4 44.4
Land is scarce 2 12.5 3 33.3 1 33.3
Pests/diseases 6 37.5 1 11.1 1 33.3
Other 3 18.8 1 11.1 1 33.3
Management of crop residue
Plow under 37 61.7 17 39.5 12 70.6
Burn 6 10.0 1 2.3 4 23.5
Feed to cattle 17 28.3 25 58.1 1 5.9










rotate crops. In the low and intermediate rainfall zones, farmers did not rotate crops because they
either did not know about the benefits of crop rotation, or because the presence of certain diseases
and pest cycles did not favor rotation of the crops grown in the area.

Farmers who did not apply fertilizer or who used only small amounts were advised to plow crop
residues back into the soil to avoid soil mining. This recommendation was followed by about 62% of
the farmers in the low rainfall zone, 40% in the intermediate rainfall zone, and 71% in the high
rainfall zone. About 58% of the farmers in the intermediate rainfall zone fed crop residues to their
cattle. None of the farmers in the other zones fed residues to cattle, but farmers in the intermediate
zone had significantly more cattle than farmers in the other two zones.

4.2.4 Pest and disease control
Field pests, diseases, and their control methods are summarized in Table 12. Stalkborers were
identified as the most serious field pest by about 76% of low rainfall zone farmers, 73% of
intermediate zone farmers, and 80% of high rainfall zone farmers. In Kahama District, yield losses
from maize stalkborer have been reported at more than 50% (Bakema et al. 1989). Pests of minor
importance were cutworms, termites, vermin, and maize weevils. Armyworms, maize weevils, and
grain borers were reported only in the low and intermediate rainfall zones. Most farmers used no
form of insect pest control. A few farmers used thiodan (14.4% of farmers in the low rainfall zone,
7.5% in the intermediate zone, and 5.6% in the high rainfall zone). DDT was used only in the low
(7.8% of farmers) and intermediate rainfall zones (3.8% of farmers).


Table 12. Major field pests, diseases, and their control by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Field pests
Stalkborers 83 76.1 46 73.0 12 80.0
Cutworms and termites 9 8.3 7 11.1 1 10.0
Vermin 7 6.4 4 6.3 2 20.0
Maize weevils 2 1.8 1 1.6 0 0.0
Grain borer 5 4.6 3 4.8 0 0.0
Armyworm 3 2.8 2 3.2 0 0.0
Pest control method
None 63 70.0 42 79.2 17 94.4
Thiodan 13 14.4 4 7.5 1 5.6
DDT 7 7.8 2 3.8 -
Other 7 7.8 5 9.5 -
Field diseases
Maize streak virus 51 92.7 25 92.6 7 58.3
Cob rot 1 1.8 1 3.7 1 8.3
Smut 3 5.5 1 3.7 4 33.3
Disease control method
None 87 96.7 47 88.7 16 88.9
Chemical 1 1.1 4 7.5 -
Rogue 2 2.2 2 3.8 2 11.1










The most important field disease was MSV, reported by 92.7% of farmers in the low rainfall zone,
92.6% in the intermediate zone, and 58.3% in the high rainfall zone. Along with MSV, smut was an
important disease in the high rainfall zone (reported by 33.3% of farmers). Most farmers used no
disease control method (96.7% of farmers in the low rainfall zone, 88.7% in the intermediate zone,
and 88.9% in the high rainfall zone). Disease affected mostly local varieties in the low rainfall (63.9%)
and intermediate rainfall zones (79.3%), whereas hybrids were more affected in the high rainfall zone
(87.5%).

4.2.5 Maize harvesting, transportation, and storage
The timing of the maize harvest depends on the time of planting and the length of time it takes for the
crop to mature. In the low rainfall zone, most maize (78.8%) was harvested between February and
May (Table 13). In the intermediate rainfall zone, maize was harvested between May and July (85.8%).
In the high rainfall zone, most farmers planted maize in the long rains (92%), so the crop was
harvested from July to September (66.7%). In the low and intermediate rainfall zones, about 50% of
all maize was grown during the short (vuli) rains, whereas in the high rainfall zone only 8% of the
maize was grown at that time. Maize sown during the short rains was harvested between February and
April, which was earlier than the maize sown during the long rains, which matures between July and
August.

Harvested maize was transported from the field using different methods. Ox-carts were the most
common means of transporting the maize harvest in the low rainfall zone (41.6%) and the
intermediate rainfall zone (59.6%). Most farmers in the high rainfall zone carried harvested maize by
headload (50.0%) (women mainly carried headloads). The second most common mode of transporting
maize was by bicycle (26.9%). A few farmers in the high rainfall zone used pick-up trucks.


Table 13. Maize harvesting, transportation, and storage by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania
Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Month of harvest
February-March 12 15.6 2 4.8 1 6.7
April 22 29.0 3 7.2 -
May 26 34.2 8 19.1
June 8 10.5 9 21.4 1 6.7
July 8 10.5 19 45.3 5 33.4
August-September 1 2.4 10 53.3
Method of transporting harvest
Headload 27 30.3 14 26.9 13 50.0
Bicycle 25 28.1 7 13.5 4 15.4
Cart 37 41.6 31 59.6 7 26.9
Pick-up truck 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 7.7
Maize storage
Shell and store in kihenge 33 39.3 8 15.7
In crib 50 59.5 43 84.3 18 100.0
In gunny bags 1 1.2










In the low rainfall zone, farmers stored maize in cribs (59.5%) or in a traditional storage structure
(kihenge) (39.3%). In the intermediate rainfall zone about 84% and 16% of the farmers stored
maize in cribs and in a kihenge, respectively. In the high rainfall zone, all farmers stored their maize
in cribs. Farmers in the low (94%) and intermediate rainfall zones (88.6%) treated their maize seed,
although only 22% of the farmers in the high rainfall zone did so. Treatment with chemicals was
most common in the low rainfall (87%) and intermediate rainfall zones (61.3%). Half of the farmers
in the high rainfall zone used ash or other local materials rather than chemical seed treatment.
Farmers in the low (66.7%) and high rainfall zones (92.3%) did not treat their maize, because they
thought it was not important, while 90% of the farmers in the high rainfall zone said they had no
money to purchase the required chemicals.

4.2.6 Seed selection and recycling
About 24%, 44%, and 20% of the farmers in the low, intermediate, and high rainfall zones,
respectively, selected their seed in the field, but the majority of farmers selected maize seed at home
after harvesting. Cob size was the main criterion for selecting maize seed for 56% of farmers in the
low rainfall zone, 60% in the intermediate rainfall zone, and 50% in the high rainfall zone. Seed
that was free from pests and diseases was the second most important criterion used by farmers in
selecting seed (28.6% of farmers in the low rainfall zone, 26.1% of farmers in the intermediate
rainfall zone, and 50% of farmers in the high rainfall zone). Mature grain was the third most
important seed selection characteristic, reported by 13.4% of farmers in the low rainfall zone and
13% of farmers in the intermediate rainfall zone.

In the low rainfall zone, selected seed was generally shelled, chemically treated, and stored in gunny
bags (77.2%), or maize cobs were hung above a fire where the smoke would kill insects (10.1%). In
the intermediate rainfall zone, selected seed was generally shelled, chemically treated, and stored in
gunny bags by 40% of the farmers; 26.7% shelled the seed, applied ash, and stored the seed in
gunny bags; and 22.2% hung maize cobs over a fire where the smoke would kill insects. In the high
rainfall zone, 66.7% of farmers stored shelled maize, covered with ash, in gunny bags.

Nearly all farmers in the high rainfall zone said that seed was readily available (94.1%), whereas
farmers in the other zones said they had difficulty obtaining seed (62.5% in the low rainfall zone and
93.7% in the intermediate rainfall zone). Farmers in the intermediate (100%) and low rainfall zones
(61.1%) did not purchase seed regularly, while farmers in the high rainfall zone (87.5%) purchased
seed regularly.

Farmers in the Lake Zone commonly recycled their maize seed from one season to the next,
especially in the low and intermediate rainfall zones. Recycling seed of composite varieties beyond
three years can substantially decrease the yield, whereas hybrids should not be recycled at all. Table
14 shows the average number of years farmers recycled maize seed. Farmers reported recycling
seed for more than 10 years in the low rainfall (52.4% of farmers) and intermediate rainfall zones
(78.6% of farmers), well beyond the recommended time of recycling. Farmers in the low (42.9%),
intermediate (14.3%), and high rainfall zones (75%) recycled seed every 2 years.











Farmers purchased maize seed from local markets, the cooperative union, NGOs, or other farmers. In
the low rainfall zone, farmers mainly purchased seed from the cooperative union (36.4%) or the local
market (36.4%), while most farmers in the intermediate rainfall zone purchased seed from the cooper-
ative union (66.7%). In the high rainfall zone, most farmers (84.4%) purchased seed from NGOs.


4.2.7 Maize cropping calendar for the Lake Zone
Figure 6 depicts the maize cropping calendar for the Lake Zone by agroecological zone. In the low
and intermediate rainfall zones, the demand for labor peaks between November and January; the
remaining part of the year is relatively slack. In the high rainfall zone, demand for labor is spread
more evenly throughout the year.


4.2.8 Maize marketing
Farmers in the Lake Zone sell part of their food crops to obtain income for the family. Figure 7 shows
the amount of local and improved maize sold by zone between 1974 and 1994. Improved varieties
were mostly sold in the high rainfall zone, whereas local varieties were mainly sold in the intermediate
rainfall zone. The availability of markets for food crops was an important factor for the adoption of


Table 14. Recycling of improved maize seed by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
Maize type of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Hybrids 4.0 4 2.0 1
Katumani 7.2 6
Tuxpeno 5.8 6 8.7 6
Kilima 4.6 12
Imported improved varieties 10.0 1 1.7 3


Low rainfall
Farm practice Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul
Land preparation
Planting
1st weeding
2nd weeding
Harvesting
Intermediate rainfall
Land preparation
Planting
1st weeding
2nd weeding
Harvesting
High rainfall
Land preparation
Planting
1st weeding
2nd weeding
Harvesting
Figure 6. Maize cropping calendar for the agroecological zones in the Lake Zone, Tanzania.










improved technologies. In many parts of the Lake Zone, markets for food crops are not easy to
reach. Farmers in the low (19.3 km) and intermediate rainfall zones (22.2 km) had to travel long
distances compared to farmers in the high rainfall zone (10.6 km) to get to markets. Half of the
farmers in the low and intermediate rainfall zones sold their maize between harvests, while most of
the farmers in the high rainfall zone sold their maize immediately after harvest (Table 15). The price
of maize before harvest was higher than the price of maize afterward (Figure 8). The price
difference was higher in the low and intermediate rainfall zones than in the high rainfall zone
because of the kinds of markets prevailing in each zone. Farmers in the high rainfall zone sold their
maize in formal markets in Kenya, while farmers in the low and intermediate rainfall zones sold
their maize in informal markets in Tanzania.

4.3 Adoption of Improved Maize Varieties

4.3.1 Current varieties grown
Table 16 shows the maize varieties grown by sample farmers in the 1994/95 farming season. The
proportion of improved varieties currently grown by farmers differed from zone to zone. Most
farmers in the high rainfall zone (83.3%) grew improved maize varieties, while only 12% and 6% of


S\ Low rainfall (LMV)
0 High rainfall (LMV) \ L
1974 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Figure 7. Amount of local and improved maize sold by
agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania, 1974-97.
Note: IMV = improved maize varieties; LMV = local maize
varieties. The amount improved maize sold in the
intermediate rainfall zone is zero. The right axis is for
local maize varieties sold in the intermediate rainfall
zone. The left axis is for all other varieties.


1974 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Figure 8. Maize price before and after harvest, by
agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania, 1974-94.
Note: PAH = price after harvest; PBH = price before harvest.


Table 15. Time when maize is sold, by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall

Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Immediately after harvest 13 29.5 8 26.7 5 45.5
Between harvests 22 50.0 15 50.0 2 18.2
Just before next harvest 9 20.5 7 23.3 4 36.4










the farmers in the low and intermediate rainfall zones, respectively, grew improved maize. The only
improved varieties grown by farmers in the high rainfall zone were hybrids from Kenya (H625), and
no farmers grew composite varieties. In the low rainfall zone the majority of farmers (37.8%)
grew composite varieties (Kilima). Local varieties were mainly grown in the intermediate rainfall zone
(87.8%).

The adoption of improved varieties varied between villages. In Igunda, Bukomela, and Nyang'hwale
villages (Kahama District) and Matongo village (Bariadi District), about 58% of the respondents
planted local varieties during the survey season. In the other village about 24% of respondents
planted local varieties. In Busekeseke village (Sengerema District) and Itiryo village (Tarime District),
all households planted improved maize varieties during the survey season. In Nyamigogo village
(Geita District), 94% of the farmers grew improved varieties.

Varieties grown in the high rainfall zone were imported from Kenya, while those grown in the other
zones were imported from Zambia and Kenya, but farmers did not know their names.

4.3.2 Preferred improved maize varieties and reasons
The most preferred maize cultivars are shown in Table 17, and reasons for farmers' preferences are
given in Table 18. The most preferred varieties were Kilima, Katumani, Tuxpefo, and imported


Table 16. Maize varieties planted in the 1994/95 season by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
Variety of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Local varieties 29 39.2 43 87.8 3 16.7
H614 1 1.4 0 0.0 0 0.0
Katumani 5 6.8 0 0.0 0 0.0
Tuxpeno 1 1.4 0 0.0 0 0.0
Kilima 28 37.8 2 4.1 0 0.0
Imported improved varieties
(H625 and Zambia) 9 12.2 3 6.1 15 83.3


Table 17. Farmers' preferred maize varieties, by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
Variety of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Hybrids 1 2.2 0 0.0 1 7.1
UCA 2 4.4 2 22.2 0 0.0
Katumani 5 10.9 0 0.0 0 0.0
Tuxpeno 5 10.9 4 44.4 0 0.0
Kilima 28 60.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
ICW 0 0.0 1 11.1 0 0.0
Imported improved varieties
(H625 and Zambia) 5 10.9 2 22.2 13 92.9










hybrids from Kenya. Few farmers preferred hybrids bred in Tanzania. Farmers in the low rainfall
zone had a wider choice of varieties than farmers in the other zones, but they preferred composites
such as Kilima (60%) and Katumani (10.9%) for their high yield and drought tolerance. In the
intermediate rainfall zone, farmers preferred Tuxpefo (44.4%) for its drought tolerance. Farmers in
the high rainfall zone mainly preferred hybrids (92.9%) for their high yield.

4.3.3 Disadoption of improved maize varieties
Forty-five percent of farmers who grew improved varieties had stopped growing them. The highest
rate of disadoption was observed in the high rainfall zone (58.8%). In the low (39.2%) and
intermediate rainfall zones (48.1%), improved varieties were disadopted less (Table 19). In the low
rainfall zone, farmers had disadopted Tuxpeno (50%), Katumani (18.2%), and hybrids (18.2%). The
major reasons for disadopting Tuxpeno were its low yield (41.7%), attack by storage pests (16.7%),
or the loss of seed during drought (25%). In the intermediate rainfall zone, farmers disadopted
Katumani (35.3%), Tuxpeno (29.4%), and hybrids (23.5%). Unavailability of seed was farmers' major
reason for disadopting Katumani (57.1%), Tuxpeno (33.3%), and hybrids (33.3%). The high price of
seed was another important reason for disadopting Tuxpeno (33.3%) and hybrids (33.3%). In the
high rainfall zone, farmers mainly disadopted Katumani (41.7%) and imported improved varieties
(41.7%). Katumani was disadopted for its low yield (50%) and unavailability (50%), while imported
improved maize varieties were mainly disadopted because seed was no longer available (71.4%).


Table 18. Reasons for farmers' varietal preferences, Lake Zone, Tanzania

High Drought Resistant
Zone and variety yielding tolerant to pests

Percentage of farmers preferring
Low rainfall
Katumani 42.8 57.2 0.0
Tuxpeno 50.0 50.0 0.0
Kilima 75.0 25.0 0.0
Imported improved varieties 37.5 62.5 0.0
Intermediate rainfall
Tuxpeno 75.0 25.0
High rainfall
Imported improved varieties 100.0 0.0 0.0



Table 19. Varieties no longer grown by farmers, by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
Variety of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

All improved varieties 20 39.2 13 48.1 10 58.8
Hybrids 4 18.2 4 23.5 2 16.7
Katumani 4 18.2 6 35.3 5 41.7
Tuxpeno 11 50.0 5 29.4 0 0.0
Kilima 1 4.5 1 5.9 0 0.0
Imported improved varieties 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 41.7
Other 2 9.0 1 5.9 -









5.0 Credit and Extension Services


5.1 Credit Availability

Small-scale farmers generally do not receive credit from banks or other credit institutions. In the past,
cooperative unions provided agricultural credit in kind to growers of cash crops, and the credit was
recovered when the crops were sold. Food crops, however, did not qualify for such credit because the
many marketing channels for these crops made it difficult to recover the loans. Even for cash crops
credit recovery was poor, which led the cooperatives to abolish their credit services. Some NGOs (i.e.,
Sasakawa Global-2000) have provided credit in the form of inputs to farmers for food crop production.

Only 3% of the farmers in the low rainfall zone and about 2% in the intermediate rainfall zone had
received credit from the cooperative union (Table 20). Credit was not readily available to most farmers
in the low (82.4%), intermediate (62.5%), and high rainfall zones (100%). About 22%, 16%, and 36%
of the farmers in the low, intermediate, and high rainfall zones, respectively, did not know how to get
credit, while most farmers reported the lack of credit facilities.

5.2 Sources of Information

In Tanzania, agricultural extension agencies have been the main source of new information on
improved production practices. Other sources of information include the media (booklets, bulletins,
radio programs, etc.), seminars, NGOs, and other farmers. Recent studies have shown that farmer-to-
farmer technology transfer plays an important role in the diffusion of both local and introduced
production practices in farming communities (Starkey and Mutagubya 1992).

Sources and adoption of improved maize technologies for the low, intermediate, and high rainfall
zones are shown in Table 21. Farmers have received most of the recommendations on maize
production. However, in all zones farmers received less information about controlling weeds (i.e.,
information on herbicides) and diseases than about other practices, so it is not surprising that adoption
of disease and weed control practices was low across zones. The adoption of pest control methods was
low in the intermediate and high rainfall zones.


Table 20. Sources and use of credit by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Low rainfall Intermediate rainfall High rainfall

Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers of farmers

Access to credit 3 3.3 1 1.9 0 0.0
Source of credit
Cooperatives 3 100.0 1 100.0 0 0.0
Constraints
No collateral 2 3.1 0 0.0 0 0.0
Cumbersome procedure 5 7.8 2 6.3 0 0.0
Lack of credit facilities 14 21.9 5 15.6 6 35.3
Other 43 67.2 25 78.1 11 64.7











Extension agencies have played a major role in transferring almost all technological components in
all zones, except for the use of herbicides and ox-drawn implements. The use of ox-drawn
implements has been widely disseminated by farmers themselves, and farmers generally know more
than the extension workers about animal traction.


Non-governmental organizations have been active in extension in the low and intermediate zones but
not in the high rainfall zone. Mogabiri Farmers' Extension Center (MFEC), a church organization, has
been active in the high rainfall zone through the existing extension services, however. This linkage/
collaboration has improved the services of the extension department.


Other means of technology transfer included radios and researchers. Traders and bulletins/books
played a minor role in informing farmers of new technologies, but they are likely to be an important
means of technology transfer in the future.


Table 21. Sources of improved maize technologies and their adoption, by agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Information source
Zone and Received Adopted Other
technology information recommendation Extension farmers NGO Othera

Low rainfall zone
Improved variety 87.3 65.2 68.9 14.8 9.8 6.5
Planting method 92.2 80.0 75.7 12.7 5.7 5.9
Fertilizer 95.4 76.6 74.2 8.1 9.7 8.0
Weed management 84.1 77.4 64.2 26.4 7.5 1.9
Herbicide use 32.6 0.0 57.1 21.4 7.1 14.3
Pest control 69.5 55.0 85.4 7.3 4.9 2.4
Disease control 31.1 14.6 77.8 11.1 5.6 5.5
Storage method 97.3 94.4 77.9 10.3 8.8 3.0
Animal draft 64.9 41.6 33.3 50.0 5.6 11.1
Intermediate rainfall zone
Improved variety 76.7 46.7 78.3 8.7 8.7 4.3
Planting method 75.9 74.1 82.6 4.3 8.7 4.4
Fertilizer 82.1 26.9 81.8 0.0 9.1 9.1
Weed management 69.0 61.5 65.0 5.0 20.0 10.0
Herbicide use 20.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Pest control 48.3 3.3 78.6 0.0 0.0 21.4
Disease control 16.0 9.5 50.0 30.0 20.0 0.0
Storage method 58.6 59.3 63.2 15.8 21.1 0.0
Animal draft 69.0 66.7 9.5 42.9 33.3 14.3
High rainfall zone
Improved variety 100.0 92.9 57.1 14.3 0.0 28.6
Planting method 100.0 92.3 78.6 7.1 0.0 14.3
Fertilizer 100.0 92.3 92.3 0.0 0.0 7.7
Weed management 100.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Herbicide use 50.0 0.0 66.7 0.0 0.0 33.3
Pest control 100.0 44.4 62.5 25.0 0.0 12.5
Disease control 57.1 0.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 50.0
Storage method 87.5 44.4 62.5 12.5 0.0 25.0
Animal draft 100.0 100.0 11.1 55.6 22.2 11.1

a "Other" includes mainly researchers and traders.









6.0 Factors Affecting Adoption of Agricultural
Technologies in the Study Area

6.1 Definitions

Feder, Just, and Zilberman (1985) have defined adoption as the degree of use of a new technology in
a long-run equilibrium when a farmer has full information about the new technology and its potential.
Therefore, adoption at the farm level describes the realization of the farmer's decision to apply a new
technology in the production process. On the other hand, aggregate adoption is the process by
which a new technology spreads or diffuses within a region. Therefore a distinction exists between
adoption at the individual farm level and aggregate adoption within a targeted region. If an
innovation is modified periodically, however, the equilibrium level of adoption will not be achieved.
This situation requires the use of econometric procedures that can capture both the rate and the
process of adoption. The "rate of adoption" is defined as the proportion of farmers who have
adopted a new technology over time. The "incidence of adoption" is defined as the percentage of
farmers using a technology at a specific point in time (for example, the percentage of farmers using
fertilizer). The "intensity of adoption" is defined as the level of adoption of a given technology (for
instance, the number of hectares planted with improved seed or the amount of fertilizer applied per
hectare).

6.2 Rate of Adoption of Improved Maize Varieties and Fertilizer

The common procedure for assessing the rate of adoption is the use of a logistic curve, which
captures the historical trend of adoption over a given time and can be used to assess the effectiveness
of agricultural institutions that have served the farming system over time. The logistic curve is
constructed using data on the proportion of farmers who have adopted a technical innovation over a
given period. The basic assumption is that adoption increases slowly at first but then increases rapidly
to approach a maximum level (CIMMYT 1993). Mathematically, the logistic curve is given by the
following formula:

Y, = K/(+eab-)

where:

Yt = the cumulative percentage of adopters at a time t;
K = the upper bound of adoption;
b = a constant, related to the rate of adoption;
a = a constant, related to the time when adoption begins.

Figure 9 shows the rate of fertilizer adoption in the low, intermediate, and high rainfall zones. In
1994, the cumulative adoption of fertilizer was 38.9% for the low rainfall zone, 13.2% for the
intermediate zone, and 61.1% for the high rainfall zone. The rate of adoption for 1979-94 was
0.24, 0.33, and 0.10 for the low, intermediate, and high rainfall zones, respectively. Figure 9 shows
that more farmers in the high rainfall zone were using chemical fertilizer compared to other zones.
This could be the result of the land shortage in the high rainfall zone, which has forced farmers to










adopt intensive crop production methods. Furthermore, farmers in the low rainfall zone have
reduced their use of fertilizer because of drought.

Figure 10 shows the rate of adoption of improved maize varieties for the low, intermediate, and high
rainfall zones. In 1994, the cumulative adoption of improved varieties in the low, intermediate, and
high rainfall zones was 62.2%, 45.3%, and 100%, respectively. The rate of adoption for 1970-94
was 0.38, 0.52, and 0.08 for the low, intermediate, and high rainfall zones, respectively. Figure 10
also shows that more farmers in the high rainfall zone used improved varieties earlier than farmers in
the other zones.

6.3 Tobit Analysis of Land Allocated to Improved Maize Varieties

Results of the tobit model for the proportion of land allocated to improved maize varieties are
presented in Table 22. The tobit model was used because the proportion of land allocated to
improved maize is a continuous variable but truncated between zero and one. The use of ordinary
least squares will result in biased estimates (McDonald and Moffitt 1980). In Table 22, 8EY/SXi
shows the marginal effect of an explanatory variable on the expected value (mean proportion) of the
dependent variable, 8EY*/SXi shows changes in the intensity of adoption with respect to a unit
change of an independent variable among adopters, and 8F(z)/5X. is the probability change among
nonadopters (e.g., the probability of adopting improved maize varieties) with a unit change of
independent variable XN. The log-likelihood ratio test was significant at p<0.01.

The farmer's experience, farm size, family labor, livestock units, hand hoe use, education, and
extension significantly influenced the probability that land would be allocated to improved maize
varieties. Among adopters, a unit increase in farmer's experience increased the probability of
adoption by 0.5%, and a unit increase in farm size increased the probability of adoption by 0.7%.
Feder, Just, and Zilberman (1985) have cited several studies that found a positive relationship
between farm size and adoption of improved varieties. Contrary to expectations in this study, a unit
increase in family labor among adopters reduced the probability of adoption by 1.9%. A unit
increase in the number of livestock among adopters decreased the probability of adoption by 0.6%.


100 100
900---------------------------------------------------------------------| 900-----------------------------------------------------------------7
High rainfall -....-
80 80 -
70 70 i
S60 HHigh rainfall 60
t 50 50
50 Low rainfall ,,- ...-....... Low rainfall
0 40 0- 40 7- ,
' 30 30
20 20 -
10 ---------- 10 ..
S,- --- Intermediate rainfall -0 -"' Intermediate rainfall
1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994
Figure 9. Adoption of inorganic fertilizer by Figure 10. Adoption of improved maize by
agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania. agroecological zone, Lake Zone, Tanzania.










Education level showed a positive impact on farmers' choice to allocate land to improved maize
varieties. A unit increase in the level of education increased the probability of adoption among
adopters by 1.8%. Literate farmers are more disposed to understand new ideas and concepts
provided by extension workers and other informants. Other studies have shown similar effects for
education (Shultz 1975; Gerhart 1975; Demir 1976; Ruttan and Thurtle 1987; Nkonya et al. 1997;
Ntege-Nanyeenya et al. 1997). This underlines the importance of human capital development in
increasing the area under improved maize varieties.


Extension increased the probability of adoption among adopters by about 12%. Extension is an
important support service for delivering information about improved maize technologies to farmers.
Elsewhere exposure to extension has been found to be a significant determinant of technology
adoption (Asfaw et al. 1997; Ntege-Nanyeenya et al. 1997; Nkonya et al. 1997; Hassan et al.
1998). The use of hand hoes to prepare land decreased the probability of adoption among adopters
by about 13%.


Table 22. Tobit model estimates for land allocated to improved maize varieties, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Parameter Coefficient t-statistic dEY/dXi dEY*/dXi dF (z)/dXi
Constant -0.76354*** 1.86 -0.092331 -0.226931 -0.013963
Farmer's experience 0.01684*** 1.83 0.002036 0.005005 0.000308
Education (yr) 0.06093*** 1.67 0.007368 0.018109 0.001113
Extension services 0.40732** 2.04 0.049253 0.121059 0.007443
Farm size (acres) 0.025476* 9.51 0.003081 0.007572 0.000466
Family labor (no.) -0.063057* 3.80 -0.007625 -0.018741 -0.001152
Hired labor -0.000978 0.04 -0.000118 -0.000291 -0.000018
Livestock units (no.) -0.020291* 3.82 -0.002454 -0.006031 -0.000371
Hand hoe -0.42314*** 1.85 -0.051166 -0.125761 -0.007732
SIGMA 20.992
Number of samples 160
Number of positive observations 62
Proportion of positive observation (%) 38.75
Z-score -0.28
F(z) 0.3836
Log of likelihood function -322.31
Wald Chi-square (p,=0) 159.74*
Note: *** = significant at 10% level; = significant at 5% level; = significant at 1% level.










6.4. Logit Analysis of Fertilizer Use

The coefficients of the model used to investigate factors affecting the adoption of fertilizer are shown
in Table 23. The model is significant at the 1% level on the basis of the Wald chi-square statistic with
11 degrees of freedom. Extension was significantly and positively associated with the adoption of
fertilizer. The odds of adopting fertilizer increased by a factor of 6.2 if a farmer received an extension
visit. Elsewhere exposure to extension advice has been found to be a significant determinant of
technology adoption, including fertilizer adoption (Asfaw et al. 1997; Nkonya et al. 1997; Hassan et
al. 1998).


Table 23. Logit model estimates for fertilizer use, Lake Zone, Tanzania

Parameter Coefficient Exp (b) Wald-statistic

Constant -3.6643 3.51
Low rainfall zone 1.1901 3.29 0.97
Intermediate rainfall zone -0.0066 0.99 0.00
Farm size (acres) 0.0009 1.00 0.04
Hand hoe 0.1218 1.13 0.01
Ox-plow 0.7209 2.06 0.20
Extension 1.8274* 6.22 11.26
Experience (yr) -0.0101 0.99 0.16
Livestock units (no.) -0.0188 0.98 0.85
Labor (no.) -0.0161 0.98 0.09
Hired labor 0.3358 1.4 0.31
Education (yr) 0.0766 1.08 0.65
Percentage correctly predicted 83.1%
Model chi-square 28.3*
Sample size 160

Note: = significant at 1% level.









7.0 Conclusions and Recommendations


7.1 Conclusions

Among the farmers sampled for the survey, the mean age of the household head in the low,
intermediate, and high rainfall zones was about 43, 46, and 43 years, respectively, with 20 years of
farming experience. Farmers' level of education was low, averaging about 4.5 years in the low and
intermediate rainfall zones and 7 years in the high rainfall zone. Households averaged about 14, 13,
and 11 persons for the intermediate, low, and high rainfall zones, respectively. The number of
female adults and children was higher in the intermediate rainfall zone. The average farm size was
highest in the intermediate rainfall zone (46 acres) compared to the low (20 acres) and high (6.5
acres) rainfall zones. The number of cattle was significantly higher in the intermediate rainfall zone
(48) (p=0.05) than in the low (24) and high rainfall zones (5.6).

The timing of land preparation, planting, and harvesting depended on the rainfall pattern. Land
preparation started mostly in September-October in the low and intermediate rainfall zones, whereas
it started in November-January in the high rainfall zone. Planting was done between October and
November in the low and intermediate rainfall zones and between January and March in the high
rainfall zone. Farmers in the high rainfall zone used less space between rows and hills compared to
farmers in the low and intermediate zones. Most farmers weeded their maize plot twice, with the
time of the first and second weeding depending on the rainfall pattern and time of planting.
However, most farmers weeded after the first two weeks of planting and weeded the second time
depending on the emergence of weeds. Most farmers in the high rainfall zone weeded between
March and June, while farmers in the low and intermediate rainfall zones weeded mostly between
November and January. Maize was harvested between April and July in the low and intermediate
rainfall zones, while farmers in the high rainfall zone harvested between August and September.

The use of fertilizer for maize production was constrained by its high price and farmers' lack of
knowledge about the technology. Farmers mainly applied urea and CAN, and the average amount of
fertilizer used was higher in the high rainfall zone (20 kg/ha) compared to the low (13 kg/ha) and
intermediate rainfall zones (17.5 kg/ha). To increase soil fertility, farmers plowed crop residues back
into the soil, mainly in the low and high rainfall zones. Farmers in the intermediate zone (58.1%)
used crop residues to feed cattle. More farmers in the low (76.1%) and high (83.3%) rainfall zones
rotated crops compared to farmers in the intermediate rainfall zone (60.4%). In all zones, the
important field pests and diseases were stalkborers and MSV.

A large number of farmers recycled seed for more than 10 years (52.4% of farmers in the low rainfall
zone and 78.6% in the intermediate rainfall zones). In the high rainfall zone, 75% of farmers
recycled seed every 2 years. Farmers selected seed from the previous harvest based on the size of the
cob and lack of pests/diseases. Selection was done mainly at the homestead after the harvest. Seed
maize was stored separately from the main crop, usually in cribs, and maize for consumption was
shelled and stored in gunny bags, cribs, or a kihenge. Most farmers in the low (94%) and
intermediate rainfall zones (88.6%) treated stored maize with industrial chemicals to control storage
pests, while only 22% of the farmers in the high rainfall zone treated their maize.










The main maize varieties grown during the 1994/95 farming season in the high rainfall zone were
local varieties and H625 (imported from Kenya). In the low rainfall zone, the main varieties grown in
the 1994/95 farming season were local varieties, Kilima, H614, Tuxpefo, Katumani, and H625.
The improved maize variety preferred by farmers in the high rainfall zone was H625. In the
intermediate rainfall zone, farmers mainly grew local varieties, Kilima, and H625. Varieties were
preferred for their yield potential, resistance to drought, and resistance to field pests. About 29%,
25%, and 56% of the farmers in the low, intermediate, and high rainfall zones, respectively,
disadopted improved maize varieties. Farmers in the high rainfall zone mainly disadopted H625 and
Katumani, and farmers in the low rainfall zone mainly disadopted Tuxpefo. Farmers in the
intermediate rainfall zone disadopted mostly Katumani and Tuxpeno.

Very few farmers used credit (3% of farmers in the low rainfall zone, 2% of farmers in the
intermediate zone, and no farmers in the high rainfall zone). The only credit institutions were the
cooperative unions. Most farmers reported that credit was difficult to obtain (all farmers in the high
rainfall zone, 62.5% of farmers in the intermediate rainfall zone, and 82.4% of farmers in the low
rainfall zone). Lack of knowledge (information) and credit facilities were the main constraints to
obtaining credit in all zones.

Most farmers had received information on all of the agronomic practices, except for disease and
weed control (herbicides). The most important sources of information were research and extension.

The tobit analysis showed that education, farmer's experience, farm size, family labor, extension,
livestock units, and hand hoe use were significant factors affecting the proportion of land allocated to
improved maize varieties. Education and extension increased the probability that a farmer would
allocate land to improved maize at the means by about 1.8% and 12%, respectively. The farmer's
experience and farm size increased the probability of allocating land at the means by about 0.5% and
0.7%, respectively. Family labor and livestock units decreased the probability of allocating land at the
means by about 1.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Farmers using hand hoes were less likely to allocate
land to improved maize varieties and their probability decreased by about 13%. The odds in favor of
adopting fertilizer increased by a factor of 6.2 if a farmer received an extension visit.

7.2 Recommendations

The characteristics of the innovation and external influences are the major factors affecting the
adoption of improved maize practices. Field pests limit maize production, and flexible integrated
management packages that combine a drought tolerant variety with improved cultural practices could
increase yields. Low-cost technologies for controlling stalkborer and MSV using cultural practices or
environmentally friendly industrial chemicals should be developed.

Most improved varieties are responsive to fertilizer, and farmers usually obtain economic yields with
fertilizer. The use of fertilizer is constrained by high price and farmers' lack of knowledge about the
technology, however. An efficient marketing system for inputs and outputs would benefit farmers by
offering higher prices for maize and reducing the cost of fertilizer. Such a system cannot be










established without policy support from the government. Studies on the economics of fertilizer use
should be undertaken, especially now that input and output markets have been liberalized.


The use of improved varieties was low in the study area, especially in the low and intermediate
rainfall zones. Farmers in the high rainfall zone mainly grew improved maize hybrids imported from
Kenya (H625). Furthermore, most farmers in the low and intermediate rainfall zones recycled seed
for more than 10 years. These findings would seem to indicate that suitable maize varieties should be
developed for the study area, especially for the low and intermediate rainfall zones. More suitable
hybrids should be developed for farmers in the high rainfall zone.

Extension efforts need to be strengthened to increase the flow of information to farmers. More effort
should be directed toward fertilizer technologies, as a majority of farmers use inefficient practices.
Advice to farmers to use organic manure to supplement chemical fertilizer should be increased.
Furthermore, extension efforts should be directed towards promoting the adoption of improved
varieties, weeding, and management of field and storage pests and diseases. Farmers in the high
rainfall zone need to be encouraged to treat their stored maize.

Formal credit is not available to most of the maize farmers. With rising input prices, providing credit
to farmers becomes increasingly important. In collaboration with the government and other
stakeholders, the formal credit system needs to address the credit problems faced by small-scale
farmers, especially their lack of knowledge (information) about formal credit procedures. The
formation of farmer groups should be encouraged as well, because lending to groups tends to reduce
transaction costs and ensures a high rate of loan recovery.


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