Front Cover
 A message from the director...
 Table of Contents
 Adding value from field to...
 Adding value through participa...
 Adding value through research on...
 CIMMYT financial overview
 Trustees and principal staff
 CIMMYT in brief
 CIMMYT contact information

Group Title: CIMMYT annual report ...
Title: CIMMYT annual report, 2003-2004
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077461/00005
 Material Information
Title: CIMMYT annual report, 2003-2004
Series Title: CIMMYT annual report ...
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2004
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077461
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: issn - 0188-9214


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    A message from the director general
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Adding value from field to market
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Successful seed systems sown in the wake of crop failure
            Page 3
        Being a woman puts her ahead of the game, says new African livelihoods program scientist
            Page 4
        In Ethiopia, if it tastes good, it can be good for you
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Quality protein maize : new maize for a new era
            Page 7
        Solving the zinc problem from field to food
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Maps unearth new insights for research to help the poor
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Research on reducing strange losses targets impoverished areas
            Page 15
        Rural Mexico after free trade : coping with a landscape of change
            Page 16
        Gene flow : farmers keep maize thriving and changing
            Page 17
            Page 18
    Adding value through participation
        Page 19
        Farmer innovation and food security in Southeastern Turkey
            Page 20
            Page 21
        Cropping on raised soil beds : the facts
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Farmers in Tajikistan seek self-sufficienct in wheat
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Better wheat, cropping practices, and markets benefit small-scale farmers in China
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Bangladesh : innovative, low-cost farm implements save assets, supply jobs
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Innovation in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains : Calling at the door of the poor
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
        New soil fertility consortium : Can southern African farmers feed families from depleted soils
            Page 34
            Page 35
        When farmers become patrons of research
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Slow rusting : a long-lasting example of applied science
            Page 39
            Page 40
    Adding value through research on public goods
        Page 41
        Rapid progress in winter wheat breeding has large impact
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
        Wheat research goes underground
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
        Presidential appearance highlights launch of Kenya biosafety greenhouse
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Preliminary results of transgenic wheat trial look promising
            Page 54
            Page 55
        CIMMYT helps East Timor improve productivity and food security
            Page 56
            Page 57
    CIMMYT financial overview
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Trustees and principal staff
        Page 61
        Page 62
    CIMMYT in brief
        Page 63
    CIMMYT contact information
        Page 64
Full Text




from the



What kind of a future do we
envision for the world, and how
can CIMMYT and its partners
help build that future? During
part of 2002 and nearly all of 2003,
my staff and I took precious time
out from the daily rush of our
research to develop a new
strategy for the Center.1 The actual
exercise involved the entire
CIMMYT family, with a survey of
more than 170 external
stakeholders, a detailed analysis
of global trends, reports by 20
internal work groups and task
forces, and many, many meetings
and conferences with staff,
consultants, and Board members.

What drove us to the effort? There
were a number of things, but a
key point was this: despite the
impressive advances in crop
production throughout the
developing world since the mid-
1960s, the landscape of agriculture
in developing countries continues
to worsen in many areas, often
wrapping subsistence farmers and
their families in a strangle-hold of
hunger and poverty.

Adding Value to
CIMMYT helps free them through
research on maize and wheat
farming systems. Those systems
occupy nearly 200 million
hectares-a composite area larger
than all of Mexico-throughout
the developing world. Maize and
wheat themselves account for
roughly four-tenths of the
world's food and a quarter of
the calories consumed in
developing countries.

Our area of expertise is in
applying quality science. At the
same time, our focus on
livelihoods means looking at
where CIMMYT can apply science
to add value-from field to
market, to partnerships and
through participation, and to
global public goods such as crop
varieties or knowledge of
resource-conserving farm
practices. Adding value can also
mean adding options, adding
opportunities for employment, or
adding diversity to cropping
systems and diets.

Adding Value from
Field to Market
For farmers in developing
countries, crops have both social
and financial value and contribute
in manifold ways to livelihoods.
Household food security and
economic resilience require not
just high yields, but stable yields
under all conditions. Crops able to
withstand diseases and pests
without the protection of
agrochemicals contribute as well
to the resilience of ecosystems. So
we work hard to offer farmers

maize and wheat varieties that carry
such resistance in the seed itself.
Grain must also have preferred
characteristics-color, suitability for
local dishes, among others-to be
acceptable, and this has a direct
bearing on farmers' management of
local genetic diversity, as is evident
in the case of maize in southeastern
Mexico. Moreover, food quality
itself affects health and productivity,
markedly so among the poor. Thus,
CIMMYT and partners work to
increase the nutritional value of
maize and wheat in places, such as
Ethiopia or Turkey, where these
crops are mainstays of the poor.

Adding Value
through Participation
Cultivating broad, diverse, and
healthy partnerships is another way
the Center contributes to improved
livelihoods. Partnerships constitute
the muscle of our new strategy, but
partnerships are not developed
overnight. Since its inception, the
Center has added value to
partnerships, among other ways
through training and collaboration,
to ensure that research has results in
people's lives. Staff have creatively
sought intervention points in impact
pathways-places where a relatively
small effort will open access to seed,
knowledge, or other useful assets.
Another way to open impact
pathways is by identifying and
abetting local champions of
innovation. Through training and
material support, the Center has
assisted individuals with the vision,
energy, and desire to catalyze
change. Finally, the complexity and
scale of certain challenges require
multi-partner, multi-donor
collaboration. Few organizations are
in a position to establish such

SFor more detail, see the full strategy document, Seeds ofInnovation: CIMMYT's Strategy for Helping to Reduce Poverty and Hunger by 2020, either in print
or on our website, www.cimmyt.org.

2 -

initiatives, but CIMMYT's
global network-recognized by
external stakeholders as one of
our key assets-goes from the
ground up, including farmers,
researchers, ministry of
agriculture officials, and
regional and national decision-
makers, among others.

Adding Value
through Research
on Public Goods

Global public goods developed
and freely offered by CIMMYT
and partners include maize and
wheat varieties, better cropping
practices, other types of
knowledge, capacity building,
and publications, to name a
few. Perhaps easiest to measure
is the economic value of
improved varieties. Use over
the last few decades of rust-
resistant wheats have brought
farmers economic benefits
worth 5.3 billion 1990 USD, for
an investment that is a mere
fraction of that amount.
CIMMYT is also applying-and
helping others to apply-
cutting-edge techniques to
develop better crop varieties.
And better cropping practices
constitute a type of public good
of particular relevance to
farmers. With support from the
Center and its partners, farmers
from Kazakhstan to Uttar
Pradesh are testing and
adopting the practice of sowing
on raised soil beds. As a result,
they are increasing yields,
saving tractor fuel, improving
the efficiency of water use,
and diversifying their
cropping systems.

People Are
the Real Sto

The heart of CIMM
vision is very simple
We see a world wh
hundreds of million
and urban poor wil
grow or buy the foo
need. Where small-
farmers who depen
and wheat will be a
move their families
subsistence to surpi
such farmers and th
families are empow
overcome vulnerab
withstand the shock
currently buffet the
influence circumsta
their favor, and to
recapture hope.

The stories in the p
follow illustrate ho1
CIMMYT is achieve
vision. They also su
good science need r
place in a vacuum
hopelessly distance
realities of the poor
research can actually
to livelihoods and r
difference. We are v
about the possibility
by our new strategy
you also feel excited
you read about this
about our work. Ab
we hope you feel
comment, question,
get involved.

-- L a 1
Masa Iwanaga
Director General

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To reduce the vulnerability of small-

nearly 7 million people destitute

and dependent on food aid, a

partnership of USAID, research

institutions, and non-government

organizations is promoting local

seed production and distribution.

Farmers involved can earn cash and

make it easier for peers to obtain

seed of appropriate maize varieties.


The drought of 2002 took millions of
Ethiopians to the brink, recalls Dennis
Latimer, Head of Agriculture and
Natural Resources projects for Catholic
Relief Services (CRS). "Many rural
families sold all their assets-goats,
farm implements, and even the wooden
rafters from their houses-all at
depleted prices since the neighbors
were selling off their assets as well."

Out of the crop failure of 2002 came the
project "Rapid Response Maize Seed
Production to Enhance Food Security in
Drought-Prone Areas of Ethiopia" to
help alleviate seed shortfalls in the
affected region. Funded by USAID and
with CIMMYT as the executing agency,
the work involves CRS and other non-
government organizations, the United
Nations Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO), the Ethiopian
Agricultural Research Organization
(EARO), and farmer groups.

Replacing rood
Aid with Farmer
Latimer, like other partners in the
project, had recognized the need to help
drought-affected families recuperate
their assets and, somehow, to create
positive outcomes from a very bad
situation. Most non-government
organizations tender bids to buy large
amounts of seed for free distribution, an
approach that Latimer and his CRS
colleagues say has many downsides. It
creates dependency; discourages
farmers from diversifying into
agricultural pursuits other than maize
cropping; undermines existing, small-

"7,* i" -' ~


Successful Seed

Systems Sown in the

Wake of Crop Failure

scale, seed distribution networks;
and, importantly, often results in
the distribution of varieties that do
not match local agro-environments
or farmer preferences.

The approach proposed by CRS
and adopted by the project rests on
three assumptions: (1) farmers did
not have sufficient assets to
purchase seed for 2003; (2) good
seed of local, farmer-developed
varieties was available through
indigenous networks; and (3)
farmers have valuable knowledge
and judgment.

"The farmer seed system is very
strong in Ethiopia-not just for
purchasing from small local
vendors, but through community
and family networks and barter,"
says Latimer. The project was
designed to capitalize on this and
build up seed production
capabilities for local markets. One
of the greatest opportunities
identified, according to Latimer,
was the introduction of improved,
open-pollinated maize varieties.
Fresh seed of hybrid maize must
be purchased every season for
sowing, to obtain the benefits of
such varieties. In contrast, farmers
using open-pollinated varieties
can save seed from the harvest and
sow it the following cycle, without
a loss of yield or other desirable
traits. Seed of open-pollinated
varieties is also much easier to
produce than seed of hybrids,
making the former apt for use in
community seed production.

Farmer Feedback and
Fairs for Seed Trade
One role of CIMMYT has been to
select appropriate, locally-adapted
varieties for seed multiplication and
eventual distribution. The center has
also sponsored and conducted seed
production training for staff of
EARO and of the(wassa College
of Agricultus, monitored seed
production in the field, and provided
breeder's seed in 2004 of eight
varieties for multiplication under
irrigation. Modest amounts of excess
seed are going to CRS and FAO for
use in on-farm demonstrations in
2004 that will acquaint farmers with
the varieties' attributes and obtain
their feedback. Seed of preferred
varieties will eventually each
farmers through an approach
advanced by CRS-seed fairs-that
also promotes new planting options
and community seed distribution
and production systems.

The Right Seed
for a Rain-Starved
The FAO project "Strengthening
Seed Supply Systems at the Local
Level" is already working to create
systems that are farmer based, farmer
owned, and farmer managed, to
ensure sustainability. Farmers are
being trained in seed production and
in the rigorous management practices
that ensure seed quality, and are
putting up 70% of the cost for seed
storage facilities.
1 a

Central to this undertaking, says
project director Osman Ibrahim, are
improved, open-pollinated varieties.
"In the past, NGOs and relief
organizations were sending out any
kind of seed they could get their
hands on, with little knowledge of
characteristics or adaptation. All too
often, seed turned out to be of long-
season, local varieties that would fail
under the area's drought conditions.
CIMMYT and EARO must be credited
with properly assessing the growing
environment here and identifying and
really promoting suitable, early-
maturing, open-pollinated varieties."

The collaboration of institutions such
as EARO, CIMMYT, FAO, and non-
government organizations to address
seed supply problems is seen as very
positive by Laura Powers,
Agriculture/Food Security Advisor
for USAID's Office of Foreign Disaster
Assistance, who was instrumental in
putting together that agency's project.
"These efforts demonstrate what can
be achieved when committed and
capable partners pull together to build
food security in the wake of crop
failure," she says.

For more information:
s.twumasi@cgiar.org 0




Ben oa

Pas erAha

th ae Sy e

Africa Lielhod


"There~ ~ ~ ~ ~ is a6 sain in Tazna .6 Posssn oraiatoa an th 6onr. r 6ol
hom conty an it als aple t. o ineleta git aln is no reogiz tha we no onl got
my ~ ne. bas in Etipa say enough to mak it 6ntemlhejbdnbu otdn
6.6.d 6d a "'o edct one dointe wol of agiulua wel The pepl withinthe
gir and yo hav eduate the whl reeach say 6 It als conr wol 6.ke noic.
co mniy Tht' becus a woa tae har wor an peristnc
pl.y a lot of roe 6i6 he exene an a wilnns tovnueit tl, h ashr r
faiy he vilae he moqu' the unkow Ths trit she man inte6 n

coa. e an caoe he r smaller reain and 6ern. g He reprsen obt6 ls bu you
neghor 6 nt trin ne crop an mohe als exeimne with ca' jus crml whe you
tecnooges an 6npie 6 n ne crop an roaton to 66.6 mee suc chalenge. Yo
pesude yo6 n vilg woe to exr cas an kee the fail nee to aser yorel 6n
pusu hihe stdis al 6 he whl fe though th yer an prv thrug you work 6

Reeac Newr (EA A ) an enir hoshod Mos 6f al6, she6
yesbein a mohe an wf 6 inise tha al he6 chlde Inhrnw6.poiin
"I reeme colage in Tazai hav the opotnt to 6usu M wil appl he kil
asin 'how do yo hadl al those thei stde as fa aste.teeopn n
thng at 6ne tie" M m 6esred For M m 6his le to cordnain regiona
relet.6 "Bu fo a 6oan 6t' no 6n M* 6n Pla6 Bredn an*prahst az n
unsa to hadetreo*ortig eeisfo onl ha eerh u e
at a tim an do the wel You hav 6nvriy a lon cors in grats saifcio 6oe

Research in al of Tanzania). I wa Prgrm Topn her to-d6o
keein ou *-etr amTeitrainlepsr itaeo-amse
6unig and rereenin Eas Afic aloe 6dr talnt to prdcin th rmoino
an my conr nanme fsie W mnsinit noe olntdvreiso
inentoa foa An6 I6 wa lokn Tazai ar bete knw qult prti maze6dh

coplind, she add wit a lagh th ousd wol than inid and lietc rdcin



If It


Good, It

Can Be

Good for


Quality protein maize,

developed and refined by

CIMMYT during the past 20

* years, is promoted for its

superior nutritional quality.

But consumer and

agricultural characteristics,

not nutrition, usually

advance adoption by farmers.

The unexpected suitability of quality
protein maize (QPM) for making injera,
Ethiopia's universal food, seems like a
dream come true to Dr. Girma Akalu,
Head of the Food Science and Nutrition
Research Department, Ethiopia Health
and Nutrition Research Institute. What
excites Girma, as he likes to be called, is
the promise of a viable way to address
protein deficiency diseases he has
observed in some areas, and to boost
overall nutrition.
Children in Test
Villages Benefit
from Quality
Protein Maize
A rigorous scientist, Girma, with
funding from Sasakawa-Global 2000,
tested this possibility in 2002-03,
following positive published studies on
QPM's nutritional value and effects on
lab animals. In his experiment, 160
farmers in the Bako area of western
Ethiopia received either conventional or
QPM maize seed to grow and harvest.
Information concerning which farmers
grew which type was kept from both

farmers and researchers during the
course of the test, which lasted a year.
The health and growth of children
ranging in age from six months to two
years was monitored in study areas. By
the second and third quarters of the
experiment, children in the QPM
villages were showing greater height
and weight gains and less stunting and
wasting, even accounting for variable
household diets or incidence of gastro-
intestinal parasites. The study's fourth
quarter was disrupted by the region's
worst malaria outbreak in many years.

The results, added to observations of
local development and health care
workers and farmers, have convinced
Girma of QPM's potential to improve
diets and health. Particularly because
teff is relatively low in lysine, mixing
QPM flour into teff injera would
significantly boost its protein quality. In
the poorer areas, where much of
Ethiopia's maize is grown, maize flat
breads, porridge, and roasted ears are a
key part of local diets, offering further
opportunities for improved nutrition.
Finally, researchers are seeking ways
and formulations to make QPM-based
injera that's identical to the traditional
product in processing, taste, and other

Farmers Vould Rather
Eat It than Sell It

Bachu Chemeda, a development officer
for 17 years, is now stationed in East
Wellega where Girma's study took
place. Nearly all her client farmers
strongly preferred the QPM for food
preparation and commented that the
children seemed healthier. Some
farmers noted that yields of the QPM
hybrid, BHQ 542, were somewhat
lower than those of their favorite
hybrid, BH 660, but all liked the fact

that the QPM was early-maturing and
thus able to escape drought and provide
an early harvest. Most telling, she said,
was the fact that most farmers kept the
QPM grain for home consumption, rather
than selling it.

Takele Gebre, Ethiopia Coordinator for
Sasakawa-Global 2000, has worked on
introducing QPM to the country since
1997. He says that the BHQ 542 went
through the national registration and
release process in the shortest time of any
maize hybrid in history. "We've named it
'Gabissa,' which means 'makes big and
strong,' he says. "We're looking to
make a big and strong impact with it this
season, as we go out to 300 additional
demonstration plots." Gebre's enthusiasm
is based partly on the four-fold or better
yield advantage of hybrid maize over
teff, and its lower market price-only
32% of that of teff.

New Recipes
for Nutrition?
Meanwhile, CIMMYT breeder Strafford
Twumasi-Afriye and partners from the
Ethiopian Agricultural Research
Organization are incorporating the
quality protein trait into Ethiopia's two
most popular hybrids-BH 660 for
high altitude zones and BH 540 for
mid-altitude zones-as well as into four
elite, open-pollinated varieties in the
registration process and three popular
open-pollinated varieties already on the
market, with funding from the Nippon
Foundation and the Canadian
International Development Agency.

Girma Akalu plans a second verification
study for 2004, and is also formulating
various recipes for adding QPM to the
recipe for Ethiopia's age-old staple food.

For more information:


* w


IL ~ '4f% ~i~ppji


I e



the Zinc



Field to



Thanks to pioneering research in Turkey,
the links between zinc-deficient soils,
plants, people, and continued malnutrition
and poverty have been clearly articulated.
Few other countries in the world are as
well placed to show how plant breeding
research can limit the impact of zinc
deficiency on crop and human health.
So what's the next step?


Zinc fertilizer
was applied
to the soil
beneath the
green plants
in this field.


In her work as a medical doctor
and nutritionist, Prof. Ayhan
avdar saw many women who
could not give birth to healthy
children. They had repeated
miscarriages and stillbirths. Their
babies had agonizing defects of the
central nervous system, such as
spina bifida, in which the spine
fails to close properly, and
anencephaly, characterized by an
undeveloped brain and incomplete
skull. One 18-year-old woman had
already miscarried two
anencephalitic fetuses. This
devastating condition had a
surprisingly simple treatment.
avdar measured the levels of zinc
in the young woman's blood
serum, plasma, and hair. They
were extremely low. She prescribed
zinc supplements for five months.
The young woman conceived and
gave birth to a healthy child after
an uneventful pregnancy.

Zinc deficiency is implicated in
health problems throughout the
world (see box). The causes and
consequences of the problem have
been particularly well studied in
Turkey, where avdar says "a
nutrition-related, zinc-deficient
milieu exists."

Wheat is part of that milieu. Most
people in Turkey and neighboring
countries rely heavily on wheat as
a staple. In rural areas, people can
consume more than 500 grams of
bread every day. Throughout West
Asia and North Africa, wheat can
constitute from 40 to 60% of daily
caloric intake, compared with 21%
in Europe or 20% worldwide.
People risk zinc deficiency when
they subsist on white bread, white
rice, or other cereals and consume
few vegetables, red meat, or other
animal protein.


The Missing Zinc

The widespread zinc deficiency in
Turkey's soils and crops, including
wheat, is considered a major
reason for the relatively high
incidence of zinc deficiency in its
people. In the early 1990s,
researchers started a NATO-
sponsored project in Central
Anatolia, Turkey's major wheat
growing area, to investigate the
extent and significance of zinc
deficiency in soils, plants, foods,
and people. Partners included
Cukorova University in Adana, the
Transitional Zone Agricultural
Research Institute in Eskisehir, the
Bahri Dagda International
Agricultural Research Center in
Konya, the Research Institute of
Rural Affairs in Sanliurfa,
CIMMYT and Advanced Research
Institutes in Australia, Germany,
and the USA.

The project, led by Prof. Ismail
Cakmak (then with Qukurova
University, now with Sabanci
University), built on the work of
Dr. Robin Graham from Adelaide
University in Australia and Mufit
Kalayci from the Transitional Zone
Agricultural Research Institute in
Eskisehir, who had shown the
effects of zinc on plant growth and
yield. Some wheat varieties,
especially those developed from
local landraces, used zinc much
more effectively than others. Zinc
application increased wheat yields
by 5-500%, depending on location
and soil zinc levels. Also seed that
had higher zinc content yielded
better than seed with low content.

Cakmak recalls that "when
farmers saw the results with zinc
fertilizer, they said, 'Something
good like aspirin has come!' "

Because of the
impressive project's
findings, fertilizer
companies started
producing zinc fertilizer.
"Today, ten years after the
problem was solidly diagnosed,
Turkey uses 300,000 tons of zinc
fertilizer. This is a success story,"
emphasizes Qakmak. The Ministry
of Agriculture estimates that the
economic benefit from zinc
fertilization in Turkey is about
USD 150 million per year.

No Happy

Plants that get a high dose of zinc
fertilizer do not necessarily
accumulate enough zinc in the
grain to improve human nutrition.
Some varieties cannot draw much
zinc from the soil. Others easily
extract zinc from the soil but
cannot make good use of it.
Finally, not every farmer can
afford zinc fertilizer, and not every
country provides it.

"Wheat varieties and landraces,
and wheat's wild relatives, have
the genes to solve the zinc
problem," says Hans-Joachim
Braun, director of CIMMYT's
Rainfed Wheat Systems Program
and participant in the NATO

Getting Good Genes

Turkish wheat landraces and
cultivars that use zinc efficiently
are being combined with wheat
varieties developed in the Turkey-
CIMMYT-ICARDA International
Wheat Improvement Program
(IWWIP) that have resistance to
yellow rust and root diseases.
"We're evaluating about 180


Many of the wild wheats

and Aegilops species that

exhibit very high tolerance

to zinc-deficient soils

originated in Turkey.

wheat lines with these traits
right now," says Qakmak.
"They're showing very high
levels of zinc efficiency when
grown in zinc-deficient soils."
akmak and colleagues also
found that wild relatives of
wheat (Triticum monococcum, T.
diccocoides, and Aegilops tauschii)
tolerate zinc-deficient soils well
compared to bread wheat.
"Many of the wild wheats and
Aegilops species that exhibit very
high tolerance to zinc-deficient
soils originated in Turkey," says
akmak, "very probably
because Turkey has such zinc-
deficient soils." They feel this
valuable trait can easily be
passed to improved bread
wheats. Researchers also have
high hopes that rye can
* contribute a similar genetic
advantage to wheat.

With funding from DANIDA,
CIMMYT evaluated accessions
from its wheat genebank for
cultivars that produced zinc-rich
grain, and considerable variation
was found. Cakmak and his
team, together with collaborators
from Qukurova University
(Hakan Ozkan),Tel Aviv
University (Eitan Millet), and
Haifa University (Eviatar Nevo),
have identified wild and
primitive wheats from the Fertile
Crescent that have grain with
seven times as much zinc as
modern wheat varieties.
Preliminary results also suggest
that the grain of wild species has
higher levels of proteins and
amino acids that make it easier
for people to absorb
micronutrients such as zinc.

"We have access to nearly 10,000
unique accessions of wild
relatives from the Fertile
Crescent," observes Cakmak.
"Other research groups are not
working with these materials.
Because Turkey has zinc
deficiency not only in soils and
plants but also in people, we're
ideally suited to screen a range of
crops for the HarvestPlus
program." (See box.)

For more information:
h.j.braun@cgiar.org 0


U -







to Help

the Poor

How can CIMMYT know where

its research efforts would most

effectively help the poorest

communities? A recent poverty

mapping project could be of

assistance by bringing to light

the location and magnitude

of poverty in Mexico.

Because they are based on
averages or means, national
indicators often do not reflect
the complexity or extent of
poverty in a country. The 2004
United Nations Human
Development Report showed a
Gross Domestic Product for
Mexico of USD 637.2 billion-
the world's ninth highest in
2002. However, Mexico is also a
country of huge gaps. For
example, of the 55 countries
cited by the Report as having
"high human development,"
Mexico had the greatest
inequality between the richest
and the poorest 20% of its
inhabitants. Data from 1990-2002
show that more than a quarter of
inhabitants live on less than
USD 2 per day.

"You find these pockets of rural
poverty that just aren't being
addressed," says CIMMYT
geographic information systems
specialist Dave Hodson, co-
leader of the project "Geospatial
Dimensions of Poverty and Food
Security A Case Study of
Mexico." "They're outside
global markets and they're
outside the private sector, so
who's picking up these rural
people?" Says human ecologist
Mauricio Bellon, Hodson's
colleague on the project: "If we
think that CIMMYT's mission is
about addressing the needs of
poor farmers, we need to know
where they are." This effort
belongs to a wider poverty
mapping initiative implemented
by FAO, UNEP, and the CGIAR,
with funding from the
government of Norway

Looking at
the Layers
Poverty maps show where the
poor are located. They can be
important tools for identifying
economic disparities and the
least developed areas in a
country. By the same token, they
may suggest where development
agricultural research and
policies-could make an impact.

This project focuses on Mexico,
but its methods can be applied
anywhere. The research team,
which included several Mexican
partners, measured variations in
food insecurity and poverty over
time and across regions, as well
as drawing implications of rural
poverty's spatial distribution for
CIMMYT's work.

Looking for data that would
indicate levels of poverty, the
researchers identified common
variables between the 2000
Mexico Census and a
government survey that
combined household income and
expenditure in 2000 and 2002. To
predict where poverty was most
likely to occur, these data were
integrated with other variables,
such as environmental
characteristics, population
density, and accessibility to
major urban centers, in a
geographic information system.

Poverty's Trademark:
Subsistence Maize
Farms and Highland
Researchers ran the initial predictive
model for slightly more than 100,000
rural Mexican communities of fewer
than 2,500 people and compared
results to official poverty lines. They
predicted that almost half-40,879-
of the rural localities were
"extremely impoverished," with
average monthly expenditures that
did not meet basic food.

The researchers' predicted model
results strongly correlated with
independent findings. For example,
83% of the locations predicted to be
below the poverty line are in areas
that are targeted by government
anti-poverty programs.

How can these communities make
the most of their assets to
diversify agriculture, raise
incomes, and stop the soil erosion
that will prevent their land from
being productive in the future?
Some of the answers may lie in
conservation agriculture
technologies that are being
developed and promoted
by CIMMYT researchers and its
partners. If these technologies
succeed, more farmers
might be able to stay on
their land rather than
lose or abandon it.




Time to
Reach the Poor

If CIMMYT and partners want to ensure their
research is relevant to the needs of the poorest
farmers, they must test their new maize varieties
and cropping practices in locations with
conditions similar to those that poor farmers
confront, as challenging as that may be. "Poor
farmers are in inaccessible places and don't have
access to resources," says Hodson.

The work of Hodson and his colleagues suggests
considerable scope for improving livelihoods in
poor communities through research on small,
carefully chosen areas. For example, the
researchers found that a predicted 3.2 million
potentially poor rural people live within a 50-
kilometer radius of 11 selected focal points that
have the highest densities of extremely poor

CIMMYT and its partners have already
developed many maize varieties that are
adapted to several poor areas identified in the
mapping project and could benefit communities
there. In CIMMYT's gene bank, about 1,000 of
the almost 8,000 Mexican maize accessions,
including the high-yielding Tuxpefio germplasm
complex, were collected from areas identified by
the project as likely to be poor. These accessions
may have qualities that make them particularly
suited for further research aimed to benefit
inhabitants in poor areas.

Reducing losses in stored maize grain is another
topic on which CIMMYT and partners have
worked for more than a decade. Many of the
experimental sites for this research in Mexico are
located in or next to impoverished areas.
Extrapolation of the results indicates that
storage losses are probably a great problem for
the extreme poor in certain regions (see box).

For more information:
m.bellon@cgiar.org *

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Rural Mexico after

Free Trade: Coping

with a Landscape of Change

C The North American
Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) came into effect on 01
January 1994. Signed by the
governments of the Canada,
Mexico, and the United States of
America, the agreement was
intended to eliminate trade
barriers, promote fair competition,
and increase opportunities for
investment, among other
objectives. With support from the
Mickey Leland International
Hunger Fellows Program of the
US Congressional Hunger Center,
in 2003-04 CIMMYT research
fellow Amanda King studied how
groups in two contrasting regions
of Mexico-wheat farmers in the
northwestern state of Sonora and
maize farmers in the eastern state
of Veracruz-have adapted to
post-NAFTA changes in
agriculture. "The study cannot
claim to represent the great
diversity of rural livelihoods and
settings in Mexico," says King,
"but it gives a glimpse of the
personal costs and benefits of
competition and how local
livelihoods are evolving amid
global change."

In hot, dry Sonora, agriculture is
often mechanized, and farmers
make use of improved seed,
fertilizer, pesticides, and
irrigation. Their harvests are
largely destined for industry and
export markets. State-wide,
agriculture has been challenged
by repeated droughts and water

shortages in recent years. Some
individuals with larger holdings,
political connections, and access to
important resources have taken
advantage of NAFTA's
opportunities. Those with fewer
resources have either adapted by
banding together into producers'
groups, which offer greater
efficiency and access to markets,
or have been pushed out of
farming altogether. Those who
leave their farms often resort to
wage labor or migrate to large
cities or the USA to seek work.

Looking for alternatives. In
response to low grain prices, some
farmers in Veracruz have been
experimenting with different crops.
Laurentino grows hybrid maize,
which he manages to sell for 1.5 pesos
(US$ 0.13) per kilogram of grain. "In
reality, maize is not good business,"
he says. "I can't improve my life
growing maize." His main income
comes from chili peppers, which he
learned to grow from his father.

Farmers in Veracruz crop small
plots to sustain the household or
to sell in local or regional markets.
They often prepare the land by
hand, and buy chemical fertilizers
and pesticides only when
household incomes allow-which
is seldom. These farmers may
appear to practice a form of
agriculture that has little future in
a post-NAFTA world, but many
have continued to farm, by
developing their own coping
strategies. Some have created
small-scale organizations to solicit
government assistance or bargain
for greater market access. Others
have diversified into new crops
and income-earning activities as a
means of reducing economic

"The production and export of
dried maize husks to wrap
tamales have become an
important source of income for
many in Veracruz," says King,
pointing out that, in many
communities, husks are actually
more profitable than maize grain.
"Among other things, I hope my
study will provide ideas about the
kinds of domestic infrastructure
needed to protect social welfare,
as developing countries open
markets." For CIMMYT, one
lesson may be that breeders need
to follow closely the changes in
farmers' livelihood strategies and,
often, focus on traits other than
yield to offer products of
relevance to farmers.


;; ;i:"

;;' ;;~

;II;ii 1 I

Gene Flow: Farmnners

Keep Maize Thriving

and Changing

What role do farmers play in

the evolution of maize

diversity? To understand the

many factors that affect maize

diversity, researchers are

comhinin( knowledge of the

Outside a straw and mud-walled
house in rural Hidalgo, Mexico, with
chickens walking around and the
smell of the cooking fire wafting
through the air, CIMMYT researcher
Dagoberto Flores drew lines with a
stick in the red earth as he explained
to the woman farmer how maize
seed should be planted for an
experiment. Along with CIMMYT
researcher Alejandro Ramfrez, Flores
was distributing improved seed in
communities where they had
conducted surveys for a study on
gene flow.

the impact of farmers' practices on
gene flow and on the genetic structure
of landraces. Researchers documented
how practices differ across farming
systems, analyzed their determinants,
figured out to what extent farmers
control gene flow, and explored gene
flow's impacts on maize's fitness and
diversity and on farmers' livelihoods.

The farmers visited by Flores and
Ramirez in June near San Francisco
Huatzalingo and Tlacuapan Huautla,
Hidalgo, are from just two of 20 study
communities spanning ecologies from
Mexico's highlands down to the

-"--"------o ---"-~--~o~-

genetic behavior of pla

information on human

The movement of genes between lowlands. Six months e
populations, or gene flow, happens farmers were respondii
When individuals from different researchers' survey que
nts with
populations cross with each other, asked some questions
CIMMYT social scientist Mauricio such as: What does CI
Bellon led a study that aimed to find How can we get seed?
4 '

earlier, when
ng to
estions, they
)f their own,
/IMYT do?

Where fairing ik an uphill climb:
hillside maize and bean production
as practiced b\ subsistence fartner
in Me\ico and Central America is
difficult. gi\est relatielh lom
\ field and can often harin the
en\ ironinent. But -uch farmer
hate fet~ alternative e-.

Bringing Back

The team made it a priority to give
the farmers what they requested
for free. They drove around in a
pick-up truck with seed they had
acquired from CIMMYT scientists.
They brought black, white, and
yellow varieties that were native
to the area but to which had been
added weevil and drought
resistance. They also brought three
CIMMYT varieties that were well
adapted to a similar environment
in Morelos, Mexico. They
explained to the farmers how each
variety should be planted in
separate squares to facilitate pure
seed selection. "It's a way to thank
them, to bring something back to
the communities," says Bellon.
Bringing improved varieties for
experimentation to interested,
small-scale farmers also allows
researchers to get feedback in a
more systematic way.

Farmers in the survey area of rural
Hidalgo grow maize on the
poorest, most steeply sloping land
and struggle with soil diseases,
low soil fertility, leaf diseases, low
grain prices, and limited
information about the use of
chemical herbicides. Strong wind,
rain, and hurricanes damage
crops. Landslides cause erosion.

Some farms located far from the
communities have no highway
access. The paths to farmers' fields
can be so narrow that not even
cargo animals can maneuver on
them with loads, so farmers must
carry the harvest on their backs.
Some walk 10 kilometers up and
down slopes with heavy bags.

Maize Landraces not
Museum Pieces

Many people grew coffee around
Huatzalingo until about 10 years
ago, when the price plummeted.
One effect of the price drop has
been increased immigration to
Mexico City, to the city of Reynosa
near the US border, and to lowland
areas where orange cultivation is

Farmers have started diversifying
into alternative crops such as
vanilla, citrus fruits, bananas,
sugarcane, sesame, beans, chayote,
chili peppers, and lentils, but the
poor soils do not favor more
lucrative crops. Maize is still the
most important agricultural
product in people's diets, and
farmers grow it primarily for
family consumption.

In Mexico, maize has such great
genetic diversity because farmers'
practices encourage the further
evolution of maize landraces.

Maize was domesticated about 6,000
years ago within the current borders
of Mexico. Farmers created a variety
of races to fit different needs by
mixing different maize types, and
they still experiment to this day.
They save seed between seasons and
trade seed with each other, and the
wind carries pollen between different
cultivars to create new mixtures.
"Landraces are not artifacts in a
museum," Bellon says. "They are
changing, they are moving."

Gene Flow Study

By learning about the relationships
between farmers' practices and gene
flow, researchers hope to promote
more effective policies for conserving
diversity in farmers' fields, promote
improved varieties, and manage
"transgenes" -gene constructs
inserted into plants through genetic
engineering. The researchers will
develop models to try to predict how
a transgene would diffuse and
behave after being in a population
for 10 or 20 years. Funded by the
Rockefeller Foundation, the study
combines social science with genetics
to connect social and biological
factors in maize varieties. Molecular
markers will help show how much
gene flow has occurred over time
between the Mexican highlands and

Researchers used geographic
information systems to choose varied
environments for the survey. Starting
in October 2003, they sampled maize
populations and talked to the male
and female heads of 20 households
in each community for a total of 800
intensive interviews in 400

For more information:

Adding Value through Participation


In-novation and

Food Security in



In southeastern Turkey, farm communities and the

agricultural research system persevered through

years of civil conflict that ended only recently.

Despite difficulties, researchers and farmers in this

rural area achieved a great deal. Now they are ready

for the next big step. The Direct Aid Project, funded

by Australia through its embassy in Turkey, is

strengthening their efforts to communicate and

build relationships for continued innovation.

Moving to New
Farming Methods
Looking at the calm, green
sweep of wheat fields in
southeastern Turkey, an
outsider can easily forget that
nations and peoples have
sought to control this region
since antiquity, and that the
zone has only recently
emerged from a bitter ethnic
struggle that claimed many
lives. Among inhabitants,
there is a palpable sense that
it is time to get on with the
business of living, and the
government is channeling
resources to the area so they
can do just that.

More than ever, agricultural
innovation is needed to support
the region's food security and
economic and social goals. The
Direct Aid Project funded by the
Australian embassy is part of a
wider network of support for
local growth and development.
"The project reinforces
communication between the
Southeastern Anatolia
Agricultural Research Institute
(SAARI), CIMMYT, and local
farming communities," explains
Sevket Tekin, director of SAARI.
"It supports demonstrations and
research related to improved
planting practices-especially
bed planting and reduced
tillage-and new wheat
varieties for farmers."

Local farmers have diverse
needs, and need diverse options
to break the bonds imposed by
rainfed agriculture and short
growing seasons. Southeastern
Anatolia plays a critical role in
national food security-farmers
in its nine provinces plant about
1.2 million hectares of wheat-
but yields remain low, around 2
tons per hectare in rainfed areas.
Agriculture's common
denominator is a lack of water.
Rainfall comes to only 350-400
millimeters per year, barely
enough. Without irrigation,
farmers have little leeway to
diversify out of traditional
wheat-fallow systems.

Farmers in aanli-Urfa, turkey, near the border with Syria, want to diversity out of
wheat and cotton production, and are interested in growing other crops on beds,
especially maize and oilseeds. Their isolation from markets remains a barrier:
wheat is the traditional crop, easily sold to brokers in local towns.

The farmers themselves are an
assorted group. A few remain
the beneficiaries of an ancient
land tenure system and own
hundreds of hectares. Others,
particularly in the north, are
much poorer and have much
less land. Still others work the
land for the large landlords in
return for a third of the produce.
All have something to gain from
the fruits of agricultural
research, especially new
varieties and cropping practices.

Learning about Bed

One of the most important activities
of the Direct Aid Project is to
provide opportunities for
researchers to interact more closely
with farmers in their communities.
At a recent field day aroundSanli-
Urfa, near the border with Syria,
farmers were clear about what they
wanted: practices to raise yields,
save water, and diversify crop
production. Bed planting (see box
on the following page) can make it
easier to achieve both goals, and
farmers were curious to see and
discuss the field demonstration.

Their participation is crucial.
Bed planting is most successful
when researchers, farmers, and
local equipment manufacturers
communicate well.

Turkey was one of the first
countries to work with CIMMYT
on bed planting. Yiiksel Kabakci
from Sanli-Urfa attended a
course back in 1993 and has
collaborated closely with
CIMMYT researcher Ken Sayre
since then to learn about the
technology and explore its
potential. Kabakci and his
colleagues Hasan Kiliq Songil
Giirsoy and Ali Ilkhanall, trained
in Mexico, have been developing
bed planting and bed planting
machines for five to seven years
throughout southeastern
Anatolia. Turkish agronomists,
with Sayre as a resource person,
will offer a course on bed
planting later this year to 19
other researchers, half from
Turkey and half from Central
and West Asia. Seven researchers
from Central Asia are supported
by the Turkish International
Cooperation Administration
(TICA). The course is organized
and supported by the Turkish
General Directorate for
Agricultural Research and

All in Short Supply
Farmer Fethi Solan worries about the cost
and scarcity of irrigation water, and he
thinks that bed planting will help. "I didn't
think the difference with bed planting
would be so great," he says, "but I'm using
fewer inputs, especially less diesel, less
water and less labor, and I save money."
Ahmet Solhan, another farmer who tried
the practice for the first time this year,
claims that it reduced his use of irrigation
water by 30%. Both say that farming is
simply "easier" with bed planting. Both are
concerned about the shortage of bed
planting equipment. They are trying to get
support to purchase planters from the
farmers' union and a local machinery shop,
which has been supplying planters
throughout Turkey.

Farmers viewing another demonstration
further north, near Mermer, had a
somewhat different set of concerns that
serve to illustrate the versatility of bed
planting. Mermer's heavy clay soils drain
poorly and prevent wheat from making the
most of rainfall and residual moisture.
Farmers sow lots of seed because it usually
germinates poorly in the wet soil.
According to Kiliq, "At this site, bed
planting improves drainage, improves
yields, and might offer options for
including other crops in the rotation-rice,
for example-and reducing insect pests. The
cost savings are also there. We have found
that farmers can get the same yield from
half the amount of seed."

Assessing New Varieties
The farmers waiting to see the new varieties
in the field outside of Diyarbakir seem
serious and restrained, but they almost run
toward the wheat plots to see what the
researchers want to show them. Most
varieties are products of collaborative
breeding between Turkey and the
international wheat breeding system,
including Turkey CIMMYT, and ICARDA.
This field day is an opportunity for even
more people to learn about them.

Getting the Message
The messages to researchers about the field
visits were positive: farmers want more
interaction. "If we believe in the technology,
we can use it," said one farmer. "But we
need to see it first." Elizabeth Petrovic,
Third Secretary with the Australian
Embassy in Turkey, attended the field visits
to observe interactions fostered by the
Direct Aid Project. "We like this aid to be
tied to developmental projects that directly
benefit people," she comments. "This
project is appealing for several reasons: the
need is obviously great, farmers' interest is
high, and Turkey and Australia have a great
deal in common as wheat-growing nations.
It's also good to be able to work with an
organization like CIMMYT, that works
closely with Turkish organizations and has
a good idea of local needs."

For more information: j.nicol@cgiar.org



Farmers in

Tajikistan Seek

Self-Sufficiency in Wheat

In the aftermath of Tajikistan's civil war, people depended on

food aid to survive. The government has recently reached out to

international institutions for modern agricultural technologies.

The German Agency for Technical Cooperation and CIMMYT

have responded to this call with varieties and cropping methods

to improve household and national food security.

"Our wheat looks better than our
neighbors' crops, probably due to the
new wheat we planted," says farmer
Shodi Mirzobekov, who lives in the
town of Qurghonteppa in Tajikistan's
Vakhsh Valley. "Also, because of the
bed planting system we're trying, we
were able to use less seed and water at
planting." Mirzobekov, who works a
small collective farm with three other
farmers, planted wheat on raised soil
beds for the first time in 2004. He and
his peers are participating in a project
coordinated by the German Agency
for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and
CIMMYT. Among other things, the
project promotes new practices and
varieties that can raise national wheat
production in Tajikistan.


Back from Cotton
Per capital wheat consumption in
Tajikistan is normally among the
highest in the world. However,
setbacks in agricultural
production from the breakup of
the Soviet Union in 1991 were
aggravated in Tajikistan by a
lengthy civil war that ended in
1997. Drought, water shortages,
and a lack of agricultural
technology or inputs further
crippled Tajik farmers' ability to
produce enough wheat for the
impoverished population. Finally,
farmers were forced to grow
cotton during Soviet times, and
thus have had little access to more
recent, high yielding wheat
varieties or modern wheat-
growing techniques. Although
Tajikistan still imports about half
of its wheat, production has been
growing as a result of concerted
efforts to improve the situation.

Raised Beds, Lower
Costs, Higher Yields,
Better Quality
The project is focusing on local
seed production as a way of
making new, improved varieties
widely available in a country
whose wheat seed industry is
weak, and to provide farmers with
additional income. Participating
farmers have produced some 250
tons of wheat seed so far. In 2003,
they sowed 200 hectares with
improved varieties to produce
seed for promotional activities.

Planting on raised beds saves
significant amounts of water, fuel,
and seed, all of which lower
production costs for farmers.

But beds are also ideal for seed found yellow and leaf rusts to be
production: they facilitate the most damaging diseases, while
weeding, allow farmers to cereal leaf beetles and aphids are
maintain individual varieties the most common and harmful
separate, and generally enhance pests. In 2003, project funds
the quality of the seed. The seed helped purchase equipment to
Mirzobekov harvests from his start a small pathology lab. Pett
beds will be distributed to other and other partners have started on
farmers. Mirzobekov expects extension work that involves
yields of at least three tons per producing and distributing
hectare-one ton more than his posters and teaching farmers,
neighbors-mainly due to the use specialists, and agronomists about
of beds and a new variety from the their findings.
project. The variety is both higher
yielding and resistant to yellow Sharing Helps
rust, a disease that cuts local
farmers' wheat yields most years. Sitting on a rug and wearing a
green and white embroidered cap,
Targeting Pathogens Mirzobekov breaks flat Tandyr
bread to share with his guests. On
and Pests the wall hangs a wedding photo of
In addition to their role in the his son in a black suit and tie and
project, CIMMYT researcher Hafiz his daughter-in-law in a white
Muminjanov, who heads the dress holding red flowers. The
center's office in Tajikistan, and couple lives in Russia and sends
partners have helped more than the Mirzobekov family money, a
200 farmers to test improved common practice and principal
varieties, mainly from the Turkey- source of income in this region.
CIMMYT-ICARDA International "In 1992, if you asked someone to
Winter Wheat Improvement come to this village, they would
Program. The project has provided say 'no,' he says, recalling
farmers access to bed planting memories of people fleeing to
implements, which they will keep Dushanbe or the nearby
when the project ends. Afghanistan border when the civil
Participants have also organized war broke out. Today Mirzobekov
certain farmers into mobile groups and Tajikistan look forward to a
that visit fields and make planters, better future, thanks to their
harvesters, and threshers efforts and openness and with the
available, as needed. aid of international partnerships
such as those described here.
Since 2002, project researchers
have focused on identifying and For more information:
monitoring regionally important a.morgounov@cgia r.org
wheat pests and diseases to
improve crop resistance. Plant
pathologist B, nid P tt I .-t TZ ha-

~L r~Eu


C"~i )~ *

A company in Shandong Province helps farmers to profit by growing

high-quality wheat for noodles and steamed bread in southern China.

CIMMYT partnerships and training contribute to new varieties and

cropping practices that enhance quality and conserve water.

+ +
,2+ +
~~ +i

It was round, white, steaming
hot, and smelled like a dumpling,
but spicier. One bite revealed
why-inside were bits of meat
and vegetables cooked with
herbs. "People here in Shandong
Province are fond of these 'jiao
zi,' says Wang Fahong, Director
of the Wheat Management
Program, Shandong Academy of
Agricultural Sciences. Other
diners were using chop sticks to
lift noodles from bowls of
chicken broth. "Wheat products
like jiao zi or noodles are also
popular in Guangdong Province
in the South, but people there
grow only rice," Wang says.

In fact, wheat area and
production are falling off
throughout China, due partly to
poor grain quality, water and
fertilizer costs, and competing
uses for land. Conversely,
demand for wheat is climbing
with rising incomes and
population. The government has
created special subsidies and cut
agricultural taxes to boost wheat
production. In early 2004, the
Chinese Ministry of Agriculture
named Wang chief promoter for
wheat productivity in Shandong.
Among the many ways he
approaches his duty is serving as
technical advisor to the Laizhou
Grain Company. It was once part
of the Laizhou County Grain
Bureau, during the days of the
planned economy. Now the
company profits in the more
market-oriented system by
contracting and supporting a
large cadre of Shandong wheat
farmers and exporting the grain
to southern China.

Helping Farmers to Full Grains and
Market Flowing Water

Wang explained that Shandong's
warm climate and Yellow River
flood plains allow farmers to
grow as much as 22 million tons
of wheat on 4 million hectares
each year, along with peanuts,
maize, soybean, sweet potato, and
regionally prized fruits and
vegetables. But with the
disappearance of large communal
farms, many producers are
struggling to make a living off the
land. "One problem is that
farmers are very small-scale-the
average landholding across China
is only 0.7 hectares per family,"
says Wang. "They need help

Organization is second nature to
Yang Congshun, Deputy Director
of the Laizhou Grain Company.
Nearby, a whirring conveyer was
pouring a steady stream of wheat
grain into the open hold of a
docked ship. Once the hold was
filled, the grain would undertake
a 1,800 kilometer trip along the
Pacific coast to flour mills in
Guangdong. The cargo
represented a small part of the
output from more than 10,000
Shandong farmers who produce
high quality grain for the
company. "Normal wheat grain
sells for 1.6 yuan," says Yang,
"but superior quality grain goes
for 1.8 yuan. We provide farmers
with credit for seed of the
highest-yielding, best quality
wheat varieties, and give them
training and other technical
support. Finally, we buy their
wheat at better than market

One practice Wang and the Laizhou
Grain Company are assessing with
farmers is growing wheat on raised
soil beds. In 2003, the company
bought 10 bed shaping/sowing
implements and gave them to
farmers for testing. "Bed planting
increases wheat yields and grain
quality," says Wang. "The grain is
more densely filled, probably
because the leaves live and
photosynthesize longer. And the
humidity in plant canopies is lower
than on conventional plots, so
fungal diseases are reduced. Finally,
fertilization is more effective, so the
developing grain gets more nitrogen
to make protein."

Largely through Wang's efforts, bed
planting is being tested by farmers
on 20,000 hectares in 30 counties of
Shandong. He first heard of the
practice in 1997, while translating
for two CIMMYT scientists visiting
the region. He took a course in
Mexico the same year with Dr. Ken
Sayre, CIMMYT wheat agronomist
and promoter of bed planting.
Afterwards he returned to
Shandong to champion the
approach, initially for its dramatic
water savings. "In the midst of
Shandong's productivity, a water
crisis is unfolding," explains Wang.
"Agriculture accounts for about 70%
of water use in Shandong, so saving
water on farm is a priority." Because
the furrows around beds channel
water more efficiently than a flat
field, as little as half the water is
required per irrigation.

Farmer Zhai Yongliang,
of Chijia Village,
Shandong Province,
said that in the
traditionally-sown field
to his left, many plants
had fallen before winds
and rain. He had
seeded the straight-
standing plants to his
right on raised soil
beds, illustrating
another of that
practice's assorted

To farmers like Zhai Yongliang, of Chijia
Village, the water crisis is still more a
concept than a constraint. But Zhai and
his peers can readily recognize savings in
diesel for pumping and in time spent
managing irrigation. He stood in a field
of wheat he had sowed last October with
a bed planting implement from Wang,
and spoke of savings of more 25% in
production costs. "I would like to use the
money to plant a cash crop," says Zhai.

Decades of Strong

Chinese and CIMMYT wheat researchers
have carried on joint research since the
early 1970s, helping both parties to
develop varieties with enhanced disease
resistance and higher yields, among
other traits. CIMMYT has contributed
particularly to the quality of Chinese

wheats. Leading varieties such as
Jinan 17 and Jinmai 19, which between
them are sown on more than 1 million
hectares in China each year, were
improved for grain quality during
their development through cross-
breeding with CIMMYT wheats. The
breeder who developed them, Liu
Jianjun, attended CIMMYT training
courses and did his MSc thesis on
noodle quality under the supervision
of He Zhonghu, a CIMMYT breeder,
and Roberto J. Pefia, head of industrial
quality at the center. Over the years,
CIMMYT and China have jointly
organized more than 10 training
courses, workshops, and conferences
involving at least 1,000 Chinese

Continuing in this tradition, CIMMYT
and China held their first joint wheat
quality conference in Beijing in May
2004. Drawing more than 150
participants from 20 countries, the
conference focused on progress in
China's wheat quality research, the
quality needs of the milling industry
and consumers, and international
collaboration. "The US, Australia,
Canada, and the EU see Asia as a good
market for their wheat," says Pefia.
"Asian foods such as noodles are
becoming more popular in the West,
while traditional western wheat-based
foods have been gaining popularity in
Asia." The conference was sponsored
by the Ministry of Science and
Technology, the Ministry of
Agriculture, the National Nature
Science Foundation of China, the
Grains Research and Development
Corporation, and Japan International
Cooperation Agency.

For more information: z.he@cgiar.org

Bangladesh: Innovative,

Low-cost Farm Implements

Save Assets, Spply Jobs

New, resource-conserving farm tools developed and

promoted by CIMMYT and national researchers are

raising wheat yields and household incomes in one of

the world's most densely populated, intensively farmed

settings-a country whose number-one staple is rice,

but where as much as 4 million tons of wheat grain are

milled each year to make chapatis and breads.

Concentrated Cropping
Agriculture in Bangladesh is intensive
and, within the last decade, mechanized:
8 of 10 farmers use two-wheel tractors,
which are more apt for their small and
scattered land holdings than the four-
wheel variety. Farmers rotovate the soil
before sowing wheat and rice and, in the
case of wheat, afterwards to cover seed
and fertilizer cast by hand onto plots. For
both crops, traditional tillage and sowing
practices are fuel intensive and
backbreaking. Worse yet, much of the
wheat is sown late after rice harvest,
which means maturing grain gets caught
in the sweltering heat before monsoon
season. "Largely because of this, wheat
yields average only 2.3 tons per hectare,
nearly 2 tons less than the crop's potential

in this setting," says Enamul Haque, a
CIMMYT research associate who
coordinates center efforts on small-scale
mechanization in Bangladesh. "At that level
of output we cannot meet domestic demand,
and often import up to half our wheat."

Test-driving Non-
traditional Tillers
Since 1995, Haque has worked with the
Bangladesh Wheat Research Center (WRC)
and local organizations to promote a varied
set of implements for reduced, more efficient
tillage and seeding. After several false starts,
Haque and his team have hit upon an
extension approach that is beginning to bear
fruit. "We 'loan' farmers a two-wheel tractor
and implements with a fifty percent down
payment and provide lots of training; if they

"People are coming to me for
quality work," says Anwar
Hossain, a former day laborer
from Boiltor Village who now
repairs power tillers, sells spare
parts, and plans to make his
shop a distributorship for the
farm implements CIMMYT and
partners are promoting.

like the equipment, the farmers
keep it and pay us back," Haque
says. More than 2,000 farmers on
over 800 hectares have adopted a
small tractor-driven tool that tills,
seeds, and covers the seed in a
single pass. In addition to
incorporating residue from the
preceding crop, the implement
reduces turnaround time between
crops from two weeks to a single
day. "At first farmers were afraid,
because they couldn't see the seed
on top of the soil," Haque says.
"But crop stands were better, the
plants grew in a straight line,
farmers saved on seed, and they
didn't have to hire workers to scare
off birds. Most of all, wheat yields
increased 15% and production costs
dropped. Now everyone wants
their fields planted this way."

Haque's group also promotes
harvesting and threshing
equipment, and more recently a
moldboard plow and a potato
planter, all for use with two-wheel
tractors. "We originally targeted
wheat, but farmers wanted
something more for their
investment," Haque says. "USAID
has funded a loan and training
program, and we are helping
farmers use the implements for a
range of crops-mungbean, black
gram, jute, mustard, chickpea, and
chili, among others. We're working
to improve implement designs, and
hold two meetings a year with
agricultural engineers, machinery
owners and operators, machine

shop producers, and farmers."
Inspired by the success of this
work, FAO and the Wheat
Research Center (WRC) have
launched similar efforts.

Inspiration and

Another leader in the local farm
machinery movement is Israel
Hossain, WRC senior scientific
officer in agricultural
engineering. Hossain trained with
CIMMYT agronomist and
machinery specialist, Ken Sayre,
in 2003, and returned to
Bangladesh bursting with ideas
and energy. "I have a background
in machinery, but training with
Ken opened me to new concepts
in extension and agronomy."
Hossain links closely with
CIMMYT adjunct scientist, Scott
Justice, a farm machinery expert
doing similar work in Nepal.
"Scott collaborates on machinery
for conservation agriculture, and
has visited Bangladesh several
times." Hossain's great love,
though, is working with farmers
and small-scale manufacturers
and, particularly, designing
useful implements for them.

Fewer Field Hands
and Farther Between

Hossain says the time is ripe for farm
machinery that saves diesel, time, and
especially labor. "Bangladesh is well
populated but, ironically, farm labor
is in short supply," he says. "People
are getting educated and looking for
higher-paying, off-farm jobs. At peak
season, wages for field hands
quadruple, and even then you can't
find workers."

In principle this is good, according to
Haque, who recalls that one aim of
CIMMYT efforts is to expand
livelihood options for rural
inhabitants. A prime example is the
case of Anwar Hossain (no relation)
of Boiltor Village in northwest
Bangladesh. Originally a day laborer
and clerk at the Grameen Bank, he
has parlayed the loan of a single-pass
seeder from the CIMMYT program in
2000 into a USD 120 per month
machine shop business. He recently
moved his family from their first
mud-daub and tin-roof home to a
multi-room brick house built with his
earnings. "I've been successful
beyond my dreams," Anwar Hossain
says. "I know machinery-when I fix
something, it stays fixed."

For more information:

Innovation in the

Eastern Indo-Gangetic

Plains: Calling at the

Door of the Poor

The success of zero-tillage in northern India has

opened the way for other resource-conserving

innovations, such as permanent beds for rice, wheat,

and diverse other crops. Among the most active

innovators are small-scale farmers in eastern Uttar

Pradesh, many of whom missed out on the

prosperity the Green Revolution brought to peers

further west.

His neighbors laughed when
Vishnu Kumar Ojha, of Misraulia
Village, in eastern Uttar Pradesh,
began trying the new practices.
"They said I'd destroy my crop,"
he explains. Ojha has been using
zero-tillage and production on
raised soil beds since 2001. Now he
has acquired so much knowledge
and confidence that neighbors and
more distant farmers hire him for
advice. With money saved from the
new practices, from growing cash
crops, and from consulting, he has
purchased several household
appliances and is sending his

children to a better school.
Noteworthy is that Ojha
accomplished all of this by working
less than two hectares of non-
contiguous land (four plots at
different locations), and without
owning a tractor (he pays a neighbor
for work that requires one).

"For a small farmer, zero-tillage has
immediate advantages," Ojha
explains, "but those who seek long-
term stability should go for bed
planting. It saves water and allows
diversification." Hard work,
intelligence, and risk-taking have

Vishnu Kumar Ojha, of
Misraulia Village, eastern
Uttar Pradesh, outlines
plans to intercrop maize and
rice on raised soil beds. His
rice yields using zero-tillage
on permanent beds have
been as high as five tons per
hectare and his wheat yields
as high as six tons.

brought Ojha good fortune, but he
also credits support from the
multidisciplinary research team of
U.P. Singh, a principal investigator at
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi,
India, and member of the Rice-Wheat
Consortium (RWC) for the Indo-
Gangetic Plains (see box). "Many
organizations work in agriculture,"
says Ojha, "but only the RWC team
has been active and responsive to the
concerns of farmers."

Sowing Innovation
from Village to Village
"I began as a rice agronomist," says
Singh, "but working in the
Consortium, my mind was opened to
the entire rice-wheat cropping
system." Singh heads a
multidisciplinary team at the
University that offers local farmers-
mainly smallholders-a range of
more productive, resource-conserving
options. They also help farmers to
choose and test the most relevant,
then provide backstopping to solve
problems or follow up on ideas that
farmers propose. Zero-tillage for
sowing wheat after rice is their calling
card. "Between Varanasi and Ballia,
we are establishing sites every 30
kilometers," he says. "Farmers are
always wary and unbelieving at first,
and ask 'Without tilling, how can a
crop grow?' Once the innovations
catch on in a village, the researchers
go to another location and repeat the
process. In addition to promoting
improved agronomic practices, Singh
hands out seed of new crop varieties
on credit. "I loan farmers a bag on the
condition they pay me back with
two," he says. "I then pass the extra
seed to more farmers-a cost-effective
way to reach many who would
otherwise have little access to
improved varieties."


Out with the Old Seed
Another BHU colleagues .-A l!l k.
Joshi, and his team ha\L :,il-. hiad
success spreading nei, p'l itic.e aind
helping small-scale fai l m.i t tI c t
and adopt new and bettc-l iW hL-at
varieties. "Nearly foul million
hectares in the northeai 'te- 1 plain l~ I
India were sown to HL \\ 21-4 n I'l ""
says Joshi. "The lack or dil\- l .it\
opens the crop to the tlicI It ,It nl.-
virulent pathogen stra in .. 1'I -,.
credits CIMMYT wheat L IL--dL-
Guillermo Ortiz-Ferra i i itli tlhe idLd.-
of farmer varietal testing;. \\L- *-i\
the interested farmers 1'- 2~1 kil.a 'a4i mn
of seed of their favori.c- .-'LctiO il
and through farmer-to-tl:i nmu
exchanges the seed quiiklk\ i-atilic.
others in the village." I1h111i aind 1hi.
team have been promotion; z '-
tillage since 1997, when z.ii'-tilla;c
planters were given to .111 inl titLitioil
by the Directorate of \ \ ll t Ik -a .cl 11
of the Indian Council oIt .-\ Citt ltii al
Research, Karnal. Then ii C-- l. ha
encouraged others to pi ni 'tc
resource-conserving pi at it ic L' inl
eastern Uttar Pradesh. A-\cic'idin';l t
Joshi, "Zero-tillage ha P i La d tIo
45,000 hectares in 12 d i ti it ..

\isiling tamil\ farni. in
Punjab thii imonlh, Ll',
Anibas.adoi to India Di.
Da\ id C. Mulford learned
hon cnn. len all lln
agliiulluie bLenefil
fainirelt and the local
economy Fai rel; in
runiab gin\\ an inci easing
di\eisil of cniii '.



Rice-Wheat Consortium Update

The RKic \\hlWcat Cli-lrtiuim it r tlhe IlndI -
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hundrlLd mill_..n p14piL'

Adoption Io zero-
tillage in liectare;- bi
tarmers in the Indo-
Gangetic PlainsI.lqi-
2004, based on R\VC
estimate;, using
surne s, of zero-
tillage planter sales
and other data.

r-9 I I I I
199697 9798 9899 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04

RWC Support

Ov11 tdl t e r. L' n 'l so irtilm l!'11 t gtencrtl
pait ner. ha.s uippo[rted the R\\
inclUding. the htillti ining.

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p:irtiClp:atinl.g Ot'Luiiti-l hal : il-i' pii'\ idkd
hiundliln. ind i'-nihicant inn-kind l uppOl't
ht'I RIX\\ C actititL-- and iinuinatitonil
centers like tl\I\h T and IRRI ihaive
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elistiie that %x ''rk g:L'es t'ri aird.

For more information:
r.gu ptat"cgianr.org

S- New Soil Fertility

rf Consortium: Can Southern

VAfrican Famners Feed

Families from Depleted

Soi s.?

This multi-partner, multi-donor effort

signals the renewed intent of both

regional and external experts to address

the low fertility status of southern Africa's

soils, which on a daily basis surpasses

drought in keeping smallholder farmers in

poverty and harvests of hunger.

The Soil Fertility Consortium for Southern
Africa was launched in 2004 with a series of
planning events geared to attract new
partners, prioritize activities, and develop
proposals for action in 2005. The
Consortium builds on the efforts of the Soil
Fertility Management and Policy Network
for Maize-based Farming Systems in
Southern Africa (Soil Fert Net), which for
nine years led the way in developing and
promoting farmer access to better practices
for managing poor soils.

Poor Soils: Harvesting
The region's old, depleted topsoils and the
high cost of fertilizer combine to create
what CIMMYT agronomist and former Soil
Fert Net coordinator, Steve Waddington,
calls "the most widespread biophysical
constraint to crop productivity and food
security in the region." With funding from
the Rockefeller Foundation, the network
developed recommendations on the use of
mineral fertilizer, soil enriching plants and
crop rotations, and intercropping schemes,
to name a few. Soil Fert Net certainly had its
strengths, says CIMMYT economist
Mulugetta Mekuria, but it also had some
weaknesses. "We had plenty of
achievements on the research side, but less
impact at the crop system level," he
observes. "In addition, Soil Fert Net often
lacked the collective muscle to maximize
donor support or scale-up activities."


Filling the Gaps in
Soil Fertility

Mekuria says the new Consortium
will identify gaps in research,
prioritize needs, and focus on
making field-level impacts. The
Consortium will also help
coordinate donor support for soil
fertility research and direct
resources at specific problems.
Themes identified during initial
planning meetings include the

* Characterization of soil fertility
* Identification of target farming
systems and farmer groups.
* Research on soil fertility
* Technology adaptation and
integration into farming systems.
* Scaling up, scaling out and
strengthening linkages with
* Fertilizer market development.
* Regional capacity building in soil
fertility management and policy.

Management and national
stakeholder meetings have already
been held, and a workshop on
geographic information systems and
regional stakeholders meeting is
planned for late 2004.

Partnerships Pool

The Consortium, which has strong
support from the Rockefeller
Foundation, comprises the national
agricultural research systems of
Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and


Zimbabwe; CIMMYT, ICRISAT, the
World Agroforestry Center, and
CIAT; several soil fertility research
and development institutions;
universities; farmer associations;
non-governmental organizations;
and private fertilizer producers and

"The Consortium creates a pool of
expertise to draw on in various
ways and provides access to
information and resources," says
Paul Mapfumo, a lecturer in soil
science at the University of
Zimbabwe and member of the
Consortium's interim coordinating
unit. As an example, Mapfumo says
his graduate students would be
eager to tackle Consortium work as
part of their studies, and useful
findings could be tested and
promoted through farmer field
schools run by the University. "In
addition, once students move ahead
in their soil science and agronomic
studies, there is clout to mount more
advanced courses, which in turn
supports other agriculture programs
and strengthens the University,"
according to Mapfumo. "This
provides wider scope and greater
credibility when writing grants,
especially under the auspices of the

Moses Mwale, Chief Agricultural
Research Officer of the Soils and
Water Research Branch of the
Zambia Agricultural Research
Institute (ZARI), echoes those
thoughts. "The Consortium will
provide a platform that offers
synergies and complementarities
that partners can easily tap into. Its
approach will promote better
connections among soil fertility
management specialists at the local,
national, and regional levels, who
would get much-needed technical
backstopping from the international
centers and advanced research

For further information:


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When Farmers

Become Patrons of


p3 "lillrl.lhip lh;l c ll ln lai 1ucl. ill

northern Mexico and CIMMYT

has benefited producers

throughout the developing

world. The farmers in the

association are turning once

again to science to help them

face current challenges.

L iikin. ILi e a!n enormous, ungainly
blld pi-adin.4 its huge wings to
dita n~w.1 -pl i!nkler irrigation
dI-\ icl- it- ,o the edge of an
L\pLI -11!ntal 'i heat field in
CIMM\ T & iveearch station in the
Yaqui Valley, Sonora, northwestern
Mexico. The highly visible
contraption is one of two recent
donations to CIMMYT supported
mainly by a group of private
farmers, the Agricultural Research
and Experimentation Board of the
State of Sonora (Patronato for
short), in conjunction with state and
federal governments. The other
donated equipment is a drip
irrigation system that lies mostly
underground. Together, these
systems will avoid water wastage
and give scientists precision control
over the amount of water applied,
helping to simulate varying degrees
of drought and develop drought-
tolerant wheat varieties.

Patrons and
Patronato, the driving force behind
the donation, was responding to
what is likely the toughest challenge
Valley farmers have ever faced.
Eight years of unrelenting drought
have dried up regional dams,
drastically reducing the supply of
irrigation water and causing a deep
economic recession. In this desert
environment, farming depends
upon irrigation, and lack of water
means that very little land is
currently being cropped.
Unemployment is high in the Valley.

True to its history Patronato's
reaction-donating minimum
irrigation equipment to facilitate
research-reveals a visionary
strategy. Says one of Patronato's
co-chairmen, Jorge Castro
Campoy, "We are convinced that
research will provide the long-

Pedro Bracich, Patronato's general manager and CIMMYT field superintendent
Rodrigo Rasc6n, will use a new irrigation system from the Patronato to improve
water use efficiency on the 200 hectares of land occupied by CIMMYT's experiment
station in the Yaqui Valley.

term solution to our problem." In
fact, CIMMYT is working in
northern Mexico and locations
worldwide to test new wheats that
produce up to 30% more grain
under tough, dryland conditions
than other high-yielding varieties
for semi-arid environments.

As with all Patronato's
contributions to CIMMYT, Valley
farmers will be among the
immediate beneficiaries of the
research, but by no means the only
ones. Ultimately, a far greater
number-perhaps millions-of
people all over the world will reap
the fruits of Patronato's investment.
"Many people here are not aware of
what Patronato's contributions
have meant for poor wheat
producers the world over, but in
other countries they give us credit,"
says Castro. He and a group of
fellow farmers recently traveled to
Spain, where they heard
appreciative comments about
Patronato's contributions.

Patronato and

Patronato descends directly from a
group of farmers who, having
personally experienced the benefits
of agricultural research, began
supporting Dr. Norman E. Borlaug's
pioneering wheat improvement
efforts in the 1940s (see box on the
following page). "When Borlaug
arrived, Valley farmers were
struggling to survive because their
wheat varieties regularly succumbed
to stem rust, a pernicious wheat
disease," says Ivan Ortiz-
Monasterio, a CIMMYT researcher
based in the Valley. "After they
began sowing Borlaug's rust
resistant wheats, they doubled their
harvests and became firm believers
in agricultural research."

To ensure that research activities in
the Valley would continue, in 1955
the farmers, with government help,
bought land and made it available
to the Ministry of Agriculture for
an experiment station (called
CIANO, Northwestern
Agricultural Research Center)
where research would be
conducted in collaboration with
Borlaug and his colleagues. Thus
began a mutually beneficial
relationship between Yaqui Valley
wheat producers and Borlaug's
team of scientists. Over time, the
former evolved into Patronato and
the latter became CIMMYT.

Extraordinarily fruitful not only for
Patronato and CIMMYT but for
much of the world, the relationship
continues to this day. Starting in
the 1960s, when the semidwarf
wheat varieties developed by
Borlaug and his colleagues in
Mexico kept millions from starving
to death in India and Pakistan,
CIMMYT varieties and other wheat
technologies have made a big
difference in the lives of many.
Endowed with many useful traits
(disease resistance, wide
adaptation, heat and drought

tolerance, among others), the
modern varieties have helped raise
yields and produced enough food
to feed millions of people in the
developing world.

Farmer Donations
Underpin Patrenato
The modern incarnation of
Patronato has expanded to include
all farmers, large and small, in
Sonora, its home state. Patronato
supports research activities on
wheat, maize, and a range of other
crops all over Sonora. Its main
purpose is strengthening the
development of modern
agricultural technologies that will
enable producers to raise their
yields sustainably. Besides
collaborating with CIMMYT,
Patronato partners with CIANO,
INIFAP (Mexico's national
agricultural research program),
and others to achieve its aims.

As in the beginning, Patronato's
main source of funding is still
producers' voluntary donations
based on their crop production per
hectare, though state and federal
institutions also contribute.
Unprecedented in the developing
world, Patronato farmers have
willingly made direct monetary and
other contributions to research for
at least 50 years. Their enduring
faith in science has been rewarded
many times over, and will no doubt
continue to produce useful results
for themselves and their
counterparts worldwide.



Norman Borlaug: 60 Years Fighting Famine

and Poverty, and Going Strong

When a young wheat researcher
named Norman Borlaug arrived in the
Yaqui Valley, northwestern Mexico, in
1945, the research station there was
sadly dilapidated. Its condition
reflected the sorry state of wheat
farms in the Valley, devastated each
year by stem rust. Undeterred,
Borlaug literally used his own two
hands to set up experimental wheat
plots. This was part of his research for
a joint initiative between the Mexican
Ministry of Agriculture and the
Rockefeller Foundation aimed at
raising Mexico's production of basic
food crops, wheat and maize included.
His efforts were watched by
surrounding farmers, who at first
deeply distrusted him. But they had a
change of heart the year stem rust
razed the Valley's wheat fields-all,
that is, except Borlaug's experimental
plots. Soon local farmers were
growing his rust resistant wheats and
doubling their harvests.

Not satisfied, Borlaug continued
working on a wheat plant which,
besides resisting rust, would produce
much higher yields. He transferred
dwarfing genes from the Japanese
wheat Norin 10 to his test materials.
The resulting varieties had short,
sturdy stems that held up under the
weight of the extra grain they
produced. In 1962, Mexico released
the first semidwarf wheats. A few
years later those varieties were
adopted in South Asia and allowed
inhabitants to go from near starvation
to surplus in a couple seasons. This
was the start of the so-called "Green
Revolution"-a rapid and
widespread transformation from
traditional to more science-based
farming. In 1970 Borlaug received the
Nobel Peace Prize, partly for the
1illi ir- f li. -.- saved by the
N 1._. i -bz', heats.

A Long-lived and
Productive Legacy
In the 1960s the Mexico/Rockefeller
Foundation collaborative project
evolved into two research
organizations: INIA (later INIFAP),
Mexico's national agricultural
research institute; and CIMMYT, an
organization founded to combat
poverty by increasing the
productivity, profitability, and
sustainability of maize and wheat
farming in developing countries.

Borlaug's philosophy and
approaches became a big part of
CIMMYT, embodied in effective
practices such as "shuttle breeding."
Borlaug and his colleagues had
developed semidwarfs quickly by
running two breeding cycles per year

instead of one: a winter cycle in the
northern desert of Sonora and a summer
crop in the central Mexican highlands.
This not only fast-forwarded selection,
but also exposed test varieties to
radically different day lengths,
temperatures, altitudes, and diseases.
The resulting plants were broadly
adapted; that is, they grew well in
numerous environments. Shuttle
breeding continues today within Mexico
and between CIMMYT and partners in
places like China. Hands-on, field based
training, and CIMMYT's international
testing systems for maize and wheat are
other Borlaug legacies.

Still very active, Dr. Borlaug turned 90 in
2004. He has remained an indefatigable
promoter of agricultural research to help
the poor in the developing world, a
commitment that we are proud to share.

CIMMYT Director General Masa Iwanaga, Norman Borlaug, and US Secretary of
Agriculture Ann Veneman at a ceremony in Washington, DC, in honor of Borlaug's
90th birthday. The more than 200 guests included FAO Director General Jacques
Diouf, USAID Administrator Andrew Natsios, World Bank Vice President and
CGIAR Chair Ian Johnson, and US Secretary of State Colin Powell, who spoke in
tribute to Borlaug. Veneman also announced the Norman E. Borlaug Agricultural
Science and Technology Fellows Program inaugurated by the United States
Department of Agriculture.

Slow Rusting: A Long-

Lasting Example of

Applied Science

For more than 30 years, CIMMYT has

worked on controlling wheat rust

diseases by way of genetic resistance in

the crop. As a result, millions of

farmers in developing countries have

obtained safe and abundant harvests

from rust resistant wheats without

applying fungicides. The center has

focused on "slow rusting"-non-race-

specific resistance that provides long-

It is not easy to imagine 5 billion
dollars-laid end to end, that number
of individual dollar bills would stretch
around the earth's equator more than
19 times. Yet this is the economic value
that a recent study1 attributed to the
rust resistance in CIMMYT's high-
yielding, spring bread wheat cultivars
sown in developing countries. Spring
bread wheat covers about two-thirds
of the developing world's wheat area,
and almost 80% of that area was sown
to CIMMYT-related semidwarf
varieties in 1997-150 varieties on
over 15 million hectares. Leaf rust
caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina
is the most widespread rust in the
world and ruins wheat harvests in
many regions. But farmers who have
grown the CIMMYT-derived, resistant
wheats since the early 1970s have
saved 5.36 billion 1990 dollars in losses
to leaf rust, according to the study.
And to this one could add an impact
more difficult to tabulate but of great
significance: the economic, health, and
environmental benefits from applying
far less fungicide on wheat crops in
the developing world.

term effectiveness.

1 Marasas, C.N., M. Smale, and R.P. Singh. 2004. The Economic Impact in Developing
Countries of Leaf Rust Resistance F ,cdini in CIMMYT-Related Spring Bread Wheat.
Economics Program Paper 04-01. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.

Partnerships and

"The study also suggests
incredible returns on CIMMYT's
investment in wheat improvement
research," says Ravi P. Singh,
CIMMYT wheat pathologist and
leader of the center's research on
rust. "That may be true, but
CIMMYT investments leverage
global partnerships with national
research programs, advanced
research institutes, and civil
society organizations, to name a
few. In the case of leaf rust, for
example, our partners have
provided sources of genetic
resistance and helped to study
that resistance, to develop and test
resistant varieties, and to ensure
those varieties reach farmers."
Still, there is no denying
CIMMYT's leadership in
successfully applying the concept
of multi-gene resistance in wheat
for the developing world.



In the genetic arms race between
resistant crop varieties and
evolving pathogens, the fungi
normally have the upper hand.
"The pathogens are far more
numerous and genetically
diverse," Singh explains. "They
also go through several
generations each crop cycle. In a
few years, mutations can appear
that allow a fungus to overcome
crop resistance based on a single
gene, particularly genes that act to
block pathogen development

Scientific circles in the mid-1900s
postulated a more durable type of
resistance-one based on multiple
genes with smaller effects that
would not so directly challenge the
pathogen. On the instruction of
former CIMMYT bread wheat
breeder, Sanjaya Rajaram, in the
early 1970s Singh began working
with CIMMYT breeders and
partners to identify and genetically
characterize sources for such
resistance among wheat collections
worldwide. The task was arduous
without the benefit of current DNA
technologies, but the CIMMYT
team was soon developing high-
yielding and highly resistant
wheats with combinations of four
or five minor genes. "We used
genes that had additive effects,"
says Singh. "When we grew the
experimental varieties under
heavy, artificial rust inoculations,
the rust developed on the crop,
but so slowly that it had little or
no effect on yield." The slow-
rusting wheats have since spread
widely on developing country
croplands, providing long-lasting
relief to farmers.

Continuing the

Singh and partners are now using
biotechnology tools to understand
and broaden wheat's defenses
against leaf rust. One example is
joint work to identify DNA
markers linked to several known
rust resistance genes and to map
slow-rusting genes in the wheat
genome. CIMMYT also
established and is coordinating
the "Network for Global
Monitoring of Rust Pathogens,"
which operates in Asia, Africa,
and Latin America and links with
advanced institutions in Australia,
the USA, and Europe.

Singh is also leading efforts to
replace more than 60% of the rust-
prone spring wheats in
developing countries with
durable, rust-resistant cultivars by
2010. National programs have
released six cultivars so far and
are testing others. "This is the
largest targeted application of
knowledge of durable resistance
in any crop," Singh says.

For more information:


1--- :1



I~'V i

Adding Value through Research
on Public Goods


- J^"^

~t I


Rapid Progress in

Winter Wheat Breeding

Has Large Impact

Thanks to an innovative program

based in Turkey, the impact of

research to develop better winter

wheat varieties for developing

countries has risen dramatically

in recent years.

The Penalties of Harsh
Winters and Short Growing
Some of the world's most disadvantaged people
live in relatively inaccessible areas in Central
and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA),
where winter and facultative wheats supply
food and income for the household (see box on
the following page). Rainfall for growing crops
is scarce-less than 350 mm per year-and grain
yields are low, frequently less than 1.3 tons per
hectare. Winters are long and cold. The short
growing season provides few or no options for
producing multiple crops, so wheat-fallow
rotations are still widely practiced. The hilly,
stony landscape makes it difficult as well as
costly to mechanize or irrigate. Infrastructure is
poor in winter wheat areas, which are the least
developed in the region. People have limited
contact with anyone who can provide new seed
or information.

Yet wheat is the paramount crop for these
people, and their need for new seed and
information is acute. Compared to spring wheat,
the investment in breeding improved winter
wheat varieties in developing countries has been
much smaller and occurred more recently. Not
surprisingly average yields of rainfed winter
wheat in these countries (1.3 tons per hectare)
have grown less rapidly than yields of spring
wheats (averaging 2.5 tons per hectare). Winter
wheats bred in other parts of the world are often
of little use in CWANA because they succumb to
yellow rust disease. The few resistant varieties
usually need a longer growing season to reach
maturity, or they cannot tolerate other local
stresses such as drought or zinc-deficient soil.



Spring, Winter, and Facultative Wheat: What's the Difference?

A wheat variety's growth habit limits
its survival to certain geographical
areas. Knowing the distinctions
between winter, spring, facultative, fall-
sown, and spring-sown wheat can
make the difference between crop
failure and a bumper crop.

Spring wheats die if exposed to
temperatures below -10C for more
than 12 hours. Winter and facultative
wheats, however, need exposure to
cold (2-10C) for three to six weeks
after they germinate, or they cannot
produce grain. They start to grow
before winter sets in, when they
become inactive. Vernalization-a
temperature response mechanism-
ensures that winter wheat and other
plants adapted to cold climates do not
enter their reproductive growth stages
prior to winter. The plants resume
rapid growth in the spring as
temperatures rise. Spring-habit wheats
have a continuous growth cycle with
no inactive period. Facultative-habit
wheats tolerate cold more than spring
wheats and less than winter wheats,
but they do not require extended
exposure to cold temperatures to
reproduce. These wheats are found in
transition zones between true spring
and winter wheat regions.

To complicate matters further, farmers
often call fall-sown wheat cultivars
winter wheat, irrespective of whether
they are of winter or spring type. Since
most wheats in CWANA are sown in
fall, confusion over wheat types can
have terrible consequences. When seed
is imported to help farmers cope after
natural disasters or war, for example, a
mistake can be catastrophic. Farmers
who mistakenly sow winter wheats in
springtime or in warm areas will harvest
only grass-not grain. The 1WWIP
partners can inform relief organizations
about appropriate wheat seed and
prevent mistakes from occurring.

Wheat in Central and West
Asia and North Africa
Of the roughly 100 million hectares
planted to wheat in the developing
world, about 70% is planted to spring
type wheats, which cover about 25
million hectares in CWANA. About
30% is planted to winter and
facultative type wheats, 16.4 million
hectares of which are in CWANA
(Figure 1). All 10 countries with the
highest per capital wheat consumption
in the world are located in CWANA.
More than 90% of the CWANA wheat
crop is consumed as food, and wheat
often provides more than half the
calories in people's daily diets

(Figure 2). It is easy to see why a
disease epidemic in the wheat crop, a
nutrient deficiency in the grain, or a
reduction in grain quality could have
ruinous economic and health
consequences for many families.

Population is growing more rapidly in
CWANA than the average for
developing countries, and most
countries strive to produce as much
wheat as they can to meet domestic
demand and limit imports. No other
region of the world devotes so much
land to cereal production. For example,
as much as 70% of arable land is planted
to wheat in Turkey and Iran.

Figure 1. Locations where varieties from the Turkey/CIMMYT/ICARDA
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program (IWWIP) have been released.



- 50%


S- - 30%




Figure 2. Percent daily calories from wheat in Central and West Asia and North Africa.
Source: FAO Database, 2003.

Rapid Development of
* New Varieties

a For many years, CIMMYT worked with
partners in temperate countries to cross
winter and spring wheats, with the goal
of improving partners' winter wheats
Wr and CIMMYT's spring wheats. Over
Time, the scope of CIMMYT's research
widened to include improving winter
wheats for developing countries. In
1971, CIMMYT began working
directly with Turkey's winter wheat
improvement program through an
association with the Rockefeller
Foundation-A government of
Turkey wheat research program.
In 1990, Turkey's Ministry of
Agriculture, CIMMYT, and
ICARDA initiated joint research
on winter wheats through the
c International Winter Wheat
Improvement Program (IWWIP).

Turkey generously provides
SccL-- to its research institutes
S and other infrastructure, enabling
Turkish, CIMMYT, and ICARDA
scientists to distribute new winter
wheats to more than 120 breeding
programs in 50 countries. This
International network for breeding
winter wheat is among the world's
largest. Though much of the research
is done in Turkey, complementary
l research-for example, molecular
fingerprinting or breeding for insect
f resistance-is done elsewhere by

\\ inter wheat breeders, like farmers, have
Only one growing season per year to do their
work. It takes 12-15 years to breed a new
variety and get it into farmers' fields. To date,
SO 30 varieties developed by IWWIP have been
released and 34 others are scheduled for release.

Given that IWWIP started just 17
years ago, this number is impressive.
Progress has been good partly
because researchers crossed winter
wheats with spring wheats
developed by CIMMYT in Mexico,
which has resulted in the
development of both superior winter
and spring wheats. More than 75%
of the IWWIP wheats that have been
released or are scheduled for release
are crosses between winter and
spring wheats and some of the most
successful spring wheats have
winter wheats in their parentage.

Benefits Spill Over
into Afghanistan

Another impact of IWWIP has been
its steady collaboration with
Afghanistan over the years.
Governments rarely view agriculture
as a priority in times of civil
disorder, but despite war with the
USSR and the upheavals of
subsequent years, Afghanistan's
wheat researchers stuck to their jobs.
Through the Swedish Committee for
Afghanistan and FAO, Afghan
researchers maintained contact with
IWWIP and selected the best new
wheats from the international
nurseries. Much of Afghanistan's
infrastructure was destroyed, but
new wheat seed still moved from
farmer to farmer. Without this seed,
the Afghan people would have
suffered even more hunger and
malnutrition over the years. All
winter and facultative wheat
cultivars currently registered in
Afghanistan are derived from these
nurseries and several Afghan wheats
have been registered in Turkey.


Diseases, Pests, and
Other Stresses

In this region of the world, where
wheat was domesticated, many
pests and diseases evolved along
with the wheat crop. The wide
spectrum of pest and disease
problems is often aggravated by

the unpredictable and variable
climatic conditions and other
stresses. The development of
disease- and pest-resistant wheat
varieties is a key strategic
component in improving food
security across CWANA. The best
sources of disease resistance for a
particular area cannot be
identified without a good

Farmers in Central and West Asia and North Africa contend with cold winters,
scarce rainfall, and a short cropping season for the wheat that is their chief staple.

understanding of the
epidemiology of the diseases that
prevail across CWANA's wide
range of agro-ecologies.
Pathologists from national and
international organizations
throughout the region regularly
survey farmers' crops for diseases
and pests. They pay close attention
to how the pathogens causing
these diseases are evolving. One of
researchers' major achievements
has been to identify the "hot
spots"-not only in CWANA, but
worldwide-where the pathogens
that cause different diseases
evolve most rapidly and provide
the key to developing new,
resistant varieties.

Wheat now covers a wide swathe
from Iran to Mongolia, leaving no
natural barriers to rust spores
traveling on the wind from other
regions. Most commercial wheat
varieties in Central Asia are highly
susceptible to yellow rust. In the
last decade, Central Asian farmers
suffered wheat losses as high as
50% in two major yellow rust
epidemics. With resistant varieties
from IWWIP, the risk of yellow
rust epidemics is diminishing.
Central Asian breeding programs
have used IWWIP varieties to
fortify their own varieties since the

For more information:

Blowing in the wind: movement of a virulent strain of yellow rust.



- v 4


Wheat Research

Goes Underground

An informal but extensive network based in Turkey

conducts research that could raise farmers' wheat

yields by a third or more in dry environments.

SP -u

One example of the types of nematodes that can attack cereal
roots, the root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus thornei), forms
brown-black lesions on wheat roots.

Microscopic worm-like animals
called nematodes eat their way
into the roots of plants and quietly
destroy 10% of world crop
production every year. Root
diseases cause the same
unperceived damage. Many
farmers on the Central Anatolian
Plateau in Turkey can lose up-to
half of their winter wheat crop to
cereal cyst nematodes.

Nematodes and root diseases are
so aggressive in the dry
environments where winter and
spring wheat are produced that
they have become a significant
priority for CIMMYT's global
research in these environments.
Through the International Winter
Wheat Improvement Program
(IWWIP) and with support from a
large, informal network of
collaborating institutions (see box),
researchers are working to restore
lost yields to farmers. Their efforts
are concentrated in the Central
Anatolian Plateau of Turkey, where
5 million hectares are sown to
wheat, yet yields often do not
surpass 2 tons per hectare. The
benefits should be particularly
significant in West and Central
Asia and North Africa.

:; i


A wheat crop hammered by its underground nemesis the nematodes

Breaking New

In 2000, researchers from Turkey,
CIMMYT, ICARDA, and France's
Institute National de la Recherche
Agronomique (INRA) collected 53
soil and root samples from Syria
and Turkey to get a firm idea of
the problem. They used traditional
as well as molecular techniques to
identify pathogens. The molecular
techniques enabled researchers to
cross-check results from
traditional methods and identify
pathogens more precisely. They
found that 72% of the root samples
and 83% of the soil samples from
Turkey had cysts of one or more
species of cereal cyst nematode
(Heterodera spp.). Root rotting
fungi such as crown rot (Fusarium
spp.) and common root rot
(Bipolaris spp.) affected 60% of the
samples. To complicate matters,
57% of the soil samples lacked
zinc and 40% lacked iron. Zinc is
particularly important in building
and protecting root systems.

Researchers also discovered they
were contending with Heterodera
filipjevi, a nematode species little

known or studied. "This work is a
whole new ball game-we don't
have 20 years of experience to
build on as with the more
common H. avenue," explains
CIMMYT pathologist Julie Nicol.
"We have to understand the
nematode's population dynamics
and do other basic work." For
example, masters' student Elif
Sahin from Osman Gazi
University in Eskisehir
determined that the major hatch
occurs after snow melt in winter
wheat areas, just when wheat
starts to grow (see figure). She
also identified fungi and bacteria
that could offer a biological
control strategy.

Nationwide and
Worldwide Research

Turkey's General Directorate of
Agricultural Research (GDAR)
and CIMMYT initiated two jointly
coordinated nationwide research
programs on cereal nematodes
and root rots in 2001. The cereal
nematode program is coordinated
by Necmetin Bolat of ANADOLU
Research Institute, Eskisehir. Work
on cereal root rots is coordinated

by Ahmet Bagci of Selcuk
University, Konya. Nicol is the
CIMMYT counterpart for both
programs. Each program includes
pathogen surveys, yield loss
studies, work to identify sources
of resistance, and the examination
of alternative control methods,
including crop rotations and other
management practices. "This
nationwide approach with
CIMMYT is one of the best
mechanisms to work collectively
on this difficult problem," says
Mesut Keser, Deputy Director
General of GDAR. It also
complements international efforts
to develop winter and spring
wheat varieties that resist these
pathogens, says Hans Braun, who
directs CIMMYT's Rainfed Wheat
Systems Program. "CIMMYT can
cross new sources of resistance
into wheat lines," he explains,
"but the most important step is
the validation of resistance
through the two nationwide

Cumulative number of juveniles

0 1 2
Time (weeks)

3 4


Effect of temperature on hatch of the
cereal cyst nematode Heteroderafilipjevi.


As part of her work to strengthen regional capacity for dealing with soil-borne
pathogens of wheat, CIMMYT scientist Julie Nicol (third from left in top row)
organized a course in Turkey, June 2003, with support from the ATSE Crawford
Fund, GRDC, ACIAR, TAGEM, CIMMYT, ICARDA, and the Kirkhouse Trust.

Work on Root
Rotting Fungal
Researchers are also coming to
grips with root rotting fungi.
Turkish and CIMMYT scientists
conducted the first study to
demonstrate the impact of root
disease pathogens on winter
cereals grown in the dry marginal
conditions of Central Anatolia.
Based on an extensive plant
survey, mycologist Berna Tunali of
the Plant Protection Institute in
Ankara concluded that F. culmorum
is the main causal agent of dryland
root rot on the Central Anatolian
Plateau. "Based on a three-year
study we conducted, we think that
farmers probably lose 26% of their
cereal harvest on average to
several root diseases," says Hakan
Hekimhan, pathologist at Bahri
Dagdas International Agricultural
Research Center.

The Roots of
The scientists are using every tool
at their disposal to identify
resistant wheat lines and provide
them to breeding programs in
Turkey and internationally. For
example, wild relatives of wheat
have resistance to some
nematodes. Breeders have used
conventional approaches to put
that resistance into bread wheats
from Australia, France, Spain, and
CIMMYT. The resistance of these
wheats is being studied throughout
the world. Researchers are using
molecular markers, obtained
through collaboration with
research institutes in Australia, to
identify and select resistant wheat
early in the breeding cycle,
reducing the need for expensive
field trials.

More markers are being identified
through collaboration between
CIMMYT, the Plant Protection
Institute in Adana, qukorova
University, and Australia's
Commonwealth Scientific and
Industrial Research Organisation
(CSIRO). Doctoral student Halil
Toktay showed that yield losses in
southeastern Turkey are caused by
the root lesion nematode. His
studies, conducted at the Plant
Protection Institute under the
supervision of Halil Elekcioglu of
Qukurova University and Nicol,
are partly sponsored by Australia's
Grains Research and Development
Corporation (GRDC) to find
molecular markers to known
sources of resistance. The root rot
program in Turkey has tested
more than 7,000 wheats for their
reaction to F. culmorum. Over 200
proved to have some resistance.
Through an extensive crossing
program, researchers hope to
move closer to their ultimate goal:
varieties that withstand several
root diseases at once. First results
are available from CIMMYT,
where wheat breeder Richard
Trethowan has developed new
spring wheat lines that yield up to
20% more than their parent lines.
These are now being validated by
CIMMYT in Turkey under
pressure from fungi that cause
cereal root rot. Though progress in
winter wheat breeding is slower,
promising, resistant winter wheats
have been identified and are being
tested in preliminary yield trials.

Through another GRDC project,
a new International Root Disease
Resistance Nursery will enable
researchers in a number of
locations to evaluate sources of
resistance to nematode and root
rotting fungi. Many of the
researchers belong to Australia
and the Root Disease Network,
formed from the International
Master Class on Soil Borne
Pathogens of Cereals in Turkey
in 2003 (see 2003 Annual Report).

Will Farmers See
the Results?

Breeding for resistance or
tolerance to soil pathogens is one
of the most economical and
effective ways to help farmers
cope with the problem, but it is
not the only way. "We need to
look at reduced tillage practices,
crop rotations, and different
ways of improving soil fertility,"
says Nicol. "For example,
Professor Elekcioglu has
identified some genera of
nematodes that can be used as
soil health indicators and help
determine more appropriate
cropping systems." Ever on the
lookout for collaborators, she
adds, "We could benefit from
partners who want to study
biological control, based on Elif
Sahin's work."

For more information:

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Biosafety Greenhouse

A watershed moment for the Insect

Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) Project

and more broadly, for biotechnology in

Africa was reached in june 2004, when the

President of Kenya, his Excellency the Hon.

Mwai Kibaki, officially launched the first

level-2 biosafety greenhouse in sub-

Saharan Africa, outside of South Africa.

His Excellency the Hon. Mwai Kibaki, President of Kenya, stands with the Director
of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Romano Kiome, and shakes
hands with Masa Iwanaga, Director General of CIMMYT. Looking on at the right
are Andrew Bennett, Executive Director of the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable
Agriculture, which provided funds for the new greenhouse, and Shivaji Pandey,
Director of CIMMYT's African Livelihoods Program.

Linking Science to
"Agricultural biotechnology is one
of the modern, innovative
approaches that can help us
overcome constraints," President
Kibaki declared. "We must
embrace and apply modern
science and technology in
farming. Indeed, there is evidence
that countries that have embraced
modern agricultural technologies
have improved economic
performance, reduced poverty,
and ensured greater food security
for their people."


Bilei. -

j Presidential

I" Appearance Highlights

I I* Launch of Kenya

The President said he was aware
of the ongoing debate regarding
biotechnology and its products,
particularly genetically modified
organisms. "We in Kenya have
resolved to apply biotechnology in
line with the existing biosafety
frameworks, national statutes, and
international obligations," he said.

Stemming Losses to
Maize Stem Borers

"When the doors of KARI's
biosafety greenhouse swing open
for their first official day of
business," said Masa Iwanaga,
CIMMYT Director General, "we
will also witness the door opening
to a new world of research
opportunities and agricultural
progress. With this greenhouse
and the training of competent
staff, Kenya and KARI have
positioned themselves as leaders
in sub-Saharan Africa in using
biotechnology to increase food

The first order of business for
greenhouse staff will be to
develop maize that resists stem
borers and is environmentally
friendly, the primary objective of
the IRMA project. Stem borers
typically inflict annual losses of
around 15% to Kenya's maize
crop. Farmer surveys by IRMA
participants signal controlling
borers as a high priority for both
small- and large-scale farmers.
Since its inception in 1999, the
project has engaged in a two-
pronged approach-development
of both transgenic, Bt maize, and
maize whose resistance comes
through conventional breeding-
to provide farmers with suitable
options for controlling borers.

The containment offered by the
biosafety greenhouse will allow
KARI scientists to test maize with
various Bt genes against the five
main stem borers found in Kenyan
maize fields. It also enables
continued experiments on possible
effects of Bt plants on organisms
other than borers, especially on
beneficial insects such as bees or
on natural predators of stem

High Standards for
Safety and

Aside from constructing the
greenhouse, the IRMA project is
pioneering in several other
respects. To date, the project has
focused on using Bt genes
produced by the public sector and
on making sure that antibiotic and
herbicide resistance marker genes
have been removed from the final
products. Considerable effort has
gone into collecting and
characterizing the organisms
typically found in maize fields, to
assess possible environmental
impacts of Bt maize. Extensive
farmer and field surveys have also
enabled scientists to develop
strategies for smallholders to
impede stem borers overcoming
the Bt-based resistance.

"We've set high goals for
ourselves in terms of
environmental safety, public
awareness, farmer and
stakeholder participation,
developing human capacities
where needed, and in developing
effective products for farmers,"
adds IRMA coordinator Stephen
Mugo. "It's not often you see an

international agriculture project
moving forward successfully on
so many fronts at one time."

After three years of testing, in
2004 six outstanding
experimental, open pollinated
varieties from CIMMYT and
Kenya will be grown in the
country's National Performance
Trials, for possible subsequent
release to farmers. In addition,
hundreds of inbred lines and
hybrids have been screened and
40 inbred lines that possess insect
resistance are being increased for
use and distribution.



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For more information:

Preliminary Results of

Transgenic Wheat Trial

Look Promising

First transgenic field testing for the rd29DREB1A plants

CIMMYT took a historic step in March 2004 by

planting a small trial of genetically engineered wheat

in a screenhouse at its headquarters in El Batan,

Mexico, following Mexican and CIMMYT biosafety

procedures. It was the first time that transgenic wheat

has been planted in Mexico under field-like

conditions, and encouraging preliminary results have

spurred plans for a more extensive follow-up trial.

Striving for Drought-
Tolerant Wheat
Researchers at CIMMYT have used
genetic engineering to insert a gene
from Arabidopsis thaliana, a relative of
wild mustard, into wheat. This
DREB1A gene, which was provided
by the Japan International Research
Center for Agricultural Sciences,
confers tolerance to drought, low
temperatures, and salinity in its
natural host. The trial allowed
researchers to make a critical step
toward developing drought-tolerant
wheat varieties by allowing them to
see if the DREB1A wheat responds
well under field conditions.

Drought is one of the most important
agricultural production problems in
the world. Combined with shortages
of groundwater, it threatens the
ability of many developing countries
to feed themselves. Currently, the
20% of global farmland that is
irrigated produces 40% of the
world's food supply.

Encouraging and
Consistent Results
Looking at preliminary results after
the trial's end, Pellegrineschi was
encouraged by the existence of a
clear phenotype and higher grain
yield in the transgenic lines than
checks under drought conditions. In
July 2004, the non-DREB control
wheat was dry, and yellow, while the





DREB wheat was still green and
thriving. Pellegrineschi was
surprised that one gene could
bring about such a visible

In this trial, water stress tolerance
was always associated with the
transgene's presence. Control
plants began to show water stress
symptoms, such as turgor loss and
leaf bleaching, after 10 days
without water. The transgenic
lines, on the other hand, started to
show water stress symptoms after
15 days.

Pellegrineschi says the results of
this trial, which was part of the
center's collaboration with the
Australian Cooperative Research
Centre for Molecular Plant
Breeding, are compatible with
observations from small pots in
the biosafety greenhouse. In
general, the transgenic lines had
relatively higher water content,
more biomass, and lower
chlorophyll content. They
responded better to returning to
their unstressed phenotype after
irrigation, and they were better
able to complete the normal field
cycle and produce useful seeds.
These results need to be verified in
a larger field trial with selected
transgenic lines, he says.

Taking Precautions

This is the first time that a food
crop carrying the DREB1A gene
has advanced to this level of
testing. The Mexican government,
which had announced a
moratorium on planting
transgenic plants under field
conditions in 1998, approved the
trial in December 2003.

_k_ -. *


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CIMMYT's biosafety officer, they
destroyed all plant materials
except harvested seed.

What Next?

"This was the first trial transgenic
wheat trial after the government
removed the moratorium on
growing transgenic varieties
under field conditions, so we
were very conservative in asking
for a large area to the Mexican
authorities," says Pellegrineschi.
"Now that we've had some
success, we're asking for a larger
trial size." Pending approval from
the biosafety committee,
researchers are ready to begin a

600 Statistically significant


The biomass of DREB wheats was
higher under drought than the average
of normal wheats (black bar).

These photos 4ho%\ the difference bet'\een
DREB-endoned and conventional heatt.
under drought conditions in a greenhouse.

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Researchers are also pursuing
two strategies to further examine
the effects of the DREB1A g n,16
on induction of water stress
tolerance in transgenic wheat
plants. They are continuing to
test the 12 project-selected
transgenic lines under field
conditions to confirm the
observed phenotypes and
determine other effects on
growth and productivity. They
are also introducing additional
constructs, which express several
DREB genes, into wheat. "With
the right investment,"
Pellegrineschi says, "researchers
will be able to produce drought-
tolerant transgenic varieties
within five years."

Meanwhile, CIMMYT
researchers plan to combine
transgenically-endowed drought
tolerance with types of tolerance
derived through conventional
breeding and from wild grasses,
a source of many useful traits
with which CIMMYT has
worked successfully for more
than a decade.

For more information:

*i, W_


East Timor

Improve Productivity

and Food Security

4 aI

After almost 450 years of foreign

occupation, East Timor became the

world's newest country when it declared

independence in May 2002. One thing

the country lacks is productive and

well-adapted seed for major crops.

A project called Seeds of Life has been
introducing, testing, and distributing
improved germplasm to farmers in East
Timor. The project, in which CIMMYT
participates, aims to improve food security
and build the capacity of Timorese
scientists to resolve the agricultural
problems that affect local livelihoods.

"Farmers have suffered from decades of
unrest," says Ganesan Srinivasan, a
CIMMYT breeder and senior scientist
involved in the project, which is funded by
the Australian Centre for International
Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and the
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and
Fisheries of East Timor. "Improved maize
varieties will provide food and nutritional
security for resource-poor farmers."

Almost 800,000 people live in East Timor,
which was once a Portuguese colony. The
BBC estimates that about 25% of the
population died during Indonesia's
occupation, which began after Portugal
withdrew in 1975 and lasted until 1999.
After citizens voted for independence,
anti-independence militia killed hundreds
of people and destroyed towns and
already poor infrastructure.

Maize and rice are East Timor's
major staple food crops. Although
maize covers the largest area of
land planted to any crop, its
productivity is low. Growing local
varieties, some farmers produce
less than 1.5 tons per hectare and
125,000 tons annually. Farmers
face production constraints such
as low soil fertility, frequent
drought, a lack of improved
varieties and fertilizer, northern
leaf blight, and storage pests.
Project participants hope that
replacing low-yielding local
varieties with improved maize
will increase productivity and
lead to income generation.

Australian agronomist Brian
Palmer manages the project,
which aims to improve farmers'
access to high quality seed, create
a crop performance database for
research to raise crop productivity,
and increase the capacities of East
Timorese institutions and staff in
evaluation, production, and
distribution of improved varieties.

Beating Local

Scientists have been testing the
adaptation of various lines of rice,
maize, cassava, beans, potatoes,
sweet potatoes, and peanuts that
have been supplied by CIMMYT,

five Future Harvest Centers
involved in the project.
Researchers have identified and
multiplied well-adapted varieties
that are tolerant to pests, diseases,
drought, and low soil fertility.

In the first phase of the project,
which lasted from October 2000 to
December 2003 followed by a six-
month bridge phase, CIMMYT
provided improved, stress-
tolerant, high-yielding maize
varieties to test in different agro-
climatic conditions of East Timor.
Scientists initially selected maize
varieties using information from
CIMMYT records, results from
similar regions, and input from
researchers. They tested several
yellow open-pollinated varieties
and a few white quality protein
maize varieties, among others.

In their experiments, researchers
found that yields were much
higher when improved maize
cultivars and fertilizer were used.
During 2001-02, one variety
yielded almost four tons per
hectare. In the second and third
years, CIMMYT maize varieties
yielded around six tons per
hectare, compared with two tons
per hectare from the local variety
that was used as the benchmark.

"Several yellow maize varieties
resistant to downy mildew disease
have been identified that have
given double or triple the yield of
local varieties," says Srinivasan. In
March 2004, in response to
problems at several sites, they
planted downy mildew disease
resistant seed developed by the
CIMMYT-Zimbabwe team.

Training to Meet

Although it is difficult to identify
varieties that are well adapted
across East Timor's diverse
climatic and soil conditions, the
project has already found several.
During 2003-04, researchers
received enough seed to evaluate
selected varieties in yield trials, to
use in on-farm tests, and to
multiply to produce more seed. In
addition, seed from the five most
promising varieties has been
increased in India and will be
shipped to East Timor.

The second phase of the project,
lasting from three to five years,
will focus on better village welfare
by promoting farmer use of
improved varieties and
strengthening MAFF and other
East Timor institutions.

Challenges include building
research capacity, creating a
system to continuously screen and
release varieties, establishing a
good seed production and
distribution system, and reducing
post-harvest losses.
Representatives from the Future
Harvest Centers, ACIAR, AusAID,
East Timorese research
organizations, and other partners
will discuss plans for phase two in
August 2004. They plan to support
model farms, farmer
demonstrations, seed production,
germplasm management, and
research on variety adaptation
and crop agronomy

For more information:




PI a~Irl

CIMMYT Financial Overview

2003 Financial


A summary of the 2003 combined
statements of activities and changes
in net assets and combined
statements of financial position for
CIMMYT, Int., and CIMMYT, A.C.,
are set out in Table 1.

The major highlight of the 2003 year has
been the return to an operating surplus
(USD 722,000) following the operating loss
(USD 4.95 million) incurred in 2002. This
surplus has allowed CIMMYT to begin the
long process of rebuilding its net asset
base back to levels that will provide the
operational and institutional security
required to support its research agenda.

Table 1. CIMMYT Financial Statements, 2003.

December 31, 2003 and 2002

(Thousands of US Dollars)

Statements of Activities, 2003 and 2002.

For the years ended December 31, 2003 and 2002 (Thousands of US Dollars)

Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents
Accounts receivable:
Donors, net
Inventories, net
Prepaid expenses
Total current assets
Non-current assets
Property and equipment
Accumulated depreciation
Total property and equipment, net

$ 7,426



$ 1,125



Total non-current assets 15,364 8,940
Total assets $ 33,024 $ 17,982

Liabilities and net assets
Current liabilities
Financial institutions $ 3,000 $ 2,809
Due to related parties 390
Current portion of capital leases 222 185
Accounts payable:
Donors 9,771 3,831
Other 46 804
Accruals and provisions 605 1,106
Total current liabilities 14,034 8,735
Long-term liabilities
Seniority premiums 513 412
Capital leases 79 310
Total long-term liabilities 592 722
Total liabilities 14,626 9,457

Net assets
Total net assets
Total liabilities and net assets

$ 33,024

Other revenues
Total revenues

$ 35,785

$ 35,806

expensess and losses
Program-related expenses 29,292 34,261
Management and general expenses 9,561 6,868
Other losses and expenses 1,346 2,804
40,199 43,933

Indirect costs recovery (3,117) (2,442)

37,082 41,491

Change in net assets from operations 722 (4,946)

Cumulative effect of changes in accounting principles 9,151 (5,269)
9,873 (10,215)

Net assets at beginning of year 8,525 18,740

Net assets at end of year $ 18,398 $ 8,525

$ 17,982


Total revenue for 2003 of USD 37.80
million, represented an increase of USD
1.26 million (3.4%) over 2002 revenue.
While this increase in revenue was
important, the turnaround in operating
results was driven primarily by a USD
4.4 million (10.6%) reduction in expenses
from USD 41.49 million in 2002 to USD
37.08 million in 2003.

Total net assets increased by USD 9.87
million to USD 18.39 million (2002 USD
8.52 million). Unappropriated,
unrestricted net assets increased to USD
3.05 million, due to a combination of the
operating surplus of USD 722,000 and a
positive movement in reserves of USD
2.33 million. Appropriated, unrestricted
net assets increased by USD 7.197 to
USD 15.30 million, due mainly to
revaluations of land and buildings
owned by CIMMYT.

2003 Funding


Total funding for 2003 was USD 37.80
million (2002 USD 36.54), including
other income and overhead recovery of
USD 2.02M (2002 USD 739,000). Grant
income amounted to USD 35.78 million,
comprising USD 12.63 million in
unrestricted grants and USD 23.15
million in restricted grants. Table 2
details sources of income from grants
from all donors.

Table 2. CIMMYT Sources of Incomes from
Grants by Country/entity (USD '000)

2003 2002
Investor Grant Grant

United States
World Bank

377 436
86 76
1,263 654
150 130
598 663
286 239
113 113
1,359 763
50 50
90 90
208 267
20 20
7 12
324 277
292 234
9 9
4,900 4,300
2,500 3,800
12,632 12,311

ADB (Asian Development Bank)
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
CRC Molecular Plant Breeding
Grains Research and Development Corporation
Southern Cross University
Bolivia (AGRICOM- Seeds, S.A)
Agriculture andAgri-Food
Canadian International DevelopmentAgency
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
CGIAR Finance Committee
International Food Policy Research Institute
International Livestock Research Institute
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
InternationalWater Management Institute
Standing Panel on Impact Assessment
Lamsoo Milling Company
CORPOICA (Corporacion Colombiana de InvestigacionAgropecuaria)
FENALCE (Federacion de Cultivadores de Cereales y Leguminosas)
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
European Commission

566 829

1 38
621 270

31 16
147 127
2 8
9 31

300 300
(8) 23

FAO 53
Ford Foundation
Foundation for Harvest Solutions
Minister de I'Education National,de la Recherche et de la Technologie-DRIC
(Delegation aux Relations Internationales et a la cooperation) 844
Club Cinq 56

2003 2002
Grant Grant Investor

Germany Spain
Eiselen Foundation 37 68 Agrovegetal, S.A.
Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development 667 574 Ministerio deAgri
University of Hohenheim 5 Syngenta Foundation
IAEA (International Atomic EnergyAgency) 6 7 Sweden
India Switzerland

Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Co.Ltd.
IDB (Inter-American Development Bank)
IFAD (International Fund ForAgricultural Development)
International Development Research Centre
Iran, Islamic Republic of
APN(Asian Pacific Network for Global Change Reseach)
Economic Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Nippon Foundation
Sasakawa Global 2000
Korea, Republic of
Rural Development Administration
CODEPAP (Consejo de Desarrollo de la Cuenca de Papaloapan
CONACYT (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia yTecnologia)
SAGAR (Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia,
Desarrollo Rural y Pesca)
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce A.C.
Fundacion Hidalgo

Fundacion Sonora
Grupo Industrial Bimbo (Industrial quality in wheat)
Miscellaneous Research Grants
Monsanto Fund
DGIS (Directorate General for International Cooperation)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
New Zealand
OPEC Fund for International Development
Other Foundations
Paraguay (Camara Paraguya de Exportadores de
Cereales y Oleaginosas)
Pioneer Hi-Bred International
Rockefeller Foundation
South Africa
Agricultural Research Council
National Department of Agriculture

cultural, Pesca y Alimentacion

19 36 Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
9 95 United Kingdom
152 439 UNDP
8 United Nations Development Programme (Africa Bureau)
297 283 Uruguay
1 39 University of California
644 665 Cornell University
691 472 Kansas State University
6 9 Oklahoma State University
100 104 Stanford University
United States Agency for International Development
United States Department of Agriculture
44 4 Washington State University


294 234
9 30
6 42
50 169
69 98
45 39
116 128
214 162

World Bank

2003 2002
Grant Grant

90 81
262 212
1,097 1,385

875 1,218
1,417 1,254

130 114

47 7
35 91
146 158
2,967 1,259
289 357
91 90
834 509

Subtotal 22,652 23,495
Challenge Program
World Bank 292
EC 209
Subtotal 501 0
Total Grants 35,785 35,806

466 175
114 117
30 19
26 50
560 538

40 40
33 27
1,993 2,350
9 73

9 40
47 51

Table 2. cont'd


Trustees and Principal Staff Asof September2004


Alexander McCalla (Canada), Chair,
Board of Trustees, and Chair,
Executive Committee; Emeritus
Professor Department of
Agricultural and Resource
Economics, University of
California, Davis, USA
Sebastian Acosta-Nufiez (Mexico),*
Director General, Agricultural
Research, National Institute of
Forestry Agriculture, and
Livestock Research, Mexico
Hisao Azuma (Japan), President,
Agricultural and Fishery
Cooperative Savings Insurance
Julio Antonio Berdegu6 (Mexico),
President, RIMISP, Centro
Americano para el Desarrollo
Rural, Chile
Tini (C.M.) Colijn-Hooymans
(Netherlands), Chair, Finance and
Administration Committee;
Member of the Board of
Management, TNO, The
Edwina Cornish (Australia), Deputy
Vice-Chancellor (Research),
Monash University, Australia
Robert M. Goodman (USA), Vice-
Chair, Board of Trustees;
Professor Russell Laboratories,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Masa Iwanaga (Japan),* Director
General, CIMMYT
Romano M. Kiome (Kenya),
Director, Kenya Agricultural
Research Institute, Kenya
Lene Lange (Denmark), Science
Director, Molecular Biotechnology,
Novozymes A/S, Denmark
Jesus Moncada de la Fuente
(Mexico),* Director in Chief,
National Institute of Forestry,
Agriculture, and Livestock
Research, Mexico
Mangala Rai (India), Director
General (Crop Science), Indian
Council for Agricultural Research,
and Secretary, Department of
Agricultural Research and
Education, GOI, India
Uraivan Tan-Kim-Yong (Thailand),
Chair, Audit Committee;
Chairperson, Graduate Program
in Man and Environment
Management (Chiang Rai),
College of Graduate Study, Chiang
Mai University, Thailand
Javier Usabiaga (Mexico),* Secretary
of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural
Development, Fisheries, and Food,
John R. Witcombe (UK), Chair,
Program Committee; Manager,
DFID Plant Sciences Research
Programme, Centre for Arid Zone
Studies, University of Wales, UK

* Ex ., .. position.

Principal Staff

Office of the Director
Masa Iwanaga (Japan), Director General
John Dodds (USA), Deputy Director
General, Research
Pilar Junco (Mexico), Executive Assistant
to the Director General
Coenraad Kramer (Netherlands), Senior
Advisor to the Director General
Agustin Mufioz (Mexico), Senior Auditor
Peter Ninnes (Australia), Head, Projects/
Investor Relations
Shawn Sullivan (USA), Intellectual
Property Manager and Counsel
Martin van Weerdenburg (Australia),
Director, Corporate Services
Norman E. Borlaug (USA)
Thomas George (Philippines)
Kaitlin Lesnick (USA)
Gerardo Leyva (Mexico)

Kelly A. Cassaday (USA), Head'
G. Michael Listman (USA), Senior
Writer/Editor and Interim Head
Alma L. McNab (Honduras), Senior
Writer/Editor and Translations
Miguel Mellado (Mexico), Head,
Publications Production
David Poland (USA), Senior Writer/
Sarah Fennell (UK)
Gretchen Ruethling (USA)
Crissan Zeigler (USA)

Corporate Services
Martin van Weerdenburg (Australia),
Linda Ainsworth (USA), Manager,
Visitor, Conference, and Training
Host Country Relations
Gregorio Martinez (Mexico), Head,
Carmen Espinosa (Mexico), Legal
Experiment Station
Francisco Magallanes (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, El Batan
Hugo Alvarez (Mexico), Administration
Luis Bafios (Mexico), Supervisor, Drivers
Eduardo de la Rosa (Mexico), Head,
Building Maintenance
Joaquin Diaz (Mexico), Head,
Maria Garay (Mexico), Head, Food and
Eduardo Mejia (Mexico), Head, Security
Finance Office
Jos6 de Jesis Montoya (Mexico),
Zoila C6rdova (Mexico), Interim Finance
Salvador Fragoso (Mexico), Head,
Payroll and Taxes
Hector Maciel (Mexico), Manager,
Accounting Operations'

Guillermo Quesada (Mexico), Head,
Treasury Supervisor
German Tapia (Mexico), Warehouse
Human Resources Office
Marisa de la O (Mexico), Interim Manager
Georgina Becerra (Mexico), Human
Resources Specialist
Cuauhtemoc Marquez (Mexico), Medical
Ma. del Carmen Padilla (Mexico), Teacher,
Childcare Center
Fernando Sanchez (Mexico), Head,
National Staff
Information Technology
Edward Brandon (Canada), Manager
Carlos L6pez (Mexico), Software
Development Manager, Software
Development Department
Enrique Martinez (Mexico), Head,
Development and Implementation of
New Projects, Systems and Computer
Marcos Piez (Mexico), Network
Administrator, Systems and Computer
Fermin Segura (Mexico), Network
Infrastructure Supervisor, Systems and
Computer Services
Jesus Vargas (Mexico), Systems and
Operations Manager, Systems and
Computer Services
Fernando Garcia (Mexico), Interim Head,
Library, and Electronic Information
John Woolston (Canada),' i,.... : ..

Seed Inspection and
Distribution Unit
Monica Mezzalama (Italy), Head
Efr6n Rodriguez (Mexico), Head, Maize
International Nurseries
Maria Luisa G6mez (Mexico), Production

Genetic Resources
David Hoisington (USA), Director
Tomohiro Ban I 'I 1" Principal Scientist,
Geneticist/Br eeder
Christelle Bencivenni (France), Research
Guy Davenport (UK), Scientist,
Masahiro Kishii II .1 "' Postdoctoral
Fellow, Wheat Cytogeneticist
Scott McLean (USA), Scientist, Breeder/
A. Mujeeb-Kazi (USA), Distinguished
Scientist, Head, Wide Crosses'
Alessandro Pellegrineschi (Italy),
Scientist, Cell Biologist
Enrico Perotti (Italy), Scientist, Molecular
Jean Marcel Ribaut i, I ,..li Senior
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist
Jens Riis-Jacobsen (Denmark), Scientist,
Crop Information Specialist
Maria Luisa Rodriguez (Mexico), Program
Mark Sawkins (UK), Associate Scientist,
Molecular Geneticist
Suketoshi Taba 1I i.. Principal
Scientist, Head, Maize Germplasm Bank
Maarten van Ginkel (Netherlands),
Principal Scientist, Head, Wheat
Germplasm Bank

Marilyn Warburton (USA), Senior
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist
Jiankang Wang (China), Associate
Scientist, Quantitative Geneticist/
Adjunct Scientists
Daniel Grimanelli (France), IRD/
France, Scientist, Molecular
Olivier Leblanc (France), IRD/France,
Scientist, Molecular Cytogeneticist'
Morten Lillemo (Norway), Adjunct
Postdoctoral Fellow, Wheat Breeder
Antonio Serratos (Mexico), INIFAP/
Mexico, Scientist, Molecular Biologist
Sae-Jung Suh (Korea), Adjunct Senior
Scientist, Breeder
Research Affiliate
Maria de la Luz Gutierrez (Mexico),
Molecular Geneticist'
Claudia Bedoya (Colombia)
Stewart Gillmor (USA)'
Mirjana Trifunovic (Yugoslavia)'
Biometrics and Statistics
Jos6 Crossa (Uruguay), Principal
Scientist and Head
Gregorio Alvarado (Mexico), Research
Juan Burguefio (Uruguay), Research
Jorge Franco (Uruguay), Research
Mateo Vargas (Mexico), Research

Impacts Targeting and
Assessment Program
Michael Morris (USA), Director,
Economics Program'
Erika Meng (USA), Acting Director,
Scientist, Economist
Lone Badstue (Denmark), Associate
Scientist, Social Anthropologist
Mauricio Bellon (Mexico), Senior
Scientist, Human Ecologist
Roberta Gerpacio I i.,i, i ... I
Research Associate, Economist (based
in the Philippines)
David Hodson (UK), Head, Geographic
Information Systems
Petr Kosina (Czech Republic), Training
Tyler Kruzich (USA), Research Assistant
(based in Zimbabwe)
Maximina Lantican I i,, I I
ResearchAssociate t .....
Maria Luisa Rodriguez (Mexico),
Program Administrator
Rolf Sommer (Germany), Agronomist'
Leslie Cooksy (USA)
Timothy Dalton (USA)
Douglas Gollin (USA)
Diego Gonzalez de Le6n (Mexico)
Amanda King (USAY
Nina Lilja (USA)
Julien de Meyer (Switzerland)'
Janet Lauderdale (USA)
James McCann (USA)
Vijay Pandey (India)
Carl Pray (USA)
Karen Thome (USA)'
David Watson (UK)'

African Livelihoods
Shivaji Pandey (India), Director
Marianne Banziger (Switzerland), Senior
Scientist, Physiologist (based in
Alpha O. Diallo (Guinea), Principal
Scientist, Breeder (based in Kenya)
Dennis Friesen (Canada), IFDC/CIMMYT,
Senior Scientist, Agronomist (based in
Hugo de Groote (Belgium), Senior
Scientist, Economist (based in Kenya)
Fred Kanampiu (Kenya), Scientist,
Agronomist (based in Kenya)
Mulugetta Mekuria (Ethiopia), Senior
Scientist, Economist (based in
Stephen Mugo (Kenya), Scientist, Breeder
(based in Kenya)
Wilfred M. Mwangi (Kenya), Principal
Scientist, Economist (based in Kenya)
Marcelo E. Perez (Mexico), Program
Douglas G. Tanner (Canada), Senior
Scientist, Agronomist, East Africa/
Strafford Twumasi-Afriyie (Ghana), Senior
Scientist, Breeder (based in Ethiopia)
Bindiganavile Vivek (India), Scientist,
Breeder (based in Zimbabwe)
Patrick C. Wall (Ireland), Principal
Scientist, Conservation Agriculture
Specialist (based in Zimbabwe)
Stephen Waddington (UK), Principal
Scientist, Agronomist (based in
Postdoctoral Fellows
Augustine Langyintuo (Ghana), Economist
(based in Zimbabwe)
Adjunct Scientists
Duncan Kirubi (Kenya), Breeder (based in
Zubeda Mduruma (Tanzania), ECAMAW,
Breeder (based in Ethiopia)
Peter Setimela (Botswana), Breeder (based
in Zimbabwe)
Bernard Kamanga (Malawi)
Zondai Shamudzarira (Zimbabwe)

Tropical Ecosystems
Kevin V. Pixley (USA), Director
David Beck (USA), Principal Scientist,
Breeder/Leader, Highland Maize
David Bergvinson (Canada), Senior
Scientist, Entomologist
Hugo C6rdova (El Salvador), Principal
Scientist, Breeder/Leader of Tropical
Maria Luz George (Philippines), Senior
Scientist, AMBIONET Coordinator
(based in the Philippines)
Jaime L6pez Cesati (Mexico), Manager,
Soils and Plant Nutrition Laboratory
Daniel Jeffers (USA), Senior Scientist,
Luis Narro (Peru), Senior Scientist, Breeder
(based in Colombia)
Marcelo E. Pdrez (Mexico), Program
Neeranjan Rajbhandari (Nepal), Adjunct
Scientist, Agronomist (based in Nepal)
Carlos Urrea (Colombia), Scientist, Breeder
(based in Nepal)
Philippe Monneveux (France)
Hugo Vivar (Ecuador)
Experiment Station
Raymundo L6pez (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, Agua Fria

Rainfed Wheat Systems
Hans-Joachim Braun (Germany), Director,
Representative for Central and West
Asia and NorthAfrica (based in Turkey)
Flavio Capettini (Uruguay), ICARDA/
CIMMYT, Head, Barley Program
Arne Hede (Denmark), Scientist,
Facultative and Winter Wheat Breeder
(based in Turkey)
Muratbek Karabayev (Kazakhstan),
Liaison Officer (based in Kazakhstan)
Alexei Morgounov (Russia), Senior
Scientist, F .. .. 1i F. I .. "' .. .-
Wheat Bre 1. .. ... .. i Central
Asia and C ." .
Rocio Navarro (Mexico), Program
Julie Nicol (Australia), Scientist,
I .ii. I. iil . i (basedin
Mahmood Osmanzai (Canada), Principal
Scientist, Agronomist/Breeder, Country
Representative for Afghanistan (based
in Afghanistan)
Thomas S. Payne (USA), Interim Director,
Wheat Program; Senior Scientist, Head,
International Wheat Improvement
Matthew P. Reynolds (UK), Principal
Scientist, Head, Physiology
Richard Trethowan (Australia), Principal
Scientist, Spring Bread Wheat Breeder
(Marginal Environments)
Manilal William (Sri Lanka), Scientist,
Molecular Geneticist
Postdoctoral Fellow
Rubeena (India), Physiology, Breeder
David Bedoshvili (Georgia)
Experiment Station
Fernando Delgado (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, Toluca

Intensive Agroecosystems
Larry Harrington (USA), Director
Karim Ammar (Tunisia), Scientist, Breeder
(Triticale and Hybrid Wheat)
Etienne Duveiller (Belgium), Principal
Scientist, Regional Pathologist, South
Asia (based in Nepal)
Olaf Erenstein (Netherlands), Scientist,
Agricultural Economist (based in India)
Raj Gupta (India), Senior Scientist,
F ... .i .,. .. Rice-W heat
Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic
Plains, Country Representative for
India (based in India)
Julio Huerta (Mexico), Adjunct Senior
Scientist, Pathologist (Rust)
Craig A. Meisner (USA), Principal
Scientist, Systems Agronomist, Country
Representative for Bangladesh (based in
Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio (Mexico), Senior
Scientist, Agronomist
Rocio Navarro (Mexico), Program
Guillermo Ortiz-Ferrara (Mexico),
Principal Scientist, Regional Breeder
(Wheat), South Asia, Country
Representative for Nepal (based in
Marcos Pefialva (Uruguay), Research
Associate, Agronomist
Roberto J. Pefia (Mexico), Principal
Scientist, Head, Grain Quality
Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer (Germany), Principal
Scientist, Head, Breeder (Bread Wheat,
Durum Wheat)
Kenneth D. Sayre (USA), Principal
Scientist, Head, Crop Management

Ravi P. Singh (India), Principal Scientist,
( .... ,., ,ii,. I. (Rust)
Ganesan Srinivasan (India), Principal
Scientist, Breeder (Maize)
Narciso Vergara (Mexico), Senior
Researcher, Breeder (Maize)
He Zhong-Hu (China), Principal
Scientist, Breeder (Wheat), Country
Representative for China (based in
Adjunct Scientists
Krishna J,,i i ,i, Ii ,,. t Breeder
(Small ... i .I 1' .. Nepal)
Sarvesh Pa i. il I ....I 1. i
M aize S, .I- i .. .1 ).. )
Kamal Paudyal (Nepal), Agricultural
Economist (based in Nepal)
Arnoldo Amaya (Mexico)

Disciplinary Groups
Jean Marcel Ribaut (Leader); Tomohiro
Ban; Jose Crossa; Guy Davenport; Maria
Luz George; Scott McLean;Alessandro
Pellegrineschi; Enrico Perotti; Jens Riis-
Jacobsen; Garry Rosewarne; Mark
Sawkins; Antonio Serratos; Marilyn
Warburton; Manilal William

Crop and Resource
Patrick C. Wall (Leader); Dennis Friesen;
Raj Gupta; Scott Justice; Fred Kanampiu;
Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio; Marcos Pefialva;
Mirjan Pulleman; Neeranjan
Rajbhandari; Kenneth D. Sayre; Stephen

Maize Improvement
Marianne Binziger (Leader); David
Beck; David Bergvinson; Hugo Cordova;
Alpha O. Diallo; Daniel Jeffers; Duncan
Kirubi; Monica Mezzalama; Zubeda
1.i, .. .... : Luis N arro;
I, I -I. indey; Kevin
Pixley; Peter Setimela; Ganesan

Research Committee
John Dodds (Chair), Deputy Director
General, Research
Marianne Banziger, Senior Scientist,
Physiologist, Maize Improvement
Group Leader
Mauricio Bellon, Senior Scientist,
Human Ecologist, Social Sciences
Group Leader
Hans-Joachim Braun, Director, Rainfed
Wheat Systems
Larry Harrington, Director, Intensive
David Hoisington, Director, Genetic
Masa Iwanaga, Director General
Erika Meng, Acting Director, Impacts
Targeting and Assessment

Management Committee

Masa Iwanaga (Chair), Director General
Hans-Joachim Braun, Director, Rainfed
Wheat Systems
John Dodds, Deputy Director General,
Larry Harrington, Director, Intensive
David Hoisington, Director, Genetic

Guillermo Fuentes Divila (Mexico)
Man Mohan Kohli (India)
Nicholas Zeigler (USA)
Experiment Station
Rodrigo Rasc6n (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, Ciudad Obreg6n
Predoctoral Fellow
Scott Justice (USA), Agricultural
Mechanization (based in Nepal)
Postdoctoral Fellows
Jacob Lage (Denmark), Plant Breeding
Garry Rosewarne (Australia), Molecular
Geneticist (Small Grains)
Mirjan Pulleman (Netherlands),
Conservation Agriculture
Research Affiliate
Shahid Parvez (Nepal), Social Scientist
(based in India)'

Srinivasan; Suketoshi Taba; Strafford
Twumasi-Afriyie; Carlos Urrea;
-,,..l I .. Vivek

Social Sciences
Mauricio Bellon (Leader); Lone Badstue;
Hugo de Groote; Olaf Erenstein; Roberta
Gerpacio; Larry Harrington; Petr Kosina;
I.-I I. .._: Mulugetta Mekuria; Wilfred
M. Mwangi; Kamal Paudyal; Tyler Kruzich

Wheat Improvement
Richard Trethowan (Leader); Karim
Ammar; Hans Braun; Flavio Capettini;
Etienne Duveiller; Arne Hede; Julio
Huerta; Krishna Joshi; Muratbek
Karabayev; Morten Lillemo; Craig A.
Meisner; Monica Mezzalama; Alexei
Morgounov; A. Mujeeb-Kazi; Julie Nicol;
Guillermo Ortiz-Ferrara; Mahmood
Osmanzai; Thomas S. Payne; Roberto J.
Pefia; Matthew P Reynolds; Wolfgang H.
Pfeiffer; Ravi P. Singh; Sae-Jung Suh;
Maarten van Ginkel; Jiankang Wang; He

Peter Ninnes, Head, Projects/Investor
Shivaji Pandey, Director, African
Kevin Pixley, Director, Tropical
Jean Marcel Ribaut, Senior Scientist,
Molecular Geneticist, Biotechnology
Group Leader
Richard Trethowan, Senior Scientist,
Spring Bread Wheat Breeder (Marginal
Environments), Wheat Improvement
Group Leader
Patrick C. Wall, Principal Scientist,
Conservation Agriculture Specialist,
Crop and Resource Management
Group Leader
Martin van Weerdenburg, Director,
Corporate Services

Erika Meng, Acting Director, Impacts
Targeting and Assessment
Peter Ninnes, Head, Projects/Investor
Shivaji Pandey, Director, African
Kevin Pixley, Director, Tropical
Martin van Weerdenburg, Director,
Corporate Services

SLeft in 2004

CIMMYT in Brief

CIMMYT is a non-profit research and training center with direct

links to about 100 developing countries through offices in Asia,

Africa, and Latin America. We participate in an extensive global

network of people and organizations who share similar

development goals, including the public and private sector,

nongovernmental and civil society organizations, relief and health

agencies, farmers, and the development assistance community.

Our Mission

CIMMYT acts as a catalyst and leader in a global maize and wheat
innovation network that serves the poor in developing countries.
Drawing on strong science and effective partnerships, we create, share,
and use knowledge and technology to increase food security, improve
the productivity and profitability of farming systems, and sustain natural

Our Impacts

Wheat varieties bred at CIMMYT and its predecessor organization
prevented famine and hunger in South Asia and elsewhere in the world.
The benefits of this Green Revolution were recognized through the 1970
Nobel Peace Prize. More nutritious maize varieties developed by
CIMMYT won recognition through the 2000 World Food Prize. Wheat
varieties developed by CIMMYT and its partners are planted on more
than 64 million hectares in developing countries, representing more than
75% of the area planted to modern wheat varieties in those countries. *
Maize varieties developed by CIMMYT and its partners are planted on
nearly half of the area sown to improved varieties in non-temperate areas
of the developing world. Without international research centers such as
CIMMYT, crop yields in developing countries would have been as much
as 24% lower; prices of food crops would have been as much as 66%
higher; imports would be nearly 30% higher; calorie intake would have
been about 14% lower; and 32-42 million more children would have been
malnourished. Low food prices extend the benefits of agricultural
research to poor consumers in urban areas and landless people in rural
areas (and even to the industrialized world). If the developing world
attempted to meet its food requirements in 1995 without the improved
varieties of food crops developed since the Green Revolution, an
additional 426 million hectares of cropped area would be needed (a five-
fold increase over cropped area in 1965). These land savings helped to
reduce greenhouse gas emissions by ':' A higher concentration of
greenhouse gases might have caused climate change to begin sooner.

Funding Sources
Asian Development Bank
European Commission
Ford Foundation
Inter-American Development
International Fund For
Monsanto Fund
The Netherlands
New Zealand
Nippon Foundation
OPEC Fund for International
The Philippines
Pioneer Hi-Bred International
Rockefeller Foundation
Republic of South Africa
Syngenta Foundation for
Sustainable Agriculture
United Kingdom
United States of America
World Bank

CIMMYTContaf li
^---.- .^




Mexico (Headquarters) CIMMYT,
Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico,
D.F, Mexico Tel.: +52 (55) 5804 2004
* Fax: +52 (55) 5804 7558 Email:
cimmyt@cgiar.org Primary contact:
Masa Iwanaga, Director General

Afghanistan CIMMYT, PO Box 5291,
Kabul, Afghanistan Email:
m.osmanzai@cgiar.org *
Primary contact: Mahmood Osmanzai

Bangladesh CIMMYT, PO Box 6057,
Gulshan, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh
* Fax: +880 (2) 882 3516 (send c/o
CIMMYT Bangladesh) Email:
c.meisner@cgiar.org Home page:
* Primary contact: Craig Meisner

China CIMMYT, c/o Chinese Academy
of Agricultural Sciences, No. 30
Baishiqiao Road, Beijing 100081, PR.
China Fax: +86 (10) 689 18547
Em ail: 2 1-., ,-. -, -
zhhe@public3.bta.net.cn *
Primary contact: Zhonghu He

Colombia CIMMYT, c/o CIAT, Apdo.
Aereo 67-13, Cali, Colombia Fax: +57
(2) 4450 025 Email:
1 r... ..-. .; ciat-maize@cgnet.com
* Primary contact: Luis Narro Le6n

Ethiopia CIMMYT, PO Box 5689,
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Fax: +251 (1)
464645 Email: d.friesen@cgiar.org;
* Primary contact: Dennis Friesen

Georgia CIMMYT, 12 Kipshidze Str.,
Apt. 54, Tbilisi 380062, Georgia *
* Primary contact: David Bedoshvili

India CIMMYT-India, CG Centre
Block, National Agricultural Science
Centre (NASC) Complex, DP Shastri
Marg, Pusa Campus, New Delhi
110012, India Fax: +91 (11) 582
2938 Email: cimmyt-india@cgiar.org
* r.gupta@cgiarorg
* Primary contact: Raj K. Gupta

Kazakhstan CIMMYT, PO Box 374,
Almaty 480000, Kazakhstan Fax: +7
(3272) 282551 Email:
cimmyt@astel.kz Primary contact:
Alexei Morgounov

Kenya CIMMYT, PO Box 25171,
Nairobi, Kenya Fax: +254 (2) 522 879
* Email: s.pandey@cgiar.org cimmyt-
* Primary contact: Shivaji Pandey

Malawi CIMMYT, Bunda College of
Agriculture, PO Box 219, Lilongwe 3,
Malawi Fax: +265 277 420 Email:
* Primary contact: Bernard Kamanga

Nepal CIMMYT, PO Box 5186,
Singha Durbar Plaza Marg, Bhadrakali,
Kathmandu, Nepal Fax: +977 (1) 229
804 Email: cimmyt-nepal@cgiar.org
* Primary contact: Guillermo Ortiz-

Philippines CIMMYT c/o IRRI, DAPO
Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines *
Fax: +63 (49) 536 7995 Email:
m.george@cgiar.org Primary contact:
Maria Luz George

Turkey CIMMYT, PK 39 Emek, 06511
Ankara, Turkey Fax: +90 (312) 287
8955 Email: j.j.braun@cgiar.org *
* Primary contact: Hans-Joachim Braun

Zimbabwe CIMMYT, PO Box MP
163, Mount Pleasant, Harare,
Zimbabwe Fax: +263 (4) 301 327
Email: s.waddington@cgiar.org *
cimmyt-zimbabwe@cgiar.org *
Primary contact: Stephen Waddington

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