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Title: CIMMYT economics program
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077470/00001
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Title: CIMMYT economics program
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2001
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Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
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Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00077470
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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WHAT do CIMMYT

economists do?


CIMMYT economists ask and answer
fundamental questions about
CIMMYT's maize and wheat
research: Do our research products
help people? How do they help
them? Can we design research
products that are better at meeting
farmers' needs? Are we conducting
research efficiently? Are factors
beyond research-such as public
policies-helping or hindering
farmers? Should we enter certain
areas of research? Should we
abandon others?

In other words, CIMMYT economists
analyze the elements of success in
maize and wheat production, from


farmers' fields to the global
marketplace. They also investigate
the elements of success in maize and
wheat research.

To learn why crop production and
research succeed in some instances
and not in others, economists study
technology, the product of research.
Technology constitutes practices and
inputs-such as improved seed,
labor, fertilizer, water, or crop
management strategies-that are
used to grow crops. Economists
study how researchers design
technology and how farmers use it,
to learn what makes research yield
good results.


WHY is Economics Program

research important?


The information and analysis
provided by the Economics Program
are crucial for CIMMYT and its
research partners to help poor
people in developing countries
overcome hunger, poverty, and
environmental problems.

The Economics Program develops a
global perspective on food policy
with specific reference to the wheat
and maize sectors. Economists work
closely with biological scientists to
evaluate maize and wheat
technologies that farmers need to
increase the likelihood that farmers
will use a given research product.
They also help biological scientists to
foresee and take into consideration


the potential technical, economic,
environmental, and social impacts of
new technology-especially any
negative effects-before they
become a problem in the field.

A related role is to determine which
factors limit (or may eventually
limit) farmers' use of new
technology. For example, farmers
may be perfectly willing to use
improved seed but may be unable to
obtain the seed locally.

The Economics Program also
provides the hard numbers to show
funding agencies whether investing
in agricultural research generates
attractive benefits.









Research ACTIVITIES


Assessing impacts of maize
and wheat research and
technology adoption
Impact assessment examines how
improved wheat and maize
technologies produced by CIMMYT
affect human welfare, particularly of
disadvantaged groups like subsistence
farmers, impoverished consumers,
people living in marginal
environments, and women and
children. In particular, impact
assessments:
* Document impacts of maize and wheat breeding
* Document impacts of crop and resource management
technologies
* Include case studies on technology adoption
* Link adoption to productivity gains, poverty
alleviation, and resource conservation


Economics of
emerging technologies
CIMMYT economists analyze the
potential impacts of new technologies
to develop a diffusion strategy that
produces the greatest benefits for
farmers. This work currently revolves
around:
* Assessing the impacts of emerging technologies like
new plant types, new crop management practices, and
biotechnology
* Analyzing farmer participatory methods for
technology design and development

Economics of
genetic diversity
Crop genetic diversity-the diversity
of sets of genes in a crop species-is
the basis of our food supply and vital
for our survival. Having crop varieties
that respond well to continuous and
unexpected environmental changes
benefits both farmers and consumers.
At CIMMYT, we:
* Examine the costs and benefits of both ex- and
in situ conservation
* Assess the impact of genetic diversity on crop
productivity
* Analyze farmer participatory approaches to
genetic resource management and conservation


IN


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Setting research priorities
The Economics Program provides
information and analysis to research
managers in CIMMYT and national
agricultural research systems (NARSs)
in Asia, Latin America, and Africa.
This helps to determine the most
important areas of research to
undertake-based on criteria that
include the probability of success, the
numbers of poor people likely to
benefit, and the extent of the research
problem. In CIMMYT, this includes:
* Breeding versus crop management research
* Conventional breeding versus biotechnology
* Priority issues for breeding and crop management

Topics currently under consideration
in NARSs are:
* What priority should research give to rainfed versus
irrigated environments?
* What priority should research give to upland versus
lowland environments?


Sector and policy analysis
By planning carefully and devising
appropriate policies, governments can
ease adjustments to the evolving food
supply and demand situation. To plan
well, decision makers need accurate
information and practical
recommendations for strengthening
rural people's welfare and protecting
the environment. The CIMMYT
Economics Program looks at how
current research directions or policies
influence national maize or wheat
production, whether it is economically
beneficial to promote wheat and maize
production, and the efficiency of
collaborating on specific aspects of
research. More specifically, the
program:
* Monitors developments in global markets and the
global policy environment
* Projects implications for CIMMYT crops
* Generates information for research managers and
policy makers


Research SUPPORT


Through collaborative research, networking, and
training (both formal and informal "hands-on"
training), the Economics Program strengthens the
institutional and human capacity of NARSs and
facilitates greater public awareness of maize and
wheat research.









WHERE do CIMMYT


economists work?

The Economics Program collaborates closely with researchers from
developed and developing countries to further common research
agendas. A number of activities such as impact assessment and
economics of genetic diversity are led from CIMMYT headquarters in
Mexico, whereas others are led by economists posted to specific regions.


Asia
Ea.t and Southeast Aria
In China India Indonesia Nepal the
Philippines Thailand and Vietnam-Aii.hij.
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.:.1 Ijrn.-r ;i.j ,jr- .i ironmentally responsive.

In China-CIMMYT economists and research
partners are gathering wheat diversity data at the
aggregate and household levels. Research themes
include the relationship between productivity and
genetic diversity, and how household
decisions related to wheat technologies affect
diversity levels.

South Asia
In Nepal, Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan-
CIMMYT economists provide socioeconomic
support to the consortium that conducts research
on long-term productivity of South Asia's
rice-wheat rotation.

Central Asia and the Caucasus
In Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan,
Kyrgyzstan, and Azerbaijan-With local
researchers, CIMMYT economists examine
possibilities and constraints in wheat production,
with particular attention to the role of current and
future wheat technologies and regional interaction
in terms of research spillovers and trade.

West Asia and North Africa
(WANA)
In Turkey-CIMMYT economists are conducting
research on household variety choice decisions in
wheat production and their relationship to in situ
conservation of wheat genetic resources and
distributional equity among households and
regions in Turkey.


Africa
Eastern and Southern Africa
From our base in Nairobi, Kenya and Harare,
Zimbabwe-CIMMYT economists work across
Eastern jid. Southern Africa in collaborative
research, networking, and training to strengthen
the priority-setting capacity of national research
programs and to strengthen communications
between national research programs, policy
makers and national program socio-economics.



Latin America
Mexico
In the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Oaxaca,
Mexico-CIMMYT economists and research
associates from the Mexican National Institute
of Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock Research
(INIFAP) explore ways to work with farmers to
conserve diverse maize landraces.

Central America
In Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama-CIMMYT
economists work with a network of local social
scientists and researchers to identify and
characterize competitive maize areas in each
country.

Southern Cone
In Brazil and Argentina-CIMMYT economists
look at the impact of zero tillage on small-scale
farmers and seek to determine the conditions
that enable them to increase their income
through this technology.








FACTS and TRENDS
The Economics Program produces Facts and Trends, an
annual publication that provides comprehensive data
and analysis of global and country-level trends in wheat
and maize demand, production, and trade. The report,
which covers maize and wheat in alternate years, is
widely recognized for its theme articles, which explore
major issues related to wheat and maize research and
production in developing countries. Recent reports have
addressed such wide-ranging themes as measures and
assessments of genetic diversity in wheat, the potential
of maize research for marginal (especially drought-
prone) environments, and the evolution and adoption of
conservation agriculture in developing countries.

Facts and Trends is a key CIMMYT publication that
reaches thousands in the developed and developing
world. It is produced by CIMMYT economists in
collaboration with researchers from CIMMYT's Wheat
and Maize Programs as well as other researchers
worldwide.

Starting in 2001, this popular series will have a new
name: Overview and Outlook.





















Contact Information:
Prabhu Pingali, Director,
CIMMYT Economics Program
(p.pingali@cgiar.org)



II CIMMYT.
INTERNATIONAL MAIZE AND WHEAT IMPROVEMENT CENTER


www.cimmyt.org




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