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 Front Cover
 Introduction
 The global wheat impacts study...
 The global maize impacts study...
 Impacts in Eastern Africa : results...
 Sustainable production through...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Sampling of CIMMYT impacts ...
Title: Sampling of CIMMYT impacts, 1999
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 Material Information
Title: Sampling of CIMMYT impacts, 1999
Series Title: Sampling of CIMMYT impacts ...
Alternate Title: New global and regional studies
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2000
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
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Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00077467
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 155130356

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Introduction
        Page i
    The global wheat impacts study : overview and preliminary findings
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The global maize impacts study : overview and preliminary findings from Latin America
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Impacts in Eastern Africa : results of recent studies
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Sustainable production through reduced tillage in maize and wheat systems
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text


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Impact, 199





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g# ^^^^t/ KVv f~y^ '4



,D' ^^ '^ ^ N, N 9 N 99 ^^










Introduction

CIINIh T and it. partner, ,_ ngag~ min
oneL of the \ orld Illmo't amblitliotl'.
IhU1nltllltnrllin enllic vorl.. to ;thiLr,
'e foilm a global w heat and maizc
Ilpio\ c nL' t ."\'tLem t[hat 'Luk.-, to
letter tle II 'u- ot m1llon1 o.f ot Poo
arI t1110 11nd con-.LI\U llr0 II
devl opIiln COuntriCl..

NlaiTzu and WhLat arc ,Itapi 1ood0 ,
anld il 1orti1ant -,OLIICL' ot 11 nlc0 n
i\ 1rt llv l\' \ heluui IIn thu
duL eloping w'rl Id. Together thes.c
two crop', provide about oncl--ouluth
ot th 10od0 CIloriel co111.111l med in
dL\ eIlopiln CouLntiles. BuCaLlL. thl'.L
Clop, iiLe .0 critical to the -,UrI iVal Ot
0 111n\1 peLoplI, WeL beLliC\ L it I-,
imperatne to conduLct I I111ulr,
I igorotiN. tud ie to monitor thu
pio or.e O'. 1 maiZe aind *whe.iat
rLearch.

Thi-, latc.t i.-.Lu of .-,4 Oiii it
Cl-\!,\I''T 1 FIpIIL t- providLc. touir new
global and re'i1onal pI ItpLctiv'01. on
IC'"LdI i1h impa1ct-.

* The Global Wheat Impacts Study:
Overview and Preliminary Findings
* The Global Maize Impacts Study:
Overview and Preliminary Findings
from Latin America
* Impacts in Eastern Africa: Results of
Recent Studies
* Sustainable Production through
Reduced Tillage in Maize and Wheat
Systems


Global and regional

perspectives on crop
improvement research
ThL ;global WhtLat Itrud\ pri\ Idt-
thle latu.t infoll at1 1 on ki 1 heat
IU"UaiCh i11mp ct-' III all ic ii11_., Ot
thL L'\ de liopri i world. It
coinclu,i\'Vl\ docLIImLent'. that ieccnt
aclilUil'ellult. inI w llu t

Imlpf L iL' i'i' l i 0I 1
1i1ipre1ne are U a 't t
accO'mplihmenlnt', ',LL n aIn thIIC'I in
the %\ world. The maize tiud\
prIO Ide. illionlt i tioln toi Latlin
A\11le1c ILi tidit'tl-, ln \fic a a nd
\ia 'IrIt fl o thcoli lo ig I. It
dcmon'Ltratc' that common l\ l hild
Inllti)n-. tiLioL t the role ktLI public-
and privatlu--Lctor ie.Liadch in the
region nImuLt bL rLc'i. IldLred It
.iiarnini-er are to ain greater acc'.-, to
impiiI ed maize. Together thu e
'.tudie' hi-illiht the mpIoritalnce
ol--alld 1ontlinu11 ng needil t or-tuII\
international collabora tn e maiZL
nlld \h lia't improvel'mll int 'x\'.tcI1-.



Regional perspectives

on technology adoption
and impact
Oui [lofft to aI e'C e" impact doek' not
und with global .tudieL' o0 tocu-I
onli on crop impio\ element
re',earch. A. the other two articlc-'
in thi, publication dUimoni'htratL,
Impll ct a.-''(lC'-' lnt I a.1 dlullllia din
procL"i-,. tor a ,glet InunbllI 1i OL our
rC-,carLhCIL I- ad pahiL r,--
e'Cpucia ll tfarmer, w\\ Tho himc and
eltoi l to collaborate \\ ith iiu arc
111 alulable. .\n iIpor tant a-.pecCt of


thel,c impact a-.---ment-, i- that thev
hl I p u'. to develop method'-.-nd
tl'iil othur---to coilnduct more
lfective\' anial\ '.e. partiLlairly oft
I1101i collplu\ crop aild reu-,Olll
mllalaglIcnllL t tclchnologl lc. I!! thl-
puLbliCatrio1 W'U L\lllllll m U L' Ilt. oIt
ieccn1t impact tudlU- l' Eain ,tertl
.\trica ind io reLearch o0n Ireduced
tillagC tchlnologic. inI Latin .\mLrica
and \-,ia.



Future impacts
.\n impoi tant nmI'-aiL ot the .tutdie'
prel',elltcd 1he I I that thll\ IIlL
forward-looking,. in the '.Uen' that
the inlfornIltion thev piok id. hulp-
to orient tLtului reI`Larich. Thue\ 1I\cL
u'. insight Into lhichI actorr, arU
liLklv to ad\'ance o0 attLenuLate the
eltecti urne-', of re.eaich inI a
mulhttdde ot changing
CirlCIIm.lltaICLB-dLc lning11 tLlldin
o 1.r m11n\ ntin.il rLe. arL'ch
piolgram1." thle friequlUnt lack of
tIliltL r.Li ppOlr t '-LI VIic.: thL labLcICL
or pieL'.Lnce ot th, private -.ector in
ICL'.ai ch. and thle emerL'gence ot IIew
form-' ot intellectual property
protLctLion. 'luch in-iglht.- aui,
ex\tiLcILl\' important, bLcaIU-.L
reiL, archler-. arLe not \\ working to\ ard-.
ai \ ion o t what fail m1, need todax\
thc\L aiL anticipating IaIrmel-i' nLLcd.
more than fi\'L to t'uentV \'LOr" tr.O1
now'. The la.tinlg conti Ibution ot
impact -itudL-ie to to hTlp It.
undUrstalld hot,' i,', can work todav
to akldk bood .LCLIit\ Ia reality\ toi all
peopiL i11n the ar\'.r- to co0111.
















Objectives of CIMMYT's Global

Wheat Impacts Work
Our study of the global impacts of
international wheat research is designed to
achieve five objectives: to document the use
of CIMMYT-related and other improved
wheat germplasm; document the farm-level
adoption of improved wheat germplasm;
identify factors that affect adoption of
modern varieties (MVs); generate
information for research priority setting; and
provide information to raise awareness of the
importance and benefits of international
wheat research.

Coverage
To conduct the study, we sent questionnaires
to all 41 countries in the developing world
that produce 20,000 t or more of wheat
annually (the nations of Central Asia and the
Caucasus were not included). We received
responses from 36 countries, representing
just under 99% of all wheat production in the
developing world. Coverage by region is
shown in Table 1.


Table 1. Regional coverage for the global wheat
impacts study


Region (
Asia
West Asia and North Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
Latin America


Coverage
% of total wheat production)
99.7
94.3
98.3
Nearly 100


Global Wheat Research Efforts

by National Agricultural

Research Systems (NARSs)
In both the earlier study of Bohn and
Byerlee (1993) and this one, research
intensity measured by


scientists per million tons
of wheat production tends
to fall with increasing
wheat production. This
appears to be an empirical
regularity. Actual numbers
of scientists involved in
wheat improvement
research must be treated
with considerable caution,
given the difficulties of
measuring with a more


Impact fact: In 1991-

97, virtually 90%

of the spring bread

wheats released

in developing

countries had

CIMMYT ancestry.


impersonal questionnaire and the
difficulties in including other scientists (e.g.,
researchers in universities) who conduct
research related to wheat improvement.

In terms of number of scientists per million
metric tons of wheat production, wheat
research intensity seems to be slightly
greater than reported by Bohn
and Byerlee: 6.2 scientists
per million tons across
the developing
world in 1997
compared to
5.3 in 1992-93
(Figure 1).


CIMMYT Impactsl999










Scientists/million t wheat
30
3 1992
25 =1997
25

20

15

10

5

0

6


Figure 1. Wheat improvement scientists per
million tons of wheat production, developing
countries.



This difference is largely caused by a greater
number of wheat improvement scientists
reported for China in 1997; with China
excluded, the 1992-93 and 1997 figures are
almost identical. Furthermore, research by
the International Food Policy Research
Institute (IFPRI) and International Service
for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR)
suggests that financial support to
agricultural research in many national
research systems has fallen in recent years.
This trend has been masked at the aggregate
level by continued support to research in
strong research systems in large countries
such as China and India. Wheat
improvement by national research systems
appears to be increasingly dualistic, with
large countries such as China and India
continuing to support such research, at the
same time that funding in many smaller
research systems is declining.


Releases of Wheat Varieties
The rate at which wheat varieties are
released, as measured by the number of
varieties released per million hectares of
wheat per year, appears to have increased in
recent years in several regions, including
West Asia/North Africa (WANA) and Sub-
Saharan Africa.

The rate of release of varieties over the
past 30+ years has been much higher in both
Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa than
in the rest of the developing world. These
higher rates of release may be associated with
smaller wheat areas, greater diversity in
mega-environments, and greater
participation of the private sector in wheat
improvement.

Nearly all spring bread wheats released
by NARSs in developing countries are now
semidwarf types. In the latest period (1991-
97), of all spring bread wheats released by
NARSs, 56% were CIMMYT crosses,
sometimes with reselection by the national
research program; 28% were NARS crosses
with at least one CIMMYT parent; 5% were
NARS crosses with at least some known
CIMMYT ancestry; .,- were NARS
semidwarfs with other ancestry; and 3% were
tall varieties (Figure 2).

In winter/facultative bread wheats, in
1991-97, of all releases by NARS, 19% were
CIMMYT crosses; 11i were NARS crosses
with at least one CIMMYT parent; 9% were
NARS crosses with known CIMMYT
ancestry; 41% were NARS semidwarfs with
other ancestry; and 1' were tall varieties
(Figure 3). The number of winter/facultative
wheat releases has been considerably higher
in 1991-97 than in earlier periods,
particularly in WANA. The percentage of
winter/ facultative NARS releases that
contain CIMMYT germplasm has also been


2
CIMMYT Impacts 1999










Im

199

the s

whe

ir

C(


Percentage of releases
100

80


Tall
S Other semidwarf
S CIMMYT ancestry
CIMMYT parent
CIMMYT cross


pact fact: In considerably higher in
1991-97 than in earlier
)1-97, 98% of
periods. Non-CIMMYT
pring durum winter/facultative
semidwarfs were mainly
ats released Chinese releases.

Developing Compared with
entries had spring bread wheats, an
countries had
even greater proportion
CIMMYT of spring durum wheats
released by NARSs
ancestry, contain CIMMYT
germplasm. Over 1991-
97, of all releases, 77% were CIMMYT
crosses; 19% were NARS crosses with at
least one CIMMYT parent; 2% were NARS
crosses with known CIMMYT ancestry; and
2% were tall varieties (Figure 4).

Farmers' Adoption of

Improved Wheat Varieties
Just over ,,,, of the wheat area in the
developing world is planted to semidwarf
varieties. Sixty-two percent of the total
wheat area is planted to CIMMYT-related
varieties, including varieties with earlier
CIMMYT ancestry.

The proportion of wheat area planted to
CIMMYT-related material is greater for
spring bread wheat and spring durum
wheat than for winter or facultative wheat
types (Figures 5, 6, and 7). For spring bread
wheat, 59% of total area is planted to
CIMMYT crosses or varieties with at least
one CIMMYT parent, and 79% of total area
is planted to all CIMMYT-related varieties;
for spring durum wheat, 69% of total area
is planted to CIMMYT crosses or varieties
with at least one CIMMYT parent. In spring
durum wheat, the area planted to all
CIMMYT-related varieties is almost


Percentage of releases
100 -o -


Tall
S Other semidwarf
CIMMYT ancestry
CIMMYT parent
IMMYT cross


1966-70 71-75 76-80 81-85 86-90 91-97 66-97
Figure 3. Winterlfacultative bread wheat
releases by time period, developing
countries.


Percentage of releases
100 U


Tall
S Other semidwarf
CIMMYT ancestry
CIMMYT parent
CIMMYT cross


1966-70 71-75 76-80 81-85 86-90 91-97 66-97
Figure 4. Spring durum wheat releases
by time period, developing countries.


3
CIMMYT Impacts 1999


1966-70 71-75 76-80 81-85 86-90 91-97 66-97
Figure 2. Spring bread wheat releases
by time period, developing countries.










Impact fact:

Developing country

farmers plant

CIMMYT-related

wheats on 79% of

the spring bread

wheat area. In some

parts of the world,

this percentage is

even higher.


identical to this figure,
since few programs
using CIMMYT durum
materials incorporate
CIMMYT germplasm at
earlier stages in the
breeding process. In
winter / facultative
wheat, only 9% of the
total area is planted to
CIMMYT crosses or
varieties with one or two
CIMMYT parents, and
24% of the total area is
planted to all CIMMYT-
related varieties.


Landraces are sown on 15% of the total
winter or facultative wheat area and 21
of the spring durum area, but landraces
are found on only 2% of the spring bread
wheat area.


% of total spring bread wheat area
Unknown E 100 7 -
Landraces = -
Tallwith I,,, i, 80 -- -
Other semidwarf
Any CIMMYT ancestor 0
At least one CIMMYT -
parent -
CIMMYT cross O 40

20 .- -

0





Figure 5. Area planted to spring bread
wheat in developing countries, 1997.


Reference
Bohn, A., and D. Byerlee. 1993. The wheat breeding
industry in developing countries: An analysis of
investments and impacts. Part 1 of 1992/93 CIMMYT
World Wheat Facts and Trends. Singapore: CIMMYT.


For more information, contact: m.lantican@cgiar.org


% of total spring durum wheat area
100 1 m1Im


80

60

40

20


] Unknown
- M Landraces
_ [ Tall with pedigree
M Other semidwarf
E Any CIMMYT ancestor
SI ,I I one CIMMYT
parent
- DCIMMYT cross


Figure 6. Area planted to spring durum
wheat in developing countries, 1997.


% of total facultative/winter bread wheat area
100 U-nknown
Landraces
80 I Tall with pedigree
O Other semidwarf
60 Any CIMMYT ancestor
O At least one CIMMYT
parent
40 O CIMMYT cross


Figure 7. Area planted to facultative/winter
bread wheat, developing countries, 1997.


4
CIMMYT Impacts 1999


















Objectives of CIMMYT's Global
Maize Impacts Work
Our study of the global impacts of international
maize breeding research is designed to achieve
several objectives: document the use of
CIMMYT-related maize germplasm; document
the farm-level adoption of CIMMYT-related
maize germplasm; identify factors that affect
adoption of modern varieties (MVs); monitor
the performance of national maize seed
industries; generate information for priority
setting; and provide information to raise
awareness of the importance and benefits of
international maize research.

The global maize impacts study is
composed of three regional studies. The study
for Latin America has been completed
(preliminary results are presented here), and
studies for Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are
underway. To complement the global effort,
numerous country-level case studies of MV
adoption have been published (for an overview
of recent studies from eastern Africa, see page
7), and more are planned.

Special Challenges Associated
with Maize Impacts Studies
Documenting the impacts of maize breeding
research involves a number of special
challenges. Several technical measurement
issues must be considered: How do we define
"improved germplasm" when we know that a
lot of outcrossing goes on in farmers' fields?
How do we estimate the area planted to
improved germplasm? How do we quantify
productivity gains attributable to MV
adoption? How do we allocate credit among


different breeding programs for productivity
gains attained through breeding?

Practical issues must also be addressed.
With more and more maize breeding taking


place in the private sector,
access to data is becoming
more complicated. In
conducting maize research
impacts studies, CIMMYT
researchers must determine
how to obtain reliable
pedigree information for MVs;
information about the use of
CIMMYT-related germplasm;
and reliable information about
private-sector seed sales.
Many data disclosure/
confidentiality issues mediate
access to this information. It is
important to ensure the
confidentiality of data
provided by respondents and
to maintain a policy related to


Impact fact:

Private seed

companies have

made little effort

to target

subsistence

farmers-the vast

majority of Latin

American maize

producers. Public-

sector research

for these farmers


the disclosure and distribution of raw data.

Preliminary Results from
Latin America
The Latin American Maize Impacts Study has
generated detailed information about the area
planted to MVs (Table 1) and the use of
CIMMYT maize germplasm (Table 2) in Latin
America. It has also generated information
about sales of seed of open-pollinated varieties
vs. hybrids (Figure 1) and sales of publicly
produced vs. privately produced seed (Figure
2). Although the complete study will be
published later in 1999, preliminary results
have already provided valuable information for


5
CIMMYT Impacts 1999











maize researchers and policy makers. One of the
most salient points to emerge is that some
widely held assumptions about the roles and
scope of private- and public-sector breeding
and seed production may need to be revised. It
is becoming increasingly clear that continued
support for public maize breeding research will
be required if the needs of small-scale and semi-
subsistence farmers are to be met.

Approximately 98% of all commercial maize
seed sold in Latin America in 1997 was sold by
private companies. Of this seed, approximately
75% was seed of proprietary hybrids whose
pedigrees contained CIMMYT-derived
germplasm. These data suggest that it is simply
not accurate to contend that the private sector is
poised to take over international maize
breeding. Private-sector maize breeders
continue to rely heavily on CIMMYT-derived
germplasm.

In 1997, about 48% of the total area planted
to maize in Latin America was planted to
improved OPVs and hybrids; the remaining
52% was planted to local varieties. In Mexico
and Central America, only 20% of the total area
planted to maize was planted to improved
OPVs and hybrids; fully s, r of the maize area
in this region was still planted to local varieties.
Evidently private seed companies are making
little effort to target subsistence and semi-
subsistence farmers, who constitute the vast
majority of maize producers in Latin America.
Instead, the seed companies are competing with
one another for market share within the
relatively small commercial farming sector. The
obvious lack of interest from private companies
in the subsistence and semi-subsistence farming
sectors, coupled with the recent decline in
strength of many national research programs in
Latin America, underscores the need for
continuing public investment in maize breeding
research and in the production and distribution
of seed of open-pollinated varieties.

For more information, contact: m.morris@cgiar.org


Table 1. Adoption of maize MVs, Latin America, 1996


Mexico
Central America
Andean Zone
Southern Cone
Total


Maize
area
(M ha)

7.9
1.6
2.3
17.0
29.1


Land-
races
(%)
79.7
78.3
55.6
37.1
52.1


Improved:
OPVs Hybrids
(%) (%)
1.1 19.2
3.3 18.5
8.2 36.2
6.1 56.8
5.0 42.9


Table 2. Use of CIMMYT germplasm, Latin America,
1996


Mexico
Central America
Andean Zone
Southern Cone
Total


Area planted to
CIMMYT-derived:
OPVs Hybrids

64 1,363
54 291
174 806
711 6,969
1,072 9,513


% of
maize
area

18.1
21.1
43.4
45.3
36.3


Seed (t)
300,000
OPVs
250,000 Hybri
Hybrids
200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

0
1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97
Figure 1. Sales of seed of improved open-pollinated
maize varieties (OPVs) and hybrids, Latin America.


Seed (t)
300,000
Public
250,000 Private
I Private
200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

0
1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97

Figure 2. Public vs. private seed sales, Latin America.


6
CIMMYT Impacts 1999
















Thirty studies produced under a project to
strengthen economics and policy research in
eastern Africa (sponsored by the European
Union) will serve as a comprehensive
reference on two issues of prime importance
to eastern African national research programs
and the farmers they serve: 1) current
adoption of improved maize and wheat
varieties and related technology, especially
soil fertility practices; and 2) factors that
positively and negatively influence adoption
of these technologies, especially the role of
gender; seed supply systems; farmers' seed
management practices; extension; and credit
and input supply policies. Taken together,
these studies offer a clearer picture of research
impact throughout the region. Highlights of
some studies completed to date follow.

Ethiopia
A study of farmers' wheat seed sources and
seed management in Chilalo Awraja sought to
clarify farmers' seed acquisition and transfer
mechanisms and explore associated problems,
as well as to document the status of
previously released bread wheat varieties with
respect to the purity and viability of seed.

Wheat area in Chilalo Awraja doubled
from 1992 to 1995, mainly as a result of
farmers' adoption of the varieties Dashen and
Pavon-76. A new variety stays in production
without problems for only four years.
Vulnerability to disease is farmers' chief
reason for disadopting a variety, followed by
susceptibility to frost, declining yields, and
availability of better varieties.


Farmers' main source of wheat seed was
seed retained from the previous harvest,
although when farmers first plant a new
wheat variety, their main sources of seed are
the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ethiopian
Seed Enterprise. The farmer's proximity to
the seed source positively influenced
adoption of new wheat varieties, as did the
farmer's contact with extension in the
preceding year.

In 1995/96, the majority of farmers used
seed saved from the previous harvest.
According to farmers, the major problems
associated with recycling seed are lower
yields (21.9%), loss of disease resistance
(34.1%), and weed problems (42.1%). Fifty-
seven percent of the farmers interviewed
store their seed separately from grain
intended for home consumption, 19% have
separate fields for seed, 21% thresh seed
separately from grain, and 87% clean seed at
planting.

Wheat seed was tested in the field and the
laboratory. Seed samples were analyzed for
viability, purity, off-types, and grain size.
Except for Tikur Sinde, all of the varieties met
the minimum germination requirement of
,'5 seed set, which is the Ethiopian standard
for certified seed. Most seed samples met the
Ethiopian purity standards for commercial
seed (95% pure) and certified seed (97%
pure). Fields planted with seed from Arsi
Agricultural Development Enterprise and
Ethiopian Seed Enterprise had fewer weeds


7
Cir Ih. lowI9










than fields planted with farmers' own seed or
seed obtained from other farmers. The
average percentage of off-types in farmers'
wheat fields was about 3.5%, which is higher
than the percentage permitted in Ethiopian
standards for certified and commercial seed
(0.1-0.5%). The highest thousand-kernel
weight was recorded for the variety Israel,
followed by Batu.

CIMMYT Partners: Regassa Ensermu and
Mohammed Hassena, Kulumsa Research Center.

Kenya
Kenyan researchers assessed the adoption of
seed and fertilizer packages and the role of
credit in smallholder maize production in
Kakamega and Vihiga
Impact fact: In 2
Districts. Their study focused

areas in Kenya, on documenting maize
farmers' current
about half of the circumstances and practices,
identifying factors affecting
farmers surveyed adoption of seed-fertilizer
technology, and identifying
grew farmers' sources and use of

maize. credit to purchase seed and
fertilizer.

About half of the sample farmers grew
improved maize varieties. Hybrid maize
yields 1.5 t/ha on average compared to
1 t/ha for local maize varieties. Adoption of
improved maize is positively influenced by
district, livestock ownership, use of hired
labor, and extension contacts. Many farmers
stopped growing hybrids over 1992-96,
mainly because of high seed prices. More of
the adopters of improved maize (45.6%) used
chemical fertilizer compared to non-adopters
(23.1%). Adoption of chemical fertilizer is
positively influenced by district, livestock
ownership, and membership in an
organization. The use of manure negatively
affects the adoption of fertilizer. The main


constraint to use of fertilizer is its high price.
The role of credit is not significant in
technology adoption. Only 5% of the sample
farmers used credit to purchase either
chemical fertilizer or improved maize seed.

CIMMYT Partners: Beatrice Salasya, M.
Odendo, and J.J. Odenya; Regional Research
Center, Kakamega.

Uganda
In Iganga District, Uganda, a research team
gathered information on farmers' current
agricultural practices, particularly maize
production practices and the constraints on
adoption of new maize technology. This
information was used to form an assessment
of factors affecting adoption of maize
production technologies, define
recommendations based on the resource
endowments and specific decision factors of
target groups of farmers, and propose
possible solutions to problems.

The research team found that about 41
of the sample farmers grew improved maize.
Adopters of improved maize were slightly
older, owned larger farms, were more
educated, used more hired labor, participated
more in farmers' groups as well as non-farm
employment, had more access to extension
services, and sold more maize. Men were
more likely than women to adopt improved
maize. Adopters and non-adopters did not
differ appreciably in their access to credit,
household size, farming experience, maize
area, and livestock ownership. Virtually none
of the farmers used recommended fertilizers
and herbicides. A small proportion of the
sample farmers had access to farm credit to
purchase these inputs, but farmers cited lack


8
CIMMYT Impacts 1999










of awareness as the main reason for not
using inputs. Farmers' reasons for adopting
the preferred improved maize variety, Longe
1, were (in descending order of importance)
early maturity, high yield, and filled cobs.
Farmers who did not grow Longe 1
preferred Kawanda Composite A for its large
grains, sweetness, and taste. Farmers'
education, the use of hired labor, and
membership in an organization positively
influenced the adoption of improved maize
seed. Land ownership had a negative impact
on the adoption of improved maize seed.

CIMMYT Partners: William Nanyeenya and
Mary Mutetikka, National Agricultural Research
Organization.

Tanzania
A nationwide study of the economic impact
of maize research in Tanzania quantified the
impact of maize research between 1974 and
1994, with the ultimate objectives of
formulating maize research priorities and
deriving policy recommendations that could
lead to improved adoption of maize
technologies.

The estimated rate of return on the
investments in maize research and
development was 19%. Total maize area in
1994 was 1.65 million hectares; 42% was
planted to landraces, 22% was planted to
improved open-pollinated varieties (OPVs),
and 36% was planted to hybrids. Farmers
adopted the improved technologies in a
stepwise fashion, whereby they first adopted
inexpensive technologies (such as row
planting) and only later adopted more
expensive technologies (such as chemical
controls for pests and diseases). Lack of
information and credit have been cited by
farmers as constraints to adoption. Extension
services should be strengthened and


appropriate policy measures should be
promoted to provide credit for inputs.

CIMMYT Partners: Tanzania National Research
Progi-raniCIMMYT/SACCAR

Gender-Related Studies
In Ada, Lume, and Gimbichu Woredas of the
Central Highlands of Ethiopia, researchers


investigated whether there
were gender differentials in
the adoption of improved
wheat varieties. They
documented that the
proportion of male-headed
households 'i 1'1 ) that
adopted improved wheat
varieties was significantly
higher than the proportion of
female-headed households
(14%). In male-headed
households, farm size and
extension contact significantly
and positively influenced the
adoption of improved
varieties. In female-headed


Impact fact: In the

Southern Highlands

of Tanzania,

adoption of

improved maize

was strongly

influenced by the

gender of the

household head.


households, farm size and owning a radio
had significant and positive effects on the
probability of adopting improved varieties.

Another project, this one in the Mbeya
Region of the Southern Highlands of
Tanzania, examined whether there were
gender differentials in adoption of improved
maize production technologies. As was the
case in Ethiopia, researchers in Tanzania
found that the proportion of male-headed
households (84%) that adopted improved
maize varieties was significantly higher than
the proportion of female-headed households
(62%). The factors that most strongly
influenced adoption of improved maize
varieties were the gender of the household
head, number of extension contacts, and


9
CIMMYT Impacts 1999










hired labor (the latter two showed positive
effects).

Gender differentials in the adoption of
improved maize technologies were also
studied in Iganga District, eastern Uganda. In
this case, the adoption of improved maize
varieties was 19% for both male- and female-
headed households. In female-headed
households, age (negatively) and farm size
(positively) significantly affected the
adoption of improved maize. In male-headed
households, hired labor had a positive and
significant effect on the probability of
adopting improved maize varieties.

Additional Studies of

Farmers' Seed Sources and

Seed Management
An analysis of farmers' wheat seed sources
and seed management in major wheat
producing areas of Ethiopia indicated that
the formal seed sector produces and
distributes only 15% of the wheat seed in the
country. The popular improved wheat
varieties are Dashen, Enkoy, and Pavon-76,
but they have been affected by either stem
rust or stripe rust. The weighted average age


of varieties is 11-13 years, indicating that
farmers replace current varieties with new
ones only after more than a decade has
passed.

In Kenya, a study of farmers' wheat seed
management and varietal adoption found
that the formal sector produces and
distributes 22% of the wheat seed in the
country. The popular improved wheat
varieties are Kwale and Mbuni (released in
1987), whereas the more recent (1994) releases
Duma, Mbege, and Ngamia are grown by
only 2% of the farmers.

A similar study in Kenya's semiarid areas
focused on maize seed. The formal sector
produces and distributes 11 of the maize
seed in these areas. About 38% of the farmers
said they purchased improved maize
varieties, while 62% bought local maize
varieties. Poor seed quality and
unavailability of seed were the main
constraints to purchasing seed of improved
maize varieties.
For more information, contact:
w.mwangi@cgiar.org or h.verkui l@cgiar.org. For full text of
studies conducted under this project, see "Strengthening
Economics and Policy Research," at
www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/Research/Economics/Index.htm.


10 YT Impacts 1999
CIMMYT Impacts 1999
















Reduced tillage practices offer maize and
wheat farmers in developing countries an
ecologically and economically sound way to
increase productivity, conserve natural
resources (including water and nutrients), and
reduce risk over the long term. CIMMYT has
served as a catalyst for different kinds of
research on reduced tillage with national
program partners throughout the world. What
these researchers have accomplished is
impressive. They have worked in the field
with farmers, amassing considerable
experience with reduced tillage in a range of
settings. They have developed alternative
approaches to tillage and crop residue
management, started to quantify the
biophysical performance of these different
options, fostered farmer participatory research
to tailor the most attractive options to farmers'
circumstances, and they have anticipated
(through modeling) and measured (through
monitoring) longer-term consequences for
productivity and sustainability. By virtue of
this experience, national programs have
identified tillage, rotation, and fertilizer
strategies that should be truly sustainable over
the long term. Not only will farmers realize the
yield potential of improved cultivars; farmers
will reduce their production costs. As a result,
farmers and consumers should benefit from
reduced food costs, improved food security,
and a reduction in poverty.

In this brief, we will focus on impacts in
parts of Latin America and South Asia. We
conduct many other kinds of strategic
agronomic research with partner organizations
throughout the world, although we cannot
describe every initiative here. For more specific


information see People and Partnerships, our
latest Medium-Term Plan (available in print
and on our web site ).

Research in Latin America
In many areas of Latin America, reduced
tillage practices could be extremely
valuable, especially for poor smallholders


(for two Central American
success stories, see the
box, page 16). A growing
number of studies in
Latin America are
forming the basis for a
broader understanding of
issues and potential
options for reduced tillage
in maize and wheat
production systems.
Major activities to date
include researcher-


Impact fact: Bed

planting enables

Mexican farmers to

save 30% on

production costs and

yields substantial

environmental

benefits.


managed on-station and on-farm tillage and
bed planting research in Mexico; tillage
systems for rainfall use efficiency in Bolivia;
and simulation modeling.

Reduced tillage technology for irrigated
environments: Sustainable "bed" planting.
A reduced tillage system developed by
farmers and researchers in Mexico's Yaqui
Valley is showing its potential in the Yaqui
Valley and other irrigated wheat production
environments. In this system, a crop is
grown on raised beds that are divided by
furrows for irrigation. No soil inversion
tillage is used on the beds. Crop residues are
chopped and left on the surface of the beds.


CIMMYT Impacts 1999










The system has several advantages for
farmers and the environment, including:

* Nitrogen can be applied when and where the wheat plants
can use it most efficiently. Yields improve, and nitrogen
losses into the environment are significantly reduced.

* Water conservation improves. As water for agriculture
becomes more scarce in the years to come, water
conservation practices will become more important for
farmers. Researchers in South Asia report a 30% savings in
water use with bed planting.

* Weeds can be controlled by cultivating between the beds-
reducing costs and the need for herbicide.

* Residues are returned to the soil without burning, which is
beneficial to the environment.

* The beds can be used cycle after cycle. Farmers avoid the
financial and environmental costs of making repeated passes
with a conventional plow during land preparation.

Prototype machinery specifically for this
bed planting system has been designed and
tested in Mexico and in Asia. The prototypes
are modifications of standard agricultural
equipment and are expected to be affordable
for poor farmers.

Mexican farmers reportedly save 30% on
their production costs when they use the bed
planting system. Some 10,000 farmers are
thought to use the system in Mexico, and the
number of farmers who are using bed planting
is growing in South Asia (see below) and
China as well.

Tillage trials in Central Mexico. A
sustainability trial initiated in 1991 at
CIMMYT's headquarters research station
provides evidence of the benefits of
conservation tillage in maize and wheat
farming systems and the processes underlying
success. As discovered in similar work by
CIMMYT in other parts of Mexico, the
prerequisite for success is the combination of
conservation tillage and crop residue retention
after harvest. A consistent 25% yield advantage
has been found for the 1996, 1997, and 1998
cycles for cereal rotations under conservation
tillage (Figure 1).


In addition to evidence of added soil
organic matter, trial data suggest an increased
presence of fluorescent psuedomonads
(microbes that are useful in the biological
control of soilborne pathogens) and decreased
incidence of root rot in zero-tillage/residue-
retention systems.

Conservation tillage reduces runoff of
valuable water. A five-fold increase in water
infiltration under conservation tillage
compared to more traditional tillage is
evident in another trial at CIMMYT
headquarters (Figure 2).


Grain yield (kg/ha)
6,000


E ConvT/Remove
-I ConvT/Retain
M ZeroT/Remove
M ZeroT/Retain


Wheat Maize Maize-Maize Wheat Wheat

Figure 1. Grain yield (kg/ha) in cereal crop
rotations under conventional and zero tillage
and retention or removal of crop residues, El
Batan, Mexico, 1996-98.


Infiltration (cm)
30 -


0:00 1:12 2:24 3:36
Time (h)
Bare ZT/O ZT/1.5 ZT/3.0 ZT/4.5


Figure 2. Water infiltration rate under
conventional and zero tillage and retention or
removal of crop residues, El Batan, Mexico.


12
CIMMYT Impacts 1999










Research on rainfed maize systems in
Mexico. Similar evidence of the advantages of
conservation tillage has been documented by
CIMMYT researchers at La Tinaja, a low
rainfall site in Jalisco, Mexico. Since 1994,
CIMMYT, INIFAP (Instituto Nacional de
Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias,
Mexico), and CIRAD (Centre de Cooperation
International en Recherche Agronomique
pour le Developpement, France) have studied
the potential benefits and drawbacks of
conservation tillage within the Mexican
context. (The economic analysis of
conservation tillage practices, which is not
described here because of space limitations, is
an integral part of this research.)

The general benefits of conservation
tillage and improved crop residue
management on system sustainability and
natural resource protection are clearly
significant. The principal physical parameter
modified over time through conservation
tillage is general infiltration of water into the
soil. After five years, infiltration velocity is
always 50-80% more than with other tillage
techniques. Increased soil surface porosity is
linked with the vigorous activity of
mesofauna under conservation tillage. In the
presence of the fresh organic matter on the
surface and the suppression of soil
movement, the earthworm population alone
increases five- to ten-fold, depending on the
amount of residue retained. Another major
benefit of the technology, which is often a
rationale for using conservation tillage, is that
soil erosion is reduced on the order of 50-80%
compared to traditional tillage with disks.

After five years of conservation tillage, the
reduction in erosion, combined with the
effects of returning crop residues to the
cropping system, resulted in a significant
increase in soil organic matter in the upper
part of the soil profile (0-5 cm), representing
an additional sequestration of 0.7-1.0 t carbon


per hectare per year on
average during the first five
years in the top 0-20 cm. The
C sequestration and indirect
effects on global warming are
less dramatic perhaps than in
systems without biomass
exportation (such as forests),
but they are very impressive
for cereal cropping.


Impact fact:

Researchers in

South Asia report

a 30% savings in

water use with

bed planting.


Bolivia: Tillage systems for rainfall use
efficiency. In Bolivia, where moisture stress is
the major limitation to wheat productivity, the
potential for reduced tillage technology is
being studied in two contrasting settings: the
high inter-Andean valleys, where small-scale
farmers (2-5 ha) produce one crop of wheat
each year in monoculture or in rotation with
potatoes, faba beans, peas, and/or barley; and
the lowlands, where wheat is grown on large,
mechanized farms in the winter in a double-
crop system with summer soybeans.

The national programs (IBTA and CIAT)
and CIMMYT have redirected the research
agenda toward practices that increase rainfall
use efficiency. Although the principles of
moisture conservation are the same in the
highlands and the lowlands, the practical
solutions differ because of the great variation
in farm size, availability of capital, and
farmers' ability to assume risk.

Research in the highland areas
concentrates on evaluation of straw cover to
increase rainfall use efficiency. Results are
extremely encouraging: crop residue retention
generally increases yields and reduces risk-
two important objectives for Bolivia's small-
scale, subsistence farmers. Farmers show
marked interest in returning crop residues to
the fields after sowing, despite the alternate
use of the straw for animal feed. Researchers
also participate in a project to develop a small,
animal-drawn, no-till seed drill for sowing


CIMMYT Impacts1999










cereals into surface residues. Initial results
with the drill are very positive.

In the lowlands, research concentrates on
increasing rainfall use efficiency in wheat-
based systems through zero tillage and crop
rotations, as well as on identifying and
solving problems that may arise in the fields
of farmers using these conservation systems.
The area under zero tillage has grown
rapidly in the last five years, and now
approximately 25% of the area seeded to
annual crops is untilled. So far, the chief
impact of zero tillage has been to reduce
costs and allow farmers to seed more of their
land at the optimum time. Research
indicates a large interaction between zero
tillage and crop rotations, though few
lowland farmers use rotations. The
incorporation of a crop rotation into the zero
tillage practice should have a major impact
on crop productivity.

Simulation modeling. Crop and soil
simulation models will play a key role in
integrating the wealth of information being
generated at CIMMYT on the processes that
underlie reduced tillage. Much modeling
work has been done through national
research programs. In addition, CIMMYT's
Natural Resources Group has developed a
tillage routine for the DSSAT models that
accurately simulates the impact of different
tillage practices on soil nutrition, water, and
maize yields. The model generates plausible
series of long-term maize yields under
reduced tillage in the Mexican highlands,
showing yields to be more stable, despite
variable rainfall, and less reliant on fertilizer
sources of nitrogen, than yields obtained
under conventional tillage (Figure 3).


1 For every day that wheat planting is delayed after
the best sowing date, yields fall by 1.0-1.5%.


Grain yield (kg/ha)
6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Years
Figure 3. Projected long-term maize grain yields
(kg/ha) under traditional and conservation tillage,
with retention of crop residues, Mexico.


Impact in South Asia
One example of a wide area where reduced
tillage options are beginning to have an
impact is South Asia, where researchers are
evaluating the potential of several practices to
foster a more productive, sustainable, and
socially equitable agriculture. All of the
practices are aimed at establishing wheat after
rice in rice-wheat systems in the Indo-
Gangetic Plains. All of them slash tillage costs,
enable farmers to sow much earlier,1 improve
water and nutrient use efficiency, improve
wheat yields-and sometimes make space in
the cropping pattern for a third crop. This
research is being carried out in conjunction
with the Rice-Wheat Consortium for the
Indo-Gangetic Plains (a CGIAR Ecoregional
Program), comprised of national research
programs in the region, relevant international
centers, and selected universities in the North.

The tillage practices are:

* Chinese Hand Tractors with implements capable of drilling
wheat and other crops into standing rice stubble in a single
pass (suitable for resource-poor farmers in the eastern Indo-
Gangetic Plains).

* Zero-till, surface seeding practices requiring no machinery
or implements (suitable for even the poorest farmers).

* Inverted-T, zero-till seed drills for four-wheel tractors
(suitable for farmers in the western Indo-Gangetic Plains).


14
CIMMYT Impacts 1999










* Bed planting systems, which make use of permanent raised
beds for growing crops, will enable farmers to retain crop
residues and carry out more precise and ecologically
appropriate water, nutrient, and weed control (also suitable
for farmers in the western Indo-Gangetic Plains).

Where needed, prototype equipment has
been developed by national program
researchers, and CIMMYT has imported still
other equipment prototypes into South Asia.
With our partners in national programs, we
have trained farmers in the use and
maintenance of this new equipment. By
working on this technology with farmers,
researchers have empowered farming
communities to make a realistic assessment of
the ups and downs, and the costs and benefits,
of the new tillage practices.

Chinese Hand Tractor. The impact of reduced
tillage research is particularly impressive in
Bangladesh. Even where the Chinese Hand
Tractor seed drill is unavailable or has not
been introduced to farmers, the Hand Tractor
alone is used widely as a rotovator. Growing
numbers of farmers have substituted 1-2
rotovations (done over 2-3 days) for the more
traditional 6-8 passes with a local plow
(requiring 2-3 weeks). As a result, most wheat
is sown on time rather than several weeks late,
which was common in the past.

Years of demonstrating and testing this
tillage technology-developed in concert with
farmers, with careful attention to their
requirements-have made sustainable
production increases possible on some of the
world's poorest farms. The rotovator
technology is used on 70% of the wheat area in
Bangladesh; percentages are even higher in
some regions of the country. In the most
productive wheat region of the country, the
northwest, more than l- r of farmers use the
technology. A recent survey by the Bangladesh
Wheat Research Centre and CIMMYT in
southern Bangladesh, one of the nation's
poorest areas, found that 74% of the wheat


area is now cultivated
using the Chinese Hand
Tractor/ Tiller. Another
survey in southwestern
Bangladesh found that
70% of farmers used the
technology.

This technology is also
having a considerable
impact on production
costs in the small fields of
poor farmers in eastern
India and Nepal. In these
parts of South Asia, the
Hand Tractor is used not
only as a rotovator but
with a range of
attachments. The seed drill


Impact fact:

In southern

Bangladesh, one of

the nation's poorest

areas, 74% of the

wheat area is now

planted using

reduced tillage

technology

developed by

national programs

and CIMMYT.


allows wheat to be planted (in rows and at a
uniform depth) in one pass after the rice
harvest, thus reducing turnaround time and
planting costs. The reaper attachment
eliminates the drudgery of harvesting the crop.
The tractor itself can be used to power
irrigation pumps, threshers, and cleaners, and
it can transport farm produce and other items.

Surface seeding and zero tillage. Surface
seeding-zero tillage practices are important in
Nepal, eastern India, and Bangladesh,
especially where waterlogging and heavy soils
are a problem. At some test sites in Nepal in
the last cropping season, surface seeding made
the difference between a yield of 4 t/ha and
absolutely no yield at all. Fields were too wet
for farmers to use conventional tillage
practices, so they could not even sow their
crops. Surface seeding, in contrast, enabled
farmers to plant directly onto saturated soils.

Zero tillage enables farmers to conserve
water, because the practice makes it easier for
farmers to flood the fields with water when the
fields are not plowed. Because wheat is
planted earlier in zero-tillage systems, at a time
when there is more moisture in the soil,


15
CIMMYT Impacts 1999










farmers also use less water for the first
irrigation of the wheat crop. Researchers
working on zero tillage practices are also
examining the benefits of leaving crop
residues on the soil surface as mulch, and
results have been encouraging.


Guaymango, El Salvador, an area of 5,000 ha, has a
maize-sorghum cropping system in which farmers
stopped burning crop residues and used them as
mulch, adopted hybrid maize, and applied modest
levels of fertilizer. These interventions gradually
increased maize yields from 1.0 to 4.0 t/ha from the
1970s to the 1990s, while improving soil characteristics
and properties. Guaymango has become the focal point
for the promotion of soil conservation practices to
thousands of farmers, extension workers, and NGOs,
through direct visits, farmer-to-farmer dissemination of
technology, and also by sponsoring Guaymango's
yearly "Conservation Tillage Fair."

In Azuero, Panama-an area that had 10,000 ha of
mechanized maize production and a serious soil
erosion problem-CIMMYT and IDIAP, the national
research program, initiated an on-farm research course
on conservation tillage in 1985. CIMMYT also donated
the first minimum tillage planter to IDIAP (the first
time that such technology had been available in the
area). By 1996, because of IDIAP's research and
extension efforts, there was almost 60% adoption of
conservation tillage in Azuero, and adoption was still
growing. The benefits of the technology include
reduced costs for farmers, reduced weed infestation,
reduced herbicide use, and soil conservation.


Inverted-T seed drill and bed planting.
Farmers in northwestern India and in
Pakistan have started to use the inverted-T
seed drill and bed planting. The advantages
of bed planting, described earlier, should
have a considerable impact in South Asia,
where nearly 25 million hectares of irrigated
wheat are grown. Aside from conserving
water and increasing the efficiency of
fertilizer use, the bed planting system allows
farmers to implement an integrated weed
management approach to control Phalaris
minor. This weed is an increasingly worrying
problem in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and
other major wheat-growing areas of the
developing world.

In both Haryana, India, and Pakistan in
the most recent crop cycle, more than 350
farmers planted 1,000 ha of zero-tilled wheat.
Yields improved and production costs fell by
US$ 60/ha. It is anticipated that next year the
technology may be used on about 10,000 ha.
The availability of equipment and spare
parts, as well as close collaboration with
farmers and local equipment manufacturers
in the use and maintenance of machinery, are
critical for success.


For more information, contact:
Patrick Wall cimmyt@bibosi.scz.entelnet.bo
(research in Bolivia);
Peter Grace p.grace@cgiar.org
(tillage trials in Central Mexico; simulation);
Eric Scopel e.scopel@cimmyt.mx and Damien Jourdain
d.jourdain@cgiar.org
(reduced tillage for rainfed maize in Mexico):
Kenneth Sayre k.sayre@cgiar.org
(tillage trials in Mexico; bed planting systems);
Peter Hobbs p.hobbs@cgiar.org and Craig Meisner
c.meisner@cgiar.org
(tillage research in South Asia)


For more information, contact: g.sain@iica.ac.cr


16
CIMMYT Impacts 1999













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