Front Cover
 Adapting to a changing environ...
 Science to benfit the disadvantaged...
 Stress tolerant maize : Food security...
 Specialty maize : Added income...
 Biofortified maize and wheat :...
 Water-productive wheat with improved...
 Rust resistant wheat : Insurance...
 New traits from global crop diversity...
 Conservation agriculture : Winning...
 Capacity-buiilding : Investing...
 CIMMYT financial overview
 Trustees and principal staff
 CIMMYT contact information
 Back Cover

Group Title: CIMMYT annual report ...
Title: CIMMYT annual report, 2005-2006
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077461/00007
 Material Information
Title: CIMMYT annual report, 2005-2006
Series Title: CIMMYT annual report ...
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2005
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077461
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: issn - 0188-9214


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Adapting to a changing environment
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Science to benfit the disadvantaged : Flagship products
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Stress tolerant maize : Food security and cropping diversification
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Specialty maize : Added income for smallholder farmers
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Biofortified maize and wheat : Improved nutrition and health for the poor
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Water-productive wheat with improved grain quality : Lowering risk, saving scarce moisture, improving incomes
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Rust resistant wheat : Insurance for world wheat farmers
        Page 14
        Page 15
    New traits from global crop diversity and better tools for maize and wheat breeding
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Conservation agriculture : Winning the battle for livelihoods and the environment
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Capacity-buiilding : Investing in knowledge, competence, and future partnerships
        Page 20
        Page 21
    CIMMYT financial overview
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Trustees and principal staff
        Page 25
    CIMMYT contact information
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Back Cover
        Page 28
Full Text

CIMMYT Annual Report 2005-2006

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NMasa Iwanaga
Director General

_. ... .........11 ,1 i lI !AE I 1 3I

Science to benefit the

disadvantaged: Flagship


CIMMYT works with partners to put

cutting-edge science at the service of

developing country farmers, offering them

, better food security and livelihoods through

nine flagship products encompassing maize

and wheat research tools, cropping systems,

and capacity building. The following

pages of this report flesh out the brief

descriptions here with information about

the partners and farmers who will

benefit-and in some cases, are already

benefiting-from CIMMYT's work on
these products. (Page numbers of the

Full reports appear in parentheses.)

Stress tolerant maize (p. 6). Maize in
developing countries is commonly grown
under highly variable, stress-prone conditions
by impoverished farm households. To enhance
their food security and livelihoods and help
protect the environment, CIMMYT develops
maize that naturally withstands drought, poor
soils, pests, and diseases, without the need for
heavy applications of chemicals.


n I'"'' I REF Ou 2005-2006
iCi c

;;;; ^

Specialty maize for sale (p. 8). To offer smallholder
farmers new sources of income, CIMMYT is
assessing the market potential and benefits of
quality protein maize for farmers and poultry
producers in Africa and Asia, varieties for maize-
livestock systems, or specialty maize produced for

Biofortified maize and wheat (p. 10). In work with
HarvestPlus and partners worldwide, CIMMYT is
developing maize whose grain possesses enhanced
levels of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and bioavailable
protein, and wheat whose grain provides more
bioavailable iron and zinc. This biofortified grain
is a boon to the poor who often survive on high
intakes of inexpensive cereals. CIMMYT-derived
maize with enhanced levels of bioavailable protein
is already grown in 25 developing countries; and
center scientists and partners are working to add
this trait to commonly-grown varieties throughout
the developing world.

Water-use efficient wheat with good grain quality
(p. 12). Water-productive wheat varieties now
under development will address the needs of
farmers in irrigated areas, where water is growing
scarce, and of resource-poor farmers who grow
the crop under rainfed conditions to obtain large
portions of their daily calories, basic income, and
fodder for livestock. They will feature suitable grain
quality, an important requirement for farmers to
move from subsistence to market-oriented farming.

Rust resistant wheat (p. 14). Drawing upon its
extensive collections of genetic resources, breeding
knowledge, network of partners, and modern
bioscience innovations, CIMMYT is developing a
new generation of stable, resilient, and profitable
wheats that possess durable resistance to the rust
diseases, one of the most significant and ever-
present threats to the crop worldwide.

New traits through gene discovery (p. 16). The
center is applying bioscience to identify useful
genes in its seed collections and other maize and
wheat genetic resources. The genes sought will
allow improved varieties of maize and wheat
to withstand drought, poor soils, pests, and

diseases, as well as improving their nutritional
quality and profitability. The work will also
produce structured, well-characterized sets of
experimental varieties; internet-based information
management and decision-support systems;
useful genetic stocks, lines, genetic mapping
populations, mutant stocks; and methodologies
for allele and gene mining of global germplasm
collections. All of these outputs will be freely
available for breeding programs of CIMMYT and
partners worldwide.

Improved methodologies and tools for genetic
improvement (p. 16). CIMMYT is developing
and testing new methodologies and tools to
enhance its breeding efforts and those of partners:
molecular genetic fingerprinting, marker-
assisted selection, double haploids, genetic
transformation, advanced biometrics, simulation
models, and integrated knowledge-sharing

Resource-conserving practices for maize and
wheat cropping systems (p. 18). The center's
research develops, refines, and promotes
practices for the more efficient and sustainable
use of farm inputs, lower production costs,
better management of crop pests and diseases,
and enhanced cropping system diversity and
resilience. CIMMYT is also developing improved
maize and wheat genotypes better suited to
conservation agriculture.

Capacity-building (p. 20). Achieving impacts
in national agricultural research and in farmers'
fields depends on trained, motivated people to
organize, link up, and follow through at all stages
of innovation. CIMMYT is well-known for its
practical courses in maize and wheat science and
for imparting a pragmatic, egalitarian ethos in
research and extension. It also provides technical
and policy analyses promoting food and income
security, engaging decision-makers on these
issues. Finally, the center is helping emerging
seed production entrepreneurs and fostering
effective linkages among key players in maize
and wheat commodity chains. 0



',, I 5

Stress tolerant maize: Food security and

cropping diversification

Work on stress tolerant maize targets sub-Saharan Africa, but
varieties from this research are already benefiting farmers elsewhere.
The stress tolerant, open-pollinated maize variety, ZM 621, developed
by CIMMYT and partners in southern Africa, was rated high in tests
by small-scale farmers in the remote mid-hills of Nepal for its yield,
drought tolerance, and other agronomic traits, and is being released
in that region under the name of a local goddess, "Deuti." Stress
tolerant maize can help millions of rural families who grow and eat
maize in Latin America and South and Southeast Asia. A recent study
indicates that drought alone affects nearly 48 million rural poor in
maize-growing areas across Asia, and the alleviation of this constraint
could add another 35% to maize yields in the region.

The people of the village of
kIasuvi in Makueni district,
-, uitheastern Kenya are no strangers
th hardship. The region has perennial
h 0 ,d shortages and recent droughts
la\e made the situation worse.
Nla.ze is the staple crop and often
thli-re is not enough to eat, let alone
i.-ll in the market. Food aid has
Ib_.-i me the norm and no one likes
it. Demonstration trials of new, more
drought tolerant maize varieties
developed by the Kenya Agricultural
Research Institute (KARI) in
cooperation with CIMMYT have
shown the villagers hope, given them
a new place to start.

"If we could continue to produce
this new seed, the farmers in
Makueni would start harvesting
maize within three months, and

6 CIMrYT A u tJ i REP' 2005-2006

very soon people would no
longer have to depend on relief
food," says Musiawa Kiluva, the
chairperson of the Wikwatyo Self
Help Group in the village.

People in areas like southeastern
Kenya have little choice but to
depend on agriculture for food
and livelihoods, with little or no
access to irrigation, fertilizer, or
other chemicals. Stress tolerant
maize will allow them to harvest
20 to 50% more grain. Under
drought conditions, where
yields typically fall below 1 ton
per hectare, even 200 kilograms
more grain per hectare can
help save rural families from
starvation or from having to sell
precious assets such as draft
animals. It can eliminate the
need for food aid handouts and
help restore dignity.

The added output can also
give them the option to reduce
the amount of maize sown and
thereby diversify their cropping,
or to fallow selected plots. In
good years, surplus grain can
be sold, providing support for
schooling for children or for
household purchases. Finally,
stress tolerant varieties can
provide a safety net to help
maize farmers throughout the
developing world confront
the more variable, hot, dry
conditions expected to result
from global climate change.

CIMMYT scientists are applying
a proven breeding approach-
selecting under controlled
replication of major constraints

from farmers' fields-along with
cutting-edge DNA marker and
genomics technology, to generate
stress tolerant maize. Work builds
on CIMMYT's recognized efforts
to develop and perfect the science
for breeding stress tolerance
in maize. With funding from
a wide range of donors and in
conjunction with the International
Institute of Tropical Agriculture
(IITA), these methods are now
being applied, particularly in
sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.
Farmer-centered approaches for
testing and spreading information
about new, stress tolerant varieties
are being used in collaboration
with public research and
extension services, community-
based organizations, and farmer
associations. This facilitates the
supply of affordable, quality
seed to farmers in stress-prone
areas poorly served by private
companies or agro-input suppliers.

As of today, new varieties
developed by national partners
with input from CIMMYT are
already benefiting as many as
25 million people in eastern
and southern Africa, but more
effort is required to reach the
millions of farmers in Africa,
Asia, and Latin America who
face the consequences of
population growth, increasing
scarcity of water for irrigation,
a deteriorating natural resource
base, and climate change.

In tandem with advanced
research institutes and initiatives
like the CGIAR Generation
Challenge Program, center

The Wikwatyo Self Help Group, in the midst of
drought in southeast Kenya, produced 4.2 tons of
drought tolerant maize seed in their first season.

breeders are attempting to
speed progress by applying
DNA marker, genomics, and
bioinformatics tools. This is
especially relevant, given the
complex genetics of tolerance
in maize to constraints such
as drought, low soil fertility,
pests, and diseases. Through
training, joint research, and a
strong presence in target areas,
CIMMYT intends build or
strengthen local capacity for
successful and much-needed
innovation in marginalized
communities. This includes
support to policy makers and
regulatory bodies who seek
advice to foster competitive seed
and input providers. U

For more information:
Marianne Binziger,
Director, Global Maize Progran


Specialty maize: Added income for

smallholder farmers

In remote Cajamarca Province of
-. northwestern Peru, rural families
augment incomes by harvesting
green ears of maize and taking them
to town for sale in the markets.
They seek maize varieties with large,
tasty ears that meet the preferences of
local consumers. In parts of Veracruz
state in eastern Mexico, rather than
focusing on low-value grain, maize
farmers harvest the husks for export to
Mexico City or the USA, where they
are used for wrapping and cooking the
popular maize-based food called tamales.
Varieties that yield larger husks would
benefit their business. In the isolated mid-
hills of Nepal, many parts of India, and
large tracts of sub-Saharan Africa, small-
scale farmers use maize stalks asfodderfor
cattle. Dual-purpose maize-with good
grain yields and stalks improved for fodder
output and quality-would boost the
productivity of their farms.

8 CI44M 4Y raL RE i 2005-2006

CIMMYT is working with
partners to offer maize farmers
in developing countries new
income-generating options
through specialty traits, value
addition, or multi-purpose uses
of maize.

"Many maize farmers in
developing countries are trying
to move from subsistence to
surplus agriculture," says
CIMMYT maize breeder Kevin
Pixley. "At the same time,
globalization has challenged
them to diversify from traditional
to value-added or specialty
crops that offer enhanced
income opportunities in today's

To help these farmers, the center
is beginning to study the market
potential and benefits of specialty
maize types and products. As
opportunities become clearer,
CIMMYT and partners will tap the
wealth of maize genetic resources,
including its extensive gene bank
and breeding collections, to give
farmers new income-generating
options. Possibilities include
production of high-quality protein
maize by smallholder farmers in
sub-Saharan Africa or Asia for use
in poultry production, maize for
food and feed or fodder in maize-
livestock systems, and specialty
maize-such as blue maize for
tortillas or chips-for sale in
urban and international markets.
Baby-corn, sweet corn, and green
ears can also represent important


- :nL

Embu Self-Help Group members Catherine Wanjovi Muriithi, Nancy Wambeti Nthiga,
and Susan Njeru advise farmers in Embu, Kenya, on how to grow quality protein
maize (QPM). The farmers tested QPM as part of a project led by CIMMYT agronomist
Dennis Friesen. "The Kenya Agricultural Research Institute has been our main partner
in adapting QPM to local environments and identifying farmer-preferred cultivars,"
says Friesen. "We are also working with the Catholic Relief Services, which has strong
grassroots linkages, the Catholic Diocese of Embu, and the Kenya Ministry of Agriculture,
to promote QPM on the ground."

sources of cash for growers in
Southeast Asia and others near
urban areas in Asia, Africa, and
Latin America.

The center already leads global
efforts to develop and promote
quality protein maize (QPM),
whose grain contains twice
the lysine and tryptophan of
normal maize. In addition to its
benefits for human nutrition,
QPM enhances the development
and productivity of swine and
poultry when used in feeds.
Use of surplus QPM grain in
animal feeds is a simple way

to add value to maize grain,
an opportunity open to many
smallholders, and could be
crucial when local surpluses
reduce the prices farmers receive
for their harvests.

"The options we pursue will
offer new income opportunities
and a competitive edge to poor
and often land-constrained
maize farmers, where other
opportunities are few," says
CIMMYT socio-economist
Jonathan Hellin. U

For more information:
Kevin Pixley,
Global Maize Program

SPECIALTY MAIE 2005-2006 9


Biofortified maize and wheat: Improved

nutrition and health for the poor

The best option for all is a balanced diet. But for many in marginal
areas, there are few food choices beyond the main staple. Improving the
nutritional quality of staple crops such as maize and wheat can better
the lives of those whose diet options are limited.

This single mother and her children live some 100
kilometers into the bush northwest of Malawi's
capital, Lilongwe. They rely chiefly on maize to survive,
but lack even that during the "hungry season"-the
two or more months each year prior to the March
maize harvest when she and many of her neighbors
have consumed the previous year's grain stocks. Their
health and that of other resource-poor whose diets
depend heavily on maize or wheat would benefit from
biofortified versions of those crops.

CIMMYT is committed to
breeding improved, high-
yielding maize whose grain
contains enhanced levels
of essential amino acids,
provitamins A, and iron, and
improved, high-yielding wheat
whose grain contains enhanced
levels of bioavailable iron and
zinc. Wheat and maize from
this work will benefit the poor
in marginal areas of developing
countries for whom either crop
constitutes a major food source.
Diets in many parts of the
developing world depend on
carbohydrates and lack vitamins,
important minerals, or proteins.
In sub-Saharan Africa and Latin
America, where maize is the
preferred staple, and in the
Indo-Gangetic Plains of India
and Pakistan, where wheat
is a staple, as much as half of
the population-particularly
pregnant and breast-feeding
women and young children-is
malnourished. Nutrition plays

a key role in health: 60%
of malaria deaths are due to
malnutrition, and good nutrition
is cited as crucial to combating
HIV-AIDS. More diverse diets
are often beyond the economic
means of the poor.

Using socioeconomic studies
and geographic information
systems, CIMMYT staff and
partners will collect baseline
data on the nutritional status
and needs in specific regions
where maize and wheat are
mainstays in the diets of the
poor, documenting the potential
impact of more nutritious
staple crops on the health
and well-being of inhabitants
in selected communities.
Researchers are developing,
testing, and will promote with
partners improved experimental
varieties of maize that contain
increased levels of lysine and
tryptophan, iron and zinc,
and/or high provitamins A

10 Ci' .. A MY 4L Rb 4 2005-2006

concentrations. As part of this,
scientists will study the genetics
of high provitamins A, iron, and
zinc contents, and develop DNA
markers to facilitate transfer of
those traits to a range of maize

Regarding quality protein
maize (QPM), whose grain
contains 60 to 100% more lysine
and tryptophan than normal
maize, CIMMYT breeders and
social scientists are working
with a consortium of partners
in Africa, Latin America, and
Asia to develop and deliver
stress-tolerant, agronomically-
competitive QPM for food and
feed, as well as identifying
sustainable delivery chains
that ensure impacts on human
malnutrition and income

For wheat, breeding has focused
on increasing the levels and
quality of grain protein for
nearly a hundred years. As part
of a consortium in South Asia,
researchers from CIMMYT,
national agricultural research
programs, and advanced
research institutes are working
to identify genetically diverse
sources of high iron, zinc, and
protein content, including
collections of wheat and its wild
relatives from the CIMMYT
gene bank. High-iron and
zinc lines have been crossed
among others with two popular
varieties grown on more than 6
million hectares each in South
Asia to develop high-yielding

wheats that resist key diseases,
including new races of yellow
and stem rust. Specialists
will study the genetics
of high iron, zinc, and
protein content and
identify alternative
gene systems,
allowing use of DNA

CIMMYT will work
with partners to develop
improved cultivars-either
new ones, or enhanced versions
of those currently sown-for
widespread participatory
testing with farmers, and help
coordinate and otherwise
support that testing. Drawing
on its experience in seed
production initiatives, the
center will facilitate the
production of affordable,
quality seed of nutritionally
enhanced wheat and maize by
private and public companies,
as well as by farmers. Finally,
as part of various national,
regional, and global consortia,
CIMMYT will participate in
campaigns to provide reliable
information and contribute to
public discussion regarding
nutrition, health, and the use
and benefits of nutritionally
enhanced food crops. U




Quality protein maize is sown by farmers throughout
the developing world (shaded countries in this map),
where it contributes to better nutrition in humans and
enhanced productivity in farm animals.

CIMMYT Maize Nutrition Quality specialist,
Natalia Palacios, uses advanced technologies
to enhance micronutrient content in maize.

For more information:
Natalia Palacios,
Maize Nutritional Quality
(n.palacios@cgiar.org) or
Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio,
Wheat Agronomist

MA\ZE AND WHEAT 2005-2006
_- niaiii ihF-T^T




Water-productive wheat with improved

grain quality: Lowering risk, saving scarce

moisture, improving incomes

Farmers on nearly half the developing world's wheat
area grow their crops with less than 600 mm of rainfall
annually and often suffer from a lack or irregular
supply of water. In intensively cropped, irrigated wheat
areas, water for agriculture is fast becoming scarce.
CIMMYT is developing a product to benefit farmers in
both settings: more efficient, productive wheat varieties
that use less water, are broadly adapted, resist key pests
and pathogens, and have improved, consumer-oriented
grain quality traits.

Dwindling water resources in intensively farmed
irrigated areas demand wheat varieties that yield
more using less water. CIMMYT and colleagues
in the region are also testing and promoting
resource-conserving practices-reduced tillage,
surface residue retention, sowing on raised beds,
among others-that cut production costs, foster
cropping diversity, and save 25% or more water than
traditional tillage.

V Water-productive wheats
developed by CIMMYT will
help farmers in rainfed areas,
most of whom depend on wheat
whr food, income, and fodder
h r their animals. Lowering
thli.ir risks in drought years
\ ill improve their food security
and release land and resources
for growing higher-value crops.
Better harvests under drought
will also cushion wheat price
increases, benefiting all consumers.
In irrigated wheat zones-fully
36 million hectares in developing
wheats will allow wheat farmers
to pump less groundwater onto
fields without sacrificing yields.

CIMMYT is working with
partners to identify and analyze
exactly what makes a wheat
plant "drought tolerant" and
"water-use efficient." Drought-
adaptive physiological traits with
considerable promise include
deeper rooting, vigorous early leaf
growth to shade the ground and
conserve soil moisture, relatively
closed stomata (the pores through
which leaves breath) to increase
water use efficiency, and good
storage of soluble carbohydrates
in stems that can be used when
drought stress eventually shuts
down photosynthesis. Resistance
to soil-borne pests and diseases,
and tolerance to heat and poor


.aI *-. .L ItN h'? ZD



soils (salinity, boron toxicity,
zinc deficiency) also have major
effects on water productivity in
dryland areas.

Center breeders are looking far
and wide for new sources of these
traits and others. CIMMYT's
wheat germplasm bank alone
has more than 160,000 unique
seed samples of wild, farmer, and
scientifically-bred varieties from
around the world. Researchers
have also been working for more
than a decade uncovering and
accessing useful traits-including
improved productivity under
drought stress-from the vast
pool of genetic diversity in "re-
synthesized wheats," created
by crossing durum wheat with
wild grasses.

To enhance these and other
characteristics in experimental
wheat, breeders are selecting
under controlled drought
conditions in Mexico and
analyzing data from an
international wheat improvement
network consisting of public
and private partners worldwide,
with CIMMYT coordination.
Key partners include national
agricultural research systems
in major wheat-producing
nations, the International Center
for Research in the Dry Areas
(ICARDA, through the ICARDA-
CIMMYT Wheat Improvement
Program) in Central and West
Asia/North Africa, and the CGIAR
Generation Challenge Program. U

Applying drip irrigation at a dryland research
station in northern Mexico, CIMMYT scientists
carefully stress experimental wheat plants
and keep only the drought tolerant ones. By
controlling the timing and intensity of stress,
they simulate drought conditions in diverse
environments throughout the developing world,
thereby tailoring selection for specific settings.

Plant physiology research plays a major role in developing
water-productive wheat germplasm at CIMMYT, according
to Matthew Reynolds, CIMMYT wheat physiologist. "Traits
that are potentially exciting and which we intend to study
more include the photosynthetic capacity of wheat spikes
and awns, as well as pigments and antioxidants that reduce
damage from intense sunlight under dry conditions."

Besides improving stress tolerance, wheat
breeding to date has focused on suitability for
making leavened bread, but there is increasing
interest in products such as flour noodles, flat
breads (chapattis, flour tortillas), and cous cous.
End-user quality traits are crucial, allowing
farmers to market surplus grain for income.

For more information:
Hans Braun, Director,
Global Wheat Program
(h.j.braun@cgiar.org) or
Javier Pefia, Head,
Wheat Grain Quality

AT H 2005-2006 13

-------I ----&Httii^J^^^^

Rust resistant wheat: Insurance

for world wheat farmers

In breeding programs to develop resistant wheats, scientists
first intercross parents with diverse sources of resistance and
other desirable characteristics and grow the progeny under
artificial rust epidemics to identify resistant genotypes. The
resistant plants are then intercrossed to gather multiple,
interactive genes for resistance within individual wheat
lines. The most reliable form of rust resistance involves
pyramiding enough resistance genes that have minor but
additive effects. These genes, also know as slow rusting
genes, when present alone allow a slow development of the
disease. Pyramiding enough such genes, usually 3-5, retards
the disease development to such a slow pace that losses
even in epidemic years are negligible. This type of resistance is
termed "durable resistance."

14 CIMM-yT AkJri4L RE-,-RT 2005-2006

For wheat farmers in the developing
world, the threat posed by
devastating fungal diseases is real.
g CIMMYT has been on the frontline,
developing wheats that are resistant
to the most damaging ones-the
rusts. But just as human influenza
mutates over time, requiring new
vaccines, rusts mutate too and
eventually resistance mechanisms
fail. CIMMYT scientists are using
modern techniques to gain the
advantage and give farmers new
wheats that will stand up to rusts.

In a field at the Njoro Agricultural Research
station in Kenya, CIMMYT wheat scientist, Ravi
Singh looks at the damage stem rust has visited
on thousands of wheat lines brought there for
testing. Njoro is in the middle of a hotspot for
a new, virulent rust strain and so is the perfect
place to expose wheat samples to attack from
the fungal spores. The bad news is that nearly
all the wheat lines have succumbed, including
those from major wheat growing regions of the
developing world. The good news is that a few
lines have been untouched. They may be the
new beginning of wheat to beat a potential crop
pandemic. "We have a chance," Singh says.


Wheat is grown on more than
200 million hectares worldwide
and is a source of food and
livelihoods for hundreds of
millions in developing countries.
For decades, scientifically-bred
resistance in modern wheat
varieties has limited the damage
that rusts cause in most of the
developing world. There have
been exceptions. In 1986, a new
race of yellow rust was identified
in Eastern Africa and within a
decade reached Southeast Asia,
causing hundreds of millions of
dollars of losses along its path in
Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan,
Pakistan, and Central Asia.

A 2003 study* found that
CIMMYT and partners' efforts
in leaf rust resistance breeding
for wheat over 40 years had
generated net benefits for farmers
valued at over 5 billion 1990
US dollars. But new, virulent
strains of rust inevitably appear.
In 1999 researchers found a new
strain of stem rust in Uganda,
Ug99, that is able to overcome
the resistance of many of the
world's most widely-sown wheat
varieties. Rust spores, carried
by the wind and by travelers,
can migrate huge distances,
so it is only a matter of time
before the new race reaches
large wheat expanses in South
Asia and many other regions.

* Marasas, C.N., M. Smale, and R.P. Singh.
2003. The economic impact of productivity
maintenance research: Breeding for leaf rust
resistance in modern wheat. Agricultural
Economics 29:253-263.


- -




dim ieaa
< m rta.

-; 4.

Wheat susceptibility to the new stem rust strain Ug99, based on data for area planted
to popular varieties. The huge areas in Pakistan and India reflect the predominance

of the widely-sown wheat cultivars Inqalab-
susceptable to the new pathogen.

Wheat grain losses of only a fen
percent globally from a serious
rust outbreak would spike price
and disproportionately hit the
world's poorest consumers.

CIMMYT will draw on sizeable
collections of wheat genetic
resources, proven expertise
in genetic improvement, an
extensive network of partners,
modern bioscience innovations,
and social science capabilities
to create new, rust resistant
wheats. As of 2005, CIMMYT
and the International Center for
Agricultural Research in the Dri
Areas (ICARDA) launched the

91 and PBW343, both of which are

Global Rust Initiative (GRI) t.
develop new, resistant varieti,_.-
global wheat disease monit rinnng
systems, and other control
methods. Participants include,_
national agricultural research
systems in wheat producing
countries of the developing
world; advanced laboratori,.-
worldwide; private seed
producers, farmer organization i
and wheat agro-processing
companies; and non-government
and agricultural extension
organizations. U

For more information:
Ravi Singh. Wheat
ir iriqhr..: :i r r.rqi


P 'S. V !C';"4'T1 JHE 2005-2006 15


.I .

New traits from global crop diversity and better

tools for maize and wheat breeding

It is now possible to access and use many new traits from the diversity
in large collections of maize and wheat genetic resources. But doing so
requires applying-and in some cases, developing or adapting-cutting-
edge science to improve the effectiveness of the work. CIMMYT has a
pivotal role to play in this and in linking innovation generators with
product development and delivery providers. At stake is nothing less than
the future food security and livelihoods of hundreds of millions of resource-
poor farmers and consumers in developing countries.

Crop-related biodiversity
is the founding asset of
the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural
Research (CGIAR) and the basic
raw material for the international
breeding programs of CIMMYT.
In the latter case, that diversity is
encapsulated in many individual,
registered samples-known as
accessions-of seed of maize
and wheat landraces, improved
varieties, related species, wild
relatives, and special genetic
stocks maintained by the
center and other maize and
wheat research organizations
worldwide. The CIMMYT
gene bank alone holds some
160,000 accessions for wheat and
25,000 for maize. "With all the
breeding research we've done
over the last half-century, we've

barely scratched the surface of
the available diversity," says
Jonathan Crouch, director of
CIMMYT's Genetic Resources and
Enhancement Unit (GREU).

Of chief interest now are specific,
value-added traits: enhanced
resilience against drought or
infertile soils, yield stability
in the presence of pathogens
and pests, nutritional quality
for humans or animals, and
increased profitability. CIMMYT
is working to develop and apply
new technologies that allow
researchers directly to identify the
genetic variation underlying such
traits. As part of this, CIMMYT
scientists and colleagues will have
to put their genetic resources
in order, generating structured
and well-characterized subsets;

16 CmnAwYTr r LL RP "T 2005-2006

devising methodologies for
allele and gene mining in global
collections; producing internet-
based information management,
analysis, and decision-support
systems; and creating and
analyzing trait-specific genetic
stocks, enhanced gene pools, and
other special collections.

"The above will constitute
public goods freely available
throughout the global research
and breeding community,"
says Tom Payne, head of
the CIMMYT gene bank.
"Those who will benefit
directly from their use include
breeding programs in national
agricultural research systems
and small- and medium-scale
seed businesses, with spillovers
for their clients: resource-poor
farmers, grain processors,
consumers, and their families."

Efforts will emphasize integration
into CIMMYT and partners'
maize and wheat improvement
programs of fast-track breeding
techniques: molecular genetic
fingerprinting, DNA marker-
assisted selection, genetic
transformation, advanced
biometrics, and computer-based
models, to name just a few. "The
center will provide technical
backstopping and, of course,
lead the field-based research to
translate outputs from genomics
and information technology into
tangible products for developing
country farmers," says Yunbi
Xu, maize molecular breeder at

CIMMYT will also draw on
its excellent track record and
experience in collaboration
with private companies, who
have invested much more
in biotechnology than have
publicly-funded institutions.
Routine work of characterizing
germplasm or indirect selection
of target traits will be out-sourced
to genotyping enterprises and
advanced research institutes.

Primary partners in these efforts
will include consortia such as
Molecular Plant Breeding-CRC,
Australia; the CGIAR Generation
Challenge Program; the IRRI-
CIMMYT alliance; advanced
institutes and the private
sector; and national agricultural
research systems in countries
like Argentina, Brazil, China,
India, and South Africa. U

For more information:
Jonathan Crouch, Director,
Genetic Resources and
Enhancement Unit

Modern agricultural research is becoming data intensive,
especially as the large volumes of data from genomics
and molecular biology must be managed, analyzed, and
integrated with more traditional biological data. In January
2006 CIMMYT and the International Rice Research Institute
(IRRI) launched the Crop Informatics Research Laboratory
(CRIL) as part of an IRRI-CIMMYT alliance formalized
in 2005. The CRIL gathers CIMMYT and IRRI scientists
from the areas of biometrics, information management,
computational biology, and bioinformatics into a single unit
with the critical mass and focus to serve informatics needs.

F- 'f

As it has for decades, CIMMYT stands by its
commitment to conserve and share its collections of
maize and wheat genetic resources. It now pursues this
work under the terms of the 2004 International Treaty
on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

NE TRITS 2005-2006 17

--L pa&H~XS||H

Conservation agriculture: Winning the battle

for livelihoods and the environment

Improving farm livelihoods is not just about
better maize or wheat varieties. It is also
about managing those crops in the most
sustainable way. By reducing or eliminating
tillage, retaining rational amounts of crop
residues on fields, and practicing more
diverse crop rotations, maize and wheat
farmers in developing countries save money,
water, and fuel; conserve or improve soil and
system productivity; and cut emissions of
greenhouse gases.

"This is your life," says UP Singh, an agricultural
-c ientist with Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi,
rIndia, as he shows a farmer group the residue left on the
g.i lund from the previous crop. "You must leave it on
thl,_ ground after you harvest to get the most benefit."

The_. message is a difficult one for his audience to accept,
but the farmers listen intently because Singh has been
rinlit in the past and they have benefited. CIMMYT
pa rt ners like Singh introduced them to zero-tillage for
their wheat crop. They tried it and found significant
improvements in production and savings in fuel, labor, and
time. In their traditional farming system, the residues were
often chopped and combined with manure from cattle and
water buffalo as a fuel for cooking. That is why farmers are
reluctant to leave crop residues on the ground.

18 CiMMYT ANNI 1. REPirT 2005-2006

Research into their farming
systems shows that as irrigation
water becomes scarcer and
more expensive, leaving stubble
to preserve moisture and
nourish the soil can provide a
greater net benefit.

The package of agronomic
practices called "conservation
agriculture" includes methods
to sustain or boost crop yields,
while fostering the more
efficient and sustainable use
of water and other inputs,
reducing production costs,
improving management of pests
and diseases, and enhancing
cropping system diversity and
resilience. Reduced and zero-
tillage practices also reduce the
oxidation of soil organic carbon
and the associated release of CO2
into the atmosphere.

Three-quarters of the farmland
in sub-Saharan Africa-some
170 million hectares-is
seriously degraded, and the
region's smallholder maize
farmers are in desperate need
of ways to improve soil fertility
and exploit moisture from
increasingly unreliable rains.
Over 300 million people in
South Asia depend on rice-
wheat cropping rotations
for food and livelihoods, but
degraded soils and dwindling
water supplies threaten the
region's productivity. Millions
of Latin American maize and
wheat farmers seek more
efficient ways of using water,
labor, and inputs like fertilizer,
allowing them to compete in
global markets.

Through broad, long-term
partnerships, solid science, and
support for innovation networks
that involve farmers directly in
testing and promotion, CIMMYT
helps foster the adoption of
resource-conserving practices,
like direct seeding with reduced
or zero-tillage and retention
of crop residues on the soil
surface, by wheat farmers in
Latin America and South Asia.
In the latter region, as of 2005
farmers on more than two million
hectares were benefiting from
those practices, and their spread
continues. CIMMYT is working
with diverse partners in sub-
Saharan Africa, Mexico, Central
Asia, and China to promote
zero-tillage, residue retention,
sowing on raised beds, and other
practices that improve maize and
wheat system productivity, save
resources, and foster relevant
cropping diversification.

No new technology is perfect,
and as adoption of conservation
agriculture increases, CIMMYT
research will focus on the
integrated evaluation of long-
term conservation agriculture
under different agro-ecological
conditions (rainfed vs irrigated,
crop rotations, residue
management, threshold levels
of residue cover); soil nutrient
dynamics (organic matter,
optimization of N fertilizer
management, fertilization,
legumes/green manures, macro
and micro-nutrient balances

CIMMYT is promoting conservation agriculture practices,
such as keeping crop residues on the surface, among
farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. These farmers in Malawi
were pleased that the residues helped capture and retain
precious moisture for their maize crop.

over time); soil-borne pathogens
and pests vs beneficial soil fauna
and flora; water management;
soil structure dynamics; weed
management; impacts on
greenhouse gas emissions; and
varieties adapted to conservation
agriculture systems.

Our ultimate goal is to improve
farm livelihoods based on
sustainable, efficient, and
environmentally friendlier farming
systems, adapted to local needs. U

For more information:
Ken Sayre, Wheat Agronomist
(k.sayre@cgiar.org) or
Pat Wall, Maize Agronomist

CONSE PON GCULrURE 2005-2006 19

Capacity-building: Investing in knowledge,

competence, and future partnerships

Drawing on decades of experience, the talents and enthusiasm of its staff,
and trust gained with partners worldwide, CIMMYT is working to create an
agricultural community of knowledge in critical maize and wheat regions of
developing countries. The ultimate aim? That researchers, extension agents,
farmers, policy makers, small- and medium-scale enterprises, and civil society
organizations join hands to foster development.

Through strong research partnerships, CIMMYT helps build capacity in field-based breeding.

Working at the Indian Agricultural
Research Institute, B.M. Prasanna
is called on to teach as well as
to conduct research. Through
his participation in the Asian
Maize Biotechnology Network
(AMBIONET), organized in 1998 by
CIMMYT and national agricultural
research systems in Asia, he has
been able to find new opportunities
to increase students' practical

knowledge. "With AMBIONET
support, I've trained a number
of students to employ markers
in their research," Prasanna says.
Students from Vietnam, Iran, and
Ethiopia have worked toward
advanced degrees in Prasanna's
lab. During an exchange visit to
the lab, Shihuang Zhang, country
coordinator for AMBIONET-
China, witnessed the
effectiveness of this approach: "I
saw all these young people in his
lab and I thought I should take
this (concept) back to China."

With fewer than 100 scientists in
its ranks, CIMMYT can benefit
developing country maize and
wheat farmers and consumers
only through extensive,
synergistic collaboration with
capable and motivated partners.
Present-day challenges and
complexities in achieving this are
daunting. Formal academic study
in plant breeding and agronomy
in most developing country

20 C A Ar,,, R.r 'Ar 2005-2006
aw... .2

institutions tends to be highly
theoretical, so graduates typically
do not have all the practical skills
necessary for effective research.
The capacity of many national
research systems has declined
over the last decade, as external
aid and domestic support have
declined. As a discipline, basic,
field-based breeding has lost
recruits and funding worldwide
to biotechnology research. At
the same time, non-government
organizations and small- and
medium-scale enterprises
are playing a larger role in
agricultural development, in
areas not served by the large-
scale private sector. Finally,
the explosion of knowledge in
biotechnology and bioinformatics
is rapidly changing plant
breeding research, and other new
skills and knowledge-systems
and participatory approaches,
socioeconomic analysis,
marketing knowledge-are
required, as agriculture itself
becomes an increasingly
complex, intensive enterprise.

Capacity-building is an
integral part of all CIMMYT
programs and projects. Since
1966, more than 3,000 persons
have participated in CIMMYT
training activities, and more than
4,000 have worked as visiting
scientists at the center. "For the
past several years, the center
has dedicated around 15% of
its budget to strengthening the
capacity of national agricultural
research systems in developing
nations," says Petr Kosina,
CIMMYT training coordinator.

The investment pays off,
according to evidence:
responding to a 2004 survey,
leaders from 19 developing
country maize and wheat
research organizations said
that CIMMYT training had
had positive effects on their
institutions, particularly
in developing new areas of
research, sharpening local or
national agricultural practices,
and improving the way research
was conducted.

The center offers in-service
courses at its facilities in Mexico
that combine practical experience
and cutting-edge theoretical
knowledge. Scores of targeted
courses and workshops in
specific regions and countries
have put skill development
within easy reach of key partners,
including personnel from
national research programs,
non-government organizations,
and small- and medium-scale
enterprises. Center staff are also
developing modular training
curricula, creating a web-based,
interactive training resource site
and a comprehensive database of
training materials, and seeking
accreditation from universities
for course participation. Many
graduate students in agricultural
science are benefiting from
direct work with CIMMYT
staff on thesis research, and the
center helps identify candidates
and funding sources. Finally,
visiting scientist appointments

and collaborative research have
shown enormous value for
capacity-building, enriching
CIMMYT's efforts and South-
South exchanges of knowledge
and capacity.

Partners in capacity-building
include national agricultural
research systems, non-
government organizations,
the private sector, and other
centers of the CGIAR. Among
the latter are the International
Centre for Agricultural Research
in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) on
wheat improvement and the
International Rice Research
Institute (IRRI) on knowledge-
sharing initiatives. The center
is also collaborating to develop
complete courses offered via
internet (e-learning) and in the
CGIAR Global Open Food and
Agriculture University initiative. U

For more information:
Petr Kosina, Training Coordinator

C ,-.-BLNG 2006-2007 21

S:::...S... S...BS

CIMMYT Financial

A summary of the 2005 combined statements of
activities and changes in net assets and combined
statements of financial position for CIMMYT, Int.,
and CIMMYT, A.C., is set out in Table 1.

The major highlight of the year 2005 was the
further strong improvement in CIMMYT's
operating surplus which amounted to US$ 2.0
million. The 2005 surplus enabled CIMMYT
to almost rebuild its net asset base back to
the minimum level mandated by the CGIAR
as necessary to provide the operational and
institutional security required to support our
research agenda.

Total revenues for 2005 amounted to US$ 39.55
million and represented an increase of US$ 0.8
million (2.1%) over 2004 revenues.

Total net assets increased by US$ 2.0 million
to US$ 22.17 million (2004 US$ 20.17 million).
Unappropriated, unrestricted net assets increased
to US$ 7.22 million, due to a combination of the
operating surplus of US$ 2.0 million and a positive
movement in reserves of US$ 360,000.

Total funding for 2005 was US$ 39.55 million (2004
US$ 38.72 million) and included other income
of US$ 1.53 million (2004 US$ 1.32 million) and
overhead recovery of US$ 3.56 million (2004
US$ 2.78 million). Grant income amounted to
US$ 38.02 million, comprising US$ 13.31 million
in unrestricted grants and US$ 24.71 million in
restricted grants (Table 2). U

Table 1. Financial Statements, 2005

As of December 31, 2005 and 2004
(Thousands of US Dollars)

Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents

Accounts receivable
Donors- net

Inventory and supplies
Prepaid expenses
Total current assets

Non-current assets
Property and equipment, net
Other assets
Total non-current assets


Current Liabilities
Current portion of capital leases
Current portion of employee retirement obligation

Accounts payable:
Challenge program and collaborative
Accruals and provisions
Total current liabilities

Non-current Liabilities
Employee retirement obligation
Total non-current liabilities

Commitments and contingencies

Total liabilities

Net assets
Total unrestricted net assets

















22 CIMMYT ANNl REPlRT 2005-2006
L 2a

$ 37,744 $ 37,222

Statements of Activities, 2005 and 2004. Table 2. CIMMYT sources of income from grants by
country/entity, 2005 and 2004.
For the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004 countryentity, 2005 and 2004.
(Thousands of US Dollars) For the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004 (Thousands of US Dollars)

2005 2004 Donors 2005 2004

Revenues and Gains Unrestricted
Australia 506 454
Grants revenue 38,020 37,400 5
Other revenues and gains 1,531 1,320 Belm
Canada 946 1,798
Total revenues and gains 39,551 38,720
China 130 140
Denmark 438 463
Expenses and losses
France 143
Program related expenses 34,297 31,965 Germany 162 309
Management and general expenses 6,498 7,271 India 113 113
Other losses and expenses 354 862 Japan 1,297 1,503
Subtotal, expenses and losses 41,149 40,098 Korea 50 50
Mexico 25 25
Indirect costs recovery (3,599) (2,778) Mex5
Netherlands 842
Total, expenses and losses 37,550 37,320 New Zealand 252 50
Norway 303 294
NET SURPLUS/(DEFICIT) 2,001 1,400 Noway 303
Peru 10
Philippines 7 7
Expenses by natural classification Philippines 7 7
Sweden 345 385
Personnel costs 18,022 16,870 Switzerland 491 312
Supplies and services 13,091 13,531 Thailand 11 21
Collaborators I partnership costs 6,176 5,742 United States 3,956 4,232
Operational travel 1,907 1,858 United Kingdom 1,541 1,540
Depreciation 1,953 2,097 World Bank 1,750 1,800

Total 41,149 40,098 Subtotal- unrestricted 13,308 13,710

ADB (Asian Development Bank) 318 390
AusAID 234 501
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research 131 85
CRC Molecular Plant Breeding 330 393
Grains Research and Development Corporation 1,105 1,138
Belgium 196 448
Bolivia (AGRICOM-Seeds, S.A) 1
Brazil 20 2
Agriculture and Agri-Food -15
Canadian International Development Agency 2,045 919
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical 9 55
International Center forAgricultural Research in the Dry Areas 40
International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics 7 4
International Livestock Research Institute 32
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute 10
International Rice Research Institute 20
International Water Management Institute 62 75
Standing Panel on ImpactAssessment 4 15


Table 2. Cont'd

2005 2004 Donors

2005 2004

Challenge Program
Water and Food

Lamsoo Milling Company

983 684
1,603 406

Environmental Assessment Agency
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
New Zealand

300 300 Norway
4 OPEC Fund for International Development

FENALCE (Federaci6n de Cultivadores de Cereales y Leguminosas) 165 103
Ministry ofAgriculture and Rural Development 5 105
Denmark 140 69
European Commission 1,905 2,348
FAO 49 30
DRIC (Delegation aux Relations Internationales et a la Cooperation) 480
Club Cinq 90
Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development 882 945
IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) 15 10
IFAD (International Fund ForAgricultural Development) 558 165
Iran, Islamic Republic of 241 215

Societa Produttori S.p.A.

Economic Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1,315
Nippon Foundation 719
Sasakawa Africa Association 25
Kazakhstan, Republic of 15
Korea, Republic of

Rural Development Administration
CODEPAP (Consejo de Desarrollo de la Cuenca de Papaloapan)
CONACYT (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia yTecnologia)
SAGAR (Secretaria deAgricultura, Ganaderia,
Desarrollo Rural y Pesca)
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce A.C.
Fundacion Sonora
Universidad NacionalAutonoma de Mexico
Miscellaneous Research Grants

120 85

95 88

Paraguay (Camara Paraguya de Exportadores de Cereales y Oleaginosas)
Rockefeller Foundation 1
Sehgal Foundation
South Africa
National Department of Agriculture
Agrovegetal, S.A.
Ministerio deAgricultura, Pesca yAlimentaci6n

Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
Syngenta Foundation
Turkey, Republic of
Ministry Of Agriculture And Rural Affairs
United Nations Development Programme (Africa Bureau)
United Kingdom
Cornell University
Monsanto Fund
National Center for Genome Resources (NCGR)
Oklahoma State University
Pioneer Hi-Bred International
Stanford University
United States Agency for International Development
United States Department of Agriculture
Washington State University
World Bank

Subtotal Restricted before provision

Provision for non-recoverable items

Subtotal Restricted after provision

60 64

1,219 909
885 647

669 464

66 58
31 9
33 76
2,058 3,089
385 313
204 178
3,067 1,476

25,876 23,690




Total Grants Donors Unrestricted and Restricted

38,020 37,400

24 CIMMYT ANNI1L REPO T 2005-2006


86 74
178 211

Table 2. Cont'd

Trustees and Principal Staff AsofSeptember2006


Lene Lange (Denmark), Chair, Board of Trustees,
Science Director, Molecular Biotechnology,
Novozymes A/S, Denmark
Alexander McCalla (Canada), Chair, Board of
Trustees, and Chair, Executive Committee;
Emeritus Professor, Department of
Agricultural and Resource Economics, Muiw
University of California, Davis, USA 2
Sebastian Acosta-Nifiez (Mexico),* Director General,
Agricultural Research, National Institute of Forestry,
Agriculture, and Livestock Research, Mexico
Hisao Azuma (Japan), President, Agricultural and
Fishery Savings Insurance Corporation, Japan
Pedro Brajcich (Mexico),* Director General, National
Institute of Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock
Research, Mexico
Julio Antonio Berdegu6 (Mexico), President, RIMISP,
Centro Latinoamericano para el Desarrollo Rural,
Ismail Cakmak (Turkey), Faculty of Engineering and
Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Turkey
Tini (C.M.) Colijn-Hooymans (Netherlands), Chair,
Finance and Administration Committee; Member of
the Board of Management, TNO, The Netherlands
Edwina Cornish (Australia), Deputy Vice-Chancellor
and Vice-President (Research), Monash University,
Robert M. Goodman (USA), Vice-Chair, Board of
Trustees; Executive Dean for Agricultural and
Natural Resources, Rutgers Cook College, USA
Masa Iwanaga (Japan),* Director General, CIMMYT
Romano M. Kiome (Kenya), Director, Kenya
Agricultural Research Institute, Kenya
Francisco Javier Mayorga Castafieda (Mexico),*
Secretary of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural
Development, Fisheries, and Food, Mexico



w.n ii

~~buI epaI

Isjihtbd Oiakl~

H ,io fa

-1 Au .i
: 1 hlI3Cl


Nrp DeI,

CIMMYT offices worldwide

Management Committee

Masa Iwanaga, Director General
John Dodds, Chair, Deputy Director General
Research (j.dodds@cgiar.org) 1
Martin van Weerdenburg, Director, Corporate
Services (m.vanweerdenburg@cgiar.org)
Marianne Banziger, Director, Global Maize
Program (m.banziger@cgiar.org)
Hans-Joachim Braun, Director, Global Wheat
Program (h.j.braun@cgiar.org)
Jonathan Crouch, Director, Genetic Resources
and Enhancement Unit (j.crouch@cgiar.org)
John Dixon, Director, Impacts Targeting and
Assessment Unit (j.dixon@cgiar.org)
Rodomiro Ortiz, Director, Resources
Mobilization (r.ortiz@cgiar.org)
Kevin Pixley, Co-Director, Global Maize Program

* Ex ofcio position.

1 Left in 2006

1 Appointed March 2006
2 Up to March 2006

For a complete listing of CIMMYT staff, see

C ,~ kNNUAL REPORT 2005-2006 25


CIMMYT Contact Information

Mexico CIMMYT, Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600, Mexico, D.F., Mexico Tel. +52 (55)
5804 2004 Fax: +52 (55) 5804 7558 Email: cimmyt@cgiar.org Primary contact:
Masa Iwanaga, Director General

Afghanistan. CIMMYT, PO Box 5291, Kabul, Afghanistan Email: m.osmanzai@
cgiar.org Primary contact: Mahmood Osmanzai

Bangladesh CIMMYT, PO Box 6057, Gulshan, Dhaka- 1212, Bangladesh Fax: +880
(2) 882 3516 (send c/o CIMMYT Bangladesh) Email: s.waddington@cgiar.org *
Home page: www.cimmyt.org/bangladesh Primary contact: Stephen Waddington

China CIMMYT, c/o Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 30 Baishiqiao
Road, Beijing 100081, P.R. China Fax: +86 (10) 689 1.-47 Email: z.he@cgiar.org;
zhhe.@public3.bta.net.cn Primary contact: Zhonghu He

Colombia CIMMYT, c/o CIAT, Apdo. Aereo 67-13, Cali, Colombia Fax: +57 (2)
4450 025 Email: 1.narro@cgiar.org; ciat-maize@cgnet.com Primary contact: Luis
Narro Le6n

Ethiopia CIMMYT, PO Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Fax: +251 (1) 464645 *
Email: d.friesen@cgiar.org; cimmyt-ethiopia@cgiar.org Primary contact: Dennis

Georgia CIMMYT, 12 Kipshidze Str., Apt. 54, Tbilisi 380062, Georgia Email:
d.bedoshvili.cimmyt@caucasus.net Primary contact: David Bedoshvili

India CIMMYT, CG Centre Block, National Agricultural Science Centre (NASC)
Complex, DP Shastri Marg, Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110012, India Fax: +91 (11)
2584 2938 Email: cimmyt-india@cgiar.org r.gupta@cgiar.org Primary contact: Raj
K. Gupta

Kazakhstan CIMMYT, PO Box 374, Almaty 480000, Kazakhstan Fax: +7 (3272)
282551 Email: m.karabayev@cgiar.org; mkarabayev@nets.kz Primary contact:
Muratbek Karabayev

Kenya CIMMYT, PO Box 1041, Nairobi, Kenya 00621 Fax: +254 20 7224601 Email:
m.banziger@cgiar.org; cimmyt-kenya@cgiar.org Primary contact: Marianne Banziger

Nepal CIMMYT, PO Box 5186, Singha Durbar Plaza Marg, Bhadrakali, Kathmandu,
Nepal Fax: +977 (1) 4229 804 Email: cimmytnepal@mos.com.np; g.ortiz-ferrara@
cgiar.org Primary contact: Guillermo Ortiz-Ferrara

Pakistan CIMMYT Country Office National Agricultural Research Centre narcC),
Park Road, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan Fax: +92 (0) 51 240909 Email: reshem@
comsats.net.pk Primary contact: Naeem Hashmi

Turkey CIMMYT, PK 39 Emek, 06511 Ankara, Turkey Fax: +90 (312) 287 8955 *
Email: a.morgounov@cgiar.org cimmyt-turkey@cgiar.org Primary contact: Alexei

Zimbabwe CIMMYT, PO Box MP 163, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe Fax:
+263 (4) 301 327 Email: j.macrobert@cgiar.org cimmyt-zimbabwe@cgiar.org.
Primary contact: John MacRobert

26 CIMMYT ANN4L RERT2005-2006


CIMMYT (www.cimmyt.org) is an
internationally funded, not-for-profit
organization that conducts research and
training related to maize and wheat throughout
the developing world. Drawing on strong
science and effective partnerships, CIMMYT
works to create, share, and use knowledge
and technology to increase food security,
improve the productivity and profitability of
farming systems, and sustain natural resources.
CIMMYT is one of 15 research centers of
the Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR) (www.cgiar.
org). Financial support for CIMMYT's work
comes from the members of the CGIAR, national
governments, foundations, development banks,
and other public and private agencies.
International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Center (CIMMYT) 2005. All rights reserved.
The designations employed in the presentation
of materials in this publication do not imply
the expression of any opinion whatsoever
on the part of CIMMYT or its contributory
organizations concerning the legal status of
any country, territory, city, or area, or of its
authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries. CIMMYT encourages
fair use of this material. Proper citation is
Correct citation: Maize and Wheat Science for
Farmers, Food, and Livelihoods: CIMMYT Annual
Report 2005-2006. Mexico, D.F: CIMMYT.
ISSN: 0188-9214.

AGROVOC Descriptors: Maize; Wheat;
Plant breeding; Genetic resources; Innovation
adoption; Plant biotechnology; Seed production;
Food security; Sustainability; Research
policies; Economic analysis; Cropping systems;
Agricultural research; Organization of research;
Developing countries.
Additional Keywords: CIMMYT.
AGRIS category codes: A50 Agricultural
Research; A01 Agriculture-General Aspects.
Dewey decimal classification: 630.
Printed in Mexico.
Writing/editing/creative direction:
David Mowbray, G. Michael Listman, and
Daisy Ouya.
Design/production/creative direction:
Miguel Mellado E. and Marcelo Ortiz S.,
with assistance of Antonio Luna A., Eliot
Sanchez P., and Wenceslao Almazan R.
Ana Maria Sinchez, David Mowbray,
G. Michael Listman, Daisy Ouya, and
Vania Xahil Tellez Arce.

CD-CIMMYT in Review 2005-06:

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ISSN: 01SS-9214

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