• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 CIMMYT worldwide
 A message from the director...
 Science for survival
 Science for the future
 Science for equity
 Science outlook
 Resourcing the research : CIMMYT...
 Transparency is important
 Trustees and principal staff
 CIMMYT contact information






Group Title: CIMMYT annual report ...
Title: CIMMYT annual report, 1999-2000
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077461/00004
 Material Information
Title: CIMMYT annual report, 1999-2000
Series Title: CIMMYT annual report ...
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2000
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077461
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: issn - 0188-9214

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    CIMMYT worldwide
        Page 1
    A message from the director general
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Science for survival
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Science for the future
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Science for equity
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Science outlook
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Resourcing the research : CIMMYT financing 1999-2000
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Transparency is important
        Page 70
    Trustees and principal staff
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    CIMMYT contact information
        Page 74
Full Text



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CONTENTS

A MESSAGE FROM THE DIRECTOR GENERAL


SCIENCE FOR SURVIVAL
6 The World Food Prize to CIMMYT Researchers for
Quality Protein Maize
8 Wheat to Feed the "Hidden Hunger"
11 Reducing Plants' Thirst at the Molecular Level
12 Farmers' Voices Are Heard Here
15 New Methods Pinpoint Dought-Tolerant Durum
Wheats
16 Smoothing the Road to Food Security in South Asia
19 Pakistan Puts Aside the Plow


SCIENCE FOR THE FUTURE
22 Breaking New Ground in Breeding Wheat for Disease
Resistance
23 CIMMYT's Genetic Engineering Strategy
25 Without Protection from Insects, No Field of Dreams
for Kenyan Maize Producers
29 New Agreement Accelerates Research on Apomixis
31 A Close Look at Biotech Breeding Costs: The Details
Make a Difference
33 Reclaiming Wheat's Full Genetic Heritage


SCIENCE FOR EQUITY
36 Will Asia's Appetite for Maize Exclude the Rural Poor?
39 Waiting for a Better Wheat Variety in Uzbekistan
41 Easing Farmers' Burden in Nepal
44 The Regional Maize Program: Delivering Value to
Farmers in Central America
48 Outlines of a New Agriculture in Central Asia


SCIENCE OUTLOOK
52 Functional Genomics: The Force Behind the Future of
Plant Breeding
54 Getting Beyond the Horizon: Integrating Models and
Geographic Information Systems
57 Wheat Management Training in Bangladesh: Bring the
Family
60 Vietnam Moves Vigorously into Hybrids
62 Gene Mapping Sets Course for Wheat Disease
Resistance
63 China/CIMMYT Wheats Survive Near-Drought
Experience
65 CIMMYT Feeds Youth's Enthusiasm for World Food
Issues

67 RESOURCING THE RESEARCH, 1999-2000
70 TRANSPARENCY IS IMPORTANT
71 TRUSTEES AND PRINCIPAL STAFF










CIMMYT WORLDWIDE


OUR MISSION
CIMMYT is an international, non-profit, agricultural
research and training center dedicated to helping the
poor in low-income countries. We help alleviate
poverty by increasing the profitability, productivity,
and sustainability of maize and wheat farming
systems.


Focus
Work concentrates on maize and wheat, two crops
vitally important to food security. These crops
provide about one-fourth of the total food calories
consumed in low-income countries, are critical
staples for poor people, and are an important source
of income for poor farmers.


PARTNERS
Our researchers work with colleagues in national
agricultural research programs, universities, and
other centers of excellence around the world; in the
donor community; and in extension and non-
governmental organizations.


ACTIVITIES
* Development and worldwide distribution of
higher yielding maize and wheat with built-in
genetic resistance to important diseases, insects,
and other yield-reducing stresses.
* Conservation and distribution of maize and wheat
genetic resources.
* Strategic research on natural resource management
in maize- and wheat-based cropping systems.
* Development of new knowledge about maize and
wheat.
* Development of more effective research methods.
* Training of many kinds.
* Consulting on technical issues.


IMPACT
* CIMMYT-related wheat varieties are planted on
more than 64 million hectares in low-income
countries, representing more than three-fourths of
the area planted to modern wheat varieties in those
countries.


* Nearly 14 million hectares in non-temperate
environments of developing countries are
planted to CIMMYT-related maize varieties,
which is nearly half of the area planted to
modern maize varieties in those environments.

* Between 1987 and 1998, CIMMYT delivered
nearly 40,000 shipments of wheat seed and more
than 20,000 shipments of maize seed to
researchers in developing and developed
countries. These shipments, which included
improved materials developed by CIMMYT
breeders and accessions from our germplasm
banks, represented a valuable source of genetic
resources for public and private research
organizations.

* More than 9,000 researchers from around the
world have benefited from CIMMYT's training
efforts. CIMMYT alumni now lead major
breeding programs, public and private,
throughout the world.

* Our information products and research networks
improve the efficiency of researchers in more
than 100 countries.


FUNDING
CIMMYT wishes to thank the many governments
and organizations that help us fulfill our mission
(see p. 69 of this report). We owe a special debt of
gratitude to those who support our core activities.
The impacts described in this publication would
have been impossible to achieve without that
support.


LOCATION
Activities and impact extend throughout the
world via 17 regional offices. Headquarters are in
Mexico. See contact information, back cover.


NEWLY UPDATED WEBSITE
We have redesigned our website to give you more
news and technical information. Visit us at
www.cimmyt.org.










A Message FROM THE


DIRECTOR GENERAL

AT CI MMYT, OUR DAILY COMMITMENT IS TO FOCUS THE BEST

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE ON IMPROVED HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL
WELL-BEING. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE PEOPLE AND PLACES THAT

COMPEL US TO SUCCEED IN OUR WORK, THE RANGE OF RESEARCH

PARTNERS WHO SHARE OUR GOALS, AND THE MANY OTHER ELEMENTS
THAT CONSTITUTE A YEAR IN THE LIFE OF CI MMYT.


World Food Prize

FOR FIGHTING

MALNUTRITION
Last year in my message for the annual report, I
described a visit to China's poorest province,
where quality protein maize (QPM) had changed
peoples' lives. (Quality protein maize contains
nearly twice as much usable protein as other
maize grown in the tropics.) This year it gives me
great pleasure to congratulate the two chief
architects of QPM, researchers Surinder K. Vasal
and Evangelina Villegas, who have just won the
World Food Prize for their work. Well done Sam
and Eva!
The story of these two CIMMYT researchers is
told later in this report, but the bottom line is that
they developed an effective means for poor
people to fight malnutrition, which kills almost
five million children under five every year. The
World Food Prize is a striking reminder of the
impact that can be achieved by investing core
funds in research. The time, care, and
commitment that produced QPM are now
yielding results in human lives. What better
return on investment can there be?


Partners WHO SHARE

OUR COMMITMENT
The growing success with QPM exemplifies
qualities seen in all of our work: first-class,
exciting research and strong, genuine alliances


with a diverse range of partners to ensure
impact. To make better products available more
quickly to farmers, and to gain access to the
very best research technologies, we have
established a range of well-thought-out
partnerships.
We have built "upstream" partnerships with
advanced research institutions, public and
private. Because such partnerships require great
clarity on issues of intellectual property, we
have developed an intellectual property policy
with the primary objective of ensuring that
intellectual property generated through
CIMMYT remains in the public arena. We
believe that technology must serve the wider
needs of all people. It cannot exist as an
instrument of exclusion, especially at the
expense of the poor.
To deliver "pro-poor" technologies quickly and
efficiently to those who need them, we have also
entered into a broad range of "downstream"
partnerships with extension agencies, non-
governmental organizations (NGOs), and seed
companies-large and small-which are best
placed to work with farmers in adapting and
adopting technology.
Our consistent companions in all of our
partnerships continue to be the national
agricultural research systems, which, depending
on their own strengths and priorities, can be
involved anywhere along the research-adoption
continuum.


_J











RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS:

Maize FOR AFRICA

AND THE WORLD
This report covers many facets of our maize
work; here, I would like to emphasize two
interrelated ones: our work in Africa and our
work related to water-use efficiency.

We believe that our program for maize in
Africa is the best that we have ever had
anywhere. The drought-tolerant CIMMYT
varieties developed in southern Africa will
have a life-saving impact, not only in Africa
but most likely everywhere in the developing
world. Like QPM, this work has benefited
from years of painstaking basic research, in
this case dedicated to understanding the
physiological basis of drought tolerance. That
foundation research yielded innovative
breeding strategies that are breaking the
"drought barrier" for African farmers.
Researchers have identified maize cultivars
that yield far better under smallholders'
conditions (characterized by drought stress
and infertile soils) than any other maize
available. Experimental cultivars have shown
yield advantages of 50-75% over commercial
cultivars under stress conditions.

These research results become more
meaningful when seen in the context of the
farm communities that participate in the
research. Last April, I was privileged to visit
Zvimba in Zimbabwe, where the local rural
school is heavily involved in the drought
research. The students introduced us to the
trial site and also sang for us. It was telling
that their songs were about hunger, poverty,
and inequality-a reminder of grim realities.
The fact that together we are making
progress against these problems was best
summed up by Chief Chirau, who said,
"CIMMYT people came to talk to our
farmers, but then they came back and have
stayed. If I were a rich man I would build a
house for Dr. de Meyer [one of the CIMMYT
researchers] so he could stay here forever and
help my people."


Bred for tolerance to drought and poor
soils, disease and pest resistance, better
protein, and other superior nutritional
characteristics, our maize varieties for
Africa are a hardy guarantee of food
security and better nutrition for poor
people. By reducing the impact of
agriculture on Africa's fragile ecosystems,
CIMMYT maize is also a guarantee of
environmental security.

RESEARCH

ACHIEVEMENTS: WATER

AND Wheat

WORLDWIDE
Across much of the developing world,
wheat and other crops grown under
irrigation must contend with increasing
water scarcity. Likewise, crops produced
in rainfed systems must be bred and
managed to withstand drought. In
conducting the field interviews for this
report, we repeatedly heard how people
are seeking to cope with water shortages.
Often they are succeeding, thanks to
CIMMYT and its partners. With our Asian
partners, we continue to have tremendous
success with conservation tillage and
bed planting systems, which have
substantial advantages for i opuItt-u-L
efficiency: water savings ot 1-4-j1 .
are reported!! Awareness ot the
importance of conservation
tillage is building across
South Asia as adoption
increases ten-fold each
year. This research is
reaching the crucial stage
at which continuing
investment is needed to
maintain the momentum.

CIMMYT is also raising
the water-use efficiency of
wheats for irrigated and
marginal environments. A
new research protocol at
CIMMYT challenges early











generations of experimental wheats with two irrigations
instead of the usual four or five. A range of lines appear
to yield about the same under the reduced moisture
regime as under the full regime. These wheats are the
forerunners of the varieties that will secure irrigated
wheat production in the water-scarce environments of
the future.

What about marginal environments? A growing body of
evidence indicates that CIMMYT wheats are now
adopted extensively in marginal areas. New sources of
drought tolerance should further extend the utility of
CIMMYT wheats in these areas. These sources-derived
from wild relatives of wheat-have resulted in
experimental varieties that yield up to 2 tons per hectare
when other material is dying from drought. As climate
change becomes less of a theory and more of a reality for
the world's poor farmers, these varieties will become
critical elements of production systems.


NEW AND PROVEN Science

FOR LOCAL AND GLOBAL IMPACT
In all of this research, new science (such as functional
genomics, marker-assisted selection, wide hybridization,
and transformation) is allied with proven methodologies
to reinforce the quality and efficiency of our research.
Many examples of this kind of research are contained in
the pages that follow.

Finally, I would like to point out that this report
illustrates how our researchers and partners, with their
considerable understanding of local conditions and
policies at the field level, have woven this local
understanding into a wider research strategy for coping
with the tremendous changes affecting agriculture in the
South. The foresight and dedication of our staff and
their colleagues are giving farmers around the world a
safety net in times of change.


CHANGES, CHALLENGES, AND

Commitments
Farmers are not the only people for whom change is a
fact of life, of course, and as I complete my initial five
years as CIMMYT's Director General, I have had time to
reflect on what CIMMYT has accomplished during that
period. It has been a time of transformation and



-j


challenge, but I believe that the Center is in very good
shape thanks to the efforts of everyone at CIMMYT. Our
science has never been better; our partnerships never
stronger; and our resourcing has improved significantly.

I also believe that over the past five years we have
created a fairer, more equitable workplace for
internationally and nationally recruited staff, through
better staff classification systems and promotion
procedures. Multi-source assessment for staff will
further improve the work environment. In fact, a recent
review of our project-based management system
identified multi-source assessment as one of the critical
factors of success.

Like the work environment, the funding environment
has also experienced change in the past five years. I
believe that we have adapted well and have
successfully diversified our base of support. In 2000,
CIMMYT has received about 7% of its funding from
targeted research agreements with advanced research
institutes, private and public. Contributions from the
CGIAR members in the South now constitute 4% of
Center income. Finally, funding from non-traditional (in
other words, non-CGIAR) sources provides 17% of the
budget, with non-CGIAR foundations contributing
around half of that amount.

Because we are all too aware that no condition is
permanent, we know that we must continue to lead, to
strive, and above all to change as the challenges and
opportunities of the 21st century arise. There can be no
time for complacency when 40,000 people die every day
from hunger and malnutrition. We must all press on
with urgency, whether our time at CIMMYT is five
years, five months, or 25 years. My colleagues and I
remain convinced that it is a privilege to work at this
research center. When I think about what defines
CIMMYT, it is this: superb technology, superb
partnerships, superb participation, and, above all,
superb people.

The context in which we work is changing dramatically,
but one thing that will not change is our commitment to
the people for whom we work-the resource-poor-and
the people with whom we work-our partners-and
our strong resolve to have a large, lasting, global impact.




Prof. TIMOTHY G. REEVES
Director General









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THE


TO


RESEAR(HERS FOR


QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE


MAIZE BREEDER SVRINDER K. VASAL AND (EREAL (HEMIST EVANCELINA
VILLECAS SHARED THE WORLD FooD PRIZE ON 12 OCTOBER 2000 FOR
THEIR EFFORTS TO (REATE A NEW KIND OF MAIZE THAT (OVLD IMPROVE
NUTRITION FOR MILLIONS WORLDWIDE-ESPE(IALLY (HILDREN-WHOSE
DIETS DEPEND HEAVILY ON THE (ROP.


In 1963, scientists at Purdue University were
studying a set of seemingly commonplace
Andean maize races and found something
quite out of the ordinary. One sample
contained a peculiar gene that significantly
increased grain levels of lysine and
tryptophan-amino acids that are essential
building blocks for proteins in humans,
poultry, and pigs. Named "opaque-2"
because it gave kernels a chalky appearance,
the gene also conferred low yields and
susceptibility to many pests and diseases.
For these and other reasons, after years of
breeding efforts, publicity, and hope,
farmers still showed little interest in opaque-2
maize varieties and researchers in many
quarters began to write off the discovery.
Not in CIMMYT, however. In 1970, the
Center hired a young postdoctoral scientist
from India to work with its cereal protein
quality lab and develop a useful product
based on the opaque-2 gene. Over the next 20
years, with strong support from the United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP),
Surinder K. Vasal would team up with
Mexican cereal chemist Evangelina Villegas,
using novel field and lab techniques to
overcome opaque-2's drawbacks. Lacking
biotech tools, Vasal capitalized on traditional


breeding techniques to incorporate a
series of special genes that countered
the unwanted side-effects of opaque-2. To
ensure that the value-added protein trait
was not lost, Villegas and her lab group
painstakingly measured amino acid
content in the protein of some 20,000
maize grain samples each year. It was 12
long years before they began to believe
they would accomplish their goal,
according to Villegas. "Around 1982-83,
through the use of modifier genes, we saw
the real possibility of completely changing
the appearance of the opaque-2 kernel,
improving yield, and working on the
other problems, while maintaining protein
quality," she says.


NEW
FOR A NEW ERA
Their new product was named "quality
protein maize" (QPM) by former Maize
Program director Ernest W. Sprague, a
firm believer in its potential usefulness.
Quality protein maize looks, grows, and
tastes like normal maize, but it contains
nearly double the lysine and tryptophan


It











and a generally more balanced amino acid content
that greatly enhances its nutritive value. A
CIMMYT study found that QPM can contribute to
reducing protein deficiencies, particularly in young
children. In studies by others in Colombia,
Guatemala, Peru, and, more recently, Ghana,
malnourished children were restored to health on
controlled diets using QPM. Nutritional studies
with pigs, poultry, and other animals have all
shown a significant advantage from use of QPM in
animal feeds.



THE GLOBAL

SPREAD OF
During the late 1980s and 1990s, CIMMYT
breeders Magni Bjarnason and Kevin Pixley built
on Villegas' and Vasal's work to develop high
yielding QPM varieties. Sasakawa Global 2000, an
international organization that works to spread
improved farm technology in Africa, promoted
QPM in Ghana and several other African nations.
The Brazilian research organization, EMBRAPA,
developed and marketed QPM varieties. Most
recently, CIMMYT breeder Hugo C6rdova and his
colleagues have developed high yielding QPM
hybrids and tested and promoted them worldwide,
with funding from the Nippon Foundation. "The
yield advantage of new QPM hybrids-as much
as 10% over local commercial hybrids, on average,
and often more-has caught the eye of breeders
and policymakers in many developing countries,"
C6rdova says.

"We believe we're witnessing a revolution
unfolding," says CIMMYT director general
Timothy Reeves. In 1999, he saw how a government
program based on QPM had increased the food
security and incomes of many families in Guizhou,
China's poorest province. "Several farmers there
told me they had often been without food supplies
for two or three months each year and literally had
to scrape, beg, borrow for scraps and the occasional
root or tuber," Reeves says. "When QPM arrived,
it not only helped with their own nutrition and
income but also allowed them to start raising a
sow or two. The turnaround in their lives was
remarkable and all resulted from the new maize."


A PRESTIGIOVS
Established in 1986, the W' i Id FE d f' iz>.- i:
awarded annually to indi\ id .lk I \hI ha \ .11
advanced human developmn.lnt b\ Iliu',\ II n
the quality, quantity, or avva IIila it h t tnd. inI
the world. The Prize, sponn i.-d -in11.- Ii'"1*' 1 b\
businessman and philanthilpil-t l 1hn Fiuan1
includes a cash award of LiS' 271 11 I

The first woman ever to re.-.i\ I. th.-. \\i Id F ood
Prize, Villegas said that she.- \va, nitiaill :ul pi i>.-d
"I'm grateful and happy to b,.- >:-ii.-.:ipi.-nt ,t this
award, but the most impol tant thing i: that it
will raise people's awarent.-.: aibnlt :i, ,mba tinl
malnutrition. In hospitals in Gh'ana In I ,i\ :hildit.-n
dying because they didn't hai\ I. I.-n.,ih I qullit\
food. This made a tremend iu.% imP,1i:t tiln Il.- \ nul
feel powerless to do anything t i the.- I knx\\
QPM will not solve all the \'oi Id Iultl Itlt n
problems, but it will help.

For Vasal, now leader of C IN I N IM' T A-\ian it.-iIn 11I
maize program, the award :,a p a lai Inl..- Ii t ti
honors in a long career ded it:,id t pI tId intI
better maize varieties for d,.-\ .-l, pin c:luntl \
farmers. He credits Villega i aiwnd ht.-i k.nam thnluhll
for their central role in the i:ac: mlmplIh nt it
QPM. "Without the biochemi.- al liabi a t i \ thinI
breakthrough would not ha\ I.- bI.-..-n p>, .ibl.,- li.-
says. "Finally, Bill Mashlei w hlo \\ i k,.-d at L'NDT'
at that time, and former CININM' T dI.-p tit diI. ll,
general, Keith Finlay, also pi n\ id.-d kt.\ iuppni t
for our work on QPM."

FOR MORE INI--.. T,-.TI, -Nr
SVRINDER VAS/ I i- \a-all'iar :.rga
Hvco (ORDOVA (h i:.rd:.\a,-'gIar :.rg'


_J












WHEAT TO FEED THE









MILLIONS OF CHILDRENN DIE EVERY
YEAR FROM "HIDDEN HVNGER"
(AVSED BY THE UNSATISFIED NEED
FOR MINERALS AND VITAMINS.
THREE-FOVRTHS OF THEM SHOW FEW
OUTWARD SIGNS OF THE NUTRIENT
DEFI(IEN(IES THAT ARE KILLING THEM.
GLOBAL (ON(ERN ABOVT
MI(RONVTRIENTS I INCREASING.
WHAT ABOVT GLOBAL SUPPORT TO
END THE PROBLEM?






Elements such as iron and zinc are called
micronutrients because people need them in minute
amounts. If these minute amounts are lacking,
however, the consequences can be disastrous. Iron
deficiency can cause anemia, especially in women and
children, cognitive and learning problems in young
children, and impaired work productivity in adults.
Zinc-deficient women may suffer more complications
and mortality during childbirth, while children may
present retarded growth and skeletal deformities. The
problem is most severe in developing countries.











r AT

HIDDEN HVNCER IN

DEVELOPING (OVNTRIES
Traditional strategies for preventing
micronutrient deficiencies in developing
countries have focused on health education
programs, long-term vitamin supplementation,
and the fortification of important foods.
Although often successful in the industrialized
world, these approaches tend to be costly and
unsustainable in developing countries. Grain
that is bred to be naturally rich in
micronutrients may be a complementary,
inexpensive, and sustainable means
of preventing malnutrition.*

Cereal grains such as wheat, maize, and rice
furnish the energy that people need to survive.
Cereal grains are not good sources of
micronutrients, but, at least in wheat, there is
good reason to believe that levels of iron and
zinc can be increased through plant breeding. If
micronutrient-rich wheat were widely available
in developing countries, the malnourished poor
who eat wheat every day would automatically
receive iron and zinc without having to take
supplements or purchase more expensive foods.



(AN WHEAT PACK MORE

NUTRITIONAL ?
To raise the micronutrient content in wheat
grain, researchers first need to explore
whether some wheats, or wild species related
to wheat, have higher levels of iron and zinc
than others. Preliminary studies conducted at
CIMMYT-Mexico, CIMMYT-Turkey, and the
University of Adelaide in Australia** have
suggested that this variability in micronutrient
levels does exist, especially in wild relatives


and wheat landraces. Since only 1% of
the materials available at CIMMYT have
been tested, much more variability is
likely to be found.

Another positive finding is that increased
micronutrient content in wheat is not
linked to lower wheat yields. There is
a good possibility of breeding wheat
varieties that will produce high
quantities of micronutrient-rich grain.

Breeders also need to consider that there
may be sufficient micronutrients in the
grain, but they may be present in forms
that are not available to human beings.
Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio, CIMMYT
wheat agronomist, points out that
micronutrients must be available not
only in plants but in soils. "Soils often
contain high amounts of minerals, but
they aren't available to crop plants," he
says. "If plants can't take iron and zinc
from the soil, the grain they produce
won't have enough of these nutrients
either." Breeders will have to improve
the efficiency with which wheat extracts
these nutrients from soil, and-just as
importantly-the efficiency with which
it stores them in the grain.

If researchers develop wheat varieties
that deliver more minerals in their
grain, agricultural productivity will
improve, because plants, like people,
need micronutrients. Seed with high
concentrations of micronutrients
produces more viable and vigorous
seedlings. Wheat varieties that are better
at taking minerals from the soil have
better disease resistance, nutrition, and
yields, particularly in mineral-deficient
soils in arid regions.


* See H. Bouis, 2000, "Enrichment of food staples through plant breeding: A new strategy for fighting
malnutrition,"Nutrition 16:701-704.
** These studies formed part of the CGIAR Micronutrients Project, organized and coordinated by H. Bouis at
the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
..














PLANT BREEDING AS A

PVBL( STRATEGY
Maarten van Ginkel and Richard Trethowan,
CIMMYT bread wheat breeders, raise some
important points related to breeding wheat
with higher levels of micronutrients. "Farmers
growing the micronutrient-rich wheats will
get higher yields and use fewer chemicals
to control diseases," points out van Ginkel.
Adds Trethowan, "Once the genes that increase
grain micronutrient content are incorporated
into all our wheats, the costs of continuing to
breed these wheats will be no different than
the costs of breeding 'normal' wheats."


Because wheat is the most widely
consumed crop in the world, the impact
on nutrition could be extensive. In the
long run, a breeding program may cost
less and reach more people than most
nutrition programs-another reason why
plant breeding could be a sound public
health strategy.

Finally, it is increasingly clear that better-
nourished, healthier people have higher
incomes and contribute more to national
income growth.* A more direct route to
better nutrition could bring considerable
economic benefits.


Many people have come to recognize that
"hidden hunger" is less visible than
hunger in famine zones but that it is just
as serious. The new awareness that plant
breeding may help improve nutrition (see
story on the World Food Prize for quality
protein maize, p. 6) should help mobilize
resources for research in this important
area. The CGIAR Micronutrients Project
provided seed money for CIMMYT's
preliminary studies on breeding for
increased micronutrient content in wheat,
but a far greater commitment is needed if
this important work is to continue.






FOR MORE INFORMATION:
IVAN ORTIZ-MONASTERIO
(i.ortiz-monasterio@cgiar.org)











SL. Haddad and H. Alderman, "Malnutrition: Income growth or
nutrition programs?" In IFPRI 1999-2000, annual report (IFPRI, 2000).









































































































/i/:











FARME R' VOKES


ARE


HERE


IN ONE OF THE LARGEST SETS OF FARMER-

PARTI(IPATORY TRIALS EVER ESTABLISHED IN

SOUTHERN AFRI(A, FARMERS HAVE FOND A

POWERFUL FORM TO (OMMVNICATE ABOVT

THE KIND OF MAIZE SEED THEY NEED.


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... .... .. 4
2::Ii~i~!1
C: i, .'+iS.4 4 :


In rural communities across Zimbabwe, a new kind
of research trial engages smallholder farmers in
decisions that will help them obtain the kinds of
maize cultivars they want to grow. Comments by
Stan Tapererwa, District Agricultural Extension
Officer of Zimbabwe's national extension service
(AGRITEX), reflect the widespread excitement and
interest that the approach, known as "mother-baby"
trials, has generated. "Extension officers feel highly
honored to be involved with these trials and they are
taking it as a part of their core business-unlike in
the past, when they were just on-lookers and only
got involved when new varieties had been released."


DEVELOPING AND TESTING

DROVCHT-TOLE RANT
Through the Southern Africa Drought and Low
Soil Fertility (SADLF) Project, supported by the
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
(SDC) and more recently the Rockefeller
Foundation, CIMMYT researchers Marianne
Banziger and Julien de Meyer and their colleagues
in southern Africa have been developing maize
that produces more grain under severe drought
and low soil fertility. The breeding methodology
itself is farmer-centered (for news on breeding
methods, see "Reducing Plants' Thirst," p.11).


P.: ......











"We take the two most common and challenging
nemeses of subsistence agriculture in the
region-drought and low nitrogen conditions-
and replicate them in a controlled way on our
breeding stations," says Banziger. Selecting in this
way, they have developed two open-pollinated
varieties, ZM421 and ZM521, that yield 30-50%
more than current maize varieties under drought
and low soil fertility. Experimental hybrids under
development show even more dramatic gains.



FOLLOWING THROUGH


WITH A


FoCvs


Banziger and de Meyer had the maize seed. What
they then needed was a reliable way to test the
performance and acceptance of their stress-
tolerant maize under resource-poor farmers'
conditions and to ensure that seed became
available. They hit upon a novel and cost-
effective model devised by Sieglinde Snapp, of
the International Crops Research Institute for the
Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), for on-farm testing
of practices to improve soil fertility. As adapted
by the CIMMYT-Zimbabwe team, the model
involves complementary sets of experiments
grown by researchers and farmers within farm
communities.

For each researcher-designed "mother" trial,
there are 6-12 "baby" trials within walking or
bicycling distance. The mother trial contains
promising maize cultivars for testing under both
optimal and farmer-representative conditions. It
is located near the center of the community and
managed by a local counterpart-a teacher of
agriculture, an extension officer, or a member of
an NGO. Baby trials typically comprise four of
the cultivars in the mother trial and are sown and
managed exclusively by farmers. "This method
allows 50 to 200 or more farmers in a country to
assess a subset of the most promising new maize
varieties," explains de Meyer. "Farmers and
researchers use results from both types of trial to
assess a variety's suitability for different
environments and its acceptability to farmers."


The mother-baby model is a decentralized
approach to on-farm research that greatly
improves the timeliness of sowing, trial
supervision, and contact with farmers. The
local partner provides established links to
the community and intrinsic knowledge of
farmers' concerns. Farmers who grow baby
trials are usually selected by the
community and receive seed free of charge
in color-coded bags. Stones painted with
the same colors come with the seed.
Farmers place these stones in the field as
they start sowing, making it easy for
everyone to keep track of specific trial
entries. "This system has been the key to
timely and decentralized planting of baby
trials by virtually hundreds of
smallholders," says de Meyer. Trial results
are distributed to all partners and farmers
involved, as well as through the extension
system and the press.



WIDESPREAD


In 2000,37 mother trials and more than
280 baby trials were planted all over
Zimbabwe. Collaborating partners in the
trials included NGOs, such as CARE
International, the Southern African Unit
for Local Resource Development, and the
International Technology Development
Group; community development
associations, such as the Horseshoe
Farmer Association in northern Zimbabwe,
which links commercial farmers with
smallholders to improve agriculture;
AGRITEX; secondary schools; and national
research stations. The demand for trials
by collaborating research and extension
staff and particularly NGOs was so great
that researchers ran out of seed. By all
indications, other countries in southern
Africa will establish similar testing systems
in 2000-2001.


Li






































INGREDIENTS OF
Banziger identifies several key elements in the
mother-baby model that make it particularly useful
for testing and disseminating stress-tolerant maize.
"Farmers and their entire communities observe
commercial and experimental varieties and hybrids
in their own fields and in the mother trials, and tell
researchers, extension, seed companies, and others
what they think," she explains. The participation of
secondary schools has been particularly valuable
for conducting the mother trial. Students plant and
care for the trial, compare results under different
levels of fertilizer and under conditions that prevail
in most farmers' fields, and involve their parents
and the wider community in what they are
learning. According to one teacher, the empowering
effect has been noticeable: "We have experienced as
a school and as a community that we can have an
active involvement in research and development.
This is how it should be happening."

In addition, farmers can now make informed
choices about purchasing commercial varieties and
hybrids. "We have seen smallholder farmers asking
for seed of the best released cultivar of last year's
trials. Because half of the trial entries are
experimental and the other half are recent releases,


this means adoption occurs while research is
conducted and decisions are made on future
releases," says Tapererwa. A farmer from
Mushawasha in Masvingo District reinforces this
by saying, "In a shop you cannot buy small
quantities of maize seed from several varieties,
just to try them out. Growing baby trials with
several farmers in our own community makes it
possible to see how varieties perform under our
conditions."

Finally, NGOs are keen to link community-based
seed production schemes to a mother-baby testing
scheme. "We benefit from results of cutting-edge
research, knowledge on new varieties, and very
practically the seed of relevant varieties already
packed as a trial," says Mr. V. Zvarevashe of Care
International. "Also, our field officers receive
training in field experimentation."



THE

LOVED AN D (LEAR
Because interest in the trials is so high, Banziger,
de Meyer, and their partners are exploring ways
of making these trials available more widely in
southern Africa. Representatives from national
agricultural research programs, extension, and
NGOs from neighboring countries have been
visiting and discussing the trials during a
travelling workshop. The feedback of the group
was clear: "The concept of mother-baby trials is
logical, desirable, and exciting. Its great
advantage is that farmers start adoption while
new technologies are verified. This greatly
reduces the lag-phase between research and
impact, adoption rates will likely increase, and
smallholder farmers and extension are bound
into a natural flow of new research products.
The approach guarantees a high return to
investment due to cost-sharing and synergy
among partners."


FOR MORE INFORMATION:
MARIANNE BANZICER (m.banziger@cgiar.org)
JVLIEN DE MEYER (j.demeyer@cgiar.org)

















I11


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SMOOTH IN THE ROAD TO


FOOD SE(VRITY IN




As INDIA'S POPULATION PASSES THE ONE BILLION MARK,

FARMERS ARE DISCOVERING (ROPPING PRA(TI(ES THAT NOT

ONLY PRODV(E MORE FOOD AND PROFITS BVT ALSO SAVE

WATER AND HELP (VRTAIL GLOBAL WARMING. THE

PRA(TI(ES ARE PROMOTED BY THE RICE-WHEAT

(ONSORTIVM FOR THE INDO-CANGETIC PLAINS (RW().


"Where will the food to feed all these
people come from?" Peter Hobbs,
agronomist with CIMMYT's Natural
Resources Group and RWC co-facilitator,
gestures toward teeming fellow travelers
on foot, bicycle, wagon, motorbike,
tractor, or in cars. All share a one-and-a-
half lane road crossing Haryana State, in
northern India. The beat-up jeep he rides
jostles and jars noisily as it negotiates
potholes and oncoming traffic. "Say you
decide to import a million tons of cheap
grain. If you use ten-ton lorries, then
you'd need a fleet of 100,000 trucks


plying these roads for hundreds of
miles to deliver it. Maybe a better
option would be to look at the deficit
areas and increase productivity there."

Hobbs is a man on a mission, with no
time to lose. He communicates that
urgency when the national researchers
escorting him through Haryana stop to
show him another of the trials they are
conducting in farmers' fields.
Questioning, joking, cajoling, he and
the RWC facilitator, Raj Gupta, drive
home an important message to their
colleagues. Researchers can no longer
spend years dotting "i"s and crossing
"t"s on research stations, but must
quickly place promising options in
farmers' hands for testing, and then
provide backstopping. "Everywhere
you go, people are asking how we can
produce more food and save
resources," Hobbs says. "As scientists,
we have to try new ideas; we can't just
continue business as usual."


&Lawq


ML'"v


y* 4b* j. ;""
~ A: i*; ;"
.u'rJ;1* 'sl ''*














NOT AS VSVAL
Hobbs and Gupta smile often on this Haryana
tour because business is not as usual. Zero tillage
is catching on.

Farmers on some 8,000 hectares in Haryana
have chosen to sow their wheat seed directly
into recently harvested rice fields, instead of
performing weeks of costly, laborious plowing and
planking. This zero tillage practice is particularly
apt for northwestern India and for Pakistan-high
production areas where tractors are used widely
and cutting costs is vital. Nearly all practitioners
report similar benefits from the new technology:
at least 10% less water used; fewer weeds; around
75% diesel savings; reduced labor and tractor
maintenance costs; and higher yields from timely
planting of the wheat crop.

Even when small numbers of farmers use
reduced tillage methods, they can do a lot for
the environment, from conserving scarce water
supplies to easing the effects of global warming.
By changing to zero tillage on just one hectare of
land, a farmer can save as much as one million
liters of irrigation water and 98 liters of diesel. For
diesel, using a conversion factor of 2.6 kilograms
of carbon dioxide produced per liter of fuel
burned, the savings represent a reduction in
carbon dioxide emissions (a major cause of global
warming) of about a quarter ton per hectare.

These benefits increase dramatically if extended
across even a portion of the rice-wheat region's
12 million hectares. Adoption of zero tillage on,
say, 5 million hectares would represent a savings
of 5 billion cubic meters of water each year. That
would fill a lake 10 kilometers long, 5 kilometers
wide, and 100 meters deep. In addition, annual
diesel fuel savings would come to 0.5 billion liters,
equivalent to a reduction of nearly 1.3 million tons
in CO2 emissions each year.

Consortium scientists from several national
organizations and advanced research institutes are
also working with farmers to cut down on the


burning of crop residues, which amount to
as much as 10 tons of residue per hecta I .I
producing some 13 tons of carbon dioxide.
Eliminating burning on just 2 million hectares
would reduce the huge flux of yearly CO2
emissions by 17 million tons. Leaving stubble
on the field, rather than burning it or plowing
it under, also furnishes a habitat for beneficial
insects that help control crop pests.



ZERO TILL: A TO LIKE
"How can one argue with a practice that d> t.-
all that?" Hobbs asks. Meanwhile, agi II: lt uial
engineers and local machine shops al.- i:i mblini
to meet the rising demand for affordabl.- it .-labII.
zero tillage seed drills. This essential th a,:t I
attachment opens a series of shallow I ut in1
standing rice stubble, drops in seed and tih. htiliz.-i
and then covers the seed, all in one pa.n1

Consortium researcher R.K. Malik of Hai \ lin n
Agricultural University works with ta, mI .- I tt I-t
and spread zero tillage. He says farmn.-, hI.-i.-I Iii t
adopted zero tillage out of desperation n \ h.-.n a
herbicide-resistant biotype of the we.-.d Pii.il i,-:
minor began ravaging fields. "If you haid bI.-.-n
here three or four years ago; it was su>:h a .ad
story! Farmers were ready to give up the.-i \ hlcat
crop because of Phalaris. I saw zero tillac.- at
CIMMYT in Mexico in 1995 and was I:, n\ in:.-d
its savings would allow farmers to bu\ the.- nt.-\\
herbicides needed. At first none of th.- t itht.-,
researchers believed in us, but now the-\ hal\ .
begun believing in a big way." Malik <:...-.- the- t uIt
gained among researchers and farmer a :,pt,.-nlng
doors to promoting other worthwhile pi, tl: t:.-
"Agricultural research requires inno\ a ti, n1 iu
have to be continuously changing, tr\in- n\.-
things based on what farmers need. Th1.- a ppi I,':ch
should be like that of the private secti i -\n I u ha\ .
to understand your product and kno\\ h o\ aind
when to launch it. Doing this require \\i, k in
farmers' fields and use of their ft.-.-dba:k


a..











BEDs

ELEVATE EFFICIENCY
Another option that Malik and his associates are
testing with farmers is that of planting crops on
Raised soil beds, a practice pioneered by Mexican
seed producers and wheat farmers. In this
technique, two or three rows of seed are sown into
long, flat soil beds about 10 cm high and 70 cm
wide. A narrow furrow between each bed carries
irrigation water and allows tractor entry for
operations such as weeding. The system saves
even more water (30%) than zero tillage and
multiplies fertilizer use efficiency, among other virtues.
CIMMYT wheat agronomist Ken Sayre brought bed planting
to suitable parts of South Asia through the RWC. It is gaining
popularity in Pakistan (see "Pakistan Puts Aside the Plow,"
p. 19). Sayre is helping agricultural engineers and machine
,hops to develop appropriate implements for bed planting
and zero tillage.

In rice-wheat areas, raised beds work best in partially
I claimed alkali soils and other low-lying areas where
\vaterlogging or weeds are problems or, conversely, where
there is a need to increase water-use efficiency dramatically,"
Sayre explains. His dream is to develop a system whereby
I ice can be grown on beds, allowing the use of zero tillage on
I raised, permanent crop beds. According to Gupta, as of July
'000, several farmers in Karnal and Uttar Pradesh are already
taking the lead in growing rice on beds. Researchers in India
and Pakistan have kept each other informed of progress and
potential research ideas through a recent RWC-sponsored
Traveling seminar.










ays. "Some people say we talk too much about it, but it's the
platform for many other improvements." As time goes on,
farmers in increasing numbers are deciding they agree.



FOR MORE INFORMATION:
t 4 PETER HOBBS (p.hobbs@cgiar.org)
tR RAJ C VPTA (r.gupta@cgiar.org)
S KENNETH SAYRE (k.sayre@cgiar.org)
---I '"^











PTrs ASIDE THE PLOW


Speaking on why zero tillage was not adopted
sooner for wheat in Pakistan, despite successful
experiments in the mid-1980s, Mushtaq Ahmad Gill,
director general of On-Farm Water Management,
Punjab Province, Pakistan, combines boardroom
terminology with a crusader's zeal. "Zero tillage
was not promoted properly to the real clientele:
the average Pakistani wheat farmer," he says.
"We decided that, instead of only workingfor the
farmers-that is, doing the trials-now we would
work with farmers." This meant that farmers not
only did the trials themselves, but paid for them
and for the use of equipment.



FORTY PERCENT

SAVINGS
Through thil ipi>a ,i:h and because benefits are
good, in ia tt.-\ hIt i t \.-ars zero tillage has spread
to nea I \ li I hi .- tl, .* in Pakistan. One of its
,hii.-f t.-IIIng pr,,nt- i- a 25-40% water savings.

F I .'_, \ ,t ,.'I I '_,,, LII ,11 .' .'> i. '[ i 111d I \1 11
t,iill>.il _-, t1 i>. -d t 11 1 .t'l.' %%I I M th "_, til :e \\,t>.'1
[I1> \ G ill a,'\ P,'it tit > tl t-i. ,,t:ka*.. C ill ,aiid Ii,
k>.',"lll Pl'n'mlk0i,. III\ ,h .': It'i..i lh.-\ ,..hlnb tit taii rola'ind
Mnd pl,,p,.-i l, ,t\ 'n ,t tt ..Id: ,nd 11 i ia ,,1n ,'lhnni.-l:
p i aI;ti .'_-J1 tll,t l ul >J .I '..11Jt>t1 i -,>.I >-tl_>, :i>.t:\
Fiu ialh- thl .. l ,, ip I,1'! pl,,P ,tJ,.-d tti IIn>.'1 _': >: ,.' to

mi.-thd i to %% 'i k ,'n,.. -,..a'n n 1 \ il ,., pl,'\ idin^


the equipment, and then tell them, 'Okay, if you
like the seed drill, go buy it,' and give them the
address of a supplier. Then we move on to other
villages," Gill explains.

According to agronomist and Gill associate, Hafiz
Mujeeb-Ur-Rehman, from 1998 to 2000 drill
purchases shot up from only 13 to 113. Gill says
the price-around US$ 600-has held steady or
actually dropped, because new suppliers are
entering the market.



WITH TILLAGE,

LESS Is
Getting to this point has been a battle for Gill.
Skepticism among researchers and extension
workers still runs high, their main worry being the
stem borer, an insect pest that overwinters in the
rice stubble. According to studies, though, other
organisms in the stubble serve as a natural check on
borer numbers. Even farmers, who had long used
,1'i, II1,111\ I, h nl tlt i; pt_ >-dt ,_- tO W, %% 'vivi at \%%,.,I,.,
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BREAKING NEW GROUND IN





FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE


TAKE A TECHNOLOGICAL BREAKTHROUGH, ADD A

FORTUITOUS BREAK, AND YOU MAY GET THE

INGREDIENTS FOR ANOTHER BREAKTHROUGH. CAN

A GENE THAT MAKES RICE IMMUNE TO RUST, THE

WORST DISEASE OF WHEAT, POINT THE WAY TO

NEW STRATEGIES FOR WHEAT TO FIGHT DISEASE?






Last year, Alessandro Pellegrineschi, a cell biologist with CIMMYT, considerably
raised the transformation rate of wheat-the percentage of wheat plant clones
that successfully incorporate a new gene and associated traits through genetic
engineering.*

Transformation rates are critical to the successful use of genetic engineering for
plant improvement. Low rates greatly reduce the likelihood of producing a
viable plant with a selected gene and trait. High rates produce more viable plants
and give researchers and breeders more materials with which to experiment.



A BREAKTHROUGH INen
By mid-1999, Pellegrineschi had taken wheat transformation efficiency rates
from an average of (I 2 to 0.9-1.1" a five-fold increase. He did this by making
incremental improvements in the transformation protocol, such as using
"cleaner" DNA, optimizing selection standards for embryos, and identifying key
environmental conditions for the mother plants of the embryos used in the
transformation process.

Although encouraged by his results, Pellegrineschi was far from satisfied. His
goal was a 5' transformation rate. "Shooting" 1,200 wheat embryos with a 5'
transformation rate every week would produce 60 transformations, enough
to test one gene construct and produce at least one viable plant capable of
transferring the trait to its progeny. Over the course of a year, this would
allow scientists to insert more than 50 different genes into plants-providing
a lot of new material for breeders.


* See CIMMYT Annual Report, 1998-1999, p. 16.











Twelve months after setting his target, Pellegrineschi and his team far
exceeded their ambitious aim. Wheat transformation rates of 6-7'
are now the norm at CIMMYT, and some elite lines exhibit average
transformation rates between 10 and 1'' "The biosafety
greenhouses are full," says the researcher, "so we can now focus on
other issues."



A FORTUITOUSrea
Lee Jang-Yong had just attended a seminar in early 1999 at CIMMYT
by the Deputy Director General of the Korean National Institute of
Agricultural Science and Technology, an institute under the umbrella
organization of Lee's sponsor, the Rural Development
Administration. Eun Moo-Young had given a presentation in which
he touched upon a gene in rice-the receptor-like protein kinase
gene-that might help explain rice's immunity to rust diseases.

Interest in Eun's aside about the gene was fairly low. CIMMYT
develops wheat and maize, not rice. As in most advanced research
institutes, in CIMMYT at that time genetic engineering for wheat was
more promise than reality. The large size of the wheat genome and a
lack of knowledge about the response of the plant in tissue culture
severely constrained advances.

While the gene faded off the radar screens of some in the audience, it
sparked an interest in Lee. He followed up on the matter with Eun,
who agreed to provide the gene to CIMMYT for research. Lee knew
of no successful transfer of a gene from rice to wheat before, and in
fact he was not sure if anyone had even tried it. But because Lee was
working in that special international mix of scientists and expertise
which one finds at CIMMYT, he knew of Pellegrineschi's
accomplishments in boosting wheat transformation rates and decided
to approach him.

As Pellegrineschi recalls, "Lee told me he had this interesting rice
gene and he thought it could be important for developing rust
resistance in wheat. I hadn't heard of the gene before. Lee created a
gene construct here at CIMMYT and we quickly kicked off some
transformation work."

The initial results were striking. Plants were infected with one of the
more virulent races of rust found in Mexico. The transformed plants
showed "only spots of necrosis, reflecting only a modest infection,"
compared with highly lethal infections on the control plants.
Pellegrineschi and Lee were ebullient over their results but also
recognized their own limitations in this area. They were not
comfortable with their disease inoculation skills, and neither
researcher considered himself a pathologist by any means. It was
time to call in another expert.


CIM~MY'

GENTI

ENGINEERING

*STRATEGY *S
In deeopn th tees of it.s









prouct at th*frerlee.h
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+* **' focu on posil
gens ortrnseris npln
an batra gen s. *











A roFOR

WHEAT DISEASE RESISTANCE?
"I was very excited to see the results," says
CIMMYT wheat pathologist Ravi Singh, "because
it's the first time I've seen before my eyes that
transformation can provide this kind of
resistance."

Singh, who has studied rust for 20 years, is quick
to point out that while the gene comes from rice,
which exhibits immunity to rust, he thinks it
unlikely that it will confer the same level of
resistance to wheat. He explains that there are two
types of rust resistance: hypersensitive or race-
specific resistance, which is based on a "major
gene," and non-race-specific or "slow rusting"
resistance, which relies on the accumulated effects
of numerous minor genes.

In race-specific resistance, a gene elicits a response
to a specific race(s) of rust and fights it by killing
the tissue in the immediate area of the infection,
thus denying the pathogen a source of food (rust
feeds only on live tissue). While this sort of
resistance sounds ideal, it holds up only for three
to five years. Slow rusting resistance, on the other
hand, allows the rust pathogen to continue
feeding on live cells but fights it within the cells,
meaning that infection is reduced to a level that
does not seriously damage the plant or reduce
yields. This type of resistance is not subject to
breaking down, although crop losses can be
significant when a rust epidemic is severe.

Singh, who is now conducting more elaborate tests
with the transgenic plants, says that they exhibit
resistance responses closely resembling race-
specific responses, so he doubts that this single
gene represents a magic bullet (with truly novel
characteristics) against the disease. Nevertheless,
more experimentation is needed to confirm this
supposition, and even if the gene turns out to be
race-specific, it could still be a valuable asset when
stacked or pyramided with other major or slow-
rusting genes within a wheat line.


The real breakthrough with great potential impact,
according to Singh, lies in the process itself. "A lot
of effort in conventional breeding goes into
looking for and transferring alleles and genes. The
exciting aspect of this [wheat transformation
process] is the fact that if we can identify
something in rice that can be expressed in wheat,
we can now investigate moving other genes with
known functions into wheat. Traits such as heat
tolerance, or resistance to fusarium head scab in
durum wheat, would be invaluable."

Experiments and research strategies are already in
place to determine if the rice gene can help
produce resistance to a wide diversity of rust races
as well as a host of other wheat diseases,
including fusarium, yellow rust,
helminthosporium, and septoria. "We are
producing adequate supplies of seed and plan to
test more widely," says Singh. "It looks like this
will be quite an exciting year."



eearcers AT THE

RIGHT PLACE, RIGHT TIME
Lee and Pellegrineschi share that sentiment and
are quick to attribute the advance to the
international research environment of CIMMYT.
Lee notes that little work on wheat is carried out
in Korea, and none of it employs transformation.
"Even with this gene in hand," he observes, "it is
pretty unlikely that anyone would have thought
of using it with wheat."

"It was the right place and the right time,"
Pellegrineschi says with a grin. "Our two projects
crossed inside CIMMYT, and that's why we've
been able to have this rapid progress. Working
back in our labs at home-in two different
institutions in two distant parts of the world-it
would have taken a long time to achieve this, and
actually, it might never have happened. Now we
have immediate collaboration and something to
show for it. This doesn't happen just anywhere."


FOR MORE INFORMATION:
ALESSANDRO PELLEGRINESCHI (a.pellegrineschi@cgiar.org)
LEE JANG-YONG (y.lee@cgiar.org)
RAVI SINGH (r.singh@cgiar.org)










WITHOUT PROTECTION FROM INSECTS,

No FIELD OF DREAMS FOR

Kenyan MAIZE PRODUCERS





AS A YOUNG BOY, STEPHEN M iuD.',I '..',:'F:.ELI 1 I
HIS FATHER'S SMALL MAIZE PLCT -,Il THE
SOUTHERN SLOPES OF MT. KEN,. WITH :F:E,
THAT LAND FED THE FAMILY AT'1 IT. liF:EF l.r.
PAYING THE SCHOOL FEES AND Ill:''.'ll II'
MUGO'S PARENTS TO BUILD UF ILLi-.E '.H-F'.
EVEN SO, FARMING HAD ITS RISI-... F.-F:TII:i_ F:L
THE HAVOC THAT INSECTS COULD '.'.'F:E- -. 'l I I TH
MAIZE FIELD AND THE FAMILY'. z'-lL LIFE.


"The stem borers would hit the crop around knii -
high stage, inflicting damage that, if not chtick d
would mean very little yield," Mugo rec ll- '.-At
harvest, during seasons of heavy infestation L hlid
to stoop to recover plants that had lodge d iin thi
ground, and the maize would often be n Ittk n
"When my parents could afford it, they -" IuId
purchase DDT powder in bright yellow p. k t-t .i nd
we would spend hours applying the dust int>o tih
funnel of every single maize plant. We v. i ut n..1 11 1 rt
of the dangers we faced and did not use In\
protective measures. And as we all know DDLT lih.
long since been banned."


I


" 1
:yr L'*


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A LARGER


The IRMA Project, funded through the
Novartis Foundation for Sustainable
Development, was launched with a
Stakeholders Meeting in Nairobi in March,
2000. In attendance were representatives of
farmers', women's, and church
associations; extension services; various
ministries; the private sector; and a
contingent of Kenyan print and broadcast
media. Director of Agriculture and
Livestock Wilfred Mwangi, on leave from
the CIMMYT Economics Program, opened
the meeting.

Mwangi was followed by Minister of
Agriculture Christopher Obure, who
declared, "Agricultural productivity has
not kept up with population growth, and
food security therefore remains a top
government priority. This trend is
accentuated by the increasing drought
spells of recent years.... The poorer
segments of our population suffer
especially hard."


STILL Working

AGAINST INSECTS, BUT ON


FIELD
Thirty years later, Mugo
still seeks to banish
destructive insects, but
his dream to raise maize
production is now
played out on fields
across Kenya. As
CIMMYT maize breeder
and coordinator for the
Insect Resistant Maize in
Africa Project (IRMA), a
collaborative effort
between the Kenya
Agricultural Research
Institute (KARI) and
CIMMYT, Mugo works
to produce maize that
can resist these insects on
its own.


Building on this point, Obure stated that
small-scale agriculture plays an important
role in the government's poverty
eradication and food security plans.
Agricultural intensification was the key, he
emphasized, but with that comes increased
insect pest pressure. Referring to the IRMA
Project, he noted that reducing losses to
insects would "result in an increased and
more stable maize production, improving
our food security substantially."



A Project

WITH A PURPOSE
A variety of insect pests eat through
Kenya's maize crop, but stem borers are
among the most pernicious. Once inside a
maize stalk, borers are impervious to
conventional insecticide applications and
cannot be removed by hand. Damage
estimates vary from year to year, ranging
from 15 to 4i i of the national maize crop.
Some smallholders lose entire fields to the
pests. Several insecticides widely used
against borers were pulled off the market
due to safety concerns. How can farmers
possibly cope?

Scientists from KARI and CIMMYT
designed the IRMA Project to address the
problem. Over five years, they will use
conventional and biotechnological means
to develop insect-resistant maize for major
Kenyan production systems and insect
pests. They will also:
* establish procedures to provide insect-
resistant maize to resource-poor farmers;
* assess the impact of insect-resistant maize in
Kenyan agricultural systems;
* transfer skills and technologies to KARI and
Kenya to develop, evaluate, disseminate,
and monitor insect-resistant maize; and
* plan, monitor, and document project
processes and achievements for
dissemination to other developing
countries, particularly in East Africa.


RESEARCHER
MUGO:
PRODUCE NG
MAIZE THAT
RESISTS INSECTS.











M ULTIDISCIPLINARY

Partnerships FIND

THE RIGHT APPROACH
The IRMA Project calls on CIMMYT and KARI
expertise in maize breeding, agricultural
economics, biotechnology, entomology, and
communications. To develop solutions that are
right for Kenya, researchers are gathering
baseline data and soliciting input from farmers
and other key stakeholders. In 2000 they
initiated participatory rural appraisals (PRAs),
yield loss assessments, an analysis of the maize
market in Kenya, and environmental impact
assessments (particularly in regard to non-target
insects, potential stem borer parasitoids and
predators, and soil ecology).

In the rural appraisals, CIMMYT economist
Hugo de Groote and KARI economists collect
information on what farmers like in a maize
variety and what they think about insect pest
problems. These baseline data will help
researchers assess IRMA's economic impact. The
PRAs also provide information on agronomic
and consumer characteristics that will help
breeders produce varieties tailored to Kenya's
agricultural zones. To economize on time and
effort, crop yield loss assessments are conducted
in a representative subset of the PRA locations.

Entomologist Josephine Songa of KARI,
meanwhile, is investigating a very different
population-the insects and soil organisms
residing in the fields of Mtwapa and Kakamega,
two of the five maize-growing regions where
crop loss assessments will be made. Songa,
working with KARI scientists and extension
staff, set a variety of traps to capture the flying
and crawling insects typically found in farmers'
fields. Research and extension staff regularly
collect the catch in these traps, thus obtaining
the baseline data for assessing impact on insect
populations at a later date. Soil cores will be
drilled at the respective sites at four stages of
maize growth, and the range and density of
organisms in the samples will be analyzed,
again serving as a baseline for later assessments.


An exploratory experiment to determine the
effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes
against Kenyan stem borers became the proving
ground for project researchers to navigate
through, and comply with, important
regulatory procedures. The project applied to
import fresh leaf tissue from transformed Bt
maize plants. The importation of such materials
is rigorously reviewed. Following approval by
the KARI Institutional Biosafety Committee, the
application was forwarded to the Kenya
National Biosafety Committee (NBC). It is
anticipated that the NBC will authorize the
Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service to
issue the import permit later in 2000. Importing
only leaf tissue, not live plants or maize cobs,
means that there is no possibility of
inadvertently releasing transformed seed.

In the exploratory experiment, local stem borers
will be offered a "free lunch" of the leaves
under tightly controlled conditions to
determine the effectiveness of various Bt gene
constructs against the pests. CIMMYT
entomologist David Bergvinson is overseeing
the bioassay work, which will help guide the
development of resistance genes in the
CIMMYT biotech lab in Mexico.











MEETING KENYA'S

Needs
At the heart of the project is the development
of integrated pest management strategies and
superior host plant resistance. Conventional
and novel sources of resistance are being
sought, including resistance based on Bt
genes.

Bt, a naturally occurring soil bacterium,
produces proteins that are lethal to many
borers. There are no known negative effects
on human or animal health, and organic
farmers in many parts of the world use Bt in
spray form. Because its main action is specific
to the larvae of moth species that feed on
maize, its impact on non-target insects is
thought to be considerably less than the
effects of wide-spectrum chemical
insecticides.

Cell biologist Natasha Bohorova and her
CIMMYT team have inserted synthetic
versions of several Bt genes into tropical
maize. CrylB and crylAc genes were
transformed into a tropical maize
background. This maize resists southwestern
corn borer (SWCB), sugarcane borer (SCB),
and fall armyworm (FAW). A synthetic crylE
gene and a translational fusion crylB-1Ab
gene were also introduced into tropical maize
and have shown resistance to FAW, SWCB,
and SCB.

Because insect populations evolve to
withstand conventional and transgenic
pesticides, measures must be taken to extend
maize plant resistance. The IRMA approach is
to "stack" or "pyramid" a number of Bt genes
together with conventional resistance
mechanisms to make it that much harder for
stem borers to evolve an effective response. In
addition, management strategies such as
refugia are being studied to help thwart the
emergence of Bt resistance.


Researchers will identify and develop gene
constructs that contain no herbicide or
antibiotic markers. Maize varieties produced
by the IRMA Project will carry only "clean"
or "purified" Bt genes, circumventing
concerns about unforeseen impacts on the
environment or human health. While this
approach costs more and takes longer, IRMA
researchers are committed to addressing all
reasonable issues that emerge regarding this
technology.

Meanwhile, Mugo and his KARI counterparts
are busy identifying the maize that will carry
the novel resistance genes. They are looking
at numerous elite open-pollinated varieties,
inbred lines, and hybrids from CIMMYT,
KARI, the Africa Maize Stress Project, and the
private sector. They seek plants with traits
such as drought escape/tolerance; tolerance
of low nitrogen; resistance to Striga, turcicum
leaf blight, and gray leaf spot; high yields;
and a basic level of stem borer resistance.



FULL STEAM Ahead
"KARI and CIMMYT are taking this on full
steam and are totally committed," says David
Hoisington, director of the CIMMYT Applied
Biotechnology Center and the IRMA Project.
Looking forward to next year, Hoisington
affirms that CIMMYT plans to finish
inserting all the individual genes of interest
into a general maize background. The
timeline also calls for completing a biosafety
greenhouse in 2001, which will allow IRMA
breeders to begin moving the resistance
genes into Kenyan maize.

"The first time through these steps is always
tough," Hoisington concedes. "But hurdle by
hurdle, we're moving towards testing the
project's first varieties and-ultimately-
towards seeing Kenyan maize farmers
produce more for everyone."


FOR MORE INFORMATION:
STEPHEN MUGO (s.mugo@cgiar.org)


DAVID HOISINGTON (d.hoisington@cgiar.org)
^1












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Biotech Breeding

Cos: THE DETAILS MAKE A

DIFFERENCE





WITH THE RISE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY, NOVEL
TECHNIQUES THAT COMPLEMENT TRIED-AND-
TRUE BREEDING METHODS ALLOW PLANTS TO
BE SCREENED IN THE LABORATORY RATHER
THAN THE FIELD. ARE THE NEW TECHNIQUES
ALWAYS COST-EFFECTIVE?







To choose wisely among the many tools of the
breeding trade, CIMMYT researchers need to
answer that question. A judicious choice could
lower the cost and speed the pace of plant
breeding, bringing millions of dollars in
additional benefits to farmers and consumers.
Plant breeding at CIMMYT is well positioned to
benefit from the wave of innovation brought by
biotechnology, including marker-assisted
selection (MAS) of breeding materials. As
biotechnology comes into its own at CIMMYT, the
time has come to take a fresh look at the costs of
conventional and molecular-based breeding
schemes, their relative advantages and
, disadvantages, and optimal strategies for
achieving different breeding objectives. This is a
formidable task, but it is integral to conducting
research efficiently.













FOR Analysis
Kate Dreher, a research associate, and
Michael Morris, an economist-both with
the CIMMYT Economics Program-
organized a study that examined the costs
of various breeding schemes designed to
transfer a single gene/single trait into
maize. The study relied on the expertise of
Applied Biotechnology Center (ABC) staff
Mireille Khairallah and Jean-Marcel Ribaut,
and Maize Program staff Shivaji Pandey
and Ganesan Srinivasan.

In setting up the study, Dreher and Morris
met with Maize Program and ABC
researchers to identify examples of
breeding projects that incorporated
disparate parameters, such as the transfer
of a single gene versus multiple genes, or
the detection of important traits earlier
rather than later in the breeding process.

Dreher, Morris, and the other researchers
were interested in breeding projects already
underway at CIMMYT because they
wished to obtain actual, rather than
simulated, cost data. For two reasons, the
group decided to focus on projects related
to quality protein maize (QPM).* First,
CIMMYT was already using molecular
markers to introduce the quality protein
trait into experimental maize lines. Second,
the conversion of "normal" maize lines into
QPM lines involved selecting for only a
single trait, the quality protein trait, which
made QPM a relatively straightforward
example for an initial cost study.








* Quality protein maize, which was developed
through conventional breeding processes, has the
nutritional advantage of containing twice the
amount of two essential amino acids, tryptophan
and lysine, as normal maize. See p. 6.


The case study concentrated on:
* generating detailed information about the
costs of conducting conventional breeding
operations and of implementing MAS
procedures at CIMMYT's facilities in
Mexico;
* determining the cost-effectiveness of using
MAS for particular breeding applications,
specifically QPM; and
* providing insights into the potential cost-
effectiveness of future applications of MAS.
The analysis proceeded in three stages.
First, field and laboratory operations
involved in conventional and MAS
breeding were identified and costed out.
Dreher observed and questioned
researchers and lab technicians as they
went through each stage of their work,
from start to finish, to gather specific
information on the costs involved.

Second, CIMMYT maize breeders and
molecular geneticists were asked to design
representative breeding schemes for QPM
line conversion, and four hypothetical,
stylized breeding schemes were selected.
Two of the schemes relied solely on
conventional breeding methods and
phenotypic evaluation, and two
incorporated MAS.

Third, the laboratory and field parameters
put forth in each breeding scheme were
used to calculate the total cost of
implementing that particular scheme.













Details
Although they are still analyzing the results of the
study, Dreher and Morris have come to several
preliminary conclusions, the most salient being
that the relative cost-effectiveness of various
conventional and MAS schemes depends on the
detailed circumstances of each particular
application. Decisions about whether to
incorporate MAS into a breeding scheme are
likely to require a case-by-case analysis.

When phenotypic screening is simple (in other
words, when it is relatively easy to determine
whether a given plant variety possesses a given
trait, such as a certain grain color), conventional
breeding is, and will continue to be, extremely
cost-effective. Conversely, when phenotypic
screening is expensive, technically difficult, or
even impossible, MAS will often be
advantageous, according to Dreher.

"Nematode resistance or tolerance is a case in
point," she says. "Most cereal nematodes are
insidious, below-ground pathogens that are
difficult to diagnose and quantify. Determining a
variety's resistance through conventional
selection techniques requires sampling,
extracting, and counting the nematodes,
extrapolating the results, and diagnosing the
effects on the variety-a process that is costly,
labor intensive, and only moderately reliable. In
this case, if we have molecular markers that are
linked to the gene (or genes) that confer resistance
or tolerance, MAS offers an alternative that is
simple, direct, and very reliable.

"Or take the case of maize streak virus," Dreher
continues. "CIMMYT can't screen for it here in
Mexico, because strict quarantine regulations
rightly prohibit the introduction of the disease
into the country. Molecular markers are the only
choice for conducting such work at
headquarters."


TIME S STILL Money
Aside from cost, another important factor
affecting efficiency-time-is addressed in the
study. Marker-assisted selection often allows
breeders to cut down on the number of seasons
needed to produce a desired product. For farmers
and seed companies, the benefits of developing
and releasing a new variety more rapidly can be
significant, as indicated in a study by the
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and
Chum Phae Rice Experiment Station, Thailand.*
The study concluded that additional benefits of
more than US$ 18 million were realized over the
life of a particular rice variety because the variety
was released two years earlier than usual.

"Even if we assume a high-end MAS scheme that
might run a few thousand dollars more than a
conventional scheme," Morris notes, "the extra
cost pales in comparison to the additional benefit
to our clients when a variety becomes available
sooner to farmers."

Although data analysis is continuing, the study
has already produced concrete results. "Kate
Dreher spent a huge amount of time around the
labs and in the field costing out day-to-day
procedures that usually don't get reviewed at that
level of detail," says Morris. "For station and lab
management, these data are very useful. In
addition they provide the kind of solid
information needed by our national program
partners to put together biotech project proposals
based on real figures."

Finally, Morris adds, the analytical tools (linked
spreadsheets) developed by Dreher will allow
researchers and managers to conduct additional
detailed case studies aimed at increasing the
efficiency of breeding schemes for CIMMYT and
national program scientists alike.


FOR MORE INFORMATION:
MICHAEL MORRIS (m.morris@cgiar.org)



* S. Pandey and S. Rajatasereekul, 1999, "Economics of
planting breeding: The value of shorter breeding cycles for
rice in Northeast Thailand," Field Crops Research 64:187-197.


-J









RECLAIMING WHEAT'S FULL


Genetic Heritage



OVER MILLENIA, THE GRASSES
KNOWN AS WHEAT'S "WILD
RELATIVES WERE EXPOSED TO
COLD, DROUGHT, HEAT,
WATERLOGGING, AND ALL KINDS OF
DISEASES AND PESTS. THE SPECIES
ALIVE TODAY RESISTED THOSE
S, SCOURGES, ACQUIRING A GENETIC
PROTECTION THAT IS ALMOST
INVINCIBLE. NOW A BRILLIANT
PRE-BREEDING STRATEGY IS
RECLAIMING THIS GENETIC
HERITAGE FOR BREAD WHEATS.








These hardy grasses are not only wheat's relatives; they are its ancestors.
Spontaneous crossing among different species gave rise to primitive
wheats that human beings started planting and selecting thousands of
years ago. As wheat became domesticated, it acquired the ability to yield
more and bigger grain, but it lost a good part of its ancestors' hard-won
genetic protection.
Realizing the wealth of useful traits in wheat's wild relatives, Abdul
Mujeeb-Kazi, head of the Wheat Wide Crosses Unit, used an elegant and
effective strategy to transfer those traits into improved bread wheat, the
most commonly used wheat. This painstaking research, which Mujeeb-
Kazi has conducted for more than 15 years, involves crossing durum
wheat with a wild relative to replicate the original cross that gave rise to
bread wheat in nature about 10,000 years ago. The CIMMYT program
has been far more successful than other programs in applying this
technique, and the "synthetic" wheats it produces have inherited the
genetic protection that served their undomesticated parents so well.











DRAW ING

Diversity INTO

MODERN VARIETIES
The process does not stop there.
Mujeeb-Kazi's synthetic wheats are
crossed with high yielding, improved
wheats to produce descendants that
yield well and possess combinations of
traits to withstand tough conditions in
varied growing environments.

"In places where there's a good bit of
rainfall, for example, wheats face
diseases such as rust, septoria, leaf and
spot blotch, fusarium scab, and
powdery mildew," says Mujeeb-Kazi.
"The wheats we've developed show
genetic resistance to six or seven
diseases at the same time, plus
tolerance to such problems as salinity,
waterlogging, and drought. This gives
them a huge advantage in most
environments where wheat is grown."

These materials also have a much
broader, and different, genetic diversity
than their "normal" counterparts. In
farmers' fields this translates into more
stable yields. As genetic diversity-and
its many advantages-become
increasingly important in modern
cropping systems, the value of Mujeeb-
Kazi's work is increasingly evident.

CIMMYT's Wellhausen-Anderson Plant
Genetic Resources Center houses about
500 species of wheat's wild relatives
that were gathered in many different
places, from several Middle Eastern


countries to Turkey to China. When
choosing wild relatives to use in his
crosses, Mujeeb-Kazi is careful to select
species that originated in different
places so that their genetic heritage will
vary. To confirm genetic differences,
parents and progenies are undergoing
DNA fingerprinting at CIMMYT's
Applied Biotechnology Center.
Fingerprinting will also reveal whether
the resistance and other traits the
descendants carry were indeed
inherited from their "wild" parent.


SHARING THE INHERITED

Wealth
"We've developed 95 elite synthetic
wheats that are available to any
researcher, especially in the developing
world," says Mujeeb. "We've placed a
list on the websites of Kansas State
University and CIMMYT that includes
very detailed descriptors of each line."*

These synthetics have multiple disease
resistance and thus fit the needs of
national agricultural research systems
in the developing world, which are
incorporating them into their breeding
programs. These materials are being
used extensively by countries such as
India, Pakistan, China, and Turkey, plus
the Southern Cone countries of South
America. From these materials the
programs will develop varieties that
will withstand diseases and other
stresses to produce good yields for
farmers, year in and year out.


FOR MORE INFORMATION:
A. MUJEEB-KAZI (m.kazi@cgiar.org)



* (See http://www.KSU.edu/wgre/germplasm/synthetics.html).


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WILL ASIA'S APPETITE FOR MAIZE


EXCLUDE THE Rural Poor?



ACROSS LARGE PARTS OF

ASIA, MAIZE IS GROWN


IN RAINFED UPLAND

AREAS TO MEET THE

NEEDS OF THE POOREST

HOUSEHOLDS. AS

ASIA'S APPETITE FOR
MAIZE GROWS FASTER

THAN EVER, WILL THE

UPLANDS BE LEFT AT

THE FRINGES OF

DEVELOPMENT?


* R. Gerpacio (ed.), The
Impact of Maize Breeding
Research in Asia, 1966-
1999: A Regional Synthesis
Report (CIMMYT,
forthcoming).


Asia's maize economy is poised to change greatly, and very soon. "Some
time in the next two decades, demand for maize in developing countries will
surpass demand for wheat and rice," says Mark Rosegrant of the
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). "The effects of this
growing demand will be seen most clearly in Asia, which will account for
6'1 of the global increase in maize consumption." Rosegrant estimates that
demand for maize, which was 138 million tons in 1993, will reach 243
million tons by 2020. China alone could witness a 94- increase in maize
demand over this period. Much of this increased demand comes from Asia's
burgeoning livestock industry, and it cannot be met by maize imports alone.

"Imports will increase, but so will domestic production," says Prabhu
Pingali, director of CIMMYT's Economics Program. "It is unlikely that most
countries will make an 'either/or' choice on this matter."


WILL Intensification BRING

AFFLUENCE OR TURBULENCE?
Across Asia, the expansion in maize production that has occurred during the
last decade was concentrated in the marginal uplands. In all probability, that
is where maize production will expand in the future. Even relatively isolated
communities in marginal areas-the hilly or less productive regions, where
rainfall supplies the only water for crop production and agricultural
research has been limited-are likely to feel the effects of the growing
demand for maize.

"The question that concerns us is whether this trend will bring more
turbulence or affluence into the lives of poor people in upland areas," says
Ganesh Thapa, regional economist for Asia with the International Fund for
Agricultural Development (IFAD). "Demand for maize in Asia has serious
implications in marginal upland environments. It can influence the
sustainability of agriculture and affect food security in the poorest
households."

Known for its support of innovative projects such as the Grameen Bank loan
program for poor women, IFAD has just started funding a three-year project
to understand the question posed by Thapa. The project, which focuses
specifically on the implications of intensified maize production in Asia, is
coordinated by CIMMYT and involves a network of researchers from China,
India, Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, IFPRI, and
Stanford University.










"This network is already in place and has proven
to be very productive," says Pingali. "Most of us
have worked together for several years on
socioeconomic issues related to maize in Asia."
The group has just finished a comprehensive
assessment of the impacts of maize research in
Asia.* At their third annual meeting in Ho Chi
Minh City, Vietnam, they devised a workplan for
the new project. (The workshop also gave network
members the opportunity to observe maize
production in Vietnam firsthand and learn how it
has changed in the past decade; see p. 60.)

Resource persons at the workshop included
economists and maize researchers from
CIMMYT's regional programs and headquarters,
as well as economists from IFAD and India's
Institute of Economic Growth.


PLANNING FOR

Productivity
By planning carefully and devising appropriate
policies, governments can ease the adjustment to
the new maize supply and demand situation. To


plan well, decision makers in the research and
policy arenas need accurate information on maize
farming systems in upland areas, and they need
practical recommendations for intensifying maize
production without depleting natural resources.
"Over the next three years, those of us in the project
will conduct several related studies. These studies
will be the basis of concise recommendations for
policymakers and research managers," says Kamal
Paudyal, an agricultural economist from Nepal.


KNOWLEDGE OF LOCAL

MAIZE Systems
Work will begin with participatory rural appraisals
(PRAs) in marginal upland areas and mountainous
regions, such as northeastern India, the mid-hills of
Nepal, and Mindanao in the Philippines. Network
members will identify a standard procedure for all
PRAs to gather detailed information on the local
constraints to growth in maize productivity.

"The PRAs will also provide other kinds of data,"
observes project member Benchaphun Shinawatra-
Ekasingh of Chiang Mai University's Multiple











Cropping Center. "That includes data for assessing
the environmental risks that accompany the
intensification of maize cropping systems and data
to understand the potential equity effects of
intensification." The equity assessment will pay
close attention to differences in women's and
men's access to resources and information.


NATIONAL AND GLOBAL

Influences ON MAIZE

SYSTEMS
Policy analysis is the second major activity in the
project. "To learn how policy might affect the
intensification of maize systems in upland areas,
we need to review many kinds of policies,
extending from crop- and region-specific policies
all the way to national and global macroeconomic
and trade policies," explains Walter Falcon, a
project participant who co-directs Stanford
University's Center for Environmental Science and
Policy and chairs CIMMYT's Board of Trustees.

During the project's second year, the economists
will analyze the objectives of these policies, how
they work, and what they cost "in economic terms
as well as in terms of budgetary implications for
governments," explains Ashok Gulati of the
Institute of Economic Growth.

Roberta Gerpacio, a CIMMYT economist who
coordinates the Asia maize socioeconomic
network, says that the outcome of this work will
be "three or four crucial policy recommendations
that target the maize sector of the countries in the
study, particularly the upland environments." The
recommendations will be made to senior national
policymakers.

In preparation for these activities, project
participants will undergo training in policy
analysis as well as PRA techniques.


THE ROAD TO Results
The project's final component is to outline maize
research and development plans that can foster the
sustainable intensification of maize production in
the upland areas of each country.


Senior researchers, national research directors,
IFAD project staff, and others will evaluate
national maize research priorities in light of the
new information gathered through the project.
Maize researchers will validate the constraints
identified through the participatory appraisals.
Once participants have determined which
constraints can be solved through research, they
will develop a list of research and development
priorities. As Michael Morris, CIMMYT
economist and resource person at the planning
session, explains, "They'll do this by considering
several factors, including the potential impact of
eliminating a particular constraint, the probability
of finding a solution to the constraint, and the
likelihood that farmers will adopt the solution."

The product will be a plan for maize research and
development that is clearly articulated, meets the
priority needs of the populations involved, and
has support from the scientific and policy
community that will implement it.


RURAL POVERTY OR RURAL

Empowerment?
In most countries, upland cropping systems have
received relatively little attention from research
and development, which concentrated first on the
lowland irrigated zones that yielded most of the
surplus food. As the capacity of these high-
potential zones is exhausted, however, and as
diets diversify out of cereals and the livestock
industry grows, the rainfed uplands will play a
critical role in securing food and income for
Asia's growing population.

"Uplands should become a priority for many
Asian countries," says Pingali. "And if that's
the case, we assume that it is better to be
prepared. Either you create options to
strengthen rural people's welfare and protect
the environment, or you create a situation in
which agriculture becomes untenable for these
people, and they become increasingly marginal
members of society."

FOR MORE INFORMATION:
PRABHU PINGALI (p.pingali@cgiar.org)
ROBERTA GERPACIO (r.gerpacio-irri@cgiar.org)









WAITING FOR A BETTER

WHEAT VARIETY

IN Uzbekistan


CENTRAL ASIAN FARMERS
LIKE NASIBA IKRAMOVA
NEED WHEAT VARIETIES


THAT RESPOND TO
LOCAL PRODUCTION


Farmer Nasiba Ikramova lives and works in Baitkurgan Kibray
District of the Tashkent Region of Uzbekistan, one of eight countries
in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Each year, Ikramova sows 1.8
hectares with seed of a winter wheat variety provided by the
government. The wheat is sown in autumn, germinates, and then
lies dormant during winter. Come spring, the wheat grows quickly
to reach maturity in mid-July.
Ikramova grows wheat with help from the government, which
provides seed and brings machinery to the district for sowing and
harvesting the crop. In return, Ikramova and her fellow farmers are
expected to hand over to the government 4.1 tons per hectare of
wheat grain. They may keep and sell any grain that remains. In bad
years like this one, little is left for the farmers.
Ikramova, who has three school-aged children, grows plums and
apricots in her orchard. The fruit harvest is good this year, which
she hopes will make up for the poor wheat crop.


CIMMYT Wheats SHORTEN
BREEDING TIME, RESIST DISEASE
AND DROUGHT
The main problem for wheat producers in Baitkurgan KibraN th-i
year is that they have had little rain. Farmers irrigate other cr> Ip-
but not wheat, so the variety they grow must be able to with-ti nd
the lack of water. The government provides a different variety\
practically every year in an attempt to find one that tolerates
drought better and resists diseases during the good years, wlih n
there is enough moisture for diseases to develop. The chosen
variety also has to grow and mature quickly, since farmers pLint
another crop after they harvest their wheat. Summer in
Uzbekistan is short, and farmers must harvest all crops before 2
September, when the first frost usually hits.






4 .
4.. "i


REQUIREMENTS, BUT
THE RESEARCH SYSTEMS
THAT DELIVER THOSE
VARIETIES HAVE LOST
HUMAN AND FINANCIAL
CAPITAL. WITH VARIOUS
PARTNERS, CIMMYT
IS CONTRIBUTING
TECHNOLOGY AND
TRAINING TO RESCUE
NATIONAL RESEARCH
SYSTEMS.


w~~c q1~4t..


'k

:~1~











At the Uzbek Research Institute of
Plant Industry, Bitore Dzumahanov
(see photo), a breeder who heads the
Department of Plant Industry, is
working hard to develop the wheat
variety farmers like Ikramova need
to produce more and better wheat.
The Institute started cooperating
with CIMMYT four years ago.
Dzumahanov is currently testing a
CIMMYT variety for conditions
prevailing in Baitkurgan Kibray, and
hopes to have it ready to be released
to farmers soon.


P I'
-j ~ ir


- -V.
.:


The CIMMYT variety needs less water and has
good genetic resistance to diseases like yellow
rust, which are a problem in the good years, when
there's more rainfall. "What's really exciting is
that the new wheat matures a full 28 days before
the varieties farmers plant now," says
Dzumahanov. For other regions such as the
Fergana Valley, where soil salinity is a problem,
he's testing a salt-tolerant variety, Sama 8, which
he got through Osman Abdalla, a CIMMYT wheat
breeder posted at the International Center for
Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
(ICARDA), in Syria.

Dzumahanov has received 800 winter wheat lines
from the Turkey/CIMMYT/ICARDA
International Winter Wheat Improvement
Program. He planted them and selected about 300
for seed multiplication and plans to share the seed
with researchers at other Uzbek research centers.
By using CIMMYT materials, breeders have
shortened the time it would take to introduce a
new wheat variety from ten years to four.


SCIENCE ON

Starvation WAGES
Back in the fields, a neighbor of Ikramova's,
Bakttiyar Turaev, harvests apples with the help of
hired women who work for just one bucketful of
apples a day. Surprisingly, this doesn't seem like
too little to Dzumahanov, who comments: "If the


women sell the apples, they'll
make more money than I do." He
earns barely US$ 10 a month.

How can he and his family
survive on this wage? They don't.
Explains Dzumahanov, "My wife
has a few dairy cows. In one
week, by selling yogurt made
from the cows' milk, she earns as
much money as I earn in one


month." Thanks to her efforts,
S i Dzumahanov is able to remain a
researcher out of love for his
profession and in the hope that
his work conditions will improve.

Dzumahanov's situation is typical for agricultural
researchers all over Central Asia. Funding for
agricultural research has been reduced to a
minimum, which means starvation wages for
scientists, the vast majority of whom have
master's or doctoral degrees. This unfortunate
circumstance has prompted many to leave the
field. Though the exodus of a certain number of
researchers was warranted, the trend has gone too
far, leaving some research institutes bereft of their
best scientists. Worse, it is keeping young people
from entering research.

To shore up the research infrastructure and help
reverse the "brain-drain," several projects are
currently underway. A CIMMYT project sponsored
by the World Bank's International Development
Fund (IDF) in Kazakhstan focuses on developing
national strategies to reform the agricultural
research system and build up its capabilities.
Another CIMMYT initiative financed by
Germany's Gesellschaft fir Technische
Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) aims to help Tajikistan's
national program, torn apart by civil war.

The forced flight of well-qualified researchers has
contributed greatly to the decline of agricultural
productivity. The CIMMYT initiatives and others
like them should benefit not only scientists but the
economies of the region as well.

FOR MORE INFORMATION:
ALEXEI MORGOUNOV (cimmyt@astel.kz)









EASING FARMERS'


BURDEN IN Nepal




Agricultural production in Nepal is growing at about 5:
annually, and the government has reformed the
economy to foster development. Still, the sharp
Himalayan peaks look down on an ethnically diverse
populace of 25 million who hunger for better
livelihoods. Roads, irrigation, markets, policies on land
ownership and use-all require attention. In agriculture,
one imperative is to get useful results into the field,
where they can make a difference.
The Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic
Plains (RWC) is helping in many ways, catalyzing and
supporting research throughout South Asia (see p. 16).
Resource conserving tillage practices promoted by the
RWC in Nepal radically cut the cost, time, and drudgery
of sowing wheat after rice, in effect lessening
smallholders' burden.
Rice-wheat is the common cropping pattern in the Tarai,
a lowland area in the South that is Nepal's breadbasket,
and on terraced hillsides at lower altitudes in the
mountainous band between the Tarai and the
Himalayas. According to Ganesh Sah, head of the
Agricultural Implements Research Center at Birganj,
tilling less not only saves costs but significantly increases
wheat yields in a rice-wheat system. "Because rice is
grown on puddled soils, preparing to sow wheat can
normally take two weeks or more, involve 7 to 12 plow
passes, and even require additional irrigation," Sah says.
"By sowing wheat as soon as possible after the rice
harvest in the fall, the crop matures before the hot winds
of spring, which shrivel undeveloped grains."



CAST YOUR SEED UPON
Fertile SOIL
The simplest reduced tillage technique is surface
seeding. In this method, farmers simply toss wheat seed
onto moist soil immediately before or after rice harvest.
The practice is especially suited to poorly drained areas
with heavy soils that impede normal tillage. Because it


IN THE HILLS OF NEPAL, ENTIRE
FAMILIES, INCLUDING CHILDREN,
TRAVERSE DIFFICULT PATHS,
CARRYING ENORMOUS LOADS
THAT SOMETIMES INCLUDE
PRECIOUS SEED OR FERTILIZER.
SMALLHOLDER AGRICULTURE IS
THE LIVELIHOOD FOR OVER
80% OF THE POPULATION.


NOW, SMALL-SCALE


MECHANIZATION AND
IMPROVED PRACTICES ARE
LESSENING FARMERS' BURDEN AND
HELPING TO CARRY THEM-AND
THE COUNTRY-TO NEW
PROSPERITY.
-1i


































CAREFULLY MAINTAINED

TERRACES, NUTRIENT

MANAGEMENT, AND

AMPLE WATER HAVE

ALLOWED CENTURIES OF

INTENSIVE HILLSIDE

FARMING IN NEPAL.


cuts production costs by fully one-third and requires no
implements, even the poorest farmers can practice surface
seeding.

Sah says that the practice is being adapted on land once
considered unsuited to cropping in the Tarai. "CIMMYT
researcher Peter Hobbs saw these poorly drained, low-lying
areas and suggested surface seeding as an option," he explains.
"It worked nicely; we got yields of 3.7 tons per hectare. Farmers
saw this and began planting themselves." Hobbs observes that
farmers need to apply fertilizer later in the crop cycle to avoid
soil nutrient losses, and researchers will need to monitor soil
fertility in these areas, but farmers are pleased to have found a
way to use land that could not be cropped before.

Sanjay Kumar Gami, senior soil scientist and site coordinator of
the Regional Agricultural Research Station at Parwanipur, also
helped farmers experiment with the practice on as many as 50
hectares in 1999. Once farmers see the evidence, transfer ensues
via lively word-of-mouth repartee, according to Sah. "People in
wedding parties from India-who often enter southern Nepal to
celebrate-have seen surface-seeded plots and asked farmers
how they did it," he explains. "When the farmers from Nepal
told them, they still didn't believe it!"

Farmer Chotelal Prasad Sah of Benauli Village, Bara District,
surface seeded 1.5 hectares near a river for the first time in 1999.
He used poor quality seed with no fertilizer, just to see how the
practice would work. "Crop establishment was excellent," he
says. "I'm expecting wheat yields of four or five tons per hectare,
even after paying laborers their portion of the grain." In a
country where wheat yields average 1.6 tons per hectare, it is
easy to understand Sah's enthusiasm.

In Gargati Village, Hatibangai Township, farmer Rama Shankar
Misra surface seeded wheat and mustard into a previously
unused riverbed. "In wet soils like these, I wouldn't be able to
plow or plant normally. With direct seeding, I don't have to work
as hard," Misra says. According to Scott Justice, research affiliate
in the CIMMYT Natural Resources Group, use of surface seeding
has even raised land prices in some areas. "There's never been a
wheat crop here before, and there's nothing else anyone could do
here, yet Mr. Misra's going to get a good yield," Justice says.

To discourage birds from feasting on unprotected seed,
agronomist Ghana Shyam Giri, of the Regional Agricultural
Research Station at Bhairahawa, came up with a unique
"solution"-literally, a slurry of farmyard manure in which seed
is soaked before it is placed it on the soil. Farmers have widely
adopted the treatment, and birds have left the seed alone.











The story of surface seeding
shows how the RWC differs from
many research partnerships. It
does not see itself as simply
"giving" promising options to
farmers; instead, it is a
partnership in which farmers are
welcome to experiment, assume
ownership, and share
observations. For example,
farmers in Benauli talked at
length with researchers about the
importance of having the right soil moisture
before surface seeding. They also observed
that denser seeding helps control weeds, and
many farmers were tossing wheat seed
directly into the rice crop before harvest,
giving weeds even less of a chance to sprout.


SMALL-SCALE

Machinery FOR

SMALLHOLDER FARMERS
The RWC works with farmers to test and
adapt another particularly suitable option for
smaller holdings: the two-wheel tractor.
Widely used in China and Bangladesh, the
tractor comes to Nepal with an array of
implements, including pumps, threshers,
reapers, winnowing fans, and trailers, that
make farm work less burdensome and more
productive. The tractor and implements cost
a fraction of the price of a four-wheel tractor
and consume about US$ 13 less diesel per
hectare. The tractors also work better in
muddy soils and on the relatively small plots
typical of Nepal. Finally, the tractors and the
till-and-sow attachment allow more timely
sowing of wheat after rice. As already
mentioned, this boosts yields, saves irrigation
water and fuel, and heightens the efficiency
with which plants use nutrients.


S THIS RIVERBED IS NOW AWASH WITH
WHEAT, TO THE SATISFACTION OF
RAMA SHANKAR MISRA.

In Karmahawa Village, farmers
Shave been testing two-wheel
tractors with Justice's help to till
and sow, pump irrigation water,
puddle rice fields, and haul
trailers. Chedi Prasad
Chaudhary, Karmahawa
merchant and member of a local
farmer group, says the tractors
are more efficient than bullocks and, increasingly, CHOTELAL PRASAD
less expensive to maintain. "It did lots of work SAH OF BENAULI
for us," Chaudhary says. I was able to sow six
hectares of wheat! Compared to the bullock, it is VILLAGE HAS
much faster and sows wheat better." WORKED WITH

Because they are not built locally, tractors must N EPALESE
be imported, a service that only one Nepalese
company currently offers. The basic tractor RESEARCHERS IN THE
package of US$ 1,300 is still beyond individual RWC TO TEST BOTH
farmers' means (average annual per capital
SURFACE SEEDING
income in Nepal is US$ 200). Like many of their
peers all over the developing world, AND THE TWO-
Karmahawa farmers are waiting anxiously for
WHEEL TRACTOR.
credit to become available. The banks already
have a small farmer development program. "All
this is waiting to take off-it just needs a little
push," Justice says. "With loans on favorable
terms, farmers should have no trouble paying
banks back."

Justice hopes to popularize small--c l
mechanization in Nepal. "Current
tillage practices involve back- .
breaking work. Farmers are happy\ (
to find alternatives that reduce
labor, yield more, and cost less,"
he says. Part of his time is spent
coordinating training and other
support for tractor maintenance
shops. "The first step is learning
repairs, but eventually shops
will manufacture simple
implements."


FOR MORE INFORMATION:
SCOTT JUSTICE (justice@wlink.com.np)
PETER HOBBS (p.hobbs@cgiar.org); www.cgiar.org/rwc









THE REGIONAL MAIZE PROGRAM:


DELIVERING VALUE TO FARMERS IN


THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AMERICA

AND THE CARIBBEAN HAVE EXPLOITED THE

ADVANTAGES ',,F SPECIALIZATION AND

ECONOMIES OF SCALE TO BRING FARMERS

LARGE BENEFITs. THEY HAVE DONE THIS BY

PARTICIPATING IN RESEARCH NETWORKS-
WHICH ARE NOW IN DANGER OF DISAPPEARING.




In the late 1970s, CIMMYT and the Swiss Agency for
Development and Cooperation (SDC) joined forces to
promote the science-based cropping of maize in Central
America and the Caribbean. Among other things, SDC
support created a stable basis for collaborative
research with CIMMYT and its predecessors in
the region, which dated from the 1950s. Out
of this a more formal regional network-the
Program Regional de Maiz, or PRMN-grew
and consolidated.

The PRM helped specialists from individual
nations to share information and experience
effectively across borders. Goals were set and
progress monitored for the entire region. Each
research program performed specific tasks, based on
t" duplication of effort. Funding disbursements became
timely, direct, and based on progress toward easily
verifiable benchmarks.
I


National research systems


CIMM YT-
SProi e sector








IMPROVED MAIZE
SEED IN CENTRAL
AMERICA.


S*h


A


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/1


^,*it4


-cJ


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s


. t"01











The network and the collaboration on which it
built have brought forth a wealth of improved crop
varieties and farming practices. It made agriculture
more profitable, helped conserve natural resources
and, through more abundant harvests, lowered the
cost of food for the poor, benefiting farmers and
consumers.


Do COUNTRIES Gain or

Lose BY COLLABORATING?
In a recent study* to measure the efficiency of
cooperation among developing countries in a
region, the CIMMYT Economics Program
examined the case of the PRM in Central America
and the Caribbean. The study addressed two
questions. First, are there incentives for
governments to cooperate in agricultural research?
Second, what are the sources and magnitudes of
maize germplasm technology spillovers in the
region? In very simple terms, a "technology
spillover" occurs when a technology-such as a
new maize variety-developed in one location
(e.g., a certain country) proves useful in another
location (e.g., a neighboring country).

In brief, results provide strong evidence that the
PRM is the largest contributor of spillovers among
all institutions-public or private-that develop
maize varieties for the region (see figure, p. 44),
and that network projects have made research
much more efficient. For example, the study's cost-
benefit analyses show the PRM invests only six
cents for every dollar of impact it achieves.


IMPROVED VARIETIES

Pay Their Way
Higher yields and tolerance to harsh conditions-
drought, pathogens, pests, and poor soils- are the
hallmarks of improved varieties released in Central
America and the Caribbean through CIMMYT-
PRM-national program efforts. The varieties are
paying their way. As of 1996, extra grain from
improved varieties developed through regional
cooperation (and based on CIMMYT seed)
provided yearly benefits of US$ 70 million. Nearly
150 such varieties have been released in the region.


"A particular advantage of these varieties is
their disease resistance, which helps ensure
stable yields for subsistence farm households,"
says Jorge Bolafios, CIMMYT maize agronomist
and technical advisor to the PRM. "Such families
have little or no cash income and face hunger
after a single crop failure. Protecting their
harvests from diseases, even at relatively low
yield levels, often contributes more to household
income and food security than getting higher
yields in disease-free years."

Resistant varieties also allow farmers to reduce
or eliminate fungicide applications. This saves
millions of dollars yearly across the region,
improves farmers' health, and helps protect the
environment. In the Pacific regions where corn
stunt disease once decimated maize crops, up to
71 i of the farmers now grow resistant, PRM
varieties.


SEED TO Recover

FROM DISASTERS
Who do you call when disaster strikes? For
national maize research programs, the answer is
clear: the PRM. In 1989, for example, the PRM
completely replaced strategic maize seed reserves
lost in Panama during the US invasion, allowing
the national maize program to meet farmers' seed
needs in only four months. In the wake of
Hurricane Mitch in 1998, the PRM quickly helped
replace national stocks of maize washed away in
floodwaters.

"The network can do this because its members
know which varieties are appropriate for the
region, because they have access to the right seed
and can quickly produce the amounts needed,
and because they enjoy a recognized technical
and 'on-the-ground' presence in the region," says
Bolafios.


* M.I. Gomez and P.L. Pingali, International Research
Networks in A*ri itiltroc. Their Implications for Research
Lit'. -, and for the Flow of Spillovers in Developing
Countries (CIMMYT, 2000).











Systems TO YIELD

MORE, SAVE RESOURCES
Science can help farmers better orchestrate complex
Scrapping systems in ways that increase output and
It. reduce risks. The PRM participants have studied,
adapted, and spread improved crop and land
management techniques that are profitable for
farmers.

One example is the adoption of conservation tillage.
41 The practice has allowed farmers to raise maize
yields from 1.5 to 4.0 tons per hectare, while halting
Cole erosion, in an intensive maize-sorghum rotation on
the hillsides of El Salvador. Network researchers
have refined and spread the practice to other parts
Ir of the region. In Azuero, Panama, for instance, at
S' least six of every ten farmers now use reduced
tillage to save money, reduce weeds and herbicide
use, and conserve soils.
-. .... Intercropping with various legumes ("green
manures") has also been fine-tuned, tested, and
spread through the PRM. Farmers in many areas
use maize-legume systems to improve soil fertility
and avoid erosion. Finally, PRM scientists have
"YOU SEE TRUCKS helped farmers use expensive chemical fertilizers

CARRYING SOFT DRINKS more efficiently

TO REMOTE VILLAGES, BenefitsOF

BUT NO ONE DELIVERS UNDERSTANDING FARMERS'

SEED OF IMPROVED PERSPECTIVES
PERSPECTIVES
MAIZE. The PRM has raised the profile of agricultural
economists and rural sociologists in the region.
Socioeconomists helped breeders and agronomists
to understand farmers' needs and learn why
specific varieties or practices were adopted or
ignored. Through the networks, socioeconomists
have tested, refined, and promoted useful principles
and methods, among them:
Viewing farm households and activities as a
"system."
Assessing varieties and practices under farmers'
actual conditions, rather than on experiment stations.
Using economic analyses to gauge potential benefits
of varieties or practices.











"These tools are now employed routinely by
breeders and agronomists, and help explain the
relevance and impact of their work," explains
Gustavo Sain, CIMMYT economist who works with
the PRM.


Knowledge: THE

IMPACT OF "INVISIBLE"

CAPITAL
For all their differences, the impacts cited in this
document have one, important element in
common: they were accomplished by researchers in
public and private institutions of countries in
Central America and the Caribbean. Working alone
or in tandem, these professionals put in long hours
away from their families for low pay and under
often difficult conditions that have included natural
and civil crises. Year after year, the PRM provided
crucial opportunities for building skills and careers,
and became a pivotal link among these
professionals. An expert panel that reviewed the
PRM stated, "...The overall effect is reflected in the
professionalism of most national researchers, as
well as the technical quality of activities that benefit
the region's smallholders."


A PARADIGM FOR

Participation: WILL

You JOIN Us?
There is much to be done: only 25' of the region's
farmers regularly purchase fresh seed of improved
maize-mostly of hybrids. The remainder plant
seed they have saved from a previous harvest-
either seed of local, unimproved varieties, or seed
of improved maize whose qualities are diluted
from generations of re-use and outcrossing. What
holds back the purchase of improved seed? Key
factors, according to Bolafios, are farmers' chronic
lack of resources and their reluctance to gamble
with the few they have.

"Most farmers are loathe to risk what little money
they have on an input like improved seed, when
much of their crop may be lost to drought, diseases,
insect pests, or other constraints," he says. All of


this makes for a relatively unattractive market for
commercial seed distributors. "It's simple
economics. You see trucks carrying soft drinks to
stores in remote villages, but no one delivers seed
of improved maize," Bolafios remarks.

Even though the region is now poised to build on
its achievements through further collaboration,
public support for research has eroded. The result
is radical cutbacks on staff and a virtual absence
of operating funds. "If the trend continues, one
can imagine a scenario ten years down the road
when Central America and the Caribbean will be
forced to import food," says Bolafios. "Today we
import almost 4i i of the maize consumed and
the figure continues to grow. As rural
productivity declines, the massive flight of
unemployed farmers would add to the pockets of
poverty already existing in cities. It's hard to
imagine that this corresponds to the best interests
of the region's governments."

When asked what future direction the PRM
should take, based on the economic study he co-
authored, former CIMMYT research associate
Miguel Ignacio G6mez cites recent work by World
Bank economist Derek Byerlee. "He published a
paper not long ago that suggests a new paradigm
for national programs and mentions four key
areas," says G6mez. "First, a more pluralistic
structure, with the participation of many
institutions. Second, moving toward more
competitive ways of funding research. Next, more
private participation and, finally, stronger links
with international research systems. Because of its
ties to CIMMYT, the PRM already has several of
these issues resolved."

With support from SDC, the PRM and two other
crop networks from the region are seeking ways
to continue their work and that of their partners.
Given the results of the CIMMYT economic study
and other evidence of impact, they can present a
strong case to invest in international agricultural
research. The alternative is likely to have a much
higher price, much too late.

FOR MORE INFORMATION:
GUSTAVO SAIN (gsain@iica.ac.cr)
JORGE BOLANOS (j.bolanos@cgiar.org)









OUTLINES OF A NEW AGRICULTURE


IN Central Asia



WHEAT FARMING IN KAZAKHSTAN IS VERY DIFFERENT TODAY

FROM WHAT IT WAS A DECADE AGO, WHEN KAZAKHSTAN WAS

THE PRIMARY WHEAT PRODUCER AND EXPORTER IN CENTRAL ASIA

AND THE CAUCASUS. WHAT SURVIVAL STRATEGIES HAVE WHEAT

FARMERS ADOPTED? WILL THE NATION RECOVER ITS LOST

PRODUCTION OR ITS EXPORT MARKETS?


CIMMYT's involvement in Central Asia and the
Caucasus (CAC) deepened after the mid-1990s,
when the Center initiated research directed at the
region's major wheat production systems and
established a regional office in Kazakhstan.*
Experimental wheats poured through the channels
opened by CIMMYT-Mexico, the International
Winter Wheat Improvement Program,* and the
CAC countries to reinvigorate wheat research (see
"Waiting for a Better Wheat Variety in
Uzbekistan," p. 39).

In conducting research in the region, CIMMYT and
its partners must be highly aware of the shifting
realities of wheat farming and the political
economy. Kazakhstan remains the principal wheat
producer in CAC, and recent field visits have
documented new wheat production systems and
their characteristic challenges.


FROM STATE FARM TO

JOINT STOCK Company
Most of the huge state and collective farms that
were the mainstay of agricultural production
during the Soviet era were dismantled after 1991,
and the people who lived and worked on them
were given the right to work individual plots of
land. Wheat production in Kazakhstan is
concentrated in the immense steppes of the north,


where individual farmers working a few
hectares of land have little chance of success
under current conditions. Many farmers,
realizing they could not make it on their own,
started banding together to create big farms, but
on a profit basis. The resulting enterprises took
many forms. One type, the joint stock company,
was typically established by people deeding
their rights to work individual plots over to the
company as an investment. Consequently, these
companies operate on vast expanses of land. For
example, in Shortandy, the Petrovskoye Co.
brought together 28,000 hectares, 23,000 of
which are planted to wheat.

The Petrovskoye Co. has 500 shareholder/
workers and is managed by Vladimir Layer,
who headed the old collective farm Petrovskoye
replaced. Layer is the main shareholder, but
profits are shared equitably with the workers,
giving them a real stake in the company's
success. In 1999, a good year, the farm produced
slightly more than two tons of wheat per
hectare for a total of 47,000 tons of grain, which
brought in reasonably good profits, but Layer
feels they could be a lot higher.



* See CIMMYT Annual Report, 1998-1999, pp. 20-22.
** A project of the Government of Turkey, CIMMYT, and
ICARDA.


LIi










"Our profits will remain low as long as
there is no marketing system that
producers can use," says Layer.
"Unfortunately, we have to sell our grain
to intermediaries, who make huge
profits." He compares this situation with
that in the US, which he visited last year.
"If our government supported us by
regulating grain marketing, for example,
by setting up a distribution hub like the
one in Chicago, we could make better
profits and perhaps even sell our grain
on the international market," says Layer.

He cites another serious concern.
Petrovskoye inherited farm machines
from the old collective it replaced.
Constant maintenance and repair using
spare parts cannibalized from other
machines have kept them running until
now. The aging machines have to be
replaced someday, but Kazakhstan does
not manufacture farm machinery, and
the company cannot afford to buy even
the least expensive models on the
international market.


Shareholders

OR SHARECROPPERS?
A second type of enterprise is the
farmers' cooperative limited, where the
workers have "donated" their land to
the cooperative and so are not true
shareholders. Larger "centers" often
control a number of these cooperatives.
Workers are paid mostly in the form of
products and services, such as
schooling, attention at health clinics,
flour, or coal for heating and cooking.
The villages where workers and their
families live are usually old and
rundown, though the center is supposed
to maintain them along with the rest of
the infrastructure.

The center takes charge of the entire
production process, from furnishing
seed to marketing products. It makes


sure each cooperative has what it needs to
operate and makes enough of a profit to
buy new machinery when needed. Says the
manager of one such cooperative, "The
center handles all our problems so the
workers can concentrate on producing as
much as they can without worrying about
anything." In some people's view, however,
these workers are little better than
sharecroppers who have no choice but to
work for the cooperatives or, more
accurately, the center.


THE SMALL FARM

IN AN ERA OF BIG

Business
A third type of agricultural enterprise is the
"small" farm (perhaps 500-1,000 hectares)
managed by a single farmer with the help
of hired hands. Yuriy Omelchenko, who
runs such a farm (730 hectares) in
Ilizavyetinka, near Astana, the capital of
Kazakhstan, got his land from relatives and
friends with the agreement that he would
share profits with them. He pays his
workers according to profits, and they are
committed to making the farm as
productive as possible.

Omelchenko has his own
machinery, which he persona I \
takes a hand in maintaining inlLct
he is a mechanical engineer
One day he will have to bu
new machinery but I
wonders where he will get
the money. The rural credit
system, a carryover from
the Soviet era, has a
reputation for favoring large
farms, and Kazakhstan still
has no agricultural banking
system. For small-scale
farmers in particular, the
lack of access to direct
financing is disheartening. I


FARMER

OMELCHENKO:

"WE HAVE A VERY

SMALL PROFIT

MARGIN. IF THE

GOVERNMENT

DOESN'T SET UP

POLICIES TO

SUPPORT US, WE

COULD DISAPPEAR.


-4











The survival of this farm is more l
precarious than that of the big
outfits, for it is more severely
affected by fluctuations in the
wheat price and outbreaks of insect
pests and diseases. Says
Omelchenko: "We have a very
small profit margin, about 20
dollars per ton of grain, because we
have to sell to intermediaries. Our
expenses vary a lot, depending on
the price of fuel, spare parts, and
seed. If the government doesn't set up policies to
support us, we could disappear."


WHEAT RESEARCH AT THE

Interface BETWEEN

TECHNOLOGY AND POLICY
The new flow of experimental wheats throughout
CAC has encouraged the development of superior
varieties that compete well with local ones. In
winter wheat trials conducted in six countries in
the region from 1997 to 1999, the highest yielding
entry was invariably a CIMMYT wheat. In
Tajikistan, a CIMMYT-derived wheat is already
under production; all of the other countries in the
region are now testing CIMMYT-related wheats at
various stages of development. The advanced
wheats being tested in Kazakhstan feed the hope
that the nation might recover part of its lost
production and export market, but is this realistic?

"Though the availability of appropriate
technologies is essential to bring about a significant
increase in Kazakh wheat production, it is not
enough," says Prabhu Pingali, director of
CIMMYT's Economics Program. "A lot depends on
creating production incentives for farmers through
adequate policy measures."

Jim Longmire, consultant to CIMMYT, believes that
the potential for sustained recovery in Kazakh
wheat production is good, but it will not happen
overnight, and production will still vary. "The
high-input, energy-intensive farming methods of
the Soviet era are gone," he says. "Policies,


researchc, and agribusiness all need
to be redirected toward the new
era of low-input, low-cost
FkI farming."

A main objective of CIMMYT's
S studies of the CAC region is to
become familiar with the economic
and political environment within
which decisions in the agricultural
sector are taken. "For example, the
government is no longer involved
in ensuring the availability of
agricultural inputs or providing production
assistance to farmers," says Erika Meng, a
CIMMYT economist who has worked in Central
Asia. "It's largely pulled out of the business of
wheat marketing, with some expectation that
private traders and companies would step in to
create a private grain marketing system.
However, this won't happen without policies to
promote the development of economic
infrastructure in Kazakstan." She adds, "We don't
have much influence over these huge
macroeconomic factors, but we need to know
what they are to operate better within them."

For some farmers, the wheat varieties and other
agricultural technologies under development may
provide the competitive edge needed to negotiate
the changing economic and political terrain.
"Some initiatives will make an impact quickly,"
comments Longmire, "but others-such as
restoring degraded steppe soils-will require
more time, effort, and insight." Adequate policies
will surely help, as will national strategies to
reform research systems originally designed to
serve centrally planned economies. In this
context, CIMMYT and its partners are committed
to doing everything within their power to make
wheat production more efficient and stabilize the
transition to a new agriculture.


FOR MORE INFORMATION:
ERIKA MENG (e.meng@cgiar.org)
ALEXEI MORGOUNOV (cimmyt@astel.kz)








h~r




















































i ii









FUNCTIONAL

Genomics: THE

FORCE BEHIND THE

FUTURE OF PLANT

BREEDING

DESIGNER CROP PLANTS-PLANTS THAT
CARRY SPECIFICALLY SELECTED GENES
WITH TRAITS THAT ALLOW THEM TO
THRIVE IN PARTICULAR ENVIRONMENTS
OR PRODUCE VALUED CONSUMER
CHARACTERISTICS-ARE NOW ONLY A
FEW YEARS IN THE FUTURE.



Functional genomics is a major force behind this
imminent revolution. Simply defined, functional
genomics is a scientific approach that seeks to identify
and define the function of genes, and uncover when
and how genes work together to produce traits. Current
structural genomic approaches (i.e., mapping) generally
focus on traits controlled by one or only a few genes,
and often they only provide information regarding the
location of a gene or genes.
Although obtaining location information is a critical
first step, functional genomics goes further to examine
the interrelationships and interactions between
thousands of genes to determine when and why certain
traits are expressed, which sets of genes are specifically
responsible for that expression, and under what
conditions. This information equips scientists to create
varieties with exact combinations of traits. If they can
develop varieties that yield as well as possible under
any given set of conditions, we will come much closer
to meeting the global demand for food.











GLOBAL Advances
Recent developments, within and outside of
CIMMYT, are bringing functional genomics to
the fore. In the global arena, the public release of
the gene sequences of wild mustard (Arabidopsis
thaliana) and rice has made a wealth of
information available to scientists. Because the
genes that code for scores of plant traits and
processes are quite similar across many species,
this knowledge can be applied to genetic
research on wheat, maize, and other crops.
Furthermore, rapid improvements in
innovations, such as microarray technology,
enable scientists to generate information on
thousands of genes and expressed sequences
(so-called "expressed sequence tags" or ESTs) in
their search for a trait, as opposed to looking at
just a few specific "candidate genes."

Analyzing the mountains of data generated by
such technologies falls into the realm of
bioinformatics. It requires powerful
computational capabilities and highly
sophisticated software, networking, and
database packages-and the human resources to
run them. Such resources, while expensive, are
now available.


CIMMYT ADVANCES,

APPLICATIONS, AND

CHALLENGES
Developments within CIMMYT mirror those in
the outside world. During the past year, a unit
devoted to bioinformatics was created and
incorporated into the Applied Biotechnology
Center. On another front, the International Crop
Information System (ICIS, developed through
the work of national research programs, seven
CGIAR centers, and other advanced agricultural
research institutes) was released on CD-ROM in
early 2000. This product is the foundation for
more comprehensive crop data systems.

A gene sequencing facility was established at
CIMMYT as well. This facility enabled CIMMYT
to contribute more than 1,000 ESTs to the


International Triticeae EST Consortium (ITEC, a
group of 20 private and public labs, including
CIMMYT), which publicly released at least 20,000
wheat gene sequences in July 2000. Whereas a few
years ago public institutes had only a handful of
sequences to work with, they will now have an
abundance. These sequences are the raw material
for predicting the possible function of a gene, which
can then be substantiated in DNA microarrays.
These arrays, in turn, can provide data on when
and under what conditions ESTs (or genes) express
themselves. Mutagenesis and genetic engineering
technology also employ ESTs to further define the
function of a particular gene.

The task of tackling a genome is too large for any
single institution. Through partnerships and other
arrangements with public and private research
groups, CIMMYT has gained access to data,
expertise, and technologies that enhance its ability
to pursue functional genomics.

In 1999, CIMMYT and the International Rice
Research Institute (IRRI) launched the "Maize-Rice
Functional Genomics Project," with some initial
financial support from the CGIAR's Technical
Advisory Committee. The project seeks to discover
the key genes responsible for drought tolerance and
to produce molecular tools that will enhance
breeding for the requisite trait(s). Another
significant step in this direction was the Strategic
Planning Workshop on Molecular Approaches for
the Genetic Improvement of Cereals in Water
Limited Environments (see p. 11).

Whether the ultimate goal is improved drought
tolerance, enhanced nutritional composition, or
higher yield potential, functional genomics will
play an increasingly importantly role in helping
scientists achieve their aims. CIMMYT is committed
to harnessing this powerful new approach to
provide resource-poor farmers the means to
produce not just more food, but better food.




FOR MORE INFORMATION:
DAVID HOISINGTON (d.hoisington@cgiar.org)
JEAN-MARCEL RIBAUT (j.ribaut@cgiar.org)



































WHEAT MANAGEMENT


TRAINING IN

Bangladesh:

BRING THE FAMILY


In the mid-1990s, Bangladeshi wheat researchers
posed a basic question: How do you make science-
based farming appropriate for and accessible to
small-scale wheat growers, who routinely fall
outside the reaches of government extension and
development organization programs? Those
inquiring were from the Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Institute's (BARI's) Wheat Research
Center (WRC), the outfit that lifted wheat from
minor status in the early 1970s to its present place
as the second most important cereal after rice in
Bangladesh. National wheat yields have improved
steadily over the years, although they still average
2.2 tons per hectare-nearly 4 tons below the best
yields possible.


THE MOST DENSELY PEOPLED SPOT ON THE
PLANET-BANGLADESH-IS A LABORATORY
FOR THE FUTURE OF DEVELOPING WORLD
AGRICULTURE. RESOURCES ARE TAXED TO
THE LIMIT. IN THIS SETTING, FAMILIES ARE
LEARNING VALUABLE NEW PRACTICES
THROUGH A TRAINING APPROACH THAT
TREATS THEM WITH RESPECT, AS WHEAT
PRODUCTION "TEAMS.

Researchers suspected that part of the answer lay in
reaching a previously ignored group: women. So in
1994-95 the WRC and CIMMYT surveyed 600
women in three major wheat-producing districts.
"Contrary to conventional wisdom of the time, we
found that most women were knowledgeable,
active participants in wheat farming," says Craig









WHEAT IN BANGLADESH: TESTING THE CONVENTIONAL WISDOM

Covniona Suve data Suve daa Suve data


Do women work
in Ihe held?
Do women weed?
Do women irrigate?
Do women harvest?
Do women supervise
in Ihe field?
Do women thresh?
Do women dry seed?
Do women select
and preserve seed?


Very lew

A lille
Never
Not much
Never

Mostly
Mostly
Mostly


30% 19% 27%


Meisner, CIMMYT agronomist in Bangladesh.
"They'd adopted this role partly to support the
steady intensification of agriculture in
Bangladesh, and partly because men were
seeking off-farm employment to round out
family earnings."



AGRICULTURE AFFECTS ALL

Family MEMBERS
In any case, analyses suggested that all family
members took part in and were affected by
agriculture. Furthermore, families had diverse
ways of allocating labor to farming. The WRC
and CIMMYT devised an experimental model
whereby entire families learn together. "The
approach respected families' internal
arrangements, rather than dividing training into
gender- or task-specific segments," Meisner
says. Female field workers, largely from a non-
governmental organization, the Bangladesh
Rural Development Board (BRDB), were trained
as instructors. In 1995, they conducted simple,
participatory seminars using informal training
methods with families from their working areas.

Nearly 6,000 persons from more than 1,200
families in eight wheat-producing districts
participated. Families received personal
invitation cards, making them feel honored and
resulting in nearly 11 11 attendance. Training
focused on key pre- and post-harvest


management topics: seed germination testing,
seed selection, seed rates for sowing, and seed
and grain storage. At the end of each seminar,
families received a small package of practical
implements and a booklet of illustrations for
the recommended practices.

Fahmida N. Chowdhury, BRDB organizer and
whole-family training instructor, feels the
approach makes great sense. "In a farming
family, everyone has a different job to do.
When all attend training together, each can
learn what is important for their particular
work. It also makes it easier for a family to
plan their work, when everybody has been
trained on all aspects of production."



"Now I CAN

MANAGE BY Myself"
A woman from Dinajpur Sadar village spoke
about how her expanded expertise has proven
useful. "I thought the training was excellent. I
learned about applying fertilizer, proper
irrigation, and other things I did not know
before. Now I am able to teach others as well.
My husband and sons sometimes have to find
work outside the village to earn extra income.
Now I can manage our family's wheat
production by myself."

The family format encourages farmer
participation and input regarding the practices
promoted through training events. For
example, farmers provided useful alternate
suggestions for testing seed germination.
These included placing seed in damp gunny
sacks, stalks from banana plants, or hot water.
"The latter idea consisted of dropping seeds in
hot water for five minutes," Meisner explains.
"Seeds with viable embryos soak up the water
more quickly, providing a rough, visual
estimate of viability. Subsequent examination
by researchers showed this to be a pretty
reliable indicator."











Follow-up studies in 1996 among a randomly
selected subset of families who had attended
the seminars showed 90-111 i1 adoption of the
new practices in general. An economic
evaluation by the WRC in Dinajpur District in
1999* revealed direct and indirect on-farm
benefits from applying the practices of more
than US$ 100 per hectare. This is a significant
profit in a country where annual per capital
income averages US$ 280, where at least 1'5'
of the population lives in poverty, and where
agriculture occupies 65% of the labor force.



AN EXPERIMENT FOR THE

WORLD'S Future
The whole-family approach has spread to
other institutions in Bangladesh, according to
Meisner. One is the German Bangladesh Seed
Development Project funded by GTZ, which


has been using the approach successfully since
1997. Meisner also believes that this and other
useful innovations from Bangladesh could have
global relevance.

"Bangladesh is not only the experiment for the
future of agriculture in the developing world,
but may be the experiment for the future of the
world," he explains. "Each square centimeter of
arable land here is used 1.9 times a year. Land,
water, and other resources are stretched far
beyond what we would call sustainable. Plant,
animal, and human micronutrient deficiencies
are appearing. If we can meet the challenges
here, then there is hope for the future. If we fail,
then many other areas may also be in danger."


* E. Baksh, Indicators of Impact on Wheat Production
Practices Due to Whole Family Triiii.iI (BARI-WRC,
1999).


FOR MORE INFORMATION:
CRAIG MEISNER (c.meisner@cgiar.org)


AusAI AND
3SID









Vietnam MOVES


VIGOROUSLY INTO HYBRIDS

LESS THAN A DECADE AGO, VIETNAMESE
FARMERS DID NOT GROW HYBRID MAIZE. THIS

... ,YEAR, THEY PLANTED HYBRIDS ON AN ESTIMATED
S::: 60% OF THE NATIONAL MAIZE AREA.



Farmers' enthusiasm for hybrids has awakened far more rapidly in
Vietnam than in many other countries. Much of the dynamism in
Vietnamese maize production can be attributed to a vigorous
.. ..:.... ....
national breeding program that has come into its own just as
the free market system, known as doi moi, has encouraged
more diversified agriculture.
"Since doi moi began in 1986," explains Nguyen Tri Khiem,
Associate Professor of Economics at Cantho University in
southern Vietnam, "farmers have ventured to grow crops
other than rice, including maize. Maize is becoming
increasingly important for helping Vietnam meet its
food production and security objectives."
\I tnai in is primarily a rice-consuming country, but as in most Asian
o iu n tries, demand for maize is running rampant. Maize
coiistitutes a major portion of people's diets in rural and
mountainous areas, and it is used as a substitute staple when rice
runs short. Even more crucial, maize is the primary ingredient in
poultry and livestock feed. Large feed plants now line the southern
Vietnamese highway that leads from Ho Chi Minh City to Bien Hoa
City. They are just one indication of growth in the feed industry.



MILESTONES IN THE Maize Economy
Throughout Vietnam, average maize yields rose from 1.6 tons per hectare
in 1990 to 2.7 tons per hectare in 1998. In more commercial areas, the
average exceeded 3 tons by 1998. Tran Hong Uy, who directs Vietnam's
National Maize Research Institute, attributes this achievement to many
factors, including the national maize program's development of
competitive varieties and hybrids, better maize production techniques,
and farmer training.
It can also be attributed to good collaborative research. Uy estimates that
about 71 I' of the improved maize grown in Vietnam, including hybrids, is
related in one way or another to CIMMYT breeding materials.











Ngo Van Giao, Director of the Southern Seed
Company, says that farmers growing hybrids
obtain 4.2 tons per hectare on average but that
yields as high as 9 tons have been reported on
farmers' fields. The Southern Seed Company-
one of several public and private seed companies
active in the country-meets 6'1 1 of the demand
for maize seed in southern Vietnam and exports
some seed to Laos.

Exports of maize and maize products from
Vietnam rose from 247,000 tons in the 1960s to
more than 1,200,000 tons in 1995. "The growing
domestic maize market, promising export
potential, and strong government support clearly
have encouraged farmers to pursue and
strengthen maize production," says Roberta
Gerpacio of the CIMMYT Economics Program.



THE Farm View
Perhaps the best understanding of how maize
production has changed in Vietnam comes from
farmers themselves. A man and woman
interviewed recently in Vinh Tan village in Dong
Nai Province, not far from Ho Chi Minh City,
have been growing maize on their farm since the
mid-1970s. Once they grew local maize varieties;
now they plant single-cross hybrid seed
purchased from a private seed company and
obtain 8-9 tons per hectare. (The average yield in
this area in 1991 was 1.8 tons per hectare.)

"We learned how to grow maize from our parents
and from our own experiments," explained the
man, justifiably proud of the family's
meticulously tended maize field. The couple sell
their maize to local traders, who sell to feed
millers. They also keep some maize to raise pigs
for sale; the interview was punctuated by the
sounds of construction as laborers converted the
small piggery into a larger facility.

The feed industry's rising demand for maize has
spurred the Vietnamese government to set new
objectives for maize production. By 2005, the


government seeks to increase maize area to 1 million
hectares, 9 I: of which will be planted to hybrid
maize, and to raise production to 4 million tons. By
2010, the goal is to raise production to 6 million tons
by planting hybrids on 95' of an even larger area
(1.2 million hectares). Some unirrigated land
currently planted to rice will be dedicated to maize
production.



CIMMYT GARNERS

GOVERNMENT

Recognition
Comments Uy, "The Vietnamese government and
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
highly appreciate the valuable, vigorous assistance
of CIMMYT." The government awarded CIMMYT
its Friendship Medal in 1993 at the Fifth
International Maize Meeting in Hanoi.

"Few countries have achieved so much in maize
production in such a short time," states Shivaji
Pandey, director of CIMMYT's Maize Program. In
June 2000, Pandey was honored in Hanoi for
CIMMYT's continuing contributions to maize
research and production in Vietnam and for its
equally important role in human resource
development. "Vietnam has a strong
maize breeding program, it
has highly innovative
farmers, and we've
benefited from good
communication over the
years," says Pandey.
"Many people have
worked very hard for
this success."


FOR MORE INFORM- TI,-I I
SHIVAJI PANDEY (s.pandey@cglat.oirg
ROBERTA GERPACIO (r.gerpacio-irri@c la.otrgl










Gene Mapping


SETS COURSE FOR WHEAT


DISEASE RESISTANCE



The Japan International Research Center for
Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) recognizes the
tremendous importance of wheat in the world and
has sponsored an Adjunct Scientist at CIMMYT to
pursue its improvement. Geneticist Kazuhiro
Suenaga has eagerly taken up the challenge. Since
early 1998, Suenaga has worked with CIMMYT's
Applied Biotechnology Center on mapping genes
from a Japanese wheat variety that provide
resistance to fusarium head blight (FHB), known
more prosaically as "scab." Mapping these genes is
the equivalent of adding another brick to the
foundation needed for building higher levels of
resistance to this important disease.


Fighting BILLION-

DOLLAR LOSSES
Losses to FHB have surpassed one billion dollars
and one million tons of wheat in large wheat-
producing countries. Fungicides provide inadequate
protection and are not environmentally sustainable.

To date, Suenaga has identified three quantitative
trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to scab resistance.
While these findings are encouraging, the geneticist
emphasizes their tentative nature. "The problem
with fusarium evaluation is that the trial data can
vary greatly between seasons and environments,"
says Suenaga. "To confirm these results, we'll need
some good wet seasons (prime conditions for scab)
and two or three years of replication, preferably at
different locations. But I'm hopeful that one or two
of these QTLs will turn up again in this year's trial."

The three QTLs identified by Suenaga individually
account for 10, 15, and 20% of the total variation of
FHB resistance. A simple tabulation of these
percentages, however, does not provide an accurate
picture of their actual influence, because some of
their resistance almost certainly overlaps or results
from interactions between the genes. Further


WHEAT IS NOT A MAJOR CROP IN

JAPAN. EVEN SO, JAPANESE EXPERTISE

IS CONTRIBUTING TO RESEARCH THAT IS

GIVING THE WORLD'S WHEAT FARMERS


GREATER SECURITY

AGAINST AN

IMPORTANT DISEASE.


4-.
^-^
statistical analysis is planned -- j. /
to ascertain the actual
combined effect of the three
QTLs, but Suenaga makes a
rough calculation that they 1
account for 30-40% of the
resistance. Good results, but not yet up to the 60-
70% he hopes to achieve by targeting specific gaps
in his map construction.


ADDING Value TO

OTHER RESEARCH
The value of this work is greatly amplified when it
is considered together with similar wheat/
fusarium mapping being conducted on a Chinese
variety by a JIRCAS colleague in Japan, on a
resistant Brazilian variety (Frontana) by CIMMYT
molecular geneticist Mirelle Khairallah, and on
other sources.

By comparing maps from these varieties, Suenaga
explains, it should be possible to determine
whether their respective resistance traits come from
the same or different genes. If the sources are the
same, there may be little to gain in terms of scab
resistance from crossing these varieties. However, if
they derive their resistance from different genetic
sources, these genes could be pyramided together
to create long-lasting resistance that responds to a
broad range of environmental conditions.

Recognizing the value of Suenaga's work, JIRCAS
has extended his tenure well into 2001. In addition,
he plans to conduct scab resistance mapping work
on some synthetic wheats developed by A. Mujeeb-
Kazi, head of wheat wide crosses at CIMMYT.


FOR MORE INFORMATION:
KAZUHIRO SUENAGA (k.suenaga@cgiar.org)










China/CIMMYT





FARMERS IN XINJIANG,

NORTHWESTERN CH INA,


CANNOT AFFORD TO INVEST

MUCH IN THEIR WHEAT

CROP-ESPECIALLY WATER-

BUT A PROLIFIC WHEAT

BREEDER HAS GIVEN THEM

VARIETIES THAT ARE

CRITICAL TO SUCCESS.


Interspersed with other crops in a farmer's field near Hami,
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China,
the wheat soaks up the sun as it ripens. The tawny fields look
like they will yield a good bounty-perhaps six or seven tons
per hectare-though the farmer has not invested much in the
crop. This is not surprising, since he planted Xin Chun 6,
which yields well and tolerates drought and high
temperatures.

Set in the middle of a desert, the farming village is lush with
vegetation thanks to water from the nearby mountains, which
is supplemented with water brought up from the depths of
the earth. Encompassed on all sides by tall poplar trees, the
fields abound with crops: melons, grapes, vegetables, cotton,
maize, and wheat.



NO / ,E E-T
Despite the evident abundance, conditions here are tough,
and wheat, which is not irrigated, endures dry conditions
throughout the growing cycle. Farmers, however, have found
the key to successful wheat production: a good, high yielding
variety that does well despite the lack of water. Most of them
plant Xin Chun 6, which covers 40% of the area sown to wheat
in the region.











A PRACTICAL BENT
FOR BREEDING:
Wu ZHENhLU
USES CIf MM
LINES TO BREED
HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL
VARIETIES IN
NORTHWESTERN :
CHI NA.












Four hundred kilometers away, Wu Zhenlu, who
developed Xin Chun 6, goes out to inspect his
experimental plots. As he makes his way through
the fields, he explains that most of the materials are
derived from CIMMYT lines, which he has been
using to develop his varieties since 1972. The
qualities he finds most useful in CIMMYT materials
are their short stature, their capacity to adapt to
different conditions, and their resistance to diseases
such as stem and stripe rusts and powdery mildew.

"Do you know what is really unique about
CIMMYT wheats?" asks Wu. "Their combination of
high yield potential and good drought tolerance.
Drought is the worst problem for wheat production
in Xinjiang, so we need this combination."

Wu has been breeding wheat for 40 years. How did
he get started using CIMMYT wheat?

"By chance. When the Chinese Academy of
Agricultural Research began exchanging
germplasm with CIMMYT in 1972, they sent the
seed here to the Xinjiang Academy, and it fell to me
to test the lines," explains Wu. He found CIMMYT
materials extremely useful and started crossing
them with local wheats right away. Within a few
years, he had developed new varieties that had
inherited desirable traits from their CIMMYT
parents and were adapted to local conditions.


Today the varieties developed by Wu and his team
of researchers are preferred by farmers all over
Xinjiang Region, especially for their high yield
capacity. An outstanding example is Xin Chun 6,
which can produce up to 10 tons per hectare under
favorable conditions. Its CIMMYT heritage comes
from both of its parents. Seventy percent of the
spring wheat area in the region is covered with
varieties developed by Wu and his team, and all of
them have CIMMYT "blood." The team is
currently focusing on improving the grain quality
of their wheats by crossing them with good
quality CIMMYT lines. They have already
identified lines that tolerate drought and rust well
and have good grain quality.



A Practical Bent

FOR BREEDING
Team leader Wu came to be a breeder fortuitously.
His chosen field of study was originally Chinese
language and literature. But he soon discovered
that he preferred the biological sciences and that
he valued doing something that produces tangible
results, like breeding does. He learned to breed by
doing, and is first and foremost a practical breeder.
Showing his practical bent, he says, "A breeder
needs to go out to farmers' fields to see the
problems they're facing, and then think how to
solve them."

Wu also believes in learning from other people's
mistakes and in recognizing their contributions.
"You should try to use the newest and best
germplasm, which is always based on other
researchers' work. It's important to acknowledge
that you're building on other people's
contributions." Finally, Wu believes that a
researcher should devote himself body and soul to
his work. He hopes to pass his work ethic on to
the young breeders who work with him to ensure
that farmers in the Xinjiang Region will continue
have varieties that outyield Xin Chun 6, long after
he has retired.

FOR MORE INFORMATION:
ZHONGHU HE (zhhe@public3.bta.net.cn)
MAARTEN VAN GINKEL (m.vanginkel@cgiar.org)










CIMMYT Feeds

YOUTH'S ENTHUSIASM FOR WORLD

FOOD ISSUES


NOT EVERYONE WHO VISITS CIMMYT GETS TO ROOM
NEXT TO NORMAN BORLAUG, WINNER OF THE 1970
NOBEL PEACE PRIZE. BUT MATTHEW FELDMANN, A
VISITING STUDENT FROM HARVARD UNIVERSITY, MADE THE
MOST OF IT AND OF HIS SUMMER AT CI MMYT.

Feldmann first came to CIMMYT in the summer of 1998. A paper he wrote on
food security in Benin for the World Food Prize Youth Institute landed him an
internship sponsored by that organization. He later learned that he would be
assigned to CIMMYT. "I was extremely pleased to learn I was going to
CIMMYT," says Feldmann. "I'd been fascinated by the work of Dr. Borlaug and
the topic of world food security, and this seemed like a tremendous
opportunity."


AN INTERN WHO Delivers Results
Planning to pursue a degree in economics in college,
Feldmann-then 18 years old-chose to work with
the CIMMYT Economics Program. "We were a
little concerned about this unknown high
schooler coming to a new professional
onvirnnment, and a little worried that
,, ,iht have to do some hand-
I,. .! ling," recalls Prabhu Pingali,
I1 sector of the Economics




INTERN MATTHEW
FELDMANN AND NOBEL
LAUREATE NORMAN
BORLAUG. CI MMYT
VALUES THE
CONTRIBUTIONS OF
INTERN AND STUDENT
RESEARCHERS.
















ST TO THE

YAQU4 I VALLE INYJll



MEX~dICOe ITO WRITEA D




CHANGE SINCE
AHE GREEN

R-EVOLUTIO

66-n


Program. Feldmann also harbored some concerns. Would the
internship be of the busywork variety that some of his friends had
encountered? In the end, both parties' apprehensions proved
unfounded.

Already fluent in Spanish, Feldmann was sent to the Yaqui Valley in
northern Mexico to write about how the living standard of farmers
had changed since the Green Revolution. The following summer, he
co-authored (with Michael Morris of the Economics Program and
David Hoisington of the Applied Biotechnology Center) an article
entitled "Genetically Modified Organisms: Why All the Controversy?"
The piece appeared as the lead article in the first quarter 2000 issue of
Choices magazine* and has served as a standard reference in many
CIMMYT presentations on the subject.



INTERNS IPS SPARK Commitment

TO AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
"These projects were really not make-work projects," Pingali
emphasizes. "These were two big projects that would not have been
possible if Matt had not stepped in. We're looking at this as a long-
term investment and hope he continues to work in this area and to
interest others with the positive message he puts out about the
program and this kind of work." In fact, since Feldmann's first
summer with CIMMYT, two other World Food Prize interns have
followed in his footsteps and worked with maize and biotechnology
researchers at CIMMYT.

Feldmann says the challenging projects further opened his eyes to
international food issues. Following his summer 2000 internship,
during which he produced an annotated bibliography on agricultural
impacts assessment, he returned to his university and continued to
pursue his goals of obtaining a Ph.D. in economics and eventually
working in an international research and policy organization. In the
meantime, Pingali is exploring ideas for Feldmann's next project.



* Published by the American Agricultural Economics Association.





FOR MORE INFORMATION:
PRABHU PINGALI (p.pingali@cgiar.org)










RESOURCING THE RESEARCH:


CIMMYT Financing


1999-2000

AT CI MMYT, THE HALLMARK OF A SUCCESSFUL

FUNDING STRATEGY IS THAT IT EMPOWERS SCIENTISTS TO

PURSUE SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE RESEARCH AND EMPOWERS

DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TO USE TECHNOLOGY TO

IMPROVE HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL WELFARE.


This review of CIMMYT's financial resource base
highlights funding trends, specifies the Center's major
investors, and documents the contributions of public
and private agencies, as well as agencies from the North
and South, to our work. It also outlines the Center's
research agreements with the private sector.



Funding LEVELS AND TRENDS
Funding for 1999 was US$ 35.407 million (including
Center-earned income), consisting of US$ 29.426 million
from CGIAR investors and US$ 5.981 million from other
sources. Expenditure was US$ 36.733 million. Although
1999 ended without any deficit in operating funds,
defaults on core payments necessitated a draw-down of
our financial reserves. In 2000-2001, the Center will
replenish its reserve through renewed funding and
reduced capital expenditure.

The governments and agencies that provided the largest
share of our funding in 1999 are shown in Figure 1. The
contributions to CIMMYT's budget by CGIAR member
nations, North and South, as well as foundations and
advanced research institutes (in the private and public
sectors), are presented in Figure 2.

Figure 3 shows how CIMMYT's research funds were
allocated in 1999 towards achieving the five research
outputs of the CGIAR.

Over the past several years, targeted funding has grown
substantially. Unrestricted funding, the cornerstone of
CIMMYT's research and source of its flexibility, has


IDB 2%'
UNDP 3%
France 3%
Untied
Kingdom 3%
Germany
4% Canada
5%


Australia
5%


FIGURE 1. TOP TWELVE INVESTORS IN
CIMMYT, 1999.





Foundations Foundations
(Non-CGIAR (CGIAR members) 2%
members) 5%
CGIAR members
Non-CGIAR members (South) 5%
(South) 2%-
Advanced research
institute agreements
(Private) 3%

Advanced
research
insltlule
agreements
(Public) 4%L


FIGURE 2. INVESTORS IN CIMMYT,
1999.


Li
-IJ











continued its slow decline (Figure 4). In 1995,
unrestricted funding constituted 71 of our
budget; in 2000, it will constitute 39%.
Targeted funds accounted for most additional
resources in 1999, particularly funding for core
special projects. Sources of income from grants
are summarized in Table 1, p. 69.



NEW Alliances FOR

SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE

RESEARCH
The increase in targeted contributions reflects
two strategies. First, CIMMYT has made a
concerted effort to develop highly focused,
strategic partnerships directed at specific
major challenges for maize and wheat research
in developing countries. Second, to respond in
a timely way to new challenges and
opportunities, we have adopted a
resource mobilization strategy
that also includes non-
traditional sources of income
Sand research support.


FIGURE 3. ALLOCATION
OF FUNDING BY CGIAR
OUTPUT, 1999.


30,000

20,000

10,000


Collaborative alliances are the
lifeblood of our research
agenda and enable us to
channel additional funding to
partners in national
agricultural research systems.


Total funding


Unrestricted contribullons


largeled contribullons
Center-earned income


All of these alliances considerably reinforce our
mandate and commitment to serve developing
countries. Details of our agreements with the
private sector are reviewed in "Transparency Is
Important," p. 70.


A VIEW TO THE Future
Our budget estimate for 2000 is US$ 37.5
million. Although this figure is higher than
forecast at the start of year, it is important to
note that revenues are still subject to instability
brought about by delayed contributions and/
or exchange rate fluctuations.

Over the 2001-2003 planning period, we
foresee an increase of about 2 per year, in real
terms, in the Center's budget. This increase
will permit moderate growth in key areas and
some scope to respond to unexpected needs. In
our budget projections we are maintaining a
conservative approach to exchange rates,
which has proven most prudent in recent
years.

The Center's most pressing capital investment
need was to identify a research site to replace
its Poza Rica Research Station, an important
maize breeding site for the lowland tropics.
The station was destroyed by floods in October
1999. Research conducted at Poza Rica helped
CIMMYT to meet the needs of resource-poor
farmers cultivating 55 million hectares of maize
in Africa, Asia, and Latin America (about 7' r
of the maize area in developing countries,
excluding Argentina, China, and South Africa).
A new site was identified by early 2000 and its
purchase approved by CIMMYT's Board of
Trustees. Special resources were made
available by the CGIAR Finance Committee
and the Government of Australia to help
CIMMYT acquire the new site. Further funding
is required to develop and equip the research
facilities there.


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

FIGURE 4. TRENDS IN FUNDING,
1995-2000.


I


40,000 r














Table 1. CIMMYT SOURCES OF INCOME FROM GRANTS BY

COUNTRY/ENTITY (US$ OOOs), 1999


ADB (Asian Development Bank)
Argentina
INTA
Southern Cone Consortium
Australia
AusAID
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
CRC Molecular Plant Breeding
Grains Research and Development Corporation
Austria
Federal Ministry of Finance
Bangladesh
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council
Belgium
Ministry oi1,. ... \I ,,, 1 .... ... Trade and
International Cooperation
Bolivia
Protrigo


Brazil
EMBRAPA
Canada 1
Canadian International Development Agency
Agriculture and Agri-Food
International Development Research Centre
CGIAR
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)
International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF)
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI)
CGIAR Finance Committee*
Impact Assessment Evaluation Group
China
Department of International Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture
Colombia
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
Colciencias
Denmark
Danish International Development Agency
European Commission 1
Rural Development and Food Security
Ford Foundation
France
Minister de l'Education Nationale, de la Recherche et
de la Technologie -DRIC
Germany 1
Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation
and Development
IDB (Inter American Development Bank)
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
India
Department of Agriculture, Research and Education
International Fertilizer Development Center
Iran, Islamic Republic of
Ministry of Agriculture


1


* Activities related to this grant: Rice Wheat Consortium I I 1 uni. II. I I.. -I i
audits (80), Maize-rice genomics (65), 'i i. ,,-wide Initiative (wheat) (104).


407 1
137
62 6
75 7
,776
2551
790 1
230 6
501 6
150
150 1
153
153 2
469

469 1
469
469 3
80
80 2
,574
1,453 1
27 6
94 1
651
16 1
31 1
72 1
41 1
460 1
31 1
120
120 2
201
178 2
23 3
659
659
,674
1,674 1
95 4
940

940 1
,239

1,239 1
780 1
704 1
112
112 2
85 6
195
195 2


1) CGIAR member (North).
2) CGIAR member (South).
') Non-CGIAR member (South).
4) Foundation (CGIAR member).


Japan
Economic Cooperation Bureau, Ministry oi.,,, ,.., \l ... .
Nippon Foundation
JIRCAS
Mexico
SAGAR
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce, A.C.
Fundacion Sonora
Grupo Industrial Bimbo (Industrial Quality in Wheat)
Netherlands
Ministry oi ,,, ,l..,, \Il ....
Norway
Royal Norwegian Ministry o,,,, .... \l... .
OPEC Fund for International Development
Other
Peru
National Institute of Natural Resources
Philippines
Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
Portugal
Institute for International Scientific and
Technological Cooperation
Republic of Korea
Rural Development Administration
Rockefeller Foundation
South Africa
National Department of Agriculture
Spain
Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacion
AGROVEGETAL, S.A. (Durum and Bread Wheat Breeding)
Sweden
Swedish International Development Agency
Switzerland
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development
Thailand
Department of Agriculture
United Kingdom
Department for International Development
United Nations Development Programme
Africa Bureau
SEED
Uruguay
National Institute of Agricultural Research
USA
Cornell University
Stanford University
University of Oregon
Hilton Foundation
Monsanto Company (Hybrid Wheat)
U... ,i 1. \ ....,; for International Development
United States Department of Agriculture
World Bank

Total grants


) Foundation (non-CGIAR member).

N6 including Center earned income.
Not including Center earned income.


Lt2J


3,055
2,681 1
278 5
96 1
648
449 2
38 5
119 5
42 7
538
538 1
198
198 1
40 1
579 7
57
57 2
25
25 2
250

250 1
120
120 2
740 4
113
113 2
203
103 2
100 7
616
616
3,370
2,116 1
1,254 5
20
20
1,066
1,066
868
812 1
56 1
100
100 3
5,173
92 6
28 6
59 6
61 5
154 7
4,509 1
270 6
3,623

34,072 *


Invstor rant


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TRUSTEES AND PRINCIPAL STAFF AsofSe,,ptemb,2


WALTER FALCON (USA), Chairman, Board of Trustees, and of the
Executive and Finance/Administration Committees, and Co-
Director, Center for Environmental Science and Policy, Stanford
University

JOHAN HOLMBERG (Sweden), Vice-Chairman, Board of Trustees,
and Ambassador of the Government of Sweden to Ethiopia

JORGE KONDO LOPEZ (Mexico), Vice-Chairman, Board of
Trustees, and Executive Director, National Institute of Forestry,
Agriculture, and Livestock Research

CARY FOWLER (USA), Chairman of Program Committee, Board of
Trustees, and Associate Professor, Center for International
Environment and Development Studies, NORAGRIC, Agricultural
University of Norway

ANTHONY K. GREGSON (Australia), Chairman of Audit
Committee, Board of Trustees, and Wheat Farmer

ROMARICO ARROYO MARROQU IN (Mexico), Secretary of
Agriculture, Livestock, and Rural Development

RODRIGO AVELDANO (Mexico), Director General, Agricultural
Research, National Institute of Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock
Research

SERG 10 CHAZARO LOA I ZA (Mexico), Dean of Agribusiness
Leadership, Duxx-Monterrey

ROBERT M. GOODMAN (USA), Professor of Plant Pathology,
University of Wisconsin

ATSUSH I HI RAI (Japan), Laboratory of Plant Molecular
Genetics, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences,
University of Tokyo

CARLOS FELIPE JARAM ILLO (Colombia), Technical Vice-Minister
of Finance, Ministry of Finance

KLAUS M. LEISINGER (Germany), Executive Director, Novartis
Foundation for Sustainable Development

ALEXANDER McCALLA (Canada), Emeritus Professor, Department
of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California,
Davis

JESUS MONCADA DE LA FU ENTE (Mexico), Executive Secretary,
National Coordination of Produce Foundations

NORAH K. OLEMBO (Kenya), Director, Kenya Industrial Property
Office, Ministry of Research, Technical Training, and Technology

MAN GALA RAI (India), Deputy Director General (Crop Science),
Indian Council for Agricultural Research

TIMOTHY G. REEVES (Australia),* Director General, CIMMYT

URAIVAN TAN-KIM-YONG (Thailand), Chair, Graduate Program
in Man and Environment Management Program, Payao College of
Graduate Study, Chiang Mai University, Thailand

JOHN R. WITCOMBE (UK), Centre for Arid Zone Studies,
University of Wales

XI N ZH IYON G (China), Director, Institute of Crop Breeding and
Cultivation, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences


Ex officio position.


Timothy G. Reeves, Australia,
Director General
Claudio Cafati, Chile, Deputy
Director General, Administration
and Finance
Lucy Gilchrist S., Chile, Senior
Scientist, Head, Seed Health Unit
Patricia L6pez-M., Mexico,
Executive Assistant to the Director
General
Gregorio Martinez V., Mexico,
Government and Public Affairs
Officer
Peter J. Ninnes, Australia, Senior
Executive Officer, Research
Management

Consultant
Norman E. Borlaug, USA



Shivaji Pandey, India, Director
Marianne Banziger, Switzerland,
Senior Scientist, Physiologist
(based in Zimbabwe)
David Beck, USA, Senior Scientist,
Leader, Highland Maize
David Bergvinson, Canada,
Senior Scientist, Entomologist
Jorge Bolafios, Nicaragua,
Principal Scientist, Agronomist
(based in Guatemala)
Hugo C6rdova, El Salvador,
Principal Scientist, Breeder/
Leader of Tropical Maize
Carlos De Leon, Mexico, Principal
Scientist, Pathologist/ Breeder/
Liaison Officer (based in
Colombia)
Alpha O. Diallo, Guinea,
Principal Scientist, Breeder/
Liaison Officer (based in Kenya)
Dennis Friesen, Canada, Senior
Scientist, Agronomist (based in
Kenya)
Fernando GonzAlez, Mexico,
Senior Scientist, Breeder (based in
Thailand)
Daniel Jeffers, USA, Senior
Scientist, Pathologist
Stephen Mugo, Kenya, Associate
Scientist, Breeder (based in Kenya)
Luis Narro, Peru, Scientist,
Breeder (based in Colombia)
Kevin V. Pixley, USA, Senior
Scientist, Breeder/Liaison Officer
(based in Zimbabwe)
Joel K. Ransom, USA, Senior
Scientist, Agronomist (based in
Nepal)
Ganesan Srinivasan, India, Senior
Scientist, Leader, Subtropical
Maize/Head, International Testing
Unit/Interim Associate Director
Suketoshi Taba, Japan, Principal
Scientist, Head, Maize Germplasm
Bank
Strafford Twumasi-Afriyie,
Ghana, Scientist, Breeder (based in
Ethiopia)
Surinder K. Vasal, India,
Distinguished Scientist, Breeder/
Liaison Officer (based in Thailand)


PAIRINCPA SAF


Bindiganavile Vivek, India,
Associate Scientist, Breeder (based
in Zimbabwe)
Stephen Waddington, UK,
Principal Scientist, Agronomist/
NRG Associate (based in
Zimbabwe)
Batson Zambezi, Malawi, Scientist,
Breeder (based in Zimbabwe)
Adjunct Scientists
Miguel BarandiarAn, Peru, Breeder
(based in Peru)
Salvador Castellanos, Guatemala,
Breeder (based in Guatemala)
Neeranjan Rajbhandari, Nepal,
Agronomist (based in Nepal)
Pre- and Postdoctoral Fellows
Julien de Meyer, Switzerland,
Crop Scientist (based in
Zimbabwe)
Duncan Kirubi, Kenya, Breeder
Carlos Urrea, Colombia, Breeder
Narciso Vergara, Mexico, Breeder
Consultants/Research Affiliates
Jerome Fournier, Switzerland
Gonzalo Granados R., Mexico,
Training Consultant



Sanjaya Rajaram, India, Director
Osman S. Abdalla, Sudan, Senior
Scientist, Regional Bread Wheat
Breeder, West Asia and North
Africa (based in Syria)
Arnoldo Amaya, Mexico,
Administrative Manager
Hans-Joachim Braun, Germany,
Principal Scientist, Head, Winter
Wheat Breeding/Liaison Officer
(based in Turkey)
Belgin (ukadar, Turkey, Associate
Scientist, Hybrid Wheat Breeder
Efren del Toro, Mexico,
Administrative Manager
Etienne Duveiller, Belgium, Senior
Scientist, Regional Pathologist,
South Asia (based in Nepal)
Guillermo Fuentes D., Mexico,
Senior Scientist, Pathologist
(Bunts/Smuts)
Lucy Gilchrist S., Chile, Senior
Scientist, Pathologist (Fusarium/
Septoria)
Zhong-Hu He, China, Regional
Wheat Coordinator, East Asia
(based in China)
Arne Hede, Denmark, Associate
Scientist, Head, Triticale Breeding
Monique Henry, France, Scientist,
Virologist
Man Mohan Kohli, India,
Principal Scientist, Regional
Breeder, Southern Cone/Liaison
Officer (based in Uruguay)
Jacob Lage, Denmark, Associate
Scientist, Breeder
Luz Alicia Mercado, Mexico,
Wheat International Nurseries
Mohamed Mergoum, Morocco,
Senior Scientist, Winter Wheat
Breeder (based in Turkey)
Muratbek Karabayev, Kazakhstan,
Senior Scientist, International
Liaison Scientist (based in
Kazakhstan)
A. Mujeeb-Kazi, USA, Principal
Scientist, Head, Wide Crosses



_L












Alexei Morgounov, Russia, Senior
Scientist, Regional Representative
Breeder/Agronomist, Central Asia
and Caucasus (based in
Kazakhstan)
M. Miloudi Nachit, Germany,
Senior Scientist, Regional Durum
Wheat Breeder, West Asia and
North Africa / Liaison Officer
(based in Syria)
Guillermo Ortiz Ferrara, Mexico,
Principal Scientist, Regional
Coordinator-Wheat Germplasm,
South Asia (based in Nepal)
Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio, Mexico,
Senior Scientist, Agronomist
Thomas S. Payne, USA, Senior
Scientist, Liaison Offcier/Breeder
(based in Ethiopia)
Roberto J. Pefia, Mexico, Senior
Scientist, Head, Industrial Quality
Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer, Germany,
Principal Scientist, Head, Durum
Wheat Breeding
Matthew P. Reynolds, UK, Senior
Scientist, Head, Physiology
Kenneth D. Sayre, USA, Principal
Scientist, Head, Crop Management
Ravi P. Singh, India, Principal
Scientist, Geneticist/Pathologist
(Rust)
Bent Skovmand, Denmark,
Principal Scientist, Head, Wheat
Germplasm Bank and Genetic
Resources
Douglas G. Tanner, Canada,
Senior Scientist, Agronomist, East
Africa (based in Ethiopia)
Richard Trethowan, Australia,
Senior Scientist, Spring Bread
Wheat Breeder (Marginal
Environments)
Janny van Beem, Netherlands,
Associate Scientist, Geneticist/Pre-
Breeder
Maarten van Ginkel, Netherlands,
Senior Scientist, Head, Spring
Bread Wheat Breeding (Optimum
Environments)
Reynaldo L. Villareal, Philippines,
Principal Scientist, Head,
Germplasm Improvement Training
Patrick C. Wall, Ireland, Principal
Scientist, Agronomist/NRG
Associate (based in Bolivia)

Adjunct Scientist
Philippe Monneveux, France,
Principal Scientist

Postdoctoral Fellows
Flavio Capettini, Uruguay,
ICARDA/CIMMYT, Head, Barley
Program
Julie Nicol, Australia, Pathologist
Jiankang Wang, China, Breeder

Pre-doctoral Fellows/Graduate
Students
Ligia Ayala, Ecuador
Ismahane Elouoafi, Morocco,
Breeder (based in Syria)

Consultants/Research Affiliates
Anne Acosta, USA
Maximino AlcalA, Mexico
David Bedoshvili, Georgia
Jesse Dubin, USA
Julio Huerta, Mexico
Monica Mezzalama, Italy, Plant
Pathologist / Consultant
Ernesto Samayoa, Mexico
Nick Savlescu, Romania
Hugo Vivar, Ecuador
Maria Zaharieva, Bulgaria


_J


Prabhu Pingali, India, Director
Mauricio Bellon, Mexico, Scientist,
Human Ecologist
Hugo De Groote, Belgium,
Scientist, Economist (based in
Kenya)
Javier Ekboir, Argentina, Scientist,
Economist
Mulugetta Mekuria, Ethiopia,
Scientist, Economist (based in
Zimbabwe)
Erika Meng, USA, Scientist,
Economist
Michael Morris, USA, Principal
Scientist, Economist
Wilfred M. Mwangi, Kenya,
Principal Scientist, Economist (on
leave of absence)
Maria Luisa Rodriguez, Mexico,
Program Administrator
Melinda Smale, USA, Senior
Scientist, Economist (based in the
USA)
Gustavo E. Sain, Argentina, Senior
Scientist, Economist (based in
Costa Rica)

Adjunct Associate Scientists
Damien Jourdain, France,
Economist
Carissa Marasas, South Africa,
Economist

Research Associates/Research
Assistants
Alfonso Aguirre, Mexico, Research
Associate, Human Ecologist
Pedro Aquino, Mexico, Principal
Research Assistant, Economist
Dagoberto Flores, Mexico, Senior
Research Assistant
Roberta Gerpacio, Philippines,
Research Associate, Economist
(based in the Philippines)
Julia Daniela Horna, Peru,
Research Associate, Economist
Maximina Lantican, Philippines,
Research Associate, Economist

Consultants/Research Affiliates
John Brennan, Australia,
Economist
David Godden, Australia,
Economist
Rashid Hassan, Sudan, Economist
Jikun Huang, China, Economist
Mario Jauregui, Argentina,
Economist
Janet Lauderdale, USA,
Nutritionist
Mitch Renkow, USA, Economist
Scott Rozelle, USA, Economist
Ruifa Hu, China, Economist
Ernesto Samayoa, Mexico,
Agronomist
Joginda Singh, India, Economist
Gregory Traxler, USA, Economist
Monika Zurek, Germany,
Economist




Larry Harrington, USA, Director
Peter Grace, Australia, Senior
Scientist, Soils Scientist
Raj Gupta, India, Senior Scientist,
Regional Facilitator, Rice-Wheat
Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic
Plains (based in India)
Peter R. Hobbs, UK, Principal
Scientist, Agronomist/Liaison
Officer (based in Nepal)


Jaime L6pez C., Mexico, Head,
Soils and Plant Nutrition
Laboratory
Craig A. Meisner, USA, Senior
Scientist, Agronomist (based in
Bangladesh)
Maria Luisa Rodriguez, Mexico,
Program Administrator
Jeff White, USA, Senior Scientist,
Head, GIS/Modeling Laboratory

Adjunct Scientists
Andrew Daly, USA, Predoctoral
Fellow, Cornell University (based
in Bangladesh)
Palit Kataki, India, Scientist,
Cornell University (based in India)
Bernard Triomphe, France, CIRAD
Scientist, Agronomist

Pre-doctoral Fellows
Christopher Vaughan, UK (based
in Zimbabwe)
Scott Justice, USA, Research
Affiliate (based in Nepal)

Consultants/Research Affiliates
Ester Capio, Philippines,
Consultant
David Hodson, UK, GIS
Specialist/ Consultant
Bernard Kamanga, Malawi,
Research Affiliate (based in
Malawi)
Joost Lieshout, the Netherlands,
Database Manager/Consultant
Agustin Lim6n, Mexico,
Consultant
Zondai Shamudzarira, Zimbabwe,
Research Affiliate (based in
Zimbabwe)
Julio Cesar Velasquez, Mexico,
Research Affiliate
Jonathan Woolley, UK, Consultant

Graduate Students/Interns
Bruno Basso, Italy, Michigan State
University/USA
Muir Hooper, USA, Intern
Flor Nochebuena, Mexico
Teresa Balderrama, Mexico


David Hoisington, USA, Director

APPLIED BIOTECHNOLOGY CENTER
Ognian Bohorov, Bulgaria,
Scientific Services Officer
Natasha Bohorova, Bulgaria,
Senior Scientist, Cell Biologist
Marie-Francoise Jardinaud,
France, Associate Scientist,
Molecular Geneticist
Fred Kanampiu, Kenya, Associate
Scientist, Breeder (based in Kenya)
Mireille Khairallah, Lebanon,
Senior Scientist, Molecular
Geneticist
Scott McLean, USA, Scientist,
Geneticist/Breeder
Alessandro Pellegrineschi, Italy,
Scientist, Cell Biologist
Enrico Perotti, Italy, Scientist,
Molecular Biologist
Jean-Marcel Ribaut, Switzerland,
Senior Scientist, Molecular
Geneticist
Marilyn Warburton, USA,
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist
Manilal William, Sri Lanka,
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist


ABC Adjunct Scientists
Julian Berthaud, France, Senior
Scientist, Molecular Cytogeneticist
Daniel Grimanelli, France, IRD/
France, Senior Scientist, Molecular
Geneticist
Olivier Leblanc, France, IRD/
France, Scientist, Molcular
Cytogeneticist
Lee Jang-Yong, Korea, RDA/Korea,
Senior Scientist, Molecular Biologist
Antonio Serratos, Mexico, INIFAP/
Mexico, Molecular Biologist
Kazuhiro Suenaga, Japan, JIRCAS/
Japan, Senior Scientist, Geneticist

ABC Postdoctoral Fellows
Manish Raizada, Canada,
Molecular Biologist
Xianchun Xia, China, Molecular
Geneticist

ABC Graduate Students
Ligia Ayala, Ecuador, ETH/
Switzerland
Isabel Almanza, Colombia, Colegio
de Postgraduados/Mexico
Celine Pointe, France, IRD/France
Gael Pressoir, France, IRD/France
Fabiola Ramirez, Mexico, UNAM/
Mexico
Susanne Dreisigacker, Germany,
University of Hohenheim/Germany
Juan Jose Olivares, Mexico,
University of Adelaide/Australia
Magdalena Salgado, Mexico,
University of Adelaide/Australia
Pingzhi Zhang, China, University
of Hohenheim/Germany

ABC Consultants
Maria Luz George, Philippines,
AMBIONET Coordinator (based in
Philippines)
Diego GonzAlez de Leon, Mexico

BIOINFORMATICS
Biometrics
Jose Crossa, Uruguay, Principal
Scientist, Head

Biometrics Consultants/Research
, I tillo -
Andres Burguefio, Mexico
Mateo Vargas, Mexico

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY UNIT
Jes6s Vargas G., Mexico, Systems
and Operations Manager
Rafael Herrera M., Mexico,
Software Development Manager
Carlos L6pez, Mexico, Project
Leader, Software Development
Marcos Paez, Mexico, Network
Administrator



ADMINISTRATION
Hugo Alvarez V., Mexico,
Administrative Manager
Luis Bafios V., Mexico, Supervisor,
Drivers
Enrique Cosilion, Mexico,
Supervisor, Housing
Maria Garay A., Mexico, Head,
Food and Housing
Gilberto Hernandez V., Mexico,
Head, Training Service Office
Eduardo de la Rosa, Mexico, Head,
Building Maintenance
German Tapia, Mexico, Warehouse
Supervisor












FINANCE OFFICE
Martha Duarte, Mexico, Senior
Finance Manager
Zoila C6rdova, Mexico, Manager,
Projects and Budgets
Salvador Fragoso S., Mexico,
Head, Payroll and Taxes
Hector Maciel, Mexico, Manager,
Accounting Operations
Guillermo Quesada O., Mexico,
Head, Treasury Supervisor
Cristino Torres, Mexico, Head,
Accounts Payable

HUMAN RESOURCES OFFICE
Krista Baldini, USA, Senior
Human Resources Manager
Marisa de la O, Mexico, Head,
International Personnel
Carmen Espinosa, Mexico, Head,
Legal Transactions
Gerardo Hurtado, Mexico, Head,
National Personnel
Eduardo Mejia, Mexico, Head,
Security




Linda Ainsworth, USA, Head,
Visitors and Conference Services




Kelly A. Cassaday, USA, Head
Satwant Kaur, Singapore, Writer/
Editor
G. Michael Listman, USA, Senior
Writer/Editor
Alma L. McNab, Honduras, Senior
Writer/Editor and Translations
Coordinator
Miguel Mellado E., Mexico, Head,
Publications Production
David Poland, USA, Writer/Editor

Consultants
Edith Hesse, Austria, Knowledge
and Information Management
Consultant
Rita Kapadia, Philippines, Editor
Jane Reeves, Australia, Editor

LIBRARY
Efren Orozco, Mexico, Interim
Head
Fernando Garcia P., Mexico,
Electronic Information Specialist
John Woolston, Canada, Visiting
Scientist



Francisco Magallanes, Mexico,
Field Superintendent, El BatAn
Jose A. Miranda, Mexico, Field
Superintendent, Toluca
Rodrigo Rasc6n, Mexico, Field
Superintendent, Cd. Obreg6n
Abelardo Salazar, Mexico, Field
Superintendent, Poza Rica/
Tumbadero
Alejandro L6pez, Mexico, Field
Superintendent, TlaltizapAn


t,,, r .a- of at least months,
September 1999 to September 2000)

Fr6edric Goulet, France (Natural
Resources Group)
German Gutierrez, Mexico,
Institute Politecnico Nacional
(Applied Biotechnology Center)
Rebecca Hedland, Australia
(Information and Multimedia
Services)
Mario Felipe Herrera T., Mexico,
Universidad Veracruzana (Applied
Biotechnology Center)
Anthony Hunt, Canada, University
of Guelph (Wheat Program and
Natural Resources Group)
Geoffrey Mbuthia Kamau, Kenya,
Kenya Agricultural Research
Institute (Maize Program)
Liu Aimin, China, Jiangsu
Academy of Agricultural Sciences
(Applied Biotechnology Center)
Philippe Lucas, France, DESS
(Applied Biotechnology Center)
Anne Medhurst, Australia,
University of Melbourne (Applied
Biotechnology Center)
Araceli Montiel F, Mexico,
Universidad Veracruzana (Applied
Biotechnology Center)
Moon Hyeon-Gui, Republic of
Korea, National Crop Experiment
Station (Maize Program)
Muhammad Yaqub Mujahid,
Pakistan, Pakistan Agricultural
Research Council (Wheat Program)
Pak Songhak, Democratic People's
Republic of Korea, Institute of
Agriculture (Maize Program)
Park Jong-Yeol, Republic of Korea,
Hongchon Maize Experiment
Station (Maize Program)
Pablo Aldo Polci Q.. ... ..1.
Universidad Nacional del Sur
(Applied Biotechnology Center)
Quintin Rascon, Mexico,
CINVESTAV (Applied
Biotechnology Center)
Teresa Esperanza Rosales T., Peru,
Universidad Nacional de Trujillo
(Applied P... ..1.,...1... Center)
Satish C I1 ,1J. -I 1 -i, India,
Palampur Agricultural University
(Wheat Program)
Leah Shultz, USA, World Food
Prize Intern (Applied
Biotechnology Center)
Dhaliwal Harcharan Singh, India,
Punjab Agricultural University
(Applied Biotechnology Center)
Song Kyol Ju, Democratic People's
Republic of Korea, Crop Genetic
Resources Institute (Maize
Program)
Victor Felix VAsquez S., Peru,
Universidad Nacional de Trujillo
(Applied Biotechnology Center)
Dheya Petros Yousif, Iraq,
Agricultural and Biological
Research Center (Maize Program)
Yuan Lixing, China, Chinese
Academy of Agricultural Sciences
(Applied Biotechnology Center)
Zhang Fenlu, China, Agricultural
University of Hebei (Maize
Program)


Claudio Cafati, Deputy Director General, Administration and
Finance
Larry W. Harrington, Director, Natural Resources Group
David Hoisington, Director, Applied Biotechnology and
Bioinformatics
Peter J. Ninnes, Senior Executive Officer, Research Management
Shivaji Pandey, Director, Maize Program
Prabhu L. Pingali, Director, Economics Program
Sanjaya Rajaram, Director, Wheat Program
Timothy G. Reeves, Director General



Krista Baldini, USA, Senior Human Resources Manager
Claudio Cafati, Deputy Director General, Administration and
Finance
Martha Duarte, Mexico, Senior Finance Manager
Larry W. Harrington, Director, Natural Resources Group
David Hoisington, Director, Applied Biotechnology and
Bioinformatics
Peter J. Ninnes, Senior Executive Officer, Research Management
Shivaji Pandey, Director, Maize Program
Prabhu L. Pingali, Director, Economics Program
Sanjaya Rajaram, Director, Wheat Program
Timothy G. Reeves, Director General



(Note that "G" indicates global projects; "R," regional projects;
and "F," frontier projects.)

Marianne Binziger: Project 4 (G4), Increasing the Productivity and
Sustainability of Maize in the Presence of Stress
David Bergvinson: Project 19 (F5), Genetic Approaches to Reducing
Post-harvest Losses
Natasha Bohorova: Project 17 (F3), Using Genetic Engineering to
Improve Maize and Wheat for Developing Countries
Jorge Bolafios: Project 13 (R5), Enhancing Maize and Wheat
Production Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean
Hans-Joachim Braun: Project 12 (R4), Increasing Cereal Food
Production in West Asia and North Africa
Hugo C6rdova: Project 2 (G2), Developing Core Germplasm and
Integrating Interdisciplinary Approaches for Maize
Improvement
Javier Ekboir: Project 20 (F6), Priority Setting and Technology
Forecasting for Research Efficiency
Peter R. Hobbs: Project 11 (R3), Sustainable Wheat Production
Systems in the Indo-Gangetic Plains
Olivier Leblanc: Project 16 (F2), Apomixis: Equity in Access to
Hybrid Vigor for Resource-Poor Farmers
Craig A. Meisner: Project 21 (F7), Learning to More Effectively
Confront Problems of Resource Degradation in Maize and
Wheat Systems
Alexei Morgounov: Project 14 (R6), Increasing Cereal Food
Production in Central Asia and the Caucasus
Michael Morris: Project 7 (G7), Gauging the Productivity, Equity,
and Environmental Impact of Modern Maize and Wheat
Systems
Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio: Project 18 (F4), Improving Human
Nutrition by Enhancing Bioavailable Protein and Micronutrient
Concentrations in Maize, Wheat, and Triticale
Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer: Project 5 (G5), Increasing Wheat Productivity
and Sustainability in Stressed Environments: Abiotic Stress
Matthew P. Reynolds: Project 15 (Fl), Increasing the Yield Potential
of Wheat
Ravi P. Singh: Project 6 (G6), Increasing Wheat Productivity and
Sustainability in Stressed Environments: Biotic Stress
Bent Skovmand: Project 1 (G1), Conservation and Management of
Genetic Resources
Maarten van Ginkel: Project 3 (G3), Developing Core Germplasm
and Integrating Interdisciplinary Approaches for Wheat
Improvement
Surinder K. Vasal: Project 10 (R2), Meeting the Accelerating
Demand for Maize Development, Production, and Delivery in
South and Southeast Asia and China
Reynaldo L. Villareal: Project 8 (G8), Building Partnerships
through Human Resource Development
Stephen Waddington: Project 9 (R1), Improving Food Security in
Sub-Saharan Africa


































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