• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Abbreviations and acronyms
 Acknowledgement
 Executive summary
 Introduction
 Maize research and development...
 Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics...
 Maize production, crop management,...
 Farmer's adoptions/disadoption...
 Credit and extension services
 Factors affecting the adoption...
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Reference






Title: Adoption of maize production technologies in central Tanzania
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 Material Information
Title: Adoption of maize production technologies in central Tanzania
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Kaliba, Aloyce R. M.
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 1998
 Subjects
Subject: Africa   ( lcsh )
Farming   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Africa
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Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00077465
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 9706480129
isbn - 970-648-012-9
oclc - 42190621

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    List of Figures
        Page v
    Abbreviations and acronyms
        Page vi
    Acknowledgement
        Page vii
    Executive summary
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Maize research and development in Tanzania and the study area
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in the study area
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Maize production, crop management, and marketing in the study area
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Farmer's adoptions/disadoption of improved maize
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Credit and extension services
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Factors affecting the adoption of agricultural technologies in the study area
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Reference
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text




Adoption of


Maize Production


Technologies in


Central Tanzania


Aloyce R.M. Kaliba,
Hugo VerkuijI,
Wilfred Mwangi,
Angello J.T. Mwilawa,
Ponniah Anandajayasekeram,
and Alfred J. Moshi

October 1998


/ C

S0


I1
CIMMYT
Sustainable
Maize and Wheat
Systems for the Poor


i-unaea Dy tne
European Union










Adoption of Maize


Production Technologies in


Central Tanzania





By
Aloyce R.M. Kaliba,
Hugo Verkuijl,
Wilfred Mwangi,
Angello J.T. Mwilawa,
Ponniah Anandajayasekeram,
and Alfred J. Moshi







October 1998




Aloyce Kaliba and Angello Mwilawa are with the Livestock Production Research Institute, Mpapwa, Tanzania.
Hugo Verkuijl and Wilfred Mwangi are with the Economics Program of the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and are based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ponniah Anandajayasekeram is with the
Southern Africa Centre for Coordination of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Training, Gaborone,
Botswana. Alfred J. Moshi is with the Ministry of Agriculture Research and Training Institute, Ilonga, Tanzania.
The views presented in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect policies of their
respective institutions.











CIMMYT is an internationally funded, nonprofit scientific research and training organization. Headquartered in
Mexico, the Center works with agricultural research institutions worldwide to improve the productivity and
sustainability of maize and wheat systems for poor farmers in developing countries. It is one of 16 similar centers
supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The CGIAR comprises over
50 partner countries, international and regional organizations, and private foundations. It is co-sponsored by the
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (World Bank), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP).

Financial support for CIMMYT's research agenda currently comes from many sources, including governments and
agencies of Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Denmark, France,
Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, the
Philippines, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, the United Kingdom, Uruguay, and
the USA, along with (among others) Cornell University, the European Union, the Ford Foundation, Grains
Research and Development Corporation, the Inter-American Development Bank, the International Development
Research Centre, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Kellogg Foundation, Leverhulme Trust,
Nippon Foundation, OPEC Fund for International Development, Rockefeller Foundation, Sasakawa Africa
Association, Stanford University, Tropical Agriculture Research Center (Japan), UNDP, University of Wisconsin,
and the World Bank.

@ International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 1998.

Printed in Mexico.

Correct citation: Kaliba, A.R.M., H. Verkuijl, W. Mwangi, A.J.T. Mwilawa, P. Anandajayasekeram, and A.J.
Moshi. 1998. Adoption of Maize Production Technologies in Central Tanzania. Mexico, D.F.: International
Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), the United Republic of Tanzania, and the Southern Africa
Centre for Cooperation in Agricultural Research (SACCAR).

Abstract: This study of the adoption of maize production technologies in Central Tanzania forms part of a larger
study to evaluate the impact of maize research and extension throughout Tanzania over the past 20 years. Using
a structured questionnaire, researchers and extension officers interviewed farmers in June-November 1995.
Survey data were grouped by agroecological zone: the lowlands, intermediate zone, and highlands. A two-stage
least squares procedure was used to analyze factors affecting farmers' allocation of land to improved maize
varieties and use of inorganic fertilizer across zones. Germplasm characteristics, production potential of the area,
and extension were the most important factors affecting the amount of land allocated to improved maize and use
of inorganic fertilizer. Later maturity in a variety increased the probability that a farmer would plant improved
maize by about 22%. Extension increased the probability of allocating land to improved maize by about 14% and
increased the probability of using fertilizer by 115%. Several issues require closer attention from research,
extension, and policy makers. Research and extension efforts need to be linked and strengthened to increase the
flow of information to farmers. In developing improved maize varieties, researchers must consider yield as well as
other important traits: drought resistance/tolerance, resistance to storage pests, shelling quality, and taste. For
this to occur, farmers must participate in the research process. The formal credit system needs to be altered to
address the credit problems faced by small-scale farmers. A more efficient marketing system for inputs and
outputs would benefit farmers by providing higher maize prices and reducing fertilizer costs. Such a system would
require supporting policies from the government. Studies of the economics of seed and fertilizer use should be
undertaken, especially now that input and output markets have been liberalized.

ISBN: 970-648-012-9
AGROVOC descriptors: Tanzania; Maize; Zea mays; Varieties; Plant production; Seed production; Seed
industry; Production factors; Production economics; Input output analysis; Socioeconomic environment;
Development policies; Marketing policies; Credit policies; Demography; Land resources; Land use;
Cultivation; Cropping patterns; Cropping systems; Crop management; Mechanization; Plant breeding;
Shelling; Drought resistance; Pest resistance; Inorganic fertilizers; Fertilizer application; Prices; Diffusion of
research; Extension activities; Economic analysis; Economic viability; T. 1111"-, transfer; Innovation
adoption; Small farms; Environments; Lowland; Highlands; Research projects
Additional keywords: Central Tanzania; Agroecological zones; CIMMYT; SACCAR; Ministry of Agriculture,
Research and Training Institute; Tobit analysis; Probit analysis
AGRIS Category Codes: E16 Production Economics, E14 Development Economics and Policies
Dewey decimal classification: 338.16










Contents

T ab les ............................................................................................................................ iv
F ig u res ............................................................................................................................ v
Abbreviations and Acronyms........ .......... ....................................................................... vi
Acknowledgments .......................................................................................................... vii
Executive Summary ....................................................................................................... viii


1.0 Introduction ...................................... .............. ....................................... 1
1.1 Motivation and Objectives for This Study......................................................................... 1
1.2 T he Study A rea ........................................ .. .. ...................... .. .......... ..... 2
1.3 Methodology ................................... ................. ............ 3

2.0 Maize Research and Development in Tanzania and the Study Area ............................. 7
2.1 Maize Research in Tanzania ..................................................................................... 7
2.2 The Maize Seed Industry in Tanzania ............................ ...... .................................. 8
2.3 Maize Production T l,,,, Ic. Recommendations ................... ..................................... 9

3.0 Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics in the Study Area ....................... 11
3.1 Demographic Characteristics ......................................................................... .............. 11
3.2 Land Resources and Allocation .............................................................................. 11
3.3 Livestock Ownership ............ ..................... ............. 13
3.4 Farm Mechanization .......................................................................... ............ 13

4.0 Maize Production, Crop Management, and Marketing in the Study Area ................. 14
4.1 Crops and Cropping System .......................... ................................................................ 14
4.2 Maize Crop Management Practices ................................................................ ........ ...... 14
4.3 H i --i;i. Transportation, and Storage of Maize ....................................... ........... 18
4.4 Seed Selection and Recycling ........................................................... ........................... 18
4.5 Maize Cropping Calendar for the Central Zone............................................ ................ 19

5.0 Farmers' Adoption/Disadoption of Improved Maize................................................... 20
5.1 Current Varieties Grown ......................................................................................... 20
5.2 Preferred Improved Maize Varieties and Reasons for Farmers' Preferences ........................ 20
5.3 Disadoption of Improved Maize .............................................................................. 21

6.0 Credit and Extension Services ................................................................................ 22
6 .1 C credit A availability ................................................................................ 2 2
6 .2 E extension S services ............................................................................... 2 2

7.0 Factors Affecting Adoption of Agricultural Technologies in the Study Area ................ 24
7.1 Definitions ................................... .................. ......................... ........... 24
7.2 Rate of Adoption of Improved Maize Varieties in Central Tanzania ..................................... 24
7.3 Tobit Analysis of Land Allocated to Improved Maize Varieties ......................................... 25
7.4 Probit Analysis of the Use of Fertilizer .......................................................................... 26

8.0 Conclusions and Recommendations ........................................................................ 27
8 .1 C conclusions ................... ................. ............... ..... 27
8 .2 R ecom m endations ............................................................................... 28

References ............................................................................................................... 29




ill










Tables


Table 1. Commercial maize varieties and their yield potential, Central Tanzania ................................ 9
Table 2. Fertilizer recommendations for maize by altitude, Central Tanzania...................................... 10
Table 3. Demographic characteristics of sample households, Central Tanzania ............................... 11
Table 4. Numbers of livestock and farm tools owned by sample households in Central Tanzania ......... 13
Table 5. Maize cropping systems in the three major agroecological zones of Central Tanzania ............ 14
Table 6. Timing and method of land preparation for maize, Central Tanzania .................................. 15
Table 7. Farmers' major agronomic practices for maize, Central Tanzania ...................................... 15
Table 8. Use of fertilizer by sample households, Central Tanzania .............................................. 16
Table 9. Fallowing and crop rotation by sample households, Central Tanzania ............................... 16
Table 10. Management of crop residue by sample households, Central Tanzania .............................. 17
Table 11. Major maize pests and diseases and their control, Central Tanzania .................................... 17
Table 12. M aize 1, i -.liI, transport, and storage, Central Tanzania ............... .............................. 18
Table 13. Farmers' seed selection criteria, Central Tanzania .................................................. 19
Table 14. Maize cropping calendar by agroecological zone, Central Tanzania............................... 19
Table 15. Maize varieties and hybrids planted in 1994/95, Central Tanzania .................................... 20
Table 16. Maize varieties/hybrids preferred by farmers, Central Tanzania ............... .............. 20
Table 17. Reasons for farmers' preferences for certain maize varieties/hybrids................................ 21
Table 18. Maize varieties/hybrids no longer grown by farmers, Central Tanzania ............................... 21
Table 19. Sources and use of credit, Central Tanzania ............................................ 22
Table 20. Farmers' sources of information about maize production technologies, Central Tanzania....... 23
Table 21. Tobit model estimates for land allocated to improved maize varieties, Central Tanzania ......... 25
Table 22. Probit model estimates for use of fertilizer, Central Tanzania ............... ............... 26










Figures


Figure 1. Central Tanzania ............................................... ..... .. .. ........... ......... .......... 3
Figure 2. Trends in farm size and maize area, lowlands, Central Tanzania ....................................... 12
Figure 3. Trends in farm size and maize area, intermediate zone, Central Tanzania............................. 12
Figure 4. Trends in farm size and maize area, highlands, Central Tanzania ....................................... 12
Figure 5. Rate of adoption of improved maize, Central Tanzania .................................. ................ 25









Abbreviations and Acronyms


AEZ Agroecological zone
CAN Calcium ammonium nitrate
CIMMYT Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo
(International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
DRT Department of Research and Training
FSD Food Security Department
FSR Farming systems research
ICW Ilonga Composite White
Masl Meters above sea level
MOA Ministry of Agriculture
MSV Maize streak virus
NGO Non-governmental organization
NMRP National Maize Research Programme
NPK Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
P-values Standard normal probability
SA Sulfate of ammonia
SACCAR Southern Africa Centre for Coordination of Agricultural Research
SG-2000 Sasakawa-Global 2000
St Streak resistant
STD Standard deviation
TANSEED Tanzania Seed Company
TMV Tanzania Maize Variety
Tsh Tanzanian shillings
TSP Triple super phosphate
UCA Ukiriguru Composite A










Acknowledgments


We gratefully acknowledge support from the many individuals and institutions that enabled this study
to be conducted. The financial, institutional, and logistical support provided by the Ministry of
Agriculture and Cooperatives (MAC), SACCAR, and CIMMYT are greatly appreciated.

We thank F.M. Shao (former Commissioner for Research and Training, MAC), T.N. Kirway
(Assistant-Commissioner, FSR, MAC), and J.K. Ransom (CIMMYT, Nairobi) for technical and
logistical support. We recognize the assistance with the research and data analysis rendered by
J.K.K. Musechu and M.L. Kusekwa, Director and Zonal Research Coordinator, respectively, in the
Central Zone. Thanks are also due to the Central Zone Farming Systems Research team and
extension staff in Mpwapwa, Kondoa, and Singida Districts for conducting the survey. Great
appreciation goes to the farmers, who responded to the questions willingly and tirelessly and spared
their precious time for the interviews. We would like to thank Kelly Cassaday for editing this report.
Finally, we extend special thanks to B. Hango, C. Mbeho, and Aklilewerk Bekele for typing drafts of
this report and to Miguel Mellado and the design staff of CIMMYT for layout and production.










Executive Summary


Maize provides 60% of dietary calories and more than 50% of utilizable protein to the Tanzanian population. The
crop is cultivated on an average of two million hectares, which is about 45% of the cultivated area in Tanzania.
Recognizing the importance of the maize crop to the lives of Tanzanians, the government has committed human
and financial resources to developing the industry. A National Maize Research Programme (NMRP) was started in
1974 with the broad objective of developing cultivars suitable for major maize-producing areas. The NMRP and
maize extension services have made a considerable impact in increasing food production.


This report forms part of a larger study to evaluate the impact of maize research and extension in Tanzania over
the past 20 years. The Department of Research and Training (DRT) conducted the study in collaboration with the
Southern Africa Coordination Centre for Agricultural Research (SACCAR) and the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT). To increase data validity and reliability, researchers and experienced extension
officers used a structured questionnaire for interviewing farmers. Interviews were conducted in all seven
agroecological zones of the country between June and November 1995. This report covers survey findings in the
Central Zone. Survey data were grouped into three agroecological zones: the lowlands, intermediate zone, and
highlands, representing Kondoa, Singida, and Mpwapwa, respectively. These are the most important maize
production zones and therefore the most important categories for the analysis. A two-stage least squares
procedure was used to analyze factors affecting farmers' allocation of land to improved maize varieties and use of
inorganic fertilizer.


Most maize research in the Central Zone is undertaken at Ilonga Research Institute. The zone usually receives
verification and on-farm demonstration trials supervised by extension agents. The major varieties found in the
area were open pollinated materials, such as Staha, UCA, TMV1, Kilima, ICW, and Tuxpeno. Few farmers grew
hybrids such as H622, CG4141, and CG4142.


The mean age of the household head was 43 years, with an average farming experience of about 19 years.
Farmers' levels of formal education were low, averaging about five years. Households averaged about ten persons,
with at least three permanent workers. Most farmers kept livestock, generally cattle, sheep, and goats. The hand
hoe was the major farm tool used in the study area. Animal power was used by about 30% of the farmers,
concentrated in the intermediate zone and highlands. Hiring of tractors was relatively common in the lowlands,
where extensive maize production was practiced. Land was not a limiting factor in the farming system.


Farmers in the lowlands and intermediate zone recycled maize seed for five to eight years; those in the highlands
recycled seed for eight to ten years. Seed was selected during the harvest or when maize was shelled for storage,
and selection was based on the size of the cob. Most of the selected cobs were shelled, and the seed was treated
with chemicals and/or ash and stored in gunny bags. Maize was shelled and stored in a local container called a
I ji,. 4 The majority of farmers in the three zones treated their maize before storage.


The few farmers who obtained credit from the informal sector used it to purchase farm inputs such as fertilizer.
No farmers obtained credit from the formal sector because they lacked knowledge (information) about formal
credit and found the procedures long, cumbersome, and bureaucratic.











The Training and Visit (T&V) extension system was used in all villages covered by this study. Research and
extension were farmers' major sources of information on agricultural production. Most farmers had received
information on improved maize varieties, planting methods, and weed management. Very few farmers had
received information on disease control measures and pest management.


Maize remains an important crop in the farming system. The expansion of cultivated area has gone hand-in-hand
with a greater allocation of land to maize production. However, the entry of improved maize varieties into the
farming system has been slow, especially in Kondoa District where extensive maize production was practiced.
Some farmers have tested and rejected some improved maize varieties. Kilima, Katumani, CG4142, and Tuxpeno
were rejected by some farmers in Singida, Kondoa, and Mpwapwa Districts, respectively, because of the
materials' low yields, susceptibility to storage pests and diseases, and poor shelling quality.


The most popular maize varieties were Kilima, TMV1, and Staha in the intermediate zone, Staha and TMV1 in
the lowlands, and Staha, TMV1, and Kilima in the highlands. The reasons for these preferences were (in order of
importance) high yield, drought resistance, and resistance to storage pests. However, most farmers grew CG4142
hybrid because seed was available.


The adoption of recommended management practices depended on the cost of the practice. Most farmers
adopted row planting, the cheapest t. l1. .1-..-, while they did not adopt control of field pests and diseases
because of the high cost.


The two-stage least squares analysis showed that variety characteristics, production potential of the area, and
extension were the most important factors affecting the amount of land allocated to improved maize varieties and
the use of inorganic fertilizer. Later maturity in a variety increased the probability that a farmer would plant
improved maize by about 22%, while early and intermediate maturity varieties increased the likelihood of
adoption by about 17% and 13%, respectively. Extension increased the probability of allocating land to improved
maize by about 14% and increased the probability of using fertilizer by 115%. Farmers in the lowlands were less
likely to use fertilizer, probably because maize varieties responded less to fertilizer in low rainfall areas.


Both research and extension are important for adoption of improved maize practices. Farmers' characteristics
have a limited influence on the adoption process. Technical innovation characteristics and external influence are
the major factors affecting adoption. Research needs to develop varieties that fit farmers' tastes and
circumstances, and extension should be involved in testing and disseminating these technologies. Flexible
integrated pest management packages that combine a drought-tolerant variety with improved cultural practices
can increase yields. Thus, low-cost technologies for 11 IIil, ,l.y stalk borers and maize streak virus, using
environmentally friendly industrial chemicals, should be developed.


Most improved varieties are responsive to fertilizer and economic yields are usually obtained after fertilizer
application. But use of fertilizer is constrained by high prices and farmers' lack of knowledge. An efficient
marketing system for inputs and outputs will benefit farmers by providing higher prices for maize and reducing the
cost of fertilizer. Such a system would require supporting policies from the government. Studies of the economics
of seed and fertilizer use should be undertaken, especially now that input and output markets have been
liberalized.











In developing improved maize varieties, apart from increasing yields, other factors should be taken into
consideration. These factors include drought resistance/tolerance, resistance to storage pests, shelling quality, and
taste. For this to occur, farmers must participate in the research process. Research and extension efforts need to
be linked and strengthened to increase the flow of information to farmers. In collaboration with the government
and other stakeholders, the formal credit system needs to address the credit problems faced by small-scale
farmers, especially their lack of knowledge (information) of formal credit systems. Cumbersome bureaucratic
procedures for obtaining credit should be amended. The formation of farmer credit groups should be encouraged,
because lending to groups tends to reduce transactions costs and improve the rate of loan recovery.









Adoption of Maize Production

Technologies in Central Tanzania

Aloyce R.M. Kaliba, Hugo Verkuijl, Wilfred Mwangi, Angello J.T. Mwilawa,
Ponniah Anandajayasekeram, and Alfred J. Moshi


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Motivation and Objectives for This Study

Maize is the major cereal consumed in Tanzania. It is estimated that the annual per capital
consumption of maize in Tanzania is 112.5 kg; national maize consumption is estimated to be three
million tons per year. Maize contributes 60% of dietary calories to Tanzanian consumers (FSD 1992,
1996). The cereal also contributes more than 50% of utilizable protein, while beans contribute only
38% (Due 1986). Maize is grown in all 20 regions of Tanzania. The crop is grown on an average of
two million hectares or about 45% of the cultivated area in Tanzania. However, most of the maize is
produced in the Southern Highlands (46%), the Lake zone, and the Northern zone. Dar es Salaam,
Lindi, Singida, Coast, and Kigoma are maize-deficit regions. Dodoma is a surplus region during good
growing years, and in years following a plentiful rainfall the region is the number one supplier of
maize to Dar es Salaam (FSD 1992; Mdadila 1995).

Maize is not only a staple crop in surplus regions but a cash crop as well. For instance, in the Lake
zone, maize competes aggressively with cotton for land, labor, and farmers' cash. Realizing the
importance of the maize crop to lives of Tanzanians, the government has been committing human
and financial resources to develop the industry. Research and extension efforts in maize started in
1960. Breeding efforts in the 1960s resulted in the release of Ukiriguru Composite A (UCA) and
Ilonga Composite White (ICW). Between 1973 and 1975 Tanzania experienced a severe food
shortage because of drought and the "villagization" campaign, which displaced farmers. The food
crisis prompted the nation to launch several campaigns with the objective of food self-sufficiency,
including "agriculture for survival" (kilimo cha kufa na kupona). The country also initiated a maize
project in 1974 with assistance of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The
project's objective was to promote maize production in pursuit of food self-sufficiency. The National
Maize Research Programme (NMRP) was launched, with the broad objective of developing cultivars
suitable for major maize-producing areas.

The NMRP and maize extension have made a considerable impact in increasing food production. This
study was conducted to evaluate that impact during the past 20 years. Conducted by the Department
of Research and Training (DRT) in collaboration with the Southern Africa Coordination Centre for
Agricultural Research (SACCAR) and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(CIMMYT), the study included the nation's seven agroecological zones. The study was conducted
between June and November 1995. This report covers the survey findings from the Central Zone.
The objectives of the study were to describe the maize farming systems of the zone, evaluate the
adoption of improved maize production technologies, and identify future issues for research.










1.2 The Study Area


Figure 1 shows the location of the Central zone in Tanzania. The Central Zone comprises Dodoma
and Singida administrative regions, which are part of the semi-arid zone. Rainfall in the area is
erratic. About 85% of the rain falls between January and March. Rains generally fall in short intervals
and average 600 mm per annum.

The vegetation of the Central Zone can be categorized into four groups: bushland, woodland,
wooded grassland, and grassland. Topographically, the zone is characterized by plains with scattered
inselbergs, ridges, or rows of hills. The region's economy depends entirely on crop production and
livestock. Agriculture is still characterized by low productivity. Although livestock production is still
largely a subsistence enterprise, the Central Zone is one of the principal livestock-producing areas in
the country.

It is difficult to classify the zone into distinct, contiguous agroecological areas using altitude and
rainfall as criteria because of the undulating topography and varying rainfall. However, four major
farming systems can be identified: the maize and groundnut system; the sorghum, pearl millet, and
groundnut system; the rice farming system; and the peri-urban livestock production system.


LAKE VICTORIA


Figure 1. Central Tanzania.










Maize and groundnut farming is found in the northern and northwestern part of the zone and
covers most of Iramba District, the Kondoa lowlands, and northeastern Mpwapwa District. Annual
rainfall surpasses 750 mm. Major crops, in order of importance, are sorghum, pearl millet, maize,
and natural pastures and forages. Minor crops, in order of importance, include oilseeds (sunflower
and simsim), cassava, sweet potatoes, finger millet, and horticultural crops (mainly onions and
tomatoes).

The sorghum, pearl millet, and groundnut farming system covers most of the central and
western part of the Central Zone. Elevation ranges from 500 masl to 1,000 masl, and annual rainfall
is between 400 mm and 600 mm. Major crops, in order of importance, are maize, grain legumes,
tubers (cassava and sweet potatoes), finger millet, and natural pastures and forages.

Irrigated rice production is found inside the west lift valley, in some valley bottoms with black
cotton soils, and along permanent rivers. Rainfall is between 500 mm and 800 mm per year. The
major crops, in order of importance, are sorghum and pearl millet. Minor crops, in order of
importance, are maize, grain legumes, roots, tubers (cassava and sweet potatoes), and horticultural
crops (onion).

Peri-urban livestock production systems are found in all peri-urban areas (around Dodoma,
Singida, Kondoa, Mpwapwa, and Manyoni townships). Major crops, in order of importance, are
improved pastures and forages for zero-grazing, maize, and grapes (specialty crops for Dodoma).
Minor crops, in order of importance, include grain legumes, watermelons, and sunflowers.

1.3 Methodology

1.3.1 Sampling Procedure
The number of farmers interviewed in the nationwide survey was determined by the importance of
maize production in a given zone. About 1,000 maize farmers were interviewed nationwide. Central
Zone was allocated 54 farmers, approximately 5% of the national sample.

Central Zone farmers were sampled from districts that are important for maize production.
Production figures from the statistical unit of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) were used to establish
the relative importance of each district for maize production. Three districts were purposively
selected for the Central Zone survey, and three villages were randomly selected from these districts.
The selected sites were:
* Ihanda Village, located in Mpwapwa District, which is characterized by relatively high rainfall
and elevation, and has high potential for maize production
* Mudida Village, located in Singida Rural District, which is characterized by medium rainfall and
medium elevation and has a medium potential for maize production
* Mwailanje Village, located in Kondoa District, which is characterized by low rainfall and low
elevation and has low potential for maize production

From each village, 18 farmers were randomly sampled from the register of households.










To increase data validity and reliability, farmers were interviewed by researchers and experienced
extension officers using a structural questionnaire developed by a panel of the zonal farming systems
research economists, CIMMYT and SACCAR economists, and national maize breeders and
agronomists. The interviews were conducted between June and November 1995. To maintain
uniformity, data from all zones were compiled at Selian Agricultural Research Institute (SARI) and then
sent back to the respective zones for analysis and completion of the reports.

1.3.2 Analytical Framework
Factors influencing the adoption of new agricultural technologies can be divided into three major
categories: farm and farmers' associated attributes; attributes associated with the technology (Adesina
et al. 1992; Misra et al. 1993); and the farming objective (CIMMYT 1988). Factors in the first
category include a farmer's education, age, or family and farm size. The second category depends on
the type of technology (e.g., the kind of characteristics a farmer likes in an improved maize variety).
The third category assesses how different strategies used by the farmer, such as commercial versus
subsistence farming, influence the adoption of technologies. In this study a two-stage least squares
analysis is used to test factors affecting the allocation of land to improved maize varieties (intensity of
adoption) and adoption of inorganic fertilizer (incidence of adoption). The basic assumption is that a
farmer first tests and adopts improved seed by planting it on part of his or her land designated for
maize production, and then decides to use fertilizer. The tobit (Tobin 1958) and probit (McFadden
1981) models, which test the factors affecting intensity and incidence of adoption, can be specified as:

Y= P X + Ei
i > 1 if farmer grows improved maize variety; j = 0 otherwise


Yi = ij Xi. +
i =1 if farmer uses fertilizer; j = 0 otherwise

where:
Y = the proportion of maize area allocated to improved maize varieties or adoption of
inorganic fertilizer;
P3 = the parameters to be estimated; and
Ei and ai = error terms.



The models were further specified as:

PLAND = A+EXP+EDVC+WID+EXI+LAB+VA1 +VA2+VA3+AEZl+AEZ2+AEZ3+ei
FERT = A+EXP+EDVC+WID+EXI+LAB+IMR+VA1 +VA2+VA3+AEZ1 +AEZ2+AEZ3+ao.

where:

PLAND = proportion of maize area allocated to improved maize varieties (average for 1992-94).
FERT = use fertilizer (FERT= 1 if used fertilizer; 0 otherwise) for the same period.










A = constant.
EXP = household head experience of farming (years).
EDVC = education level of household head (years).
WID = wealth index.
EXI = intensity of extension index.
LAB = number of adults in the household (15 and above years).
IMR = Inverse Mills ratio of equation PLAND.
VA 1-3 = group of improved maize varieties (VA 1=1 if farmer grows the variety in group 1, VA1 =
0 otherwise). The varieties were grouped according to months to maturity. Group one
(VA 1) consists of Katumani and Kito (3 months); group two (VA2), of TMV1, Staha,
Tuxpefo, and ICW (3.5-4 months); group three (VA3), of UCA and Kilima (4.5-5
months).
AEZ1-3 = lowland, intermediate, and highland zones (AEZ1=1 if the farmer is in the lowlands,
AEZ 1=0 otherwise). The highland zone (AEZ3) was not included in the models to avoid
multicollinearity (Griffiths et al. 1993; Greene 1993).
Ei and ai = error terms.

Formation of the model was influenced by a number of working hypotheses. It was hypothesized that
a farmer's decision to adopt or reject a new technology at any time is influenced by the combined
(simultaneous) effects of a number of factors related to the farmer's objectives and constraints. The
following variables were hypothesized to influence the adoption of improved maize technologies:

Farmer's experience: An experienced farmer is hypothesized to be more likely to adopt an
improved maize technology package.

Household head received education: Exposure to education will increase a farmer's ability to
obtain, process, and use information relevant to the adoption of an improved maize variety. Hence
education will increase the probability that a farmer will adopt an improved maize technology
package.

Labor: Large households will be able to provide the labor that might be required by improved maize
technologies. Thus, household size would be expected to increase the probability that a farmer will
adopt an improved maize technology package.

Wealth index: Wealthier farmers may have the means of buying improved maize technology, so
wealth is expected to be positively associated with the decision to adopt an improved maize
technology package.

Extension intensity: Agricultural extension services provided by the Ministry were the major source
of agricultural information in the study area. Hence, it is hypothesized that contact with extension
workers will increase the likelihood that a farmer will adopt improved maize technologies.

Inverse Mills ratio: Adoption of improved seed enhances the use of inorganic fertilizer.










Agroecology: The agroecological zones can influence a farmer's decision to adopt improved maize
technology package both positively and negatively.

Hotland (1993) has suggested establishing a wealth index by aggregating the major wealth indicators
in a study area. Numbers of livestock and farm implements owned, as well as the average amount of
cultivated land, are major wealth indicators in the Central Zone. These indicators were aggregated by
calculating the wealth index (WID) as follows:

n
WID = -- Y (i=1,...,5;j=1,2,...,N)
Y_
i=l1 Yi


where:
Yi = the average number of livestock units, farm implements (hand hoes, axes, cutting
equipment) and cultivated land for the past three years;
Yj = the sample mean for each item; and
N = the sample size.

Extension services were the major source of information in the study area for improved agricultural
practices. The number of recommendations with which a farmer is familiar can be used as an index
of the transfer of information from extensionists to farmers. The extension index (EXT) was
calculated as follows:

n
EXT =
6

where:
n = the number of recommendations that a farmer knows from the improved technology
package (i.e., improved seed, row planting, fertilizer application, ox-plowing, field pest and
disease control).

The PLAND equation was estimated using the tobit model (Tobin 1958). The inverse Mills ratio for
equation PLAND was calculated and included as a regressor in equation FERT to correct for
correlation between PLAND and FERT equation errors. Quasi-maximum likelihood was not used
because of the problem of convergence (Saha and Love 1992). Both models were estimated using
TSP, Version 4.3.









2.0 Maize Research and Development in Tanzania and the Study Area

2.1 Maize Research in Tanzania

About 85% of the maize produced in Tanzania is grown by peasants whose farms are less than 10
ha. Ten percent of maize production occurs on medium-scale commercial farms (10-100 ha), and the
remaining 5% occurs on large-scale commercial farms (>100 ha). Between 1961-65 and 1985-95,
national maize production is estimated to have grown by 4.6%, of which 2.4% can be attributed to
growth in area and 2.2% to growth in yield. Despite this yield growth, average yields are less than
1.5 t/ha, although grain yields tend to be higher in high-potential areas such as the Southern
Highlands (Moshi et al. 1990).

Maize breeding and agronomy trials have been conducted in Tanzania for more than 20 years. The
improved open pollinated varieties (OPVs) ICW and UCA were developed, tested, and released in the
1960s and are still widely used. During the same period, a few research stations undertook
agronomy research, which later formed the basis for recommendations that were applied to the
entire country.

In 1974, the NMRP was launched to coordinate maize research and encourage the better utilization
of some resources. The program is responsible for coordinating all phases of maize research, from
varietal development and maize management research on station to verification on farmers' fields.
The NMRP has divided the country into three major agroecological zones for varietal
recommendations:
* The highlands (elevations above 1,500 masl), with a growing period of 6-8 months.
* The intermediate (or midalatitude) zone (900-1,500 masl), which is further subdivided into "wet"
(>1,100 mm rainfall, with a 4-5 month growing period) and "dry" subzones (<1,100 mm
rainfall, with a 3-4 month growing period).
* The lowlands (0-900 masl), with a 3-4 month growing period.

To date, several breeding populations have been developed and are being improved through
recurrent selection for specific traits. Since 1974, two hybrids and six OPVs have been released. In
1976, Tuxpefo was released for the lowland areas. Hybrids H6302 and H614, suitable for the
highlands, were released in 1977 and 1978, respectively. In November 1983, three OPVs were
released: Kito, Kilima, and Staha. Staha is characterized by its tolerance to maize streak virus (MSV)
disease, whereas Kilima was recommended for the midaltitude zone. Kito is an early maturing variety
adapted to both lowland and midaltitude zones. In 1987 two OPVs, TMV1 and TMV2, were
released. TMV1 has white, flinty grain, is streak resistant, and has intermediate maturity. It is
recommended for the lowland and midaltitude zones. TMV2 is also a white flint maize and is
recommended for the high-altitude and high-potential maize-producing areas.

In 1994, the NMRP released versions of Kilima, UCA, Kito, and Katumani that are resistant to MSV:
Kilima-St, UCA-St, Kito-St, and Katumani-St. Around the same time, two foreign seed companies,
Cargill and Pannar, introduced or released seven hybrids for commercial use. For improvement of










husbandry practices, the NMRP conducted off-station agronomy trials that in 1980 resulted in maize
production recommendations specific to 11 regions. The recommendations related to choice of
variety, plant spacing, plant density, fertilizer rate, weeding regime, and pesticide use.

2.2 The Maize Seed Industry in Tanzania

The hybrids CG4141 and CG4142 are multiplied and distributed by Cargill Hybrid Seed Ltd., which
is based in Arusha. About 72% of the farmers in the lowland and intermediate zones grew CG4142,
whereas only 22% of the farmers in the highlands grew CG4142. The locally bred hybrids H622 and
H632 are not grown by farmers in Central Tanzania, even though they have flint grain and good
pounding and storage qualities, and yield as well as CG4141 and CG4142. Locally bred hybrids are
marketed mainly by the Tanzania Seed Company (TANSEED), which has not done well in the newly
competitive seed industry. This has contributed to the lack of adoption of locally bred hybrids in
Central Tanzania. Before input markets were liberalized in 1990, locally bred varieties were almost
the only improved maize seed planted in Tanzania.

After market liberalization, private companies not only engaged in seed multiplication but conducted
trials to evaluate the adaptability of imported varieties to the local environment. The varieties deemed
suitable are subsequently released to farmers. CG4141 is competing aggressively with the locally
bred cultivars multiplied and sold by TANSEED. Pannar started producing and marketing maize seed
in 1995. The new companies have recruited chains of stockists who sell their seed in villages and
towns, and TANSEED has followed suit. Farmers have reported that seed sold by private companies
is purer, more uniform, and higher yielding than seed from TANSEED, which has reduced demand
for TANSEED products.

The drawbacks of the new varieties sold by Cargill and Pannar are their high price, poor storability,
poor pounding quality, and unsatisfactory taste. Pounded maize is used to make a local dish prepared
from grain from which the seed coat has been removed (kande). Some farmers also pound their
maize before milling to make a whiter and softer dough (ugali). When pounded, maize seed with a
soft seed coat breaks, and flour losses before milling are greater. This underscores the importance of
the flint trait in farmers' varietal preferences.

The latest development in the maize seed industry is the resumed importation of a once-famous
hybrid, H511, from Kenya, by the Tanganyika Farmers' Association (TFA). H511 yields as well and
matures as early as CG4141; its advantage over CG4141 is its flinty grain. The 1994/95 price for
Cargill maize seed (CG4141) and Pannar seed (PAN 6481) was Tanzanian shillings (Tsh) 650/kg,
while Kilima, a composite, sold at Tsh 450/kg. The high prices of maize seed have forced many
farmers to recycle hybrid seed.

Before market liberalization, quasi-governmental institutions and cooperative unions monopolized
input marketing. These institutions were inefficient in delivering inputs to farmers. They suffered
from chronic liquidity problems, because they depended on borrowing money for buying inputs. This










led to delayed input supply and chronic shortages that served as a disincentive to farmers (Mbiha
1993; Nkonya 1994). Market liberalization has led to a rapid increase in the number of private
businesses that engage in input marketing. Farmers could obtain inputs from village stockists who are
located much closer to them than prior to 1990. Inputs have also become readily available on time
in villages. As expected, the price of inputs has increased sharply, wiping out the shortages that
existed before.

2.3 Maize Production Technology Recommendations

2.3.1 Varieties
Maize production recommendations were developed to fit the three agroecological zones described
earlier. Several OPVs developed in Tanzania and Kenya have been introduced in the midaltitude and
low altitude zones of central Tanzania: Staha, UCA, Katumani, TMV I, Kito, Kilima, ICW, and
Tuxpefo. Three hybrids have been introduced for these zones: H522, CG4141, and CG4142.
Table 1 shows the yield potential and attributes of some of the materials recommended for the
Central Zone.

2.3.2 Planting time, planting method, and spacing
The recommended planting time in Central Zone is after the rains begin, which usually occurs in
November and December. It is recommended that maize flowering should occur when there is less
moisture. Row planting is recommended to achieve the desirable plant population. Spacing depends
on the maturity of the variety. Medium maturity and full-season varieties should have a spacing of 90
cm x 50 cm and two plants per hill, or 75 cm x 60 cm and two plants per hill, for a population of
44,444 plants/ha. Spacing also depends on the time to maturity of the variety grown. Early
maturing varieties, such as Katumani, should be spaced like the medium maturity varieties, but
farmers should have three plants per hill for a population of 66,666 plants/ha.

2.3.3 Fertilizer type, timing, and method of application
To provide nitrogen (N) one can either use urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), or sulfate of
ammonia (SA). Nitrogen may be split into two applications, with 30-50% of the total amount being
applied at planting and the remainder when maize is about one meter high.


Table 1. Commercial maize varieties and their yield potential, Central Tanzania

Variety Major attributes Target zone Potential yield (t/ha)

TMV-1 Streak resistant, medium maturity, yield Low, medium 4.25
Staha Streak tolerant, yield Lowlands 4.00
Tuxpeno Good standability Lowlands 3.75
Kito Early maturity Lowlands 2.50
Kilima Good standability, yield Medium 4.5-6.25
CG4141 High yielding, resistant to leaf and cob disease Low, medium 4.5-6.25
H614 High yielding, takes 120-180 days to mature High, intermediate 5.0-7.0
H6302 High yielding takes 180 days to mature Low, intermediate 6.0-8.0










Table 2 summarizes the fertilizer recommendations for maize by agroecological zone. For low altitude
areas, 40 kg N/ha is recommended. For areas receiving more than 800 mm of rainfall per annum, a
rate of 80-112 kg N/ha is recommended. Phosphorus (P) is deficient throughout the zone, and triple
super phosphate (TSP) is recommended as basal fertilizer. The amount recommended is up to 40 kg
P205/ha. Fertilizer is normally placed 5 cm below the depth of the seed and about 5 cm to the side.
This is accomplished by digging a single hole beside each seed and placing fertilizer in the hole and
covering it with soil. Alternatively, a continuous furrow is made along the length of the planting row.
Fertilizer is then placed in the furrow and covered with soil. The seed is then planted on top of this
soil and covered properly.

Table 2. Fertilizer recommendations for maize by 2.3.4 Weed control
altitude, Central Tanzania In all agroecological areas of the Central Zone,
Optimum fertilizer two weedings are recommended. The first
rate (kg/ha) weeding should be done two weeks after
Altitude (masl) Rainfall N PO2s
0-900 Low 020 0 germination and the second weeding at three to
0-900 Low 0-20 0-20
900-1,500 Medium 20-100 20-40 four weeks after the first weeding. Weeding is
>1,500 High 20-50 20-40 usually done with a hand hoe.

2.3.5 Pest and disease control
Important maize pests in the Central Zone include armyworms and stalk borers. Armyworms are
serious when an outbreak occurs, but stalk borers are a serious problem for off-season maize
production. Thiodan can be applied against all pests.

The breeding programs have been releasing varieties that are resistant or tolerant to the most
important maize diseases, so there is no recommendation for chemical control against maize
diseases. Maize streak virus is not yet important in the Central Zone.

2.3.6 Harvesting and storage
Maize is harvested by hand immediately after it is mature and dry. Most maize is stored in gunny bags
as well as the traditional storage structure (vilindo). The important storage pests are maize weevils,
and Actellic Super is the recommended for controlling them.









3.0 Demographic and Socioeconomic

Characteristics in the Study Area

3.1 Demographic Characteristics

Table 3 summarizes the household characteristics of sample farmers in the Central Zone. The mean
age of household heads in the study area was 43 years. Farmers in the lowlands tended to be
younger than those in the other two zones, although the age difference was not significant (p =
0.05). On average farmers have lived in the sampled villages for about 23 years, and their farming
experience was about 19 years. The level of education for household heads was about five years and
no significant difference was found among the agroecological zones.

The average size of the households was about 10 members, including three male adults, two female
adults, and five children. The number of female adults in the lowlands was significantly lower (p =
0.05) than in the other two zones. At least three male adults and two female adults worked on the
farm permanently, although a few respondents indicated that some household members worked off
of the farm. Those who worked off of the farm were temporarily or permanently employed by the
government or non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The minimal number of part-time workers
and off-farm activities is an indication of the limited off-farm opportunities in the study area.

Farmers who did have some off-farm income used the money to purchase farm inputs and capital
goods such as hand hoes and plows (75%) and to meet other family needs (25%).

3.2 Land Resources and Allocation

The average farm size in the lowlands was about 62 acres, while the intermediate zone and highlands
had an average farm size of about 20 and 25 acres, respectively. Shifting cultivation was widely
practiced in the lowlands, since the population density was still low. There was a significant
difference (p = 0.05) between the lowland zone and the intermediate and highland zones,
respectively. Cultivated area was about 41 acres in the lowlands, 18.9 acres in the intermediate zone,


Table 3. Demographic characteristics of sample households, Central Tanzania

Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands P-values
Mean of Mean STD Mean STD Mean STD LIM LH M/H

Age of household head (yr) 41.8 12.7 44.8 14.4 43.7 13.0 NS NS NS
Number of male adults 2.2 1.4 3.2 1.3 3.3 2.8 NS NS NS
Number of female adults 1.5 0.8 2.9 1.9 3.3 1.7 0.05 0.05 NS
Number of children 2.7 1.6 5.4 3.5 4.2 4.6 NS NS NS
Education of household head (yr) 4.7 3.2 5.3 2.4 5.1 3.1 NS NS NS
Farming experience (yr) 17.3 6.2 19.2 12.6 22.6 11.6 NS NS NS

Note: NS = not significant; L/M = lowlands/intermediate zone; L/H = lowlands/highlands; M/H = intermediate zone/highlands;
STD = standard deviation.











and 21.2 acres in the highlands. Farmers had 2.0 plots in the lowlands, 3.4 in the intermediate
zone, and 3.3 in the highlands. A significant difference (p = 0.05) was found between the number of
plots in the lowlands and in the intermediate and highland zones, respectively. Across all three zones,
only small portions of land were rented in (2 acres) and rented out (0.8 acres). Rented land was found
in valley bottoms that were wetter and suitable for growing vegetables.


In all zones, more than 60% of cultivated land Area (acres)
was allocated to maize production. Figures 2-4 70
show trends in total farm size and maize area 60
over the past 20 years. In all zones, the Farm size
importance of maize in the farming system has 50
remained stable. Maize area increases have been 40
proportional to increases in total farm size.
Because of changes in tastes and preferences, 30
maize replaced the traditional sorghum and millet 20ze area
crops as a major food and cash crop. In the
intermediate zone, sample farmers started 10
growing improved maize varieties in the mid-
1980s. Lowland and highland zone farmers 1974 1984 1994
started doing so earlier, in the mid-1970s.
Figure 2. Trends in farm size and maize area, lowlands,
Central Tanzania.


Area (acres) Area (acres)
25 30

20 0 25 ----
Farm size
Farm size 20 --
1 5 - - -- --- -
15

10 ------
Maize area
5 5

0 0
1974 1984 1994 1974 1984 1994

Figure 3. Trends in farm size and maize area, Figure 4. Trends in farm size and maize area, highlands,
intermediate zone, Central Tanzania. Central Tanzania.










Drought has affected maize production trends, prices, and incentives to produce the crop. The
drought that occurred in the late 1970s caused maize prices to increase sharply, and more land was
allocated to maize production. Farmers reduced the land allocated to maize during the mid- and late
1980s, mainly because of low maize prices and the inability of the Dodoma Region Cooperation
Union to buy maize from the farmers. In the early 1990s, maize production increased sharply,
perhaps as a result of trade liberalization, which occurred at that time, and as a result of the increase
in the price of maize.

3.3 Livestock Ownership

Farmers in the intermediate zone had the highest livestock population in the Central Zone. The
mean number of livestock for the sample households was 13 head of cattle, two sheep, and seven
goats. Table 4 shows numbers of livestock by zone. The farmers in the intermediate zone had a
significantly higher number of sheep (p = 0.05) than farmers in the lowland zone.

3.4 Farm Mechanization


Table 4 shows the number of farm tools owned by farmers. The number of hand hoes was highest in
the highland zone. Other farm equipment, such as machetes, axes, and knives, averaged at least one
per household. In all zones, few respondents owned tractors or carts, but tractor hire was reported by
5.6% of respondents in the intermediate zone and 22.2% in the lowlands. Eleven percent of the
respondents in the lowlands and highlands reported hiring plows. Animal traction was more common
in the intermediate zone than in the lowlands and highlands. Tractors and plows were hired mainly
for land cultivation.


Table 4. Numbers of livestock and farm tools owned by sample households in Central Tanzania

Lowlands Intermediate Highlands P-values
Mean STD Mean STD Mean STD LIM L/H M/H

Animals
Goats 7.5 7.1 10.6 9.4 7.0 9.8 NS NS NS
Sheep 0.3 0.8 4.7 5.1 1.4 2.9 0.05 NS NS
Cattle 10.6 13.6 16.9 11.8 17.7 22.6 NS NS NS
Farm tools
Hand hoe 3.9 1.8 4.8 3.4 8.5 7.6 NS NS NS
Ox-plow 1.7 0.6 2.0 0.8 2.0 1.1 NS NS NS
Cutting equipment 1.0 0.0 1.7 0.6 2.25 0.5 NS 0.05 NS
Cart 1.0 1.4 1.1 0.3 1.0 0.0 NS NS NS
Tractor 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.7 NS NS NS

Note: NS = not significant; STD = standard deviation.









4.0 Maize Production, Crop Management, and
Marketing in the Study Area

4.1 Crops and Cropping System

Maize was planted mainly as a monocrop in the lowlands (78% of farmers), intermediate zone (58%),
and highlands (76%). In the lowlands, maize was intercropped with beans, cowpeas, and pigeonpeas
or mixed with bulrush millet to spread risk. A maize/pigeonpea cropping system was more common
in this zone. In the intermediate zone, maize was mainly intercropped with cowpeas or mixed with
sunflowers (the maize/sunflower cropping system was more common). In the highlands, maize was
intercropped with groundnuts and cowpeas. Intercropping was practiced mainly to save labor
(constrained by land scarcity) and to spread risk. Table 5 shows the various cropping systems in the
three zones.

4.2 Maize Crop Management Practices

4.2.1 Land preparation methods
In the highlands, land preparation starts in November and ends in January to take advantage of the
November-January short rains. However, in the intermediate zone and the lowlands, 90% and 67%
of the respondents, respectively, reported that they began land preparation in September-October
and ended it in November.

Table 6 shows the different methods of land preparation for all zones. Lowland and highland farmers
most often used hand hoes to prepare land. Intermediate zone farmers generally relied on ox-plows
to prepare their land.

4.2.2 Seedbed type, planting pattern, and weeding
All farmers used flat seedbeds, a practice attributed to the type of tools used in land cultivation and
farming. The use of the hand hoe and shifting cultivation does not encourage ridging because of the
high labor requirements.

Table 7 shows farmer's major agronomic practices. In the 1994 maize season, the majority of
lowland and intermediate zone farmers planted maize in December, and the majority of highland


Table 5. Maize cropping systems in the three major agroecological zones of Central Tanzania
Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers
Monocropped maize 14 82.4 10 58.8 13 81.3
Intercropped maize 3 17.6 7 41.2 3 18.8
Reasons for intercropping
Save labor 1 25.0 2 40.0 4 57.1
Land scarcity 2 50.0 2 28.6
Spread risk 1 25.0 3 60.0 1 14.3











Table 6. Timing and method of land preparation for maize, Central Tanzania
Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers

Timing of land preparation
August-October 8 47.1 12 66.9 4 25.1
November 4 23.6 4 22.3 9 56.4
December 4 23.6 1 5.6 3 18.8
January 1 5.9 1 5.6 -
Method of land preparation
Hand hoe 8 50.0 5 31.3 7 41.2
Ox-plow 2 12.5 7 43.8 1 5.9
Tractor 2 12.5 0.0 2 11.8
Hand hoe and oxen 2 12.5 3 18.8 6 35.3
Zero tillage 2 12.5 0.0 0.0


Table 7. Farmers' major agronomic practices for maize, Central Tanzania
Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
Practice of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers


Planting time
November
December
January
February
Planting method
Row
Random
Reasons for row planting
Ease of field management
Increase yields
Advised by extension
Spacing between rows
Use recommended spacing
Use other spacing
Spacing between hills
Use recommended spacing
Use other spacing
Time of first weeding
November
December
January
February
March
Time of second weeding
January/December
February
March
April


15 93.8


Number of
farmers


68.8
31.2

81.3
18.7


16.7
44.4
38.9



77.8
22.2



Mean


Number of seeds/hill 18 2.2 17 2.2 16 2.1
Frequency of weeding 18 2.0 18 2.0 18 2.2


5
9
3
1

18
0

11
2
2

9
5

10
4

1
8
4
2
1

1
8
3


Number of
farmers


27.8
50.1
16.8
5.6

100.0
0.0

73.3
13.3
13.3

64.3
35.7

71.5
18.5

6.3
50.0
25.0
12.5
6.3

15.4
61.5
23.1



Mean


5
12
1

15
2

8
4
5

5
9

9
5


1
14
2
1


11
3
1
Number of
farmers


27.9
66.7
5.6

88.2
11.8

47.0
23.5
29.4

35.7
64.3

64.3
35.7


5.6
77.8
11.1
5.6


73.3
20.0
6.7


Mean











farmers planted later, in January. Most farmers planted maize in rows, although 12% of the farmers
in the highlands did not. The major reason for row planting was to ease the management of maize
fields.


Most farmers in the intermediate zone and lowlands used the recommended spacing between rows
and hills, although only 36% of farmers in the highlands did so. On average, all households planted
the recommended number of two seeds per hill. Most farmers in all zones weeded twice, as
recommended. The time of weeding depended on the onset of the rains and the presence of weeds
in the field. The first weeding was mostly done between January and February, while the second
weeding was done between February and March.


4.2.3 Type of fertilizer, method of application, and quantity
Inorganic fertilizer was used by 16.7% of lowland farmers, 76.5% of intermediate zone farmers, and
16.7% of highland farmers. Most farmers used urea or CAN. The use of inorganic fertilizer was
constrained by cost and lack of knowledge. No farmer used fertilizers regularly, and fertilizer was
applied only to parts of the field where maize had symptoms of N deficiency (Table 8).


4.2.4 Fallowing and crop rotation
In the lowlands about 39% of farmers fallowed their land, while only 18.9% of intermediate zone
farmers and 5.9% of highland farmers practiced fallowing (Table 9). This result is not surprising,
given that farmers in the lowlands have larger farms. The major reason for leaving land fallow was to
replenish soil fertility, and land shortages were the major constraint on fallowing. Maize and wheat
were grown immediately after the fallow cycle because farmers felt that those crops needed more
fertile soils and generated higher returns.


Table 8. Use of fertilizer by sample households, Central Tanzania


Lowlands
Number Percent of


Intermediate zone
Number Percent of


Highlands
Number Percent of


Practice of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers
Use inorganic fertilizer (IF) 3 16.7 13 76.5 3 16.7
Use organic fertilizer 3 16.7 13 72.2 4 22.2
Reason for not using IF
Expensive 2 10.0 7 35.0 1 5.0
Destroys soil 0 0.0 1 5.0 1 5.0
Lack of knowledge 1 5.0 2 10.0 2 10.0
Soil fertile enough 1 5.0 0 0.0 2 10.0



Table 9. Fallowing and crop rotation by sample households, Central Tanzania
Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
Practice of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers
Fallow 7 38.9 3 18.8 1 5.9
Crop rotation 10 58.8 14 82.4 6 33.3











About 59% of the farmers in the lowlands, 82.4% in the intermediate zone, and 33.3% in the
highlands rotated crops to add fertility to the soil and break disease and pest cycles (Table 9). The
major reason for not practicing crop rotations was farmers' lack of awareness of the potential
benefits.


4.2.5 Crop residue management
Farmers who did not apply fertilizer or used only a small amount were advised to avoid soil mining by
plowing crop residues back into the soil. About 67% of the farmers in the lowlands followed this
recommendation, compared to 17.6% and 12.5% in the intermediate zone and highlands (Table 10).
About 82% and 87% of farmers in the intermediate zone and highlands reported grazing their cattle
on maize stover left in the field.


4.2.6 Pest and disease control
Field pests, diseases, and control methods are summarized in Table 11. Stalk borers were the most
important pest. The lowlands and intermediate zone were the most affected by stalk borer (78% of
respondents, compared to 22% of highland respondents). Other pests mentioned by farmers in the



Table 10. Management of crop residue by sample households, Central Tanzania
Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
Practice of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers
Plow residues under 10 66.7 3 17.6 2 12.5
Feed residues to cattle 5 33.3 14 82.4 14 87.5



Table 11. Major maize pests and diseases and their control, Central Tanzania
Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
Practice of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers
Pest
Stalk borers 14 77.8 14 77.8 4 22.2
Cutworms and termites 0 0.0 1 5.6 1 5.6
Vermin 1 5.6 0 0.0 1 5.6
None 3 16.7 3 16.7 12 66.7
Pest control method
Thiodan 0 0.0 1 5.6 0 0.0
DDT 3 16.7 2 11.1 1 5.6
Local method 0 0.0 1 5.6 0 0.0
None 15 83.3 14 77.8 17 94.4
Disease
Maize streak virus 1 5.6 0 0.0 3 16.7
Cob rot 3 16.7 2 11.1 0 0.0
Smut 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.6
None 14 77.8 16 88.9 14 77.8
Disease control method
Chemicals 0 0.0 1 5.6 0 0.0
None 18 100.0 17 94.4 18 100.0










highlands were vermin, cutworms, and termites. DDT was used to control field pests in all districts of
the lowlands and highlands. Thiodan and local control methods were used by only a few respondents
from the intermediate zone.


Maize streak virus was reported in the lowlands and highlands by 5.6% and 16.7% of respondents,
respectively. Cob rot was reported by about 17% and 1 1% of the respondents from the lowlands and
intermediate zones, respectively. Only one farmer in the intermediate zone used chemicals to control
diseases.

4.3 Harvesting, Transportation, and Storage of Maize

The maize harvest depends on the time of sowing and the end of the rainy season, but most maize
crops were harvested in June and July (Table 12). Most farmers used ox-carts to transport maize to
the homestead (other methods included bicycles and pick-up trucks). About 94% of the farmers in the
lowlands stored their maize in gunny bags, while the majority of farmers in the other zones (66.7% in
the intermediate zone, 91.7% in the highlands) shelled the maize and stored the grain in a local
container (kihenge). The majority of farmers in the three zones treated their maize before storing it.
Storage losses without treatment could be substantial. Treatment with Actellic Super was the most
common method of controlling storage pests (94% of lowland farmers and 88% of highland farmers).
The most common control method in the intermediate zone was the use of ash or other local
materials (56% of farmers).

4.4 Seed Selection and Recycling


About 90% of farmers in the intermediate zone and highlands selected seed at home, while 44.4% of
lowland farmers selected seed in the field (Table 13). The most important criterion for selecting seed
for the next season was the size of the maize cob. Most selected seed was shelled, treated, and stored


Table 12. Maize harvesting, transport, and storage, Central Tanzania

Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
Practice of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers

Harvesting time
May 1 5.6 0 0.0 0 0.0
June 9 50.0 5 27.8 4 22.2
July 8 44.4 12 66.7 12 66.7
August 0 0.0 1 5.6 1 11.1
Transportation method
Bicycle 0 0.0 1 5.6 0 0.0
Ox-cart 15 93.8 17 94.4 18 100.0
Pick-up truck 1 6.3 0 0.0 0 0.0
Maize storage
Shell and store in kihenge 1 6.3 8 66.7 11 91.7
Cribs 0 0.0 1 8.3 0 0.0
Gunny bags 15 93.8 3 25.0 1 8.3










in gunny bags. Farmers said that commercial seed was also readily available, and they bought it from
wither stockists or other farmers.


Varying numbers of farmers in each zone said they purchased improved maize seed regularly (23% in
the lowlands, 14% in the intermediate zone, and 57% in the highlands). Farmers in the lowlands
reported that they recycled seed for five to eight years; intermediate zone and highland farmers said
they recycled seed for eight to ten years.

4.5 Maize Cropping Calendar for the Central Zone

Table 14 presents the maize cropping calendar for the Central Zone. Labor demand peaks twice
during the year, first between January and March and then between June and August. Planting and
weeding were the major activities in the first period, and harvesting and postharvest processing were
the major activities in the second period.



Table 13. Farmers' seed selection criteria, Central Tanzania

Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
Practice of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers

Big cob 18 52.9 18 50.0 14 58.3
Mature grain 12 35.3 11 30.6 7 19.2
Other 4 11.1 7 19.4 3 12.5


Table 14. Maize cropping calendar by agroecological zone, Central Tanzania


Zone JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL


AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC










5.0 Farmers' Adoption/Disadoption of Improved Maize


5.1 Current Varieties Grown


Table 15 shows maize varieties grown by the sample farmers in the 1994/95 farming season. Most
farmers in the lowlands and intermediate zone grew CG4142, released in 1992 by Cargill. This level
of adoption could be attributed to efficient marketing strategies by Cargill, which is well established in
northern Tanzania and facilitated dissemination of Cargill seed from Arusha into the lowland and
intermediate zones of the Central Zone. In the highlands, other maize materials were popular (e.g.,
Staha, UCA, and Tuxpefo).

5.2 Preferred Improved Maize Varieties and
Reasons for Farmers' Preferences


Farmers' varying preferences for improved maize across zones may be attributed to zonal differences
in pest populations, disease incidence, soil fertility, and climate. The most preferred maize in the
lowland and intermediate zones was CG4142, whereas it was Staha in the highlands (Table 16). The
main reason for these preferences was drought resistance (Table 17).



Table 15. Maize varieties and hybrids planted in 1994/95, Central Tanzania

Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
Practice of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers

Local 5 27.8 2 11.1 11 61.1
CG4142* 13 72.2 13 72.2 4 22.3
UCA 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.6
Staha 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.6
Kilima 0 0.0 3 16.7 0.0
Tuxpeno 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.6

Note: *= or other improved maize variety.



Table 16. Maize varieties/hybrids preferred by farmers, Central Tanzania

Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
Practice of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers

Kilima 0 0.0 3 30.0 0 0.0
Staha 0 0.0 0 0.0 8 66.7
TMV-1 1 12.5 0 0.0 0 -
Tuxpeno 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 16.7
CG4142 6 75.0 6 60.0 1 8.3
Other* 1 12.5 1 10.0 1 8.3

Note: = or other improved maize variety.











5.3 Disadoption of Improved Maize


About 17% of farmers had discontinued growing improved maize materials, including ICW, H6302,
H614, Tuxpeno, and CG4142, largely because of low yields and susceptibility to pests and diseases
(Table 18).


Table 17. Reasons for farmers' preferences for certain maize varieties/hybrids

Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
Zone Variety of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers

Lowlands TMV 1 0 0.0 1 100.0 0 0.0
CG4142 0 0.0 4 100.0 0 0.0
Intermediate Kilima 1 33.3 1 33.3 1 33.3
CG4142 1 33.3 5 83.3 0 0.0
Highlands Staha 1 0.0 5 100.0 0 0.0




Table 18. Maize varieties/hybrids no longer grown by farmers, Central Tanzania

Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
Variety of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers

ICW 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 50.0
H6302/H614 2 100.0 1 20.0 0 0.0
Tuxpeno 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 50.0
CG4141 0 0.0 4 80.0 0 0.0









6.0 Credit and Extension Services


6.1 Credit Availability

About 12% of highland respondents and 7% of lowland respondents reported that they had access to
credit. All farmers who used credit received it from the informal sector. The average loan was for
1,452.32 Tanzanian shillings (Tsh); the maximum amounts were Tsh 35,000.00 in the highlands and
Tsh 13,340.00 in the lowlands. This credit was used mainly to purchase fertilizer. More than half of
the respondents in the lowlands and intermediate zone said that credit was difficult to obtain from the
formal sector because of the bureaucratic application process, but the main constraint to formal
credit for highland farmers was their lack of knowledge of how the credit system worked (Table 19).

6.2 Extension Services

Farmers' sources of information on improved maize technology are shown in Table 20. The three
most important sources information were extension agents, other farmers, and NGOs. In all zones,
extension led in disseminating knowledge to farmers for all technologies. The Training and Visit
(T&V) extension system is used the study area, and most components of the technology package had
been introduced to participating farmers. NGOs were the second most important source of
knowledge about new technology. Most farmers received information on improved varieties, planting
method, fertilizer, weeding, ox-drawn implements, and pesticide use. Information on herbicide use
and disease control measures was low, however. Also, farmers in the lowlands received less
information than other farmers about ox-drawn implements.




Table 19. Sources and use of credit, Central Tanzania

Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers

Access to credit
Yes 1 6.7 0 0.0 2 12.5
No 14 93.3 15 100.0 14 87.5
Sources of credit
Informal sector 1 100.0 2 100.0
Availability of credit
Difficult to obtain 12.2 85.7 11 84.6 12 100.0
Not difficult to obtain 2 14.3 2 15.4 0 0.0
Constraint to obtaining credit
Lack of knowledge 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 25.0
Bureaucracy 7 58.3 5 62.5 2 25.0
No collateral 2 16.7 0 0.0 1 12.5
Other 3 25.0 3 37.5 3 37.5











Table 20. Farmers' sources of information about maize production technologies, Central Tanzania

Lowlands Intermediate zone Highlands
Number Percent of Number Percent of Number Percent of
Technology of farmers farmers of farmers farmers of farmers farmers


Improved maize
Received information
Source of information
Research/extension
Other farmers
NGOs
Traders
Planting method
Received information
Source of information
Research/extension
Other farmers
NGOs
Fertilizer
Received information
Source of information
Research/extension
NGOs
Weed management
Received information
Source of information
Research/extension
Other farmers
NGOs
Herbicide
Received information
Source of information
Research/extension
Ox-drawn tool
Received information
Source of information
Research/extension
Other farmers
NGOs
Pest management
Received information
Source of information
Research/extension
Other farmers
NGOs
Disease control measures
Received information
Source of information
Research/extension
Storage practice
Received information
Source of information
Research/extension
Other farmers
NGOs


16 100.0


72.7
0.0
27.3

64.3

83.3
16.7

53.3

66.7
0.0
33.3

9.1

100.0

33.3

66.7
0.0
33.3

46.2

83.3
16.7
0.0

23.1


2 100.0


90.9

83.3
0.0
16.7
0.0

90.9

100.0
0.0
0.0

60.0

75.0
25.0

72.7

100.0
0.0
0.0

22.2


2 100.0


2 100.0


100.0

66.7
25.0
8.3
0.0

100.0

92.3
7.7
0.0

93.8

91.7
8.3

76.5

77.8
22.2
0.0

16.7


2 100.0


6 100.0









7.0 Factors Affecting Adoption of Agricultural
Technologies in the Study Area

7.1 Definitions

Feder et al. (1985) defined adoption as the degree of use of a new technology in a long run
equilibrium when a farmer has full information about the new technology and its potential. Therefore,
adoption at the farm level describes the realization of farmers' decision to apply a new technology in
the production process. On the other hand, aggregate adoption is the process of spread or diffusion
of a new technology within a region. Therefore a distinction exists between adoption at the individual
farm level and aggregate adoption within a targeted region. If an innovation is modified periodically,
however, the equilibrium level of adoption will not be achieved. This situation requires the use of
econometric procedures that can capture both the rate and the process of adoption. The rate of
adoption is defined as the proportion of farmers who have adopted a new technology over time. The
incidence of adoption is defined as the percentage of farmers using a technology at a specific point in
time (for example, the percentage of farmers using fertilizer). The intensity of adoption is defined as
the level of adoption of a given technology (for instance, the number of hectares planted with
improved seed or the amount of fertilizer applied per hectare).

7.2 Rate of Adoption of Improved Maize Varieties in Central Tanzania

The common procedure for assessing the rate of adoption is the use of a logistic curve, which
captures the historical trend of adoption over a given time and can be used to assess the effectiveness
of agricultural institutions that have served the farming system over time. The logistic curve is
constructed using data on the proportion of farmers who have adopted an improved technical
innovation over a given period. The basic assumption is that adoption increases slowly at first but
then increases rapidly to approach a maximum level (CIMMYT 1993). Mathematically, the logistic
curve is given by the following formula:

K
t 1 = eabt

where:
Yt = the cumulative percentage of adopters at a time t;
K = the upper bound of adoption;
b = a constant, related to the rate of adoption; and
a = a constant, related to the time when adoption begins.

Figure 5 shows the rate of adoption of improved maize varieties for the Central Zone. In 1994 about
78% of farmers were planting improved maize varieties, but the rate of adoption for improved maize
over 1974-94 was 0.13, which is rather low. In recent years, the adoption rate has increased
dramatically, probably because of improvements in input delivery under liberalized markets and
because of increased extension efforts, such as those of Sasakawa-Global 2000.











7.3 Tobit Analysis of Land Allocated to Improved Maize Varieties


Results of the tobit model for the proportion of land allocated to improved maize are presented in
Table 21. The tobit model was used because the proportion of land allocated to improved maize is a
continuous variable but truncated between zero and one. The use of ordinary least squares will result
in biased estimates (McDonald 1980). In Table 21, 8EY/6x1 shows the marginal effect of an
explanatory variable on the expected value (mean proportion) of the dependent variable, 8EY*/Sx
shows changes in the intensity of adoption with respect to a unit change of an independent variable
among adopters, and 8F(Z)/4x is the probability of change among nonadopters (e.g., the probability
of adopting improved maize varieties) with a unit
Adopters (%)
change of independent variable xi. The log- 100
likelihood ratio test was significant at the 1%
level. The socioeconomic household 80
characteristics were not significant. The
significant variables included the type of variety 60
grown by the farmer, agroecological zone, and j


extension.


A variety's characteristics had a positive and
significant influence on the proportion of land
allocated to improve maize. Farmers growing the
long-maturing varieties UCA and Kilima were
more likely to allocate more land to maize than


1971


75 79 83 87 91 93


Figure 5. Rate of adoption of improved maize, Central
Tanzania.


Table 21. Tobit model estimates for land allocated to improved maize varieties, Central Tanzania
Parameter Coefficient t-statistic 8EY/8x 8EY*/8x, 6F(Z)/ 86x
Constant 0.0854 0.3584 0.0016 0.05801 0.03564
EXPF -0.0038 -0.7604 0 -0.0026 -0.0016
LAB -0.01197 -0.7351 0 -0.0081 -0.005
EDVC -0.0118 -0.6847 0 -0.008 -0.0049
WID 0.0074 0.8916 0 0.00503 0.00309
EXI 0.3379 1.5828*** 0.025002 0.2295252 0.1410177
VA1 0.4072 3.2111* 0.03631 0.2765986 0.169939
VA2 0.3058 3.3113* 0.020478 0.2077206 0.1276212
VA3 0.5238 3.8682* 0.060081 0.3558014 0.2186004
AEZ1 -0.8211 -4.0217* -0.1476379 -0.557748 -0.342674
AEZ2 -0.1417 -1.0394 -0.0044 -0.09625 -0.05914
SIGMA 0.2972 7.5782 0.019342 0.2018789 0.1240321
Sample size 54
Number of positive observations 31
Proportion of positive observations 57.4
Z-score 0.19
f(z) 0.39181
Log of likelihood function -13.1798*
Log of restricted likelihood function 66.98

Note: *** = significant at 10%level; ** = significant at 5% level; = significant at 1% level.











farmers growing materials that matured earlier. The marginal effect of the long-maturing varieties on
the mean proportion of land allocated to improved maize varieties was 6%, while the marginal effect
was 3% and 2% for group one and two varieties, respectively. The long-maturing varieties increased
the probability adopting improved maize by about 22%, while group one and two varieties increased
the probability of adoption by about 17% and 13%, respectively. The marginal effect of extension on
the mean proportion of land allocated to improved maize varieties was 3%, and extension increased
the probability of adoption by 14%.


Farmers in the highlands were more likely to allocate land to improved maize varieties than farmers
in the lowlands and the intermediate zone. The marginal effect of the lowlands and intermediate
zone on the mean proportion of land allocated to improved maize varieties was less by 15% and
0.4%, respectively, compared with the highlands. The probability that farmers would allocate land to
improved maize was less by 34% for the lowlands and 6% for the intermediate zone. In the lowlands,
allocation of land to improved maize remained low compared to the other two zones. One reason for
this might be the low rainfall in the lowlands; farmers may be unwilling to plant improved maize that
performs badly under moisture stress.

7.4 Probit Analysis of the Use of Fertilizer


Results of the probit model for the use of
inorganic fertilizer are presented in Table 22. The
probit model was used because the response on
inorganic fertilizer use was binary (= 1 if the
farmer used inorganic fertilizer for the past three
years and = 0 otherwise). Establishing the
quantity of fertilizer used per hectare was difficult
because of the lack of data. In Table 22, the
change in probability (SY/Sx) shows the change
in probability that a farmer will use fertilizer, given
a unit change in the independent variable. The
likelihood ratio test was significant at the 1 %
level. The inverse Mills ratio was not significant
and negative; thus fertilizer use was not influenced
by adoption of improved varieties alone. The
significant variable influencing the adoption of
fertilizer was extension services. An increase in
the intensity of extension services increased the
probability of fertilizer use by 115%. The negative
signs on the agroecological zones showed that
farmers were less likely to use fertilizer for maize
production, especially in the low rainfall areas.
This could be explained by the lower response of
maize varieties to fertilizer in low rainfall areas.


Table 22. Probit model estimates for use of fertilizer,
Central Tanzania
Parameter Coefficient t-statistic 86Y8xi
Constant -9.328 -1.4772 -0.6134
EXPF 0.1136 1.3461 0.0075
LAB 0.1493 0.5485 0.0098
EDVC 0.8173 1.5229 0.0603
WID 0.0269 0.2636 0.0018
EXI 17.4586 2.1362** 1.1481
IMR 2.2658 1.1529 0.1491
VA1 -0.4029 -0.1716 -0.0265
VA2 -6.2756 -1.7209 -0.4127
VA3 -3.8855 -1.5964 -0.2555
AEZ1 -7.0066 -1.6317 -0.4608
AEZ2 -8.5556 -1.7411 -0.5626
Sample size 54
Number of positive
observations 30
Proportion of positive
observations 0.56
R-squared 0.86
The factor of correct
prediction 0.96
Log likelihood function -37.1*
Restricted log likelihood
function (p=0) 61.64
X2(10) 25.18
Note: ** = significant at 5% level; = significant at 1% level.









8.0 Conclusions and Recommendations


8.1 Conclusions

Among the farmers sampled for the survey, the mean age of the household head was 43 years, with
19 years of farming experience. Farmers' level of education was low, averaging about four years of
formal schooling. Households averaged about ten persons, with at least three permanent workers.
Most farmers kept livestock and the hand hoe was their major farm tool. Animal power was used by
about 30% of farmers, mainly in the intermediate zone and highlands. Hiring of tractors was
relatively common in the lowlands, where farmers practiced extensive maize production. Land was
not a limiting factor in the farming system.

Farmers in the lowlands and intermediate zone recycled maize seed for five to eight years, while
highland farmers recycled seed for a longer period (eight to ten years). Seed was selected during
harvest and shelling for storage, based on the size of the cob. Most selected seed was shelled, treated
against insects, and stored in gunny bags. Maize for food was shelled and stored in the kihenge. The
majority of farmers in the three zones treated their maize before storage.

The few farmers who obtained credit did so through the informal sector and used the money mainly
to purchase farm inputs such as fertilizer. Farmers' inability to obtain credit from the formal sector
was attributed to lack of knowledge about the formal credit system and the bureaucratic process for
obtaining loans.

Farmers' chief source of information on agriculture was the research and extension system; the T&V
(Training and Visit) extension system was used throughout the study area. Most farmers had received
information on improved maize varieties, planting methods, and weed management, but few knew
about disease control measures and pest management.

The most popular maize varieties were Kilima, TMV1, and Staha in the intermediate zone; Staha
and TMV1 in the lowlands; and Staha, TMV1, and Kilima in the highlands. The reasons for farmers'
preference of these varieties were, in order of importance, their high yield, drought resistance, and
resistance to storage pests. Despite these stated preferences, most farmers actually planted the
hybrid CG4142 because it was available.

Farmers' adoption of maize crop management practices depended on their cost. Most farmers
planted maize in rows (the cheapest technology), but fewer farmers used chemical pest and disease
control methods because of their high cost.

The two-stage least squares analysis showed that variety characteristics, production potential of the
area, and extension were the most important factors affecting the amount of land allocated to
improved maize and use of inorganic fertilizer. Farmers who grew long-maturing maize were about
22% more likely to allocate land to improved maize, while the use of group one and two varieties
increased the likelihood of adoption by about 17% and 13%, respectively. Extension increased the










probability of allocating land to improved maize at the means by about 14%, and it increased the
probability of using fertilizer by 115%. Lowland farmers were less likely to use fertilizer, probably
because of the lower response of maize to fertilizer in low rainfall areas.

8.2 Recommendations

Technical innovation characteristics and external influences are the major factors affecting the
adoption of improved maize practices. Research needs to develop varieties that fit farmers' tastes and
circumstances, and extension should be involved in testing and disseminating these technologies.
Flexible integrated pest management packages, which combine a drought tolerant variety with
improved cultural practices, can increase yields. Low-cost technologies for controlling stalk borer and
maize streak virus using cultural practices or environmentally friendly industrial chemicals should be
developed.

Most improved varieties are responsive to fertilizer, and farmers usually obtain economic yields with
fertilizer. But use of fertilizer is constrained by high price and lack of knowledge. An efficient
marketing system for inputs and outputs will benefit farmers by paying higher prices for maize and
reducing the cost of fertilizer. Such a system cannot be established without policy support from the
government, however. Studies on the economics of seed and fertilizer use should also be undertaken,
especially now that input and output markets have been liberalized.

In developing improved maize varieties, factors other than yield should be taken into consideration,
including drought resistance/tolerance, resistance to storage pests, shelling quality, and taste. This
requires farmer participation in the research process. Research and extension efforts need to be
linked and strengthened to increase the flow of information to farmers. In collaboration with the
government and other stakeholders, the formal credit system needs to address the credit problems
faced by small-scale farmers, especially their lack of knowledge (information) about formal credit and
the bureaucratic procedures for obtaining credit. The formation of farmer groups should be
encouraged, because lending to groups tends to reduce transactions costs and improve the rate of
loan recovery.










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