• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 A reason to be the best
 Drought : grim reaper of harvests...
 CIMMYT in Africa
 CIMMYT maize shines at world's...
 CIMMYT in Latin America
 CIMMYT in Asia
 CIMMYT financial overview
 Trustees and principal staff
 CIMMYT contact information






Group Title: CIMMYT annual report ...
Title: CIMMYT annual report, 2004-2005
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077461/00006
 Material Information
Title: CIMMYT annual report, 2004-2005
Series Title: CIMMYT annual report ...
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2005
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077461
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: issn - 0188-9214

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    A reason to be the best
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Drought : grim reaper of harvests and lives
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    CIMMYT in Africa
        Page 14
        Kenyan researchers sow first field of transgenic maize
            Page 15
            Page 16
        What is an open quarantine site?
            Page 17
    CIMMYT maize shines at world's first millennium village
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        An extra coat helps maize seed fight pernicious weed
            Page 20
            Page 21
    CIMMYT in Latin America
        Page 22
        Colombians take maize with their coffee
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Making the plow passe in Mexico
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Clarion call to conservation in El Bajio
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Reflected rats tell when to feed crops and starve sea algae
            Page 31
            Page 32
        A maize variety for farmers on the edge
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
    CIMMYT in Asia
        Page 38
        I have farmed forever
            Page 39
            Page 40
        Page 41
        Helping to reinvigorate agriculture in Afghanistan
            Page 42
        Islands of residue : fighting erosion and fostering wheat productivity in Kazakhstan
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Kazakhstan : view from the ground level
            Page 47
            Page 48
        Good (and useful) things can come in small packages
            Page 49
            Page 50
        World wheat crop under threat from new strain of old disease
            Page 51
            Page 52
    CIMMYT financial overview
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Trustees and principal staff
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    CIMMYT contact information
        Page 58
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A Reason to Be the Best



MEETING THE UNITED NATIONS FIRST MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL-TO
ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER-WILL DEPEND ON A RANGE OF
ACTIONS IN AREAS WHERE POVERTY IS ENDEMIC AND CRIPPLING.


Most people in the
developing world
depend directly or
indirectly on agriculture for their
livelihoods. Maize and wheat alone
provide nearly half the food by
weight and a quarter of the calories
for the 4.9 billion people of the
developing world. In much of
Africa the land-which has to
produce the food, sustain the
farming systems for production,
and nurture the crops that farmers
grow-cannot keep up with
demand, even when conditions of
climate and politics are stable. More
than half a billion people depend on
wheat or maize but have little or no
access to agricultural inputs, farm
on degraded soils, or have to make
do in marginal climates.

With a continuously growing
population, less good land for
agriculture, and climate and water
constraints that seem to grow more
severe each year, yesterday's
solutions are not sufficient for today
In this annual report for 2004-2005
we focus on one of the most severe
constraints to production in wheat
and maize farming systems-
drought-and the approaches
CIMMYT is taking to help farmers


cope. A major priority is finding
ways that maize and wheat can
continue to produce high, stable
yields with less available water. We
are working both at the breeding
level to develop plants that use
water more efficiently and at the
plot level to help farmers to
conserve and better use what
moisture they have. In the reports
that follow, you will find accounts
of progress by CIMMYT and its
partners. For example CIMMYT has
devised a "smart crossing"
approach to produce wheat
varieties with better drought
tolerance, and uses a decentralized
global shuttle breeding system-an
extension of its time proven method
in Mexico-to test and adapt
drought tolerant varieties to diverse
conditions around the world.
Another trend to note is the
adoption of conservation
agriculture practices that save
farmers soil, water, money, and
time, in addition to bringing
environmental benefits. This is
global science for local impact.

FROM VISION TO

BUSINESS PLAN
This year CIMMYT has continued
to implement its strategic vision
while pursuing a sound financial
management plan that includes


building the reserve fund to meet
CGIAR targets. Despite severe
financial constraints that have
resulted in downsizing of
internationally and nationally
recruited staff the past three years,
CIMMYT has continued to deliver
to its prime beneficiaries-maize
and wheat farmers and consumers
in the developing world.

CIMMYT's fifth External Program
and Management Review (EPMR)
produced a detailed, comprehensive
report concluding that "...the case
for the continued support of
CIMMYT in developing germplasm
with multiple stress resistance
specifically targeted at resource
poor farmers was strong and clear.
Such improved germplasm that was
not only accessible to resource poor
farmers but specifically targeted to
their needs was essential if they
were to benefit from the ongoing
scientific advances in genetics,
genomics, and breeding." The
Center has already begun to address
weaknesses identified in the EPMR.
A key recommendation of the panel,
and one which CIMMYT
wholeheartedly endorsed, was that
the center write a business plan to
indicate how the vision described in
our strategic plan "Seeds of


2 Annual Report 2004-2005

















Innovation" would actually be
delivered. CIMMYT took the
challenge and has produced "A
Solid Future for CIMMYT and
Those It Serves," a plan to guide
CIMMYT over the next five years.



CIMMYT: THE
DEVELOPING WORLD'S
MAIZE AND WHEAT
CENTER
Agricultural research has achieved
what looked like miracles in the
past, developing ways to enhance
the productivity of farming systems
in both the developed and the less
developed world. CIMMYT was
built on the accomplishments of the
researchers who created the "green
revolution" of the 1960s. The high-
yielding wheat varieties developed
by Nobel Peace Prize winner, Dr.
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effective functioning of many
actors along the "research impact
pathway," from researchers and
policymakers to farmers. Third,
the farmer is king: in the end, the
decisions of millions or hundreds
of millions of farmers across the
world determine whether the new
varieties and technologies are
adopted, impacts registered and,
in the end, poverty reduced and
livelihoods improved.

CIMMYT will continue to deliver
solutions through enhanced
germplasm, efficient delivery
pathways to adoption, and
partnerships with those who have
complementary strengths and
skills. We are the developing
world's maize and wheat center.
The marginalized of the
developing world deserve no less
than our best.


Masa Iwanaga
Director General


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Drought: Grim Reaper



of Harvests and Lives


WHEN ONE THINKS OF
DEADLY NATURAL DISASTERS,
WHAT GENERALLY COMES TO
MIND ARE STORMS, FLOODS,
EARTHQUAKES, OR
VOLCANOES.


tually, mention of the world's

most life-threatening
natural phenomenon-
drought-rarely makes the
headlines. But according to a recent
study1 by the Columbia University
Center for Hazards and Risk
Research and the World Bank,
drought caused nearly as many
deaths during 1980-2000 as all other
natural disasters combined.

Drought's despoilment falls heavily
upon the rural poor in developing
countries, and has been particularly
onerous in Africa. In 2005, paltry
rains plus diverse other factors led
to southern Africa's worst harvest
of maize-the region's staple
food-in a decade typified by



1 Dilley, M., R.S. Chen, U. Deichmann,
A.L. Lerner-Lam, and M. Arnold. 2005.
Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk
Analysis. Washington, D.C.: The World
Bank.


meager harvests. A BBC News
report of 3 October mentioned
children dying of hunger-related
illnesses in Malawi and said the
United Nations World Food
Programme (WFP) estimated that
some 12 million people would need
international help. Throughout the
developing world, drought is
second only to soil infertility as a
constraint to maize production, and
probably reduces yields worldwide
by more than 15% yearly,
representing annual losses in excess
of 20 million tons of grain. Nearly
one-third of the area planted to
bread wheat and about three-
fourths of the area planted to
durum wheat suffer from severe
drought stress during the growing
season. If predictions are right,
global warming, urbanization, and
deforestation will increase the
frequency and severity of drought
and general scarcity of water in
many parts of the developing
world. By the same token,
developing countries will need an
additional 368 million tons of maize
and wheat by 2020 (today, they need
about 700 million tons) for food, and
studies suggest that harvests from
marginal lands-including areas
prone to drought-will be key to
meeting this increased demand.


In keeping with its mission,
CIMMYT and partners are helping
address the needs of oft-forgotten
farmers in drought areas, offering
them hardy maize and wheat
varieties that survive and give grain
in drier seasons, with no yield
penalty in wet years, as well as
cropping practices to capture and
take fullest advantage of available
moisture.

The complexity of a plant's
responses when faced with
insufficient moisture-varying by
species, cultivar, and plant growth
stage-renders quick solutions or
breeding breakthroughs elusive.

WHEAT: MANY WAYS
TO ATTACK DROUGHT
Historically, water deficit is more
common than water sufficiency for
cultivated wheat. Under human
management, 36 million hectares-
or roughly one-third-of all wheat
sown in developing countries
receive adequate water via
irrigation. The remainder is grown
on precipitation or residual
moisture. Of this, at least 40 million
hectares are regularly subject to


4 Annual Report 2004-2005
































drought at some point in the crop
cycle. CIMMYT wheat researchers
have worked extensively at the
Center's Ciudad Obreg6n research
station in the northern Mexican
desert, where water regimes are
subject to tight control. This has
allowed them to "dissect" the effects
of drought on wheat productivity at
the various crop development
stages. In this regard, wheat's life
cycle may be broken down into four
stages: emergence-establishment,
establishment-flowering, flowering,
and grain filling.

Very dry conditions are most
detrimental to wheat during
emergence-establishment. "If a
plantlet lacks sufficient moisture to
emerge or the ground is drying as it
comes up, a yield penalty is paid
regardless of conditions that follow,"
says CIMMYT wheat breeder
Richard Trethowan. "Farmers often
delay sowing until they see there is
sufficient moisture, but the delay
itself also reduces yield."


Dry conditions at establishment-
flowering can retard root and
canopy development.
Underdeveloped root systems are
less able to extract moisture from the
soil, and yields plummet should dry
conditions persist. Fewer or smaller
leaves and a thinner canopy create
less shade, resulting in more
evaporation from the soil and
greater competition from weeds for
moisture and nutrients.
Photosynthetic activity may also
suffer. Finally, a weak root system
and canopy leave the plant with
lower nutrient reserves to draw on
at later development stages.

Lack of water at flowering can
produce male sterility and fewer
and more poorly formed seeds.
Even if the plant gets adequate
water afterwards, the dearth of
fertile kernels will reduce yields.
Again, stored resources may
support pollination and seed setting.

Severe dryness at grain filling can
reduce photosynthesis and thus the
supply of carbohydrates needed for


plump kernels. Yield losses may be
reduced if the plant can call on
carbohydrate reserves. For
CIMMYT and partners, drought
stress during grain filling is a
research priority because of its
prevalence in many of the wheat
environments where we work.

WATER-PRODUCTIVE
WHEAT: "SMART
CROSSING" FOR SPECIFIC
TRAITS
CIMMYT recently devised a "smart
crossing" approach to produce
wheat varieties better able to access
and use soil water. The approach
works in tandem with a global
"shuttle breeding" system that
allows researchers to test and adapt
drought tolerant varieties in diverse
conditions around the world. A
central precept is that drought
tolerance should entail no yield
penalty-that is, when rains or
irrigation are adequate, the yields 0













































Water use efficiency
Low r discrimination
Spike/awn photosynthesis
High harvest index


Pre-anthesisbiomass:


Long coleoptile


S Photo protection
Leaf morphology:
-pale color
-wax/pubescence
-posture/rolling
Anti-oxidants







Access to water
High relative leaf water content
Low canopy temperature
Osmotic adjustment


SDeep root system
with good access
t .- to water


Large seed


of drought tolerant varieties should
equal or exceed those of normal
cultivars. Breeders are also
beginning to develop varieties that
complement conservation
agriculture practices gaining
acceptance in developing countries
(see "Conservation Agriculture and
Drought," p. 7).

In the past, breeders simply crossed
parents that produced high yields
under drought and then screened
the progeny for improved
performance. "The 'smart crossing'
approach breaks down drought
tolerance into bite-size pieces-
namely, the key adaptive traits at
specific plant stages-and
incorporates them into the plant in a
way that creates synergies among
traits," says Matthew Reynolds,
CIMMYT wheat physiologist (see
figure). Parents with strong traits
from diverse groups are crossed
and their offspring screened for the
desired characteristics.

Breeders, physiologists, and
molecular geneticists work together
to endow experimental wheat lines
and varieties with some or all of the
traits. "The breeders send me their
crossing blocks-experimental lines
and varieties-and I advise them on
which lines would make good
complementary crosses based on
their expression profile for drought-
adaptive traits," says Reynolds.
"We've been doing this for almost
five years now and already lines are
being earmarked as candidates for
international distribution."


Traits for pre-flowering growth:
Seedling emergence and plant
establishment. "We want seeds that
can be sown deep to access available
moisture, but then get out of the
ground fast and grow vigorously,
especially lateral growth," says
Trethowan. Large seeds and
embryos appear to help, as well as a
long coleoptile-the first leaf above
the ground that forms a protective
sheath around the stem tip. The
latter allows for deep planting and
use of residual soil moisture, while
protecting seedlings from high soil
temperatures or rapid drying.
Finally, a quick-growing canopy
with wide, thin leaves provides
good ground cover, reducing
evaporation and suppressing weeds
that compete for water.

Once the plant is established,
storage of nutritional reserves
becomes increasingly important for
later growth stages. Assimilates in
stems can be used for grain filling, if
lack of water at that phase slows
photosynthesis. This means that
thicker, longer stem internodes may
help. Directing assimilates to the
roots increases the plant's ability to
draw on water deep in the soil.

Traits for accessing available
moisture. A deep and vigorous root
system that can efficiently extract
water helps plants under drought,
although devoting excessive
resources to the roots may detract
from other tolerance traits.


Groups of drought adaptive traits


6 Annual Report 2004-2005












Conservation Agriculture


and Drought


Traits for water use efficiency.
Essentially, this means more crop
per drop due to traits that promote
efficient use and distribution of the
plant's internal water resources for
cooling, metabolic functions and
photosynthesis. For example, under
severe stress after flowering, the
photosynthetic capacity of the
wheat spike itself can help fill the
grain, and scientists can breed for
spikes that stay green later into the
season.

Traits that protect the plant from
intense sunlight. Reduced leaf
chlorophyll, leaf rolling, and waxy,
hairy, erect leaves all protect against
radiation and the drying effects of
intense sunlight. Antioxidant
systems can protect plant cells from
the damaging biochemical effects of
excess radiation, but more research
is needed to use this for breeding
purposes.

GOING GLOBAL, SEEKING
NEW DIVERSITY
CIMMYT breeders have made good
progress through "smart crossing,"
according to Reynolds. "The
resulting lines have been screened
for disease resistance and a number
are being tested in preliminary yield
trials for possible inclusion in
international nurseries." In the
meantime, wheat researchers are
looking far and wide for new
sources of drought tolerance traits.
CIMMYT's wheat germplasm bank
alone has more than 160,000 unique
seed samples of wild, farmer-
developed, and scientifically bred -


In recent decades, CIMMYT has worked
with partners to develop and promote new
cropping methods that save time, money,
soil, and water, among other resources. As
described in articles further ahead, many
maize and wheat farmers in developing
countries are beginning to test and adopt so-
called "conservation agriculture" practices,
which include reducing or eliminating
tillage, seeding directly into residues from
previous crops, and using more diverse crop
rotations. In most settings, the practices can
capture, retain, or make better use of water
than farming methods based on extensive
cultivation and residue removal. Often, they
may make the difference between an
acceptable harvest and crop failure in dry
years.

Research and farmer experience have shown
that keeping crop residues on the soil surface
protects the soil from heavy rainfall and
helps capture and channel water, avoiding
runoff and stemming soil erosion. Surface
residues also shield the soil from sunlight
and dry air, reducing evaporation. As surface
residues rot, the soil gains organic matter
and porosity, aiding infiltration. When stalks
and roots left in unplowed soil decompose,
the space they occupied becomes a network
of tunnels through which water can enter
and permeate the plot. With support from
CIMMYT and partners, wheat farmers in
Central Asia who formerly plowed away
residues are discovering the benefits of
letting them lie (see "Islands of Residue:
Fighting Erosion and Fostering Wheat
Productivity in Kazakhstan," p. 44).

Direct seeding into residues from a previous
crop cycle allows the following crop to take
advantage of any moisture left over. Wet
soils normally complicate tillage operations;
with no tillage and in the presence of
residues, residual moisture is a boon. Also,
the time gained by avoiding extensive


tillage-as much as two weeks-allows the
crop to develop more fully and, often,
mature in time to avoid late-season drought
or high temperatures. These principles are
part of the reason why, over the last four
years, with help from CIMMYT and the Rice-
Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic
Plains, farmers on nearly two million
hectares in South Asia have begun sowing
wheat directly into rice paddies at or just
after rice harvest. Previous land preparation
practices for wheat required as many as
seven tractor passes.

Farmers in irrigated settings are quickly
becoming aware of the advantages of
cropping on raised beds. Those who sow on
the flat normally flood their fields, an
inefficient way to distribute the water. With
raised beds that measure from 0.6 to 0.9
meters in width from furrow to furrow, the
water flow is channeled more effectively and
penetrates the beds evenly from the sides.
Irrigation is faster and the water savings are
even more dramatic than those from direct
seeding (see "Clarion Call to Conservation in
El Bajio," p. 30). Combining permanent
raised beds with direct seeding and a residue
cover brings all of the benefits mentioned in
this section.

Breeding strategies at CIMMYT are evolving
to reflect the needs and challenges associated
with conservation agriculture. On one hand,
this will involve developing and selecting
new varieties for raised beds or for zero-
tillage. In addition, experience and research
suggest that conservation agriculture brings
with it a new spectrum of diseases and pests.
The effects of some can be addressed
through management practices such as
rotations, but it will also be useful for
breeders to endow new varieties with
resistance to such constraints.


















varieties from around the world.
Researchers have also been working
for a decade uncovering and
accessing useful traits-including
improved productivity under
drought stress-from the vast pool
of genetic diversity in a type of
bread wheat called "synthetics,"
created by crossing durum wheat
with wild grasses.

Finally, genetic engineering offers
the possibility of using drought
tolerance genes from other plant
species. CIMMYT has transformed
wheat varieties with a gene called
DREB provided by the Japan
International Center for Agricultural
Sciences. From the common
flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana,
the gene is of interest because it
conveys certain drought tolerance
traits. In the first ever transgenic
wheat field trials in Mexico,
preliminary results showed that
DREB wheat plants had cooler
canopy temperatures and better
developed roots, and stayed green
longer under drought stress than
control plants. However, grain
yields of DREB and normal plants
were roughly equal under drought,
further indicating the complexity of
drought's effects on productivity.

HOPPING ON THE
SHUTTLE
Experimental, drought tolerant
wheat lines and varieties must be
tested under diverse soil and
climate conditions, pest and disease
pressures, to verify the expression of
tolerance. Each year CIMMYT ships
dozens of trials of experimental


lines and varieties of maize and
wheat to hundreds of partners
worldwide for testing under local
conditions. Participants return data
to CIMMYT and incorporate useful
materials into their breeding
programs. Drought tolerant
varieties are tested this way.

Another practice for developing and
testing varieties is "shuttle
breeding," pioneered by Nobel
Laureate Norman E. Borlaug and
his CIMMYT colleagues in the
1960s. They developed new wheats
quickly by running two breeding
cycles per year instead of one: a
winter cycle in the northern desert
of Sonora and a summer crop in the
central Mexican highlands. This not
only fast-forwarded selection, but
also exposed test varieties to
radically different day lengths,
temperatures, altitudes, and
diseases.

Shuttle breeding continues today
within Mexico and between
CIMMYT and partners in places like
China and Central Asia. The
approach is particularly appropriate
for drought tolerance, given the
weighty influence of environment
on the expression of specific plant
traits. At CIMMYT's Ciudad
Obreg6n station in northern Mexico,
researchers use controlled irrigation
to create artificial droughts of the
types found in the world's major
wheat growing areas. Wheat lines
that perform well under stress at
Obreg6n are screened in the cool
highlands of central Mexico under
well-watered conditions and
exposure to foliar diseases.


Promising lines are selected again
under diverse drought regimes at
Obreg6n, and later shuttled back
and forth between Mexico and
locations in Asia and Latin America.

"We've found that screening under
drought at Obreg6n links up with
most environments around the
world," observes Trethowan.
"Where it doesn't, we go back and
look for variables in our stress
regimes that may influence target
environments. Environments where
conventional screening in Mexico
doesn't work effectively are a high
priority for shuttle breeding."

In many wheat zones, other
constraints-soil-borne diseases and
pests, infertile or saline soils-
heighten drought's effects and
complicate the development of
tolerant varieties. With support
from Australia's CSIRO and the
Molecular Plant Breeding
Cooperative Research Center,
CIMMYT and partners are using
molecular markers to identify genes
for resistance to soil-borne diseases
and to pests such as nematodes.

The recent successes in developing
drought tolerant wheats at
CIMMYT have built on significant
progress made by former breeders.
"Recent improvements in
productivity under stress are
attributable to combining the best
materials from earlier work with
new and different sources of genetic
variation for drought tolerance,"
Trethowan says.


8 Annual Report 2004-2005


















MAIZE: KEEPING SILKS
AND TASSELS ON TIME
Maize in the developing world is
almost exclusively rainfed, often
sown by smallholders using few
inputs and minimal management.
Drought can strike maize
throughout the growing season, but
extensive research has shown the
crop to be most sensitive to lack of
moisture at flowering time. The
male and female flowers-the
tassels and the silks-are physically
separated on the maize plant. They
must develop more or less in
synchrony for ovules to be
pollinated and form grain. Parched
plants may suffer desiccated silks
and pollen. Worse yet, they may
delay or forego silking; the longer
the delay, the less grain develops.

During the early 1990s, with
generous support from the United
Nations Development Programme,
a team of CIMMYT maize
physiologists perfected the
measurement of flowering
synchrony as a simple yardstick to
identify and improve drought
tolerance in tropical maize. In this
system, researchers methodically
stress experimental maize crops,
depriving them of water, and then
select the plants whose silks
develop soon after tassels appear.
Plant types that pass this test
through several seasons can yield as
much as 50% more than normal
maize under harsh, mid-to-late
season drought. The plants are also
tested under well-watered


conditions. In the end, only those
that do well in both stressed and
favorable settings are used to
develop varieties for farmers, thus
ensuring superior harvests in both
good years and bad. The approach is
relatively easy and does not require
special equipment, making it ideal
for use in developing countries. As
an added bonus, the method also
improves the performance of maize
in nitrogen-poor soils.

MAIZE STRESS BREEDING:
APPLICATIONS AND
IMPACTS
Field-based screening and selection
for drought tolerance have become
key components in most CIMMYT
maize breeding efforts. Breeders try
to "pyramid" multiple traits-
including drought tolerance-into
varieties destined for stress-prone
ecologies in Africa, Asia, and Latin
America. The overall approach is to:
* Test experimental lines and
varieties under prevalent stresses
in the target environment,
carefully applying abiotic stresses
such as drought and using natural
"hot spots" or artificial
inoculation/infestation to select
for resistance to pests and
diseases.
* Work with partners to recycle and
test elite, stress-tolerant lines.
* Develop new experimental
varieties that carry the desired
combinations of traits for
performance under stress-prone
conditions and are acceptable to
clients and farmers.


25




S11.


1II
-0




0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 >9
Average yield for trial (t/ha)
Average yield advantage of CIMMYT drought tolerant
hybrids over conventionally selected commercial
hybrid checks, when evaluated under random stress
conditions across 36 64 locations in eastern and
southern Africa, 2000-2002. The further to the left the
bar, the more extreme the stress-that is the first bar
indicates that yields of CIMMYT hybrids were on
average 13% better than those of hybrid checks in a
trial where drought and other stresses were so severe
that all yields averaged 1 ton per hectare or less

Compared to traditional breeding
approaches, this has resulted in
dramatic progress in drought-prone
environments, and has so far led to
the production of over 45,000 tons
of seed of stress tolerant maize
varieties in Africa alone, in response
to demand. Using this breeding
approach for only three to five years
resulted in an average breeding
progress of 15-20% under random
stress conditions across eastern and
southern Africa and at yield levels
equivalent to those of drought-
affected farmers' fields (see figure).
"We feel that we've only just
scratched the surface of exploiting
genetic variation for drought
tolerance in maize," says Marianne
Banziger, Director of CIMMYT's
African Livelihoods Program.

















Examples of on-going CIMMYT
efforts where drought tolerance in
maize is a priority trait include:
* In eastern Africa, CIMMYT and
partners are developing early-
maturing maize that tolerates or
resists several key constraints:
drought, the parasitic weed Striga,
stem borers, and maize streak
virus. High-yielding, locally-
adapted varieties from this work
are being adopted by farmers in
numerous settings (see "CIMMYT
Varieties Shine at World's First
Millennium Village," p. 17). A
particular focus is quality protein
maize (QPM), which contains
enhanced levels of the essential
amino-acids lysine and
tryptophan. Efforts have been
funded by UNDP, the Swedish
Agency for International
Development Cooperation, the
Rockefeller Foundation, BMZ-
Germany, IFAD, and the OPEC
Fund for International
Development.
* Projects in southern Africa focus
on tolerance to drought and poor
soils, while developing and
disseminating locally-adapted
QPM for the midaltitudes of
eastern and southern Africa.
These efforts have been
supported by the Swiss Agency
for International Development,
the Rockefeller Foundation, and
the Nippon Foundation.


* With support from the Asian
Development Bank (ADB), as of
2005 CIMMYT is helping national
research programs to develop and
deliver high-yielding varieties for
drought-prone areas in southern
China, Indonesia, the Philippines,
Thailand, and Vietnam. This
initiative builds on the
achievements of the ADB-funded
Asian Maize Biotechnology
Network (AMBIONET), and will
also focus on stem borers and
acid soils.
* With support from CIDA-
Canada, CIMMYT and partners
are developing QPM varieties
that tolerate drought, poor soils,
diseases, and insect pests for the
lowland tropics of Central and
South America.

Several projects involve research to
identify and apply molecular
markers in selection for drought
tolerance (see "An Innovative Tool
and Maize Map Chart a Novel
Course to Drought Tolerance
Maize," this page). Center staff are
also assessing the potential of
genetic engineering to enhance
drought tolerance in maize,
according to Banziger: "Our initial
impression is that transgenically-
based tolerance is not superior to
that achieved through conventional
selection, but a combination of
conventional plus transgenic
tolerance may hold promise." 4


For more information: r.trethowan@cgiar.org or m.banziger@cgiar.org


An Innovative


Tool and


Genetic Map


Chart a Novel


Course to


Drought


Tolerant Maize



Over the last decade, CIMMYT
researchers have been using molecular
and phenotypic data gathered across
diverse maize populations, years, and
environments to identify genes and
chromosomal regions related to
drought tolerance traits such as stress
tolerance at flowering. The challenge
was to map the position of the regions
on the chromosomes and determine
whether those identified indicated a
common tolerance mechanism across
maize populations and environments.
A tool to visualize all the data easily
would help identify the chromosome
regions of interest and facilitate their
use in breeding programs.

"To address biological questions more
fully and to extract more information
from our wealth of data, researchers
needed tools to integrate data sets
dynamically and analyze them in a
biologically meaningful framework.
This is what we set out to do," says
Mark Sawkins, CIMMYT molecular
geneticist.


10 Annual Report 2004-2005



















CIMMYT assembled genotypic and
phenotypic data from six maize
populations and multiple
environments ranging from
Zimbabwe to the high plateaus of
Mexico. "Making sense of this data in
the format produced by the analysis
software was a daunting prospect,"
comments Sawkins.

In 2001, CIMMYT, the US National
Center for Genome Resources
(NCGR), and three sister CGIAR
centers got the ball rolling with a pilot
project that assembled a rudimentary
tool to compare genetic maps. From
this starting point, and with support
from the Rockefeller Foundation, the
USAID Cereals Comparative
Genomics Initiative, and, later, the
Generation Challenge Programme,*
CIMMYT and UNCR developed the
tremendously flexible and functional
Comparative Map TV, which
integrates and displays complex data
and maps for drought tolerance and
other traits.

"The CMTV provides a powerful tool
for accessing data such as that found
on the maize drought consensus
map," says Sawkins. "At the click of
the mouse button, users can display
on a screen a broad array of trait data
aligned onto a genetic map,
manipulate these in any manner they
choose, and easily link these data to
additional data from either their own
work or from a multitude of public
databases."

* The Generation Challenge Programme
(www.generationcp.org) is an
international consortium that unites
centers of the CGIAR, advanced research
institutes, and national agricultural
research systems to develop and use
genetic tools and resources to meet the
needs of resource-poor farmers in
developing countries.


Genetic data can be retrieved based
on numerous parameters and
comparisons drawn through the use
of "heat strips," a visual
representation developed
specifically for the CMTV. The heat
strips indicate the correlation of
chromosomal regions with the
selected traits or other criteria
through colors on the respective
bars, thus providing users with a
quick way to look for potential
regions of interest over traits,
environments, and genetic
backgrounds.


"CIMMYT was uniquely positioned
to develop and implement this
'drought consensus' map, and with it,
the CMTV tool," says Jean-Marcel
Ribaut, who formerly worked on the
project and now heads the Generation
Challenge Programme. "No other
public institution has the same, large
genetic data sets on segregating
populations for drought tolerance
traits by environment and crop. We
not only advanced CIMMYT's efforts
to apply molecular research to maize
breeding, but we helped develop a
tool that will benefit agricultural
researchers across all crops and all
regions."


-mm


.. .


This figure replicates the actual view from CMTV of complete quantitative trait loci (QTL)
results across multiple experiments and traits for maize chromosome 2. Notated line on the
left indicates marker locations on the chromosome. On the bars, red indicates that a region
that is above a particular significance level or" hot" or high for a particular trait;yellow the
correlation is still high but below the level of significance; and green, where the correlation
is somewhat "cooler." Both yellow and green indicate a strong "tendency" that the genomic
region is of importance. Blue indicates that the area is"cold"and insignificant.


n Elm




_--,AW
---
III
I


-- ~le s



i- .1.1


--"a. i


....- ...


-
t


I m a dim i


I --




















AFRICA:

HOME OF THE WORLD'S

DEEPEST POVERTY, WHERE THE

NUMBER OF POOR PEOPLE HAS

DOUBLED-TO 314 MILLION

AND THE AMOUNT OF FOOD

PER PERSON HAS FALLEN OVER

THE LAST 20 YEARS. MAIZE IS

A PRIMARY STAPLE FOOD AND

AN OCCASIONAL CASH CROP

THROUGHOUT THE REGION.

FARMERS MUST USE THEIR

VERY LIMITED SOIL AND

WATER RESOURCES WITH THE

GREATEST EFFICIENCY TO

IMPROVE AGRICULTURE,

NUTRITION, AND INCOMES.














tt -4i





... ..... ..

*. .... ...4.


got- i



.I.







CIMMYT IN






fI





















Kenyan Researchers



Sow First Field of



Transgenic Maize


ENCOURAGED BY RESULTS OF
LABORATORY AND BIOSAFETY
GREENHOUSE STUDIES, THE
INSECT RESISTANT MAIZE FOR
AFRICA PROJECT BEGAN FIELD
TRIALS WITH TRANSGENIC
MAIZE. EDITORIALS IN THE
NEW YORK TIMES AND THE
INTERNATIONAL HERALD
TRIBUNE CALLED THE PROJECT
"...A CAREFUL ENDEAVOR TO
TEST GENETICALLY MODIFIED
CROPS AND MAKE THEM WORK
FOR THE SMALL FARMER"


n 27 May 2005, staff of the
Kenya Agricultural
Research Institute (KARI)
sowed the first insect-resistant
transgenic maize seeds into Kenyan
soil, under confined field trial
conditions at an open quarantine site
(see "What Is an Open Quarantine
Site," p. 16), as part of the Insect
Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMAY
project. The first genetically
modified maize grown in sub-
Saharan Africa outside of South
Africa, the experiment-and the
project itself-are aimed at helping
Kenyan farmers reclaim some of the
400,000 tons of maize grain they lose
each year to stem borers.

A KARI-CIMMYT partnership
begun in 1999, but built on decades
of fruitful collaboration, IRMA uses
conventional breeding and
biotechnology to develop and offer
locally-adapted, insect resistant
maize varieties. The controlled field
trial contained a maize variety that
had been genetically modified with a
gene from the common soil


bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).
The gene codes for a protein that
impedes digestion in moth larvae like
borers, and has served as the active
ingredient in many organic pesticides
since the mid-1900s. In contrast to
South Africa, where Bt maize from
private companies has been grown
for nearly a decade, in Kenya the
maize eventually delivered to farmers
through IRMA will be free from legal
restraints against planting or
distributing saved seed. "It may seem
trivial, but this type of contrast
underlines the importance of IRMA,
which applies cutting-edge science to
benefit smallholders in Africa," says
IRMA project manager and CIMMYT
breeder Stephen Mugo.

The trial was intended to determine
the effectiveness of different Bt genes
and their combinations against four
species of Kenyan stem borers under
field conditions and to refine the


IRMA is funded by the Syngenta
Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture
and the Rockefeller Foundation.


14 Annual Report 2004 2005
































adaptation of the experimental
varieties to Kenyan settings. The
open quarantine trial site is a one-
hectare plot on KARI's Kiboko
research station 150 km southwest
of Nairobi. Developed in 2003 under
IRMA auspices, the facility features
internationally accepted biosafety
controls to ensure that plants and
pollen stay within its confines.

WORLDWIDE
ATTENTION ATTENDS
THE PLANTING
The worldwide media spotlight
shone on the trial planting, with
some of the world's most influential
and prestigious outlets covering the
event. The BBC science and
technology radio program Discovery
featured interviews with KARI
director Romano Kiome, Mugo, and
KARI scientists Simon Gichuki and
Catherine Taracha. Kiboko farmer
Harrison Chuma spoke on the
program about the myriad setbacks
he faces to feed his household on his
maize crop, qualifying stem borers
as second only to drought in
stealing yields: "Even when I use


irrigation on my maize, the stem
borers stop me from harvesting
what I should."

IRMA ARMS FARMERS
AGAINST MULTIPLE
THREATS
IRMAis also working to safeguard
the maize harvests of Chuma and
other smallholder farmers inAfrica
by endowing seed with resistance to
another insect pest-the larger grain
borer-that feeds on stored maize
ears. Chemical controls for this
insect are costly and potentially
harmful to farm families and the
environment. The associated lab and
field work takes place at KARI's
Kiboko, Embu, and Kakamega
research stations.

Six IRMA maize varieties developed
using conventional (that is, non-
transgenic) sources of insect
resistance are being grown in Kenya
national maize performance trials,
after successful completion of which
some or all will be released for use
by farmers.


SETBACKS BUT STEADY
PROGRESS
The project has not been completely
free from problems. For example,
because of an experimental error-
the application of a systemic
pesticide to one of the Kiboko test
plots in mid-June-that plot had to
be harvested prematurely. After
Kenya's National Biosafety
Committee (NBC) and the Kenya
Plant Health Inspectorate Service
(KEPHIS) granted the required
permissions, the trial was replanted.

As the editorial in The New York
Times asserts, "The Kenya study is a
model of how to do it and a warning
about how difficult adapting this
technology for poor farmers will be."
IRMA will only succeed with
"...financing and permissions ...help
from governments and foundations,
and cooperation from biotech
concerns."


For more information: s.mugo@cgiar.org
































AT FIRST GLANCE, THE KIBOKO OPEN QUARANTINE SITE IS JUST AN
ORDINARY FENCED-OFF FIELD. ON CLOSER INSPECTION, HOWEVER, A
LARGE SIGN IDENTIFIES THE FIELD AS THE KARI/CIMMYT QUARANTINE
FACILITY. ANOTHER SIGN, NEXT TO A LOCKED GATE AT THE ENTRANCE,
INFORMS YOU OF ACCESS RESTRICTIONS TO THE FACILITY, AND SPELLS
OUT SAFETY MEASURES FOR THOSE WITH AUTHORIZED ACCESS.


T e two signs, two-meter-high
chain-link perimeter fence
topped with barbed wire,
locked gate, and round-the-clock
security are just some of the many
special features that ensure genetic
and material confinement within the
one-hectare facility, as stipulated by
the Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate
Service (KEPHIS).

The distance of the site from other
maize fields-some 400 meters-is
another important biosafety feature.
This, along with the disinfectant-
treated stepping mat and drive-
through at the single entry point,
pits for burning biological residues
from the trials, and dustcoats for use


inside, ensures that no pollen, seed,
or other plant material can escape
the trial area and that the transgenic
maize will not cross inadvertently
with maize not included in the
experiments. Excess plant and other
biological material is gathered,
dried in the sun, and burnt, and the
ash buried in pits on site. Bright
yellow basins atop wooden stands
are traps to monitor the diversity
and numbers of flying insects in the
trials. Plastic tumblers sunk into the
ground and containing a
preservative liquid capture and
allow measurement of crawling
insects. Finally, IRMA provides
continuous training for on-site
personnel.


CIMMYT


Maize


Shines


at World's


First


Millennium


Village


THE TURN-AROUND IN THE
FORTUNES OF THE VILLAGERS OF
BAR SAURI, THE WORLD'S FIRST
MILLENNIUM VILLAGE, MAY
FIGURE AMONG THE MOST
SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT
EFFORTS. CIMMYT MAIZE IS
CONTRIBUTING TO THE VILLAGE'S
NEWFOUND WELLBEING.


16 Annual Report 2004-2005
































AT FIRST GLANCE, THE KIBOKO OPEN QUARANTINE SITE IS JUST AN
ORDINARY FENCED-OFF FIELD. ON CLOSER INSPECTION, HOWEVER, A
LARGE SIGN IDENTIFIES THE FIELD AS THE KARI/CIMMYT QUARANTINE
FACILITY. ANOTHER SIGN, NEXT TO A LOCKED GATE AT THE ENTRANCE,
INFORMS YOU OF ACCESS RESTRICTIONS TO THE FACILITY, AND SPELLS
OUT SAFETY MEASURES FOR THOSE WITH AUTHORIZED ACCESS.


T e two signs, two-meter-high
chain-link perimeter fence
topped with barbed wire,
locked gate, and round-the-clock
security are just some of the many
special features that ensure genetic
and material confinement within the
one-hectare facility, as stipulated by
the Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate
Service (KEPHIS).

The distance of the site from other
maize fields-some 400 meters-is
another important biosafety feature.
This, along with the disinfectant-
treated stepping mat and drive-
through at the single entry point,
pits for burning biological residues
from the trials, and dustcoats for use


inside, ensures that no pollen, seed,
or other plant material can escape
the trial area and that the transgenic
maize will not cross inadvertently
with maize not included in the
experiments. Excess plant and other
biological material is gathered,
dried in the sun, and burnt, and the
ash buried in pits on site. Bright
yellow basins atop wooden stands
are traps to monitor the diversity
and numbers of flying insects in the
trials. Plastic tumblers sunk into the
ground and containing a
preservative liquid capture and
allow measurement of crawling
insects. Finally, IRMA provides
continuous training for on-site
personnel.


CIMMYT


Maize


Shines


at World's


First


Millennium


Village


THE TURN-AROUND IN THE
FORTUNES OF THE VILLAGERS OF
BAR SAURI, THE WORLD'S FIRST
MILLENNIUM VILLAGE, MAY
FIGURE AMONG THE MOST
SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT
EFFORTS. CIMMYT MAIZE IS
CONTRIBUTING TO THE VILLAGE'S
NEWFOUND WELLBEING.


16 Annual Report 2004-2005




















Te millennium village
concept, the brainchild
of Jeffrey D. Sachs, UN
Special Envoy on the Millennium
Development goals (MDGs), is an
experiment designed to show that,
for a modest investment and
support, it is possible to pull people
out of hunger and poverty and set
them on the road to prosperity.

Just a year ago, the 5,000-odd
smallholders of Bar Sauri in western
Kenya were among the poorest in
Kenya. Hunger, malaria, and HIV-
Aids had since the 1980s taken their
toll on the community, effectively
arresting any chance the villagers
had for development. The normal
farm in Sauri is less than half a
hectare and typically supports a
three-generation household
numbering as many as 12 persons.
Until 2003, most Sauri farmers grew
nyamula, a local maize variety that
yielded at best around 800 kilograms
a hectare-insufficient to see even
the smaller households through to
the next harvest. Sauri residents
were undernourished, particularly
the women and children, and it was
showing in consistently low grades
at Sauri's Nyamnina Primary
School. Still, the villagers' resilience
and will to help themselves led to
Sauri's selection as the model
millennium village in 2004. The
village became the beneficiary of
and participant in a five-year project
to show how poverty can be
eliminated.


The first hurdle was to overcome
hunger, making agriculture the
immediate priority intervention. In
early 2005 villagers received farming
inputs-hybrid maize seed and
fertilizers-and training on the
proper way to grow their maize.
"We were looking for the best
hybrid maize varieties available in
Kenya," says Pedro Sanchez, Co-
chair of the UN Millennium Project
Hunger Task Force, the Earth
Institute, Columbia University, and
former director general of the World
Agroforestry Center. Sanchez
selected two hybrids developed as
part of the Africa Maize Stress
project, a joint effort of CIMMYT,
the International Institute of Tropical
Agriculture, and national research
programs in West, Central, and
Eastern Africa. Project leader and
CIMMYT maize breeder Alpha
Diallo explains how the two hybrids
came out on top: "WH502 and
WH505 are high yielding, but
they're also able to tolerate locally
important diseases and low nitrogen
and drought stress."
Commercialized by the Western
Seed Company just two years ago,
they have quickly become the most
popular hybrid maize varieties in
western Kenya, and are sown by
some 200,000 farmers on
approximately 50,000 hectares.


Jefr
Jeffrey D. Sachs


By July 2005 the villagers were able
to witness what a combination of
quality seed, proper management,
and good rains could do for their
crop, harvesting 4 tons of maize per
hectare. "The last time we saw
maize like this was 1970!" says
farmer Euniah Akinyi Ogola, whose
plants gave cobs the length of her
forearm. The unprecedented
bumper crop prompted villagers to
organize a harvest festival marked
by drumming, singing, and dancing.
"I am thrilled that CIMMYT
materials met the MDG challenge so
brilliantly!" says Diallo, who took
part in the festivities along with
Sachs and dignitaries from around
the world.



The full name of the project is "Developing
and Disseminating Stress Tolerant Maize for
Sustainable Food Security in West, Central
and East Africa. It is funded by IFAD, Sida,
BMZ and the Rockefeller Foundation.





















UNICEF Executive Director and
former US Secretary of Agriculture
Ann M. Veneman was guest of honor.
"The MDGs, with their promise for a
better future, are all about the
children," she said in her address.
"The world has come to celebrate
your harvest with you!" Hons. Mrs.
Charity Ngilu, Kenya's Health
Minister, remarked that if the Sauri
experience could be replicated
throughout Kenya, the country
would have no trouble meeting the
first Millennium Development
Goal-halving extreme poverty and
hunger-by the target of 2015.


Sanchez, a noted agronomist whom
the villagers have fondly
nicknamed Odera Kang'o (a famous
chief of the Luo people during
Kenya's colonial period), told Bar
Sauri inhabitants they could expect
sustained good harvests, thanks to
the Calliandra trees intercropped
with the maize: "These nitrogen-
fixing trees will improve the soil's
fertility, reducing or eliminating the
need for additional mineral
fertilizers."

While the final impact of the MDG
project on Sauri and other villages
remains to be seen, the five-year
pilot phase has already
strengthened the school feeding
program and made a previously


defunct village clinic operational.
Sachs said the project would now
work with the villagers to construct
safe storage facilities for harvests
and start planting higher value
crops. He also spoke of scaling up
the MDG concept to hundreds of
thousands of villages in Kenya and
throughout the world. Already
Koraro village in Ethiopia has
started MDG-focused programs.

For Diallo, the challenge remains to
continue breeding even better
maize to counter the diverse
climatic and biological stresses in
developing world ecologies,
because, as he says, "...you never
know where the next Sauri will be."


For more information: a.diallo@cgiar.org












An Extra Coat Helps Maize



Seed Fight Pernicious Weed


A QUICK AND INEXPENSIVE SOAKING IN HERBICIDE MAKES MAIZE SEED
IMPERVIOUS TO ONE OF ITS WORST ENEMIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA


THE PARASITIC FLOWERING PLANT, STRIGA SPP. THE PRACTICE, WHICH
INVOLVES THE USE OF HERBICIDE RESISTANT SEED, WAS DEVELOPED BY
CIMMYT AND PARTNERS. FARMERS IN EASTERN AFRICA MAY ENJOY FAR
BETTER HARVESTS AND FEWER WORRIES.


early, the weed choked the
crop on Zedekiah Onyango's
0.3 hectare plot, stealing half
the harvest. When Western Seed
Company sought farmers to test a
new Striga-fighting maize, Onyango
was eager. "Western gave me the
seed, and I grew it using my usual
farming techniques on this plot,"
says Onyango, near a five-by-five-
meter patch of a healthy, Striga-free
maize crop surrounded by Striga-
stunted maize.

The technology comes from nine
years of Rockefeller Foundation-
funded collaborative research by
CIMMYT and multiple partners-
"...a classic example of
partnership," according to Peter
Matlon, director of the Rockefeller
Foundation's Africa Regional
Program. Partners included the
Kenya Agricultural Research
Institute (KARI), the Weizmann
IIn-titLut I if qciLnci i'Lffi t ikd b\
Iiniatlhan IL- li I BAl A' piI\ L t,
'LL d L 111p l Il IL-, 1110d Ii lcal nIti1-
lr\ >LI !IIIILIt.Il I~I~i.431z3tItlI.. Thi,
p1actl i -t implI hIlL lbilci- iL-i-taint
11IlzL-* i-LL a I atitL- d i.hti h ith
Iliiazap\i ti h.I l bii icld, kill- thIl


Striga sprout when it tries to attach to
the maize seedling. As part of this
research, CIMMYT and partners took
advantage of a natural mutation in
maize to breed locally-adapted
varieties that withstand
imidazolinone-based herbicides.
BASF is marketing the seed-and-coat
control system under the commercial
name Clearfield.

Farmer field studies show that the
practice restores the 50-100%
production otherwise lost to the
weed, and is affordable to even the
lowest-income groups. For just under
US$ 4 for a 2-kg bag of the seed
(enough to sow 0.1 hectares), on-
farm trials found a three-fold yield
increase over Striga-infested maize-
at an average value of US$ 53. The
practice also helps protect future
harvests by depleting the weed's
seed reservoir.

PUTTING STRIG.- ON ITS
HEELS REGION-WIDE
A h11 I,411I \ I ".I \ L pt.I ;.ItL l ',tri.i
in!lLt, ii II II II II h, Ictali ,, K l\ i h

th_ aiLab _l and iniii Ah la ,, ,a\a nniali,


threatening the livelihoods of more
than 100 million people who depend
on cereal crops for food and income.
Kenyan maize farmers lose at least
US$ 50 million annually in grain to
Striga. The parasite hits hardest in the
shallow, depleted, and acidic soils
cropped by the poorest farmers.

Three seed companies in Kenya are
producing the new herbicide-coated
hybrid maize under the common
name Ua Kayongo (literally "kill
Striga") H1-4. The new control
method will be released in Tanzania,
Uganda, and, later, 16 other countries
of sub-Saharan Africa, in a process
spearheaded by the African
Agricultural Technology Foundation
(AATF) with DFID support.

CIMMYT agronomist Fred Kanampiu
says the technology is not a
permanent solution, "...but a stopgap
that buys farmers time and resources
to apply other control measures. It
will also allow breeders to develop
strong Striga resistance in maize."

For more information: f.kanampiu@cgiar.org




















LATIN AMERICA:

MAIZE, BEANS, AND POTATOES-NATIVE

ENDOWMENTS OF THE HEMISPHERE

ARE FOOD, LIVELIHOOD, AND CULTURE.

MILLIONS OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS

LACK ACCESS TO THE FRUITS OF

RESEARCH OR EXTENSION, AND HAVE

NOT BENEFITED FROM ECONOMIC

RESTRUCTURING, GLOBAL MARKETS, OR

PRIVATE SECTOR OFFERINGS. POVERTY

STILL FUELS SOCIAL CONFLICTS, AND

WANT OF ALTERNATIVES FORCES RURAL

FAMILIES TO MINE THE ENVIRONMENT

OR FLOCK TO THE CITIES, SWELLING

THE RANKS OF URBAN POOR.


















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Take Maize with



Their Coffee


DISEASE RESISTANT
MAIZE VARIETIES AND
AGRONOMIC TRAINING
FROM CIMMYT ALLOW
COLOMBIAN COFFEE
FARMERS TO DIVERSIFY
AND PROFIT.


With help from
CIMMYT and
partners, many
Colombian coffee growers have
lately become convinced that
sowing maize is more profitable
than fighting weeds. In 2004 they
raised 38,000 hectares of high-
yielding maize between coffee
rows in fields where coffee plants
had been pruned. In the bargain,
they pocketed good profits and
added to the incomes and food
security of hundreds of thousands
of farm laborers. "A maize crop
provides about 50 additional
worker-days each growing
season," says Gustavo Rinc6n,
administrator of "La Holanda,"
a 160-hectare coffee plantation
in Alegrfas Valley, Risaralda
Department, Colombia.

Rinc6n figures he gets a profit
of US $700 above cost on every
hectare of maize he sows.
Following recommended practices,
he prunes coffee bushes to short
stems after several harvests. He
also replaces old plants with new
ones every five years. During
the 18 months or so the new or


pruned coffee plants take to yield
beans, the land they occupy is
was normally unproductive and
hosts vigorous stands of weeds.
"Growing maize puts this land to
profitable use, controls the weeds,
protects plots from erosion, and,
if proper care is taken of the soil,
does not affect the coffee," Rinc6n
explains. He sells much of his
maize as whole ears for street-
corner vendors in cities. The rest
goes into feed for his farm animals,
or is given away as a bonus to
live-in plantation workers or coffee
buyers. His peers generally market
their output to intermediaries for
use in poultry feeds.

HANDS-ON APPROACH
A BOON TO WORKERS
Growing coffee is an e\.ic hnL
labor-intensive busine-- Pr d iLucl.r
draw on excellent soils .inid ra int.ill
good infrastructure and pr ck.--i n1
equipment, and long e\pc'rlnick'
in agriculture. But no m.idimeiri i-
used for field operation- -\ndl.1in
hillslopes are too steep and iahnd--
on management is still Klih Ix'-
way to get the quality i In-1um1Tr-


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E\'In .arni-'l-" it Ih l,-- than 5 hedlar.
land- 111. all CO'tCLe prodi .-iLIC t ./
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p.i In:- till'in alrn d t i id LIS $7 av 1 aV
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EXPRESSO-STRENGTH
PARTNERSHIPS .
AND SUPPORT
"Tlhe' r lLtin-hip I, itli CIM I l T"" .-".
daT I-cb.iat I tihe i I'i- \ itl It "
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d.k'\. ,piKIII l I Im pr,.ifl d ni.il/ .
\.l 'l'L '-" .ic rdl ll. l i Fa.1l1 'i' P lania .'"
FI -IT, dLeptIl\ di 'C Ltr I'- .Irih 'r h
at tllh Nation. al F L-deratii : Cerl al '
and Lcgilnl' ProidticLr- I FEN ALCEZ.
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S. traditional L' 'ndariC -L''p Il.Ihl\ L' ,

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-FAblO POLANIl FIERRO
DEPrLT'I DIREc~TOR FOR
RESEARCH FENXLCE


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.ind l.lling hi i41'b l L, 'tick price '

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I DE111 R' p i\ itl n1\ \2. 1 I. 1 ci I
ide--t.lntified two white-grained,rn l



d isease resis-. tanrt nhyrids that



iFEDEREc( A-FE, 212. i \\it
identified two white-grained,
disease resistant hybrids that
yielded more than 10 tons of
grain per hectare savN Narro
Lat.r HiM \ i.car FEDEREC -FE
FEN ALCE aInd (CIMIl T -1icn-d
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fungicides for disease control.
"The Minister of Agriculture has
given both political and financial
support; this has been crucial,"
says Polania, "and President
Alvaro Uribe got interested and
suggested the idea of a contest
for the best maize crop."

Encompassing more than
half a million coffee-growing
households and 800,000 hectares
of coffee lands, FEDERECAFE
has also thrown its considerable
weight behind the coffee-
maize marriage and provided
diverse logistical and material
support, says Edgar Echeverri
G6mez, Technical Manager of
the organization. Among other
things, its legions of yellow-
shirted, blue-capped extension
agents are now knowledgeable in
maize agronomy.


DEMAND DRIVEN?
A major concern is ensuring
markets for locally-grown maize.
Colombians consume just over 3
million tons of maize each year
as food, feed for poultry and
pigs, and industry products.
They produce slightly more


than a third of this and
import the rest from places
like Argentina or the USA.
Foreign maize is cheaper than
home-grown grain, although
its quality is often lower.

"There's a market for
Colombian maize-people
prefer it for food products-
but the demand is much less
than for animal feed," says
Alejandro Ochoa Norena,
who received the first-prize
trophy for maize productivity
in 2004 from the hands of
President Uribe. Ochoa and
his sister Johana manage their
father's coffee plantation
near the town of Santuario,
Risaralda Department. He
says that marketing maize
is an increasing challenge,
and growers frequently
go through middlemen.
"This arrangement is often
unfavorable for farmers," says
Ochoa. Still, Ochoa and his
peers are guardedly optimistic
about the prospects for maize
in the near term, and feel it
offers a solid alternative for
diversification.


To process maize
harvests, Colombian
coffee growers like
Alejandro Ochoa
Norena take advantage
of much of the same
equipment they use
for ,i,11 i washing,
drying, and bagging
coffee beans, but
occasionally invest in
specialized machinery,
like the maize sheller
shown here.


For more information: 1.narro@cgiar.org

















Making the


Plow Pa


WHAT STARTED AS A MONEY-


sse


SAVING TECHNIQUE AT A WHEAT
STATION IS NOW TURNING
HEADS FOR ITS ADVANCES IN
CONSERVING RESOURCES AND
BOOSTING MAIZE YIELDS.


CIMMYT's Toluca station

is a centerpiece in wheat
improvement, but is located
in a mostly maize-growing part
of Mexico. Station superintendent
Fernando Delgado Ramos has
become a pillar of knowledge on
conservation agriculture and is
changing the way some farmers
think about the plow.


Julian Martfnez, one of many
farmers who have followed
Delgado's recommendations to
reduce tillage, keep residues on the
soil, and sow on permanent, raised
beds, says his maize yields have
nearly doubled, since adopting
the practices three years ago on
his small farm in the Toluca Valley,
southwest of Mexico City.

DROUGHT OR
DOWNPOURS: ZERO-
TILLAGE STILL WORKS
Delgado's initiatives started out
small in Central Mexico, but the
conservation agriculture practices
he promotes have piqued the
interest of maize farmers nation-


wide, as they face water shortages,
rising production costs, and low
prices for their produce. From the
community of San Andr6s, Jalisco
State, farmer Sergio Vazquez
made the trip over 300 kilometers
southeast to Toluca in 2004 for a
demonstration by Delgado. He
was immediately impressed by the
savings from eliminating extensive
tillage operations. Back home he
tried to convince his cousin and
partner, Jos6 Antonio Aranda, to
apply the new methods. Aranda
first refused but later relented. "That
season it rained a lot and we saw we
couldn't sow or, in some cases, even
disk the plowed fields, so we tried
zero-tillage and were able to plant
90 hectares," Vazquez explains.


in

















Seeding directly into brush and
residues was difficult, according
to Vazquez, but not as hard as
putting up with the laughter and
sarcasm of local acquaintances.
"Their comments changed when
they saw our crop emerge and
the weeds wilt away from the
herbicide we'd used, and this led
a few friends to try zero-tillage
on some of their plots."

Suffering one of farming's
cruel ironies, in spring 2005
the partners faced exactly the
opposite from the previous
year's dilemma: two dry spells
of several weeks each, the first
coming right at planting time.
Vazquez had his soils tested
and found enough moisture to
germinate maize seeds, so he
and Aranda sowed 210 hectares
directly into the unplowed fields.
Despite the droughts, their
maize crop grew strong on the
residual moisture. Neighbors
using conventional tillage either
had severely stressed plants or
had to wait for rain and plant
late, thereby risking yield losses
from frost in the fall. "There
are still many aspects we need


to improve," says Vazquez, "but
we're convinced that zero-tillage
is better than traditional tillage for
profitable farming."


THE TIDE IS TURNING
In the nearby state of San Luis
Potosi, farm-group leader Carlos
Rocha Cabrera has been in frequent
contact with Delgado in search of
ways to lower productions costs
for farmers he serves. "Using
zero-tillage practices with irrigated
maize, we've had savings of 41' ,.
in water, 80% in herbicide, and 80
and 41i ,. in soil- and leaf-applied
insecticides," says Rocha, who
presides over the administrative
council of "Agropecuaria y
Forestal El Mezquite." Members
of this farmer association are
sowing some 350 hectares with
no plowing and keeping residues
on the soil, and have done
experiments comparing the effects
on soil moisture of varied amounts
of residue. "Change [toward
conservation agriculture] is coming
from all agriculture sectors,
including smallholders, those
working former communal lands,
and large-scale farmers," Rocha
says, "and government support
is growing."


ECONOMICS:
THE MOTHER OF
INVENTION?
Delgado's movement toward
conservation agriculture started as
a way to save money in operations
at the Toluca station by reducing
machinery passes and use of
water and fuel. Fifty percent of the
station's land is used for wheat
experiments, and the other half is
devoted to crop rotations to sustain
the land. It was there that Delgado
started direct seeding on permanent
beds to save money for use on other
projects. Conservation agriculture
caught his eye after a couple
harvests, when yields went from 5-8
tons per hectare to 10.

CIMMYT agronomist Ken Sayre
has traveled throughout the
developing world, championing
cropping diversification and use
of permanent, raised beds. He
heartily applauds Delgado's efforts.
"People like Fernando still believe
that improving crop production
directly in farmers' fields is the most
valuable way to achieve impact," he
says. Delgado's practical initiatives
are certainly finding an echo with
Mexican farmers and helping many
to increase their productivity and
profitability in challenging times.A


For more information: k.sayre@cgiar.org


SmYMahwS





























Clarion Call to



Conservation in


(JIinin the ,rm l ing numnbLc
0f airll- \m ild iid'
-qU"' V/C' d b\ ri-in;g input l-t'-.
I l\ ;-raIIn pri'"', 1and de.griadlng
i l- urti'--. ,, [a ril I r I In N iili .iac.in
ltate., 'ti. iti-i .nl trial Ml.It0\lo'. .la ,
MIO IIn; t 1.1ard Ctl ,l'er\ .liin
Iagri.cLIlui t .1 -Ilnkd b\ i rt.arc:hr.
likll R.lbul.i. Gon/.ali/ IiiLgu'/. Thi.'
nIOrn hLrn -'cC tiIn ,If thu -tats i- 1 pa r
It i N\kLt -m El Bali, i-a largL ri'-gi II
\it it rich -oil- gi, im raiin-. alnd
.'\t.cnii\.I' irri;gatiII bu[t nmIllutinllg
problum- i'latlling, arnn imong thT'r
thing-. hil imIp'p.'r uI-. til ag;rU-
Cilelll.il. .ind W.itl 'r. Ml ii'cihac.in
fLarnierr ., njl,, rlaitI\ li l.arg,;.
h' ild ing-.a-. big .1-. 2 111 huI larI--
and prCli e ti i' l ii k'n.-i it' rI' tltih'l
Cellukrue'dtin irrigl.kd tt hia'lt il baril.
in dr'\ ti int'r mntli- and rnlint'd.
-*un1111'r nlai/c or -rlir.IILii


A c 'ircal cti'ntiht at the' Nl c'tian
Nati 1ll l Inltilltuk' rot For ltrl\.
Ag'icultur'. and Live\-.tock RL''.larc:h.
G, tn/dIi./ hI.'llpd intr tdln id L tLl.'
[a.lrill'r- ~t c:rtpplnig tn ra'.ll d bud-., .1
praclticL m.ln .al c lliin It ll mpr1i \ l
iriigaltlin ill t i.icicnl \ "In 1"-'-4 it\
trigani/.d a \ i-it b l armer- it tl'he
CININI' T rc-cardi -,tatilin at Cludad
Obr'g'm11. in niilrthurn N lcI\ii. tit
learn about bed planting; and baLttLtr
ia\ .. >,f managiiig irrigation." i hi '
.1\ .. "Tlhi' furri, t ,in eithl .r .idc.'
ol the biud. 'pL-td up IIrri''ltin' I
and cd.n1 11l tiheL' it air ,i' there'i
arl' n1[ thodued tr drt .pitl, in
the. hfild." Gtin/iil'/ ial- I brought
thicm a bed ili.pin' n impi.Lcmint
pr\ idldd irilinalla b\ C INI iT
X _IL',It ,Igri lt l IL-l .a\ rL' Xl.l t
C.nritiOrag.-C- aiid L-.pp irt-Gn/.il.//
and tlh I itlhiaC.in IfarIIT' -..


S' 'n .it lllr, tii gain time. and thu-
be' abi. t- L.i -tt mon',r pridutdii'.',
lo'ngL-r-ea.Ln aiiiii/'., hvbrid-., mon't
it the farmnlr.- b.tgaii L.--'dinrg mai/t.
dire\itl\ into rLt -idu,-, i\ ith nto till.ag,
afltcr i\ hlcalt ,ir barl._.\ lhar\ ..t
"Thic- picked thl- up trm p.er- in
ainotll.hr area iif El Balii,. and bt--ldc.-
ailit 1it lig arli 1ur i g t lia- -..a\ ud
tlhim tlhe C -t tif pit \in," g. \ -a
CGon/.il/ Frnm thILt'. It \a-' a .1hi lr
le'ap toi' e.xprirm'ntin;g it ih \ ar--
i'lllnd /.'r-tIlliag. Ion prm.anLnt
raised bud-. Local farmer Ml,>Ii.-.
Oril/co \ki.i/que,/ began Lte.tiiig
the .apprI'oach w\iitlh I I broth~li'lr n
part >'f their II 1 I-l-t. l i holding,-
in I2I I. mainl\ ti ln\lttr c\pn'I-nc-.
At fir-t h lididn't like 01n1of the-
n1lc. ida-'.-i -luik -ia-.n111ig rtll/L/r
u-l'-LI --ggUL'd b\ br, thur.
-t lid\ nlg .1 it t11t \ But i._' aCCiudud


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and a.1- happily\ ,urpri'-,td at th,.
r.'"-ilt-. "\\1' cut l'iir ci,.t. in half
i% ith a1\ ing-t in fertili/er, tillage
opL~ratl 'n, and fiild-lhand', and
oI'r ci>'p lii)k,. .x1 i i'Iod .1- oIr
but, tr than that k f ,uLr nliighbi or'.
\ h) LI-uLd tirad.il ,nal tillaui alnd
Ih Im llr'ru rtilli/ur i" ,-i a Or,/th.
" \\ Sl-, had mI l._ I l,.'i\\ 'i r .i-.
til- \,ar alnd in I M.T r-I in'; '-.p1 t-
\ hLr, ,iL'd normnl ll \ lo-.v part
t)f tlh r'p to ,i trloggi,;n;. tlI._
Iniltriaton i\. I ,.,'.ellent." No\w
lit. andit til. Liminl\ plan to' apple\
. ", tilt.' I') IV".i LI ri .'-CI HI'-,L'r\ III;
pi.ittitL- including; \ t.-rt'unid
/tri -tilla;g.. n'n all thl.ir land.

Liku -tiLer larni-', adoption; thu
nr.c\ prIaiticnu-. Oile/I )I. till
trugg1nnl 1%l\ ith di uL'r-u i--Liu-.


incltdiun'.; ,tptimial L-.din.; and
fertil/ir iratl.- and iabll- all.
mana; in.;l rL-id ui.- a-' pL-intitul
a.1 1 t 'n1. peLr Clit.ari. elCh \xL.Ir.
"\\ '\ L'ftunll that It L'' -pr.i\ Lirea
I'n it. b\ 'li" Ing tiniL thl.' tra.i
lha- begin tio dicL'imp C 'i." Or' ~/ci
a.\--. ThI\- ail I' btindIL' and .all
-' m 'iL tir1i tl'r t r.a e, but -till
havl pr>nbl.'m.' ,gL-tting IL-dit.r- til
ch'Ip tlihloulgh ru-'idiue aind put L-.ed
in cIllntact 1% ith tIu -oil. CU Mn/Ilu/
-I1\ til- P1 int- tip a m.al o I -Liu t I
-*Il\' "Thl It iItuL I of LCno-uXn' nation
.1ariLuilttIILe in tlhu re-i in idupllnd-
oln fa riiier-' .acc'-- 4 fc ti k x i.,
a.I lf'rdabl ma hi nn'r\." SJ\ r'I
and hi, a CIalL-'. iret 1 ,' 1, king;
III iVIL aJ il de '-i-i- that N ILIC.J 11
111,1i I 11 Imin1 1 I ifa tui'r'- c.i
k.\L ntua.ll\ build and m rllk't.


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For niore intorination: I .1-:',: r.-"I. > .r i L' r.il i' I I




















Reflected Rays


Tell Wh



and



A NEW TECHNOLOGY FROM
CIMMYT AND OKLAHOMA


en to Feed Crops


STATE AND STANFORD
UNIVERSITIES WILL HELP
DEVELOPING COUNTRY
MAIZE AND WHEAT FARMERS
TO BETTER TARGET AND
REGULATE FERTILIZER
APPLICATIONS. FARMER
INCOMES AND THE QUALITY
OF SOILS AND FISHERIES
STAND TO BENEFIT.



" wish I had known about it
this season-this will save
me money," says Rub6n Luders,
a farmer who grows 400 hectares of
irrigated wheat in the Yaqui Valley of
Mexico's Sonora State. What Luders
and more than 25 other farmers saw
in a demonstration was an effective
and accurate way to determine
both the right amount of nitrogen
k'lrt ll /c r .l" 'l I i I h IIa t 1I p .ind tli
KI n' im ., t aippl\ it Tridilih, ialk l
tIh,_'\-,,I 111d rhK_.n I. IIlln ,l/> Ixl'hk-,
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irrigation. The new approach,
developed in conjunction with
Oklahoma State University (OSU),
USA, uses an infrared sensor to
measure the performance of wheat
plants as they grow.

Conducted in the fields of four
different farmer-volunteers, the
demonstrations showed that
farmers could maintain high
yields using far less fertilizer. "We
used to feed the soil first, before
growing the wheat," says Luders.
"Now we know we should feed
the wheat." He and his peers
calculated that the nitrogen sensor,
which costs about US$ 400, would
pay for itself in a single season
from savings in fertilizer use on
just 80 hectares of wheat.

"I'd long been looking for
something to determine nitrogen
requirements," says CIMMYT
wheat agronomist, Ivan Ortiz-
Nl n.l I'tlr "It I1.1i tLikl, n hnilll
t l> .'ll..1 k' It .... t nIIII'l'l l h.i\ '
.1 I LI- 'ltl ,I I1 tI>I d platnrin n U..d-"
niri>i>n .1,4i I %% lic phrint iiccd,


The sensor is held above the
growing plants and measures
light reflected at two different
wavelengths-red and invisible
infrared. In technical terms this is
called the normalized differential
vegetative index (NVDI). After
much testing, Ortiz-Monasterio
and his colleagues from Oklahoma
State found they could get a
handheld computer to calculate
plant nitrogen requirements from
the readings.

REFLECTED LIGHT
ILLUMINATES
SOIL STATUS AND
NITRATE RUNOFFS
CIMMYT research associate and
wheat agronomist Bram Govaerts
has used the sensor to measure
plant performance in a long-
term experiment on maize and
wheat conservation agriculture at
(l I I I T'- El B.it.in .'\ p 'r lnl c'nt
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C. '".-ar and CIAlIN T p,,, t-
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ifarm, i\ al .hc into the nearby
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.ed- bloom,, of algae that dcpltII
,va-w atcer ow\yen-an effect that
ha,- poilr, d fi.heries in several
part, of the world. Fertilizer-
optimi/ing practices like the
,,tnor help head-off the problemll
" farming termss intensify
t' feed mon i.r pteple, we need|
to minimni/ the Unvironmcnta.l
imp.act't," \'.i Orti/-N on..trio.

































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na hillside that abuts
more than 3,000
kilometers of
Amazonian expanse beginning
in Peru and reaching clear across
Brazil to the Atlantic, farmer
Virgilio Medina Bautista weeds
his maize field under the stifling
equatorial sun. He and his wife
Sabina Bardales typically arise
before dawn to cook a meal for
their field workers and work all
day until bedtime, around 9 p.m.
"We come to the field with the food
for brunch and ready to work,"
Medina says. "It's a hard life, but
there's no other way, for someone
without an education."

Like ''i r,. of the farmers in this
region of Peru-the lowland zones
east of the Andes known as the
"jungle"-as well as many on the
coastal plains or in inter-Andean
valleys, Medina sows Marginal 28.
This open-pollinated maize variety,
developed in the 1980s by Peru
and CIMMYT, is popular for its
high yields and broad adaptation.
It provides two or three times the
average yield of the local variety


it replaced, and grows well in
diverse environments. "Private
companies have been trying to
introduce maize hybrids here,
but they yield only six tons per
hectare," says Edison Hidalgo,
maize researcher from the National
Institute of Agricultural Research
(INIA) "El Porvenir" experiment
station, whose staff help spread
productive farming practices
throughout the region. "Marginal
28 gives that or more, under
similar management, and because
it's an open-pollinated variety,
farmers don't have to purchase
new seed every season."

Luis Narro, CIMMYT maize
researcher in South America
and a native of Peru who helped
develop Marginal 28, says the
cultivar's adaptation and uses
have far outstripped expectations.
"This variety is sown most widely
in jungle zones-truly marginal,
lowland areas characterized by
poor soils, heavy weeds, and
frequent drought, to name a few
constraints," Narro says. "But I
was just at a station in Ayacucho,
























"THIS SUGGESTS PART
OF THE VALUE OF A

GLOBAL ORGANIZATION

LIKE CIMMYT,
WHICH CAN COMBINE
CONTRIBUTIONS FROM

AROUND THE WORLD
TO DEVELOP A USEFUL

PRODUCT FOR SMALL-
SCALE FARMERS."


at over 2,700 meters in the Andes,
and saw seed production fields
of Marginal 28 where yields were
probably going to hit seven tons
per hectare." Farmers in jungle
areas use it chiefly for animal
feed or for export to the coast.
Coastal farmers grow Marginal
28 because the seed is relatively
cheap and yields high-quality
forage for their dairy cattle. In the
Andes, the grain goes for food
and snacks.

Its adaptability may be explained
in part by its genetically diverse
pedigree, which even includes
as a parent an internationally
recognized variety from
Thailand. "This suggests part of


the value of a global organization
like CIMMYT, which can combine
contributions from around the world
to develop a useful product for
small-scale farmers," Narro says.


CAN POOR FARMERS
STOP CHOPPING
DOWN JUNGLES?

Despite the clear benefits of
Marginal 28, Peruvian farmers are
still struggling as markets shift,
production costs rise, and maize
prices remain low. Farmer Jorge
Ddvila Divila, of Fundo San Carlos,
Picota Province, in the Amazon
region of Peru, grows maize,
cotton, banana, and beans on his
10-hectare homestead. Because he is


LUIS NARROW,
MAIZE BREEDER,
CIMMYT, SOUTH
AMERICA











































relatively far from the trans-Andean
highways leading to the coast,
where maize is in heavy demand
for use in poultry feed, middlemen
pay him only US $70 per ton of
maize grain-well below world
market prices. "Maize is a losing
proposition; that's why so many
farmers here are in debt," he says.
"They can't take their maize to
local companies for a better price,
because they already owe it to the
middlemen who provide inputs."

Unlike most farmers, Divila makes
ends meet through hard work and
what he calls "an orderly approach"
to farming. Many in the region slash
and burn new brushland, cropping
it for two or three seasons until


fertility falls off, and then they
move to new land. Divila has
stayed put for eight years on the
same fields. "I tell my neighbors
not to cut down their jungle," he
says. "I've seen that leaving (the
brushland) brings me rain." With
support from INIA researchers
like Hidalgo, Divila is testing
conservation agriculture
practices. For example, on one
plot he plans to keep maize
residues on the soil surface
and seed the next crop directly
into the soil without plowing.
Research by CIMMYT and others
has shown that this practice can
cut production costs, trap and
conserve moisture, and improve
soil quality.


Farmer Jorge Davila
Davila believes more
outside assistance will
be needed, if farmers in
the region are to switch
to environmentally
friendly farming:"To
stop cutting down
jungle land, we need a
proposal that lets us live
off our farms"


For more information: 1.narro@cgiar.org



















ASIA:

THE REGION WITH THE

LARGEST ABSOLUTE NUMBER OF

POOR PEOPLE AND A RAPIDLY

RISING DEMAND FOR CEREAL

GRAINS. INTENSIVE, IRRIGATED,

HIGHLY-PRODUCTIVE FARMING

SYSTEMS FEATURE MULTIPLE

CROPS INCLUDING LARGE

AREAS OF MAIZE AND WHEAT

AND FACE SERIOUS PROBLEMS:

THE UNSUSTAINABLE

EXPLOITATION OF WATER

AND SOILS, INEFFICIENT USE

OF CHEMICAL INPUTS, AND

EMERGING OR WORSENING

DISEASE AND PEST PROBLEMS.

IAINFED AGRICULTURE

PROVIDES MILLIONS

WITH FOOD BUT SUFFERS

FROM POOR OR ERRATIC

PRECIPI NATION, INFERTILE

SOILS, AGGRESSIVE DISEASES

AND PESTS, AND, SOMETIMES,

EXTREME TEMPERATURES.






































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For more information:
fm i*-' l > i *'' i0 0 i *I


iiiiii:i..i i 11 111 I

















The Call for


Maize


Mounts in


Asia


The demand for maize is expected
to skyrocket in Asia over the next
two decades, driven primarily by its
use for animal feed. But maize use
is also increasing in the uplands of
seven Asian countries. These areas
are often cut off from markets and
inhabited by resource-poor farmers
who eat much of what they grow.
CIMMYT and the International
Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD) have recently completed a
project promoting food and
livelihood security for upland
farmers in Asia who depend on
maize for both food and feed.

The International Food Policy
Research Institute (IFPRI) estimates
that by 2020 the demand for maize
in all developing countries will
surpass the demand for wheat and
rice, with Asia accounting for over
half of this growth. Responding to
these predictions, teams of
researchers visited farmers in the
uplands of China, India, Indonesia,
Nepal, the Philippines, Thailand,
and Vietnam to learn about their
maize production systems.


To further develop maize
improvement recommendations,
national workshops and seven
publications built upon the farmer
surveys. Careful planning and
appropriate research and
development prioritization
procedures on the part of scientists
and policy makers will ensure an
easier transition as farmers face
oncoming maize demand. A clear
message from the study in Vietnam,
for example, was the need to help
farmers apply sustainable practices
to avoid degrading natural
resources-particularly in fragile,
marginal settings-as demand
intensifies. "The project provided a
much-needed avenue for better
prioritization of maize research and
development in the participating
countries," says Roberta Gerpacio,
former CIMMYT research associate
who coordinated the effort. "The
active pursuit of the right priorities,
together with a supportive policy
environment, can help make maize-
based farming a more sustainable
livelihood for marginal households
in the Asian uplands."

The conclusions, like the one above
for Vietnam, were drawn from
results of systematic country-level
prioritization, and drew upon
findings from in-depth
participatory rural appraisals in
marginal, isolated areas involving
village leaders and groups of
farmers. Details on the sociological,
agro-economical, environmental,


70 73 76 79 82 85 88 91 94 97 00
Year
Maize production in Indonesia,1970-2000.



and technological aspects of maize
production were assembled in a
series of six publications available
through CIMMYT (see
"Publications/ Maize Production
Systems" on www.cimmyt.org). A
seventh report on maize in China is
also being developed.

"The third project component on
maize sector policy research closely
reviewed and examined country-
level macro- and micro-economic
policies, relating these to influences
on farm and household-level
conditions," says Gerpacio. A
separate volume on details and
synthesis of the seven country
maize policy studies will be co-
published with IFPRI.

Project participants also included
IFPRI, Stanford University and
national research programs and
ministries of agriculture in the
study countries.


For more information: e.meng@cgiar.org




















Helping to Reinvigorate



Agriculture in Afghanistan


WHEAT IS THE NUMBER-ONE
STAPLE CROP IN AFGHANISTAN,
AND MAIZE IS THE THIRD.
TOGETHER THEY OCCUPY 80% OF
THE AREA PLANTED TO ANNUAL
CROPS IN THE COUNTRY. A
CENTRAL AIM OF CIMMYT IN
AFGHANISTAN IS TO MAKE
IMPROVED, HIGH QUALITY SEED
OF BOTH CROPS AVAILABLE TO
FARMERS, ALONG WITH
APPROPRIATE CROP MANAGEMENT
TECHNOLOGIES.


CIMMYT has collaborated
with Afghan researchers
for over three decades,
even during the war. Thanks to the
Swedish Committee for
Afghanistan and the FAO, Afghan
researchers maintained contact with
CIMMYT and the Turkey-CIMMYT-
ICARDA International Winter
Wheat Improvement Program, and
continued to select the best new
wheat lines/varieties from
international nurseries. "The new
seed moved from farmer to farmer;
without it, people would have
suffered even more hunger and
malnutrition than they did," says
Hans Braun, Director of CIMMYT's
Rainfed Wheat Program.


RECENT UPDATE FROM
THE FIELD
An important component of a
current project ("Wheat and Maize
Productivity Improvement in
Afghanistan") is collaborative work
with the Agriculture Reseach
Institute of Afghanistan (ARIA),
non-government and international
organizations, and farmers to verify
in farmers' fields the performance
and acceptability of improved
wheat and maize varieties.

The project has also provided non-
government organizations with
seed of open-pollinated maize
varieties for farmer testing and
feedback, resulting in the
identification of two promising
varieties, and participants are































working to identify earlier-
maturing varieties that better fit
farmers' requirements. Project
members are also working with
the ARIA and the FAO, through
the Improved Seed Enterprise, to
offer breeder's seed of selected
varieties to recognized producers
of certified seed. To ensure all
have access to quality seed, they
are also linking with informal
farmer-to-farmer distribution
systems. The latter has resulted in
as much as a 10-fold increase in
the area under improved
varieties, in some regions. The
Norwegian Project Office-Rural
Rehabilitation Association for
Afghanistan reported that
farmers who had planted open-
pollinated maize varieties from
the project in 2003 had bartered
and sold more than two tons of
seed in 2004.


CIMMYT partners in Afghanistan
include the Future Harvest
Consortium to Rebuild
Agriculture in Afghanistan,
funded by the United States
Agency for International
Development and coordinated by
the International Center for
Agricultural Research in the Dry
Areas; AusAID and the Australian
Centre for International
Agricultural Research; FAO; the
International Fertilizer
Development Center and the
United States Agency for
International Development,
ACTED, the Aga Khan
Development Network, Improved
Seed Enterprise, the Afghan
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal
Husbandry, and Food and, in
particular, the Agricultural
Research Institute of Afghanistan.


For more information:
m.osmanzai@cgiar.org


CIMMYT in


Afghanistan: A


Legacy of Impact



Overall, 700 CIMMYT maize and wheat
nurseries have been grown and evaluated by
researchers in Afghanistan since 1975.

WHEAT
*300 tons of quality seed of wheat MH-97
distributed to 9,000 farmers in 4 provinces.
* All winter/facultative wheat cultivars in
Afghanistan are derived from nurseries of the
Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA International
Winter Wheat Improvement Program.


MAIZE
* Tons of breeder and foundation maize seed
delivered for multiplication and distribution.


TRAINING
*50 Afghan researchers have taken training at
CIMMYT.
* 5 in-country technical workshops since 2002,
diverse topics (agricultural development
potential and constraints, yellow rust and field
scoring, research methodologies, varietal
evaluation), 70 participants (farmers, NGO
workers, research station officers).


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Islands of Residue:



Fighting Erosion and



Fostering Wheat



Productivity in Kazakhstan


THE LANDSCAPE OF NORTHERN
KAZAKHSTAN IS LITTERED WITH
ARTIFACTS OF THE OLD SOVIET
CONTROLLED ECONOMY-VICTIMS
OF THE TRANSITION TO A FREE
MARKET SYSTEM. OLD CUSTOMS TOO
FALL BY THE WAYSIDE. IN PLACE OF
ONCE-REQUISITE HEAVY PLOWING
TO PREPARE FARMLAND, CIMMYT,
KAZAKH AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
PROGRAMS, FARMERS, AND OTHER
PARTNERS ARE ESTABLISHING
CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE
APPROACHES THAT ARE BOTH
SUSTAINABLE AND WILL HELP
DIVERSIFY THE ECONOMY.


low, plow, plow-that's
what we were told on
the old state farms,"
says DarynovAuezkhan, farmer
and vice-chairman of the
Kazakhstan Farmers' Union, the
largest such organization in the
country He reflects back on 1988,
when official policy mandated the
use of "black fallow," heavy
mechanical tillage as early as
permissible in spring to control
severe infestations of wild oats and
other weeds. "By the next spring
I'd see places where 50 to 60% of
the soil had been washed away.
And then I'd see several 'islands' in
the field where the straw had been
retained. There the soil erosion was
much, much less."

Those "islands" illustrate the basis
,,t Zi-ii-tilla'L' -- i >Ltain n'. uathL


than plowing in or burning crop
residues-while demonstrating an
important advantage of this
approach: dramatically decreased
soil erosion. But saving soil alone is
not sufficient cause for farmers to
change their ways.

CATCHING AND
KEEPING WATER
"Retaining soil moisture is critical
to seed germination, crop
establishment, and, ultimately,
yield," explains CIMMYT scientist
Murat Karabayev, who led the
Kazakhstan/ FAO / CIMMYT
Technical Cooperation Project on
Conservation Agriculture (2002-04).
"This is particularly important in
drought northern Kazakhstan,
where wheat depends heavily on
IL ,IKi LIi 111 IiL, IIL 110111 tiL 1.,!10 ,i%


^ A -;., ,. ,

b .. C.. ,


UA
I.iir












~aJ


AD enisYushenkQ senior scientist at the Central Kazakhstan Agricultural Research Institute and CIMMYT
zero-till research collaborator surveys gully erosion im i .. ii i ii i I fallow. According to his
measurements, erosion-prone slopes under i i, i i1 i I 2t/haoftopsoiltosuch .iiii I
including general erosion across the field), while zero-till fields showed negligible gully erosion.


melt." Retaining resides also
improves soil composition and
fertility, which is eventually
reflected in better yields. Through
on-farm trials and demonstrations,
the project promoted and
disseminated such resource-
conserving practices as direct
seeding, zero or minimal soil tillage,
and chemical fallows (a weed-
killing herbicide application
followed by a conventional fallow).
There were also training seminars,
courses, field days, study tours, and
wide promotion of new practices
through the mass media. The
development and offering of
suitable equipment for direct
seeding and zero-tillage
technologies was essential. Finally
project activities were backstopped
b\ LCi lWtic 1 il \ .... If tlL- l0
pl dC -ICL-.


Zero-tillage plots at the Central
Kazakhstan Agricultural Research
Institute and the Research
Production Center of Grain
Farming served as the venues for
initial meetings organized by the
Ministry of Agriculture, the Farmers
Union, and CIMMYT to introduce
the technology to farmers and select
candidates for on-farm trials.
Maintained under the International
Cooperation for Agricultural
Research (ICAR) project in Central
Asia and the Caucasus, the trials
moved forward with direct seeding
planters imported from Brazil.
These were followed by locally-
produced kits that could be cheaply
retrofitted to existing planters. The
selected farmers used zero-tillage,
with technical support and
i,.41 it tin il ai 'ih -i- f ,iiim CIM\I'YT
",Cluntil:t-. T%kl IIlI-puIlu0 1t


economic analyses were conducted
by Kazakh and American
economists. Approximately 500
scientists and farmers participated
in workshops and training
seminars, and another 800 farmers
observed the trials at farmer field
days. Project activities were
highlighted via newspapers, radio,
television, and regular coverage in
the Agrolnformation Quarterly, a
widely distributed publication
produced by the Farmers Union.
"Given that wheat is Kazakhstan's
foremost crop and the country
ranks sixth globally in wheat area
harvested, the potential impact on
rural livelihoods and food security
of zero-tillage and direct seeding
into residues cannot be overstated,"
Karabayev says.


t e



























FROM 100 HECTARES
TO 100 PERCENT:
FARMERS' EXPERIENCES
Although Meiram Sagymbayev's
farm in Alemola Province is of
"intermediate" scale-3,000
hectares on the high steppes of
northern Kazakhstan is indeed
intermediate-he is not your
average Kazakh farmer. His
background includes stints as a
research scientist and agronomist in
the Soviet era, and, on the other side
of the historic divide, he received an
award in 2002 as the best
businessman in the province. He
has instituted profit-sharing with
his farm hands, and rather than
reward extra work with vodka, he
gives bonuses to his staff for not
drinking during planting and
harvest.

Sagymbayev recounts putting
together the first rudiments of a
business plan while shoveling
manure and starting to implement
his ideas after Kazakh
independence in 1991. It is no
surprise then that this innovator is
leading the way in zero-till farming,


and that his neighbors and others
consulting with him are following. .
. in a big way.

As one of the conservation
agriculture project's four
participating farmers, Sagymbayev
sowed 100 hectares in the second
wheat season of 2004 using zero-
tillage. Results had been moderately
encouraging the first season, but
2004 shaped up to be a very dry
year in Akmola, which does not get
much precipitation even in an
average year, and Sagymbayev was
concerned. To his surprise, the zero-
tillage plot gave the highest yield in
the county and he surmised that it
was time to go beyond
experimentation to putting this
system to work. In 2005, 100% of his
wheat is planted using direct
seeding and zero-tillage. He hopes
over the long term to stabilize yields
during both normal and dry years
through zero-tillage improvement
of the soil profile. His neighbor,
seeing the 2004 results, sowed 2,500
of his 11,000 hectares using zero-
tillage, and many more peers are
watching intently-among them the
county's small-scale farmers.


On an FAO-sponsored trip to the
United States, Sagymbayev was
impressed by how farmers there
were independent yet worked
cooperatively and in associations to
acquire inputs and technical
knowledge. Today, he is encouraged
to see Kazakhstan and its farmers
take fledgling steps to create
cooperatives that will provide credit
for purchasing fertilizer. The
sharing of equipment and labor
may not be far behind. In lieu of a
formal extension service, he
voluntarily advises neighbors on
diverse farm issues, including zero-
tillage. "In Kazakhstan's transition
period, most farmers didn't know
what to do," he observes. "Things
are moving forward step-by-step
and may even be accelerating, but
we still have a ways to go."

Wheat farmer Viktor Surayev comes
from a different place-not just on
the map but in the circumstances he
faces and the land he farms.
Viktor's home is in Mishurino
village, which prospered under the
Soviet system but has since fallen
on hard times, with the livestock
industry declining significantly,


44 Annual Report 2004-2005




























infrastructure deteriorating, and
many people migrating from the
area. Surayev was a farm engineer
in those pre-independence days,
and he earned degrees in agronomy
and land management and
mechanization. But large, soil-caked
hands and an affable, down-to-
earth demeanor quickly dispel any
preconceptions about his being an
ivory-tower academic. "Difference
between farming now and during
Soviet times?" he shrugs, wryly
grins. "Still laboring with soil,
planting seeds, fixing
equipment...the hard work in the
fields stays the same."

Unlike Sagymbayev, Surayev's land
is relatively hilly and subject to
severe water and wind erosion,
which he blames for the low soil
fertility in many of his fields. Thus it
is no surprise that he sees the
creation of humus and increased
soil fertility as a major benefit of
conservation agriculture systems,
followed by better soil moisture
retention. After the dry 2004 season,
when he saw zero-tillage fields
yield 40% more than their
conventional counterparts, he


increased his area under the
technology from 100 to 800 hectares.
Even under more favorable
conditions in 2003, he found that
yields under zero-tillage reached 1.8
tons per hectare, versus 1.6 tons
with conventional practices.

His profits increased, not just
through higher yields but due to
reduced fuel, labor, and machinery
repair costs. Under zero-tillage, at
least three fewer tractor passes over
the fields are required-a reduction
of 60%-and plows, harrows, and
other cultivation implements are
not needed. The actual wear and
tear on his aging tractors is
minimized, because pulling a
sprayer or zero-tillage seeder exerts
far less resistance than drawing soil-
turning equipment.

Surayev acknowledges increased
herbicide costs under the new
system, but is not overly concerned,
as he believes that those costs will
decrease as the weed seeds in the
soil are killed off, and demand for
herbicide lowers per-unit cost.
These converging factors, he thinks,
together with what farmers see


AHaving seen the benefits of zero 1ii I ...1
wheat farmer Melram Sagymbayev now plants
100% of his crop with this system.


when they visit Surayev and
colleagues' on-farm trials, bode well
for zero-tillage farming in the wheat
belt of Kazakhstan.

Auezhkan of the Farmers' Union is
likewise optimistic. "It will take
about five years to have conclusive
results from these experiments," he
says, "but I think beyond a doubt
that they will prove the technology
is effective. I believe my
grandchildren will be proud of my
participation in this research-that I
was one of the pioneers of what will
become a widely spread and
accepted way of farming." He
concludes, "I thank CIMMYT for
this too, because without them,
we'd be far behind and simply not
know about these technologies."

For more information: m.karabayev@cgiar.org





















Kazakhstan: View



from the Ground Level


"KAZAKHSTAN IS NOT POOR. LOOK
AT THE FANCY NEW CARS IN
ALMATY, A CITY REMINISCENT OF
THOSE IN OLD EUROPE, OR THE
CAPITAL, ASTANA, GLEAMING WITH
NEW ARCHITECTURAL WONDERS.
THESE ARE NOT CIMMYT CLIENTS.
THEY ARE DOING FINE. THIS IS
THE ARGUMENT I OFTEN HEAR,"
SAYS ALEXEI MORGOUNOV,
CIMMYT SCIENTIST AND
REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE TO
CENTRAL ASIA. "BUT GO OUTSIDE
THE CITIES AND YOU WILL SEE
ANOTHER STORY."


Strive outside ofAstana,
north across the steppes
toward Siberia, bears out
Morgounov's observation. Take a
turn off the main highway and onto
a deeply rutted, village dirt road
and those Mercedes of the cities are
quickly replaced by rickety horse-
drawn carts, the occasional tractor
from a bygone era chugging along
accompanied by a black cloud of
diesel soot, and old men and young
boys in tattered clothes shepherding
flocks of 10 to 20 sheep.

"Government studies show that 25-
30% of the population in northern
Kazakhstan lives on a dollar a day
or less," Morgounov continues,
"and contrary to popular wisdom,
poverty is equally severe in the
north as in the south, where the
farms are typically much smaller. A
recent FAO publication* indicates
that agriculture offers 'moderate'
potential for alleviating poverty in
the region and that intensification
(increased productivity) is a major
route to that end. It's not just the
product we're talking about. It's the
economic activity farming can
generate in rural areas," adds
Morgounov.


* Farming Systems and Poverty: Improving
Farmers' Livelihood in a Changing World;
by J. Dixon, A. Gulliver and D. Gibbon.
Published by FAO in 2001.


A case in point is the farm operation
of Vyacheslav Cherezdanov, one of
the zero-till project farmers. When
he got into farming 13 years ago, it
was with a business orientation. His
goal was to produce food products,
but he wanted to grow his own raw
material: grain, principally wheat.
In December 2002, after many long
seasons of building up the farm
operation, he realized his vision
with the opening of a bakery. He
was greatly encouraged when the
breads, rolls, and pastries it
produced consistently sold out in
neighboring villages and the
regional city center. His
entrepreneurial instincts whetted, in
2005 he expanded his product line
to pelemenis (akin to ravioli or
perrogis), meat pies, personal-sized
pizzas, and other delights.

Today, Cherezdanov employs
considerably more people in his
food processing business (39 in all),
than on the farm, which employs 12
-and the economic spinoffs
continue, he says. Many of the raw
ingredients he uses-including
milk, eggs, cheese, and honey (and
soon, certified meat)-are
purchased from local farmers. Sugar
is bought from a nearby wholesale
shop. And there is room for the
spinoffs to grow as he intends to
expand his product line and


46 Annual Report 2004-2005































markets and broaden sales to more
populated areas. Thanks to the zero-till
technology and input from CIMMYT,
he is now growing winter rye and
triticale. The rye will be used for
bakery products and seed sales and the
triticale will be bartered with local
cereal and livestock producers.

His mother, Galina Cherezdanova, is' I
happy to see her son's business success
and its positive impact on the
community. A trained economist, she
conducted studies for the oblast ..
(province) indicating that of all the
"profit" generated in their county, 70%
comes from agriculture and 30% from
small business. Most of the province's
products are sent out as raw materials,
she explains, but there is a big potential
for small business here. She says that
past calculations made on a very
conservative basis showed that one ton I
of raw grain generated US$ 75 in
economic activity compared to $150, or..
double that, for the finished product.
"With 56 grain elevators here," declares
Cherezdanova, "we need to do more to
boost revenue for the rural people."



For more information:
a.morgounov@cgiar.org















Good (and Useful)


Things


S


Can Come in


mall grants and projects can
go a long way. They can be
bundled together to
achieve more formidable goals, and
they can serve as pilot projects for
proof of concept, or to get the ball
rolling in an area of study. Or they
can serve as a bridge in time
between larger-scale projects. In
short, small projects can lead to
bigger and better things.

Two noteworthy examples are the
International Cooperation for
Agricultural Research in Central
Asia and the Caucasus (ICAR) and
the Regional Network for Wheat
Variety and Seed Production, both at
work in Kazakhstan and the region.


ICAR: MANY
DISCIPLINES AND
MANY NATIONS
ICAR is a USDA project managed
through Washington State
University (WSU), CIMMYT, and
South Dakota State University, with
an annual budget of $400,000,
currently divided among a set of on-
farm demonstrations, on-station
training and trials, collaborative
research mini-projects, and
organization of regional fora.
Initiated in 2002, the project extends
through 2007 and includes
partnerships with eight countries
from the former Soviet Union in


Central Asia and the Caucasus
(CAC). Grants average US$ 10,000-
20,000, much less for on-farm trials.

"The research partnerships
contribute to enhanced food
security, preserve threatened
biodiversity, support democratic
and market reforms, and develop
mutual understanding and
appreciation in our institutions,
citizens, and nations," says Kim
Garland Campbell, Co-director of
ICAR (also Adjunct Professor at
WSU and Research Geneticist with
USDA-ARS). "The project is truly a
win-win scenario for all of us."


mall Packages

















The overarching goals of the project
are to:
* Rebuild capacity in the region's
research institutions for
agricultural education, research,
and technology transfer.
* Use improved sustainable
technologies, practices, and
policies to improve food sector
performance.
* Support agricultural policy
reform to improve economic
productivity and sustain the
natural resource base.
* Expand the access of the rural
poor to technologies and practices
that improve food security.

Says Alexei Morgounov, CIMMYT
regional representative, "We are
looking to strengthen ties between
world-class institutions and
scientists in the United States and
the CAC. When one considers that
the winter wheat now grown in the
USA came from the Ukraine, we can
see it really is a two-way street.
Another less obvious but very
important goal is to introduce the
younger generation of scientists
from the USA and CAC to the
world of international agriculture
and to one another. Agriculture
today is global in terms of trade and
economics. We need to make sure
that our agricultural researchers are
prepared to work globally as well."


ICAR's mandate is matched by the
breadth of its activities in the field,
ranging from trekking through the
mountains of Kazakhstan to collect
genetic diversity, to high-tech
molecular analysis of plant
tolerance and resistance to diseases.

SEED MONEY FOR
EXTENSION SOWS NEW
POSSIBILITIES FOR
FARMERS
In the absence of fully functioning
extension systems, delivering better
varieties and technologies to
farmers requires innovation and
experimentation-and here again,
relatively small investments in
focused efforts can lead the way.
The extension component of the
Regional Network for Wheat
Variety Promotion and Seed
Production, a collaboration between
CIMMYT and the German Agency
for Technical Cooperation (GTZ),
illustrates this point.

The overall goal of the project is to
identify, multiply, and promote high
yielding and disease resistant wheat
varieties. After a significant outlay
of funds for start-up, the project has
used budget allotments of
approximately US $150,000-200,000
per year to support major meetings
and smaller fora among scientists


from the region and their
international counterparts; hold field
days to demonstrate improved
varieties and crop management
systems; send about 40 scientists
from Central Asia for training in
breeding and agronomy at CIMMYT-
Mexico, and, as noted, support a
unique pilot effort to deliver useful
technologies to farmers.

Agrosemconsult was established
through the project as a private
company to conduct on-farm and
participatory trials and support
technology transfer to farmers. Three
mobile groups, consisting of an
agronomist, mechanic or machinery
technician, with backup from a wheat
breeder, have been established by
Agrosemconsult in southern
Kazakhstan, with mirror
arrangements in Uzbekistan and
Tajikistan. Each group works directly
with 5-10 farmers, who try the new
approaches and serve as models for
their neighbors. Aside from
dissemineting improved varieties,
provided largely by the CIMMYT-
Turkey-ICARDA Winter Wheat
Improvement Program, the company
has led the way in promoting bed
planting for wheat and barley in the
region, with technical support from
CIMMYT, notably crop management
specialist Ken Sayre, and backing for
particular components from the
ICAR project.



















World Wheat Crop



under Threat from New



Strain of Old Disease


REPRESENTATIVES OF MAJOR
DONOR COUNTRIES AND
ORGANIZATIONS, TOGETHER
WITH WHEAT SPECIALISTS FROM
AROUND THE WORLD, AGREE
THAT UG99, A NEW STRAIN OF
WHEAT STEM RUST, IS A MAJOR
THREAT TO WHEAT
PRODUCTION WORLDWIDE. AT
A MEETING IN KENYA IN
SEPTEMBER TO HEAR A REPORT
ON THE DISEASE STRAIN BY AN
EXPERT PANEL, THEY SOUNDED
THE ALARM TO THE
INTERNATIONAL MEDIA AND
LAUNCHED A GLOBAL INITIATIVE
TO CONTROL THE DISEASE.


body's seen an
epidemic for 50 years,
nobody in this room
except myself," said Norman E.
Borlaug, Nobel Peace Laureate and
former CIMMYT wheat breeder.
"Maybe we got too complacent."

The new wheat stem rust strain
Ug99 was first observed in Uganda,
but its spores are spreading on the
wind and damaging wheat crops in
Ethiopia and Kenya. The greatest
danger is that the new strain will hit
the large expanses of wheat in Asia,
according to a report by a panel of
international experts: "It is only a
matter of time until Ug99 reaches
across the Saudi Arabian peninsula
and into the Middle East, South
Asia, and eventually, East Asia and
the Americas....the current crisis is
a wake-up call about the continuing
and potentially devastating impact
that the rust pathogens can have on
a staple food like wheat."


WHAT'S AT STAKE?
Wheat is grown on more than 200
million hectares worldwide and is a
source of food and livelihoods for
hundreds of millions in developing
countries. If Ug99 spreads
unchecked, it would reduce world
wheat production at least 10%-a
loss of 60 million tons of grain
worth US$9 billion or more-and
seriously jeopardize regional food
security. "Until the advent of
science-based agriculture, world
wheat harvests suffered periodic
attacks by evolving fungal
pathogens," says CIMMYT wheat
pathologist Ravi Singh. "Among the
most damaging were the rusts."
Modern breeding, combined with
the free international exchange of
experimental wheat lines, resulted
in the development and wide
dispersion of wheat varieties able to
resist the rusts for several decades.
"These resistant varieties have
especially safeguarded food security
in developing countries, where
many farmers simply cannot afford
fungicides," says Singh. But
pathogens evolve and, as is
occurring now, new strains emerge
that break down the defenses of
resistant varieties.


50 Annual Report 2004-2005



















TIME TO ACT-
NOW!
The report says that plant
breeders and pathologists still
have time to screen for resistant
genotypes and to get them
multiplied and into farmers'
fields. With this aim, delegates
at the meeting in Kenya
endorsed the creation of the
Global Rust Initiative to
monitor the spread of the
disease and to work on long-
term solutions-including new,
locally-adapted, resistant wheat
varieties and a global testing
and distribution system-not
just for Ug99 but for other,
potentially dangerous wheat
rust pathogens. Lead members
of the consortium developing
the initiative are CIMMYT,
ICARDA, the Kenya
Agricultural Research Institute
(KARI), and the Ethiopian
Agricultural Research
Organization (EARO). Several
major donors have expressed
interest in participating. The
meeting in Kenya was
sponsored by the Rockefeller
Foundation. A news conference
held as part of the event was
attended by more than 30
media representatives and
resulted in reports being
published in dozens of outlets
worldwide, including a story in
the "Science" section of The
New York Times on 9 September
2005.


CIMMYT has been
screening materials in
its gene bank for
sources of resistance to
the new rust strain and
has identified promising
candidates. KARI and EARO
are also screening thousanid-, Il
wheat lines from all over thle i olld
at stations that are known hotspots
for wheat rusts.


An initial analysis of global wind patterns and environmental factors conducted by CIMMYT's
Geographic Information Systems unit confirms there is a high potential for the fungal spores to
spread from eastern Africa into the Arabian peninsula, Iran, and the expansive wheat growing
regions of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh.The expert panel report confirmed that many of the
wheat varieties grown in these regions are susceptible to the new strain of the fungus.This
graphic shows a conservative scenario; in the worst-case scenario, Ug99 could ruin as much as
70% of the wheat harvest.


For more information: r.singh@cgiarorg


sb~llrr~sRlar~ib-lIlll~ll~lllarPr
1~-. .~
b i rr-
ii











CIMMYT Financial Overview


2004 FINANCIAL

STATEMENTS
A summary of the 2004 combined
statements of activities and changes
in net assets and combined
statements of financial position for
CIMMYT, Int., and CIMMYT, A.C., is
set out in Table 1.

The major highlight of the year 2004
has been the increased operating
surplus of US $ 1.4 million,
approximately double that of 2003.
This surplus has allowed CIMMYT
to continue rebuilding its net asset


base back to levels that will provide
the operational and institutional
security required to support its
research agenda.

Total revenues for 2004 of US $ 38.72
million represented an increase of
US $ 0.9 million (2.4%) over 2003
revenues.

Total net assets increased by
US $ 1.77 million to US $ 20.17
million (2003 US $ 18.39 million).
Unappropriated, unrestricted net
assets increased to US $ 4.86 million,
due to a combination of the


operating surplus of US $ 1.4 million
and a positive movement in reserves
of US $ 370,000.


2004 FUNDING
OVERVIEW
Total funding for 2004 was US $ 38.72
million (2003 US $ 37.80), including
other income and overhead recovery
of US $ 2.78 million (2003 US $ 2.02
million). Grant income amounted
to US $ 37.40 million, comprising
US $ 13.71 million in unrestricted
grants and US $ 23.69 million in
restricted grants (Table 2).


TABLE 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, 2004

As of December 31, 2004 and 2003 (Thousands of US Dollars)
ASSETS 2004 2003
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents 14,119 7,426
Accounts receivable:
Donor- Net 6,480 9,019
Other 1,141 1,071
Inventory and supplies 109 129
Prepaid expenses 15
Total current assets 21,853 17,660
Non-Current Assets
Property, plant and equipment, net 15,307 15,302
Other assets 62 62
Total non-current assets 15,369 15,364
TOTAL ASSETS 37,222 33,024

LIABILITIES AND NET ASSETS
Current Liabilites
Financial institutions 3,000
Due to related parties -390
Current portion of capital leases 79 222
Accounts Payable:
Donors 14,453 9,771
Other 1,331 46
Accruals and provisions 774 605
Total current liabilities 16,637 14,034
Non-Current Liabilities
Seniority premiums 417 513
Capital leases 79
Total non-current liabilities 417 592
Total liabilities 17,054 14,626
Net Assets
Unrestricted:
Designated 15,307 15,347
Undesignated 4,861 3,051
Total unrestricted net assets 20,168 18,398
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND NET ASSETS 37,222 33,024


STATEMENTS OF ACTIVITIES, 2004 AND 2003

For the years ended December 31, 2004 and 2003 (Thousands of US Dollars)
2004 2003
Revenue and Gains
Grants / Revenue 37,400 35,785
Other revenue and gains 1,320 2,019
Total revenue and gains 38,720 37,804

Expenses and Losses
Program related expenses 31,965 29,292
Management and general expenses 7,271 9,561
Other losses and expenses 862 1,346
Sub-total expenses and losses 40,098 40,199

Indirect cost recovery (2,778) (3,117)
Total expenses and losses 37,320 37,082


NET SURPLUS 1,400 722

Expenses by natural classification
Personnel costs 16,870 18,003
Supplies and services 13,531 13,449
Collaborators / partnership costs 5,742 4,652
Operational travel 1,858 1,199
Depreciation 2,097 2,896
Total 40,098 40,199


52 Annual Report 2004-2005


















TABLE 2. CIMMYT SOURCES OF INCOME FROM
GRANTS BY COUNTRY/ENTITY, 2004 AND 2003

For the years ended December 31, 2004 and 2003 (Thousands of US Dollars)
2004 2003
Donors Grant Grant

Unrestricted
Australia 454 377
Belgium 204 86
Canada 1,798 1,263
China 140 150
Denmark 463 598
Germany 309 286
India 113 113
Japan 1,503 1,359
Korea 50 50
Mexico 25 90
New Zealand 50
Norway 294 208
Peru 30 20
Philippines 7 7
Sweden 385 324
Switzerland 312 292
Thailand 21 9
United States 4,232 4,900
United Kingdom 1,540
World Bank 1,800 2,500

Subtotal Unrestricted 13,710 12,632

Restricted
ADB (Asian Development Bank) 390 566
Australia
AusAID 501 424
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research 85 125
CRC Molecular Plant Breeding 393 320
Grains Research and Development Corporation 1,138 654
Belgium 448 345
Bolivia (AGRICOM- Seeds, S.A) 1 10
Brazil 2
Canada
Agriculture and Agri-Food 15 1
Canadian International Development Agency 919 621
CGIAR
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical 55 31
International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics 4
International Food Policy Research Institute 684 147
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute 2
International Water Management Institute 75 39
Standing Panel on Impact Assessment 15 9
China
CAAS 300 300
Lamsoo Milling Company (8)
Colombia
FENALCE (Federacion de Cultivadores de Cereales y Leguminosas) 103 41
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 105 112
Denmark 69 151
European Commission 2,754 2,676
FAO 46 53
France
DRIC (Delegation aux Relations Internationales et a la cooperation) 480 844
Club Cinq 90 56
Germany
Eiselen Foundation 37
Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development 945 667
IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) 10 6
IDB (Inter-American Development Bank) 9
IFAD (International Fund For Agricultural Development) 165 152


2004 2003
Donors Grant Grant

Restricted


Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Co. Ltd.
Iran, Islamic Republic of


19
215 297


APN (Asian Pacific Network for Global Change Reseach) 1
Economic Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs 779 644
Nippon Foundation 584 691
Sasakawa Global 2000 6
Korea, Republic of


Rural Development Administration
Mexico
CODEPAP (Consejo de Desarrollo de la Cuenca de Papaloapan
CONACYT (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia)
SAGARPA (Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia,
Desarrollo Rural y Pesca)
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce A.C.
Fundacion Hidalgo
Fundacion Sonora
ICAMEX
Grupo Industrial Bimbo (Industrial quality in wheat)
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
Miscellaneous Research Grants
Netherlands
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
New Zealand
Norway
OPEC Fund for International Development
Other
Paraguay (Camara Paraguya de Exportadores de
Cereales y Oleaginosas)


Rockefeller Foundation
SCOPE
South Africa
Agricultural Research Council
National Department of Agriculture


Agrovegetal, S.A.
Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacion
Syngenta Foundation
Sweden
Switzerland
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
United Kingdom
UNDP (Africa Bureau)
Uruguay
USA
Cornell University
Monsanto Fund
National Center for Genome Resources (NCGR)
Oklahoma State University
Pioneer Hi-Bred International
Stanford University
United States Agency for International Development
United States Department of Agriculture
Washington State University
World Bank
Generation Challenge Programme

Subtotal Restricted

Total Donors Unrestricted and Restricted


85 100


17 44
88 7
1,033 294

40 9
6
194 50
35 69
45
6
54 116

432 466
21 114
30 30
74 26
211 560
6 24

30 40
2,383 1,993
9

9
64 47

63 90
188 262
647 1,097
17 19

909 875
464 1,417
23
2 130

58 47
6 214
18
3 35
9 33
76 146
3,089 2,967
313 289
178 91
1,476 834
501

23,690 23,153

37,400 35,785











Trustees and Principal Staff


TRUSTEES

Alexander McCalla (Canada), Chair, Board of Trustees,
and Chair, Executive Committee; Emeritus Professor,
Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics,
University of California, Davis, USA
Sebastian Acosta-Niifiez (Mexico),* Director General,
Agricultural Research, National Institute of Forestry,
Agriculture, and Livestock Research, Mexico
Hisao Azuma (Japan), President, Agricultural and
Fishery Savings Insurance Corporation, Japan
Julio Antonio Berdegu6 (Mexico), President, RIMISP,
Centro Latinoamericano para el Desarrollo Rural,
Chile
Pedro Brajcich (Mexico),* Director General, National
Institute of Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock
Research, Mexico
Ismail Cakmak (Turkey), Faculty of Engineering and
Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Turkey
Tini Colijn-Hooymans (Netherlands), Chair, Finance
and Administration Committee; Member of the
Board of Management, TNO, The Netherlands
Edwina Cornish (Australia), Deputy Vice-Chancellor
and Vice-President (Research), Monash University
Australia
Robert M. Goodman (USA), Vice-Chair, Board of
Trustees; Executive Dean for Agricultural and
Natural Resources, Rutgers Cook College, USA
Masa Iwanaga (Japan),* Director General, CIMMYT
Romano M. Kiome (Kenya), Director, Kenya
Agricultural Research Institute, Kenya
Lene Lange (Denmark), Science Director, Molecular
Biotechnology, Novozymes A/S, Denmark
Mangala Rai (India), Director General, Indian Council
of Agricultural Research, India
Uraivan Tan-Kim-Yong (Thailand), Chair, Audit
Committee; Chairperson, Graduate Program in Man
and Environment Management (Chiang Rai),
Mekung Environment and Resource Institute,
Chiang Mai University, Thailand
Javier Usabiaga (Mexico),* Secretary of Agriculture,
Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries, and Food,
Mexico
John Witcombe (UK), Chair, Program Committee,
Centre for Arid Zones Studies, University of Wales,
UK

* Ex n, i.- .r,...


PRINCIPAL STAFF
As of September 2005

OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR
GENERAL
Masa Iwanaga (Japan), Director General
John Dodds (USA), Deputy Director General
Research
Pilar Junco (Mexico), Executive Assistant to the
Director General
Agustin Mufioz (Mexico), Senior Auditor
Peter Ninnes (Australia), Executive Officei
Research Management
Shawn Sullivan (USA), Intellectual Property
Manager and Counsel'
Martin Van Weerdenburg (Australia), Director,
Corporate Services

CONSULTANTS
Norman E. Borlaug (USA)
Thomas George (Philippines)
Gregorio Martinez (Mexico)

CORPORATE
COMMUNICATIONS
David Mowbray (Canada), Head2
G. Michael Listman (USA), Senior Writer/
Editor
Alma McNab (Honduras), Senior Writer/Editor
and Translations Coordinator'
Miguel Mellado (Mexico), Head, Graphic
Design and Production
David Poland (USA), Senior Writer/Editor

CONSULTANTS
Ed Brandon (Canada)2
Jillian Baker (Canada)2
Gretchen Reuthling (USA)'

CORPORATE SERVICES
Martin van Weerdenburg (Australia), Director
Linda Ainsworth (USA) Manager Visitors,
Conference and Training Servicel

CONSULTANT
Coenraad Kramer (Netherlands)

EXPERIMENT STATION
Francisco Magallanes (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, El Batan

ADMINISTRATION
Hugo Alvarez (Mexico), Administration
Manager
Martin CArdenas (Mexico), Head, Vehicle
Workshop'
Eduardo De la Rosa (Mexico), Head, Building
Maintenance
Joaquin Diaz (Mexico), Head, Purchasing
Maria Garay (Mexico), Head, Food and
Housing
Juan Carlos GonzAlez (Mexico), Supervisor,
Food and Housing2
Eduardo Mejia (Mexico), Head, Security and
Drivers

FINANCE OFFICE
Jose de Jesus Montoya (Mexico), Manager
Adela Espejel (Mexico), Head, Payroll and
Taxes2
Salvador Fragoso (Mexico), Head, Payroll and
Taxes'
Nicolas GonzAlez (Mexico), Accounting
Manager


54 Annual Report 2004-2005


Jesus Nava (Mexico), Projects and Budget
Control Head
Guillermo Quesada (Mexico), Head, Treasury
German Tapia (Mexico), Warehouse
Supervisor

HUMAN RESOURCES OFFICE
Marisa De la O (Mexico), Manager
Georgina Becerra (Mexico), Human Resoures
Specialist'
Ma. de Lourdes Espejel (Mexico), Teacher,
Childcare Center2
Carmen Espinosa (Mexico), Head, Legal
Transactions
Gerardo Hurtado (Mexico), Human Resources
Specialist2
Cuauhtimoc Marquez (Mexico), Medical
Service
Ma. del Carmen Padilla (Mexico), Teacher,
Childcare Center'
Fernando SAnchez (Mexico), Head, National
Staff

INFORMATION AND
COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGIES
Carlos L6pez (Mexico), Interim Manager2
Ed Brandon (Canada), Head, ICT'
Enrique Martinez (Mexico), Head,
Development and Implementation of New
Projects
SalustiaMendoza (Mexico), Help Desk
Supervisor
Marcos PAez (Mexico), Network Administrator
Fermin Segura (Mexico), Network
Infrastructure Supervisor
Jesfs Vargas (Mexico), Systems and
Operations Manager Systems and
Computer Services'
Leopoldo Velazquez (Mexico), High-End
Support
Fatin Zaklouta (Germany) Intern'

LIBRARY
Fernando Garcia (Mexico), Librarian and
Electronic Information Manager'
John Woolston (Canada), Visiting Scientist

GENETIC RESOURCES
PROGRAM
Jonathan Crouch (UK), Director2
Juan Carlos Alarc6n (Mexico), Project Leader
Christelle Bencivenni (France), Research
Associate
Guy Davenport (UK), Scientist, Bioinformatics
Specialist
David Hoisington (USA), Principal Scientist'
Scott McLean(USA), Scientist, Breeder/
Geneticist'
Abdul-Mujeeb Kazi(USA) Distinguished
Scientist, Head, Wheat Wide Crosses
Jesper Norgaard (Denmark), Project Leader
Thomas S. Payne (USA), Senior Scientist,
Head, Wheat Germplasm Bank
Alessandro Pellegrineschi (Italy), Scientist,
Cell Biologist'
Enrico Perotti (Italy), Scientist, Molecular
Biologist (based inAustralia)
Jean-Marcel Ribaut (Switzerland), Senior
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist'
Jens Riis-Jacobsen (Denmark), Scientist, Crop
Information Specialist
Maria Luisa Rodriguez (Mexico), Program
Administrator


1Left during 2004-2005.
2Appointed during 2004-2005.

















Mark Sawkins (UK), Associate
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist
Suketoshi Taba (Japan), Principal
Scientist, Head, Maize
Germplasm Bank
Martin Van Ginkel (Netherlands),
Principal Scientist, Head Wheat
Germplasm Bank'
Jiankang Wang (China), Associate
Scientist, Quantitative
Geneticist/ Breeder (based in
China)'
Marilyn Warburton (USA), Senior
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist

POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWS
Susanne Dreisigacker (Germany),
Molecular Biologist2
Masahiro Kishii (Japan), Wheat
Cytogeneticist

EXPERIMENT STATION
Narciso Vergara (Mexico),
Superintendent, Tlaltizapin
Experimental Station

BIOMETRICS AND
STATISTICS
Jose Crossa (Uruguay), Principal
Scientist and Head

SEED INSPECTION AND
DISTRIBUTION UNIT
M6nica Mezzalama (Italy),
Scientist, Head
Efren Rodriguez (Mexico), Head,
Seed Distribution and
International Nurseries Data
Analysis
Noemi Valencia (Mexico),
Supervisor, Seed Health
Laboratory

ADJUNCT SCIENTISTS
Tomohiro Ban (Japan), Senior
Scientist, Geneticist/Breeder
Morten Lillemo (Norway),
Postdoctoral Fellow, Wheat
Breeder1
Hiro Nakamura (Japan), Scientist,
Wheat Grain Quality Molecular
Breeder2
Antonio Serratos (Mexico),
INIFAP/Mexico, Scientist,
Molecular Biologist'
Sae-Jung Suh (Korea), Senior
Scientist, Breeder
Axel Tiessen (Germany), Scientist,
Molecular Biologist

CONSULTANTS
Gregorio Alvarado (Mexico)
Claudia Bedoya (Colombia)
Kyle Braak (Canada)2
Juan Burguefio (Uruguay)
Jorge Franco (Uruguay)2
Eric Nurit (France)
Mateo Vargas (Mexico)
Nicholas Zeigler (USA)2
Huanhuan Zhao (China)2

HONORARY FELLOWS
Mujeeb Kazi (USA)2
Wayne Powell (UK)2


IMPACTS TARGETING
AND ASSESSMENT
PROGRAM
John Dixon (Australia), Director2
Lone Badstue (Denmark), Associate
Scientist, Social Anthropologist
Mauricio Bellon (Mexico), Senior
Scientist, Human Ecologist'
Federico Carri6n (Mexico),
Database Administrator
Jonathan Hellin (UK), Scientist,
Poverty Specialist2
David Hodson (UK), Scientist,
Head, Geographic Information
Systems
Petr Kosina (Czech Republic),
Associate Scientist, Training
Coordinator2
Tyler Kruzich (USA), Research
Assistant2
Roberto La Rovere (Italy), Scientist,
Impacts Specialist2
Erika Meng (USA), Scientist,
Economist
Maria Luisa Rodriguez (Mexico),
Program Administrator

CONSULTANTS/RESEARCH
AFFILIATES
Pedro Aquino (Mexico), Principal
Researcher
Leslie Cooksy (USA)'
Dagoberto Flores (Mexico),
Principal Researcher
Roberta Gerpacio (Philippines)'
Maximina Lantican (Philippines)
Janet Lauderdale (USA)1
Eduardo Martinez (Mexico), GIS
Specialist
Maxwell Mudhara (Zimbabwe)2
Toon Van Goethem (Belgium),
Volunteer Research Intern2

AFRICAN LIVELIHOODS
PROGRAM
Marianne Binziger (Switzerland),
Director (based in Kenya)
Jedidah Danson (Kenya), Adjunct
Scientist, Molecular Biologist
(based in Kenya)
Hugo De Groote (Belgium), Senior
Scientist, Economist (based in
Kenya)
Alpha 0. Diallo (Guinea), Principal
Scientist, Breeder (based in
Kenya)
Dennis Friesen (Canada), IFDC/
CIMMYT, Senior Scientist,
Agronomist (based in Ethiopia)
Fred Kanampiu (Kenya), Scientist,
Agronomist (based in Kenya)
Duncan Kirubi (Kenya), Adjunct
Scientist, Breeder (based in
Kenya)
Augustine Langyintuo (Ghana),
Economist, Associate Scientist,
(based in Zimbabwe)
John MacRobert (Zimbabwe),
Senior Scientist, Maize Seed
System Specialist (based in
Zimbabwe)
Zubeda Mduruma (Tanzania),
ECAMAW/CIMMYT, Adjunct
Scientist, Breeder (based in
Ethiopia)


Mulugetta Mekuria (Ethiopia),
Senior Scientist, Economist (based
in Zimbabwe)
Stephen Mugo (Kenya), Scientist,
Breeder (based in Kenya)
Wilfred M. Mwangi (Kenya),
Principal Scientist, Economist
(based in Kenya)
Daisy Ouya (Kenya), Science
Writer/Editor (based in KenyaY
Shivaji Pandey (India), Principal
Scientist, Breederl
Marcelo E. P&rez (Mexico), Program
Administrator (based in Mexico)
Peter Setimela (Botswana), Breeder,
Associate Scientist (based in
Zimbabwe)
Douglas Tanner (Canada), Senior
Scientist, Agronomist, East Africa
(based in Ethiopia)'
Christian Thierfelder (Germany),
University of Hohenheim/
CIMMYT, Post-Doctoral Fellow
(based in Zimbabwe)
Strafford Twumasi-Afriyie (Ghana),
Senior Scientist, Breeder (based in
Ethiopia)
Bindiganavile Vivek (India),
Scientist, Breeder (based in
Zimbabwe)
Patrick C. Wall (Ireland), Principal
Scientist, Conservation Tillage
and Agriculture Specialist (based
in Zimbabwe)

POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWS
Cosmos Magorokosho (Zimbabwe),
Maize Breeder (based in
Zimbabwe)

CONSULTANT
Mick S. Mwala (Zambia)

TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS
PROGRAM
Kevin V. Pixley(USA), Director
David Beck (USA), Principal
Scientist, Breeder/Leader,
Highland Maize
David Bergvinson (Canada), Senior
Scientist, Entomologist
Hugo C6rdova (El Salvador),
Principal Scientist, Breeder/
Leader of Tropical Maize
Maria Luz George (Philippines),
Senior Scientist, AMBIONET
Coordinator (based in the
Philippines)
Daniel Jeffers (USA), Senior
Scientist, Pathologist
Jaime L6pez Cesati (Mexico),
Manager, Soils and Plant
Nutrition Laboratory
Luis Narro (Peru), Senior Scientist,
Breeder (based in Colombia)
Guillermo Ortiz-Ferrara (Mexico),
Principal Scientist, Regional
Breeder (Wheat), South Asia,
Country Representative for Nepal
(based in Nepal)
Marcelo E. Perez (Mexico), Program
Administrator
Neeranjan Rajbhandari (Nepal),
Adjunct Scientist, Agronomist
(based in Nepal)'
Carlos Urrea (Colombia), Scientist,
Breeder (based in Nepal)


POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWS
Alan Krivanek(USA), QPM Breeder2
Natalia Palacios (Colombia),
Nutritional Quality2

CONSULTANT
Philippe Monneveux (France)'
Hugo Vivar (Ecuador)

EXPERIMENT STATION
Raymundo L6pez (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, Agua Fria

RAINFED WHEAT
SYSTEMS PROGRAM
Hans-Joachim Braun (Germany),
Director (based in Turkey)
Flavio Capettini (Uruguay),
ICARDA/CIMMYT Adjunct
Senior Scientist, Head, Barley
Program
Ame Hede (Denmark), Scientist,
Facultative and Winter Wheat
Breeder (based in Turkey)
Muratbek Karabayev (Kazakhstan),
Adjunct Senior Scientist, Liaison
Officer (based in Kazakhstany
Alexei Morgounov (Russia), Senior
Scientist, Regional Representative
Wheat Breeder/Agronomist,
Central Asia and Caucasus (based
in Kazakhstan)
Rocio Navarro (Mexico), Program
Administrator
Julie Nicol (Australia), Scientist,
Pathologist (based in Turkey)
Mahmood Osmanzai (Canada),
Principal Scientist, Country
Coordinator (based in
Afghanistan)
Matthew P. Reynolds (UK), Principal
Scientist, Head, Wheat Physiology
Richard Trethowan (Australia),
Principal Scientist, Sprin Bread
Wheat Breeder (Marginal
Environments)
Jiankang Wang (China), Associate
Scientist, Quantitative Geneticist'
Manilal William (Sri Lanka),
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist

POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWS
Akmal Akramhanov (Uzbekistan),
Conservation Agriculture (based
in Kazakhstan)
Rubeena (India), Post-Doctoral
Fellow, Physiology Breeder'

CONSULTANTS
Amoldo Amaya (Mexico), Program
Administrator
David Bedoshvili (Georgia)
Julien De Meyer (Switzerland)2
Muratbek Karabayev (Kazakhstan)
Man Mohan Kohli (India), Plant
Breeder (Wheat)'

EXPERIMENT STATION
Fernando Delgado (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, Toluca l

















INTENSIVE
AGROECOSYSTEMS
PROGRAM
Rodomiro Ortiz (Peru), Director2
Karim Ammar (Tunisia), Scientist,
Plant Breeder (Small Grains)
Oscar Bafiuelos (Mexico), Principal
Researcher
Etienne Duveiller (Belgium),
Principal Scientist, Regional
Pathologist, South Asia (based in
Nepal)
Olaf Erenstein (Netherlands),
Scientist, Agricultural Economist
(based in India)
Raj Gupta (India), Senior Scientist,
Regional Facilitator, Rice-Wheat
Consortium for the Indo-
Gangetic Plains, Country
Representative for India (based
in India)
Larry Harrington (USA), Principal
Scientist, Economist'
Zhong-Hu He (China), Principal
Scientist, Plant Breeder (Wheat),
Country Representative for
China (based in China)
Craig A. Meisner (USA), Principal
Scientist, Systems Agronomist,
Country Representative for
Bangladesh (based in
F. ,, .l ,i
Rocio Navarro (Mexico), Program
Administrator
Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio (Mexico),
Senior Scientist, Agronomist
Roberto J. Pefa (Mexico), Principal
Scientist, Head, Grain Quality
Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer (Germany),
Principal Scientist, Head, Plant
Breeder (Bread Wheat, Durum
Wheat)1
Kenneth D. Sayre (USA), Principal
Scientist, Head, Crop
Management
Ravi P. Singh (India), Principal
Scientist, Geneticist/Pathologist
(Rust)
Ganesan Srinivasan (India),
Principal Scientist, Head, Plant
Breeder (Maize)1
Carmen Velazquez (Mexico), Head,
Laboratory
Narciso Vergara (Mexico), Senior
Researcher
Stephen Waddington (UK),
Principal Scientist, Regional
Agronomist, Country
Representative for Bangladesh
1 -... -.I F. ..h .[10

VISITING SCIENTISTS
Arun Joshi (India), Plant Breeder
(Wheat)2
Ram C. Sharma (Nepal), Plant
Breeder (Wheat)


ADJUNCT SCIENTISTS
Parvesh Chandna (India), GIS and
Remote Sensing Research Fellow
(based in India)
Nur-E-Elahi (Bangladesh),
Agronomist/Breeder (Maize)
(based in Bangladesh)
A.B.S. Hossain (angladesh) Plant
Breeder (Wheat) (based in
Bangladesh)'
Julio Huerta (Mexico), Adjunct
Senior Scientist, Pathologist (Rust)
Krishna Joshi (Nepal), Plant Breeder
(Small Grains) (based in Nepal)1
Sarvesh Paliwal (India), Specialist,
Maize Seed Systems (based in
India)'
G.M. Panaullah (Bangladesh), Soil
Scientist (based in Bangladesh)
Kamal Paudyal (Nepal), Adjunct
Scientist, Agricultural Economist
(based in Nepal)
H.K. Rai (India), Soil Scientist (based
in India)
M.A. Razzaque 1. ..1. I- Liaison
Scientist (based in Bangladesh)'
Samar Singh (India), Agronomist
(based in India)
S.S. Singh (India), Agronomist
(based in India)
Ashish Srivastava (India), Plant
Breeder (Maize) (based in India)
Gaurav Yadav (India) Seed
Production Specialist (based in
India)

CONSULTANTS
Amoldo Amaya (Mexico), Program
Administrator
Guillermo Fuentes Davila (Mexico),
Plant Pathologist (Wheat)
Naeem Hashmi (Pakistan), Country
Representative for Pakistan (based
in Pakistan)2
Changrong Yan (China), Facilitator of
Yellow River Basin Dryland Project
(based in China)

EXPERIMENT STATION
Rodrigo Rasc6n (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, Ciudad Obreg6n

POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWS
Jacob Lage (Denmark), Plant
Breeder2
Jiro Murakami (Japan), Wheat
Pathologist2
Mirjam Pulleman (Netherlands),
Conservation Agriculture2
Garry Rosewarne (Australia),
Molecular Geneticist (Small
Grains)


PREDOCTORAL FELLOWS
Bram Govaerts (Belgium), Soil Scientist
Sybil Herrera (Sweden), Molecular
Breeder (Wheat)
Scott Justice (USA), Agricultural
Engineer (based in Nepal)

GENERATION CHALLENGE
PROGRAMME
Jean-Marcel Ribaut (Switzerland),
Director2
Kaitlin Lesnick (USA), Consultant2
Jennifer Nelson (USA), Officer/
Specialist I, Communications
coordinator
Adriana Santiago (Mexico), Program
Administrator
Ibtisam Vincent (USA), Consultant'
Robert Zeigler (USA), Director'

STRATEGIC ADVISORY
SERVICES FOR HUMAN
RESOURCES
Nellooli Rajasekaran (India), Director'

MANAGEMENT
COMMITTEE
Masa Iwanaga, Director General
John Dodds, Chair, Deputy Director

General Research
Marianne Blnziger, Director, African
Livelihoods
Hans-Joachim Braun, Director, Rainfed
Wheat Systems
Jonathan Crouch, Director, Genetic
Resources
John Dixon, Director, Impacts Targeting
and Assessment
Rodomiro Ortiz, Director, Intensive
Agroecosystems
Kevin Pixley, Director, Tropical
Ecosystems
Martin van Weerdenburg, Director,
Corporate Services

VISITING SCIENTISTS
(PERIODS OF MORE THAN
TWO MONTHS)
Reshmi Gaju Oorbessy (Mauritania)
Sophie Georges (France)
Christelle Monier (France)
Bukovnik Urska (Slovenia)
Sentner Ulrich Martin (Germany)
Browne Roy Allen (Ireland)
Sandoya Miranda GermAn (Ecuador)
Tauber Stefanie (Austria)
Pablo Aldo Polci Quarchioni
(Argentina)
Peter Richard Matthews (Australia)

1 Left during 2004-2005.
2 Appointed during 2004-2005.


56 Annual Report 2004-2005

































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