Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 IPBS 2006 honorees and presenters...
 Poster abstracts - Table of...
 Plant breeding eduction
 Plant pre-breeding and allelic...
 Breeding for quality, nutritional...
 Cultivar development methodologies...
 Cultivar development methodologies...
 Mexico City Center - Local...
 Back Cover

Title: Book of poster abstracts : 2006 International Plant Breeding Symposium
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077495/00001
 Material Information
Title: Book of poster abstracts : 2006 International Plant Breeding Symposium
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Higman, Sophie
Publisher: International Plant Breeding Symposim (IPBS) ; International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2006
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Farming   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Caribbean
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077495
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
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    IPBS 2006 honorees and presenters - biographical information
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    Poster abstracts - Table of contents
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    Plant breeding eduction
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    Plant pre-breeding and allelic discovery
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    Breeding for quality, nutritional and micronutrient traits
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    Cultivar development methodologies - Other crops
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    Cultivar development methodologies - Modeling
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    Mexico City Center - Local information
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    Back Cover
        Page 197
Full Text

Book of Poster Abstracts

International Plant Breeding Symposium

Honoring John Dudley

--. 1-- 6,-

ZOE2 0 0 '6'
Inlernalionol Plan? Breeding

Mexico City, 20-25 August, 2006

Editor: Sophie Higman



A .....s. *

Book of Poster Abstracts

2006 International Plant Breeding Symposium

Honoring John Dudley

Mexico City, 20-25 August, 2006

Editor: Sophie Higman



Welcome to the 2006 International Plant Breeding Symposium. In this Book of Poster Abstracts
you will find the following:

Program 2
IPBS 2006 Honoree and presenters biographical information 7
Poster Abstracts Table of contents 19
Plant breeding education abstracts 31
Plant breeding and allelic discovery abstracts 32
Breeding for quality, nutritional and micronutrient traits 53
Molecular breeding 79
Cultivar development methodologies maize 107
Cultivar development methodologies wheat 153
Cultivar development methodologies other crops 174
Cultivar development methodologies modeling 182
Index of Authors 185
Mexico City Center local information 195


* IPBS registration and logistics desk will be in Salon Donia Sol from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Monday to Friday,
except Wednesday.
* BCD Travel Service staff will be next door to the IPBS desk, open from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. throughout the
Sunday, August 20
Arrivals Airport welcoming committee Airport/Hotel
14:00-20:00 Conference Registration Doa Sol Salon
20:00-21:00 Cocktails (nationals drinks, snacks) obby Salon Don Alberto

Open Dinner (on your own)
Monday. August 21
07:00-08:00 Breakfast alone Don Alberto 1
07:30-08:30 Conference Registration Salon DoAa Sol
Session One Frontiers in Breeding for Complex Traits
Chair: Rex Bernardo
08:30-08:40 Welcome and Opening Address Masaru Iwanaga
08:40-08:50 University of Illinois Comments obert A. Easter
08:50-09:00 Iowa State University Comments Kendall R. Lamkey
09:00-09:40 Keynote Address: History, Contribution, and Future of Quantitative Arnel R. Hallauer
Genetics in Plant Breeding Iowa State University
09:40-10:20 Honoree Address: From Means to QTL: The Illinois Long-term John W. Dudley
Selection Experiment as a Case Study in Quantitative Genetics University of Illinois
10:20-10:40 Coffee Break and Belated Registration
10:40-11:20 Marker-assisted Selection: Strategies for Identifying and Manipulating Steven J. Knapp
Novel and Functionally Important Alleles University of Georgia
11:20-12:00 At the Interface of Genomics and Quantitative Genetics William D. Beavis
National Center for
Genome Resources
12:00-12:30 Customer and Consumer-based Plant Breeding in the 21st Century Bill Niebur
Pioneer Hi-Bred
12:30-14:00 Lunch (on your own)

Session Two Plant Breeding Education
Sponsored by the University of Illinois and Iowa State University
Chair: Kendall Lamkey

14:00-14:40 Education and Preparation of Plant Breeders for Careers in Fred Bliss
Global Crop Improvement Seminis Vegetable Seeds and
University of California-Davis

14:40-15:20 Plant Breeding and Related Biotechnology Assessment: Elcio Guimaraes
Strengths and Needs in the Developing World FAO, Rome

15:20-16:00 NOVA University: Plant Breeding Education in a University Sven B. Andersen
Without Walls The Royal Veterinary and
Agricultural University, Denmark

16:00-16:30 Question and Answer Session

16:30-17:00 Coffee Break

17:00-20:00 Poster Sessions Salon Don Alberto 2

Open Dinner (on your own)
Tuesday, August 22

07:00-08:30 Breakfast Salon Don Alberto 1

Session Three Plant Pre-Breeding and Allelic Discovery
Sponsored by Generation Challenge Program
Chair: Rodomiro Ortiz

09:00-09:40 Generation Challenge Programme: Unlocking Genetic Wayne Powell
Diversity in Crops NIAB, UK

09:40-10:20 Evolution of Population Structure and Heterotic Groups in Alain Charcosset
Temperate Maize: Consequences for Association Genetics Institut National de la Recherche
Agronomique, France

10:20-10:50 Coffee Break

10:50-11:30 Maize Anthracnose Resistance: Genetics and Breeding Sandra Milach
Pioneer Hi-Bred, Brazil

11:30-12:10 Pre-breeding and Genetic Diversity in Field Beans Jorge Acosta-Gallegos
INIFAP, Mexico

12:10-12:40 Question and Answer Session

12:40-14:00 Lunch (on your own)

Session Four Breeding for Quality, Nutritional, and Micronutrient Traits
Sponsored by HarvestPlus Challenge Program
Chair: Torbert Rocheford

14:00-14:40 Breeding For Modified Fatty Acid Composition In Soybean Walter R. Fehr
Iowa State University

14:40-15:20 HarvestPlus: Breeding Crops for Better Nutrition Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer
CGIAR Harvest Plus, Colombia

15:20-15:50 Coffee Break

15:50-16:30 Breeding Progress and Prospects for Provitamin-A and Other Gerard Barry
Micronutrients in Rice IRRI

16:30-17:00 Question and Answer Session

17:00-18:00 Poster Sessions Salon Don Alberto 2

Open Dinner (on your own)

Wednesday. August 23 CIMMYT Field Day

06:15 Meet in hotel lobby to be led to buses and receive box- Hotel lobby

06:30 Bus departure to CIMMYT Headquarters and INIFAP.
Participants will be divided into Group A and Group B

08:00-10:30 Part One of Program Group A at CIMMYT, Group B at CIMMYT / INIFAP

10:30- 11:00 Groups exchange between CIMMYT and INIFAP

11:00-13:30 Part Two of Program Group A at INIFAP, Group B at CIMMYT / INIFAP

13:30-14:00 Both Groups move to CIMMYT Guest House Gardens

14:00-15:00 Luncheon Guest House Gardens

15:00 Speech by Masa Iwanaga, CIMMYT Director General

15:45-16:15 Performance of Traditional Mexican Dance

16:30 Board buses to Mexico City

17:30 Expected arrival at Hotel Sheraton Centro Historico

Open Dinner (on your own)

Thursday, August 24

07:00-8:30 Breakfast ISalon Don Alberto 1

Session Five Molecular Breeding
Sponsored by Syngenta
Chair: Sam Eathington

09:00-09:40 Candidate Gene Approach to the Identification of Christiane Gebhardt
Genes Underlying Quantitative Traits in Potato and for Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding
Diagnostic Marker Development Research, Germany

09:40-10:20 Molecular Breeding Using a Major QTL for Fusarium James A. Anderson
Head Blight Resistance in Wheat University of Minnesota

10:20-10:50 Coffee Break

10:50-11:30 QTL for Root Architecture and Drought Tolerance in Roberto Tuberosa
Maize University of Bologna

11:30-12:10 Molecular Breeding to Enhance Ethanol Production Wilfred Vermerris
from Corn and Sorghum Stover University of Florida
12:10-12:40 Question and Answer Session

12:40-14:00 Lunch (on your own)

Session Six Cultivar Development Methodologies
Sponsored By: Renessen
Chair: Bruno Albrecht

14:00-14:40 Breeding for Striga Resistance in Sorghum: Exploitation Gebisa Ejeta
of an Intricate Host-Parasite Biology Purdue University

14:40-15:20 Insights and Innovations from Wide Crosses in Plant Tom Osborn
Breeding Seminis Vegetable Seeds

15:20-15:50 Coffee Break

15:50-16:30 Use of Double Haploids in Recurrent Selection and Andr6 Gallais
Hybrid Development in Maize Institut National Agronomique Paris-
Grignon, France

16:30-17:00 Question and Answer Session

17:00-18:00 Poster Sessions Salon Don Alberto 2

20:00-20:30 1Cocktails Lobby Salon Don Alberto

20:30 Gala Dinner, sponsored by SAGARPA Salon Don Alberto 1
(MC: John Dodds, CIMMYT). Speakers:
Mexican Agriculture Minister (20 min)
Robb Fraley Monsanto (15 min)

Friday, August 25

07:00-08:30 IBreakfast Salon Don Alberto 1

Session Seven Cultivar Development Methodologies
Sponsored By: CIMMYT
Chair: Bruno Albrecht
09:00-09:40 Environmental Classification in Plant Breeding Carlos M. Loffler
Pioneer Hi-Bred
09:40-10:20 Breeding for Highly Variable Abiotic Stress Marianne Banziger
Environments CIMMYT, Kenya
10:20-10:50 Coffee Break

10:50-11:30 Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Temperate Elizabeth A. Lee
Maize University of Guelph
11:30-12:10 Use of Crop Physiology to Enhance Breeding for Matthew Reynolds
Stress Environments CIMMYT
12:10-12:40 Question and Answer Session

12:40-14:00 Lunch (on your own)

Session Eight Contributions from Prof. Dudley's Former Students
Sponsored By: University of Illinois
Chair: Kendall Lamkey
14:00-14:30 Practical Uses Of Molecular Markers In A Sam Eathington
Commercial Breeding Program Monsanto Company
14:30-15:00 Backcross Versus Forward Breeding in the Rita H. Mumm
Development of Transgenic Maize Hybrids: Theory GeneMax Services
and Practice
15:00-15:30 Apomixis for Cultivar Development in Tropical John W. Miles
Forage Grasses CIAT
15:30-16:00 IQuestion and Answer Session

16:00-16:30 ICofee Break

16:30-17:00 Symposium Summary Rex Bernardo
University of Minnesota
17:00-17:30 Closing Ceremony (MC: Ted Crosbie, Monsanto)
S Closing Comments Ted Crosbie and John Schoper
Open Dinner (on your own)

Saturday. August 26

07:00-08:30 Breakfast Salon Don Alberto 1

Departures I

IPBS 2006 Honoree and presenters biographical information

The Honoree

John W. Dudley is an emeritus Professor of Plant Genetics at the University of Illinois. Prior to
his retirement he was the inaugural holder of the Renessen Endowed Chair in Corn Quality Trait
Breeding and Genetics. Dr. Dudley's breeding career has spanned 49 years and three important
crops: maize, alfalfa, and sugar beets. Dr. Dudley is most well known for his research on long-
term selection for protein and oil in the classic University of Illinois experiment, selection for the
simultaneous improvement of multiple traits, particularly yield and disease resistance, developing
methods for choosing parents for use in breeding programs, and the application of biotechnology
to plant improvement. Dr. Dudley has been extremely active in academia, has published over 155
papers, served on the editorial board of the esteemed journal Crop Science in various capacities
from 1964 to 1976, and served as associate head of the Department of Crop Sciences at the
University of Illinois. Dr. Dudley is a fellow of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop
Science Society of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He
has received the DEKALB Crop Science Distinguished Career Award, the National Commercial
Council of Plant Breeders Award, and the Crop Science Research Award (CSSA).

The Presenters

Jorge A. Acosta-Gallegos
Dr. Jorge A. Acosta-Gallegos is a traditional plant breeder that has a passion for exploring the
Mexican mountains in search for wild Phaseolus beans. As a result of that hobby he has
contributed with a few hundred accessions to the germplasm banks of INIFAP and CIAT. After
graduating as an agronomist in 1972 he started working at the National Agricultural Research
Institute (now INIFAP) on rainfed dry beans of the semiarid highlands of the state of Durango.
The main emphases of his breeding efforts In Durango were drought adaptation and disease
resistance, mainly to root-rots and anthracnose. After graduating from Michigan State University
in 1988, he released several improved cultivars, the most important of which was "Pinto Villa", a
cultivar that dominated its commercial seed class in the semiarid highlands of Mexico for over a
decade. He has also collaborated in the Latin-American project of the Bean/Cowpea-CRSP for
more than twenty years. From 1991 until 2002 he worked in a sub-humid temperate environment
in Central Mexico, mostly concentrating on breeding beans with multiple disease resistance.
During the last four years he has built a new breeding program in the Bajio region where he now
lives. There, he aims to develop bean cultivars belonging to half a dozen commercial seed classes
that are adapted to either irrigated or rainfed conditions. During the course of his carrier, Dr.
Acosta has participated in the development of more than twenty improved dry bean cultivars.

James Anderson
James Anderson is a professor in the Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics at the
University of Minnesota. He obtained his B.S. degree in Agronomy from the University of
Minnesota in 1987, M.S. in Crop Science (Plant Breeding) from the University of Kentucky in
1989, and a Ph.D. in Plant Breeding from Comell University in 1992. His previous positions
include Assistant Professor at North Dakota State University and Research Geneticist with the
USDA-ARS, Pullman, Washington. Dr. Anderson has been working in the areas of wheat
breeding and genetics since 1989. He has contributed to the development of 11 released wheat
cultivars and authored/co-authored 61 articles in peer-reviewed journals. His major research
effort is the genetic investigations of complexly inherited traits including grain quality and
disease resistance. Recent research has focused on Fusarium head blight and leaf rust resistance
and incorporating resistance into new cultivars using marker-assisted selection. Dr. Anderson
received the Crop Science Society of America's Young Crop Scientist Award in 1998.

Sven Bode Andersen
Sven Bode Andersen is professor of plant breeding at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural
University, Denmark with a MSc in Horticulture 1980 and a Ph.D. in plant breeding 1983.
Research focused on haploid production for breeding of horticultural and agricultural species and
the use of molecular markers for diversity evaluation and to speed up breeding programs.

Marianne Banziger
Marianne Banziger is the Director for CIMMYT's Global Maize Program. She obtained her PhD
in crop physiology at the Swiss Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich Switzerland in 1992. She
joined CIMMYT as a Post-Doctoral Fellow and Scientist, before she moved to southern Africa in
1996. Dr. Banziger's research focuses on the abiotic stress tolerance in maize, in particular
drought and low soil fertility, environmental characterization of maize growing environments,
and use of molecular markers in drought breeding. In southern Africa, she initiated and led maize
germplasm development network targeted at stress-prone environments which involved well over
50 organizations, including NARS, NGOs, the private seed sector, farmer organizations,
universities and regional organizations. This partnership developed, evaluated and deployed so
far over 45,000 tons of seed of stress tolerant maize varieties to smallholder farmers in Africa.

Gerard Barry
Dr. Gerard Barry joined the International Rice Research Institute (http://www.irri.org/) in
November 2003 as the Coordinator of the Golden Rice Network (http://www.goldenrice.org/),
and is also the HarvestPlus Rice Crop Team Leader (http://www.harvestplus.org/), and Head of
IRRI's Intellectual Property Management Unit. Prior to joining IRRI, Dr. Barry spent more than
20 years with Monsanto Company in St. Louis, USA, where he had various responsibilities,
including co-head of the Rice Business Team, head of the Rice Genome and Rice Genomics

projects, and Director of Research for developing country research cooperation. He received
B.Sc. and M Sc. degrees from University College, Cork, Ireland, and his Ph.D. from Columbia
University in New York, and he was formerly Charge de Recherche at the Institut Pasteur in
Paris. Dr. Barry is co-inventor on 20 patents, co-author of more than 50 research articles, and has
been a frequent invited speaker at international conferences.

William D. Beavis
Most often cited for his discovery of bias in estimates of genetic effects from QTL analyses of
segregating populations (the "Beavis Effect"), Dr. Beavis gained extensive experience in the
application of statistical genetic methods during his twelve years at Pioneer-Dupont. Since
joining NCGR in 1998, Dr. Beavis has been the principal investigator for a variety of
bioinformatics projects, including The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), GeneX and
GeneX-Lite gene expression systems, the Legume Information System (LIS), the Legume
Information Network (LIN) and the Genome Explorer and Survey of Immunological Response
(GEySIR) system. Currently, Dr. Beavis is developing novel methods, based on Bayesian
inference, to identify global gene expression patterns associated with genotypes. Dr. Beavis
received his Ph.D. degree in Plant Breeding and Statistics from the Iowa State University in
Ames, Iowa. He holds an M.S degree in Interdisciplinary Biology-Statistics from New Mexico
State University in Las Cruces, NM and a B.S. degree in Range Management from Humboldt
State University, Arcata, California. Since 2003, Dr. Beavis is also an Adjunct Professor in the
Department of Mathematics and Statistics at University of New Mexico and an adjunct scientist
at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute.

Rex Bernardo
Rex Bernardo is a professor and endowed chair in corn breeding and genetics in the Department
of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota. He obtained a B.S. degree in
agriculture at the Visayas State College of Agriculture in the Philippines in 1984, and a Ph.D.
degree plant breeding and genetics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1988. Dr.
Bernardo's research focuses on the use of quantitative genetics theory and molecular markers to
improve the efficiency of plant breeding methods, particularly for corn. Dr. Bernardo teaches a
graduate course on the application of quantitative genetics to plant breeding and a graduate course
on publishing in plant science journals. He is currently director of the Applied Plant Sciences
graduate program at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Bernardo has served on the editorial boards
of Crop Science and Theoretical and Applied Genetics. He received the Crop Science Society of
America (CSSA) Young Crop Scientist Award in 1999, is a Fellow of CSSA and the American
Society of Agronomy, and is currently chair of the Crop Breeding and Genetics division of

Fred Bliss
Fred Bliss is Senior Director of R&D Special Projects/NAFTA Commercial Research
Coordinator at Seminis Vegetable Seeds; and Professor Emeritus at the University of California,
Davis. Dr. Bliss received the B.S. Degree in Agronomy from the University of Nebraska and the
Ph.D. Degree in Horticulture-Genetics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Prior to
joining Seminis in 1998, where he has served in varied capacities including Director of World-
wide Breeding and of Support Science and Technology, he was a member of the Department of
Horticulture at U.W.-Madison (1966 -1988), and the Department of Pomology (Lester Endowed
Chair) at UC Davis (1988-1998). Fred has taught courses on The Principles of Plant Breeding,
Advanced Line Breeding, and Vegetable Crops Production and served as Major Professor for
some 30 Ph.D. and M.S. students from around the world. He has managed research projects in
Africa and Latin America as well as the U.S. where emphasis has been on breeding and genetic
improvement of self-pollinated agronomic crops (dry beans and cowpeas), horticultural crops
(table beets, garden beans and tomatoes), vine fruits kiwifruitt) and tree fruits (peaches, apricots
and rootstocks). He has served as president of the American Society for Horticultural Science and
is a Fellow of the ASHS, CSSA, and AAAS.

Alain Charcosset
Dr. Alain Charcosset is a senior scientist in the Plant Genetics and Breeding department at the
Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) in Gif-sur-Yvette, France. He studied
Agronomy and Plant Breeding at the Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon, where he
received his Ph.D. degree in 1990. His research focuses on the characterization of genetic
diversity and its utilization for quantitative trait improvement, based on genomics information
and the use of marker-assisted selection. This research involves theoretical contributions and
application to early maize and its adaptation to northern Europe environmental conditions. After
having coordinated its maize program since 1993, he is presently vice-head of the Plant Genetics
and Breeding department of INRA.

Sam Eathington
Sam Eathington was raised on a grain and livestock farm in west-central Illinois. He received his
B.S. ('90), M.S. ('93), and Ph.D. ('95) from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana.
Sam's graduate education focused on genetics, plant breeding (soybeans and corn) and
application of molecular markers to plant breeding. Sam spent one year as the Quantitative Traits
Project Leader for ICI/Garst Seed Company, where he worked to integrate molecular markers
into traditional corn breeding programs. In September of 1996, Sam joined Monsanto as part of
Asgrow Seed Company's New Concept corn program. This program focused on trait integration
and application of molecular markers. In 1998, Sam accepted the ROW Trait Integration position
for Monsanto Global Seed Company. In this role, Sam worked to integrate and develop the trait
integration programs for Monsanto's International corn breeding programs. In April of 1999, Sam

became the Team Leader for the Molecular Breeding Informatics and Quantitative Applications
Team. This team was responsible for development and implementation of informatic tools that
support the analysis of molecular marker information. In January of 2001, Sam also assumed
leadership of the Molecular Breeding Project Coordination program, which is responsible for
implementing molecular breeding project plans in cooperation with the breeding programs. In
September of 2005, Sam became the North America Corn Line Development Director.

Gebisa Ejeta
Gebisa Ejeta is a professor of plant breeding and genetics in the Department of Agronomy at
Purdue University. His research focuses on the improvement of the sorghum crop for resistance
to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for value-added, nutritional quality and end product
development. He has full responsibility for teaching the first graduate level course in plant
breeding and assists in teaching of a number of other courses at Purdue University. Dr. Ejeta is
involved in a variety of programs in international agriculture through Purdue University,
international research centers, foundations, and other agencies. He has contributed to agriculture
in developing countries through sorghum cultivars and hybrids that he developed, programs that
he initiated, and graduates students he has trained. Dr. Ejeta is a member and fellow of the Crop
Science Society of America, the American Society of Agronomy, and the American Association
for the Advancement of Sciences.

Walter R. Fehr
Walter Fehr is a Charles R. Curtiss Distinguished Professor in Agriculture and director of the
Office of Biotechnology at Iowa State University. He is a soybean breeder in the Department of
Agronomy and teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in plant breeding. He obtained his
B.S. and M.S degrees at the University of Minnesota and his Ph. D. in plant breeding and
cytogenetics at Iowa State University. His research has emphasized evaluation of breeding
methodologies, development of novel traits, genetic and agronomic analysis of novel traits, and
cultivar development.

Andre Gallais
Andre Gallais is Professor Emeritus of the "Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon"
(INAPG, Paris, France) where he was Professor Genetics and Plant Breeding from 1982 to 2005
in charge of a graduate course. He was the head of the research Station of Genetics and Plant
Breeding ofLe Moulon (Gif/Yvette, France) from 1982 to 1999. Dr Gallais first developed
theoretical research on quantitative genetics and the breeding of autopolyploid species, with
application to the breeding of two autotetraploids species cocksfoot and alfalfa. Simultaneously
he developed theoretical work on the best combination of recurrent selection and variety
development. Since 1982 he has been working mainly on corn, where he has developed studies
on genetic resources, recurrent selection, marker-assisted selection and more recently on the

genetics and breeding of nitrogen use efficiency. His main interest is the use of quantitative
genetics theory and molecular markers to increase the efficiency of breeding methods.

Christiane Gebhardt
Dr. PD Christiane Gebhardt is a senior scientist and research group leader at the Max-Planck
Institute for Plant Breeding Research. In 1978, she obtained a diploma degree in biochemistry
from the University of Tibingen, Germany. She did her PhD work at the Friedrich-Miescher
Institute in Basel and graduated 1982 from the University of Basel (Switzerland). After
postdoctoral positions at CSIRO in Canberra, Australia, and Rothamsted Experimental Station
(Harpenden, UK) she took up her current position at the MPI for Plant Breeding Research in
1985. In 1995, she habilitated at the University of Cologne. Her group's research focuses on
genome analysis (DNA-based markers, molecular maps, QTL analysis, population genetics) of
potato (Solanum tuberosum), the world's forth most important crop. Dr. Gebhardt served six
years on the Board of Trustees of CIAT and is associated editor of Theoretical and Applied

Elcio Perpetuo Guimaraes
Elcio Perpetuo Guimaraes received his BSc degree in Agronomy from the "Escola Superior de
Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz" in Brazil. His MSc is on Genetics and Plant Breeding from the
same University in Brazil. In 1976 he began working as a rice breeder at EMBRAPA. He
obtained a PhD degree in 1985 from University of Iowa in USA, also on Genetics and Plant
Breeding. From 1989 to 1996 he worked as rice breeder at the International Center for Tropical
Agriculture (CIAT), in Cali, Colombia. In 1996 he returned to EMBRAPA where he remained
until the end of 2001 when he became a senior officer at FAO. In his career he has been
responsible for releasing several rice varieties in Latin America and has published and edited
several books and technical articles.

Arnel R. Hallauer
Dr. Amel R. Hallauer is a retired C. F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor of Iowa State University,
a member of the National Academy of Science, and a member of the US Department of
Agriculture Agricultural Research Service's Science Hall of Fame. Hallauer has influenced plant
breeders around the world through his teachings, publications, and breeding accomplishments.
His book, Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding, is considered a standard textbook for corn
breeders. He conducted and established full-sib reciprocal recurrent selection as an effective
breeding method for maize. Hallauer graduated with a BS degree in 1954 with a major in plant
science at Kansas State University. After military service, he entered Iowa State University where
he got his MSc in 1958 and his PhD in 1960. Hallauer started his professional career in 1958 with
the USDA/ARS. After having completed over 30 years of federal service, Hallauer retired from

USDA and accepted a full-time faculty position at Iowa State. He was named a Charles F. Curtiss
Distinguished Professor in Agriculture in 1991. He retired in 2003.

Steven J. Knapp
Steven J. Knapp is professor and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Plant Breeding
and Genomics in the Center for Applied Genetic Technologies at the University of Georgia. He
received B.S. and M.S. degrees from the University of Nevada in 1978 and 1980 and a Ph.D.
from the University of Nebraska in 1983. He was a faculty member in the Department of Crop
and Soil Science at Oregon State University from 1985 to 2004 where he held the Paul C. Berger
Endowed Chair and taught Advanced Plant Breeding and Quantitative Genetics, Genetic
Mapping, and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping. His research has focused on the domestication
and breeding of industrial oilseeds and molecular breeding and comparative and translational
genomics in sunflower. Since moving to UGA, he has initiated molecular breeding and genomics
research programs in peanut and watermelon. He has mentored 28 graduate students and 14
postdoctoral scholars and served on the editorial boards of Crop Science, Theoretical and Applied
Genetics, and Molecular Breeding. He is a Fellow of the Crop Science Society of America and
American Society of Agronomy and was awarded an Alexander Von Humbolt Fellowship in

Elizabeth A. Lee
Elizabeth Lee is an associate professor in the Department of Plant Agriculture, University of
Guelph. She has a B.Sc. in Agronomy from the University of Minnesota, a MSc. in Plant
Breeding and Cytogenetics from Iowa State University, and a Ph.D. in Genetics from the
University of Missouri-Columbia. In addition to running an active maize inbred line development
and germplasm enhancement program at the University of Guelph, Dr. Lee's research focus is on
understanding the mechanisms underlying quantitative traits. Dr. Lee is currently serving as an
associate editor for Crop Science, a NSERC GSC03 committee member, and is a member of the
Dept. of Plant Agricultural executive and graduate studies committees. Dr. Lee is primarily
involved in graduate student teaching, teaching classes in plant genetics, plant breeding, and
quantitative genetics.

Carlos M. Loffler
Carlos M. L6ffler is a senior scientist within the Maize Product Development department of
Pioneer Hi-Bred Int'l. Born and raised in the Argentine Pampas region, Dr. Loffler obtained his
Ingeniero Agr6nomo degree at the University of La Plata, Argentina, and his M.S. and Ph.D.
degrees in Plant Breeding at the University of Minnesota. After a four-year professorship at the
University of Mar del Plata/INTA, Balcarce, Argentina, he joined Pioneer in 1986 to manage the
company's Argentine corn breeding program. Dr. Loffler developed corn germplasm adapted to
the Argentine Pampas, including the first successful commercial single-cross product in the

Argentine market. He moved to Pioneer's headquarters in Johnston, Iowa, in 1991 to conduct
various research projects, including investigations of the causes of genotype by environment
interactions in corn. Dr. Loffler currently leads the development of environmental classification
systems for crop breeding.

Sandra Milach
Sandra Milach is a Senior Scientist with Pioneer Hi-Bred Int'l, at its Passo Fundo research center
in Brazil. She is currently engaged in breeding corn for southern Brazil market and leads the
application of molecular breeding and marker assisted selection technologies for Pioneer in
Brazil. Prior to joining Pioneer, she was a Professor at Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
since 1991 where she taught and conducted research on oat breeding, quantitative genetics and
molecular breeding applied to cereal crops. She worked for EMBRAPA from 2001 to 2003 where
she conducted research on the genetics of aluminum tolerance and resistance to leaf rust in wheat.
Dr. Milach received a BS in Agronomy from Pelotas Federal University, a M.S. degree in Plant
Breeding from Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, and a Ph.D. in Plant Breeding
and Genetics from University of Minnesota.

John W. Miles
John Miles has been a forage breeder at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)
in Cali, Colombia since 1979. He obtained his B.S. in Plant Science from the University of
California at Davis in 1968 and his M.S. in Plant Breeding at Comell University in 1971. After
serving in the U.S. Peace Corps in Colombia, he obtained his Ph.D., under the supervision of
John Dudley, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1979. Dr. Miles conducts an
applied plant breeding program aimed at developing superior apomictic tropical forage grass
cultivars. His major research interest is in developing practical breeding schemes to exploit
heterosis in asexually propagated crops. He is currently serving as associate editor of Crop

Rita H. Mumm
Rita Mumm is a consultant and principal for the firm, GeneMax Services, in Chapel Hill, NC,
specializing in applications of biotechnology to crop improvement. She earned an A.S. degree
with an emphasis in Agriculture at Joliet Junior College in Joliet, IL in 1987, a B.S. degree in
Agricultural Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1989, and a Ph.D. in
Genetics and Plant Breeding at UIUC, under the supervision of Professor John Dudley, in 1993.
Entering the seed industry as transgenic product development was in its infancy, she managed the
value-added product development program for DEKALB Genetics Corp., facilitating commercial
launch of four value-added traits, one each year from 1995 through 1998. She went on to lead a
team in establishing a high-throughput molecular marker system for DEKALB, aimed at
providing this technology as a powerful tool for the breeder in the development of corn hybrids

with key performance characteristics and positioning DEKALB as an industry leader in
implementing genomic information in seed product development. She led efforts to establish
transgenic product development programs for Syngenta in cotton, wheat, barley, rice, and plant-
made pharmaceuticals in safflower. She has extensive experience in developing Quality Systems
to safeguard transgenic event identity and purity through Research, Development, and
Commercialization phases of seed product development. She is a named inventor on three U.S.
patents, one of which includes the GA21 source of glyphosate tolerance in corn.

Tom Osborn
Tom Osbom is Director of Genetic Resources Development at Seminis Vegetable Seeds in
Woodland, CA since 2004. Prior to joining Seminis, he was Bascom Professor of Agronomy at
the University of Wisconsin, where he taught and conducted research on molecular breeding and
genetics of crop plants. He received a B.S. in Horticulture and a Ph.D. in Plant Breeding and
Plant Genetics from the University of Wisconsin.

Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer
Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer is the Plant Breeding Coordinator for HarvestPlus; based at CIAT,
Colombia. He obtained his Ph.D. and MSc. degrees in Agricultural Sciences from Stuttgart -
Hohenheim University in Germany. Before joining HarvestPlus, Wolf was Head Plant
Breeder/project manager (small grains), Intensive Agro-ecosystems Program, at the International
Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in Mexico and responsible for applied and
strategic bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale improvement under CIMMYT's global
germplasm development mandate. Wolf has over 20 years' experience in International
Agriculture in crop improvement, the development and implementation of research strategies and
methods, human resource development, and the coordination of global and regional networks and
projects. His expertise is in Crop Improvement and International Agriculture.

Wayne Powell
Wayne Powell is Director and Chief Executive Officer of the National Institute Agricultural
Botany (NIAB), Cambridge UK. Previous appointments include Head of the School of
Agriculture and Wine, University Adelaide, Australia; Deputy Director of the SCRI, Dundee,
UK; he also worked at the DuPont Company in Wilmington, Delaware, USA.
He has reviewed crop science research sponsored by CGIAR in Latin America, Africa and the
Near East and has been a member of the external review teams for VIB (Belgium), Rothamsted
(UK) and INRA (France). He is Chairman of the Program Advisory Committee for the
Generation Challenge Program and Honorary Research Fellow at CIMMYT, Mexico; Member of
the JIC Governing Council, Norwich and is an Honorary Professor at Heriot-Watt University,
Edinburgh, UK.

Personal research interests are at the interface of plant genetics, genome science, plant breeding
and conservation of genetic resources with a strong emphasis on the delivery of 'public good'
outcomes. He has published over 225-refereed scientific papers, presented numerous invited
papers at international meetings and successfully supervised 20 PhD students and numerous
visiting workers. He maintains an active research group, continues to write grants to support his
research from a diverse range of funding sources and has an extensive international network of
collaborators and contacts.

Matthew Reynolds
Matthew Reynolds is Head of Wheat Physiology at The International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT). He obtained his bachelors degree in Botany at Oxford
University in 1984 and Ph.D. in Horticulture at Comell University in 1989. He also is Special
Professor at Nottingham University and serves on the editorial board of Journal of Agricultural
Science. His main professional activity is to develop and transfer wheat breeding technologies to
increase productivity in developing countries with a special focus on marginal environments. As
Head of the Global Wheat Physiology Program, a principal role is to develop partnerships with
investigators worldwide that enable appropriate technologies to be applied to the problems facing
resource poor farmers. His work has contributed to the understanding of the fundamental
limitations to wheat yield potential in irrigated environments as well as identifying rapid and
efficient early generation selection tools such as canopy temperature, which have been adopted in
major wheat breeding programs. His work on developing conceptual models of wheat to highlight
its genetic limitations under stress are used as decision support tools in strategic breeding,
exploration of genetic resources, and QTL mapping of stress adaptive traits. He has also been
involved in developing agronomic recommendations for wheat in marginal environments,
supervises young scientists in the area of application of crop physiology to breeding, and has
organized a number of international workshops addressing strategies to increase wheat

Roberto Tuberosa
Roberto Tuberosa is a professor in Biotechnology Applied to Plant Breeding in the Department of
Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technology, University of Bologna, Italy. He obtained a B.S.
degree in Botany at the University of Bologna and a M.S. and Ph.D. in Plant Breeding and
Genetics at the University of Minnesota. The research of Dr. Tuberosa focuses on the use of
genomics approaches to unravel the genetic basis of the response to drought and to improve the
sustainability of cereal production, particularly corn and durum wheat. Dr. Tuberosa teaches a
number of courses related to the application of biotechnology to plant breeding and is a member
of the Editorial Board of Maydica, Molecular Breeding, Plant Biotechnolgy Journal, and Plant
Genetic Resources. Dr. Tuberosa is also a member of the Board of Plant Genomics European
Meetings and of the EUCARPIA Maize and Sorghum section.

Wilfred Vermerris
Wilfred Vermerris recently joined the University of Florida Genetics Institute as Associate
Professor of Agronomy. He has a Master's degree in Bio-molecular Engineering from
Wageningen University in the Netherlands and a Ph.D. in Genetics from North Carolina State
University. He was on the faculty at Purdue University from 2001-2006. His research focuses on
cell wall biosynthesis in grasses, with an emphasis on maize and sorghum. He is an expert on the
brown midrib mutants in these two species. Research on these mutants has been the basis for the
development of maize and sorghum lines with improved biomass conversion properties that can
be used for the production of fuels and green chemical feedstocks. He has taught Plant Genetics,
Physiology and Biochemistry of Crop Improvement, and a lab course on PCR.


Poster Abstracts Table of Contents

Plant breeding education 31

1. Sedlak, P. and Vejl, P. 31
Plant breeding an important part of study programs at the Czech University of
Agriculture in Prague

Plant pre-breeding and allelic discovery 32

2. Alarc6n-Zufiiga, B., Cervantes-Martinez, T. and Sachiko, I. 32
Morphological and molecular characterization of alfalfa populations adapted to Central
Valley of Mexico
3. Bayuelo-Jimenez, J.S., L6pez-Gomez, R. and Bahena-Betancourt, L. 33
The role of carbohydrate accumulation in osmotic adjustment of salt-stressed Phaseolus
4. Claure Iriarte, T. 34
Compilation, characterization and purification of two native varieties of maize
5. Dotla6il, L., Hermuth, J. and Stehno, Z. 35
European winter wheat landraces and obsolete cultivars and their value for breeding
6. Dreisigacker, S., Warburton, M., van Ginkel, M., Balfourier, F., Xueyong, Z., 36
Miloudi, N., Thachunk, C. and Crossa, J.
Genetic characterization of global wheat genetic resources and their wild species
7. El Felah M. and Bettaieb-Ben Kaab L. 37
Barley in situ-conservation: a significant risk
8. Femandez, L., Castifieiras, L., Fundora, Z., Shagarodsky, T., Crist6bal, R., Garcia, 38
M., Giraudy, C., Harper, V., Acufia, G., Puld6n, G., Perez, M.F. and Figueroa, M.B.
Variability of maize landraces on farm in two rural areas in Cuba
9. Gutierrez, L., Jannink, J.-L. and Nason, J. 39
Genetic diversity in cultivated barley and wild barley
10. Jones, H., Leigh, F., Mackay, I., Smith, L. and Powell, W. 40
The diversity of European Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare landraces for the adaptive trait
photoperiod response PPD-H1
11. Leigh, F. and Powell, W. 41
Wheat cytoplasmic diversity
12. Lorea, R.D.; Delucchi, C.; Eyherabide, G.H.; L6pez, C.G. 42
Identifying Argentine maize populations as a source of favorable alleles for grain yield
13. MacKay, I. and Powell, W. 43
Prospects for association mapping in UK winter wheat

14. Magorokosho, C, Banziger, M, and Betrin J 44
Genetic diversity for abiotic stress tolerance of maize landraces selected for 100 years in
southern Africa
15. Moreira, P.M., Santos, J.P., Antunes, M., P., Moura, R., Santos, J.P., Vaz Patto, 45
M.C. and Pego, S.
Pre-breeding on Portuguese maize landraces: biometric and pest evaluation
16. Nass, L.L., Fivero, A.P., Bianchetti, L.B., Ferreira, F.R. and Mendes, R.A. 46
Utilization of autochthonous germplasm in Brazilian pre-breeding programs: Ananas,
Arachis, Capsicum and Manihot
17. Stehno Z., Dotla6il L., Faberova I., 47
Evaluation of wheat genetic resources in the Czech Republic for their use in breeding
18. Taba, S., Chavez-Tovar, V.H., Rivas, M., Rodriguez, M. and Ramirez, M. 48
Maize genetic resources and prebreeding at CIMMYT International

19. Vazquez-Carrillo, G., Ortega Corona, A., Vidal Martinez, V.A., Salinas Moreno, 49
Y., Guerrero Herrera, M., Cota Agramont, 0. and Palacios Velarde, O.
The protein quality of native maize from northwest Mexico
20. White, J., Smith, S., Law, J., Powell, W. and Wolters, P. 50
The genetic diversity of UK and US wheat varieties, 1930 2005
21. Yanez, C, Franco, J, and Taba, S 51
The core collection of highland Ecuadorian maize genetic resources
22. Zencirci, N. and Karagoz, A. 52
Effect of developmental stage length on yield and some quality traits of Turkish durum
wheat (T. turgidum L. Conv. durum (Desf) M. K.) landraces

Breeding for quality, nutritional and micronutrient traits 53

23. Ado, S.G., Abdullahi, U.S., Usman, I.S. and Falaki, A.M. 53
Progress in quality protein maize breeding at Samaru, Nigeria
24. Bayuelo-Jimenez, J.S., Rivera Alcantar, N., Ochoa, I. 54
Quality attributes of mamey fruit (Pouteria sapota) and their potential use in crop
25. Burt, A.J., Smid, M.P., Shelp, B.J. and Lee, E.A. 55
High carotenoid maize project: increased accumulation and modified chemical profiles

26. Cakmak, I. 56
Using wild wheats to improve zinc nutrition of cultivated wheats
27. Castafieda, L. and Graef, G. 57
A national program for quality traits in soybean: effects of environment

28. C6rdova, H. and Krivanek, A. 58
Yield potential and combining ability of tropical quality protein maize inbred lines
29. Cruz Nifiez, 0. 59
Evaluation of fourteen varieties of high quality protein maize in Honduras

30. Ewool, M.B., Sallah, P.Y.K., Nelson-Quartey, F. and Menkir, A. 60
Potentials for improving maize for iron, zinc and beta-carotene content in Ghana

31. Fuentes L6pez, M.R. 61
Advances in maize biofortification in Guatemala: achievements and perspectives

32. Gevers, H.O. 62
Quality protein maize: a review
33. Gregovi, E., Slikova, S. and Mihilik, D. 63
Breeding for breadmaking quality in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Slovakia

34. Kitenge, K.M., Kirubi, D. and Mduruma, Z.O. 64
The status of quality protein maize in Tanzania
35. Kocourkova Z., Bradova J., Kohutova Z., Kienek P., Slimova L., Vlastnikova H., 65
Vejl P.
Characterization of high molecular weight glutenin of the gene locus
Glu-B 1 in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
36. Krivanek, A.F., Cordova, H. and Ramirez, A. 66
Stability and reliability analysis of lowland tropical quality protein maize (Zea mays)
three-way and single-cross hybrids
37. Manirakiza, A., Mbagaye, G. and Barisize, T. 67
Introduction and evaluation of early, stress tolerant and quality protein maize varieties
in Burundi
38. Menkir, A., White, W., Maziya-Dixon, B. and Rocheford, T. 68
Genetic potential for increasing pro-vitamin A content in tropical maize
39. Morgounov, A., G6mez-Becerra, H.F., Abugalieva, A., Massalimov, A., 69
Yessimbekova, M., Muminjanov, H., Zelenskiy, Y., Ozturk, L. and Cakmak, I.
Iron and zinc grain density in bread wheat grown in Central Asia

40. Nakamura, H. 70
Genetic variation of common wheat Glu-1 alleles in the noodle-culture zone compared
with the bread-culture zone

41. Narro, T.P, Hidalgo E., and Jara W. 71
Adaptation of yellow quality protein maize hybrids in Peru
42. Nigussie, M., Diallo, A.O., Mduruma, Z., Gezahegne B. and Lealem T. 72
Status of quality protein maize research in the drought stressed areas of Ethiopia
43. Palacios-Rojas, N., Beck, D., Banziger, M., Rocheford, T. and Pixley, K. 73
Genetic variation for improving micronutrient content in maize
44. Reddy, B.V.S., Ramesh, S., Longvah, T., Elangovan, M. and Upadhyaya, H.D. 74
Prospects of breeding micronutrient-dense sorghum
45. Shimelis, H., Mashela, P. and Hugo, A. 75
Characterization of veronia (Vernonia galamensis var. ethiopica) as an alternative
industrial oil crop in Limpopo Province
46. Taboada-Gaytan, O.R., Pollak, L., Johnson, L., Fox, S. and Duvick, S. 76
Wet milling efficiency of hybrids from exotic by adapted inbred lines of corn

47. Velu, G., Rai, K.N., Muralidharan, V., Kulkami, V.N., Longvah, T. and 77
Raveendran, T.S.
Iron and zinc content in pearl millet grain: genetic variability and breeding implications
48. Son, B.Y., Hyeon-Gui Moon, Tae-Wook Jung, Ja-Hwan Ku, Sun-Lim Kim and Si- 78
Ju Kim
Identification of quality protein maize lines by marker assisted selection, differential
chemical composition and lysine content analysis

Molecular breeding 79

49. Abertondo, V. and Lee, M. 79
Phenotypic analysis of intermated B73xMol7 (IBM) populations

50. Asea, G., Bigirwa, G., Vivek, B., Lipps, P.E. and Pratt, R.C. 80
Validation and characterization of candidate resistance quantitative trait loci for host-
resistance to multiple foliar pathogens of maize
51. Bergvinson, D.J. and Garcia-Lara, S. 81
Consensus mapping for field and storage pest resistance in tropical maize
52. Novaris, J., Fonseca, R., Grift, T., and Bohn, M. 82
Genetic evaluation of maize root complexity
53. Bradova, J. and SaSek, A. 83
Utilisation of genetic protein markers for the prediction of wheat baking quality
54. Butruille, D., Diniz Silva, H., Bockelman, D. and Tianxing Zhang 84
Linkage disequilibrium in haploids extracted from old open-pollinated maize varieties
and synthetics
55. Choe, E. and Rocheford, T. 85
Detection of quality trait loci (QTL) for pericarp thickness and ear inflorescence traits in
waxy corn

56. Cukadar, B. and Gupta, A. 86
Quantitative trait loci associated with husk traits in maize (Zea mays, L.)
57. Hassan, L. 87
Development of salt tolerant rice varieties using marker assisted selection

58. Hauck, A. and Bohn, M. 88
Stem borer resistance in maize joint analysis
59. Ininda, J., Danson, J., Langat, M., Gichuru, L. and Njuguna, J.G.M. 89
Application of simple sequence repeats to study within and between family variations
for resistance to maize streak virus disease

60. Kobiljski, B. 90
Use of the TRAP (Trace Relevant Allele Polymorphism) approach in breeding for
complex traits a wheat example

61. Kohutova, Z., Kocourkova, Z., Slmova, L., Vlastnikova, H., Kfenek, P., Vejl, P. 91
and Zoufala, J.
Molecular markers for leaf rust resistance genes and genes controlling vernalization in

62. Kfenek, P., Vlastnikova, H., Mazikova, J., Kocourkova, Z., Kohutova, Z., Slamova, 92
L., Zouhar, M., Domkafova, J., Skodaiek, Z.
Development of specific PCR markers for Solanum ssp. late blight resistance genes and
detection of their homologues

63. Mayor, M.L. and Lee, M. 93
Quantitative trait loci mapping for ear shoot development in maize
64. McIntyre, L. 94
Using mating designs to uncover quantitative trait loci and the genetic architecture of
complex traits

65. Negrao S. Jayamani P., Rocheta M., Macas B., Mackill D. and Oliveira M.M. 95
Gene pyramiding to improve rice by marker assisted backcrossing

66. Perez Lara, E., Rodriguez, L., Garcia, H. and Valdez, M. 96
Is it possible to complement the Shiltz scale with biochemical and molecular analysis to
evaluate tobacco varieties' (Nicotiana tabacum L.) resistance to blue mold?

67. Poland, J.A., Wisser, R.J., and Nelson, R.J.' 97
Recurrent selection mapping in two diverse maize populations selected for northern leaf
blight resistance

68. Silva, H.S. and Rocheford, T.R. 98
Detection of donor alleles for enhanced starch concentration in maize

69. Singh, D., Park, R.F., Bariana, H.S. and Wellings, C.R. 99
Characterization of leaf, stem and stripe rust resistance genes in CIMMYT wheat
70. Singh, D., Park, R.F., Snape, J., Simmonds, J. and Bariana, H.S. 100
Genetic analysis of resistance to leaf rust in European winter wheat cultivars

71. Singh, R.K., Gregorio, G.B., Adorada, D., Mendoza, R. and Sajise, A.G. 101
Molecular breeding strategy to combine multiple abiotic stress tolerance in rice
72. Slmova, L., Vejl, P., VeSkrna, O., Kohutova, Z., Kocourkova, Z., Kfenek, P. and 102
Vlastnikova, H.
Detection of the Bdv2 gene in some wheat varieties by means of molecular-genetic

73. Stamati K, Mackay I., Russell J., Booth A., Baum M., Morgante M., Radovic S. and 103
Powell W.
Cis-acting regulatory variation in cereals

74. Upadyayula, N., Bohn, M., Johnson, R. and Rocheford, T. 104
Enhanced detection of inflorescence architecture QTL in Intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM)
RIL population

75. Vejl, P., Melounovi, M., Zoufald, J., Sedlak, P., Bla2ek, J. and Dandovi, M. 105
Application of PCR markers of the Vm and Vfgenes controlling apple resistance to
Venturia inaequalis in Czech apple breeding
76. Vlastnikova H.', Kienek P., Domkifova J., Kohutova Z., Kocourkova Z., Slimovi 106
Z. and Vejl. P.
Estimation of molecular genetic markers used for detection ofPhytophthora infestans
(Mont.) de Bary in infected plant tissue of some Solanum species

Cultivar development methodologies maize 107

77. Acosta Roca, R., Rios Labrada, H., Martinez Cruz, M., Miranda Lorigados, S., 107
Ortiz, R., Ponce Brito, M.
Participatory plant breeding: a maize case study from Cuba
78. Aguirre, A., C. and Cris6stomo P., F. 108
Early testing for inbreeding tolerance in four local maize populations from the Peruvian

79. Alarc6n-Zifiiga, B., Cervantes-Martinez, T. and Warburton, M. 109
Heterosis and combining ability of tropical maize in the Central Valley of Mexico:
morphological and molecular characterization for silage

80. Arcos, A.L., Medina, S., Narro, L.A. and Salazar, F. 110
Inheritance of callose formation in tropical maize inbreds

81. Bucheyeki, T.L.and Simon, S.M. 111
Participatory breeding for maize varieties tolerant to maize streak virus in the western
zone of Tanzania

82. Cervantes-Martinez, J.E. 112
Combining ability of tropical and temperate maize inbreds

83. Cervantes-Martinez, J.E., Betanzos-Mendoza, E., Gomez-Montiel, N. and Coutifio- 113
Estrada, B.
Heterotic responses of white tropical maize inbred lines
84. Choukan, R. 114
Establishment of heterotic groups within Iranian maize inbred lines

85. Coutifio-Estrada, B. and Marquez-Sanchez, F. 115
Advances in cyclic hybridization based on three prolific corn varieties
86. Denic, M., Mariote, D., Chauque, P., Fato, P., Senete, C. and Haag, W. 116
Breeding approaches in simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance of quality
protein maize
87. Diallo, A.O., Kanampiu, F., Mugo, S., and Mbogo, P. 117
Combining ability of imidazolinone resistant maize inbred lines and performance of
their hybrids under Striga infestation

88. Espinosa-Calder6n, A., Tadeo-Robledo, M., G6mez-Montiel, N., Sierra-Macias, M., 118
F. Caballero H., A. Palafox C., F. Rodriguez-M., R. Valdivia B., R. Martinez M.
Plant breeding, seed production and andro-sterility in normal and quality protein maize
(QPM) in Mexico
89. Espinosa-Calder6n, A., Tadeo-Robledo, M. G6mez-Montiel, N., Sierra-Macias, 119
M., Sandoval, A., Coutifio E.,B., Caballero H.,F., L6pez-Pereira, M., Pifia D.V.,
Martinez M., R.
Criss cross and interchange of line order for maize hybrids and seed production in
normal and quality protein maize (QPM)
90. Garcia-Lara, S. and Bergvinson, D.J. 120
Seed deterioration of tropical maize varieties stored under accelerated aging conditions

91. Gethi, J.G. 121
Can we reduce maize postharvest losses through host plant resistance?
92. Grudloyma, P. and Prasitwatanaseree, S. 122
Performance of promising tropical late yellow maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) under water
stress conditions in Thailand

93. Hyrkas, L. and Lamkey, K.R. 123
Alternative maize cultivar types for sustainable farming systems

94. Iriany M., R.N., Takdir M., A., Yasin HG, M. and Mejaya, M.J. 124
Tolerance of sixteen maize genotypes to drought stress
95. Islam, A. 125
Maize Research in the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC)

96. Khonje, P., Ngwira, P. and Vivek, B. 126
Managing maize diseases through breeding for resistance in Malawi
97. Kirkpatrick, K.M., Lamkey, K.R., Scott, M.P., Moore, K.J., Haney, L.J., Coors, 127
J.G., Lorenz, A.J.
Identification and characterization of maize varieties with beneficial traits for biobased

98. Magulama, E.E., Sillote, C.C. and Madriaga, W.Q. 128
Morphology-based grouping and heterotic pattern analysis in ten white Mindanao maize

99. Makumbi, D., Bigirwa, G. and Diallo, A.O. 129
Combining ability and identification of maize three-way cross hybrids adapted to the
mid-altitude ecology of Uganda
100. Mariote, D., Denic, M., Haag, W., Chauque, P. and Fato, P. 130
Breeding for resistance to Downy Mildew in quality protein maize in Mozambique
101. Mashingaidze, K. 131
Farmer-participatory maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar evaluation and selection in Eastern
Cape province of South Africa
102. Mduruma, Z., Twumasi-Afriyie, S., Napir, G., Demmisew, A. and Ombakho, G. 132
Collaboration in Eastern and Central Africa bears fruit: increasing the availability of
enhanced maize germplasm.

103. Moreira, P.M.; Pego, S.; Vaz Patto, C. and Hallauer, A.R. 133
Twenty years of mass selection within the some degree fasciated Portuguese synthetic
maize variety 'Fandango'
104. Muasya, W.N.P., and Diallo, A.O. 134
Strategies for developing high yielding maize varieties for the dry mid-altitude ecology
of Kenya

105. Mugo, S., Gichuki, S.T., Murenga, M., Taracha, C., Songa, J., Bergvinson, D., 135
Hoisington, D. and Pellegrineschi, A.
Control of stem borers by Bt maize in confined field trials in Kenya
106. Muungani, D., Mhike, X., Kwazira, K., Madamba, R. 136
Evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids and open pollinated varieties for yield
stability in Zimbabwe
107. Ngaboyisonga, C., Njoroge, K., Kirubi, D. and Githiri, S.M. 137
Effects of low nitrogen and drought on grain yield and endosperm hardness of quality
protein maize single cross hybrids
108. Nginamau, D., Mwala, M.S. and Banziger, M. 138
Implications of genotype-by-environment interactions in maize (Zea mays L.) variety
selection using mother and baby trials
109. Orquera, E. and Paz, P. 139
'Valluno', an open pollinated maize variety for the Crucefio valleys of Bolivia
110. Pascual, C.B., Guzman, P.S. and Salazar, A.M.' 140
Reaction of maize germplasm to Stenocarpella macrospora (Earle) infection and effect
of resistance to disease development
111. Pascual, C.B., Salazar, A.M.' and Guzman, P.S. 141
Development of multiple disease resistant maize populations and inbreds
112. Preciado-Ortiz, R., Guerrero, R., Ortega, A., Terr6n, A., Crossa, F., Cordova, H., 142
Reyes, C., Aguilar, G., Tut, C., Gomez, N. and Cervantes, E.
Superior quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids for different mega-environments in
Mexico using the Biplot methodology
113. Salazar, F., Narro, L. and Alirio Vallejo, F. 143
General and specific combining ability for phosphorus deficiency in acid soil maize

114. San Vicente, F. and Garcia, P. 144
Inbreeding depression before and after full-sib recurrent selection in tropical maize
115. Setimela, P., Vivek, B., Banziger, M. and Crossa, J. 145
Biplot analysis of early to medium maturing open pollinated maize varieties in southern
116. Sharma, D. and Adhikari, K. 146
Diallel analysis of intermediate to late Nepalese maize inbred lines for grain yield

117. Takdir M., A., Iriany M., R.N., Isnaeni, M., Mejaya, M.M. and Dahlan, M. 147
Combining ability of CIMMYT maize lines with two Indonesian tester parents

118. Takdir M., A., Iriany M., R.N., Mejaya, M.J. and Dahlan, M.M. 148
Hybrid maize adaptations at several locations in Indonesia

119. The, C., Mafouasson, A., Calba, H., Menkir, A. and Horst, J.W. 149
Establishment of heterotic patterns of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with tolerance to
acid soils

120. Twumasi-Afriyie, S., Nepir, G. and Mduruma, Z. 150
Use of heterotic classification of inbred maize lines to develop hybrids for the highlands
of Eastern and Central Africa

121. Vanegas Angarita, H., De Le6n, C. and Narro Le6n, L. 151
Inheritance of resistance to Cercospora spp. complex in tropical maize (Zea mays)
inbred lines

122. Worku, M., Abera, W., Tadesse, B., Wolde, L. and Wegary, D. 152
Performance of variety cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.) in the mid-altitude and
highland transition areas of Ethiopia

Cultivar development methodologies wheat 153

123. Ahmed, K.Z., Allam, H.Z., Moussa, A.M. and Ali, M.S.A. 153
Doubled-haploid studies in elite Egyptian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars
124. Bespalova, L.A. 154
Results and prospects of breeding wheat in the South of Russia
125. Bhatta, M.R., Ortiz Ferrara, G., Sharma, R.C. 155
Alleviating rural poverty through participatory wheat varietal selection

126. Djunusova, M. 156
History of wheat breeding in Kyrgyzstan and current challenges
127. Gelalcha, S., Debelo, D., Yaie, B., Girma, B., and Mamo, B. 157
Grain yield stability of bread wheat genotypes in favorable and stressed environments in
128. Gharbi, M.S. 158
Durum wheat breeding in Tunisia: new varieties for the post-green revolution.

129. Hafsi, M., Hadji, A., Pfeiffer, W.H. and Monneveux, P. 159
Leaf senescence and carbon isotope discrimination in durum wheat (Triticum durum
130. Jlibene, M. 160
Breeding drought tolerant wheat in Morocco: an integrated approach for a complex
131. Kinyua M.G., Njau P.N., Wanyera R and Muchui J. 161
The diversity of reaction of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) germplasm to yellow rust
(Puccinia striiformis) infection over environments and years in Kenya
132. Mamo, B., Gelalcha, S. and Girma, B. 162
Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes in diverse environments of Ethiopia

133. Mongi-Henday, R. and Elanga, A.M. 163
Grain yield potential stability and agronomic performance of some wheat genotypes in
the Southern Highlands of Tanzania
134. Najafian, G., Kafashi, A.K. and Jafar-Nejad, A. 164
AMMI analysis of grain yield stability in hexaploid wheat genotypes grown in
temperate regions of Iran
135. Najafian, G., Nikooseresht, R., Ghandi, A. and Jafar-Nejad, A. 165
An adapted hexaploid wheat line for late season moisture stress in the temperate zone of
136. Osmanzai, M. 166
Wheat productivity improvement in Afghanistan
137. Parodi, P.C. 167
Nitrogen efficiency use in wheat breeding
138. Piaskowski, J., Murphy, K., Arterbum, M., Dawson, J., Gollnick, M. and Jones, S. 168
Perennial wheat development for sustainable agriculture in the US Pacific Northwest
139. Romanenko, A.A. and Bespalova, L.A. 169
Winter wheat seed-growing problems imposed by varietal diversity
140. Sharma, R.C., Singh, R.P., Joshi, A.K.' and Huerta-Espino, J.' 170
New CIMMYT-derived bread wheat germplasm with high yield potential and wide
141. Sikharulidze, Z. and Natsarishvili, K. 171
Virulence spectrum of wheat leaf and yellow rust in the South Caucasus
142. Yazdan Sepas, A. and Najafi Mirak, T. 172
Wheat breeding in cold regions of Iran
143. Yildirim, M. 173
Heterosis and combining ability in diallel F1 offspring of six selected bread wheat
(Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

Cultivar development methodologies other crops 174

144. Abdullayev, K. 174
Cereal breeding for the drylands of north-eastern Kazakhstan
145. de la Vega, A.J., DeLacy, I.H. and Chapman, S.C. 175
Genetic progress over 20 years of sunflower hybrid release in central Argentina
146. Greplova M., Polzerovi H., Vlastnikova H.', Kopecky D., Svecova R., Domkaiova 176
Development of breeding material using somatic hybridization and polyploidization
within the Solanum genus
147. Perez, P.T., Ortiz-Perez, E., Cianzio, S.R., Wiley, H., Davis, W.H., Homer, H.T., 177
and Palmer, R.G.
Evaluation ofheterosis in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]

148. Priulj, N. and Momcilovic, V. 178
Effectiveness of early generation selection in winter barley

149. Slikova, S., Vanco, B. and Sudyova, V. 179
Deoxynivalenol content in grain of cereals after artificial inoculation with Fusarium

150. Wessel-Beaver, L., P6rez-Maisonave, R., P6rez-Arocho, J. and Segarra, A. 180
Breeding for melonworm resistance in tropical pumpkin
151. Zhang, X.G., Humphries, A. and Auricht, G.C. 181
How many genes might be involved in aluminium stress tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago
sativa L.)?

Cultivar development methologies modeling 182

152. Bauer, A.M. and Leon, J. 182
Parental selection in self-pollinating crops using breeding values
153. Orellana, M., Edwards, J., Carriquiry, A. and Jannink, J.L. 183
Bayesian modeling of heterogeneous error and genotype by environment interaction
variances: model assessment

154. Sahagun-Castellanos, J., Rodriguez-P6rez, J.E., Villanueva Verduzco, C. and Pefia- 184
Lomeli, A.
On the meaning of Busbice's prediction formula


Plant breeding education

1. Plant breeding an important part of study programs at the Czech
University of Agriculture in Prague

Sedlak, P. and Vejl, P.
Department of Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources
(FAFNR), Czech University of Agriculture in Prague (CUAP), Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague 6 -
Suchdol, Czech Republic.
Author e-mail: sedlak@af.czu.cz
Supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic, project number

Plant breeding and the creation of new cultivars is worldwide a very important part of agricultural
production. The cultivar's characteristics affect both quantity and quality of crop production and
are also one of the guarantees of economic profitability. On the other hand, a unilateral way of
plant breeding can cause many negative impacts in agro-ecosystems (for example, selection of
virulent races of crucial pathogens and subsequent decreases in resistance). Progressive methods
of plant breeding, including gene technologies, clearly influence all society events, especially
changes in world-view aspects. Consequently, it is necessary to identify correctly all events
related to plant genotype exchanges during the breeding process, with the aim of satisfying
farmers, agricultural processors and consumers. It is necessary to pass know-how understandably
not only to the agricultural community, but also to the general public, reflecting on the processes
and results of plant breeding and their direct impacts on the environment. As a consequence,
study programs in the FAFNR in CUA Prague give plant breeding considerable attention. Aspects
of breeding are included at three different levels. Although only general aspects and theoretical
essentials of the plant breeding are included within the scope of BSc. programs, at the level of
MSc. study there is an independent plant breeding study program. The third level is intended for
postgraduate students. This paper presents the essential objectives, possibilities and forms of
education in plant breeding in CUAP-FAFNR.

Plant pre-breeding and allelic discovery

2. Morphological and molecular characterization of alfalfa populations
adapted to Central Valley of Mexico

Alarc6n-Zufiiga, B.', Cervantes-Martinez, T.' and Sachiko, I.2
SAnimal and Crop Science Departments, Universidad Autonoma Chapingo (UACh), Carretera
Mexico-Texcoco km. 38.5, Chapingo, Mexico 56230.
2 National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Toyohira, Sapporo, Japan
Corresponding author e-mail: balarconzuniga@yahoo.com.mx

Our alfalfa breeding program is interested in identifying and selecting prominent germplasm of
cultivars highly adapted to the Central Highlands of Mexico (Mezquital, Central and Toluca
Valleys). We established 69 alfalfa populations cultivated worldwide and planted them in a
replicated complete block design at the UACh experimental station. Morphological and quality
traits were evaluated throughout winter, spring and summer. We also identified and characterized
105 SSR markers obtained from genomic libraries, and EST and BAC sequence data from the
Medicago truncatula and Trifolium pratense genomes, into 24 populations. We included 7
standard cultivars, representing recognized U.S. germplasm sources. 28% of the SSR on the M
truncatula genome map amplified polymorphic bands and 10% amplified from the T. pratense,
suggesting low conserved SSR and transferability of both legumes to the alfalfa populations. The
number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 6 (average 4.1) and PIC ranged from 0.2 to 0.85
(average 0.71). Mean genetic diversity (He) within and among populations ranged from 0.37 to
0.825, indicating high among-population diversity. 17 of 69 alfalfa populations showed high
biomass accumulation, forage quality, stability and resistance to pests and diseases, and are
considered for breeding purposes. A dendrogram of 24 populations based on cluster analysis of
GSj (Jaccard coefficient, range 0.32-0.75, mean 0.55) identified four main clusters, representing:
1) fall dormant cultivars; 2) intermediate cultivars; 3) non-dormant cultivars; and 4) others,
representing a wide range of populations worldwide. SSRs were transferable and able to
discriminate a number of alfalfa populations.

3. The role of carbohydrate accumulation in osmotic adjustment of
salt-stressed Phaseolus species

Bayuelo-Jimenez, J.S.*, L6pez-Gomez, R. and Bahena-Betancourt, L.
Institute de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas
de Hidalgo, Km 9.5 Carr. Morelia-Zinapecuaro, 58880 Tarimbaro, Michoacan, Mexico
*Corresponding author e-mail: jsbayuelo2002@aol.com

Tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray and P. filiformis Bentham, are adapted to hot, arid
and saline conditions and might be a valuable source of genes to improve the drought and salinity
tolerance of P. vulgaris L. The effects of salinity were examined on two wild (P. acutifolius,
G40169 and P. filiformis, PI535309) and two cultivated (P. acutifolius, G40142 and P. vulgaris,
G04017) Phaseolus species. Plants were cultured under greenhouse hydroponic conditions for 20
days. Salinity significantly affected leaf water, osmotic and turgor potentials. Leaf water and
osmotic potential declined significantly as stress intensified. However, osmotic adjustment
permitted the maintenance of positive turgor throughout the growth period, particularly for wild
species. The total content of carbohydrates was higher in leaves than in roots. Tissue levels of
glucose (3.31 23.3 mg/g fresh weight) and inositol (1.2 21.9 mg/g fresh weight) increased
significantly during salt stress, to reach high levels in leaves of all species except wild P.
acutifolius (G40169). Xilose levels were highest in the leaves of cultivated P. acutifolius
(G40142) (1.1 2.7 mg/g fresh weight) and roots of wild P. acutifolius (G40169) (2.5 3.3 mg/g
fresh weight). Accumulation of the sugars glucose and inositol was clearly the major means of
protection in the most salt stressed Phaseolus plants. The presence of both carbohydrates in the
leaves may constitute a major component of osmotic adjustment in stressed Phaseolus species.

4. Compilation, characterization and purification of two native varieties
of maize

Claure Iriarte, T.
PROINPA Foundation, Consultant for the Project of National Strategic Innovation (PIEN:
Proyecto de Innovaci6n Estrategica Nacional) of Maize for the Humid Chaco, Yacuiba, Bolivia.
E-mail: tclaure@proinpa.org.

In a joint venture with PROMASOR and the Research Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT),
PROINPA is executing the National Strategic Innovation in Maize Project, with funding from the
Agricultural Ministry (MACA); supervised by the Bolivian System of Agricultural Technology
(SIBTA); and with scientific assistance from CIMMYT. PROINPA works in the Bolivian Humid
Chaco (Tarija) and CIAT works in the Tropical Chaco (Santa Cruz). One project goal is to
collect, characterize and purify two native maize varieties selected with local farmers'
participation. The other goal is to establish the chemical and physical properties of those maize
varieties. The most cultivated native varieties and those with the most interesting characteristics
and economic value are the Soft Yellow maize and the Domestic Pearl. The collection includes
passport data, descriptors containing the identification, variety, race, location, latitude and some
plant and ear characters. For purification, an S1 line was developed for each variety in every
collection, resulting in 175 S1 lines of Soft Yellow and 155 S, lines of Domestic Pearl. To
establish physiological and nutritional attributes, grain samples were sent to Tarija University.
The two varieties have similar protein quantities: 9.61% in the Soft Yellow and 9.29% in
Domestic Pearl. Carbohydrates do not vary substantially, at 71.02% for Soft Yellow and 70.64%
for Domestic Pearl. Protein percentages in the native varieties are higher than common maize
(9%). The results of this project are very important for the maize processing chain, because
processors use information on the nutritional and physiological attributes of the maize.

5. European winter wheat landraces and obsolete cultivars and their

value for breeding

Dotla6il, L., Hermuth, J. and Stehno, Z.
Research Institute of Crop Production, Dmovska, CZ-161 06, Prague, Czech Republic
E-mail: dotlacil@vurv.cz

Two sets of cultivars (122 and 101 respectively) were studied for 3 years. Old cultivars had on
average 2-3% higher crude protein content than modem ones. However, genotypes showing 18%
protein content were found (Bergland, Ukrajinka, Sippbachzeller, Innichen Nr. 25001, Barbu du
Finistre). Spike productivity characters, except for thousand grain weight (TGW), were
negatively correlated with protein content. Donors of earliness and longer grain filling period
were also identified. High protein content and relatively good spike productivity and/or long grain
filling period or earliness were found in the cultivars Visperterminen 640 E, Hatvan, Szekacz
1242, Berchtesgardener Vogel, Ble du Lot and Barbu du Finistere. High molecular weight
(HMW) Glu-subunits were identified in 122 landraces and obsolete cultivars. Crude protein
content decreased when the subunit at the 1A locus was missing (0). The value of the gluten
index was considerably higher (59.2) in cultivars bearing alleles 5+10 at ID. A range of alleles
affected SDS micro-sedimentation test values. Grain yields (tested in 6 environments) of 31
selected landraces and old cultivars were always lower than modem check cultivars. Relatively
good yields were provided by the Czech landraces Bila od Dukovan, Vouska z Tremosnice and
Zidlochovickajubilejni osinatka (over 4.3 t.ha'). Also, the higher response of modem cultivars
to environment was confirmed. However, some landraces and old cultivars proved comparable in
response to modem ones (Bila od Dukovan, Brauner Fuchs, Barbu du Maconnais, Baltischer
Winterweizen and Gammel Svensk Landhvedte). Old cultivars had lower yield variability,
particularly in less productive environments.

6. Genetic characterization of global wheat genetic resources and their
wild species

Dreisigacker, S.'*, Warburton, M.', van Ginkel, M.', Balfourier, F.2, Xueyong, Z.3, Miloudi, N.4,
Thachunk, C.' and Crossa, J.'
'International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600
Mexico D.F., Mexico
2Institut Nacional de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Monpellier, France
3Z. Xueyong, Crop Science Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), China
4N. Miloudi, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria
*Corresponding author e-mail: sdreisigacker@cgiar.org

Bread wheat was domesticated 12,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent. Unlike other major
cereals, bread wheat is the result of two consecutive hybridizations between species and therefore
the size of the founder population of bread wheat was most likely limited causing a domestication
bottleneck. CIMMYT's germplasm bank maintains the largest collection of wheat genetic
resources in the world, consisting of more than 160,000 accessions of landraces and wild
relatives. CIMMYT therefore holds a key position in conserving the genetic diversity of wheat
but also in making it available for breeding. Within the Generation Challenge Program,
Subprogram 1, our main objective was to examine the genetic variation among and within
different species of wheat by characterizing conserved materials from germplasm banks,
including related species, recent and older cultivated materials and breeding lines. In total 2500
accessions were genotyped with 44 SSR markers. Associations between Triticum aestivum
accessions revealed a clear grouping among European cultivars and CIMMYT derived materials.
Tetraploid accessions grouped according present species. A core subset of accessions was
selected representing maximum diversity.

7. Barley in situ-conservation: a significant risk

El Felah M.' and Bettaieb-Ben Kaab L.2
'Laboratoire des Grandes Cultures INRAT, Rue Hedi Karray, 2049-Ariana, Tunisia
E-mail: elfelah.mouldi@iresa.agrinet.tn
2Departement de Biologie-Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092-E1 Manar, Tunisia

In Tunisia, barley is grown over half a million hectares, mostly in dry environments. In such
areas, barley landraces are subject to various hazards, including genetic erosion and replacement
by modem varieties. To safeguard these landraces, 423 barley accessions were collected in 1983
from diverse regions of Tunisia, including the island of Kerkena. Sixty of those accessions,
collected from Kerkena (at sites of El Attaya, Mellita, and El Khmara), were evaluated for
hordein patterns using SDS-PAGE. Results showed a high polymorphism for B and C hordein
bands, with the identification of eighteen distinct barley chemotypes. In 2000, another barley
collection mission was undertaken at the same sites, and accessions were evaluated using the
same technique. Results showed notable changes in B and C banding patterns, including band
shortening, discoloration or total disappearance of a specific storage protein. Since B-hordein is
indicative of good grain quality, the modification or disappearance of B-hordein would therefore
indicate a reduced grain quality in the barley population at Kerkena during the elapsed period.
During the same period (1983-2000), modem barley cultivars have been introduced and adopted
by farmers on a large scale. The study shows that in-situ conservation of barley landraces by
farmers is not a guarantee for their preservation and purity maintenance. To prevent the loss or
erosion of valuable genetic resources of barley, it is therefore essential to implement a strict
program of genetic resources preservation through cold seed storage in gene banks or through in-
situ conservation in specially controlled fields.

8. Variability of maize landraces on farm in two rural areas in Cuba

Femandez, L.', Castifieiras, L.', Fundora, Z.', Shagarodsky, T.', Crist6bal, R.', Garcia, M.2,
Giraudy, C.3, Harper, V.4, Acufia, G.', Puld6n, G.', Perez, M.F.' and Figueroa, M.B.1
Institute for Fundamental Investigations of Tropical Agriculture, INIFAT (MINAG), Calle 1,
esquina 2, Santiago de las Vegas, Ciudad Habana, CP 17 200, Cuba
2Estaci6n Ecol6gica Sierra del Rosario (CITMA), Pinar del Rio, Cuba
3Unidad de Servicios Ambientales de Guantanamo, Guantanamo, Cuba
4 University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
Corresponding author e-mail: lfemandez@inifat.co.cu

Maize is an important food crop and has potential as a crop of primary economic importance for
the people of Cuba. The objectives of this research were: to determine the number of varieties on
farm in rural areas of the eastern and western provinces of the island; to identify and characterize
the current Cuban landraces of maize, taking into account morphological and agronomic
characteristics; and to compare the variability of this crop in the two rural areas. The research was
carried out in 28 farms, 14 each in the western and eastern areas. A total of 55 accessions were
collected and 25 ears per variety were evaluated and characterized; in addition 10 kernels per
variety were analyzed. Sixteen characters (nine quantitative and seven qualitative) were measured
directly on the ears and kernels. A frequency study was made of the qualitative characters. The
quantitative characters were statistically studied through a principal component analysis and a
hierarchical cluster, using the statistical package SPSS version 10.0. This research aims to
identify and characterize the Cuban landraces and to develop further strategies for the
conservation of maize germplasm in rural household farming systems (in-situ), within an overall
effort to understand the management of this crop by farmers.

9. Genetic diversity in cultivated barley and wild barley

Gutierrez, L.1-2*, Jannink, J.-L.' and Nason, j.2
'Agronomy Department; 2Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Program, Iowa State University,
Ames, IA 50011, USA.
*Corresponding author e-mail: luciag@iastate.edu

Plant genetic diversity of crops and their wild relatives are important sources of variability for
breeding purposes. However, the amount and structure of genetic diversity in most crops is yet to
be determined. The goal of this study was to study genetic diversity of cultivated barley, and its
ancestor, wild barley. Specifically, we estimated genetic diversity within and among populations
for molecular markers and quantitative traits. We used 353 advanced inbred lines of barley from
19 breeding programs around the world, and 289 genotypes of wild barley from 23 natural
populations of the Middle East. A total of 80 SSR markers and 15 quantitative traits were
evaluated in all genotypes. For each species, the level of polymorphism, genetic diversity and
among population differentiation was computed. Polymorphism and genetic diversity for barley
were 0.34 and 0.34, respectively, while for wild barley they were 0.79 and 0.37, respectively.
Among population diversity corresponding to Wright's FST was 0.344 (95% C.I.=[0.273,0.418])
for barley and 0.300917 (95% C.I.=[0.270,0.333]) for wild barley. Among population diversity at
quantitative traits calculated as Spitze's Qsr ranged from 0.283 to 0.774 in barley and 0.221 to
0.703 in wild barley. In general, wild barley showed more genetic diversity than cultivated barley,
but population differentiation was larger for cultivated barley. Additionally, there is a wide range
of QsT estimations for both species, indicating that different traits have experienced different
selection pressures. The comparison of both species allows for a study of the evolution of barley.

10. The diversity of European Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare landraces

for the adaptive trait photoperiod response PPD-H1

Jones, H., Leigh, F., Mackay, I., Smith, L. and Powell, W.
National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB), Cambridge, CB3 OLE, UK
Corresponding author e-mail: wayne.powell@niab.com

Barley is one of the original cereals of agriculture, domesticated in the Fertile Crescent and
dispersed into Europe in the Neolithic. The dispersal from Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare's native
range required adaptation to novel environments. The ancestral habit of domesticated barley is
that of a winter cereal with flowering initiated in response to lengthening days. The organization
of the photoperiod response gene PPD-H1 has been previously described. This paper describes
the diversity of the PPD-H1 gene in a representative set of European barley landraces and the
geographic distribution of diversity. This is compared with the diversity of a sample of the wild
ancestor H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum. A latitudinal dine is seen with non-responsive ppd-hl
predominating in northern Europe. The origins of the non-responsive form (ppd-hl), whether in
H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum or in the dispersing population of H. vulgare ssp. vulgare is

11. Wheat cytoplasmic diversity

Leigh, F. and Powell, W.
Diversity Genomics Group, National Institute of Agricultural Biology (NIAB), Huntingdon Road,
Cambridge, CB3 OLE, UK
E-mail: fiona.leigh@niab.com

The genus Triticum includes diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid species. The wheat genome has
been shaped by major events including polyploidisation and domestication. Studying genetic
diversity of wheat species along this continuum provides an opportunity to understand the impact
of polyploidisation, domestication and selection on levels of diversity. The sequence of the
chloroplast genome of wheat is publicly available. Microsatellites have been identified in the
sequence, and have been demonstrated to be useful markers for assessing genetic diversity in
wheat. The slow rate of microsatellite mutation and the conserved nature of the wheat chloroplast
make it an ideal genome for evaluating diversity fluxes in wheat. Here we use five chloroplast
microsatellite markers to evaluate the genetic diversity of wheat chloroplasts in seven wheat
species. We demonstrate the impact on diversity of the domestication of tetraploid wheats and the
subsequent bottlenecks associated with the formation ofhexaploids by polyploidisation.

12. Identifying Argentine maize populations as a source of favorable
alleles for grain yield

Lorea, R.D.'*; Delucchi, C.'; Eyherabide, G.H.'; L6pez, C.G.2
'National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), Pergamino Agriculture Experimental
Station, CC 31 Pergamino 2700, Argentina
2 University of Lomas de Zamora, Faculty of Engineering and Agricultural Sciences
*Corresponding author e-mail: rlorea@pergamino.inta.gov.ar

Research was initiated to identify Argentinean maize (Zea mays L.) landraces as a potential
source of alleles for improving grain yield of three single crosses representing the three major
heterotic patterns used in Argentina. Sixteen landraces were crossed to three elite inbred lines
(LP612 and LP122-2 (flint kernel type) and Mo17 (dent)). The 48 crosses, the hybrids LP612 x
LP122-2, LP612 x Mo17, and LP122-2 x Mo17 and the inbred lines were evaluated in replicated
trials. Experiments were conducted in 2004/05 in three locations. Grain yield, kernel weight and
number of kernels m-2 were recorded. Data were analyzed following Dudley's method (1987) for
identifying populations as a source of favorable alleles not present in parental inbreds. Most of
the landraces would be useful for improving yield of the single crosses. For LP612 x LP122-2,
populations, development of new inbreds should require a backcross generation to LP612 or
LP122-2. For flint x dent single crosses, backcross to Mo17 would be convenient only for
improving LP122-2 x Mo17. These results suggest that breeding populations obtained from
crosses of some of these landraces to the elite inbred lines used here would be useful for the
development of new inbred lines and hybrids.

13. Prospects for association mapping in UK winter wheat

MacKay, I. and Powell, W.
National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB), Cambridge, CB3 OLE, UK
Corresponding author e-mail: wayne.powell@niab.com

In the UK, data from series of integrated trials are used to register new winter wheat varieties for
the National List (NL) and Recommended List (RL). Over several decades, these have resulted in
the accumulation of data on many varieties for multiple traits, measured at multiple sites, over at
least two years. While most of these varieties are no longer grown, remainder seed exist and can
be used for genotyping. This has enabled association mapping in this extensively phenotyped
collection of varieties. For this process to be implemented most efficiently, information is
required on the extent and strength of linkage disequilibrium, the optimum method for integration
of historical trait data from different varieties tested in varying numbers of years and sites, and
optimum methods of analysis to control for the increased frequency of false positive associations
arising from population stratification and unknown pedigree relationships among varieties. In
collaboration with breeders and industry, initiatives are underway to genotype this valuable
historical data set. Using genotype data collected for other purposes, we have carried out some
proof-of-principal analyses to illustrate the problems and opportunities for mapping in this

14. Genetic diversity for abiotic stress tolerance of maize landraces

selected for 100 years in southern Africa

Magorokosho, C'*, Banziger, M2, and Betran J3
'Maize Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), MP163, Mt.
Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. *Corresponding author e-mail: c.magorokosho@cgiar.org
2Maize Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), P.O. Box
25171, Nairobi, Kenya
3Cor Breeding and Genetics Program, Texas A&M University, College Station. TX 77843, USA

Maize is the principal staple crop of southern Africa. Since the original introduction of open-
pollinated maize varieties in southern Africa about 100 years ago, new landraces have been
created through farmer selection for adaptation to local conditions and hybridization resulting
from seed exchange between communities. This selection probably resulted in diverse types with
varying levels of adaptation to specific agro-ecologies. Local varieties collected from marginal
environments may possess some unique physiological attributes that may not be present in
germplasm not exposed to abiotic stress. This study characterizes the genetic diversity among
maize landraces, assesses the impact of farmers' selection on adapting maize landraces to specific
agro-ecologies in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi, and compares the impact of farmers' selection
with progress from formal selection under abiotic stress conditions. This poster details the results
of the maize landrace collection mission carried out in the three countries, the morpho-
phenological classification of the varieties, the SSR diversity of the varieties, and abiotic stress
tolerance of the collected landraces in comparison to the commercially-bred maize varieties
available in southern Africa.

15. Pre-breeding on Portuguese maize landraces: biometric and pest

Moreira, P.M.'*, Santos, J.P.', Antunes, M., P.', Moura, R.', Santos, J.P.', Vaz Patto, M.C.2 and
P6go, S.3
'Escola Superior Agraria de Coimbra (ESAC), Departamento de Fitotecnia, Sector de Proteccao
Vegetal, Bencanta, 3040-316 Coimbra, Portugal.
*Corresponding author e-mail: pmoreira@esac.pt
2Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biol6gica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal. E-mail:
3Instituto Nacional de Investigacio Agraria, Portugal. E-mail: pego@bragatel.pt

Maize was introduced to Portugal after Columbus' discovery of America (1492). Its quick and
broad acceptance gave place to a genetic speciation, where different landraces developed through
natural and human selection (topography, microclimate, precocity, polycultural systems, bread
making ability, pest and disease resistance, etc). These landraces represent a valuable source of
important agronomic traits and the responsible genes have high potential in maize breeding,
justifying the existence of a participatory conservation program. With this study a pre-evaluation
of 51 maize landraces, collected in the Center North of Portugal, from February to April 2005,
took place. The landraces were sowed during May 2005 in the fields of ESAC, and screened with
a "HUNTERS" method; five representative ears from each population were also characterized.
Data concerning disease and pest attack were recorded too. A certain level of diversity was found
in plant and ear morphology and pest resistance but complementary studies will be needed in the
future for a complete characterization.

16. Utilization of autochthonous germplasm in Brazilian pre-breeding
programs: Ananas, Arachis, Capsicum and Manihot

Nass, L.L.', Favero, A.P.2, Bianchetti, L.B. 2, Ferreira, F.R.2 and Mendes, R.A.2
'Embrapa Labex-USA, NCGRP, 1111 S. Mason St., 80521, Fort Collins, CO, USA
E-mail: luciano.nass@ars.usda.gov
2Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, C.P. 02372, 70770-900, Brasilia, DF, Brasil

Pre-breeding programs are being carried out to increase the utilization of Brazilian autochthonous
accessions. The main objective is to broaden the genetic basis available for breeding programs by
the introgression of genes from wild species using both intra- and inter-specific crosses to transfer
desired characteristics. Depending on the species, the specific goals are: i) Ananas: Genotype
identification and crossability with wild species ofPseudoananas with intense color and highly
durable peduncle/fruit connection for stronger ornamental plants; ii) Arachis: Introgression of
resistant genes for fungal diseases from wild species diploidd) using synthetic allotetraploid lines
in crosses with a cultivated species; iii) Capsicum: Identification and introgression of disease
resistant genes from wild and semi-domesticated species; iv) Manihot: Crossability studies
among M. esculenta and wild species for disease and drought resistances. Among the preliminary
results, highlights include: i) Ananas: Sixteen accessions identified for promising ornamental
characteristics in addition to the evaluation of 5,070 plants from various species; ii) Arachis:
Seven sterile diploid hybrids (genome AB), five synthetic amphidiploids (AABB), four complex
hybrids, and 17 distinct hybrid combinations between A. hypogaea and wild species backcrossess
1 and 2); iii) Capsicum: Although germination was non-uniform, plantlet establishment was
achieved. Incompatibility was noticed in most of the crosses; iv) Manihot: Hybrids between M
esculenta x M glaziovii were obtained and are being evaluated. These results will be used to
evaluate the potential benefits from the utilization of autochthonous Brazilian germplasm in
breeding programs.

17. Evaluation of wheat genetic resources in the Czech Republic for

their use in breeding

Stehno Z., Dotla6il L., Faberova I.,
Research Institute of Crop Production, Drovska 507, CZ- 161 06, Prague, Czech Republic. E-
mail: stehno@vurv.cz
Supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic, Projects No. 0002700602 and

Collection and evaluation of wheat genetic resources started in the former Czechoslovakia in the
1950s. Wheat accessions have increased to 10,017 samples, which are currently kept in the Czech
gene bank. The wheat collection is divided into two sub-collections, for winter and spring forms
separately. Their passport data are available on the internet at
http://genbank.vurv.cz/genetic/resources/. Sub-collections are evaluated for morphological
characters, phenological data, spike analyses, grain quality characteristics and, in the most
important accessions, identification of molecular markers. The results of at least two years
evaluation have been related to long-term check cultivars and transferred into the descriptive part
of the database accessible in the gene bank. In addition to two widely utilized species, T. aestivum
L. and T. durum DESF., a further 31 species are presented in the collection. These include T
spelta L. and T. dicoccum (SCHRANK) SCHUEBL, now being grown by organic farmers in the
Czech Republic. In 2001 the spelt wheat cultivar 'Rubiota' was registered and recently the emmer
'Rudico' has obtained legal protection. Other Triticum spp. can be used for breeding purposes as
donors of valuable properties. For instance, genes for resistance to powdery mildew were
transferred from T. monococcum L into the registered bread wheat cultivar 'Vlasta'. On the basis
of evaluation results, seed samples are available for breeding or research purposes; for example,
in 2005 the gene bank provided 574 wheat seed samples. Other information sources include the
European Wheat Data Base http://genbank.vurv.cz/EWDB and the Wheat Pedigree and Gene
Alleles http://genbank.vurv.cz/wheat/pedigree/.

18. Maize genetic resources and prebreeding at CIMMYT International

Taba, S., Chavez-Tovar, V.H., Rivas, M., Rodriguez, M. and Ramirez, M.
Genetic Resources Unit, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT),
Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico D.F., Mexico
Corresponding author e-mail: staba@cgiar.org

The CIMMYT maize germplasm bank holds large landrace accessions from Latin America,
representative accessions from other parts of the world, and accessions of enhanced germplasm
from the CIMMYT breeding program. The number of the accessions totals 25,377, including
samples ofteosintes and tripsacum. The current CIMMYT seed storage facility was renovated in
1996 and this year marks the tenth anniversary of its operation. Since 1993 the bank has received
over 11,000 new landrace accessions through cooperative regeneration projects in the Latin
America, where the primary maize diversity is found. In the future, additional introductions to the
bank are expected, representing the diversity collected in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Improvement
of CIMMYT maize gene pools since the early 1970s has produced useful, enhanced germplasms
for tropical, subtropical and highland maize growing regions. Germplasm introgression and
incorporation, and population improvement schemes have been used to develop the enhanced
germplasm. Since 1999, prebreeding work at CIMMYT has comprised of development and
improvement of the gene pools, focusing on development of heterotic gene pools. Building on
flint and dent gene pools that the CIMMYT Maize Program developed over previous years, an
S2-reciprocal recurrent selection scheme has been employed between the flint and dent pools of
the same maturity and grain color. Highland and subtropical gene pools have incorporated new
sources of germplasm. Tropical gene pools are being improved with little incorporation of new
source germplam. Selected lines from the latest cycles of selection can be shared with the

19. The protein quality of native maize from northwest Mexico

Vazquez-Carrillo, G.*, Ortega Corona, A.2, Vidal Martinez, V.A.3, Salinas Moreno, Y.',
Guerrero Herrera, M.2, Cota Agramont, 0.2 and Palacios Velarde, 0.2
'Laboratorio de Calidad de Maiz del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas y
Pecuarias (INIFAP), CEVAMEX, Km. 38.5 Carretera Mexico-Veracruz, 56230 Texcoco,
Mexico. *Corresponding author e-mail: vazquez.gricelda@inifap.gob.mx
2Centro de Investigaci6n Regional del Noroeste (CIRNO-INIFAP)
3Centro de Investigaci6n Regional del Pacifico Centro (CIRPAC-INIFAP)

A diversity of native maize germplasm remains in Mexico, thanks to the efforts of communities
that have selected their corn kernels and thereby maintained their preferred maize types. This
research contributes to the chemical characterization of 69 accessions from northwest Mexico,
analyzing them for protein, lysine and tryptophan content. These accessions were collected in
November 2004, mainly from farmers' plots in the states ofNayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora.
Analysis at INIFAP's Maize Quality Laboratory revealed differences between accessions in three
measurable variables. The accessions with the best quality protein were the Tabloncillo and
Blandito races collected in the state of Nayarit. This indicates that quality is associated with a
floury endosperm and low protein content. The accessions with the highest tryptophan (0.79
mg/100g protein) and lysine (3.3 mg/100g protein) content, were Tabloncillos from the state of
Nayarit, characterized by deep blue-black kernels with a floury texture. This race would
contribute 56% and 61% respectively to the tryptophan and lysine contents of preschool
children's diets, according to established FAO (1992) requirements. The accessions with the
lowest quality protein were also of the Tabloncillo race, though from Sinaloa. Three Blandito race
accessions were notable for their high lysine content and low percentage of protein. These had a
floury kernel and were spotted purple. The Chapalote race, characterized by small flinty brown-
reddish kernels, had the largest percentage of protein (11.9%) and the lowest quality protein. The
identification of accessions with good quality protein may expand the genetic base for
improvement programs.

20. The genetic diversity of UK and US wheat varieties, 1930 2005

White, J.', Smith, S.2, Law, J.1, Powell, W.'* and Wolters, P.3
'National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB), Cambridge, CB3 OLE, UK
2Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Johnston, USA, IA 50131
3Dupont, Delaware, USA
*Corresponding author e-mail: wayne.powell@niab.com

It is often asserted that the genetic diversity of the wheat crop has reduced through the 20th
century as a consequence of modem plant breeding techniques. This poster presents data from a
study of 93 US and 93 UK wheat varieties genotyped using 62 SSR markers and c500 DArT
markers. The variety sets represent varieties first commercialized during the period 1930-2005.
Diversity is measured both as aggregate genetic distance between contemporaneous groups of
varieties in a rolling time series and as areas of convex hulls on a decadal basis. Diversity is
shown to rise and fall during the sampling period but the level of diversity in 2005 is similar to
the average diversity for the whole sampling period. The USA variety set is shown to be
consistently more diverse than the UK set. The major contributor to changing levels of diversity
is shown to be the diversity of breeding programs contributing to the variety set at any time. The
authors conclude that: 1) It is true that a few popular varieties may represent a very high
proportion of the acreage at any time and thus give the appearance of reduced diversity; 2) The
regular supersedure of varieties and the presence of a range of competing breeders has, so far,
ensured that there has been no reduction in the genetic diversity of varieties available; 3) The key
metric may not be diversity deployed but rather diversity available.

21. The core collection of highland Ecuadorian maize genetic


Yanez, C.', Franco, J.2, and Taba, S.3
'Maize Program Leader, Instituto Nacional Aut6nomo de Investigaciones Agropecuarias,
(INIAP), Panamericana Sur Km. 17, Quito, Ecuador. E-mail: maiziniap@accessinter.net
2Associate Researcher, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and
Faculty of Agronomy, University of the Republic of Uruguay
3Head of Maize Genebank, CIMMYT, Mexico

Ecuador has a great diversity of maize. Of 29 races of maize recognized, 17 belong to the
highlands. The varieties cultivated in the provinces depend on farmers' preferences and customs.
The core collection constitutes a limited set of accessions, representing much of the genetic
variability of the total germplasm collection. For analysis, 13 variables were considered: nine
continuous variables (days to female flowering, days to male flowering, number of kernel rows,
plant height, ear height, root lodging, stalk lodging, ear length, ear diameter), and four discreet
variables (ear quality rating at harvest, ear shape, grain type and grain color). Accessions were
grouped according to the multivariate analysis of the Ward-MLM. The number of distinct groups
in the Ecuadorian highland collection was determined based on the criteria of Pseudo F, Pseudo
t2, and profile of verisimilitude. The number of accessions of each group to be included in the
core collection was determined according to a logarithmic strategy and the accessions were
chosen at random. A total of eight distinct diversity groups in the collection were found with a
high probability of 0.98 on average. The accessions were not necessarily grouped by their race
classifications. Grain type, grain color and collection site better classify the accessions into the
different diversity groups. The 140 accessions of the core collection represent 20% of the original
collection. They represent the maize diversity of all the provinces and races of the Ecuadorian
highlands in the original collection.

22. Effect of developmental stage length on yield and some quality
traits of Turkish durum wheat (T. turgidum L. Conv. durum (Desf.) M. K.)

Zencirci, N.' and Karagoz, A.2
'Head, Dept. of Project Evaluation & IWWIP Coordinator, Central Research Institute For Field
Crops, PO Box: 226 Ulus, Ankara, Turkey. E-mail: nzencirci@yahoo.com
2 Head, Genetic Resources, Central Research Institute for Field Crops, PO Box: 226 Ulus,
Ankara, Turkey. Email: alptekinkaragoz@yahoo.com

This study aimed to explore durum wheat landraces to be utilized in breeding programs. 566
single durum wheat plants, selected from 117 populations collected from 12 provinces, were
studied. The selected material was planted in order to characterize some of their qualitative and
quantitative traits such as percent vitreousness, pearling index, grain protein content, seed yield
and thousand kernel weight; as well as determining the time frame for germination-tillering (G-
T), germination-shooting (G-S), germination-heading (G-H), germination-maturity (G-M),
tillering-shooting (T-S), tillering-heading (T-H), tillering-maturity (T-M), shooting-heading (S-
H), shooting-maturity (S-M), and heading-maturity (H-M). Mean, coefficient of variation (CV),
and confidence intervals (0.95) were computed for each of the 12 provinces, for altitudinal origins
with 200-meter ranges, and for each of two geographical regions separately. The highest variation
existed for number of days between T-H and the lowest for number of days between T-S. The
highest variation within developmental stages was observed in samples from Diyarbakir with a
CV of 32.96 %; from the 600-799 meter altitudinal range with a CV of 18.86 %; and from
Southeast Anatolia with a CV of 20.12 %.

Breeding for quality, nutritional and micronutrient traits

23. Progress in quality protein maize breeding at Samaru, Nigeria

Ado, S.G.*, Abdullahi, U.S., Usman, I.S. and Falaki, A.M.
Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB 1044, Zaria, Nigeria
*Corresponding author e-mail: shehuga@gmail.com

During the last seven years, the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) Samaru has been testing
Quality Protein Maize (QPM) germplasm introduced from Ghana and CIMMYT. Inbred lines
were tested, characterized and maintained on-station. Results on the performance of the inbred
lines show that most of them adapt to the Samaru environment. Mean days to tasseling and
silking of the inbred lines were 69 and 72, respectively. The mean plant height recorded was
79cm. In the dry season, the mean days to tasseling and silking were 81 and 85, respectively.
Diallel studies to identify good combining inbred lines suitable for hybrid production in our
environment is in progress. Open pollinating varieties and hybrids have been extensively tested
on farmers' fields resulting in the release of SAMMAZ-14 (Obatanpa) in August, 2005 for
production in the short run. Yields of the varieties and hybrids introduced from Ghana and
CIMMYT (Mexico and Zimbabwe) fall in the range of 3-8 t/ha which is very similar to adapted
normal maize planted by farmers. More QPM varieties will be developed to protect QPM from
pests and diseases that might become significant threats to a single variety extensively grown.
International QPM germplasm testing in collaboration with CIMMYT continues.

24. Quality attributes of mamey fruit (Pouteria sapota) and their
potential use in crop improvement

Bayuelo-Jimenez, J.S.'*, Rivera Alcantar, N.', Ochoa, I.2
'Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas
de Hidalgo, Km 9.5 Carr. Morelia-Zinapecuaro, 58880 Tarimbaro, Michoacan, Mexico
*Corresponding author e-mail: jsbayuelo2002@aol.com
2 Department of Horticulture, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802,

Mexico is rich in botanical biodiversity, particularly in edible fruit species. Most of these species
have not been commercially exploited but have fruit production potential for local markets as
well as for exportation. The objective of this study was to characterize genotypes of mamey
sapote, Pouteria sapota [(Jacquin) H.E. Moore & Steam] of the center-western State of
Michoacan, Mexico, based on physical and chemical fruit characteristics. Cluster analysis
indicated seven distinct groups with 13, 33, 16, 20, 10, 17 and 19 trees, respectively. Canonical
discriminant analysis, along with F and X2 tests, detected the most important variables affecting
group differentiation. Those were tree height, trunk diameter, fruit weight, fruit length, fruit
width, fruit weight to seed weight ratio, seed weight, seed length, mesocarp thickness, mesocarp
weight, titratable acidity (TA), protein, total soluble solids (TSS), TSS to TA ratio, TSS to pH
ratio, epicarp weight, fruit shape, and texture. The first and second canonical discriminant
functions (CDF1 and CDF2) explained 70.6 and 20.4% of the total variation among groups. Fruit
weight, mesocarp thickness, and TSS to TA ratio were dominant in the CDF1 (standardized
canonical coefficient CCE1= -2.74, 3.16 and 3.53, respectively). Fruit weight and mesocarp
thickness were dominant in the CDF2 (CCE2 = -7.20 and 7.99). Therefore, these morphological
variables could be used as the best parameters for selecting mamey trees with uniform fruit
quality for either direct consumption or processing.

25. High carotenoid maize project: increased accumulation and
modified chemical profiles

Burt, A.J., Smid, M.P., Shelp, B.J. and Lee, E.A.
Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, N1G 2W1 Guelph, ON, Canada.
E-mail: aburt@uoguelph.ca

New sources of dietary carotenoids are being sought for both humans and livestock as recent
investigations indicate that these antioxidants are associated with the prevention of many
degenerative and age-related diseases in addition to serving as a source of vitamin A. The
University of Guelph maize breeding program has developed a series of high-carotenoid (Hi-C)
lines from breeding crosses involving several South American populations and Guelph inbred
lines. The 34 Hi-C lines exhibit a deep orange endosperm color and have increased carotenoid
accumulation. A previous survey of North American germplasm found total carotenoid contents
between 0.15 and 33.11 .ig/g (Kurilich & Juvik, 1999. J. Agric. Food Chem., 47: 1948-1955).
The total carotenoid accumulation in the Guelph Hi-C lines ranges from 43.6 to 88.3 .ig/g.
Within the Hi-C lines, there are two major carotenoid profiles: high zeaxanthin or high lutein.
Considerable variation can also be found in beta-cryptoxanthin, beta-carotene, and alpha-carotene
levels. Correlation analysis reveals that lutein content is strongly and positively correlated to
alpha-carotene content, and negatively correlated to zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, and beta-
carotene contents. This relationship is consistent with expectations, as the carotenoid
biosynthetic pathway branches at lycopene into a separate alpha-carotene and lutein branch and a
beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin path. With the chemical characterization of the Hi-
C lines completed, focus will be on elucidating the genetics underlying both the total flux through
the carotenoid pathway and the accumulation of the different carotenoid profiles.

26. Using wild wheats to improve zinc nutrition of cultivated wheats

Cakmak, I.
Sabanci University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey
Email: cakmak@sabanciuniv.edu

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a commonly occurring micronutrient deficiency both in humans and
crops, resulting in severe economic and health problems, mainly in developing world. One major
reason for the widespread occurrence of Zn deficiency in human beings is the extensive
consumption of cereal-based foods. Wheat breeding approaches can be used to improve both the
Zn concentration in the grain and crop production on Zn deficient soils. The genetic variation for
traits is very narrow in modem wheats and not useful for breeding programs. More than 2500
accessions of wild and primitive wheats from the Fertile Crescent region have been screened for
micronutrient concentration in the grain. Wild wheats, especially Triticum dicoccoides, exhibited
substantial variation in concentration of Zn. Several diploid wild wheat accessions were identified
showing very significant tolerance to Zn deficiency in calcareous soils. In studies with synthetic
wheats produced from wild wheats, the transfer of A or D genomes from wild diploid wheats
(e.g., Triticum monococcum and Aegilops tauschi, respectively) to tetraploid wheat markedly
improved growth of plants under Zn deficient conditions. Screening different series of
dicoccoides substitution lines indicated that the chromosomes 6A, 6B and 5B of Triticum
dicoccoides carry the genes affecting Zn and Fe concentration in grain. Genes affecting Zn and
protein concentrations in Triticum dicoccoides are also very closely linked. These results suggest
that wild wheats represent a valuable source of genetic diversity for increasing Zn concentration
in grains of cultivated wheats and tolerance of modem wheat to Zn deficiency in calcareous soils.

27. A national program for quality traits in soybean: effects of

Castafieda, L. and Graef, G.
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE
E-mail: lcastaneda2@unl.edu

The 2005 soybean Quality Traits Tests were conducted throughout the U.S.A. and Canada in 63
tests at 40 environments for Maturity Groups 0 through V. The objectives of the Quality Traits
Test are: (1) Coordinate evaluation of soybean germplasm from breeding programs throughout
the USA involved in improving compositional quality of the soybean for both meal and oil traits;
and, (2) Interface with Better Bean Initiative (BBI) breeding programs for wide-area testing of
promising new lines with improved yield and quality. Entries included soybean lines with a
protein/oil ratio that will allow production of a dehulled meal with at least a 50% protein content,
lines with saturated fatty acids less than 7%, linolenic acid below 3%, oleic acid content over
50%, and various combinations of these traits. All entries in the Quality Traits Tests are advanced
elite lines from breeding programs throughout the USA, and the yield standard is required to be at
least 90% of the standard cultivar checks in a test. Analysis of variance indicated no significant
genotype x environment interaction effects for any quality traits. However, genotype and
environment effects for meal protein, oleic acid, and linolenic acid content were significant.
Consequently, minimum specifications for some quality traits may not be met in some
environments. This has important implications for choice of production environment and the
ability to meet minimum specifications for certain market needs.

28. Yield potential and combining ability of tropical quality protein
maize inbred lines

C6rdova, H. and Krivanek, A.
Maize Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal
6-641, 06600 Mexico D.F., Mexico. E-mail: h.cordova@cgiar.org

Progress on breeding quality protein maize (QPM) germplasm at CIMMYT has contributed to the
release of this type of maize in 21 countries in the developing world. The objective of this study
was to estimate the combining ability of 34 new tropical QPM lines crossed to two testers and
determine their yield potential in hybrid combinations. Testcrosses were evaluated in eight
environments representative of the tropical lowlands. A line x tester model was applied to
estimate general and specific combining ability effects. Our results demonstrate new hybrid
combinations with outstanding yield potential and stability across sites. The best performing
QPM hybrid yielded 7.0 t/ha, across seven sites and 12 t/ha at a Guatemala location, 40% more
than the best seed industry check. Ten QPM inbred parents showed significant GCA estimates for
yield and ranked from 0.414 to 0.884 t/ha, 2.5 to 4.5 times the standard error for GCA. Each of
the 10 lines measured more than double the levels of lysine and tryptophan content of the normal
maize checks.

29. Evaluation of 14 varieties of improved, high quality protein maize in

Cruz Nifiez, O.
Maize Program Coordinator, Direcci6n de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agropecuaria (DICTA),
Honduras. E-mail: ocruz@sag.gob.hn

DICTA and CIMMYT evaluated fourteen open pollinated varieties of improved, high quality
protein maize (QPM) at nine sites in Honduras in 2005. The objective was to identify QPM
varieties that yield as well or better than locally grown varieties and with their higher protein
quality ultimately help improve the nutritional levels of the Honduran population. A randomized
incomplete block design with 3 repetitions and plot sizes of 8m2 was used. Traits evaluated were:
days to flowering, plant height, ear height, root and stem lodging, and yield. Following the
analysis of variance and comparisons based on the least significant difference (LSD), the results
indicate that the best yield was obtained with the normal protein reference entry SO3TLW-SCB
(RE) (5.0 metric T/Ha), surpassing the two local checks, DICTA-Guayape (4.9 T/Ha) and HB-
104 (4.8 T/Ha) by 101% and 104% respectively. Three QPM varieties yielded similarly to the
local checks: SO3TLWQ-AB03 with 4.9 T/Ha, SO3TLWQ-AB01 with 4.8 T/Ha, and
SO3TLWQ-AB05 with 4.8 T/Ha. In relation to the agronomic characteristics and statistical data,
there was no significant difference for plant or ear height, reflecting the similar behavior of the
varieties, which are classified as intermediate. The values obtained for root and stem lodging are
within commercially acceptable limits; nevertheless, the percentage of ear rot exceeded 12%, the
maximum acceptable value. This is due to high precipitation during the crop cycle. It is
recommended that the best varieties be validated on resource-poor farmers' fields and in sloping
areas, and compared against the best local farmer varieties.

30. Potentials for improving maize for iron, zinc and beta-carotene
content in Ghana

Ewool, M.B.', Sallah, P.Y.K.', Nelson-Quartey, F.' and Menkir, A.2
'CSIR-Crops Research Institute, P.O. Box 3785, Kumasi, Ghana
2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria
Corresponding author e-mail: m.ewool@cropsresearch.org

Maize is a major staple consumed in many traditional dishes without adequate micronutrient
supplements throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Iron, zinc and Beta-carotene are the most common
micronutrients deficient in infants, young children and mothers. Utilization of maize varieties that
have high bio-available micronutrients will be highly desirable. Seed increases of a total of 480
maize genotypes were made at Fumesua in the forest zone of Ghana in the 2004 minor season.
Clean ears within each genotype were harvested at physiological maturity, sun-dried and shelled
manually. Grain samples were packed into clean envelopes for iron and zinc analyses at the
Adelaide University in Australia and for Beta-carotene at IOWA State University, USA. The data
showed that 88 genotypes had at least 21-38mg/kg grain iron and 29-50mg/kg grain zinc
contents. The best local accession had grain iron content of 38mg/kg and grain zinc of 49mg/kg.
The best micronutient rich quality protein maize (QPM) line had 34mg/kg and 50mg/kg grain
iron and zinc, respectively. Mamaba and Obatanpa, which are two QPM commercial varieties
grown in Ghana and other countries in the sub-region, had grain iron values of 19mg/kg and
20mg/kg, respectively, and grain zinc values of 22mg/kg and 26mg/kg, respectively. Results also
indicated that GH9866SR and GH120DYFP had Pro-vitamin A contents of 2.9ig/g and 3.5ig/g,
respectively. Selected genotypes would be further improved for high grain iron, zinc and Beta-
carotene contents.

31. Advances in maize biofortification in Guatemala: achievements and

Fuentes Lopez, M.R.
Maize National Program, ICTA, Km. 21.5 hacia Amatitlan, Barcena, V.N. Guatemala
Email: mfuentes@icta.gob.gt

The Harvest-Plus Project in Guatemala initiated research into maize cultivation in 2004. In this
phase the objectives of the project are to quantify the availability of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and B
carotene in elite lines, commercial varieties and hybrids, and collections of maize originating
from farmers in different parts of the country. The principal goal is the identification of
germplasm that maximizes availability of these micronutrients, as an important resource of high
nutritional value for use in future plant breeding programs. During 2004-2005, trials were carried
out to evaluate maize germplasm in three different zones: tropical (0-1500 masl), the transition
zone (1500-1800 masl) and the highland zone (>1800 masl). Laboratory samples were taken,
according to protocols, of Fe, Zn and B-carotene. 128 samples were analyzed for Fe and Zn (78
white and 50 yellow maize samples). 58 yellow maize samples were analyzed for B-carotene. The
results indicate variation between 200 and 2250 ng/g of Trans BC and Alpha-carotene. Iron
concentration ranged between 4.6 and 79.9 mg/kg and for Zn the values varied between 3.8 and
39 mg/kg. The laboratory results enabled the identification of a small percentage of germplasm of
white and yellow maize that has potential for direct use in plant breeding activities, contributing
to achieving the objectives of the project.

32. Quality protein maize: a review

Gevers, H.O.
Quality Seed CC., P.O.BOX 100881, Scottsville 3209, South Africa
E-mail: Geversh@ukzn.ac.za

Quality protein maize (QPM) development in South Africa is reviewed, 40 years after the
nutrition-related effects of the opaque-2 gene were first announced. Breeding progress has been
limited and confined mainly to developing countries while large breeding programs in the United
States and those that subsequently followed the US hybrid development pattern, have largely
ignored QPM. Reasons for the lack of interest in QPM, which offers quantifiable nutritional
benefits to humans and animals, are reviewed historically in the light of physical, agronomic and
commercial factors involved in QPM development. Specific attention is paid to progress made in
minimizing the adverse physical effects of the opaque-2 mutant on grain yield and kernel
hardness as well as evaluating the effects of widely used heterotic groups in commercial maize
breeding programs. Lack of progress in QPM development is partly due to the finding that
initially the available elite normal inbred lines and other breeding sources were less suitable for
conversion to QPM, necessitating the search for new sources and selection procedures. Current
research indicates that the development of QPM remains a realistic and realizable aim in large
parts of the poorer, developing world. Likewise, indications are that QPM need not remain in the
niche market but can potentially enter the larger commercial maize sector by the careful
manipulation of breeding material from elite heterotic groupings, which have gradually become
usable by sustained selection.

33. Breeding for breadmaking quality in common wheat (Triticum

aestivum L.) in Slovakia

Gregova, E., Slikova, S. and Mihalik, D.
Slovak Agricultural Research Centre, Research Institute of Plant Production,
Bratislavska cesta 122, 92168 PieSt'any, Slovak Republic. E-mail: gregova@vurv.sk
Supported by the Agency for Support of Science and Technology of the Slovac Republic, Project
No. APVT-27-014504.

The analysis of seed storage proteins is a useful tool for plant breeding, due to their relationship
with the technological properties of wheat. The main goal of the present study is to analyze the
high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunit composition of a collection of Slovak wheats
registered in the National List of commercial cultivars between 1976 and 2006. A total of 7
HMW-GS alleles, including 2 at the Glu-Al, 3 at the Glu-B] and 2 at the Glu-D1 loci were
revealed. The glutenin-based quality scores ranged from 5 to 10. Previous selection methods for
quality used theological properties and the standard SDS-PAGE electrophoretic method. Marker
assisted selection (MAS) provides a way to incorporate valuable traits into elite lines that are
suitable for cultivar release. The genotype Kotte was used as a donor for new alleles encoding
HMW-GS at the Glu-lB locus; the Swedish bread wheat line was used as a donor for the 21*
allele at the Glu-]A locus; and Noe as a donor for 2+12.3 at the Glu-1D locus. We selected
desirable HMW subunits such as 5+10 and 2+12.3 (coded by Glu-D1), 21* (coded by Glu-A1)
and 6*+8* (coded by Glu-B1) in early generations of breeding material. The unique combination
of glutenin alleles was fixed by backcross cycles and unfavorable glutenin alleles were
eliminated. Slovak cultivars were used as recurrent parents. Classical breeding methods and new
tools like MAS may contribute to the development of genetic resources with novel end-use
qualities in future.

34. The status of quality protein maize in Tanzania

Kitenge, K.M.1, Kirubi, D. and Mduruma, Z.0.2
'Head, Maize Breeding Program, Ministry of Agriculture Research and Training, Ari Selian,
PO Box 6024, Arush, Tanzania. E-mail: kkitenge@yahoo.com
2International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), PO Box 5689, Addis Ababa,
Region 14, Ethiopia

Maize is a major staple food for over 80% of the population in all 25 regions of Tanzania. Most
maize (85%) is produced and consumed by resource poor farmers who have limited access to
protein sources such as milk and legumes. This leaves the majority to depend on normal maize,
which is deficient in two essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan, as the main source of
protein leading to malnutrition and protein deficiency. Wider utilization of Quality Protein
Maize (QPM), which contains approximately twice as much lysine and tryptophan as normal
maize, should substantially improve the nutritional status of these people. QPM was introduced to
Tanzania in 1998 with the evaluation of QPM germplasm from CIMMYT and Ghana. Based on
their good yield performance, tolerance to diseases and high farmers' ratings, the synthetic
S91SIWQ and hybrids CML144/159/179 and CML144/159/Obatanpa were released in 2001 as
LISHE-K1, LISHE-H1 and LISHE-H2, respectively. In 2003, the breeding program initiated
conversion of widely grown normal maize varieties to QPM; those conversions are now at the
BC2F2 level. A regionally coordinated project was initiated in 2004 with CIMMYT, ECAMAW
(the Eastern and Central Africa Maize and Wheat Research Network) and NARS breeders in
Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya, whereby adapted S3 lines are top-crossed to QPM testers,
(CML144/CML159) and Obatanpa. The single, 3-way and top-cross hybrids and synthetics will
be evaluated extensively and the best will be released for dissemination to farmers who are now
demanding QPM, following promotional campaigns in Tanzania of the benefits of QPM.

35. Characterization of high molecular weight glutenin of the gene
locus Glu-B1 in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Kocourkova Z.'*, Bradova J.2, Kohutova Z.', Kienek P.', Sldmova L.', Vlastnikova H.', Vejl P.1
1 Department of Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources,
Czech University of Agriculture, Kamycka 957, 165 21 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
2Research Institute of Crop Production, Drovska 507, 161 06 Praha 6 Ruzyne, Czech Republic
*Corresponding author e-mail: kocourkovaz@af.czu.cz
Supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic, project numbers QF 4190,
GACR No. 521/05/H013 and IG of grant agency FAFNR CUA Prague 20/2006.

The main goal of this work was the detection of allelic variation, which encodes high molecular
weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) lying on the long arm of the chromosome 1B of common
wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). HMW-GS are important for wheat dough quality and final
breadmaking quality. Proteins merit special focus because they are basic factors of wheat quality.
The locus encodes two types of high molecular weight glutenin subunits type x and type y. The
PCR method was used for the detection of allelic variation. A set of samples of Czech native and
worldwide common wheat varieties was analyzed. These alleles are key markers for wheat
breeding programs with high breadmaking quality, allowing selection of required genotypes
during early ontogenetic stages.

36. Stability and reliability analysis of lowland tropical quality protein
maize (Zea mays) three-way and single-cross hybrids

Krivanek, A.F.*, C6rdova, H. and Ramirez, A.
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600
Mexico, D.F., Mexico
*Corresponding author e-mail: a.krivanek@cgiar.org

Quality protein maize (QPM) contains the opaque-2 mutation, which increases the concentration
of lysine and tryptophan in the grain endosperm and roughly doubles the biological value of
maize protein, as well as additional modifier genetic systems to maintain tryptophan and lysine
content in the endosperm and to make the endosperm vitreous and similar to that of normal
maize. Developed by CIMMYT and partners, QPM can improve the diets of the poor in areas
where maize is a staple crop and also serves as a low-cost, high-quality animal feed. A primary
goal of CIMMYT is to identify maize cultivars that perform well under marginal agronomic
environments managed by resource poor farmers, as well as under optimal conditions. Such yield
stability can be evaluated by running yield trials at multi-locations. This study was carried out to
determine the yield performances and yield stability of 43 white-grained tropical lowland QPM
hybrids across 8 locations in the 2004B growing season. Single parameter estimates of stability
for individual genotypes and spatial modeling of stability reactions were made using four
different analyses including: Shukla's Stability Variance, Eskridge's Reliability estimate, an
Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model and a sites regression model

37. Introduction and evaluation of early, stress tolerant and quality
protein maize varieties in Burundi

Manirakiza, A., Mbagaye, G. and Barisize, T.
Institute des Sciences Agronomiques du Burundi (ISABU), BP 795 Bujumbura, Burundi
Corresponding author e-mail: manithanase@yahoo.fr

In Burundi, maize is the most important cereal in terms of total food production and area under
cultivation. At high altitude, maize is the predominant crop and the staple food. Recently, drought
has become a major constraint to production, besides low soil fertility, streak disease and stem
borers. Early adapted drought and low nitrogen-tolerant varieties are needed, as well as disease
and insect resistant material. There is also a need for quality protein maize (QPM) in Burundi.
During 2004, the ISABU maize program, in collaboration with CIMMYT Kenya and Ethiopia,
conducted a series of varietal trials aiming at finding solutions to these problems. The trials were
planted at Moso research station (1200 masl) in the lowlands and at Gisozi (2150 masl) in the
highlands. An alpha lattice design was used with 2 to 3 replications depending on trial type. Plots
comprised two five-meter rows (spacing 0.75 x 0.50m, 2 plants per hill after thinning). Ten tons
per hectare of farmyard manure were applied, together with chemical fertilizer. Emphasis was put
on grain yield; results were analyzed using GENSTAT statistical software. At Moso, the QPM
trial with 14 varieties did not show significant differences. The extra early trial, with 20 varieties
at Moso, showed highly significant differences between varieties: ECA-EE-21 /NIP25(BC1)F1-#
and ECA-EE-54 were the most promising materials. The drought and low nitrogen trial at Moso,
with 39 varieties did not show significant differences. At Gisozi, the trial of 14 streak resistant
materials plus 2 checks did not show significant differences.

38. Genetic potential for increasing pro-vitamin A content in tropical

Menkir, A.1*, White, W.2, Maziya-Dixon, B.1 and Rocheford, T.3
1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria
2Iowa State University, USA
3University of Illinois, USA
*Corresponding author e-mail: a.menkir@cgiar.org

Millions of people in west and central Africa suffer vitamin A deficiency. Maize is a staple food
in the sub-region, so improving pro-vitamin A content can contribute to improved supply of
vitamin A. Breeding maize for high pro-vitamin A requires adequate genetic variability
consistently expressed across environments. A large number of diverse maize inbred lines grown
in one location were screened for B-carotene, B-cryptozanthin, other carotenoids, and total pro-
vitamin A content. Significant differences were detected in carotenoids among the lines. Means
varied from 0.11 to 4.75 gg/g for B-carotene, and 0.26 to 7.75 gg/g for pro-vitamin A. Lines
exhibited differing carotenoid profiles. Early- and late-maturing open-pollinated varieties
evaluated in multiple locations across seasons did not show significant variety x environment
interaction for B-carotene content, suggesting that the varieties had specific B-carotene content
consistently maintained in different environments. Promising elite maize inbred lines with
relatively high pro-vitamin A (4.5 to 7.75 gg/g) are being crossed with temperate inbred lines
with complimentary carotenoid profiles to develop breeding populations. Elite tropical inbred
lines selected for relatively high (2.95 to 5.95 gg/g) and low (0.83 to 2.20 gg/g) pro-vitamin A
content were used to form hybrids, which were evaluated for carotenoid profile and agronomic
traits. The hybrids exhibited significant differences (p<0.001) in pro-vitamin A content, grain
yield and other agronomic traits. Five hybrids from this trial produced over 5 tons/ha grain and
contained nearly 7 gg/g pro-vitamin A. Combining complementary carotenoid profiles through
hybridization should increase these nutrients to levels significant for human nutrition.

39. Iron and zinc grain density in bread wheat grown in Central Asia

Morgounov, A.', G6mez-Becerra, H.F.2*, Abugalieva, A.3, Massalimov, A.', Yessimbekova, M.3,
Muminjanov, H.4, Zelenskiy, Y.3, Ozturk, L.5 and Cakmak, I.5
'CIMMYT Regional Office for Central Asia and Caucasus, Almaty, Kazakhstan
2Kazakh Research and Production Center for Farming and Crop Sciences, Almalibak,
Kazakhstan. *Corresponding author e-mail: hugofemey2004@yahoo.com
3Kazakhstan-Siberia Network for Spring Wheat Improvement (KASIB), Astana, Kazakhstan.
4Tajik Agricultural University, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
5Sabanci University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences Istanbul, Turkey

Sixty-six spring and winter bread wheat genotypes from Central Asian breeding programs were
evaluated for grain concentrations of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Iron showed large variation among
genotypes, ranging from 25 to 56 mg kg-' (average 38 mg kg-1). Similarly, Zn concentration
varied among genotypes, ranging between 20 and 39 mg kg-' (average 28 mg kg-1). Spring wheat
varieties possess higher Fe-grain concentrations than winter wheats. By contrast, winter wheats
showed higher Zn-grain concentrations than spring genotypes. Within spring wheat, a strongly
significant positive correlation was found between Fe and Zn. Grain protein content is also very
significantly (P= 0.001) correlated with grain Zn and Fe content. A strongly significant negative
correlation was found between Fe and plant height, and Fe and glutenin content. Similar
correlation coefficients were found for Zn. In winter wheat, significant positive correlations were
found between Fe and Zn, and between Zn and sulfur (S). Manganese (Mn) and phosphorus (P)
were negatively correlated with both Fe and Zn. The AMMI (Additive Main Effects and
Multiplicative Interactions) analysis of genotype by environment interactions for grain Fe and Zn
concentrations showed that genotype effects largely control Fe concentration, while Zn
concentration is almost totally dependent on location effects. Spring wheat genotypes Lutescens
574, and Eritrospermum 78; and winter wheat genotypes Navruz,
NA160/HEINEVII/BUC/3/F59.71//GHK, Tacika, DUCULA//VEE/MYNA, and
JUP/4/CLLF/3/II14.53/ODIN//CI13431/WA00477, are promising materials for increasing Fe and
Zn concentrations in the grain, as well as enhancing the concentration of promoters of Zn
bioavailability, such as S-containing amino acids.

40. Genetic variation of common wheat Glu-1 alleles in the noodle-

culture zone compared with the bread-culture zone

Nakamura, H.
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS)- CIMMYT, Tsukuba,
Ibaraki 305-8686, Japan. E-mail: h.nakamura@cgiar.

It is well known that Glu-1 alleles directly affect wheat gluten quality. There are several alleles in
Glu-D1 locus. Considering the worldwide distribution of Glu-D1 alleles, Glu-D]a and Glu-Dld
show high frequency (52.9, 40.8 respectively) while Glu-Dlb, Glu-D1-c, Glu-Dlf and some
other alleles, generally show low frequency. In relation to bread-making quality, the Glu-Dld
allele has superior performance over Glu-Dla, while the Glu-Dlf allele has a negative effect. The
average Glu-1 quality scores relating to good bread-making quality are lower in Japan and China
than in Australia, Canada and the USA. Japanese Udon-wheat has high frequencies of the Glu-
Dlfallele associated with weak gluten doughs, which has a highly negative effect on bread-
making quality. Conversely, Japanese and Chinese wheats differ from average frequencies of
Glu-Dld, associated with good bread-making quality, as well as the Glu-D]a allele. In bread-
culture zones (the USA, Canada and Australia), there is a higher frequency of the Glu-D]d allele
than in Japanese and Chinese wheats in the noodle-culture zones. Similarly, there are three alleles
in the Glu-A] and Glu-B] loci associated with good bread making quality. These are: Glu-Ala,
Glu-Alb and Glu-Bli, with average worldwide frequencies of 32.8, 30.9 and 8.8, respectively.
Japanese and Chinese wheats have lower frequencies of these Glu-A] and Glu-B] alleles. This
study reveals that the Glu-1 allele frequencies differ greatly between the noodle-culture zones
(Japan and China) and bread-culture zones (U.S.A, Canada, Australia and Europe).

41. Adaptation of yellow quality protein maize hybrids in Peru

Narro, T.P, Hidalgo E., and Jara W.
Institute Nacional de Investigaci6n y Extensi6n Agraria (INIEA), Av. La Molina, 1981, Lima-
Peru. E-mail: tnarro@inia.gob.pe

Demand for yellow maize in Peru is 2 million tons annually, which is used mainly for feed in the
poultry industry. The poultry industry has increased in the last 40 years. Per capital consumption
of chicken has increased from 4 kg/person/year (1970) to 44 kg/person/year (2005). Average
yellow maize grain yield in Peru is 3.7 t/ha. The use of quality protein maize (QPM) is one
alternative for a more efficient poultry industry. Twenty-three hybrids, including six normal and
17 QPM hybrids, were evaluated in nine locations, seven on the coast and two in the jungle areas
of Peru, between 2002 and 2005. No hybrid x location interaction was found and the grain yield
varied from 7.2 to 10.7 t/ha. Participatory research was used where strip plots were planted. The
experimental hybrid CML161/CML165 was selected as a potential commercial hybrid for
Peruvian conditions, not only for its high grain yield in the strip plots (12.9 t/ha) but also for its
preference by farmers because of its orange grain color. Protein content for this hybrid is 9.2%
and 0.099% oftryptophan. It is expected that this hybrid will be released in 2006.

42. Status of quality protein maize research in the drought stressed
areas of Ethiopia

Nigussie, M.'*, Diallo, A.O.2, Mduruma, Z.3, Gezahegne B.1 and Lealem T.'
'Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Melkasa Research Center, P.O. Box 436, Nazareth,
Ethiopia. *Corresponding author e-mail: maize@ethionet.et
2International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Nairobi, Kenya
3Eastern and Central Africa Maize and Wheat Network (ECAMAW)-Coordinator, P.O. Box
5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Maize is a staple food for farmers in the drought stressed areas of Ethiopia. With little access to
protein sources, millions of people in these areas are protein deficient. Substituting the local
normal maize with improved quality protein maize (QPM) would substantially improve the
protein status and reduce the malnutrition of resource poor farm families. QPM research was
started at Melkasa by introducing and testing CIMMYT materials in the year 2000. Four newly
introduced CIMMYT QPM hybrids; the Ghanaian hybrid GH132-28 and an open pollinated
variety (OPV Obatanpa) were evaluated at three locations in the drought stressed areas in 2000.
Based on mean grain yield over locations, the single cross CML175 x CML176 revealed the
highest grain yield (10.4 t/ha), followed by a three-way hybrid CML144 x CML159 x CML176
(9.5 t/ha). Several other QPM lines, OPVs and hybrids were evaluated; selected materials are at
various breeding stages. Intensive breeding work was also started to convert local maize varieties
to QPM and develop QPM lines, hybrids and synthetics. Two OPVs are being converted to QPM
using two donor parents (CML144 and CML159); at present the breeding populations are at
BC2F1 level. Together with regional CIMMYT scientists, several hundred QPM inbred lines are
being developed and currently the S3 lines are planted to be advanced to S4. Simultaneously, the
S3 lines are top-crossed to two testers (CML144/CML159 and Obatanpa). The resulting inbred
lines, top-crosses and synthetic populations would yield potential materials that could be
promoted to end-users in the immediate future.

43. Wet milling efficiency of hybrids from exotic by adapted inbred
lines of corn

Taboada-Gaytan, O.R.1, Pollak, L.2*, Johnson, L.3, Fox, S.3 and Duvick, S.2
'Iowa State University, Department Of Agronomy, Ames, IA 50010,
2USDA-ARS, Iowa State University, Department of Agronomy, Ames, IA 50011-1010
3Iowa State University, Department of Food Sciences and Human Nutrition, Ames, IA 50010
Corresponding author e-mail: toswaldo@iastate.edu

Corn (Zea mays L.) is the main crop in the United States and starch is the most important derived
product from the corn grain. This study was conducted to determine whether Corn Belt lines
introgressed with exotic germplasm from Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Cuba and Florida have
appropriate wet milling characteristics. Ten lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize
project were chosen on the basis of starch yield. The highest and the lowest starch-yielding lines
for each of the five different germplasm sources were selected. These ten lines were crossed to
three testers (LH283, LH283Bt, and IN510) that provided to the progeny different wet-milling
efficiency. The compositional characteristics of the lines and the hybrids (moisture, starch,
protein, and oil content) were estimated by using the Near-Infrared Transmittance (NIR)
technology using a FOSS Infratec 1241 Grain Analyzer. The wet milling characteristics of both
the lines and the hybrids were obtained by milling two samples using the 100g modified wet-
milling procedure. This procedure yields starch, gluten, fiber, germ, and steepwater fractions. The
wet milling efficiency of exotic corn lines and their hybrids was correlated positively with starch
content. Statistical differences (Alpha=0.05) were found for yield of the wet milling fractions.
Our results indicate that the use of exotic corn germplasm in a wet milling breeding program will
enhance available genetic diversity.

44. Genetic variation for improving micronutrient content in maize

Palacios-Rojas, N., Beck, D., Banziger, M., Rocheford, T. and Pixley, K.
Maize Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal
6-641, 06600 Mexico D.F., Mexico.
Corresponding author e-mail: n.palacios@cgiar.org

Iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies afflict hundreds of millions of people, particularly women
and children. Because cereal grains are staple foods, genetic fortification or biofortification of
these cereals with vitamins and/or minerals could contribute to alleviating micronutrient
malnutrition. HarvestPlus project partners are working to increase provitamin A carotenoids, iron
and zinc concentrations in maize kernels. Grain concentrations of iron and zinc are largely
dependent on environmental conditions like soil composition. Analysis of >1,000 genotypes from
different environments showed little variation for iron (average 20+5 ppm), and moderate
variation for zinc concentration in grain (15-35 ppm). Analyses of genotypes with yellow to dark
orange kernels have identified large variation in their content of provitamin A molecules (0.5 to
8.8 ug/g dry weight) and their carotenoid profiles. Furthermore, studies of crosses among lines
with contrasting provitamins A concentrations suggest that non-additive effects are important for
determining these traits. Thus, our breeding strategy includes: 1) selecting genotypes with high
provitamins A content, 2) seeking crosses with favorable specific combining ability for high
concentrations of provitamins A, and 3) identifying alleles favorably affecting enzyme activity
for key reactions along the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Although a substantial breeding
effort is needed, genetic variation appears adequate to achieve nutritionally significant
concentrations of provitamins A and zinc in maize grain. Efforts to understand and exploit allelic
variation for enzymes regulating the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, or variation in
concentration of enhancers or inhibitors of iron and/or zinc bioavailability, may offer new options
for breeding biofortified maize.

45. Prospects of breeding micronutrient-dense sorghum

Reddy, B.V.S.'*, Ramesh, S.', Longvah, T.2, Elangovan, M.3 and Upadhyaya, H.D.'
'International Crops Research Institute for Semi-arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502 324,
2National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad, India
3National Research Center for Sorghum (NRCS), Hyderabad 500 030 India
*Corresponding author e-mail: b.reddy@cgiar.org

Malnutrition due to iron, zinc and vitamin A micronutrient deficiency can cause blindness and
anemia, especially affecting women and pre-school children of south and Southeast Asia and sub-
Saharan Africa. Genetic enhancement of sorghum, a staple in these regions, for these
micronutrients maybe cost- and health-effective. Research involving a diverse set of 86 sorghum
lines at ICRISAT indicated significant genetic variability and high broad-sense heritability for
grain iron, zinc and B-carotene contents. The iron content ranged from 20.1-37.0 ppm with an
average of 28 ppm; zinc content ranged from 13.4-30.5 ppm with an average of 19 ppm; and grain
0-carotene content ranged from 0.56-1.13 ppm in yellow-endosperm germplasm lines. The
variance due to genotype x environment [managed soil fertility levels] interaction was non-
significant. Significant and fairly higher positive correlation between grain iron and zinc contents
and their poor correlation with agronomic traits such as days to 50% flowering, plant height, and
grain size and grain hardness indicated the possibility of selecting for higher micronutrients
contents with desired maturity and grain traits.

46. Characterization of vernonia ( Vernonia galamensis var. ethiopica)
as an alternative industrial oil crop in Limpopo Province

Shimelis, H.', Mashela, P.' and Hugo, A.2
'University of Limpopo, School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X1106,
Sovenga 0727, South Africa.
2Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State,
P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.
Corresponding author e-mail: shimelis@ul.ac.za

Venonia (Vernonia galamensis) is a potential, new industrial oil seed crop and a source of natural
epoxy fatty acids. The oil content and fatty acid profiles of 36 diverse accessions of V galamensis
var. ethiopica were analyzed to select potential lines for domestication. Accessions showed
varying ranges of oil content (22-29%), vemolic acid (73-77%), linoleic acid (12-14%), oleic acid
(3.5-5.5%), palmitic acid (2.4-2.9%) and stearic acid (2.3-2.8%). Accessions collected from
southern Ethiopia had higher oil content than those from eastern Ethiopia. Five promising lines,
with the highest contents of oil (28-29%) and vemolic acid (75-77%) were identified as best
parents for improving the quantity of oil and vemolic acid.

47. Iron and zinc content in pearl millet grain: genetic variability and
breeding implications

Velu, G.', Rai, K.N.2, Muralidharan, V.', Kulkami, V.N.2, Longvah, T.3 and Raveendran, T.S.'
'Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India,
2Intemational Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502
324, Andhra Pradesh, India. E-mail: k.rai@cgiar.org
3National Institute of Nutrition, Jamai Osmania, Hyderabad, 500 007, Andhra Pradesh, India

Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) are amongst the few minerals for which widespread micronutrient
malnutrition, resulting in numerous health problems, has been reported, especially in the
developing world. Development of micronutrient-dense cultivars of major food crops provides a
cost-effective approach to this problem. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is one such
major crop, which is grown on 26 million hectares in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of
Asia and Africa. Pearl millet micronutrient enhancement research at the International Crops
Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has shown large genetic variability both
for iron and zinc. One trial of a diverse range of inbred lines and populations showed 30-76 ppm
iron and 25-65 ppm zinc; and another trial of a diverse range of improved populations showed 42-
80 ppm iron and 27-50 ppm zinc. Most lines and populations with high iron and zinc contents
were predominantly based on early-maturing, large-seeded and high-yielding iniari germplasm.
There was highly significant and positive correlation between iron and zinc in both trials (r=0.84,
p< 0.01). Two released, open-pollinated varieties (AIMP 92901 and GB 8735) had high iron and
zinc contents. Selfed progeny evaluation of these showed nearly three-fold within-population
variation both for iron (35-104 ppm in AIMP 92901 and 40-105 ppm in GB 8735) and zinc (29-
68 ppm in AIMP 92901 and 29-60 ppm in GB 8735). These results indicate good prospects for
simultaneous genetic improvement of both iron and zinc contents in pearl millet.

48. Identification of quality protein maize lines by marker assisted
selection, differential chemical composition and lysine content

Son, B.Y.1, Hyeon-Gui Moon, Tae-Wook Jung, Ja-Hwan Ku, Sun-Lim Kim and Si-Ju Kim
SBreeding Resource Development Division, National Institute of Crop Science, 209 Seodun-
Dong, 441-857 Suwon, Gweonson-Gu, Republic of Korea. E-mail: sonby@rda.go.kr

Two laboratory procedures were performed at the same time for the analysis of quality protein
maize (QPM) and lysine content, with the aim of improving the quality of protein in the maize
kernel. Eighty-six lines of the BC3F1 population and sixty BC1F2 lines were analyzed with the
opaque2 specific SSR marker. An opaque2 specific micro-satellite marker (umc1066) facilitated
the differentiation of QPM lines carrying opaque2 from the non-opaque genotypes. This study
demonstrated the effectiveness of the SSR marker in QPM genotype discrimination and could
potentially contribute towards the effective utilization of elite QPM lines in Korea's maize
breeding program. There was no significant difference in protein content between QPM and non-
QPM lines, but significant differences in lipid content, ash, and crude fiber were expressed. An
amino acid auto analyzer (Hitachi L-8800) was used to determine amino acid content. QPM lines
and non-QPM lines showed no difference in methionine and cystine contents or sulphur-
containing amino acids. However, the lysine content of QPM lines was 38% higher than that of
non-QPM lines.

Molecular breeding

49. Phenotypic analysis of intermated B73xMo17 (IBM) populations

Abertondo, V.* and Lee, M.
Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50010, USA
*Corresponding author e-mail: vja@iastate.edu

Random mating within a mapping population creates more opportunities for recombination.
Therefore, the probability of observing recombination events between linked loci is increased and
more reliable genetic maps may be produced. The intermated B73xMo17 (IBM) population is the
most widely used common resource for maize mapping. It was developed by intermating the F2
for four generations before recombinant inbred lines were derived. In order to increase number of
recombinants to reach a higher map resolution, a second population of double haploid lines was
created after six additional cycles of intermating, and it was termed IBM-10. It is known that
intermating was effective in creating a higher frequency of recombinants in IBM-10 than IBM
(Jaqueth, 2003). However, there is no information about how intermating affects the phenotypic
variation of these populations. IBM and IBM-10 populations are being compared in terms of
phenotypic variance, population means and correlation coefficients for a set of traits. The
phenotypic variance and correlation coefficients may increase or decrease with repulsion or
coupling phase linkage. The presence of new recombinants at the IBM-10 could reveal new
epistasis interactions, modifying the effect of the alleles in such recombinants, which might
produce a shift in the population mean. Moreover, additional cycles of random mating might
cause a change in the allele frequency, which also may affect the population attributes.

50. Validation and characterization of candidate resistance

quantitative trait loci for host-resistance to multiple foliar pathogens of

Asea, G.', Bigirwa, G.', Vivek, B.2, Lipps, P.E.3 and Pratt, R.C.4
'Namulonge Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Organization, Uganda,
2CIMMYT, P.O. Box MP163 Mt. Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe,
3Department of Plant Pathology, 4Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, The Ohio State
University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.
Corresponding author e-mail: asea@naro-ug.org

Maize (Zea mays L.) production in sub-Saharan Africa is threatened by multiple foliar diseases
including northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), gray leaf spot (GLS) and maize streak virus (MSV).
Most of these diseases are managed using partial resistance conferred by the action of multiple
resistance factors. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning partial resistance to several
pathogens have been identified. Validation in new genetic backgrounds of candidate QTL presents
marker-assisted selection as a potential strategy for pyramiding resistance to several pathogens. We
examined the utility of consensus QTL to determine their effectiveness in improving host-
resistance. Genetic gains were calculated for simultaneous improvement of host-resistance
following phenotype-based, marker-based, combined phenotype-and marker-based selection
(MAS), and a randomly selected control population. Field evaluations and selections were
conducted independently for each disease in a population of 410 F2 3 lines derived from
hybridization between inbred line CML202 with known resistance to NCLB and MSV, and a
breeding line with known resistance to GLS. Analyses of marker-trait associations in the major
QTL positions were highly significant. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability were 0.22, 0.25 and
0.39 for MSV, NCLB and GLS, respectively. Genetic gains varied with traits and selection
treatments employed. For all diseases, gains from marker-based selection represented a
significant improvement over random selection that ignored QTL information; MAS was the
most effective. Our results validated the position and effect of four out of six QTL controlling
partial resistance. The lack of confirmation of two QTL highlights the need for validation of
resistance loci in new populations.

51. Consensus mapping for field and storage pest resistance in tropical

Bergvinson, D.J. and Garcia-Lara, S.
Maize Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal
6-641, 06600 Mexico D.F., Mexico. E-mail: dbergvinson@cgiar.org

Lepidopteran and coleopteran pests cause significant losses to maize production throughout the
world. Major constraints in tropical agroecologies are the foliar damage caused by fall armyworm
(FAW), southwestern corn borer (SWCB, Diatraea grandiosella) and sugarcane borer (SCB, D.
saccharalis), as well as post-harvest losses due to maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) and larger
grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus). The breeding effort at CIMMYT has focused on
determining genomic regions involved in insect resistance in maize using molecular markers.
Recently, Comparative Map and Trait Viewer (CMTV) was developed to construct consensus
maps and compare quantitative trait loci (QTL) data across genomes and experiments. The
objective of this study was to develop a consensus map and compare the QTL for field and
storage pest resistance and their putative resistance mechanisms in tropical maize. CMTV showed
that the major consensus QTL for field pests are located in bins 1.03, 1.06, 1.10, 3.06/08, 6.01,
6.05, 7.02/03/04, 8.03, 8.05, 9.04/05, and 10.04, while for storage pests QTL are situated in bins
1.08, 2.01, 2.09, 3.06/07, 5.03, 6.05, and 10.04/07. Consensus genomic regions associated with
both pest complexes are only overlapping in bin 10.04. Cell wall bound phenolics in the leaf and
pericarp as well as physical traits overlapped with insect resistance in several consensus areas
(1.03, 2.08/09, 3.06/07 and 8.05). These results illustrate the potential of using CMTV to identify
candidate genes involved in insect resistance in order to identify target regions for the
incorporation of durable and broad-based insect resistance into elite maize lines and varieties.

52. Genetic evaluation of maize root complexity

Novaris, j.2, Fonseca, R.2, Grift, T.', and Bohn, M.1*
' University of Illinois, 1102 S. Goodwin Ave. 61801 Urbana, IL, USA
2 University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
*Corresponding author: mbohn@uiuc.edu

The development of a healthy root system is an important part of the overall plant development
program. Root branching and architecture are tightly linked to plant survival under abiotic (e.g.,
drought, flooding, nutrient deficiencies) and biotic (e.g., competition among plants, diseases,
pests) stress conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a large set of maize
recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from the four times random mated IBM (Intermated
B73xMo17) population for primary root complexity characteristics, including fractal dimension
and entropy estimates and their dynamics, and to map and characterize quantitative trait loci
(QTL) affecting the complexity of primary root systems in maize. For each of the 231 RIL,
multiple primary root systems were produced applying a replicated incomplete block design.
Digital images of each root system were taken at days four and eight after germination. For each
root system, its fractal dimension and entropy were determined. Root systems were also evaluated
for a comprehensive set of morphological characteristics. Applying composite interval mapping
using a set of 1167 molecular markers, a large number of QTL (N> 12 QTL) was found for all
traits and their dynamic change in the early phase of root development. All root mutants with
known chromosomal position were located in chromosomal BINs carrying QTL for root
complexity. The large number of QTL not associated with known root mutants will guide us to
additional candidate genes involved in primary root architecture.

53. Utilisation of genetic protein markers for the prediction of wheat
baking quality

Bradova, J. and SaSek, A.
Research Institute of Crop Production, Drovska 507, 161 06 Prague, Czech Republic
E-mail: bradova@vurv.cz
Supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic, Project No. 0002700602.

Genetic protein markers can be used as markers of some commercially important wheat traits,
such as baking quality, cold hardiness and resistance to stem rust. Recombinations of suitable
gliadin and glutenin parent alleles are helpful in the breeding of new wheat varieties carrying
required traits and characters. The composition ofgliadins and glutenin subunits was studied in
wheat varieties registered in the Czech Republic. We identified particular alleles that are encoded
in 6 gliadin loci and 3 glutenin loci. Electrophoretic spectra of gliadins were obtained by the
starch gel electrophporesis and the spectra of subunits of high-molecular-weight glutenins were
obtained by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecyl sulphate. We evaluated
correlations between the wheat baking quality predicted by these signal genes and the actual
baking quality expressed by baking and theological traits of wheat. The Zeleny sedimentation
value reliably distinguished the baking quality classes from each other. A significant positive
correlation was proved between the value predicted using glutenin markers and the sedimentation
value. A significant positive correlation was also found between the total value predicted using
gliadin and glutenin markers and the sedimentation value.

54. Linkage disequilibrium in haploids extracted from old open-
pollinated maize varieties and synthetics

Butruille, D.', Diniz Silva, H.' 4, Bockelman, D.2 and Tianxing Zhang3
'Monsanto Company, 3320 SE BLV Convenience, Ankeny, IA, 50021 USA
Corresponding author e-mail: david.butuille@monsanto.com
2Monmouth Agronomy Center, 1677 80th St, Monmouth, IL 61462, USA
3Monsanto Company, 2111 Piilani Highway P.O. Box 645, Kihei, HI 96753, USA
4Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, FAMAT-UFU Campus Santa Monica, Av Joao Naves de
Avila 1221, 38400-902, Uberlandia-MG, Brazil

Our ability to increase the resolution in quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping studies is limited by
the amount of recombination present in the population being analyzed. Historically, most of the
maize marker-QTL associations detected have used segregating populations derived from crosses
between two inbred lines. In these populations, the resolution is of the order of 10-20
centiMorgans (cM). More recently, to leverage historical recombination present in the
germplasm, several large association studies with a resolution of a few centiMorgans or lower
have been proposed or completed. The next stage in the quest of ever-increasing resolution
would have to resort to multiple generations of random-mating or using populations that have
been intermating for many generations. In the present study, we selected 20 historical open-
pollinated varieties and synthetics, derived from these a balanced bulk of haploid kernels, and
planted these haploid kernels. Tissue from individual haploid plants was sampled and genotyped
at short nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) loci belonging to clusters of tightly linked markers. The
advantage of this type ofgenotyping is that haplotypes can be identified unambiguously in a
haploid progeny (no determination of linkage phase is required). Based on this, we are presenting
information on linkage disequilibrium, and heterozygosity of each of these populations.

55. Detection of quality trait loci (QTL) for pericarp thickness and ear
inflorescence traits in waxy corn

Choe, E. and Rocheford, T.
Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, 1304 E. Mchenry St., Urbana 61801, IL,
USA. E-mail: echoe l@uiuc.edu

Due to an increasing Asian-American population and market, breeding and genetic research on
waxy corn for U.S. fresh consumption is needed. The objectives of this study were to detect QTL
for pericarp thickness, which affects tenderness, and for ear inflorescence architecture traits
relevant to consumer preference and yield; and to study genetic relationships among traits using
principal components analysis (PCA). Evaluations were performed on 264 (BH20xBH30)F3
families. BH30 has a thinner pericarp than BH20; both are waxy corn inbreds from South Korea.
100 SSR markers were mapped. Forty-one QTL were detected for five different pericarp
thickness traits measured on upper germinal, lower germinal, upper abgerminal, lower abgerminal
and crown regions. QTL for pericarp thickness traits explained phenotypic variation ranging from
31.7 to 42.3%. Most alleles for thin pericarp thickness were from BH30. PCA showed the first
principal component (PC) explained 87.6% of pericarp trait variation, and eight PC-QTL were
detected. Forty-six QTL were detected for ear inflorescence architecture traits measured on cob
length, ear and cob diameter, kernel depth, number of kernels per row, number of rows per ear,
kernel thickness, ear and cob weight, and kernel weight. QTL for these traits explained
phenotypic variation ranging from 8.7 to 32.8%. Four PCs for ear inflorescence architecture traits
explaining 81.8% of total phenotypic variation, and 22 PC-QTL were detected. Notably, QTL
regions significant for two or more ear inflorescence architecture traits and PC-QTL were
detected in bins 1.08(idl), 3.04(ts4, lg3), 4.05(fea2), 7.02(ral) and 8.05(knox5), which have
inflorescence mutants and genes.

56. Quantitative trait loci associated with husk traits in maize (Zea
mays, L.)

Cukadar, B. and Gupta, A.
Monsanto, PO Box 410, 62567 Stonington, Illinois, USA.
E-mail: belgin.cukadar@monsanto.com

Most semi-tropical and tropical corn lines tend to have very tight and long husk leaves resulting
in high ear moisture and slow dry-down rate when introduced into the Corn Belt of the U.S.
Hence, breeders typically need to grow very large segregating populations in the field to select
against these traits. One F34 and two F2 3 populations were evaluated to identify QTL associated
with husk traits. This would facilitate marker assisted selection when introducing this germplasm
into the temperate U.S. Corn Belt. About 200 families per population were grown as a
randomized complete block design with two replications in Rancagua, Chile, during the 2004-05
winter cycle. Phenotypic data on growing degree units to 50% silk and brown husk, ear husk
looseness, ear moisture (%), husk cover extension (cm), husk leaf number, ear length (cm), husk
width (cm), and husk length (cm) were collected in Chile. Molecular marker data was collected
on the F23 and F34 families and parental lines. Narrow sense heritability values for husk traits
were high, ranging from 0.40 to 0.60 for the three populations. In all three populations, husk
looseness was highly correlated to 50% brown husk (>0.50) and fairly correlated to 50% silk and
husk width (about 0.40). Significant QTL (p<0.15) were found for several husk traits, with more
QTL being identified in the F34 population. Some QTL were consistent across three populations,
and based on multiple regression results, these QTL explained 50-80% of the phenotypic
variation for husk looseness and 17-40% for husk width.

57. Development of salt tolerant rice varieties using marker assisted

Hassan, L.
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-
02202, Bangladesh. E-mail: lutfulhassan@yahoo.co.uk

This project aims to develop improved rice genotypes/varieties for the Southern Coastland of
Bangladesh. These areas are cultivated by marginal farmers, who are able to grow only one crop
of traditional low-yielding rice per year. The traditional rice varieties that are grown here are well
adapted to the saline coastal area and are likely to contain genes or Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL)
governing adaptability to saline soils. This study attempts to identify molecular markers for
salinity. Seedlings of 38 selected rice accessions from the germplasm collection were screened for
salt tolerance in a glasshouse using a salt solution of 12 dS/m. They were categorized into tolerant
(three varieties), moderately tolerant (20 varieties) and sensitive (15 varieties). Several rice
varieties with differing salt tolerance reactions were initially screened for DNA profiles (extracted
using a Nucleon PhytoPure DNA extraction kit from 21 day old seedlings) using 30 RAPD
primers. Of these, six primers exhibiting polymorphism were used to screen all 38 rice varieties.
Primer OPS 3 produced a specific band for salinity tolerance at 510 bp. The band OPS 3 510 was
present very distinctly in the three salt tolerant varieties and was absent in all moderately tolerant
and sensitive varieties and is considered as unique to tolerant accessions. The development of
backcross progenies is underway and may provide improved varieties that can be released after
multiplication to be grown in the coastal areas. The identified QTL can also be used to shorten
further breeding programs using the traditional rice as donors.

58. Stem borer resistance in maize a joint analysis

Hauck, A. and Bohn, M.
University of Illinois, Crop Sciences, 1102 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA
E-mail: ahauck@uiuc.edu

The past two decades of plant breeding have resulted in the publication of many studies
identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) using molecular markers. The relatively large effects of
environmental variation and small population sizes commonly used in QTL studies limit the
power of QTL detection and may explain the difficulty in repeatability of QTL experiments. The
purpose of this study was to ascertain the advantages of combining data from multiple QTL
studies on common traits for enhanced power of QTL detection. A joint analysis was conducted
using genetic and phenotypic data collected from a number of studies examining cell wall
strength and insect resistance in maize populations derived from crosses between two inbreds.
Parental inbreds adapted to temperate and tropical growing conditions with contrasting levels of
insect feeding damage are represented in the combined experimental population, capturing a
broad range of the natural genetic variation for this trait in maize. Analysis of variance was
performed to associate genotypes within bins with trait expression. The level of significance was
determined with a re-sampling strategy. Significant associations between markers and resistance
of maize against stem borer larvae leaf feeding and stalk tunneling were summarized by study to
link contributions from specific germplasm with resistance. In some cases, bins with no resistance
QTL reported in the original studies were found to be significant. A number of significant bins
match the genomic locations of candidate genes, such as members of the lignin pathway, and
QTL for other correlated traits, like cell wall digestibility.

59. Application of simple sequence repeats to study within and
between family variations for resistance to maize streak virus disease

Ininda, J.1, Danson, J.2, Langat, M.2, Gichuru, L.2 and Njuguna, J.G.M.2
'2Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. 30148 Nairobi.
Corresponding author, Email: jininda@todays.co.ke

The objective of this study was to evaluate within and between family variation for resistance to
maize streak disease; and assess the relevance ofmicrosatellite markers linked to maize streak
disease resistant loci, in discriminating between susceptible and resistant S4 6 lines. A pedigree-
breeding program was initiated in 1998 with a cross between a maize streak virus resistant inbred
line obtained from CIMMYT, ([MSRXPOOL9]C1F1-205-1[OSU23i]-6-5-3-X-X-1-B), and a
susceptible inbred line from Kenya (EM11-133). Selection and generation advance was done at
Muguga, Kenya (2093 masl). Lines were screened for maize streak disease resistance at the S,
generation and three families selected. A final screen for maize streak disease resistance was done
on the S4 6 lines in 2004. One hundred and fifteen S46 were planted in the field and artificially
inoculated with maize streak virus. Genetic analysis was done using 52 Simple Sequence Repeat
(SSR) markers in Bin 1.04 and 1.05. There were significant differences between S4 6 lines for
maize streak disease expression. Analysis of each S4 family showed that there were significant
differences in disease expression between S46 lines in the field. This supported molecular data
which showed polymorphism for selected SSR markers between and within families. Thus,
selection for resistant lines using molecular data was highly correlated to results from artificial
inoculation. The marker umc 1676 was the best for discrimination between the lines. We
identified 40 individuals with the resistant parent allele, and 23 representing the susceptible
parent allele. This agreed well with the field data for artificial inoculation.

60. Use of the TRAP (Trace Relevant Allele Polymorphism) approach in
breeding for complex traits a wheat example

Kobiljski, B.
Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, M.Gorkog 30, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
E-mail: kobboris@ifvcns.ns.ac.yu

Despite the fact that in the vast majority of papers published in the last ten years molecular
markers have been successfully associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL), they have had very
limited usefulness in plant breeding programs. Today, more than ever, it seems that many
researchers were right in saying that we urgently need to modify the present "single cross QTL
mapping validation use" strategy in order to diminish the huge gap which exists between the
potential of modem biotechnology and its application in breeding. In order to narrow this gap the
TRAP (Trace Relevant Allele Polymorphism) approach has been proposed and tested in the
wheat breeding program in Novi Sad, Serbia. This concept is starting from the top of the pyramid
(i.e. grain yield itself) instead from the bottom (major or minor QTLs) and implies searching for
certain alleles associated with desirable (undesirable) performance of complex traits. Later, this
approach allows us to follow, by molecular markers, the "main route" from a complex trait
towards its main components, subcomponents and subunits. There is a risk of a marker-trait
association being "false positive", but still, "real-positive" ones could bring a benefit to breeding
programs at a much higher rate than is the case today. The proposed approach is discussed in
detail with emphasis placed on the problems and prospects of such an approach in the wheat
molecular and breeding context.

61. Molecular markers for leaf rust resistance genes and genes

controlling vernalization in wheat

Kohutova, Z., Kocourkova, Z., Slamova, L., Vlastnikova, H., Kienek, P., Vejl, P.* and Zoufala, J.
Czech University of Agriculture, Kamycka 129, CZ-165 21 Praha 6, Czech Republic
Corresponding author e-mail: vejl@af.czu.cz
Supported by Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic, project numbers QF 4190, GACR
No. 521/05/H013 and IG of grant agency of FAFNR CUA Prague No. 22/2006.

The SCAR and CAPS methods were used for molecular characterization of vernalization and leaf
rust resistance genes in thirty-five worldwide lines and two varieties of wheat. Leaf Rust, caused
by Puccinia triticina, is one of the most important wheat diseases. DNA markers were used to
verify the presence of the resistance genes Lr26, Lr25-Lr29, Lr37 and Lr47. The Lr26 gene was
identified in fourteen genotypes. The identification of both SCAR markers of genes Lr25 and
Lr29 was accomplished by touchdown multiplex PCR. The Lr25 gene is present in twelve
genotypes; the gene Lr29 was found only in line P29. Two DNA markers are available to detect
the gene Lr37, which was identified in the Mexican line 351 from CIMMYT. The gene Lr47 was
detected by CAPS marker only in line P29. Genes Vrn] and Vrn2 are the major genes, which
control the process of vernalization. The difference between the dominant and recessive alleles of
Vrn] is located in the promoter. The recessive allele of vrn was found to be present in thirteen
genotypes. The recessive allele of the vrn2 gene was present in all evaluated genotypes. These
results show the usefulness of the markers tested for identifying some resistance genes and the
two genes controlling vernalization in wheat.

62. Development of specific PCR markers for Solanum ssp. late blight
resistance genes and detection of their homologues

Kfenek, P.'*, Vlastnikovi, H.', Mazikovi, j.2, Kocourkovi, Z.', Kohutovi, Z.', Slamovi, L.',
Zouhar, M.2, Domkafovi, J.3, Skoddiek, Z.1
1 Czech University of Agriculture in Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural
Resources, Department of Genetic and Breeding, Prague, the Czech Republic.
2 Czech University of Agriculture in Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural
Resources, Department of Plant Protection, Prague, the Czech Republic
3 Potato Research Institute, Havlickuv Brod, the Czech Republic
*Corresponding author e-mail: krenek.pavel@seznam.cz, krenek@af.czu.cz
Supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic, project number QF4107

We report here the development of specific PCR (polymerase chain reaction) markers for routine
detection of the RB and R1 genes, the genes conferring resistance to Phytophthora infestans in
potato, which have recently been cloned from Solanum bulbocastanum and S. tuberosum.
Specific PCR markers for the RB gene and R1 gene were developed using publicly available
bioinformatics tools (BLASTN, Primer3). We show that the utility of BLASTN and Primer3
generated specific PCR markers for R genes in marker assisted selection (MAS) is mainly based
on a number of homologues known for a particular R gene, the premix setup and the PCR product
carry-over prevention system. A simple and low cost PCR-SSCP (single strand conformation
polymorphism) protocol was established to confirm the specificity of the PCR markers designated
for the detection of R genes. Furthermore we found the PCR-SSCP method to be a great tool for
the detection of novel homologues of R genes.

63. Quantitative trait loci mapping for ear shoot development in maize

Mayor, M.L. and Lee, M.
Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, 50011 Ames, Iowa, USA.
E-mail: mlmayor@iastate.edu

Stable development of ear shoots and prolificacy are important traits in maize production because
they provide plasticity in the response to environmental conditions. The objective of this project
is to detect Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for prolificacy and ear shoot abortion. Ear shoot
development is being studied in 2 populations. The first population consists of218 recombinant
inbred lines (RILs) created by mating inbred lines C103 and C103AP. C103 is single-eared and
frequently aborts its ear shoots. C103AP, a prolific inbred, was produced by backcrossing a
prolific popcorn accession (AP) to C103, the recurrent parent. Genotyping at 656 SSR loci
revealed that 76% of the nuclear genomes of C103 and C103AP are identical by descent; hence,
the sequences involved in ear development should be located in the remaining 24%. The second
population was created by crossing inbreds B104 and 95:2, a prolific popcorn inbred. The F2 and
F3 generations of this population have been evaluated to detect QTL with effects for prolificacy.
Results from the first year ofphenotypic evaluation of the C103xC103AP population showed that
C103AP was 30cm taller than C103 and developed 2.94 ears per plant, while C103 had 0.2 ears
per plant. The RILs ranged from 0 to 3.5 ears per plant.

64. Using mating designs to uncover quantitative trait loci and the
genetic architecture of complex traits

McIntyre, L.
Associate Professor, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Florida, PO Box 100266,
32610 Gainesville, Florida, USA. E-mail: mcintyre@ufl.edu

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting complex traits are often analyzed through single-cross
experiments. For most purposes, including breeding, it is desirable to know to what extent
findings related to QTL and the overall genetic architecture of the trait can be generalized. Single-
cross experiments provide a poor basis for this assessment. Comparison across experiments is
hampered by segregation of different allelic combinations among different parents and by context
dependent effects of QTL. To overcome this problem, we combined the benefits of QTL analysis
(to identify genomic regions affecting trait variation) and classic diallel analysis (to obtain insight
into the general inheritance of the trait) by analyzing multiple mapping families that are
connected via shared parents. We first provide a theoretical derivation of main (general
combining ability (GCA)) and interaction (specific combining ability (SCA)) effects on F2 family
means relative to variance components, in a randomly mating reference population. We then use
computer simulations to generate F2 families derived from 10 inbred parents in different partial-
diallel designs. These show that QTL can be detected and that the residual among-family variance
can be analyzed. We apply standard diallel analysis methods to reveal the presence and mode of
action (in terms of GCA and SCA) of undetected polygenes. We demonstrate that QTL detection
and estimation of the genetic architecture of polygenic effects are competing goals. This should
be explicitly addressed in experimental design. Our approach provides a general strategy for
exploring the genetic architecture, as well as the QTL, underlying variation in quantitative traits.

65. Gene pyramiding to improve rice by marker assisted backcrossing

Negrao S.', Jayamani P.' 2, Rocheta M.', Macis B.3, Mackill D.4 and Oliveira M.M.1'5
'Lab.Eng. Genetica de Plantas -ITQB/IBET, 2784-505 Oeiras, Portugal
2CPBG, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India
3ENMP, Apartado 6, 7350-951 Elvas, Portugal
4International Rice Research Institute- IRRI- Los Bafios- The Philippines
5Univ. Lisboa, Fac. Ciencias, Dep. Biologia Vegetal, 1749-016 Campo Grande, Portugal
Corresponding author e-mail: snegrao@itqb.unl.pt

Among the European countries Portugal has the highest rice consumption per capital (17.3
kg/capita/year). Portuguese traditional rice varieties are tall, very sensitive to blast, and have low
yield, in spite of the good grain quality. Therefore, breeding work was begun to develop dwarf,
high yielding varieties, with blast resistance. Our aim was to pyramid a semi-dwarfing gene (sd 1)
and two blast resistance genes (Pib and Pita-2) into the cultivars 'Strella' and 'Allorio' using
marker assisted backcrossing (MAB). A total of 165 SSR were used to search for polymorphism
among parents. The selected polymorphic SSR were used to track the genome of the recurrent
parent and specific markers were used to confirm the presence of genes of interest in the
backcross populations. After selection in F2 progenies with specific markers and SSR, we have
recovered the 3 genes of interest in the recipient backgrounds.

66. Is it possible to complement the Shiltz scale with biochemical and
molecular analysis to evaluate tobacco varieties' (Nicotiana tabacum
L.) resistance to blue mold?

Perez Lara, E.', Rodriguez, L.2, Garcia, H.' and Valdez, M.3
'Tobacco Research Institute, Plant Breeding Department, Carretera Tumbadero Km. 8'2, San
Antonio de Los Bafios, La Habana, Cuba. E-mail: enidpl@iitabaco.co.cu
2BSc. Biology Student. Biology Faculty, University of Havana, Cuba
3Molecular Biology Laboratory, Plan Biology Department, Biology Faculty, University of
Havana, Cuba

Seven Cuban tobacco varieties were tested using the Coresta scale described by Shiltz in 1974 to
evaluate their resistance to blue mold (Peronospora hyosciami f sp. tabacina). This scale was the
only test used in Cuba to evaluate resistance to blue mold and it depends on natural attack by the
pathogen. Recently, molecular and biochemical characteristics of plants have been used to study
varieties' behavior in the presence of pathogens. Isozymes and total protein electrophoresis are
frequently used, as well as ISTR (inverse sequence-tagged reverse) analysis. This work aimed to
evaluate the physical behavior of the tobacco varieties under natural attack by blue mold, and to
find isozyme bands and ISTR that are probably related to resistance. Leaf samples were collected
25 days after transplant, when the plants begin to show resistance but in the absence of the
pathogen. A total extract was done for protein electrophoresis and DNA extraction was carried
out. Following a natural attack by blue mold about 35 days after transplant, we evaluated the
varieties using the Coresta scale and prepared a second total extract for protein electrophoresis.
The varieties showed different levels of stress under attack, according to the Coresta scale.
Isozymes and total proteins showed a higher number of band patterns and stronger color
resolution of some bands when the plants were under stress than before the attack. Isozymes
could be related to the results of the Coresta scale, but ISTR analysis showed low polymorphism,
not permitting inferences about the bands involved in resistance.

67. Recurrent selection mapping in two diverse maize populations
selected for northern leaf blight resistance

Poland, J.A.'*, Wisser, R.J.1, and Nelson, R.J.1 2
'The Institute for Genomic Diversity, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell
University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
2Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
*Corresponding author e-mail: jap226@comell.edu

Recurrent selection (RS) is commonly used for trait improvement in crop species. Using RS, the
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) achieved significant gains for
resistance to northern leaf blight (NLB), a disease of global significance, in eight diverse sub-
tropical maize populations. In two of the populations, putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for
NLB resistance were identified by RS mapping, an approach to locate significant changes in
allele frequency in RS populations. We examined the extent to which common loci or
chromosomal segments were associated with RS in separate, but similarly selected populations.
In the populations, 101 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were evaluated. In the two populations,
28 and 25 loci exhibited significant deviations from drift. Of these, nine loci exhibited significant
deviations in both populations. However, the alleles which increased in frequency in the two
different populations were not the same. The results presented here suggest that there were
several common loci associated with NLB selection between these populations but there is little
correlation between the SSR allele(s) that increased in frequency.

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