• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 A message from the director...
 Science for food secutiry
 Science to protect natural...
 Science to alleviate poverty
 Research update/outlook
 Financial summary, 1998-99
 Trustees and principal staff
 CIMMYT contact information
 Back Cover






Group Title: CIMMYT annual report ...
Title: Annual report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077461/00002
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Uniform Title: Annual report (1998)
Alternate Title: CIMMYT annual report
CIMMYT in review
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Publisher: CIMMYT
Place of Publication: México D.F. México
Publication Date: 1998-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Research -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wheat -- Research -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Mais -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Ble -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: CIMMYT.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1997/1998-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Some issues also have distinctive titles.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 2005/2006.
General Note: Vol. for 2005/2006 has accompanying CD-ROM with title: CIMMYT in review.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077461
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 45160861
lccn - 2004240030
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Preceded by: CIMMYT in ...

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1998-99 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page 1
    A message from the director general
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Science for food secutiry
        Page 5
        Seed secutiry in Central America : from disaster to development
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Worldwide, wheat impacts keep growing
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        CIMMYT maize in Latin America : preserving options for smallholders
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Creater than the sum of its parts, partnership fuels biotech progress
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
        New life for wheat in Central Asia and the Caucasus
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
    Science to protect natural resources
        Page 23
        Wheat plus water : a vanishing equation?
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Reduced tillage for tropical maize and wheat : from moldboards to mulch and profits
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Are genetic diversity and agricultural development compatible?
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
        Molecular markers help create an unbeatable resistance/tolerance punch
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
    Science to alleviate poverty
        Page 37
        Quality protein maize : food of the poor becomes inexpensive, accessible protein source
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Participatory research : making farmers partners in development
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Creating a maize renaissance in Peru
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
    Research update/outlook
        Page 47
        Accolades for a 'powerful' technology in Shandong, China
            Page 48
        Durum wheat yields hit a new high
            Page 49
        Ambionet moves biotechnology forward in Asia
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
        Effective, environmentally safe aphid control
            Page 53
            Page 54
        Losing genetic diversity : can we afford the risk?
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Central American Project finds remedies to land degradation
            Page 58
            Page 59
        Boom/bust breeding improves wheat's nitrogen efficiency
            Page 60
            Page 61
        National scientists take biotechnology lessons from training sessions to the field
            Page 62
            Page 63
        Farmers work with diversity principles and practices
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Financial summary, 1998-99
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Trustees and principal staff
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 75
    CIMMYT contact information
        Page 76
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text






















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CONTENTS


A MESSAGE FROM THE DIRECTOR GENERAL

SCIENCE FOR FOOD SECURITY
6 Seed Security in Central America: From
Disaster to Development
10 Worldwide, Wheat Impacts Keep Growing
13 CIMMYT Maize in Latin America: Preserving
Options for Smallholders
16 Greater than Sum of Its Parts, Partnership
Fuels Biotech Progress
20 New Life for Wheat in Central Asia and
the Caucasus

SCIENCE TO PROTECT NATURAL RESOURCES

24 Wheat Plus Water: A Vanishing Equation?
27 Reduced Tillage for Tropical Maize and Wheat:
From Moldboards to Mulch and Profits
31 Are Genetic Diversity and Agricultural
Development Compatible?
34 Molecular Markers Help Create an Unbeatable
Resistance/Tolerance Punch

SCIENCE TO ALLEVIATE POVERTY
38 Quality Protein Maize: Food of the Poor
Becomes Inexpensive, Accessible
Protein Source
40 Participatory Research: Making Farmers
Partners in Development
44 Creating a Maize Renaissance in Peru

RESEARCH UPDATE/OUTLOOK
48 Accolades for a "Powerful" Technology in
Shandong, China
49 Durum Wheat Yields Hit a New High
50 AMBIONET Moves Biotechnology Forward
in Asia
53 Effective, Environmentally Safe Aphid Control
55 Losing Genetic Diversity: Can We Afford
the Risk?
58 Central American Project Finds Remedies to
Land Degradation
60 Boom/Bust Breeding Improves Wheat's
Nitrogen Efficiency
62 National Scientists Take Biotechnology Lessons
from Training Sessions to the Field
64 Farmers Work with Diversity Principles
and Practices


FINANCIAL SUMMARY, 1995-99

TRUSTEES AND PRINCIPAL STAFF

CONTACT INFORMATION


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A M MESSAGE FROM THE DIRECTOR GENERAL



THE MESSAGE OF THIS YEAR'S ANNUAL REPORT IS A SIMPLE

ONE, BUT IT BEARS REPEATING: AT CIMMYT WE

CONDUCT ESSENTIAL SCIENCE TO MEET PEOPLE'S

ESSENTIAL NEEDS FOR FOOD, FOR INCOME, AND FOR A

HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT.


We and our partners conduct science not for its own sake, but for the sake
of millions of people who cannot see beyond the struggle to stay alive. It
is true that the nations of the world together produce enough food to feed
everyone on earth, but global society is not equitable. Hundreds of millions
of people cannot buy or grow enough food to sustain themselves. Until
the complex equation that governs their access to food changes somehow,
these people will continue to struggle for the right to survive.

At CIMMYT we know that science can change the equation.


SCIENCE FOR POOR .

PEOPLE: ONE EXAMPLE
Anyone who doubts the impact of
agricultural research on food security,
poverty alleviation, and natural resource
protection should visit rural areas of
Guizhou, China's poorest province. I
traveled there recently and witnessed an
almost miraculous turnaround in the lives
of poor people. The source of change was
the introduction of quality protein maize
(QPM) hybrids as part of a government
effort to alleviate hunger. Quality protein
maize is higher in two essential amino
acids, lysine and tryptophane, that are vital
to the growth of children and non-ruminant
livestock. For example, 175 grams of QPM
meet the daily protein needs of a child
equivalent to 250 grams of normal maize.











The QPM varieties used in Guizhou were
developed through a longstanding partnership
between the Chinese Academy of Agricultural
Sciences (CAAS) and CIMMYT. The products
of their research-used in farmers' fields
today-are hybrids that generally have one
CIMMYT parent line and one Chinese parent
line. All of the Chinese scientists involved in the
research have visited CIMMYT for training.

In Maoli Village, where a typical farm is
about 0.7 hectares, annual incomes were below
US$ 50 per capital until recently. For up to three
months every year, families had virtually no
food. The QPM hybrids have yielded around
10% higher than other hybrids, in addition to
providing grain with enhanced nutritional
quality. While some of this grain is consumed
directly by farm families, its primary use has
been to improve pig production. New animal
production enterprises have enhanced


household food security and increased
disposable incomes for all of the families
concerned.

One elderly woman farmer explained, "We
have always worked hard, but this barely kept
us alive until QPM arrived. Thank you for
helping us. Now my family is happy, I have a
good house, good clothes, and I can travel to
the local town." She was 78 years old and had
clearly endured much hardship. In addition to
the families in Maoli, over 20,000 families in
Guizhou Province have experienced similar
impacts.

My day in Maoli Village was one of the
great privileges of working for CIMMYT; I will
remember it for all of my life. The skeptics may
say, "But you have no baseline data. How can
you measure the real impacts?" To them, I
would say, "Go and listen. Once you have seen
and spoken with the farmers involved, your
belief in research for development will be
further strengthened." Seeing is believing.



HIGHLIGHTS


OF THIS REPORT

Our purpose in this annual report is to help
people see and understand-through the
experiences of scientists and farmers-how our
research fosters food security, protects natural
resources, and helps alleviate poverty all over
the world. The stories in the following pages
cover a range of topics, including: impending
water shortages in agriculture; the restoration
of seed for Central America's farmers after a
devastating hurricane; the challenges for
Central Asia's wheat researchers and farmers,
who must work in a wholly new-and highly
unpredictable-economy; the remarkable,
sustained contribution of CIMMYT wheat and
maize seed to plant breeding and food security
worldwide; molecular breeding techniques that











fortify wheat plants to overcome an aphid
borne virus; and many other research
advances.



1998-99 IN REVIEW

Although space does not allow us to list
every event that has marked this last year or
so at CIMMYT, I would like to highlight a
few.

During the India-CIMMYT Days in
April 1998, we and our colleagues from the
Subcontinent assembled in appreciation of
one of the world's most enduring,
productive research partnerships. One goal
of the meeting was to examine prospects for
further collaboration. The mood of the event
was captured in a presentation by M.V. Rao,
Ex-Wheat Project Director and Former
Special Director-General, Indian Council for
Agricultural Research (ICAR), "I feel that the
biggest and only hope for the millions and
millions of small farmers is the collaborative
and most humane programmes like the
India-CIMMYT collaboration."

CIMMYT's research is conducted by
multidisciplinary project teams. In January
1999, our first Project Reporting Week
brought all staff together at CIMMYT
headquarters so that project leaders could
report on progress and project teams could
plan research for the upcoming year.
Reporting Week was an excellent
opportunity for staff to learn about each
other's challenges and achievements and to
appreciate the range of research that we
conduct.

The year was also marked by awards
and honors for CIMMYT staff. Most notably,
the Friendship Award, the highest honor
China awards to a foreigner, was presented


to Sanjaya Rajaram, Wheat Program
Director, in the Great Hall of the People in
Beijing.

Similar professional honors, including
awards for articles published in scientific
journals and for participation in professional
societies, were given to many other staff. We
are extremely proud to belong to an
institution whose members have achieved
so much on behalf of others.

Two other occurrences in 1998-99 bear
mentioning. First, following a review of the
Center's information technology activities,
we have incorporated all functions related
to bioinformatics and biotechnology into the
Applied Biotechnology and Bioinformatics
Program. Second, in an effort to make staff
evaluations more objective and useful, we
continue to evaluate methods of multi
source assessment (an area of work initiated
through the CGIAR Gender and Diversity
Program).

Finally, it is important to add that this
has been a banner year for documenting the
impacts of our research. Once again, the
numbers are in, and once again we see that
CIMMYT, especially in wheat improvement
research, is second to none in bringing about
impacts in farmers' fields. The results of our
studies are presented in greater detail in this
report, but I would like to emphasize the
human dimension of this achievement here.
These impressive results are the product of
much effort by our researchers and research
partners, working long hours with limited
budgets. All too often this work is not
recognized by awards and ceremonies, but
its importance must not be underestimated,
because it enables millions of human beings
to escape hunger and poverty.







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SEED SECURITY IN CENTRAL AMERICA:


FROM


IN THE AFTERMATH OF


, MANY HONDURAN AND


NICARAGUAN FARM FAMILIES FOUND THAT THEY HAD ESCAPED WITH THEIR

LIVES, ONLY TO LOSE THEIR LIVELIHOODS. THE STORM

THROUGHOUT THESE COUNTRIES-INCLUDING

IMPORTANT GOVERNMENT SEED STORES. WITHOUT SEED TO PLANT IN THE

NEXT GROWING SEASON,


"There were 23 landslides on my land alone.
All was swept away-harvest, the road,
fencing-everything!" Maize farmer Felix
Lainez stood under blue skies on a balmy
March afternoon. The sun warmed the hills
and canyons. The peacefulness of this locale,
just east of Choluteca in southern Honduras,
made it hard to imagine the havoc wrought
by Hurricane Mitch the previous October.

During its three-day rampage in the
region, the storm dumped millions of cubic
meters of rain on Honduras' and Nicaragua's
mountainous terrain. Five months later the
effects were still evident throughout the
countryside: trails of hillslope erosion far and
wide, like stretch marks on the landscape;
rubble-strewn sand flats where riverside
settlements once stood; small wooden crosses
to mark the spots where flood victims were
washed away. Of all Central America,


Honduras was hardest hit by Mitch-
agricultural losses were estimated to be as
high as US$ 800 million-but damage was
also considerable in the mountainous
northern zones of Nicaragua, near the
Honduran border. As seems typical in
disasters, the hurricane's effects region-wide
were most calamitous for the poor-many
of them small-scale farmers, often living
below the poverty line and possessing scant
cash or food reserves.

Lainez was lucky: he and his family
escaped with their lives, their modest
homestead, a few hundred kilograms of
maize grain, and savings that have allowed
them to purchase more grain. But he and his
peers in Honduras grew little maize during
the winter season of 1999, devoting most of
their efforts to relief or clean-up efforts.












PROGRAM


ARISES

A potentially graver consequence for
Honduran farmers over the long term was
the devastation of the country's Direcci6n de
Ciencia y Tecnologia Agropecuaria (DICTA).
The primary source of the foundation or basic
seed that suppliers increase and di i-r! il rt-r. to
farmers, DICTA lost major stores of seed,
nearly all plantings of improved maize, and
most machinery and infrastructure on several
key experiment stations. Nicaragua's
Institute Nicaragtiense de Tecnologia
Agropecuaria (INTA) came through the
storm virtually intact but faced the challenge
of intensifying basic grain production in
winter farming zones to offset projected
shortages of maize and beans. In both
countries, visionaries dreamed of turning
disaster to development by offering farmers
high-quality seed of new, improved versions
of traditional maize and bean varieties to
replace older, less productive cultivars lost
in the hurricane.

To bring that dream to fruition, CIMMYT
has helped DICTA's maize seed and breeding
program literally arise from ruin and has
provided crucial support to INTA's
development and seed production efforts.
CIMMYT's activities, which formed part of
its participation in "Seeds of Hope for Central
America"-a relief initiative led by the
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
(CIAT)-and in the Regional Maize Program
for Central America and the Ci L'Lbt'-.~.r
(Programa Regional de Maiz, or PRM, a
network funded by the Swiss Agency for
Development and Cooperation), included the
following:

* In November 1998, CIMMYT sent DICTA
nearly half a ton of seed of diverse
improved varieties and inbred lines chosen
for high yield, regional adaptation, and
stress tolerance.


* Center and PRM staff worked directly
with DICTA to plan and execute
restoration of maize breeding stocks.

* CIMMYT and the PRM joined
forces with representatives of funding
agencies, research institutions at all
levels, non-governmental organizations,
and diverse other players to marshal
and coordinate disaster and seed
assistance in Honduras, Nicaragua, and
storm-damaged areas elsewhere in
Central America.

"We have been pleased and surprised
at the speed of CIMMYT's respc!-,-_
and support," says Norberto Urbini
Subdirector for Technology Generat r'i,
DICTA. "Maize is the number-one crcp ri
Honduras-it is grown everywh, I
mostly by smallholders on marginal le r.0-
and at low yield levels. Mitch destrc\ it- .
the maize crop, but this disaster lo-
actually given us a chance to purify sI.- I
stocks and extend the use of highlni
yielding, stress-tolerant varieties."


NEW


To highlight Mitch-related seed active! r.-
and advances in crop breeding, DICTA
held a field day at its Playitas reseai!l
station near Comayagua on 25 Mail:'
1999. Participants included polit,:.i!
authorities and representatives ..
funding agencies, Seeds of HopF
CIMMYT, and the PRM. During a brit \
introductory ceremony, in which
speakers described Honduras'
agricultural research program and
collaborative efforts to address the
Mitch crisis, the Vice Minister of
Agriculture, Miguel Angel
Bonilla, formally thanked
CIMMYT and the PRM: "Our
program had been virtually










- ---- --. -- -----

destroyed. Now we are rebuilding, testing
selected varieties from CIMMYT that are
higher-yielding and better-performing
for farmers."

In the field, participants toured plots of
maize, beans, rice, potatoes, and grapes
under observation or seed increase. Much of
the maize came from the seed shipment from
CIMMYT, which comprised varieties and
inbred lines similar to existing materials
but superior in yield and agronomic
performance. According to Jorge Bolanos,
CIMMYT agronomist and PRM coordinator,
this represents the near-total replacement of
old Honduran varieties with newer, better
genotypes. "All materials had already been
tested extensively in PRM regional trials that
included Honduran sites," Bolafios says.
"They could have been used immediately by
farmers, but they first must pass approval
through the national seed certification
system." In addition to high yield potential,
.'X the seed featured such valuable traits as
S- "<' drought tolerance, resistance to foliar
.L d diseases and ear rot, or enhanced protein
quality The PRM contributed US$ 20,000 for
sowing and management expenses. "This
Foundation seed was sown during Christmas
and New Year's Eve, under true duress, by
Dedicated DICTA agronomists, including
Leopoldo Alvarado, Gustavo L6pez, Oscar
Cruz, and Elio Dur6n," Bolanos says.

One star in the field day was the

Replacement version of Guayape, the
5 .nationally renowned variety derived partly
from CIMMYT Population 43. "This variety
is so competitive that it gets yields similar to
those of hybrids," says L6pez, as he
uncovered a large, white-grained ear from
one of the plants in the Guayape trial plot.
Selections from all materials will undergo
._ widespread on-farm and on-station testing
.**over the next year or so. The best will
eventually reach farmers' hands through
-' / .- extension efforts assisted by non-
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government organizations and seed-for-
grain programs. Barring other disasters or
unforeseen circumstances, Bolanos expects
a big jump in Honduran maize productivity
in the coming years, as farmers begin to
grow the new materials. "We'll achieve a
significant advancement, particularly with
farmers who never before used improved
varieties and lost their seed to Mitch.
Something good will come from this
catastrophe!" he says.



RAISING

NICARAGUA

In Nicaragua, seed relief efforts were so
successful that maize production doubled
and bean production tripled over previous
levels-a credit to the vigorous and well-
conceived response of government officials
and timely assistance from CIMMYT, the
PRM, CIAT, and PROFRIJOL (a Swiss-
funded bean network), among many others.

"The immediate, opportune technical
and economic support provided by
CIMMYT and the PRM enabled us to
develop and carry out a contingency seed
production plan to replace seed lost because
of the hurricane," comments Roger Urbina,
director general of INTA.

"I've seen high-quality relief seed in
very remote places-areas that can only be
reached by combined air travel and several
hours in a small boat," says Jerome Fournier,
predoctoral fellow with the PRM. He is
referring to the BOSAWAS natural reserve,
home of the Miskito indigenous group, in
northeastern Nicaragua near the border with
Honduras. "Everyone is crying for impact
assessment; with seed relief, for doing
relatively little, you obtain large impacts,"
Fournier says. "We've done something
significant in the wake of Mitch."


IMPORTANCE OF

TO

Many CIMMYT staff have contributed to
efforts in both Honduras and Nicaragua:
Hugo C6rdova, maize breeder; Gustavo
Sain, economist in Central America;
and Hector Barreto, former CIMMYT
agronomist assigned to the CIAT Hillsides
Project, to name a few.

In Bolanos' eyes, the Mitch crisis
underlines the vital need to support
collaborative efforts by public research
institutes in basic grains, so governments
have access to seed-a strategic resource-
and can provide it to farmers. "CGIAR
Centers like CIMMYT and CIAT, and crop
research networks like the PRM, provide
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A NEW STUDY DOCUMENTING THE GLOBAL


IMPACTS OF INTERNATIONAL WHEAT BREEDING

RESEARCH HAS ONCE AGAIN PUT 'T

"ON THE RECORD." THE WHEAT

IMPROVEMENT EFFORTS OF CIMMYT AND ITS

PARTNERS CONTINUE TO

TO RAISE YIELDS IN FIELDS AROUND

THE WORLD, AND TO LOWER FOOD PRICES FOR

RURAL AND URBAN CONSUMERS ALIKE.
















It is no exaggeration to state that CIMMYT's
contribution to world wheat production is
enormous. In their new global wheat
impacts study, CIMMYT economists Paul
Heisey and Mina Lantican, together with
Wheat Program associate director Jesse
Dubin, report that 62% of the total wheat
area in developing countries is planted to
CIMMYT-related varieties, and just under
half the total area is sown to varieties that
are either CIMMYT crosses or have at least
one CIMMYT parent.
one CIMMYT parent.


On closer examination, the figures
become even more impressive. Spring bread
wheat, the predominant wheat grown in the
developing world, is sown on 68 million
hectares of land in countries as
geographically diverse as Ethiopia, China,
and Brazil. In 1997, between 80% and 90%
of the spring bread wheat area in the
developing world outside China was
planted to cultivars with CIMMYT breeding
materials in their pedigrees (Figure 1).
China alone planted approximately one-
third of its spring bread wheat area to
CIMMYT-related germplasm.

The news on spring durum wheat and
winter/facultative wheat was also striking.
Although in the past CIMMYT placed
greater emphasis on spring bread wheat,
significant adoption of CIMMYT spring
durum germplasm was documented in this
latest study. In West Asia/North Africa
(WANA), where 80% of the developing
world's spring durum wheat is grown,
more than 50% of the of the area is sown to
CIMMYT crosses. In Latin America, more
than 90% of the area sown to spring durum
wheat is planted with CIMMYT crosses.
Over the years, CIMMYT's contribution
to winter wheat breeding in developing
countries has been relatively much lower
than its contributions to spring wheat
breeding. "It's significant that this
contribution increased substantially since
1990," says economist Heisey.

















J WHEATS

VALUABLE RESOURCE


Much of the data on wheat research impacts
came from colleagues in national agricultural
research systems (NARSs), who provided
information on the release of new wheat
varieties (see "Digging Out the Data on
Wheat," p.12). Between 1991 and 1997:

* 56% of the spring bread wheats released
by NARSs were CIMMYT crosses;

* an additional 28% had at least one
CIMMYT parent; and

* another 5% had some CIMMYT ancestry.

"The percentage of spring wheat releases
with CIMMYT crosses or at least one
CIMMYT parent during that time was higher
than in the earlier periods," observes Heisey,
"which indicates that the use of CIMMYT
germplasm has not declined in recent years"
(Figure 2).

"Compared with spring bread wheats,"
says Lantican, co-author of the study, "an
even greater proportion of spring durum and
winter wheats released during 1991-97 by
NARSs contained CIMMYT germplasm." Of
52 durum releases during that period, 77%
were CIMMYT crosses, an additional 19%
had one CIMMYT parent, and 2% were
NARS crosses with known CIMMYT
ancestry (Figure 3). Of 106 winter wheat
releases, 19% were CIMMYT crosses and an
additional 13% had one CIMMYT parent.

"Based on the data on varietal releases
and on area planted," Heisey declares,
"CIMMYT clearly continues to play a major
role in wheat improvement research for
developing countries."


Percentage of area
100
100 Unknown

80 -- Landraces
STall with pedigree
60 .
SOtr, er semidwarf

40- CIMMYT ancestry
I CIMMYT parent
20- CIMMYT cr
SCIMMYT cross


i iil: 1 A I:I I: i -i l i- i S I: II I : i: i: -I i i I-II -i II
ZiI iM I- IIII I li'i "I IIIII I I I: I 1- 1 I 7


r.:-r i, : r I r:i r l j-I -



li -
I I Other .I"I..3.. rr

'- -:1 I 1 1 1 1 -

L] I: I .i T r.:.i
-- - liii


ZU - -




I 'II lI i I:.Ir 11^1^1, I: l iI:: : : o
I'll~ l! '*H h1 : [-C 1l[- M iE- E1I:. ll [ H M''1


i r.: i.i j] .:, rl, 3 :
I1-11"


| I:II II T .:r.:. ,


'I


1F h H i \1'~l i~'' ,l l iW 1 1 .ll 1 .
F i_:i S i: i rp i ,u url 'i'i-o i1: .1 : 1 F : i, irli i













TRENDS IN


THE DATA ON


Digging out the data on \\heat impacts and
putting them into a consistent torni that is
amenable to analysis required a concerted and
extended ettort by the CINIMNI T research team
and its associates. Questionnaires \\ere sent
to each ot the -11 countries in the developing
world that produces 20,000 tons of iwheat or
more annually le\cluding the Central Asian
and Caucasus states. Responses \\ere receive ed
troni 36 countries, representing iust under 99"..
or all developing country wheat production.
To obtain responses, it l\as gotten necessary to
tollo\\ up personally in the country in
question. The research earn gratefully
ackno\\ ledges tlhe support troni CNIMMN T's
\\heat Program, many colleagues in national
research programs, and the International
Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry
Areas 'ICARDAi in helping to gather this
information.

Further obstacles were presented by the
sheer scale ot the endea or in large countries
like China and India, hereee no single person
w\as likely to have all of the required
information. Nevertheless, this latest wheat
impacts study extended the scope ot
investigation beyond that ot its predecessor.
Nlost notably, considerably more data were
gathered on this occasion trom China, the
\\orld's largest wheat producer, \which gives
economists and policymakers a much more
complete \-ie\ ot the %world %w heat situation.


AND ADOPTION

Sti i .l -..!'nitint trends emerged during the period
Siric,: rtl.itr l.rt % heat impacts study. "There has been a
,hitr t. rn p!.i ting direct CIMMYT crosses to crosses
rlhir 1i t. C i I- I'i T parents," notes the Wheat Program's
u bL'i .uii di i. that "this could be largely explained by
i ..lh i !.t I. Ini .r plantings of direct CIMMYT crosses
in ,: urt!t, I. like India and Turkey, where the NARSs
hi.1 t- ppXl dI I p their breeding efforts, most frequently
..!!'i' .i CHiNIM'i'T variety as one of the parents." An
Li!'in \ '_I-:r-1iJ r tnnd was the upswing in the use of
C IN !'T N i T i n r. wheats, which went from a negligible
kt \ !.'-11 i' r *' ,i respectable presence in 1997 in WANA,
mil.. r.! %ir.i w heat growing area. In addition, some
i n i,, .~ i d,.. i Icumented in China, where slightly less
r l.i' rli t! .i i. on hectares of winter wheat now have
CNIMM'N T i>:'. -try.

TI i.n... .i -, me trends identified by the study team
._i [ .. tl'. r.. ate of varietal replacement in most
,i: ,L.'rt ... Ji!'nl the slower rate of yield increases in
t.i i.i. ti .d-. Regarding varietal replacement, Heisey
." .!'itr, ..u r trit the average age of varieties used in
mi mi I-. ti d increased between 1990 and 1997 in 19
,t t trl- .it entriess where comparisons could be
.it_. ii .trh.,i ivords, the lag between time of release
J. ir. rin. t .i adoption may be growing, most likely
L't-_.Jti-.i-. t.~i n1 i- simply lack access to improved seed.
it rn!, rni.n! continues," he warns, "depending on
i !i\ i. .!iiinnl .iit conditions, rust or other disease
SL .ik-, k-, :.. ,ld pose a serious problem for some
c. '!il ri. 1 !!ii rltn. near future."

Slci.rn! h.iil Heisey says, the factors behind the
.! i _!.'i ,t. it \. i increases in farmers' fields during the
p.,-r i -1 \~.ii's in advanced developing country
i 'i. ni- -'u: li o. northwestern Mexico and the Punjab
l.- a, itir Idi oind Pakistan are many and complex,
rt. .iil' i r' 1F' management issues and environmental
diti-_ .-.iodri. o .i probably major contributors to this
sili rui L,!'li n.11_nd.

For more
information:
m.lantican@cgiar.org

I I-i -,1.i : I 111H i- 19 99 .













CIMMYT MAIZE IN



LATIN AMERICA: PRESERVING



OPTIONS FOR SMALLHOLDERS



A NEW STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF MAIZE RESEARCH

IN LATIN AMERICA HIGHLIGHTS CHALLENGES FOR

SMALLHOLDERS AND RESEARCHERS.


Compared to researchers working on wheat
impacts, economists studying maize impacts face
a different set of challenges, according to CIMMYT
economist Michael Morris, who together with
economist Miguel-Angel L6pez-Pereira produced
Impacts ofMaize Breeding Research in Latin America,
1966-1997.*

When it comes to evaluating impact, Morris
explains, two kinds of issues set maize apart from
wheat: technical measurement issues and data
access issues. The technical measurement
problems are rooted in the maize plant itself.
"Because maize is an open-pollinating plant,
a lot of natural outcrossing goes on in farmers'
fields, making it much more difficult to define
'improved germplasm,'" says Morris. "And when
you have problems defining what qualifies as
improved germplasm, that means it's also difficult
to measure the area that's sown to improved
germplasm. We don't have these problems
with wheat."


Nor does wheat present as many challenges when
it comes to obtaining data, which is clearly not the
case with maize. Much, if not most, maize breeding
research occurs in the private sector, which means that
detailed information on what private companies are
doing in their breeding programs is necessary to track
how CIMMYT germplasm is being used.
"Naturally, the companies are often reluctant to
give us that information because it's commercially
valuable," says Morris, "and the problem is
aggravated by growing concerns about intellectual
property rights. This stands in contrast to wheat. The
pedigrees of virtually all commercially grown wheats
are publicly i io -. i, so it's easy to trace their genetic
history." Nevertheless, by pointing out the ultimate
benefit to the companies of such studies and by
providing firm assurances of confidentiality, the
CIMMYT researchers were able to obtain enough
information to produce reliable figures and findings.
(See "The Maize Impacts Study for Latin America:
Logistics and Objectives," p.15).


* CIMMYT (1999). Individual maize impacts studies for sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are forthcoming, as is a global study
synthesizing findings from all three regions.












SOME

SURPRISING RESULTS

Perhaps the most important findings of
the study are that (1) commercial seed
production is almost entirely in the hands
of the private sector and (2) three-quarters
of the commercially produced seed in Latin
America (and a similar proportion of area
planted to improved materials) contain
CIMMYT germplasm (Figures 1 and 2).


OPVs


OPVs
250,000 Hyb
Hybrids
200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

0
1990 91 92 93 94 96 96 97

FIGURE 1. SALES OF SEED OF IMPROVED OPEN-POLLINATED MAIZE
VARIETIES (OPVs) AND HYBRIDS, LATIN AMERICA.







Seed (t)
300,000


Public
250,000 Pi- -
0 Private
200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000 -

0
1990 91 92 93 94 96 96 97

FIGURE 2. PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE SEED SALES, LATIN AMERICA.


Morris draws a strong message from these
findings. "You often hear that the private
sector can handle maize breeding and that a
public institute isn't needed to perform that
function. If that's true, then why do 75% of
the materials sold by the private sector contain
public germplasm? The public sector must be
performing a useful function and the products
that we're generating do have value-they
are being used."

One particularly surprising finding of the
impacts study was that improved varieties
have not been adopted more widely in Mexico
and Central America during the six years since
the last survey was done. Roughly 80% of the
maize area in those regions is still planted
to landraces, often referred to as local varieties.

"Clearly, scientific breeding programs
have not reached large, important areas of
these regions," says Morris. Although the seed
industry has grown tremendously in Latin
America during the past few years, the
industry is focusing on commercial production
zones and is not trying to expand its coverage
to the large number of farmers who continue
to rely on local varieties.

Morris concludes that at this point the
commercial seed producers are just not
interested in the other 80% of the maize area.
"They can't make money selling seed to those
farmers," he says. "The demand is too
dispersed over too large an area that has poor
roads and distribution facilities. Also, the
farmers there work on a very small scale, they
lack the resources to pay for seed on a regular
basis, and they don't know hybrid
technologies very well yet. These companies
are very good at identifying where they can
make money, and they are even willing to lose
money for a spell to develop a market. But our
numbers show that at this time the companies
don't even see a distant potential for profit in
many of these areas."


Seed (t)
300,000













TROUBLING TRENDS FOR


SMALLHOLDERS?

Given the near-total withdrawal of the
public sector from seed production in Latin
America since the early 1990s (another
prominent finding of the study), serious
questions arise about who will provide
improved materials to the region's
impoverished, small-scale farmers. Adding
to this dilemma, the study also found a
marked shift away from seed of open-
pollinated varieties, which can be sown for
several seasons without excessive yield
losses, to seed of hybrids, which cannot be
recycled as easily. This shift is yet another
repercussion of the strong trend toward
privatization of the seed industry.

Although the trend towards
privatization can well be regarded as a
maturation of the seed industry in the
region, Morris and L6pez-Pereira uncovered
one potentially troubling fact. "An
unexpected finding of this latest survey is
the degree of concentration in the seed
industry in many countries," says Morris.
"We're finding, for example, that the top
three seed companies in a given country
typically control 80%, or even 90%, of the
total market for commercial seed.
Preliminary findings indicate that the same
story is playing out in Africa and Asia. This
raises the question of whether in the future
farmers will have few choices and may have
to accept whatever is offered at whatever
price, although this unquestionably won't
always be the case. It's certainly something
we need to monitor quite carefully and think
about in the future."


For more
information:
m.morris@cgiar.org


STUDY


FOR LATIN AMERICA: LOGISTICS

AND OBJECTIVES



Morris and Lopez-Pereira in their
Latin American impacts ivork
conducted comnprehen-i\e inter\ ie%\s
%iith representati es trom 36 public
maize seed organizations and 172
pri ate -eed companie- in IS Latin
American tountrie-. The intensi e
que-t Ior data from the private -ector
tar surpasSed -uch eltort- in the 1402
su r\ e!.Collec ti\ el, the organizations
that participated in the -urne\
accounted for 97".. of the (ominercial
maize seed -old in the region in l4,b.
The objecti~e- of the re-earch i\ere
'traighttohr ard:

* to document the use ot CININR T-
related germiplasim;

* to esti mate adoption ot modern
varieties iM\N-I at the farin le' el;

* to identil\ tactor- that attect
adoption ot M\s ; and

* to generate information tor research
priority\ selltting.


15





























THE PARTNERING OF ADVANCED


ULTIMATE MISSION IS THE BETTERMENT OF THAT NATION'S HIGHLY EVOLVED AGRICULTURE


SECTOR, WITH


WHOSE CLIENTS ARE THE POOR FARMERS OF THE DEVELOPING


WORLD, MAY AT FIRST SEEM A BIT OF A MISMATCH. IN FACT, IT IS A GREAT FIT.


INSTITUTE HAS


- 1


When CTMMYT became a fnilninn
ni<.m b L'. i ", rl' LIAu s.i!jlb !'i *.... !.',L!i- r \ i.
'-"i-j>:l_ i C!-ntn. t..i .. :u !I I n i .i n


..p, j 'ln hq i-. thr t thl -.... .', 3ri\ ti \ 'rlt
i .. uld \ ,, ,tl-. : r '. d\ t i Wi ln Lh 'n hrti t
i,, L'.t.I- l h Wit. '. .~ X t:ri "r :.r! 'th -
4,t rlh CRC I-M P ni 0.L',-' i-i1 ri
Nl' -,>:n !i'r h>t: ., ri u ,'ln i.',' !'i'. .bi..'in !'I
n l I "i.H !l T .l L I [rl_, !' rll' hN -'- l I r ;l lI





S : lr,! ,,:4 %* I: t !l %-1 11: !! I I % I


i .. r t it 1['
Cik


sav' David Hoisington, director of
C ih N! M' T .Applied Biotechnology Center
iA .C I Ti I i particularly true with wheat,
rI_ t. :.I .! p !.ir .f our CRC-MPB activities,
li-J :L: .t. r ,- !.i -.e genome, its complexity,
.iard rlt. I lo.ir!\ eily low level of research
Ii\ _-.rini. rir ir [lii attracted in the past.

D\ i .. king with the Australian
[!ri .r[!rt. !-. i rlt CRC-MPB," Hoisington
:ririrL.. ie are involved with
rt.in ri ri., i.i! I I.iders in wheat research and
.il. .. nit. i.. the leading experts in
m. 'ht:u!'i- *iinetic analysis for wheat.
i,,i,, ,. t ':I.. .iOrd tapping that knowledge
.il i_ \p. i n 'i:. wivill enable us to use those
i -.. iiu,:t- r.. develop products that will




SEIl:IP F-THIH:ILOGIST HUGH WALLWORK,

SSARDI, AIlSTRALIA.


WHOSE


.









CIMMYT L:ELL


Benefits are already accruing for
Australia, according to Hugh Wallwork,
head of the CRC-MPB's program on biotic
stresses and a senior pathologist with the
South Australian Research and
Development Institute (SARDI). The
association with CIMMYT, he says, has
promoted access to expertise in both the
ABC and the Wheat Program, while at the
same time providing "strong and useful
links to other international organizations
and people." He observes that the closer
relationships engendered by the CRC-
MPB should allow Australia to make
greater use of CIMMYT's extensive
collection of wheat germplasm and
also provide payoffs in the realm
of bioinformatics, as CIMMYT is a
primary player in the development
of the International Crop Information
System (ICIS).

Both Hoisington and Wallwork agree
that the consortium has produced a win-
win situation for its members, which is
exemplified by work on molecular
markers for disease resistance and
transformation to introduce resistance to
fungal diseases of wheat.




MARKERS


RESISTANCE

Breeding for disease resistance is
nothing new, but a strategic shift in
research from depending on major genes
for resistance to using sets of minor genes
to create more durable resistance has made
wheat researchers'jobs considerably more
difficult. Molecular markers-the DNA


signposts that indicate the presence of
specific genes-provide scientists with a
powerful tool that allows them to identify
sources of minor resistance at the
molecular level, putting more durable
disease resistance within breeders' reach.
These markers also contribute to a better
understanding of the genetic control of
resistance in general.

CIMMYT molecular geneticist Manilal
William, funded by the CRC-MPB, is
tackling the task of identifying markers for
important minor or durable genes that help
confer long-lasting resistance to leaf rust
(Puccinia recondita) and stripe or yellow
rust (P striiformis), important diseases in
many developing countries. Leaf rust is not
a major problem in Australia, which also
has wheat varieties resistant to stripe rust,
but the development of markers for minor
genes will provide breeders and farmers
with a prudent extra line of defense should
certain resistances break down in the
Australian wheats.




SEEKING IN A


U II IL I -.I~. T


IFE LF .E 1' -E (t.HI
CIFVEL EI:IF' 'I A VVHEmT
TF IP F i,1- I p '[ T11J

SYSTEM THAT
QUADRUPLED THE
EFFICIENCY OF THIS
CRITICAL PROCEDURE.


PLANT SPECIES


"Finding molecular markers for c -.,i-,
resistance generally is a challenging r.i-k
says William, "and wheat, because
of its large genome full of
repetitive DNA sequences,
is not a particularly
'friendly' species
to work with. But
we have made good
progress toward our
objectives." .


* The others are the University of Adelaide, Southern Cross University, the South
Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI), and the Victorian
Department of Natural Resources and the Environment.













Considerable headway is being made in
marker identification using bulked segregant
analysis (BSA). Utilizing data from several years
of CIMMYT Wheat Program trials for leaf and
stripe rust resistance, the project team selects
approximately ten of the most resistant and ten
of the most susceptible wheats and puts equal
amounts of each wheat's DNA into either a
"resistant" or "susceptible" bulk. These two
distinct bulks are analyzed along with the
wheats' parental lines against different
marker systems to detect molecular-level
variations polymorphismss), which are the basis
of marker technology. To date, the project team
has run bulks against more than 330
microsatellites and 235 restriction fragment
length polymorphisms (RFLPs).

A promising step forward was taken
recently when William identified an amplified
fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker
that indicates the presence of a gene locus
strongly associated with leaf rust and stripe rust
resistance. He is now establishing the location
of the marker within the genome. Additional
polymorphisms have since been observed with
other markers in different populations,
providing the basis for identifying other minor
resistances. William is also creating genetic maps
of populations drawn from crosses of Avocet, a
susceptible Australian wheat, with three rust-
resistant CIMMYT wheats. These populations
provide critical genetic material to refine the
location of the genes identified by BSA and for
further molecular characterization of the
resistance mechanisms.

Future plans include similar marker
identification efforts for septoria tritici blotch
(Mycosphaerella graminicola) and Karnal bunt
(Tilletia indica), diseases that are prominent in
the developing world, and in the case of
septoria, in Australia as well. A doctoral student
funded by CRC-MPB will soon join William to
work toward identifying genetic factors
associated with drought tolerance in wheat.


TRANSFORMATION

Sometimes in scientific work, substantial
benefits grow out of tangential components of a
project. According to CIMMYT cell biologist
Alessandro Pellegrineschi, this occurred with his
CRC-MPB-funded work on introducing and
characterizing the effects of potential resistance
genes to fungal pathogens. On the way to this
goal, a wheat transformation system was
developed that quadrupled the efficiency of this
critical procedure in the ABC lab.

"When I entered this project," says
Pellegrineschi, "our transformation rates-in
layman's terms, 'the percentage of plants into
which we successfully introduce new genes'-
were inadequate for the job at hand. We needed
a reliable transformation system before we could
work on pathogen resistance."

Starting with a transformation rate of
less than 0.2%, over eight months Pellegrineschi
raised the rate to 0.9-1.0%. This was
accomplished through incremental improvements
in the transformation protocol, including more
refined selection criteria for embryos used for
particle bombardment with the gene gun and the
use of "cleaner" DNA. Pellegrineschi even
identified greenhouse temperatures for the
plants supplying the embryos as a factor in
transformation efficiency.

Getting the transformation rate up is
fundamental to employing transgenics in a major
breeding program. "It's essentially a numbers
game," says Pellegrineschi. "If we get our rates
up to 5%, which is our target, by shooting 1,200
wheat embryos a week we could produce 60
transformations, enough to test one gene
construct and produce at least one viable plant
capable of transferring the trait to its progeny.
Over the course of a year, we could insert more
than 50 different genes into plants, which the
breeders can use in their pursuit of
new characteristics."












MODEL


EXPLORING


THROUGH TRANSGENICS

While progress continues toward the 5%
transformation goal, the CIMMYT team has
shared its improved transformation
approach with CRC-MPB scientists and has
commenced work on fungal resistance.
Pellegrineschi seeks to introduce genes into
wheat that will produce pathogen-related
(PR) proteins such as b-1,3 glucanase,
chitinase, and ribosomal-inhibiting protein
(RIP), which have shown evidence of slowing
or arresting fungal growth in some cereal
plants. Once transgenic plants that
incorporate these and other PR proteins are
created, they need to be "characterized" to
determine the effects the gene has on the
plant. In other words, the scientists look to
see whether the plant displays resistance to
fungal diseases, and if so, which fungal
diseases and what levels of resistance;
whether there are any secondary effects, such
as sterility; whether any yield reduction is
detected; and so forth. A second doctoral
student funded by CRC-MPB will start on the
characterization assignment in the latter
part of 1999.

Simply characterizing the modified
plants, however, may be only the first step in
developing a resistance strategy and
complementary wheat plants, explains
Pellegrineschi. The PR proteins may work
better with an induciblee promoter," so that
the plant produces the proteins only under a
particular biotic stress. "Another approach is
to have the proteins express only in particular
tissues," he says, noting that when a gene
expresses, there is always a metabolic cost to
the plant. "It may be a long road we're
traveling here," he adds, "but I'm very
encouraged with our first steps."


COLLABORATION

The ABC's Hoisington is also encouraged by
the first steps the CRC-MPB members have
taken. "This is the first time ABC has entered
into an arrangement like this with developed
country institutes, and we've found the
experience has been very positive. In fact, it
could serve as a model of how we could
interact with other universities and even the
private sector in a way that builds a
consortium of expertise in a non-exclusive
fashion, that produces benefits for all of our
respective clients."

Most important of all, says Hoisington,
"It serves as a heartening demonstration of
how research institutes of the industrialized
world that are very strong in the theoretical
aspects of technology can work with an
institute like CIMMYT, which represents the
developing countries and which brings
a practical orientation toward these
technologies to the table. What results is the
realistic application of these tools to real-life
problems in the developing world."


For more
information:
d.hoisington@cgiar.org


I


. I


%N*-- F












WHEAT



CENTRAL ASIA



CAUCASUS


THE IJATIONS OF CENTRAL ASIA AND THE CAUCASUS WERE CATAPULTED INTO A

DIEE ECONOMIC CRISIS IN THE EARLY 1990S WHEN THE SOVIET UNION

,ISIIiTE .RATED. THE AGRICULTURAL CRISIS HAS BEEN EQUALLY PROFOUND. IN

A REGION WHERE SOME RESEARCHERS EARN LESS THAN A DOLLAR A

DAY, HIO V CAN AGRICULTURAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BE REVIVED?


Yields of basic food and export crops in
Central Asia and the Caucasus (CAC)
have fallen dramatically in recent
years. The CAC countries-Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
and Uzbekistan-no longer produce
enough food to meet domestic demand.
The situation was exacerbated by the loss
of access to regional markets as the
countries in the region set up trade
barriers. Importing food is not an option.
Neither the countries nor the people can
purchase food at international prices.
Agricultural modernization is a
critical component of overall
development in CAC, both to ensure
food availability and to promote
economic growth. According to A.
Satybaldin, Director General of
Kazakhstan's National Academic
Center of Agricultural Research,


"Sustainable grain production means,
first of all, food security, but essential
economic, scientific, and technical
prerequisites must be met if we are to
achieve this goal."
The difficulty of meeting the
prerequisites for food security must not
be underestimated. Agencies for
generating technology and serving
farmers have been decimated. Research
institutions are unprepared to respond
to farmers' needs under a market
economy; nor are they developing and
releasing new varieties to replace
cultivars thil.ir pllu-,-_lri, t. r- pests and
diseases. In this region, where wheat
cropping is the most important
agricultural production system,
CIMMYT and collaborating institutes
hope to jump-start economic growth by
renewing the research network and
improving wheat productivity.












NEW BEGINNINGS


IN KAZAKHSTAN

Two CIMMYT scientists, one of them a Kazakh
national, are now assigned to the region. They
work out of Almaty in Kazakhstan, which is by
far the largest wheat producer in CAC. For this
reason, and because conditions in Kazakhstan
resemble those in the rest of the region, CIMMYT
opted to begin its regional activities there.

The CIMMYT Economics Program
commissioned a study of Kazakhstan's wheat
sector in 1998 to learn about local agricultural
research and production infrastructure and help
target research correctly. As a complement to that
study, in July 1999 the CIMMYT Wheat Program
dispatched a multidisciplinary team of
researchers to the region for a traveling workshop
that covered the wheat-growing areas of
Kazakhstan and southern Siberia. Scientists from
different research institutions in those areas
participated in the workshop and had the
opportunity to visit research stations and
establish links with colleagues there. CIMMYT
scientists focused on becoming acquainted with
the conditions and most pressing problems
limiting wheat production in the region; their
findings added to the information gathered
earlier through the Economics Program study.



HARSH REALITIES FOR


FARMERS AND RESEARCHERS

The traveling workshop revealed the many harsh
realities faced by farmers and researchers.
Kazakhstan produces wheat mostly under rainfed
conditions, with an average yield of less than one
ton per hectare. The capacity to produce wheat
for internal consumption and export has been
eroded by long years of input-deficient farming.
Since the demise of state-supported agriculture,
farmers have lacked cash and credit to invest in
new machinery, inputs, and other technologies.


Public-sector research and extension have also
suffered from a lack of funding. Very little
agricultural research was conducted between 1991
and 1997. Since 1990, Kazakhstan's national
agricultural research program has lost half of its
scientists. The spirits of the remaining researchers
are flagging as they contemplate further budget
cuts and job losses. "Many well-qualified scientists
have left agricultural research, and that has limited
the scope and lowered the standards of our work,"
says Yuriy Zelenskiy, a breeder at the A.I. Baraev
Kazakh Cereals Research Institute. A similar flight
is occurring in other CAC countries such as
Azerbaijan, where a breeder with a PhD earns less
than US$ 1 a day.

Kazakhstan inherited many of its institutions
from the Soviet Union, and the transition to a new
way of doing things has varied in different sectors
of the economy Systems for marketing wheat and
delivering inputs to farmers remain inefficient,
although farmers now pay market prices for inputs
and receive market prices for their crops, when
they manage to sell them. The old network of
collective and state farms was privatized in 1993,
and by 1997, new farming entities had emerged:
partnerships, joint stock companies, cooperatives,
and peasant family farms. Titles to private land
are now issued, but banks do not accept them as
collateral, leaving farmers with no credit to buy
inputs and cover other operating costs. Farmers
have resorted to bartering, using few or no inputs,
and employing fewer people to help on the farms.

"The lower intensity of agriculture today is
probably driven largely by the move to a market-
based economy," comments Jim Longmire, the
economist who conducted the study of the
wheat sector. "Kazakh farmers face considerable
price and production risks and don't have
strong credit or financial support for dealing with
these risks." Longmire points out that the
recovery of the agricultural sector will depend
on the establishment of adequate policies and
wheat prices, as well as on agricultural research
and development and improved farming
circumstances.












REVERSING THE


PRODUCTION DECLINE

ki z.ikh 1-I4, :iul !r Ii .! -: ntists have a good idea of
i .r% rn._.i- t,. L' it. r. reverse this downward
r!. tI i' lir [!ii~! n!t. ,rn 4 solutions is totally out of
r.ii hri- T!.id \ i n1.. g the best they can with
i.r rt !.i h\ i. :..mments Ivan Ortiz-
l. nrl.i.t _., .nit mni L.t-r of the wheat team
tr'it \ -tr .ij tr'.i .! n They're already practicing
!itLduLi t!l-ii.. ri.d it.sidue retention. What
i.,.u! !_.il i !! ruin t!hi! .s around would be to
, It.., u. ti: .. ri i.__ r., zero tillage," says Ortiz-
N. '.i-ri, .. T I. : hiti!!ii age is to enable farmers


Z.i.. ii ~ ''i. i ..uLl1 contribute to conserving
'..i! ..'t irun. I'i p- ..d action costs, increase the
in.i!. ii .t .. ,! '.i ': nin. m rt in the soil, and produce
-!'.~!'. i \ !i '. '. ini' y years. The technology
i ..l ii -.. uliL tl tiin ers to use herbicides to
,C. %. t,! Ii. -. 1 d-. irn d !t h i des are neither .i\ i [- b'i_.-
!..i ~.~di 'l t. ti rl L. h i t.i mer. "A solution may lie
i, pi-Leuid .''i' p'I '.i tr. ,. 'inpanies in the developed
i ld !. r.. L.' ti ri. t h 'ti 'p .ducts for grain in the CAC
.-.', i ... ir, Anm. i i:.ir machine manufacturer
iti-> : i r!k i,:l O' rtz-Monasterio.

[ t. trrt. i 1.1.1t .. il h. .ui also help. Many widely
|...|:Li lr!it \i !' io\ i. become susceptible to
i .1 -.. 'i- d j'. n. .r t! V II meet producers' needs.
F.i ile !m...1 1i i !.t- .i i ielding varieties that are
,i. r.t~i't r,, d r -...i. -.t I: !'L as the smuts, bunts, and
I u-t-. rnid oin. It.! i adapted to the region.
Orlt'.i 'p i .ties in spring wheat are
drought tolerance,
early maturity,
and superior grain
quality. Winter
wheat varieties
should possess
higher yield


potential, improved disease resistance, and
good grain quality. Key parental lines have
been collected from Kazakhstan and are being
crossed with elite parents at CIMMYT
headquarters in Mexico in the hope of
developing high-yielding, disease-resistant
wheats adapted to the dryland conditions
prevalent in CAC.

To reverse soil degradation, cropping the
land less frequently would probably help, as
would crop diversification and the shift to zero
tillage. For years Kazakh scientists have
worked on soil conservation methods, such as
the use of blade plows, stubble retention,
windbreak crops, and snow plowing. Further
research is needed to encourage farmers to
adopt these methods and alternative crop and
pasture rotations.



REINVENTING

RESEARCH SYSTEMS

Stronger research systems are an essential
component for improving wheat production
in CAC, where scientists are still relatively
isolated from the world scientific community
and even from other researchers in the region.
Through the recent traveling workshop,
Kazakh researchers gained the opportunity to
contact peers across the region and identify
problems they could tackle jointly.

Agricultural professionals in CAC are also
participating in wheat improvement training
at CIMMYT in Mexico. In 1999, four breeders-
two from Kazakhstan, one from Azerbaijan,
and one from Uzbekistan-attended the course
for the first time. In the long run, attendance
at this and other courses, plus visiting scientist
fellowships, will strengthen ties and
collaboration not only with CIMMYT but also
ir !I. n.irn\ rlt. i -: )untries and institutions.


For more
information:
ci iiinyt@astel.kz











































































~ -
r~u. ic1)1E~i i~'




*~ '*


~~LiI A -*'"










PLUS




A VANISHING EQUATION?




EARTH IS THE BLUE PLANET, ITS AZURE HUE A REFLECTION OF

ON ITS SURFACE. A SPECTATOR VIEWING OUR BLUE

GLOBE FROM OUTER SPACE WOULD NEVER IMAGINE THAT THE EARTH'S DOMINANT


SPECIES IS


OF SUCH A PLENTIFUL


RESOURCE. THE FACT THAT IT IS POINTS UP SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONCERNS ABOUT

THE EFFECTS OF SUCH SHORTAGES ON AGRICULTURE NOW AND IN THE FUTURE.


These are the facts. Water covers 70% of the
earth's surface, but 97.5% of this water is
saline. Only 2.5% of all the planet's water is
freshwater, and nearly 70% of it is locked in
icecaps and glaciers or lies in deep
underground reservoirs. An infinitesimal
proportion (.007%) of all water on earth is
readily available freshwater.*

This small proportion of water
(according to the UN, less than one million
cubic kilometers) is insufficient to satisfy the
many needs of the earth's human
population. As the world population grows
at the incredible pace of 100 million people
a year, the relatively small amount of
available freshwater is fast shrinking in
proportion to demand. A few data bring
home the urgency of the situation:

SIn the 20th century global water use has
grown twice as fast as global population
and continues to rise rapidly in many
regions of the world.


* Since the 1970s, the theoretically available
amount of water per capital in the world
has decreased by almost 40%.

* Presently about one-third of the world
population lives in areas suffering from
moderate to severe water stress.

* Unless action is taken, two-thirds of the
world population (close to 5.5 billion
people) will face such shortages by 2025.



IN AGRICULTURE

Water shortages are already having a
negative impact on agriculture, the biggest
water user in the world. A serious concern
is what this implies for the world's food
supply, given that a large portion of the
human diet is based on cereal grains and
other crops. (Another concern is the impact
on women in agriculture; see "Getting Their
Fair Share of Water.") The rising world
population puts greater demands on
freshwater supplies while requiring more


* We thank our colleagues in the International Water Management
Institute (IWMI) for their contributions to this story.












and more food to subsist. The burgeoning
population also drives urban development
and industry, which siphon off increasing
amounts of freshwater, leaving less to
produce food.

Increasing and competing demands for
water are plunging many countries into an
era of severe water shortages. Water-scarce
countries (in West Asia and North Africa,
for instance) may have to divert water from
irrigation to supply domestic and industrial
needs, and be forced to import food.
Shortages could be solved by developing
new sources of water and making more
rational use of water across all sectors-in
irrigation, industry, potable water, and the
environment. Development of new water
supplies will be needed for all sectors
in 2025.

The chief sources of irrigation water are
rivers, lakes, and (often controversial)
government-built dams. Water from
reservoirs deep within the earth has been
brought up with giant pumps, but massive
pumping, once viewed as a solution for
farmers, actually worsens water shortages
by quickly depleting underground water
that may take decades to be replenished.
This strategy, in the long run, actually
threatens to reduce global food supplies.




SCIMMYT

CIMMYT tackles water problems in many
different environments as part of its
research to improve developing world
agriculture. According to analysts,
irrigation uses up two-thirds of the world's
supply of freshwater, but waste and
improper management cause less than half


of that water to reach the roots of plants.
Developing methods that improve
irrigation water use efficiency is just one
of several water-related research areas
investigated at CIMMYT, where
researchers are well aware that water
scarcity is becoming the single most
important constraint to increased food
production in many parts of the world.

For this reason, the Wheat Program
has worked for some years on
developing agronomic practices to help
farmers cope with diminishing water
supplies. (Our Maize Program has
conducted extensive research on
developing maize that can tolerate
drought; see "Maize Minus Water," next
page.) Researchers have found that
planting wheat on permanent beds
improves water use efficiency. Scientists
testing bed planting in South Asia's
irrigated production systems report a
30% savings in water use in those
particular irrigation systems. In other,
more marginal environments, partial or
complete residue conservation in
conjunction with reduced tillage and
crop rotation helps conserve s,-il
moisture. Conservation tillage redu,:.-
runoff of valuable water. A five-f'ld
increase in water infiltration into the s. 'iI
using conservation tillage was record d
in a long-term CIMMYT trial. CIMM'I T
is also developing agronomic practi,_:.
that reduce nitrogen contamination ,t
water systems.*

Breeders are doing their part to ht. Ip
plants get more out of scarce wa-. i
supplies by constantly improving
the capacity of CIMMYT wheats to j
yield well under drought
conditions and in saline soils.
Crop varieties that yield more


GETTING THEIR FAIR SHARE

OF WATER
A fair share of water must be
given to women and children, who
bear most of the costs of too little
or unsafe water. Apart from
spending long hours collecting
and carrying water, they get less
water for personal hygiene and
suffer most from poor water
quality and water-related diseases.
Each year, 3.8 million children in
the developing world die from
water-borne diseases, and every
eight seconds a child succumbs to
a water-related illness.
Experts estimate that each year
women and girls in developing
countries spend a total of 10
million person years hauling water
from distant and frequently
polluted sources. In many parts of
the developing world, women do
not have the same rights to water
as men, including women farmers
who may have limited or no rights
to water for irrigation. As the
number of women in agriculture
continues to grow, this problem
will have many implications for
the welfare of their families,
especially their children.


S, ,. .- ..




.OF



J''-
mAw


* See CIMMYT in 1997-98, p. 10.


-. -












MaizE Miri"u' W-TEIP: PROGRESS
ri BPEECi.r,:, DP:.III,-.HT TOLERANT

MAIZE FOR AFRICA
In southern Africa, maize is a highly
valued staple for small-scale,
re ,ou rce-poor farmer- and their
tainilies. but dr.uiht frequently
threatens or destr,:\ s maize harvests.
CIMMYT staff are working with
breeders in southern Africa to
generate locally adapted maize
\arieties and h\ brids that prdduice
more graIn than u rrentl\ s iin
iulti\ar- under e\ere drO.ught
-tret- The tolerant maize i al-ko
bred for higher and more stable
fields on low fertility soils, as well
as re-p,:.n-l\ enet- to favorable
conditions. In first results from on-
station trials in the region,
experimental maize hybrids from
CIMMYT outyielded popular, locally
adapted hybrids by a dramatic 25-
50% under drought stress.
For more information see CIMMYT
in 1997 98, p. 22; contact
m.banziger@cgiar.org



./ -*


per unit of water will improve water
productivity in arid areas (see "Durum
Wheat Yields Hit a New High," p. 49).
Drought occurs in different patterns-for
example, early or late in the cropping cycle.
Breeders are working on early maturing
varieties that escape moisture stress at the
end of the cycle, as well as late maturing
wheats that slow their development to
benefit from late rains when there is drought
early in the season. Breeders are also
working on developing varieties that are
well adapted to being planted on beds.

When we think of water problems what
generally comes to mind is a lack of water.
However, excessive amounts of water can
also generate problems. In large tracts of
India and Pakistan, where millions of the
world's poorest live, wheat is cultivated
under irrigation. The ever-increasing
salinity of soils due to inadequate drainage
.! !. I.r_ \\'ater tables poses a major threat to
wtutui. \\heat production. Solving this
p'i .'! ni (for example, through improved
di ,nCi-'.. ) will require great engineering
. tt,.'t In the meantime, salt-tolerant
varieties could contribute to
maintaining yields until a
more permanent solution to
the problem is implemented.
In areas where such radical
solutions are not feasible,
s ,,t-tolerant varieties may provide
0iimers with the only means of
niim,,iin iing their yield levels. For these
i n.,s.n studies aimed at breeding salt
I- l., i, ic. into wheat varieties adapted to the
aitt.>t : d regions have been conducted at
CI!NN!' T.


TO THE

Water is a renewable but poorly distributed
and finite resource. Making sure everyone
on earth has enough water to cover their
basic needs will necessitate great and
ingenious solutions. Perhaps a way will be
found to melt some of the water trapped in
the polar ice caps and use it to supplement
current resources, or perhaps new and
inexpensive methods of desalinization will
allow us to tap into virtually inexhaustible
amounts of ocean water. Efficiency in using
water could be improved through drip
irrigation (where this technology is
economic) or by recycling waste water for
crop production. These and other solutions
are feasible, but in the end, the biggest
challenge may not be accessing new sources
of water or making better use of it, but
rather finding ways to share water resources
more equitably.

The water crisis the world faces will
take years to solve due to its scope and
intensity, and whether it can be solved at
all is not clear. The problem is multi-faceted
and complex, and many actors are involved.
Perhaps the best we can hope for is to make
sure that we have enough water to ensure
the survival of our species. If we do not, the
blue planet will keep rotating around the
sun, but it will most probably not be
dominated by a species that requires
freshwater to survive.


For more
information:
s.rajaram@cgiar.org










REDUCED


FOR TROPICAL MAIZE AND


WHEAT: FROM MOLDBOARDS TO MULCH AND PROFITS




CONVENTIONAL TILLAGE IS AN ENERGY-INTENSIVE

PROCESS WHEREBY, FOR EACH HECTARE OF FARMLAND,

SEVERAL HUNDRED TONS OF SOIL ARE CHOPPED AND

PUSHED AROUND TO SOW AT MOST A HUNDRED

KILOGRAMS OF SEED.


Conventional tillage can provide weed
control, get organic residues into the soil,
aerate upper layers, and mix fertilizer
evenly while forming a good seedbed, to
name a few benefits. But if you stand on a
sun-baked, conventionally plowed field in
central Mexico in March-at least a month
before the rains arrive-and watch heat-
driven winds carry off brown clouds of dry
topsoil, you begin to wonder if there is a
better way.

Many agricultural researchers believe
there are alternatives. There is great interest
in conservation tillage for cropping systems
in the tropics, as rising populations intensify
the pressure to produce more food from
finite and overworked land resources. The
term "conservation tillage" describes a
multiplicity of practices, ranging from
extremely simple to fairly complex, which
may be implemented in different ways in
different settings. Most methods involve


reducing or eliminating the moldboard
plow-a tool that turns over the soil and
exposes it to erosion-and advocate leaving
crop residues as a protective mulch. The
advantages include reduced erosion, labor
and fuel savings, more timely land
preparation, improved water infiltration and
retention, beneficial bio-activity, and
increased organic matter.

CIMMYT has catalyzed research on
reduced tillage with partners throughout the
developing world, working alongside
farmers, developing alternative tillage and
residue management techniques, assessing
the biophysical performance of different
options, and anticipating (through modeling)
and measuring (through monitoring) long-
term consequences for productivity and
resource conservation. The sheer volume of
work defies exhaustive reporting here, but a
few examples highlight important directions,
achievements, and challenges.












"SUSTAINABILITY" MUST BE


IN MEXICO


Six years of collaborative research by
CIMMYT, the Mexican National Institute of
Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock
Research (INIFAP), and the Centre de
Cooperation Internationale en Recherche
Agronomique pour le Developpement
(CIRAD), France, at a low-rainfall site in
western Mexico has shown that
conservation tillage has significant effects
on system sustainability. Short-term benefits
after five years of conservation tillage with
moderate levels of residue retention (from
1.5 to 4.5 t/ha of maize residues) included
a 50-80% increase in water infiltration over
other tillage techniques, with notable
reductions in run-off and evaporation.
"Average rainfall is only 400 millimeters per
crop cycle, so reducing water losses by half
is a significant achievement," says Eric
Scopel, CIRAD researcher posted at
CIMMYT who led the research.

Longer-term effects were equally
impressive. In the presence of fresh organic
matter on the surface and because of the
reduced soil movement, the earthworm
population increased five- to ten-fold,
depending on the amount of residue
retained; their activity and that of other non-
microbial fauna greatly improved soil
porosity without increasing soil-borne
pests. Erosion-in this case from runoff
associated with scattered, intense rainfall
events-is reduced by at least half, relative
to traditional tillage. Organic matter in the
upper soil increased from just over 1% to
nearly 3% in five years.


Despite the convincing biophysical data,
conservation tillage may not work for every
farmer. Damien Jourdain, CIRAD
economist at CIMMYT, analyzed the
economics of farmers' conservation tillage
practices in an area of Jalisco, Mexico. "Cost-
benefit studies show improvements in the
productivity and stability of maize cropping
systems in dry areas where improved seed,
fertilizer, and other inputs are used," says
Jourdain. "There was an average 35%
reduction in risk and double the return on
investments."

Jourdain cautions that in traditional
systems where no improved inputs are
used, adoption of conservation tillage alone
did not increase average returns and, in fact,
increased risk. "In this situation conser-
vation tillage saves what low-input farmers
have most-labor-and demands what they
have least-cash," Jourdain explains. "Also,
in the traditional system farmers intercrop
beans or squash, but conservation tillage
requires herbicides, so they would lose the
intercrop. Finally, without improved seed
or the intercrop to take advantage of the
moisture saved, little is gained."

There is a lesson in all this, according
to Jourdain: resource-conserving technolo-
gies cannot benefit the environment unless
farmers use them. Adoption will occur only
if farmers perceive a clear, near-term profit
in using the technologies, as in some parts
of Chiapas, Mexico, where farmers practice
a traditional form of conservation tillage.


CIMMYT
RESEARCH
SUPPF'F'.PTS ,-HI;E
FHR[ EPS IOIl STEEP
HILLSIDES III
GUATEMALA, WHO
USE RESIDUES TO
TIE DOWN FRAGILE
SOILS.


Pr~L


WATER FOR












IN PLANTING


MEXICAN MAIZE


To capitalize on these results and address
the issues they raise, CIMMYT, INIFAP, and
CIRAD will begin a new phase of
collaborative research on maize
conservation tillage in 2000. "Among other
things, we'll be looking at the diversification
of production systems and management
options, the development and adaptation of
special planting equipment, and the short-
and long-term impacts of conservation
tillage and associated practices on system
sustainability and the environment," says
Bernard Triomphe, the CIRAD researcher
who took over from Scopel in July 1999.
Management options to be assessed include
integrated biomass management, forage
systems, and rotations and associations
with legumes and cover crops.

"A key strategy will be to increase the
participation of different stakeholders,"
Triomphe says. "We will involve farmers
and farmers' associations, extension ser-
vices, private companies, agricultural
economists, and local government in the


design and testing
of new options." In
this way, Triomphe
and his colleagues
hope to promote the
adoption of suitable
maize conservation
tillage practices at
sites throughout
Mexico where the
approach can make
a difference.


AND TILLAGE SYSTEMS FOR WHEAT

As in any business, farmers can increase profits
by boosting productivity, reducing production
costs, or both. For some 10,000 wheat farmers
in northwestern Mexico, cost savings are a
crucial part of an alternative tillage system they
developed, in which they sow their crop on
raised soil beds set apart by irrigation furrows.
"Farmers shifted to bed planting-albeit with
tillage-because the system offers greater
efficiencies in weed control, water
management, and fertilizer management,
along with less crop lodging and even some
reduction in tillage," says Kenneth Sayre,
CIMMYT wheat agronomist, who has
observed this system for some time. Farmers
using the system report that yields improve
by at least 10% and production costs fall
by 25-35%.

Conservation tillage is the next innovation
in bed planting, according to Sayre. For the
past six years, Sayre has worked to develop
appropriate planters and bed-shaping equip-
ment so that farmers can maintain "perma-
nent" beds and retain crop residues-giving
bed planting a conserva-


-- LZOT
LC1.5T
- LC4.5T
LT


2
2 ------..._
0 5 10 15 20
Cumulated volume of infiltration (I)
Infiltration velocity after 5 years
in La Tinaja, Mexico.
UNDER CONSERVATION TILLAGE WITH MODERATE
LEVELS OF RESIDUE (4.5 t/ha), WATER
SOAKED INTO THE SOIL MORE THAN TWICE AS
QUICKLY AS UNDER CONVENTIONAL TILLAGE.


tion tillage advantage.
"Dramatic reductions of
tillage, combined with
proper management of
crop residues, should re-
duce costs another 20 to
25% and create a more
sustainable production
system for farmers," pre-
dicts Sayre.


_LL_


FUTURE
























.. ..


:....











:: ~. E.





.... ...


Sayre and other CIMMYT researchers
are working with partners in Asia to tailor
the system to irrigated wheat settings
there-in some cases beginning with
conventional-tillage bed planting, as in
Mexico, and then adding reduced-tillage
permanent beds. They have found that, in
addition to the above-mentioned benefits,
bed planting requires nearly one-third less
water than traditional, flood-irrigated
wheat cropping systems-a major boon in
a region where the demand for water will
grow dramatically over the next two
decades. Interest in the practice is intense
(see "Accolades for a 'Powerful' Tech-
nology," p. 48), and researchers from all over
. the world have come to work with Sayre in
Mexico for first-hand experience with the
new planting system.




WHEAT ON TIME IN




After six years of promoting minimum
tillage and placing over 1,000 demon-
strations in wheat growers' fields in
northwestern Bangladesh, the Wheat
Research Centre and CIMMYT-Bangladesh
recently received proof of their impacts. The
... Deputy Director of Extension for the
Northwest estimated that, in 1999, 70% of
all wheat cropping in Bangladesh was done
using minimum tillage.

Why is minimum tillage important?
Just three decades ago, wheat was a minor
crop in Bangladesh and tillage practices
S resembled those used for rice. As

production expanded, knowledge of wheat


production increased. "Growers at that time
tilled their soil after monsoon rice slowly,
using six passes with oxen and a country
plow, allowing 15-25 days to pass to get
what they thought was proper tilth," says
Craig Meisner, CIMMYT agronomist in
Bangladesh and member of the Natural
Resources Group (NRG). "However, our
research with partners in the region has
shown that timelysowing is more important
than seedbed preparation. In fact, for every
day wheat is sown late, yields fall 1.3%."

According to Meisner, farmers reduced
their tilling to two or three passes of a
country plow, shortening the turnaround
time from rice harvest to wheat planting and
boosting wheat productivity. Together with
new, high-yielding varieties that possess
enhanced disease resistance, several
improved management practices, and area
increases, timely sowing has c. ,i t 1. I b to
a recent series of bumper wheat crops.
Production in 1998 was some two million
tons-nearly double the output of just four
years prior.

"Now that growers understand the
importance of timely sowing, we are trying
to promote other technologies, such as
surface seeding, which further reduce
tillage and increase the timeliness of wheat
planting," Meisner says. Surface seeding-
sowing wheat on the water-saturated soil
surface after rice harvest-provides wheat
yields equal to those for conventional tillage
but greatly reduces costs.


For more
information:
1.harrington@cgiar.org;
d.jourdain@cgiar.org;
k.sayre@cgiar.org


: ::


W.


: :. ,
7,. R .

.. . .. . . ....
........ ... .. .... ..










ARE




AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT COMPATIBLE?




ECONOMIC ISSUES RELATED TO CROP GENETIC DIVERSITY CANNOT BE

UNDERSTOOD WITHOUT EXAMINING COMPLEX HUMAN CHOICES AND BEHAVIORS.

E E



THE ULTIMATE

QUESTION THEY SEEK TO ANSWER IS WHETHER GENETIC DIVERSITY IS

COMPATIBLE WITH AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT.


The management of genetic diversity in
food crops, whether ex situ in genebanks or
in geographical areas dominated by modern
cultivars or landraces, is part of the global
initiative to conserve biodiversity.
Economists, like other researchers
concerned about crop genetic diversity,
have their own particular way of thinking
about it. The kinds of diversity questions
that can be explored through economic
analysis are:

SIn cropping systems where farmers grow
modern wheats, is greater diversity in the
varieties farmers grow associated with
greater or lesser economic efficiency?


* Research team: Melinda Smale, Erika Meng, Mauricio
Bellon (CIMMYT Economics Program); Alfonso
Aguirre (CIMMYT/INIFAP); Flavio Aragon (INIFAP);
John Brennan (Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute);
Jikun Huang, Hu Ruifa (CCAP/CAAS); Scott Rozelle
(University of Califoria-Davis); David Godden
(University of Sydney); researchers from other
CIMMYT programs, NGOs, universities, and national
research systems.


*Which combinations of economic, s..,: l
technical, and agro-ecological factors posi'tn i. \
influence the diversity of landraces that fE i l. i
grow in centers of
crop diversity?


* Has the genetic diversity
of CIMMYT wheats
decreased, remained
constant, or increased
over time?


t~S -'4


ABOUT THE ECONOMICS OF DIVERSITY N

During the past year, researchers at CIM1I' T
and associates in other institutions* have t: ''i.
closer to their goal of relating farmers' and pilanr
breeders' decisions to crop genetic diversity\ nii
way that is meaningful to social and biol. ,'.:..l
scientists and is amenable to policy interpret' r. ',r.
They have assembled the methodological bu Id i .n-
blocks needed to conduct economic analy,.t. t
crop genetic diversity.


lAxlY
liMitt


Ci











These building blocks are: the
Number of morphological groups per mill ha
0.9 development of appropriate diversity
indicators for use in economic models;
0.8
08 models of farmer decision-making
0.7 that relate economic variables to
0.6 biological variables; and econometric
0.5 Anhui models that enable economists to test
0.4 hypotheses related to important
0.3 e conservation issues and possible
S.2 ,, policy interventions. Team members
0.2
.'"''- have adapted indices used by
0. H.l ecologists in the study of species
o diversity and applied an award-
1982 85 88 91 94 97
winning statistical technique
FIGURE 1. RICHNESS IN WHEAT, developed by CIMMYT's Biometrics
MORPHOLOGICAL GROUPS (CHINA,
SELECTED PROVINCES, 1982-97). Unit to classify plant populations
(Figure 1). Interdisciplinary and inter-
institutional cooperation between members of the
research team has been a unique aspect of the work.



DIVERSITY INDICES


AND DECISION-MAKING

"To be useful in economic analyses, diversity measures
or indices that make sense to biological scientists must
be integrated into economic models of human decision-
making," explains Erika Meng, a CIMMYT economist and
member of the research team. For Meng and other team
members, the challenge is to integrate diversity indices
and economic models in a way that makes it possible to
analyze how policies affect diversity.

Melinda Smale, another member of the research team,
describes the nature of this challenge. "With molecular
markers, researchers can establish the genetic similarity
or dissimilarity between two crop lines or populations,
but farmers cannot gauge diversity this way," she says.
"Farmers' decisions are based on what they see-on how
genes are expressed as observable plant characteristics."
Although information on the morpho-phenological traits


that farmers observe can be linked with
genetic data by drawing samples of the crop
populations that farmers grow, and
socioeconomic variables can be used to
explain farmers' choice of varieties, the
sample sizes for such studies are small
because of their high cost. Smale emphasizes
that to understand how policies influence
genetic diversity, many such case studies
must be accumulated or conducted and
integrated across levels of analysis of crop
production systems.



FOR A RANGE OF


SETTINGS AND QUESTIONS

Researchers in CIMMYT's Economics
Program are applying diversity indices to
data in various economic decision-making
models. The structure of the models is
similar, but their application depends on the
level of analysis (e.g., the household, the
province), the crop in question, the material
(landraces or modern varieties), and the
empirical setting (e.g., an isolated farming
community, a region of commercial
wheat production).

The models should help answer
questions such as those mentioned earlier.
For example, some of them test hypotheses
about farmers' incentives and the effects of
policies and environment on landraces at
the local level. They are used in case studies.
Others test the effects of crop genetic
diversity, measured at the level of a national
production system with modern varieties,
on crop productivity and economic
efficiency. These models will c rt'Li luk'r to
policy analysis. (See "Diversity Questions
in Search of Answers," next page.)














THE


SARE

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND


GENETIC DIVERSITY COMPATIBLE?

These innovative models and studies
should help guide policy development
by delineating the costs and benefits of
in situ conservation, determining
whether diversity in a crop production
system involves costs or benefits, and by
indicating which policy levers are

appropriate for influencing genetic
diversity. "We are beginning to come to
grips with which issues are major
economic questions and which are
trivial," says Smale. "Our work this past
year moved us forward on a much larger
and more difficult question. Ultimately,
we would like to know under what
circumstances maintaining crop genetic
diversity in farmers' fields is compatible
with agricultural development and just
how it may be accomplished."



For more
information:
e.meng@cgiar.org;
m.smale@cgiar.org


Populations of high
private value and low
public value

*0

Populations of low
private and public
value
0


Candidate populations
for on-farm conservation
*



Candidate populations
for ex-situ conservation
0


DIVERSITY QUESTIONS IN SEARCH OF ANSWERS
What is the relation between wheat diversity and productivity in China and Australia?
CIMMYT researchers, with colleagues in China and Australia, are looking at the
relationships between wheat genetic diversity and productivity and economic efficiency.
The project, funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
(ACIAR), has collected data at the regional and household levels. In the regional studies,
the analysis uses data that combine variety characteristics with cross-sectional, time-series
data on area planted to different varieties, input use, costs of wheat production, the
environment, and policy factors. Australia provides an interesting contrast to China
because it represents a fully commercial, export-oriented wheat production system. The
Australian study also includes a survey of breeders' perceptions of wheat genetic
diversity and related policies. The goal of the next phase of this project is to develop more
focused policy analyses.
How can household surveys in China and Turkey illuminate the links between diversity
and productivity at the local level and beyond? During the past year, researchers amassed
farm-level data on wheat through household surveys in three provinces of China and six
provinces of Turkey. In China, farmers described production practices and constraints, as
well as consumption preferences with respect to specific wheat varieties. Data from these
surveys will provide information on factors influencing wheat farmers' decisions and will
enable researchers to examine links between diversity, cost, and productivity at the
household and aggregate levels.
The study in Turkey, done in collaboration with the Agricultural Economics Research
Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture, will assess the economic feasibility of conserving
crop genetic resources in situ, as well as potential inequalities across households that
could stem from the continued cultivation of landraces. This study is particularly
interesting for two reasons. First, Turkey is an important center of diversity and
domestication of wheat, and landraces are still widely grown in some areas. Second, some
of these households were surveyed in 1992, giving researchers the rare opportunity to
examine changes in farmers' choice of varieties over time.
Do traditional maize farming communities have incentives for maintaining diversity? In
a study of maize biological diversity in Guanajuato, Mexico, researchers have related the
diversity of maize measured at the community level to farmers' incentives for
maintaining diversity at the household level, testing hypotheses concerning the effects of
variety characteristics, agroecology, and market development on the crop genetic diversity
maintained by farmers. This model uses the notion of public and private characteristics of
varieties to examine the relationship of farmers' decisions to crop genetic diversity. (A
similar theoretical approach was first employed by CIMMYT economists in analyzing
wheat rust diseases and genetic diversity in the Punjab of Pakistan.)
In the Mexican states of Chiapas and Oaxaca, researchers designed and implemented
studies to analyze farmers' incentives to maintain diverse crop populations in centers of
crop diversity. Figure 2 shows part of the conceptual framework researchers are using to
identify which maize populations are least-cost
candidates for in situ and ex situ conser\ ation s part
of the Oaxaca project, the costs and benefits of .
participatory breeding strategies will be e% aluated
using standard economic impact anal\ sis and less
conventional analyses based on farmers
perceptions (see "Farmers Work with
Diversity Principles and Practices," p n4 i
Are CIMMYT wheats becoming more or less
genetically diverse? Scientists in the 1\ heat
Program, the Applied Biotechnology Center.
and Economics Program are synthesizing
analyses of genetic diversity from various
perspectives, including historical trials of
CIMMYT wheats, pedigree information.
data on the impact of CIMMYT wheat.
and molecular marker data. This
collaborative research should indicate
whether the genetic diversity of
CIMMYT wheats has increased,
remained constant, or declined
over time.


a j- .4

..,,


Contribution to genetic diversity of crop populations

FIGURE 2. FRAMEWORK FOR CHOOSING CROP POPULATIONS TO
CONSERVE ON-FARM AND EXSITU, IN A GIVEN REFERENCE REGION.


rPI










HELP




CREATE AN UNBEATABLE RESISTANCE/TOLERANCE PUNCH




FINDING WAYS TO ACCELERATE OR FACILITATE LONG-TERM RESEARCH IS

EVERY SCIENTIST'S DREAM AND THE PRIMARY APPEAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN WHEAT BREEDING HAVE

BEEN UNCOMMON, PARTLY BECAUSE OF WHEAT'S COMPLEX GENETIC

MAKEUP. IN THE PAST TWO YEARS, HOWEVER, THE C

8 I P TO BREED FOR

RESISTANCE TO A SERIOUS WHEAT DISEASE CALLED BARLEY YELLOW DWARF.


Ligia Ayala, an Ecuadorian student doing
her doctoral research at CIMMYT, struck
paydirt when she found a molecular marker
that will help track a particularly important
gene in generation after generation of bread
wheats. Dubbed WMS (for wheat micro-
satellite) 37, the marker flags a snippet of
DNA, taken from a wild grass, that contains
a gene conferring barley yellow dwarf
(BYD) resistance.

WMS37 is proving to be an invaluable
tool for CIMMYT breeders as they seek to
incorporate the BYD resistance gene into
high-yielding bread wheats using
conventional breeding techniques. It is
helping them clarify how the gene is passed
from one generation to the next and allows
them to more quickly and definitively
distinguish wheats that have inherited the
gene from those that have not.


Developing BYD-resistant wheats without
molecular markers relies on running other
laboratory tests that are time-consuming and
expensive. "An important consideration in the
decision to use molecular markers was that our
research partners, national agricultural research
programs in developing countries, find testing
for BYD resistance expensive and complex,"
relates Maarten van Ginkel, head of bread
wheat breeding at CIMMYT. Field observation
is also unreliable because, depending on how
sensitive they are to the virus, resistant plants
may show disease symptoms despite their low
infection levels, which causes them to look like
susceptible plants.

These difficulties make the process of
incorporating the BYD resistance gene into
wheat ideal for the application of molecular
markers, since markers allow researchers to
delve into the genetic makeup of experimental
wheats and see which ones carry the gene.












SAFE, DURABLE BYD


Barley yellow dwarf is the most
widespread viral wheat disease in the
world, though it attacks all cereals and
their wild relatives. As its name implies,
BYD stunts and yellows plants,
producing wheat crop losses estimated
at US$ 400 million a year.

The BYD virus is spread by aphids
that feed on wheat plants. The disease
may be kept at bay by killing the aphids
with insecticides, but insecticides are not
only costly and beyond the reach of most
developing country farmers, their
excessive use could incite the aphids to
develop insecticide resistance.
Insecticides are not completely effective
against the spread of the BYD virus and
may cause serious ecological damage,
especially if used to excess. The safest,
most effective, and inexpensive BYD
control measure is for farmers to plant
wheats that have inbred protection
against the disease.

CIMMYT researchers have devel-
oped bread wheats that are tolerant to
BYD. Tolerant-but not resistant. What is
the difference? "Tolerant plants may be
infected with high levels of the virus, but
they show few external symptoms and
yield well despite the infection," explains
CIMMYT virologist Monique Henry.
"Resistant plants, on the other hand,
have a defense mechanism that keeps the
virus from multiplying within them. As
a result, resistant plants have very low
levels of infection in their systems."


Henry works closely with brt.i.d \\i' .ct
breeders on combining the tw, tr\ p.. ,,t
disease protection.

CIMMYT wheat virologists Pi'i\,. t l..' t
working since 1993 to develop bit .:.d \ Iit.j
that have BYD resistance in additi. n It r .', l
tolerance. Why combine the two? \\ li..: rIlit : ti
have both qualities would allow ti m.. r..
reduce crop losses and at the same t nim. pi" i' .n
the virus from spreading. Tolerarnr p lir r. nI.
unaffected by the viral infecti.'n r, !,I' rln.
systems, but aphids may spread th,. i II. L mi
them to other plants that lack such tih. cn :t.
with potentially devastating const. .l. i t
aphids were to feed on plants that :, i. In 'r i nl\
BYD tolerant, but also resistant (-h'at i. \ th
low levels of virus in their tisst,,.,i I'phI..
would less easily pick up and tiinmli rit-l
virus to unprotected plants. Anotht ., p-" ~.\. I il
reason to combine resistance and r l. i c,:. i.
that together they would prc\ Idc. mi...
effective and longer lasting protect ri. i ,-! r
BYD than either resistance or tolei :,nc:. l. ,n.




HIGH YIELDING


BRE E LIII JG
BR'EAK IH, 11IGH:
CIMMYT
SCIEIJIISIS Hml/E
IDEUTIIFIED AH
INA, LE-O LRP M ARKER
FOR A --'.EIJE
( iJF RRIrifJG
RESISIAHCE I1'
BAFLT IE 'i YELLOW
DJWAR- \IIF VIRUS, WHICH
IS SI-PEAD B',
mPHIDS TH-T FEED
IIi1 VVHEIT ['LAIUIS.


Researchers are incorporating. rl l. e.'i '
resistance gene into the Wheat Pro.r ,ni m 1 L. 'r
high-yielding and BYD-tolerant bit.. d \i' l,.. 1:
The gene is being transferred tii.ni :ii
experimental bread wheat de\ I. '.pt.d t!
Australia at CSIRO (Commorn\ -.ilrth
Scientific and Industrial Res:-,i,:ih
Organization). Called TC14, it was
produced by crossing a bread
wheat with the wild relative
that was the original
source of the gene.























Li :IA AIALA (LEFT)

AriJ MOIJ i0IUE

HENI-: (RI_, HT)
COLLABORATE OIl

RESEARCH TO
COMBAT EARLE
' ELLOW DWHI:F
VIRUS III WHEAT.

BARLE ELL'OW
DWARF IS THE IMOiST
WIIESPR:Emf VIR:H

WHEAT DISEASE IIl

THE WORLD,
COSTII'll PRODLICEPS

US$ 400 MiLLI, :i
EACH EAR.-


C_. ri rI.'th rlie wild relative passed on
nt. '-, r r\ i. t :ir. along with BYD resistance,
it C i I lN I'i T i research team is now working
..i i pm .Ii i ng the agronomic traits of
\1h.i :.I Ji. ided from TC14.

Tlh m i: o-satellite found by Ayala
p-'i .i t ..- .I, ,rtcut in the breeding process.
ILb irt Iing WMS37 pick out lines
: !i i \ [h!t- [.YD resistance gene, so there
,i. -r t -.. i rt plant all the lines in the field,
'\.:it i t1... !!1 to grow, and use complex lab
ni.t rHi ,d.1 rt t-. lect the resistant ones. In this
:\\ it. !!,: ker is effectively helping to
cit. ri t\ F[.', DL-tolerant wheat lines that also
li,\ i I ,1. h. i vels of the BYD virus in their
_\ ~rim I-. I i. itance).




FURTHER


AGAINST YIELD AND QUALITY LOSSES

TI li. .it .- :Ic team is planning on finding
nm,, k. i t. i I [.YD tolerance, which may be
c. ii t it '\ many genes working together.
T ,i inic. Ib: Li.d on many genes is desirable
because it affords protection
_4 'from different viruses and is


more durable than tolerance based on one
gene. In an associated effort, virologist
Henry is looking for resistance to aphid
feeding, which in itself induces yield losses
and poor grain quality. Some wheat plants
(for instance, hairy ones) repel aphids or
resist being eaten by them. If Henry is
successful in her quest, feeding resistance
will be combined with BYD resistance and
tolerance to endow CIMMYT wheats with
a virtually foolproof defense.

"The progress we're making with
markers is significant, though we're
proceeding slowly in this experimental
phase. Once markers become routine, we
expect BYD resistance breeding to take less
time and cost less money," says Henry. This
is likely just the first of such successes in
CIMMYT's Wheat Program. As the genetic
structure of wheat is elucidated and the
search for markers facilitated, their
application in conjunction with
conventional wheat breeding will become
more commonplace, making their
considerable promise come true.


For more
information:
m.henry@cgiar.org


36p


k JI


IT/























* .S


-- -


'4r


I J)


"i
-: I









QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE: FOOD



OF THE POOR BECOMES



INEXPENSIVE, ACCESSIBLE PROTEIN SOURCE


WHAT IF THE GRAIN THAT IS THE CHIEF ENERGY SOURCE FOR

HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF CONSUMERS AND FARMERS-MANY

OF THEM SUBSISTENCE SMALLHOLDERS-THROUGHOUT

ASIA, LATIN AMERICA, AND SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA, SUDDENLY

BECAME A VALUABLE PROTEIN FOOD AS WELL?


This scenario may soon turn into a reality, given the recent,
dramatic interest of developing country breeders and
development organizations in quality protein maize
(QPM). QPM looks and tastes like normal maize and yields
as much or more, but it contains nearly twice the amount
of the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan. The
nutritive value of QPM protein approaches that of protein
from skim milk. Children can meet 90% of their protein
needs by eating 175 grams of QPM. Pigs and chicken raised
on QPM gain weight at roughly twice the rate of animals
fed on normal maize, a boon for smallholder farmers, who
often cannot afford balanced feeds.


"QPM can help remedy nutritional deficiencies from
diets heavy in maize, especially among women and children in
impoverished rural and urban areas of Africa and Latin America," says
Surinder K. Vasal, CIMMYT breeder who began research on QPM in the
early 1970s, with funding from the United Nations Development
Programme. Vasal and associate Evangelina Villegas combined field and
lab research-especially novel techniques for rapid and accurate grain
quality assays-to overcome undesirable traits (lower yields, unacceptable
grain quality, susceptibility to ear rot) originally associated with the
protein quality gene, opaque-2, after its discovery by US scientists in the
1960s. By the early 1990s, CIMMYT breeders had developed experimental
QPM varieties suited to a range of developing country production
environments, improving disease resistance and other key traits and
growing trials in collaboration with research partners worldwide.


QPM hybrids vs
normal maize
hybrids: A direct
comparison for
yield at multiple
locations
worldwide.


Yield (t/ha)
12-


QPM
Normal maize


o,
10, 41, 1'1$, Ie~o ZOI












Convinced of QPM's importance for
the poor, Norman E. Borlaug-Nobel
peace laureate and former Director of the
CIMMYT Wheat Program-threw his
weight behind development and
dissemination efforts. Sasakawa Global
2000, an international non-governmental
organization that works to spread
improved farm technology in Africa and
whose co-founders include Borlaug and
former US President Jimmy Carter, has
strongly promoted QPM in Ghana and
several other African nations.

Most recently, with support from the
Nippon Foundation, CIMMYT breeders
have worked with partners worldwide
to test promising new QPM varieties and
hybrids and demonstrate their superior
performance and protein quality. Data
from 32 locations across Africa, Asia, and
Latin America show the QPM hybrids
outyielding current commercially
produced hybrids by an average of 10%.
Results in Mexico, for example, have
been so dramatic (one experimental
hybrid yielded 16 tons per hectare-2
tons more than its closest normal maize
competitor) that the country has
launched an intensive program to
produce certified seed of QPM and get
it into farmers' hands. Experimental
QPM hybrids from CIMMYT are
yielding 14 tons per hectare in on-farm
trials in coastal Peru.

Finally, to better document the
nutritional benefits of QPM, CIMMYT
is seeking support for several projects
that include developing baseline
profiles of the nutritional
status of inhabitants at high I T
poverty locations in selected
developing countries.




h.cordova@cgiar.org 4


Q I








.. .
maize-onu ming wI Iwhich -M Y works. Sxp.es


S pr v **I be Th Ceter sse w
Im see Ind s f t dc e o r







in cone* w pt con










S S S 6 6* 55 S.
Sy 6 6. re *ac. 5 c. .w .















S 5










PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH: MAKING


DEVELOPMENT


RESEARCHERS ARE LOOKING CRITICALLY AT THEIR ROLE IN DEVELOPMENT


AND SEEKING


. ONE WAY IS


TO MAKE RESEARCH A TRULY PARTICIPATORY ACTIVITY.


Participatory research approaches-where
farmers themselves set the research agenda,
implement experiments, and assess
outcomes-can help increase crop yields,
promote resource-saving farm management
and, especially, deliver suitable products to
marginal areas. "Farmer participation
increases both the focus on truly important
problems and the likelihood that research
will result in options that are attractive to
farmers, given their resource base and
livelihood strategies," says Larry
Harrington, Director of CIMMYT's Natural
Resources Group (NRG).

For several years, CIMMYT and the
Mexican National Institute of Forestry,
Agriculture, and Livestock Research
(INIFAP) have worked with farmer-
breeders in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca,
Mexico, to preserve selected maize
landraces and improve them for farmers'
preferred traits (see "Farmers Work with
Diversity Principles and Practices," p. 64).

More recently, the Center has used
participatory approaches for research to
improve soils, conserve water, and enhance
agroecosystem diversity. Payoffs to farmers
are evident in southern Africa, Mexico, and
South Asia.* This work, as well as the
Center's participation in a Rockefeller
Foundation exploratory initiative on

40 For details on work in South Asia, see CIMMYT in
1997-98: Change for the Better and A Sampling of
CIMMYT Impacts, 1999.


participatory research, is helping refine the
methodologies and provide a better sense of
how they fit with other research activities.



SOUTHERN AFRICA:

SCARCE RESOURCES,

ENORMOUS RISKS

Climatic risk, particularly from erratic rainfall,
is a major constraint to the development and
adoption of improved technologies for
smallholder maize farmers in southern Africa.
Some 70% of maize in the region comes from
farms of less than 5 hectares, virtually all of it
rainfed. Besides facing the constant threat of
drought, farmers work some of the world's
poorest soils in an environment where
fertilizer use is both costly and risky.

Begun in 1998, the Risk Management
Project links three previously separate areas
of research: analysis of climatic risk through
crop modeling, researcher-managed
experimentation aimed at developing and
disseminating technologies, and farmer
experimentation on soil
fertility (


DEVISING FARMER- AND
ENVIRONMENTALLY-
FRIENDLY PRACTICES TO
MANAGE SOIL FERTILITY
IN DENSELY POPULATED
SOUTHERN MALAWI
REQUIRES CLOSE
TEAMWORK BY FARMERS
AMnI DECEADCUEDC


f.


F'j


/ IIs~


l JL


\\IInJ1 ..











management. Funded by the Australian
Agency for International Development
(AusAID) and the Australian Centre for
International Agricultural Research
(ACIAR), the project is a spin-off of the
CIMMYT Maize Program's highly
successful soil fertility network
(SoilFertNet),* in which researchers,
extension specialists, and farmers develop,
test, and share improved management
options for nutrient-poor soils in Malawi
and Zimbabwe.

"This unique and challenging project
brings together scientists, extension
workers, and farmers in a shared arena to
generate and refine new options for soil
fertility management," says Christopher
Vaughan, NRG predoctoral fellow in the
Risk Management Project. "It offers great
scope for influencing the way research is
conducted, increasing the sustainability of
agriculture, and improving the livelihoods
of resource-poor farmers in southern
Africa."

Among other things, the project uses
crop simulation models to assess the
biophysical performance of several "best-
bet" technologies under a wide range of
soil and climate conditions-a much wider
range than would be possible through the
use of field experiments. Many of these
technologies, particularly the use of
legumes in crop rotations and the timely
application of inorganic and organic
fertilizers, were developed by SoilFertNet.

Farmers participate by:

* Furnishing information (for example,
indigenous taxonomies for soils and
climate) to make simulation
experiments more realistic.

* Providing a reality check on the
simulation outputs; for instance, cross-
checking them for compatibility with
household livelihood strategies.


* Posing questions and new research
areas to modelers and soil fertility
researchers, thus helping set and
adapt the agenda.

* Providing farmer assessment of
researcher-developed technologies.

* Developing innovative approaches to
soil fertility management through
farmer experimentation.

Crop simulation modeling takes place
in parallel with farmer participatory
research, with farmers involved in the
testing, evaluation, and adaptation of
researcher-developed technologies.
Through feedback from farmers to
research and extension, combined with
modeling outcomes, both the biophysical
and socioeconomic merits of alternative
technologies can be judged in a broader,
systems context. "The combination of
quantitative modeling, which is 'hard'
systems and data centered, and qualitative
participation, a'soft' systems and process-
centered approach, results in more
integrated, holistic research and
development and allows all stakeholders
a voice," Vaughan says.



ALTERNATIVESS"


FOR SOUTHERN MEXICO

Low-income farmers in Mexico's dry
Mixteca region are central actors in efforts
to improve maize-bean farming systems
that support half a million inhabitants,
with help from CIMMYT and the
non-governmental organization, Alterna-
tivas. Funding from the Hilton and Ford
Foundations enables participant to
assess new maize varieties-particularly
drought-tolerant genotypes from
CIMMYT-and experiment with
composts, organic insecticides, foliar
fertilizers, and cover crops.


* SoilFertNet is funded by the
Rockefeller Foundation. For
details see CIMMYT in 1997-98:
( -. ..; ,.' .-Better.
-Il











"Rainfall is low and poorly distributed,
and farmers report yields of zero to 700
kilograms per hectare," says Julio C6sar
VelAsquez Hernandez, NRG research
affiliate on the project. "At that rate, grain
from November harvests lasts till maybe
March; then families must start buying
maize with whatever money they can
obtain." Cash being in short supply, people
sell their goats, get help from family
members working in the US, or engage in
other short-term, uncertain money-making
pursuits.

The project began in 1998, but
VelAsquez has already organized and
conducted a workshop involving farmers
and other stakeholders, identified farmer
participants from the major communities,
and helped them prioritize their major
concerns and establish their own plans of
action. "In all communities there are
enthusiastic and talented farmers ready to
try new options and share their
knowledge," he says. "They'll put their only
resources-land, experience, and labor-on
the line to test promising technologies, if we
support them."

Participating farmers have requested
training in the selection and improvement
of maize and have already overcome some
supposedly insurmountable obstacles,
according to VelAsquez. "Some people
thought that composting would be
impossible, given the low available crop
biomass," he says, "but farmers somehow
managed to scrape up enough forage
residues, foliage, manure, or stems to
generate good compost." After a training
session on foliar fertilizers given by several
Mexican NGOs, farmers went ahead and
developed their own fertilizer using
materials and substances available on the
homestead. With guidance from specialists
of the University of Puebla, they are testing
the effectiveness of wild plant species
known to have insecticidal properties, as a


natural control for insect pests. Finally, a
formal experiment is being set up to assess
system productivity and constraints,
complemented by regular monitoring of
rainfall and topsoil runoff.

VelAsquez sees this as only the
beginning. "Work on these options, which
farmers consider to be fairly low-risk, will
open the door to a range of more ambitious,
longer-term experiments involving more
complex technologies," he says.



BRINGING

PARTICIPATORY

RESEARCH ON BOARD

CIMMYT is working to integrate
participatory approaches into its
mainstream research "toolbox." The Center
is also exploring ways to extrapolate results
and methodologies that prove successful at
specific sites. Geographic information
systems-which allow researchers to define
and identify additional areas similar to a
target site-can help with the latter.

With regard to the former, learning is
an essential part of the Center's current
efforts, according to Mauricio Bellon,
member of the CIMMYT Economics
Program and resource person on
participatory research. Among other things,
Bellon is spearheading the social science
side of participatory breeding research in
Oaxaca, Mexico. "To improve our use of
participatory approaches, we need to know
how effective they are, who they reach, and
how much participation costs, both for
farmers and researchers," Bellon says.
Bellon and his associates are conducting
baseline studies in Zimbabwe and Mexico
to help assess the expense and value of
CIMMYT's participatory initiatives to
farmers there.











Other specialists, though, point out
that participatory approaches' chief
strength lies precisely in helping
researchers "get their priorities right,"
thereby improving efficiency and
reducing costs. "Bringing hard-nosed,
technical scientists into an evaluation and
adaptation process from the beginning
helps everyone to identify and capitalize
on comparative advantages and
synergies," Vaughan says.

Whatever their merits, participatory
methodologies face cultural and other
barriers to their widespread imple-
mentation, according to Peter Hobbs,
NRG wheat agronomist who has
contributed to participatory research
efforts in South Asia. "In many parts of
the world, educational systems foster a
top-down approach to delivering
information," he says. "In such areas, it
may be more difficult to use farmer
participatory approaches-it takes time
and positive results to convince research
managers to commit staff to this type of
activity."



SHARING AND

COMPARING

EXPERIENCES

To address these and other issues,
CIMMYT is developing linkages with
recognized leaders in participatory
research. An example is the Center's
participation in the Rockefeller
Foundation Exploratory Initiative on
Participatory Approaches to Technology
Generation and Farmer Experimentation.
"This inter-institutional project aims at
systematizing and comparing
experiences worldwide and developing
linkages among key players in the field,"
says Bernard Triomphe, an agronomist


who is facilitating the initiative and
working with the French Center for
International Cooperation in Agricultural
Research for Development (CIRAD) and
the CIMMYT NRG in research on
conservation tillage, cover crops, and
farmer experimentation. "The Rockefeller
initiative involves networking across
continents and a wide range of
institutions, as well as documenting how
selected projects have addressed critical
issues," Triomphe says. Target issues
include the institutionalization of
participatory approaches and their
interactions with formal research. A
preliminary report was submitted to the
Foundation in early 1999. Subsequent
activities will focus on developing case
studies, organizing a series of regional
workshops in Latin America, Africa, and
Asia, and establishing a strategy for long-
term networking in this area. The NRG is
providing logistical support for the
initiative, as well as assistance in accessing
experience from outside Latin America
and identifying collaborators and case
studies based on the work of CIMMYT
outreach staff.

Finally, CIMMYT is a founding co-
sponsor and active member in the
CGIAR's System-wide Program on
Participatory Research and Gender
Analysis, convened by the Centro
International de Agricultura
Tropical (CIAT). CIMMYT
thus shares information i
on participatory
methods and J
experiences with
other members of
the System-wide
Program.


1.harrington@cgiar.org





bcl-i










CREATING A



IN PERU


THE ELEMENTS OF A MAIZE RENAISSANCE ARE BEING

ASSEMBLED IN A COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE

GOVERNMENT OF PERU-A NEW MEMBER OF

THE CGIAR-AND CIMMYT. THE GOAL IS TO

OFFER FARMERS PRODUCTIVE OPTIONS FOR WORKING WITH

THE LAND RATHER THAN EMIGRATING TO AN UNCERTAIN

FUTURE ON THE MARGINS OF THE NATION'S CITIES.


"Peru imports maize-more than a million
tons each year. This is absurd, since Peru has
great production potential and people do
produce maize!" Rodolfo Mufante
Sanguineti, special advisor to President
Alberto Fujimori and former Minister of
Agriculture, sips a cup of strong, hot coffee
to ward off the damp cold of a winter
morning in Lima. He talks about replicating
for maize a comprehensive program to
stimulate rice production, which allowed
Peru to halve its rice imports in just one year.
What would CIMMYT's role be in a similar
plan for maize? "Brother! With the varieties
CIMMYT has given us, what more can we ask
for?" Mufiante says.

Some 200 kilometers south of Lima, near
the coastal town of Pisco, farmer Alberto
Nestares echoes Mufiante's enthusiasm,
discussing the performance of an
experimental CIMMYT hybrid he was given
to sow. "In wide-scale production, this variety
could outyield by far other varieties grown
around here," he says. (The "other varieties"
are several leading commercial hybrids.)


FOOD FOR PEACE

In 1998, Peru produced just over 700,000 tons
of yellow maize-chiefly for animal feed-
and 230,000 tons of the large-grained, floury
maize that people consume. Yellow maize
production has increased steadily over the
last decade, but not as quickly as utilization
(see figure, p. 46). Moreover, 38% of the
population has a monthly budget of only
US$ 50-considered extreme poverty-and
nearly 60% of the rural populace is
impoverished, compared to just 25% in cities.

To improve national self-sufficiency in
maize and the livelihood of the rural poor,
Peru has sought increased collaboration with
CIMMYT in the past two years. "There is a
recognition by the government that, without
food, there is no peace or social tranquility,"
says Shivaji Pandey, director of the CIMMYT
Maize Program. A former breeder who spent
10 years in Colombia as leader of the Center's
maize research program for South America,
Pandey sees great potential for increased
productivity in Peru: "Maize yields on the
Peruvian coast are the highest of all tropical
areas of the developing world."










INTENSIFIED


COMMITMENTS

CIMMYT is not a newcomer in Peru,
according to Pandey. "The country's most
widely grown maize variety, Marginal 28,
released in 1984, is derived directly from
CIMMYT Population 28," he says. "The
variety is sown on nearly 150,000 hectares in
tropical forest and even coastal areas."
CIMMYT is now testing several new materials
of the same background that significantly
outperform Marginal 28.

As of mid-1999, the Center also assigned
Miguel BarandiarAn, Peruvian maize
specialist and associate scientist at CIMMYT
since 1997, as adjunct scientist to the Ministry
of Agriculture and special liaison to the
country's maize research organizations. "I
plan to collaborate with all institutions
involved in maize research and production
in Peru, both public and private, as well as
with farmers, to help increase maize
productivity and meet domestic demand for
this cereal," BarandiarAn says. His location at
the National Agrarian University La Molina,
whose maize research program has an
illustrious record in Peru, will afford him a
strategic venue for the inter-institutional
networking he envisions. "I would like to
thank La Molina's rector, Francisco Delgado
de la Flor, who has graciously offered the
University's facilities to house a CIMMYT
office," he says.



PERU JOINS

THE CGIAR

Mufiante suggests that more productive
maize cropping can help stem the flight of the
rural populace to overcrowded Lima, and
even foster the return of many who came to
the city in times of social unrest. "The social
impact could be huge," he says. "If you















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199U 91 4_ -.:l.' 'i4 "A .1 .i; 1 1:


improve maize production, you'll
encourage people in marginal, urban areas
to go back to the land."

With these and other goals in mind,
Peru joined the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research
(CGIAR) in 1997. According to Josefina
Takahashi Sato, head of Peru's National
Institute of Natural Resources and
coordinator for the nation's collaborative
activities with CGIAR centers, farmers are
increasingly aware of the importance of
improved technologies. "They are saying,
'We want new varieties and improved
production practices,' Takahashi explains.
"It's important that donors keep
contributing to agricultural research and
development; this is precisely what will
allow sustainable agriculture into the
future."

When Takahashi requested help from
CIMMYT with a study concerning the
profitability of maize farming in Peru,
Prabhu Pingali, director of the CIMMYT
Economics Program, provided technical
advice and training. "Pingali came and
talked to me and an economist here, helping
to define the parameters of the study and
terms of reference," Takahashi says. "The
preliminary results are surprising: in some
zones, there are definite advantages to
maize, even under nonfavorable conditions.
In addition to changing some people's
minds about the advisability of continuing
maize research and development, these
results will guide suggestions for concrete
technical interventions."


Takahashi also mentioned the
outstanding role of CIMMYT maize
researcher Carlos De Leon, current leader of
the Center's South American regional
program, in establishing linkages and
collaborative research arrangements with
Peru. "Carlos has worked effectively with
our country, whether or not Peru was a
member of the CGIAR," she says. De Leon's
associate in the South American program,
Luis Narro, a Peruvian breeder, has also
been instrumental in getting potentially
useful varieties into the country's testing
and dissemination pipeline. "Some of the
hybrids we're testing on the coast yield as
much as 15 tons per hectare," Narro says.
"For tropical forest areas, Peru is about to
release its own version of the popular, acid-
soil tolerant variety, Sikuani, developed and
distributed in Colombia several years ago
with help from CIMMYT."

Enrique Aguilar, production agronomist
at La Molina, sees CIMMYT impacts that
include more productive varieties and other
benefits: "As CIMMYT brings in better seed,
companies have felt pressured to compete,
and even the poorest farmers have begun
demanding quality seed." In his own case,
he cites a CIMMYT training course some 20
years ago as pivotal in his professional life
and outlook: "The CIMMYT school-a work
ethic where everyone is part of a team, and
scientists are there to work, answer
questions, follow through, whatever-is
something I've not seen anywhere else.
When I look for a young researcher to do a
job, that's the kind of attitude I want."




s.pandey@cgiar.org


Q.






































































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ACCOLADES FOR A "POWERFUL"



TECHNOLOGY IN SHANDONG, CHINA



EXTRACTS FROM A LETTER TO DIRECTOR GENERAL TIMOTHY REEVES

SHOW THE INTENSE INTEREST GENERATED BY CIMMYT's

NEW APPROACH TO BED PLANTING SYSTEMS.



Dear Prof. Reeves:

GREETINGS FROM SHANDONG PROVINCE OF

CHINA.
It was our great pleasure and honor to have you at our institute for three days at
the end of May. We are writing to you to express our strong interest in bed planting
system and we believe that this technology will contribute greatly to wheat
production improvement in Shandong Province and in other parts of China.
You have visited our bed planting trial at four locations during your staying
in Shandong. Based on the results obtained this year, we are very pleased to report
that it has several advantages compared with conventional planting system, i.e.,
reduction of plant height and improvement of lodging resistance which will have
positive effect on yield and quality, saving water by 30% and improvement of soil
construction, improving fertilizer use efficiency by 10-15%, less occurrence of sharp
eyespot, total input reduction by 30%, and yield increase by 5-8% (we used our
new variety Shandong 935031 in the trial). Therefore, we strongly believe that
this powerful technology will make great contributions to the sustainable wheat
production system in China. The bed planting system has also received great
interest from the Ministry of Agriculture and Shandong Provincial government,
and it will be extended very rapidly. We would appreciate if you could kindly
train more visiting scientists in bed planting system for our academy and work
together with us for improvement and extension of this new system in China.

Thank you in advance for your support.

With best regards, Sincerely yours
Prof. Xu Huisan, President of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Dr. Wang Fahong, Senior agronomist, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences


418
Wk sauecaii oiI


.:; ; .::*.: .. "










DURUM WHEAT YIELDS



HIT A NEW HIGH


SHORT-CYCLE, SEMIDWARF DURUM WHEAT VARIETIES IN

NORTHWESTERN MEXICO PRODUCED AN UNBELIEVABLE 89

KILOGRAMS OF GRAIN PER HECTARE EACH DAY OF THE 1998-

99 CROP CYCLE, FOR A FINAL TALLY OF 11.7 TONS

PER HECTARE AT HARVEST TIME. To GRASP THE FULL

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ACHIEVEMENT: "NORMAL" DURUM

YIELDS IN FARMERS' FIELDS IN NORTHWESTERN MEXICO ARE

IN THE 5-6 TON-PER-HECTARE RANGE, AND THE WORLD

AVERAGE IS JUST 2-3 TONS.


"These wheats aren't just good yielders; they're
also very tolerant to drought and heat, and to
problems found in high rainfall conditions,"
explains Wolfgang Pfeiffer, head of durum wheat
breeding at CIMMYT. "And because they are
what we call input efficient-that is, they take full
advantage of whatever nutrients are present in
the soil-they produce higher yields in marginal
conditions than other wheats."

Durum is used chiefly for making pasta in
industrialized countries, but in many other parts
of the world it is utilized mostly for making flat
bread and local food products such as bulghur
and couscous. In the countries of the West Asia/
North Africa (WANA) region, poor people in low
rainfall environments rely on this type of wheat
for a high proportion of the calories in their diet.
For many resource-poor farmers in those
environments, durum is also a source of income,
since good quality durum fetches premium prices
on the local markets.


niche in the developing world. From 1991 to 1997,
98% of the durum varieties released to farmers
by the national research programs of developing
countries had CIMMYT ancestry in their
pedigrees. In these countries, wheat is sown in
marginal environments where great climatic
fluctuations can occur during the growing
season. The durum crop may thus experience
heat and drought at different times during its
growth cycle. In parts of India, durum wheat
production has been relegated to the hottest and
driest environments.


BREEDING TO RAISE

YIELDS

How did researchers manage this surprising
increase in yield? "The different factors that
contribute to high yield are not balanced in the
older durum wheats," says Pfeiffer. "We tinkered
around to raise the number of heads and grains
the plant produces." He emphasizes the
importance of having the support of scientists in
other disciplines. Fundamental to their success
was the collaboration of Ken Sayre, CIMMYT
wheat agronomist who helped develop the bed
planting system and agronomic practices used
with the new wheats.

Looking to the future, Pfeiffer estimates that
new gains in durum's yield potential will be
facilitated by the use of molecular markers and
physiological selection criteria during the
breeding process. "But," he adds, "nothing
substitutes for a well integrated, multi
disciplinary team of scientists making a
concerted effort to achieve the same goal."


Although di-riirn wheat is not as widely
,,111r ll 11 as !. ilI \.i 11 ii. II 1,,u11' ,!, I i L1


49


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AMBIONET MOVES



BIOTECHNOLOGY FORWARD IN ASIA


"YEAR ONE FOR AMBIONET HAS REALLY SET THE STAGE," SAYS

NETWORK COORDINATOR MARIA LUZ GEORGE. "THE ACTUAL

WORK OF DOING GOOD SCIENCE HAS BEGUN."



,, During the past year, AMBIONET-the Asian Maize
i technology Network has indeed set the stage for
its regional efforts through a successful training
course held at CIMMYT headquarters in
November/December 1998, a second network
HL. ^ meeting in Beijing in April 1999, and most of all
through the participation of its national members.
Funded by the Asian Development Bank,
SAMBIONET comprises biotechnology programs
from the national agricultural research systems of
SIndia, China, Thailand, Philippines, and Indonesia,
as well as CIMMYT. The stated goal of the network is to "increase maize
productivity through the development via molecular genetics of improved
cultivars with high yield potential, combined with durable resistance to pests
and diseases and tolerance for abiotic stresses." By sharing knowledge, training
opportunities, and germplasm, network participants can advance their research
efforts beyond what each may achieve alone.
Seventeen participants from member countries came together for the month
long training course, "Molecular Marker Applications to Plant Breeding," to
start engaging in the science at the core of the network. Course activities focused
on hands-on learning and strategic planning.
On the applied side, scientists learned how to set up a molecular marker
laboratory, how to fingerprint maize lines and the downy mildew fungus, and
different approaches to marker-assisted selection and quantitative trait loci (QTL)
mapping.



PUTTING KNOWLEDGE To

WORK IN CHINA
"We have the theory from books, but the hands-on practice we've had at the
50 course will prove most useful" says Shihuang Zhang, AMBIONET coordinator
for China and Director of the Maize Program at the Institute of Crop Breeding












and Cultivation at the Chinese Academy
of Agricultural Sciences. Zhang came to
the course with a definite goal in mind: to
upgrade his knowledge and proficiency
with markers. Upon his return to China
he quickly put this knowledge to work.

"In China we have developed many
hybrids, but the older scientists didn't pay
attention to the pedigrees. Often in the
nurseries, maize lines are placed aside in
a special place, but no one knows the
pedigrees," explains Zhang. "When the
young scientists take over, they find their
breeding efforts are hampered by a lack
of information about pedigrees and
heterotic groups and patterns. This
information could be obtained through a
statistical approach, but this would be
very time-consuming and labor intensive.
With the molecular marker techniques
I've learned, we can analyze our
commercial inbred lines in a very short
time and possibly even with less cost."

Zhang projected that in the latter part
of 1999, his team would analyze 130
commercial inbred lines, nearly all such
lines currently available in China.
Although he sees data management
posing some problems in the near future,
he is hopeful that the network will address
this universal constraint. "With a new
generation of breeders, with new tools
and a new philosophy," he concludes,
"I'm very hopeful of making good
progress in our work."


**



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A VIABLE


APPROACH FOR THE


PHILIPPINES

Art Salazar, Head of the Philippines
National Corn Research and Development
Program, is looking forward to applying
what he learned about molecular genetics
to his work on downy mildew resistance in
maize. Recent reports of the evolution of
pesticide-resistant strains of this destructive
pathogen have added new urgency to this
research.

"I've always felt I should learn these
molecular techniques [marker-assisted
selection], but I just never had the
opportunity," says Salazar. "Now I can talk
with our geneticist and we can really
understand one another. In terms of using
this technology in our program, it's a much
more viable approach than ever before. We
intend to learn from the experiences of other
network countries, and certainly the
technical backstopping from CIMMYT will
be crucial. Taken together, the network gives
me the added confidence that we can make
all this work."



GAINING MOMENTUM

The course participants also addressed
planning issues, which they reviewed five
months later at the network's second annual
meeting. The scientists presented the state
of their respective work to the group,
identified and prioritized problems, set
research goals, and developed three-year
workplans aimed at producing improved
maize varieties. Specific goals and


collaborations presented in the workplans
include (1) the characterization of heterotic
groups; (2) the molecular characterization
of downy mildew pathogens; (3) the
development of molecular markers for
downy mildew resistance; (4) the use of
marker-assisted selection to introduce
downy mildew resistance into a popular
local maize variety in the Philippines; and
(5) the development of markers for
sugarcane mosaic virus, maize rough
dwarf virus, drought tolerance, and low
nitrogen tolerance.

AMBIONET gained cohesiveness and
momentum, observes coordinator George,
between the training course and the
network's second annual meeting. Many
research advances by network members
were made during that period and shared
at the meeting. Linkages within the
network also flourished as the spirit of
comradeship that grew out of the training
course took root.

"At the Beijing meeting," says George,
"the team leaders saw for themselves how
the network has progressed and they
became keenly aware that working
together is key to getting things done. The
meeting generated a heightened sense of
involvement, a willingness to share
experiences and resources, and a healthy
dose of the competitive spirit within the
network that, I think, helps spur the teams
to excel. The challenge now is to translate
all this into outputs that will benefit maize
farmers in the field."


m.george@cgiar.org









EFFECTIVE, ENVIRONMENTALLY



SAFE APHID CONTROL


WHEAT FARMERS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE VIRTUALLY DEFENSELESS

AGAINST APHIDS, THE MOST WIDELY DISTRIBUTED INSECT PESTS OF WHEAT IN

THE WORLD. FOR THESE FARMERS, CIMMYT IS DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTALLY

SAFE STRATEGIES TO MANAGE APHID POPULATIONS.





FORTIFYING WHEAT FARMERS'

DEFENSES AGAINST APHIDS
Aphids have great potential to do damage. They are highly mobile, to the
point that winged forms may ride in low-level jet winds and spread over
long distances in this way. They can produce 10 to 15 overlapping generations
in a single growing season. In recent years, aphid problems have increased as
cropping has intensified, tillage practices have changed, and the area under
irrigation has expanded.
Aphids damage crops directly, when they feed on plants, and indirectly,
through the viruses they transmit. Some aphid species transmit viruses that
cause diseases such as barley yellow dwarf (BYD), the most serious viral
disease of small grain cereals worldwide.
Aphid feeding can reduce wheat kernel weight by 26%, and it affects
grain quality as well. South Africa has reported wheat yield losses of 21 92%
from the Russian wheat aphid (RWA),
and Ethiopia reported losses of up
to 68%. In the US, cumulative
economic losses attributable
to the RWA from reduced
yields and control
costs between 1986
and 1992 were





r rL 53


I,


s1&Ii 4i











estimated at US$ 657 million. With the
exception of the RWA, which has been
investigated at CIMMYT and other
institutions in the past decade, aphids have
not been studied in depth.



SAFE, EFFECTIVE


CONTROL STRATEGIES

In the long run, failure to control aphids may
prove to be more costly in economic and
environmental terms than investing in
research targeting the problem. Farmers in
developing countries have applied little
chemical control because of the high cost and
scant availability of chemicals; as a result,
aphid damage is reaching significant
proportions. In the few developing countries
where farmers do apply insecticides, these
chemicals are contaminating the
environment, especially the waterways, and
harming humans, livestock, and wild
animals. Excessive use of insecticides may
prompt aphids to develop resistance to
chemicals, and chemical aphid control is not
completely effective against the transmission
and spread of viruses.

Farmers clearly need new, more effective
ways of managing aphid populations. One
of the most promising is to develop high
yielding wheats that are resistant to aphid
feeding. Little is known about aphid
resistance, however, and with the exception
of the RWA, little has been done to breed for
aphid resistance in cereals. The large number
of aphid species that attack cereals makes it
difficult to develop effective resistance
against all of them, so most research has
focused on looking for resistance to species
that are important vectors of viruses such as
BYDV.


INTEGRATED


APHID CONTROL

There is new evidence of resistance to
several aphid species in emmer wheats
(primitive wheats) stored in CIMMYT's
wheat genebank. Though emmer-derived
resistance is not fully understood,
preliminary studies at CIMMYT have found
that plants endowed with this resistance
remain free of insects in fields that have been
infested with different aphid species. The
finding raises the possibility that emmer
derived resistance may provide effective
protection against feeding by most, if not
all, aphid species. In other words,
generalized aphid resistance may become a
reality-if funding becomes available to
conduct this research.

Effective aphid feeding resistance
would complement CIMMYT's efforts to
breed for BYD tolerance. Over the years,
CIMMYT has developed high-yielding
wheats with good tolerance to BYD (tolerant
plants may show few symptoms and yield
well; however, they may be highly infected
with the virus) (see "Molecular Markers
Help Create an Unbeatable Resistance/
Tolerance Punch," p. 34). Most importantly,
combining generalized aphid resistance
with BYD tolerance in high yielding wheats
would:
* provide wheat farmers in developing
countries with highly effective yet
affordable protection against both the
aphids and the BYD virus;
* contribute to ecological conservation,
since genetic resistance has no deleterious
effect on the environment; and
* reduce the use of insecticides, thus
decreasing the pressure on aphids to
develop insecticide resistant strains.




m.henry@cgiar.org






































LOSING


CAN WE AFFORD THE RISK?


THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC, DEVELOPMENT, AND DONOR COMMUNITIES RELY ON

CIMMYT TO CARRY OUT A MISSION THAT IS INDISPENSABLE FOR

HUMANKIND, NOW AND IN THE FUTURE: CONSERVING THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF

MAIZE AND WHEAT. WILL THIS MISSION SUCCEED?


What today is a task expressly assigned to
CIMMYT began as a natural offshoot of
CIMMYT's early crop improvement work.
Collecting and conserving maize and wheat
genetic materials provided indispensable
support to the breeding programs. As these
activities became more formalized, special


facilities were built to house the growing
collections. Awareness of the importance of
plant genetic resources increased, and
people came to view these activities as an
essential part of the mission not only of
CIMMYT but of other CGIAR commodity
centers.











It is difficult to think of other
organizations better suited to carry out these
activities. The Centers are the ideal venue to
conserve genetic resources on behalf of all
people. For one thing, they attract and collect
all types of materials-some of them
endangered-in the course of their work.
Also, they are impartial, apolitical
institutions that, even in the face of growing
restrictions such as intellectual property
rights, make their germplasm stores available
to researchers all over the world, with
preference to those from developing
countries. In addition, the Centers have the
technical know-how and facilities to perform
the activities implicit in genetic conservation
work, including collecting, characterizing,
and regenerating genetic resources and
distributing related information. Finally, it is
highly efficient to have a genebank at a
Center whose breeding programs are
constantly using the stored genetic materials
and adding to them.



THE WELLHAUSEN-

ANDERSON PLANT

GENETIC RESOURCES CENTER

CIMMYT's genebank, the Wellhausen
Anderson Plant Genetic Resources Center
(PGRC), houses the largest collection (150,000
accessions) of wheat and triticale (a wheat x
rye cross) in the world, in addition to 19,000
accessions of maize and related species. The
PGRC acquires and maintains in its wheat
related collections seed samples of old
varieties and landraces, materials in danger
of "genetic wipeout," and materials that have
never before been collected.

Other crucial functions discharged by
the PGRC are to organize, maintain, and
distribute data related to bank accessions and
to conserve duplicates of collections in


developing country genebanks as backups in
case of loss. An especially critical role of the
PGRC is to support initiatives aimed at
helping farmers restore seed of local varieties
of maize and wheat that have been lost in
natural and civil disasters, as happened with
maize in Rwanda in 1994, wheat in
Afghanistan in 1995, and, more recently, with
maize in Central America in the wake of
Hurricane Mitch (see "Seed Security in
Central America," p. 6).

Not long ago, bank facilities were
refurbished. The bank's capacity expanded
to hold 450,000 maize and wheat seed
samples in long and medium term cold
storage, thanks to the generosity of the
Japanese government and other donors. The
expansion ensured that the bank will have
sufficient space to store collected materials
well into the the new century.

This expansion came at an opportune
time, given that the wheat collection has
increased three-fold just in the past 10 years,
and that maize and wheat collections are
growing constantly. On average, 5,000 new
wheat accessions are sent to the bank every
year. Before this seed can be introduced into
bank collections, it must be multiplied and
treated, and information on its place of origin
and adaptation must be recorded and entered
into a database. These basic activities must
be carried out meticulously and supervised
by well-qualified staff year after year.
Needless to say, this work requires
considerable resources-which are
increasingly difficult to come by.



DOING MORE WITH

LESS

The wheat genebank has operated with
essentially the same budget for years. "Ten
years ago, the bank's wheat holdings totaled
45,000 accessions. Today we're trying to


PHOTO, PREVIOUS PAGE:
NORMAN BORLAUG,
NOBEL LAUREATE AND
CIMMYT CONSULTANT
(LEFT) STANDS WITH BENT
SKOVMAND, HEAD OF
CIMMYT's WHEAT
GERMPLASM BANK.
BORLAUG IS LOOKING AT A
WHEAT LANDRACE.

56











conserve and manage more than three times
as many accessions with the same amount
of money," says Bent Skovmand, in charge
of Wheat Genetic Resources at CIMMYT.

This amounts to a de facto reduction in
bank funding and strikes at the very heart
of the PGRC. "Some bank functions are not
absolutely vital to genetic resource
conservation," points out Skovmand, "but
preparing and processing incoming
materials and regenerating stored accessions
that are no longer viable are essential."



SEED

CONSERVATION

AND REGENERATION

Seed stored in the bank is kept in a dormant
state induced by low temperatures. In this
state, seed will stay viable-that is, it will
germinate and produce a normal plant when
sown-for 25-40 years, in the case of the
active collections stored at 3 OC, and more
than 50 years, in the case of the base
collections kept at 18 OC. After that, the
stored seed must be regenerated or it will die.
The genetic diversity it contains is lost
forever.

The regeneration process puts a stop to
seed deterioration. It entails planting the
stored materials to produce enough seed for
multiplication. That seed is then multiplied
in sufficient quantities for storage, while
ensuring that it faithfully embodies the
genetic diversity of the original sample. The
two-step process is conducted under strict
supervision in disease-free locations.


FINANCIAL SUPPORT

Is CRUCIAL


CIMMYT's capacity to conserve maize
and wheat diversity hinges on
maintaining viable and genetically "true"
seed in the bank. This constitutes the
raison d'etre of the PGRC. If the stored seed
is not kept alive, then CIMMYT's
commitment to preserve genetic
resources for future generations is a
hollow promise. Maintaining seed
viability is also indispensable to maize
and wheat breeders at CIMMYT and all
over the world, whose research depends
greatly on tapping into diverse sources of
useful traits-such as the seed in the
PGRC-to develop improved varieties
adapted to farmers' needs in all types of
environments. Their ability to fulfill this
objective would be severely restricted
were the bank to lose even part of its
accessions.

The task of conserving maize and
wheat genetic resources has been
explicitly apportioned to CIMMYT, but
the responsibility for preserving these
invaluable resources for future
generations is shared by all of us, and all
of us are called upon to contribute
whatever we can to the task. CIMMYT
extends an invitation to parties interested
in conserving irreplaceable genetic
resources to participate in fulfilling this
universal responsibility.


b.skovmand@cgiar.org









CENTRAL AMERICAN PROJECT



TO LAND DEGRADATION




CENTRAL AMERICA'S STEEP SLOPES AND ROUGH TERRAIN HAVE

LONG POSED SEVERE OBSTACLES TO THE HARDENED CAMPESINOS

WHO TOIL TO PRODUCE THE MAIZE AND BEANS NEEDED TO FEED

THEIR FAMILIES. IN RECENT YEARS, BURGEONING POPULATIONS AND

INCREASED PRESSURE ON ARABLE LAND HAVE PRESENTED A NEW

SET OF CHALLENGES TO FARMERS AND POLICYMAKERS ALIKE: SOIL

EROSION AND RAPIDLY DECLINING SOIL FERTILITY ARE

ROBBING THE LAND OF ITS ABILITY TO FEED ITS INHABITANTS.



In Guatemala, for example, approximately 60% of the country's basic
grains are grown on small farms that cannot produce enough to satisfy
the basic nutritional needs of a typical family of 5-6 people. Slash
and-burn agriculture, which proved adequate in the past, now only
intensifies erosion and productivity problems, and farmers are
generally too poor to invest in maintaining their farmlands' fertility.
Despite 20 years of work by diverse institutions, both inside and
outside the region, the adoption of sustainable farming practices and
soil and water conservation techniques remains low. To help address
this problem, CIMMYT and the region's national agricultural research
programs (through the Regional Maize Program, or PRM), launched
a project entitled "Accelerating the adoption of productivity
enhancing, resource-conserving (PERC) practices in maize-based
cropping systems in Central America." The project, funded by the
German Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ),
has also received support from regional networks, non-governmental
organizations such as CARE, and institutions specializing in public
policy, such as the Sistema de Integraci6n Centroamericana de
Tecnologia Agropecuaria (SICTA) and the Instituto Interamericano
de Cooperaci6n para la Agricultura (IICA).











THE SEARCH FOR COMPATIBLE

TECHNOLOGIES

The multifaceted project, slated for
completion in December 1999, began by
investigating the economic characteristics of
16 soil-conserving technologies that were
promoted in the region over the past two
decades. Following evaluation, the
technologies were compared with the needs
and resource capabilities of small-scale
farmers.

"The analysis," says CIMMYT economist
and project leader Gustavo Sain "revealed
that, with two exceptions, most of the
technologies showed a certain degree of
incompatibility with farmers' circumstances.
For example, the cash costs and knowledge
needed to implement terracing, a very
effective conservation technology, was
beyond the means of most farmers."
CIMMYT and PRM economists conducted
several case studies to determine the effects
of various factors on the adoption of two
PERC technologies-zero tillage with residue
management (conservation tillage) and
legumes used as cover crops-and on the
adoption of improved maize varieties.

"We found that the opportunity cost of
land and labor (in other words, the best net
value the farmer can get from alternative uses
of land and family labor) plays a
fundamental role in the adoption or
disadoption of legume intercropping,"
explains Sain. "The adoption of soil
conservation technologies," he continues,
"showed strong relationships to the farmer's
perception that the practice was an
investment activity. Access to information
and how it was acquired were also important
factors. Meanwhile, adoption of improved
varieties seemed more closely related to more
immediate consumption needs."


IMPORTANCE OF

COMMUNITY-LEVEL


SOLUTIONS

Data and findings from the case studies were
disseminated among stakeholders at five
national and regional workshops. Later, says
Sain, project staff generally concurred that these
sessions relied too heavily on promoting policy
actions at the national level. "Our results," Sain
comments, "showed that community-level
solutions through the design and execution of
formal and informal agreements among
community members would be more effective."
Indeed, Sain believes further research
directed toward harnessing community
resources in this effort would be most
worthwhile.

Sain is quick to point out that public-
sector research is still needed to support the
implementation of community projects. Despite
the rapid expansion of the private sector in
agriculture, he stresses that profit-oriented
companies are not likely, /
address broad problems
such as the alleviation of
land degradation, in
which the aim is to
produce a "public good."
Economic returns to
well-targeted collaborative
research in the region basec
on field-level adoption ratiL)
remain high. With that in mind, the
PRM, with the strong support of the Swiss
Agency for Development and Cooperation
(SDC), is striving to create a regional body to
promote and engage in collaborative
agricultural work and to take on the associated
problems of natural resource management and
poverty among the region's farmers.


59
1 59


g.sain@cgiar.org


V.
/*'


-j


A'..









BREEDING



IMPROVES WHEAT'S NITROGEN EFFICIENCY


CIMMYT BREEDERS SEEKING TO IMPROVE WHEAT'S NITROGEN EFFICIENCY

HAVE HIT UPON AN UNEXPECTED TECHNIQUE: APPLYING HIGH AND LOW

LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER TO SUCCESSIVE GENERATIONS OF

WHEAT PLANTS. THESE BOOM/BUST FERTILIZATION CYCLES PROVOKE AN

ASTUTE REACTION IN THE PLANTS.


When nitrogen is scarce, the plants concentrate on absorbing as much as they can
from the soil. When faced with abundant nitrogen, they put all they can into
producing lots of grain.
It should be pointed out that these are not ordinary wheat plants. They descend
from select parents: one absorbed nitrogen exceptionally well, while the other
excelled at utilizing the nutrient to make grain.
SNitrogen is essential to the wheat crop, vital for plant growth and
grain formation. The wheat plant absorbs nitrogen from the soil through
its roots and then moves it around to its different parts: stem, leaves,
spikes, grains, etc. The more nitrogen a plant invests in the grain, the
more grain it will produce and the better its quality.


A SYSTEM FOR BREEDING NITROGEN-

EFFICIENT WHEAT
Li\\ i i-. Ii -i I i1 ne that high yielding, CIMMYT derived
,i ,... I, i I i league' out of nitrogen than unimproved
\,, I ['., !n van Ginkel, head of bread wheat
IW!. I.iii i './IMYT. "But we didn't know the details
,Il hwli i.,. !, did it." Now a study conducted at
IN- !['. I'1! 1, is revealed the mechanisms behind this
II, i i, and has suggested a method for
.,i I I I I lly breeding wheats that are even better
ii li.i I I he most out of nitrogen.
(lI, i,, now, the good nitrogen efficiency of
Si['.!l'..' I varieties has not been the result of
I .4 I. I !. Fiction for this trait; varieties that have

:M..-ii t-en ..rn Ginkel, head of
f r- i. lhe..t breeding at CIMMYT.
X 1IT











undergone years of testing for other yield
related traits at CIMMYT just turned out
that way. "Interestingly, over the years
CIMMYT agronomists noticed differences
in the ways that efficient wheats made use
of nitrogen: certain varieties were better at
absorbing nitrogen from the soil, while
others were better at utilizing nitrogen to
make grain," explains Ivan Ortiz
Monasterio, CIMMYT wheat agronomist.
Furthermore, plants that absorbed nitrogen
well performed better under low nitrogen
conditions, while plants that utilized it well
did better under high nitrogen conditions.

"These observations raised an exciting
possibility," relates Richard Trethowan, a
bread wheat breeder involved in the study.
"Could these two types of lines be crossed
to produce wheats that were good at
absorbing and utilizing nitrogen-that
would yield well at all nitrogen levels? If so,
what was the best way of doing this?"

To answer these questions, van Ginkel
and Ortiz-Monasterio crossed two wheats
that are good at absorbing nitrogen with two
that are good at utilizing it. After eight years
of testing, they and their colleagues found
that alternately applying first high and then
low nitrogen levels to successive cycles of
offspring produced lines that yielded better
than all the others, including the ones that
had been bred using standard CIMMYT
practice, intermediate levels of nitrogen.

"For years it's been the standard
practice at CIMMYT to breed our wheats
under intermediate nitrogen levels," says
van Ginkel. "These results are suggesting a
new way to accelerate and improve the
breeding of nitrogen efficient plants.
Alternating high and low nitrogen levels
throughout the breeding process would
ensure that all the wheat we produce
combine good nitrogen uptake and good
nitrogen utilization."


STABLE YIELDS AND


SAVINGS FOR FARMERS

Wheats that take full advantage of
whatever level of nitrogen there is in the
soil will improve the stability of wheat
production in all types of growing
environments, from favorable with high
nitrogen levels to marginal with low
nitrogen levels. They will be especially
helpful to subsistence farmers who cannot
afford to apply adequate levels of
nitrogen.

As for yields in more favored
environments, the new varieties will fit
well, for example, in the well-watered
regions where 40% of developing world
wheat is produced. These wheat plants
will not leave excessive amounts of
unused nitrogen in the soil to contaminate
the environment. Farmers can sow the
new wheats using the most recent
fertilizer management practices, such as
applying nitrogen just when the plants
pull it out of the soil to produce grain. In
the end, less nitrogen is wasted and grain
quality is better.

The nitrogen-efficient wheat lines will
enter CIMMYT's International Wheat
Nurseries to be distributed to CIMMYT
collaborators all over the world.
Cooperators in developing countries will
be able to select and keep these materials
to use in their own breeding efforts. This
is the first step to getting the new wheats
out to farmers, especially those in
disadvantaged environments who need
them the most.


NEWXl WHEATS USINGlTHe] iii I

PACTCS SUC A S






APPLYN PIRGE
I [UfxIql Ii[lfllluISWtlllrdlH



l'J:-, q[@:k, k l[N-l r- ,1


JUST WHEN THE PLANTS

PULL IT OUT OF THE SOIL

TO PRODUCE GRAIN. IN

THE END, LESS

NITROGEN IS WASTED

AND GRAIN QUALITY IS

BETTER.


m.vanginkel@cgiar.org









NATIONAL SCIENTISTS TAKE



BIOTECHNOLOGY LESSONS



FROM TRAINING SESSIONS TO THE FIELD


BRINGING THE BENEFITS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE FARMERS OF EASTERN AND

SOUTHERN AFRICA WAS A LOFTY GOAL ENVISIONED IN THE EARLY 1990s BY

SOME SCIENTISTS IN THE REGION. SIMPLY IMPORTING THE KNOWLEDGE OR THE

TECHNOLOGY ALONE WOULD NOT PRODUCE LONG-TERM IMPACT, HOWEVER.

-THE DEVELOPMENT OF FACILITIES

AND THE HUMAN RESOURCES TO UTILIZE THEM.


In March 1997, two Kenyan and two Zimbabwean scientists arrived at CIMMYT
headquarters in Mexico to begin two-year training stints in preparation for the
establishment of applied biotechnology programs in their respective countries. Each
"team" consisted of a maize breeder and a biotechnologist/molecular geneticist; the
teams were later augmented by a lab and a field technician, who underwent three
months of training at CIMMYT. The project, supported by the Directorate General of
International Cooperation (DGIS) of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, focused
on these two countries because of their research capacities and because their divergent
farming circumstances would yield insights into the effective application of
biotechnological tools. Maize was selected as the target crop because of its important
role as a staple cereal in the region. Research would address two major challenges to
maize production: drought and insects.


COMING HOME TO A NEW

BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRAM
By May 1999, the visiting scientists had completed their training and returned home
to start their work. Although the training is finished, says Jean-Marcel Ribaut,
molecular geneticist with CIMMYT's Applied Biotechnology Center (ABC), the
Center's interest and support for the project is far from over. "This is the first time
we've dedicated this much time to a concerted training of a key set of individuals,"
he says. "The geneticists are now familiar with the use of several kinds of molecular
markers to identify polymorphisms (molecular-level variations between plants),
62 construct linkage maps, and do fingerprinting for work in genetic diversity. They
are now prepared to engage in a wide range of biotech activities "











The establishment of small labs in both
countries began in 1998, and with the return
of the biotechnologists, the labs are being
made operational. Equipment purchased
with funds from DGIS and advice from
CIMMYT should be up and running well
before the end of 1999, enabling the
scientists to begin producing data before
2000. "It was decided to focus the teams'
efforts on polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
technology because it allows one to work
on a large scale and it doesn't require very
complex technology," says Ribaut. "We're
ready to provide backstopping and
troubleshooting for the teams, but with the
training they've undergone, we expect
they'll be pretty independent."

The breeders also took part in molecular
manipulations in the CIMMYT labs,
according to Ribaut, but the main focus of
their training was on the theory and
practices required for developing good
segregating populations, measuring the
level of insect resistance and drought
tolerance in the field, and how to employ
fingerprinting and marker-assisted selection
in their breeding efforts. "The idea," says
Ribaut, "is that the breeders and the
geneticists have laid the foundations here
at CIMMYT for their interactions in their
home countries. They will be talking the
same scientific language and be on the 'same
page' conceptually."



FIELD TRIALS


ALREADY UNDERWAY

The breeders are already conducting trials
in the region, and the resulting data will be
combined with molecular mapping data to
identify genomic regions that contribute to
insect resistance or drought tolerance. After
that, marker-assisted selection will be


conducted to identify which genotypes
"accumulated" the target alleles, thus
promoting the incorporation of traits of
interest into productive maize varieties.

In late June, 1999, just weeks after his
return from CIMMYT headquarters,
Zimbabwean maize breeder Godfree
Chigeza had already finished gathering
data from a collaborative field trial with
J.B.J. Van Rensberg of the South African
national agricultural research system.
The trial was based on a cross between a
borer-resistant CIMMYT line (CML123)
and a good, but susceptible, regional line
(K64R). The following week Chigeza was
supervising the planting of a trial at the
Chiredzi Research Station in Zimbabwe.
The trial, set to be harvested in October,
will be used for the genetic investigation
of drought resistance.

"My CIMMYT training was an
eyeopener on how basic research can be
designed to further our knowledge of
agricultural production in marginal
areas," declares Chigeza. "Although
our resource base here is still low,
my training at CIMMYT has
allowed me to design efficient
trials that help keep this work
going forward. I think the training
also gave me the confidence to
collaborate on an equal basis with other
scientists at the regional level."

Indeed, if the energy and
dedication embodied by Chigeza and
his colleagues can be maintained, the
use of this new technology will
soon make its impact felt in the f
maize fields of eastern and
southern Africa.





j.ribaut@cgiar.org


U.










WITH




DIVERSITY PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES


A SMALL PILE OF BLACK-KERNELED MAIZE LIES AT HIS FEET AS

MAURICIO BELLON, A HUMAN ECOLOGIST WITH CIMMYT'S

ECONOMICS PROGRAM, LISTENS TO OAXACAN FARMERS

DISCUSS THE PROS AND CONS OF THE MAIZE VARIETY.

THE FIVE WOMEN AND MEN ARE NOT RETICENT.


In fact, the farmers are animated and involved with the exchange as they
examine the ears more closely. Their comments range from a simple but
emphatic "Don't like it" to one woman's short demonstration of the
variety's shelling characteristics. Members of the group record their
opinions of the variety (their "votes") on small red paper "ballots." As the
group moves on to the next pile of maize, Bellon reminds them that at the
end of the walk, they can purchase seed for experimenting with any of the
varieties that appeal to them.

Since 1997, Bellon, CIMMYT economist Melinda Smale, and Suketoshi
Taba, head of CIMMYT's Maize Germplasm Bank, together with Alfonso
Aguirre and Flavio Aragon Cuevas from the Mexican National
Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP),
have worked with farmers in six villages in Oaxaca, Mexicn nno nf
the country's poorest regions. The aim of their work is to I. I i I I I
whether maize breeding based on a collaboration betw, 1 .
farmers and breeders can increase farmer welfare whi -
maintaining or enhancing genetic diversity.

The project, funded by Canada's International
Development Research Centre (IRDC), has completed its
first, primarily diagnostic, phase and entered its
intervention phase. "We're really getting to the interesting
stage now," says Bellon. "Before, we got things from tl.
farmer maize varieties, information, and their preference
Now we're beginning to bring things back to them."




OAXACAN WOMEN IDENTIFIED EASE OF SHELLING AS A
DESIRABLE TRAIT IN MAIZE-A TRAIT OVERLOOKED BY THE '
61 LOCAL MEN. ACCOUNTING FOR SUCH PREFERENCES BY
GENDER WILL HELP RESEARCHERS DEVELOP SUCCESSFUL
STRATEGIES FOR CONSERVING GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE FIEOI_.


/-,


tAL












THE GIVE-AND-TAKE OF

PARTICIPATORY

RESEARCH

What Bellon and his colleagues are providing
to farmers is training on the basic concepts of
plant breeding, 17 selections of local
germplasm (about half of them improved
through the efforts of Taba and Arag6n), and
a spirit of empowerment as farmers see how
to apply new knowledge to their maize crops.
In the process, researchers will determine
whether such interventions can promote
greater genetic diversity in farmers' fields.

"Farmer management has by and large
been successful in promoting maize diversity
over the centuries," says Bellon, "but some
farmer practices present strong constraints to
diversity." If farmers can avail themselves of
more knowledge and new varieties, the project
team hopes they will experiment further and
generate new and more productive ways of
working with diversity in their landraces.

"Our emphasis in working with farmers
has been on principles and practices," says
Bellon. For instance, the concept of male and
female components of the maize plant, though
taken for granted by scientists, is novel to the
Oaxacan smallholder. "When we discussed
this principle with farmers," he explains,
"many at first thought that the big plants were
obviously the males. They were surprised to
learn that males and females were on the same
plant. A useful practice drawn from this
principle is that if you find a plant that is truly
inferior, you detassel it, thereby eliminating
what we called the 'bad or weak fathers' in
the plot. The farmers already pull off the
tassels to feed to their cows-but now they
can employ this same practice to eliminate
poor parents and improve their overall crop."











Other practices and principles taught
by the team focused on creating greater
stability in the crop (that is, reducing the
risk of yield losses in poor years) through a
broader selection of seed by farmers, tips
on cleaning and storing seed, and the
introduction of a system of farmer seed
exchange, which INIFAP's Aguirre had
documented in Guanajuato, Mexico.



A RIGOROUS FARMER


PARTICIPATORY


MODEL FOR WORKING


WITH DIVERSITY

The second intervention, the selection,
evaluation, and procurement of diverse
seed by farmers, was based on a rigorously
designed farmer participatory model.
Earlier in the project, more than 150 local
varieties, varying in color, ear size, and
consumer characteristics, were collected
from throughout Oaxaca. Trials were
established using these varieties together
with 17 landraces selected by genetic
resource specialists. These were later
grouped into five homogeneous clusters
reflecting their phenotypic diversity.

At harvest, more than 200 farmers (54%
female) assembled to examine and evaluate
the varieties, marking their votes for each
variety's characteristics on their ballots.
Project researchers selected eight top vote
getting varieties to plant the following
season, along with another nine varieties
that underwent breeding at CIMMYT to
better establish the positive characteristics
that farmers had identified in the varieties.
During the first harvest season of 1999,


farmers walked the demonstration plots
where these varieties were planted,
evaluated plant and ear characteristics, and
later were offered the opportunity to buy
seed with which to conduct their own trials.

Later in 1999 and during 2000, the
project team will visit the villages again.
They will answer farmers' questions, assess
whether the farmers applied what they
learned, and ask how they used the seed
acquired through the project. According to
Bellon, the team will also ascertain whether
the farmers actually carried out their own
experiments; what their evaluations
revealed; what they liked or disliked about
different varieties; which farmers
participated, which did not, and why; and
so forth. In 2000, after researchers have
assimilated the farmer feedback into the
development of varieties and of the
participatory research methodology,
another series of field days will be held.

Some interesting findings have
emerged, especially regarding gender and
maize preferences and how these factors
could influence genetic diversity. Bellon
emphasizes that "we are not presupposing
that this is a useful approach. However, our
methodology has been rigorous and if the
study does show benefits to farmers'
welfare and genetic diversity, we will have
a system to offer up as a model. With all the
talk about farmers' rights and how to
compensate them for maintaining diversity,
this could be a very promising option."




m.bellon@cgiar.org










FINANCIAL SUMMARY, 1998-99


FUNDING FOR 1998 WAS US$ 31.969 MILLION, CONSISTING OF

US$ 31.182 FROM DONORS AND US$ 0.787 FROM OTHER SOURCES.

EXPENDITURES WERE US$ 32.705 MILLION. SOURCES OF INCOME

FROM GRANTS ARE SUMMARIZED IN THE TABLE, P. 68.


Figures 1-3 highlight funding levels and trends. Contributions of the
agencies that provided the bulk of our funding in 1998 are shown in
Figure 1. CIMMYT allocated these funds among the five CGIAR
research activities as indicated in Figure 2. From Figure 3, the
continuing rise in targeted contributions and decline in unrestricted
contributions is evident. This trend has continued into 1999.

CIMMYT ended 1998 with an operational deficit of US$ 481,000,
owing primarily to a gap in core unrestricted funding that could not
be offset by the end of the year. The gap was charged against our
operating reserve, as approved by the CIMMYT Board in March 1998.
Also charged to the reserve were: US$ 100,000 in outstanding costs
from the EPMR (billed in 1998); US$ 155,000 arising from 1996 exchange
rate losses; and half of the 1997 EU contribution, paid in 1998.

Our efforts to fulfill a very demanding research agenda have been
supported by funding from more than 30 new special projects initiated
in 1998-99. These projects range from extremely specialized research
initiatives to wide-ranging efforts such as farmer participatory research
on tillage and nutrient management interactions to improve the
sustainability and productivity of rice-wheat cropping in South Asia,
or a project to increase the scope and efficiency of global maize breeding
and genetic resource conservation through an improved understanding
of maize genetic diversity.

It is important to note that the vast majority of additional funding
for 1998 and 1999 has been targeted funding (i.e., core special projects).
The increase in targeted contributions reflects a concerted effort to
develop research partnerships directed at specific major research
challenges in our mandate crops. It also reflects a trend to support
research through less traditional sources of income. These new
partnerships have broadened the spectrum of institutions with which
we collaborate, made it possible for us to pursue several innovative
research initiatives, and have also made it possible to direct additional
funding to partners in national agricultural research systems.


France 3%


istralia 4%
Germany4%
Suvilzerland 1"'
'anada '"

Shniled Nalions Developmenr
Programme :'"
Japan' 8"


IEuropean Union 10%

FIGURE 1. TOP TEN DONORS TO CIMMYT, 1998.
* "In-kind" contributions included.


4%




FIGURE 2. ALLOCATION OF CIMMYT RESEARCH
FUNDING BY CGIAR ACTIVITY, 1998.




US$000
35,O 1
folal
Unresirlcled conlribullons .
15,0
large led coni bull ions

Ia, 4 d ..48 l

FIGURE 3. TRENDS IN GRANTS TO
CIMMYT, 1995-99.
* "In-kind" contributions included.












A growing challenge in balancing the
Center's research portfolio is to attract
funding that permits us to conduct the longer
term, strategic research that will enable
CIMMYT and its partners to continue to make
a lasting contribution to broad development
goals: reducing poverty, improving food
security, and preserving natural resources
well into the next millennium. Such research
is a valuable and significant investment in
itself, and it can also provide important inputs
into downstream research that has more
immediate goals and highly focused impacts.

In light of the volatile global economy
and increasing competition for resources,
both from inside and outside the CGIAR
System, our budget estimates for 1999 have
been generally more conservative. Our most
recent Medium Term Plan (2000-2000+)
projects an increase of about 2% per year, in
real terms, to the CIMMYT budget, which
allows for moderate growth in key areas of
research. Total salaries and allowances are
targeted to remain below 60% of the operating
budget. Other operating costs will be
consistent with long-term trends. Costs in
Mexico are projected to increase gradually as
the economy recovers further and the
Mexican peso stabilizes.


CIMMYT sources of income from grants

for the period from January 1 to December 31, 1998



United States of America (USAID, USDA, US Universities) 5,000
World Bank 3,385
European Union 3,084
Japan (Government of, JIRCAS, TARC)* 2,479
United Nations Development Programme (Africa Bureau, SEED) 1,622
Canada (CIDA, IDRC, Agri-Food) 1,573
Switzerland (SDC) 1,319
Germany, Government of 1,198
Australia (ACIAR, AusAID, DIST, GRDC) 1,193
France, Government of 959
United Kingdom (DFID)* 896
Denmark (Danida) 889
Inter-American Development Bank 656
Rockefeller Foundation 619
Sweden, Government of (Sida) 587
Netherlands, Government of (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)* 585
Asian Development Bank 527
Ford Foundation 433
International Fund for Agricultural Development 416
Mexico, Government of (Nafinsa)* 386
Portugal, Government of 250
Norway, Government of (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) 234
Nippon Foundation 230
CGIAR Centers (CIAT, ICRAF, IFPRI, IPGRI) 228
Iran, Islamic Republic of 187
Bolivia, Government of* 178
Austria, Government of 166
Private sector (Monsanto Company, Agrovegetal) 161
Colombia, Government of (Colciencias) 148
Korea, Republic of* 136
Bangladesh, Government of 122
South Africa, Republic of 113
India, Government of 112
China, People's Republic of 100
Pakistan, Government of 100
Thailand, Government of 100
Spain, Government of 97
Uruguay, Government of (INIA) 92
Brazil, Government of (EMBRAPA) 90
Belgium, Government of 85
Fundacion Telmex 78
Peru, Government of 70
Miscellaneous research grants* 53
Novartis Foundation 50
Hilton Foundation 49
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce A.C. 39
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (IAEG) 29
Fundacion Sonora 28
OPEC Fund for International Development 27
Philippines, Government of 25


"In-kind" contributions included.












TRUSTEES AND PRINCIPAL STAFF
(as of October 1999)


TRUSTEES
Walter Falcon(USA) iriinii U:ri Boiat Tii i, tI:: iian:1l
of the Executive and FinaI,' : e. A: liiii:n ano, ii :Iii ,nee :
and Co-Director, Center for Eiv'iiiiii, ii, ial N, I ,,1 anii-I
Policy, Stanford University

Johan Holmberg (Sivtei: n) V I: i.ha iiii. Bua elj a ,
Trustees, and AindIa: ;di :it it i [lie G r nilt-ie it n iv-'i.v
to Ethiopia

Jorge Kondo Lopezl',leI.:ol 'Vi VI Ii-.1iilnn Boa:I
of Trustees, and E:-,:n ive I let l [iiit Jn.i iiii l I 'iIrliie : t
Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestoc, RPie :e;l i

Cary Fowler (IJ'A) Chairman of PiF'iljIiii ,1iiiiiiinie
Board of Trustees, and Associatt Plo:re : i:, I:-ei i :i,
International Environment and .LIevIloiiiniei t 'Si,,:1iie
NORAGRIC, Agricultural Universirv o:t HIo :.Mva

Anthony K. Gregson (Australia), dli1nidn I t Ai:ri
Committee, Board of Ti ,ii'e i: anii :1 VVi i- Fji ieit

Romarico Arroyo Marroquin (l0't i ii, ) '"S,: i c il
of Agriculture, Livesto: I ill a ,,ii R, l l lvtll: ii llii t ll,

Rodgrigo Aveldano (i.,M-.c: : 1 Direct,: I.i,,1ii. ot
Agricultural Ret l: ei i' lili iii al Institute Lit Fhote: lry
Agriculture, and Livestock Re i e:l : l

W illiam D Dar(Pfl;lil'i.i,.) P'i l :, inial A.i:lvi.,:,i on
Rural Development, Off;i: t i:If F' te ;i:let- Pli liilil ne i

Atsushi Hirai Ial ni) LIli.: l'ait., ,: I Pln it [,ole:iji
Genetics, Graduate Scho: l ot A lii i liile r aniin:l I ite
Sciences, University of T.:,I v ,

Carlos Felipe Jaramillo ( o(liiiiiia).l Int-h lui li:lal:11
de Programacion iJl. iut- ni ii lidt e Ir i .:lt ion :
Subgerencia de E.;,ihi E : : :n : : :i ,: : :lI la
Rep6blica

Klaus M Leisinger (Ge iinilav). EOe.:,iIvt 11- .:.1:,I
Novartis Fouri:lii:in [, i l ii n.iiiia-.lle [i-:v:liiiiii'nln

Norah K. Olembo(Kenya) Dii.-: t: K-enva IlihIilli;;l
Property Office, F,1;,n; v Re i el:1,: I, Ti,:lii.: l fi,:T .niiiiI.
and Technology

Mangala Rai inia:l) Delirv [inii.,:ii Iinei, i (lirol i
Science), Indian Council for Agii n,: i l Ri:;e : 1 1:-

Timothy G. Reeves (Australia),'1 lOn eit:: Ie, j:iral
CIMMYT

Francesco Salamini (Ilaly) D.tl i ,:hi;l i, t Planit
Breeding and Yield Plhy,,: iloir Director, [,,l. Pl:li I
Institute for Plant Breeding

John R. Witcombe (UK), Centre for A.i oir 7.it '.:Mi i
University of Wales

Xin Zhiyong I(iii, )il Director, i,, wti, l ) l 1r -,I:.l
Breeding and Cultivation, Chinese Ai: clIi'v oit
Agricultural Sciences


1 Ex officio position


PRINCIPAL STAFF


Timothy G. Reeves, Australia, Director
General
Claudio Cafati, Chile, Deputy Director
General, Administration and Finance
Anne Starks Acosta, USA, Donor Relations
Officer
Lucy Gilchrist S., Chile, Senior Scientist,
Head, Seed Health Unit
Zhong-Hu He, China, China Liaison Scientist
(based in Beijing)
Patricia Lopez-M., Mexico, Executive
Assistantto the Director General
Gregorio Martinez V., Mexico, Government
and Public Affairs Officer
Peter J. Ninnes, Australia, Senior Executive
Officer, Research Management

Consultants/Research Affiliates
Norman E. Borlaug, USA



Shivaji Pandey, India, Director*
Richard Wedderburn, Barbados, Associate
Director*
Marianne Banziger, Switzerland, Scientist,
Physiologist (based in Zimbabwe)*
David Beck, USA, Senior Scientist, Leader,
Highland Maize
David Bergvinson, Canada, Senior Scientist,
Entomologist*
Jorge Bolanos, Nicaragua, Principal
Scientist, Agronomist (based in Guatemala)*
Hugo Cordova, El Salvador, Principal
Scientist, Breeder/Leader of Tropical Maize*
Carlos de Leon G., Mexico, Principal
Scientist, Pathologist/Breeder (based in
Colombia)
Alpha 0. Diallo, Guinea, Principal Scientist,
Breeder (based in Kenya)
Dennis Friesen, Canada, Senior Scientist,
Agronomist (based in Kenya)
Fernando Gonzalez, Mexico, Senior
Scientist, Breeder (based in Thailand)
Daniel Jeffers, USA, Senior Scientist,
Pathologist
Luis Narro, Peru, Scientist, Breeder (based
in Colombia)
Kevin V. Pixley, USA, Senior Scientist,
Breeder/Liaison Officer (based in
Zimbabwe)
Joel K. Ransom, USA, Senior Scientist,
Agronomist (based in Nepal)
Ganesan Srinivasan, India, Senior Scientist,
Leader, Subtropical Maize/Head,
International Testing Unit
Suketoshi Taba, Japan, Senior Scientist,
Head, Maize Germplasm Bank
Strafford Twumasi-Afriyie, Ghana, Scientist,
Breeder (based in Ethiopia)
Surinder K. Vasal, India, Distinguished
Scientist, Breeder/Liaison Officer (based in
Thailand)*


Stephen Waddington, UK, Senior Scientist,
Agronomist/NRG Associate (based in
Zimbabwe)*
Batson Zambezi, Malawi, Scientist, Breeder
(based in Zimbabwe)

Associate Scientist
Benti Tolessa, Ethiopia, Breeder
Bindiganavile Vivek, India, Breeder (based
in Zimbabwe)

Adjunct Scientists
Miguel Barandiaran, Peru, Breeder (based
in Peru)
Salvador Castellanos, Guatemala, Breeder
(based in Guatemala)
Andreas Oswald, Postdoctoral Fellow,
Agronomist (based in Kenya)

Pre- and Postdoctoral Fellows
Julien de Meyer, Switzerland, Breeder
(based in Zimbabwe)
Stephen Mugo, Kenya, Breeder

Consultants/Research Affiliates
Jerome Fournier, Switzerland
Gonzalo Granados R., Mexico, Training
Consultant



Sanjaya Rajaram, India, Director
Osman S. Abdalla, Sudan, Senior Scientist,
Regional Bread Wheat Breeder, West Asia
and North Africa (based in Syria)
Arnoldo Amaya, Mexico, Administrative
Manager
Hans-Joachim Braun, Germany, Senior
Scientist, Head, Winter Wheat Breeder
(based in Turkey)*
Efren del Toro, Mexico, Administrative
Manager
Etienne Duveiller, Belgium, Senior Scientist,
Regional Pathologist, South Asia (based in
Nepal)
Guillermo Fuentes D., Mexico, Scientist,
Pathologist (Bunts/Smuts)
Lucy Gilchrist S., Chile, Senior Scientist,
Pathologist (Fusarium/Septoria)
Monique Henry, France, Scientist, Virologist
Man Mohan Kohli, India, Principal Scientist,
Regional Breeder, Southern Cone (based in
Uruguay)
Mohamed Mergoum, Morocco, Scientist,
Winter Wheat Breeder (based in Turkey)
A. Mujeeb-Kazi, USA, Principal Scientist,
Head, Wide Crosses
Alexei Morgounov, Russia, Senior Scientist,
Regional Representative Breeder, Central
Asia and Caucasus (based in Kazakhstan)


SProject Coordinator (CIMMYT
research is organized into a series of
multidisciplinary projects described
in our Medium-Term Plan.)













M. Miloudi Nachit, Germany, Senior Scientist,
Regional Durum Wheat Breeder, West Asia and
North Africa (based in Syria)
Guillermo Ortiz Ferrara, Mexico, Principal
Scientist, Regional Coordinator-Wheat
Germplasm, South Asia (based in Nepal)
Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio, Mexico, Scientist,
Agronomist
Thomas S. Payne, USA, Scientist, Liaison
Officer, Breeder (based in Ethiopia)
Roberto J. Pena, Mexico, Senior Scientist,
Head, Industrial Quality
Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer, Germany, Senior Scientist,
Head, Durum Wheat Breeding*
Matthew P. Reynolds, UK, Scientist, Head,
Physiology*
Kenneth D. Sayre, USA, Principal Scientist,
Head, Crop Management
Ravi P. Singh, India, Principal Scientist,
Geneticist/Pathologist (Rust)*
Bent Skovmand, Denmark, Senior Scientist,
Head, Wheat Germplasm Bank and Genetic
Resources*
Douglas G. Tanner, Canada, Senior Scientist,
Agronomist/East Africa (based in Ethiopia)
Richard Trethowan, Australia, Scientist, Bread
Wheat Breeder
Maarten van Ginkel, the Netherlands, Senior
Scientist, Head, Spring Bread Wheat Breeding*
Reynaldo L. Villareal, Philippines, Senior
Scientist, Head, Germplasm Improvement
Training*
Patrick C. Wall, Ireland, Principal Scientist,
Agronomist/NRG Associate (based in Bolivia)

Associate Scientists
Janny van Beem, the Netherlands, Geneticist
Belgin Qukadar, Turkey, Hybrid Wheat Breeder
Arne Hede, Denmark, Triticale Breeder

Adjunct Scientists
Muratbek Karabayev, Kazakhstan, Senior
Scientist, International Liaison Scientist (based
in Kazakhstan)
Hugo Vivar, Ecuador, Senior Scientist, Head,
ICARDA/CIMMYT Barley Program

Postdoctoral Fellow
Julie Nicol, Australia, Pathologist

Pre-doctoral Fellows/Graduate Students
Ligia Ayala, Ecuador
Ismahane Elouoafi, Morocco, Breeder (based in
Syria)

Consultants/Research Affiliates
Maximino Alcala, Mexico
David Bedoshvili, Georgia
Julio Huerta, Mexico
Warren E. Kronstad, USA
Ernesto Samayoa, Mexico
Nick Savlescu, Romania



Prabhu Pingali, India, Director
Mauricio Bellon, Mexico, Scientist, Human
Ecologist
Hugo De Groote, Belgium, Scientist, Economist
70 Iri: .d in Kenya)
Javier Ekboir, Argentina, Scientist, Economist


Mulugetta Mekuria, Ethiopia, Scientist,
Economist (based in Zimbabwe)
Michael Morris, USA, Principal Scientist,
Economist*
Wilfred M. Mwangi, Kenya, Principal Scientist,
Economist (on leave of absence)
Ma. Luisa Rodriguez, Mexico, Program
Administrator
Melinda Smale, USA, Senior Scientist,
Economist (based in the USA)
Gustavo E. Sain, Argentina, Senior Scientist,
Economist (based in Costa Rica)

Associate Scientist
Erika Meng, USA, Economist

Adjunct Associate Scientists
Damien Jourdain, France, Economist
Hugo VerkuijI, the Netherlands, Economist
(based in Ethiopia)

Predoctoral Fellow
Monika Zurek, Germany, Economist (based in
Costa Rica)

Research Associates
Alfonso Aguirre, Mexico, Research Associate,
Human Ecologist
Pedro Aquino, Mexico, Principal Research
Assistant, Economist
Kate Dreher, USA, Research Associate
Dagoberto Flores, Mexico, Senior Research
Assistant
Roberta Gerpacio, Philippines, Research
Associate, Economist (based in the Philippines)
Julia Daniela Horna, Peru, Research Associate,
Economist
Maximina Lantican, Philippines, Research
Associate, Economist

Consultants/Research Affiliates
John Brennan, Australia, Economist
Cheryl Doss, USA, Economist
David Godden, Australia, Economist
Douglas Gollin, USA, Economist
Rashid Hassan, Sudan, Economist
Jikun Huang, China, Economist
Mario Jauregui, Argentina, Economist
Janet Lauderdale, USA, Nutritionist
Jim Longmire, Australia, Consultant
Ricardo Matzenbacher, Brazil
Mitch Renkow, USA, Economist
Scott Rozelle, USA, Economist
Ernesto Samayoa, Mexico, Consultant
Gregory Traxler, USA, Economist
Robert Tripp, USA, Anthropologist
Paulo Waquil, Brazil



Larry Harrington, USA, Director
Peter Grace, Australia, Senior Scientist, Soils
Scientist
Peter R. Hobbs, UK, Principal Scientist,
Agronomist (based in Nepal)*
Craig A. Meisner, USA, Scientist, Agronomist
(based in Bangladesh)*
Adriana Rodriguez, Mexico, GIS Technician
Ma. Luisa Rodriguez, Mexico, Program
Administrator
Jeff White, USA, Senior Scientist, Head, GIS/
Modeling Laboratory


Adjunct Scientists
Andrew Daly, Predoctoral Fellow (based in
Bangladesh), Cornell University
A. Dewi Hartkamp, the Netherlands, Associate
Scientist, GIS/Modeling Specialist
Palit Kataki, India, Scientist (based in India),
Cornell University
Bernard Triomphe, France, CIRAD Scientist,
Agronomist
Christopher Vaughan, UK, Predoctoral Fellow
(based in Zimbabwe)

Consultants/Research Affiliates
Ester Capio, Philippines, Consultant
David Hodson, UK, GIS Specialist/Consultant
Bruce Hungate, USA, Agronomist
Scott Justice, USA, Predoctoral Fellow,
Research Affiliate (based in Nepal)
Bernard Kamanga, Malawi, Research Affiliate
(based in Malawi)
Joost Lieshout, the Netherlands, Database
Manager/Consultant
Monica Mezzalama, Italy, Plant Pathologist/
Consultant
Zondai Shamudzarira, Zimbabwe, Research
Affiliate (based in Zimbabwe)
Julio Cesar Velasquez, Mexico, Research
Affiliate
Jonathan Woolley, UK, Consultant

Graduate Students/Interns
Bruno Basso, Italy, Michigan State University/
USA
Marjatta Eilitta, Finland, University of Florida/
USA
Antoine Findeling, France
Muir Hooper, USA, Intern
Moethoeli Hooplot, the Netherlands,
Wageningen Agricultural University
Marvin Stapper, the Netherlands, Wageningen
Agricultural University




David Hoisington, USA, Director

Applied Biotechnology Center

Ognian Bohorov, Bulgaria, Scientific Services
Officer II
Natasha Bohorova, Bulgaria, Senior Scientist,
Cell Biologist*
Maria Luz George, Philippines, Scientist,
AMBIONET Coordinator (based in Philippines)
Mireille Khairallah, Lebanon, Senior Scientist,
Molecular Geneticist
Scott McLean, USA, Scientist, Geneticist/
Breeder
Alessandro Pellegrineschi, Italy, Scientist, Cell
Biologist
Enrico Perotti, Italy, Scientist, Molecular
Biologist
Jean Marcel Ribaut, Switzerland, Scientist,
Molecular Geneticist
Marilyn Warburton, USA, Scientist, Molecular
Geneticist
Manilal William, Sri Lanka, Scientist, Molecular
Geneticist













ABC Adjunct Scientists
Godfree Chigeza, Zimbabwe, Scientist, SIRDC/
Zimbabwe
Baldwin Chipangura, Zimbabwe, Scientist,
SIRDC/Zimbabwe
Daniel Grimanelli, France, IRD/France,
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist
Olivier Leblanc, France, IRD/France, Scientist,
Molcular Cytogeneticist
Jang-Yong Lee, Korea, RDA/Korea, Senior
Scientist, Molecular Biologist
Zachary Muthamia, Kenya, Scientist, KARI/
Kenya
Kahiu Ngugi, Kenya, Scientist, KARI/Kenya
Yves Savidan, France, IRD/France, Senior
Scientist, Molecular Cytogeneticist*
Antonio Serratos, Mexico, INIFAP/Mexico,
Molecular Biologist
Kazuhiro Suenaga, Japan, JIRCAS/Japan,
Senior Scientist, Geneticist

ABC Associate Scientists/Postdoctoral Fellows
Fred Kanampiu, Kenya, Associate Scientist,
Breeder (based in Kenya)
Xianchun Xia, China, Postdoctoral Fellow,
Molecular Geneticist

ABC Graduate Students
Isabel Almanza, Colombia, Colegio de
Postgraduados/Mexico
Daisy Perez, Cuba, Colegio de Postgraduados/
Mexico
Celine Pointe, France, IRD/France
Gael Pressoir, France, IRD/France

Bioinformatics

Biometrics
Jose Crossa, Uruguay, Principal Scientist, Head

Biometrics Consultants/Research Affiliates
Artemio Cadena, Mexico
Jorge Franco, Uruguay
Mateo Vargas, Mexico

Information Technology Unit
Edith Hesse, Austria, Senior Information
Technology Manager
Jesus Vargas G., Mexico, Systems and
Operations Manager
Rafael Herrera M., Mexico, Software
Development Manager
Carlos Lopez, Mexico, Project Leader, Software
Development Project Leader

International Crop Information System
Paul Fox, Australia, Senior Scientist, Leader ICIS
Development Team



Linda Ainsworth, USA, Head, Visitors and
Conference Services
Hugo Alvarez V., Mexico, Administrative
Manager
Krista Baldini, USA, Senior Human Resources
Manager
Luis Banos, Mexico, Supervisor, Drivers
Zoila Cordova, Mexico, Manager, Projects and
Budgets
Enrique Cosilion, Mexico, Supervisor, Housing


Marisa de la 0, Mexico, Head, International
Personnel
Martha Duarte, Mexico, Finance Manager
Carmen Espinosa, Mexico, Head, Legal
Transactions
Salvador Fragoso, Mexico, Payroll and Taxes
Supervisor
Maria Garay A., Mexico, Head, Food and
Housing
Gilberto Hernandez V., Mexico, Training
Coordinator
Gerardo Hurtado, Mexico, Head, National
Personnel
Hector Maciel, Mexico, Manager, Accounting
Operations
Eduardo Mejia, Mexico, Head, Security
Domingo Moreno, Mexico, Head,
Telecommunications
Guillermo Quesada 0., Mexico, Treasury
Supervisor
Javier Robledo, Mexico, Computer User
Support Supervisor
Roberto Rodriguez, Mexico, Head, Workshop
Eduardo de la Rosa, Mexico, Head, Building
Maintenance
German Tapia, Mexico, Warehouse Supervisor
Cristino Torres, Mexico, Accounts Payable
Supervisor



Kelly A. Cassaday, USA, Senior Manager
G. Michael Listman, USA, Senior Writer/Editor
Alma L. McNab, Honduras, Senior Writer/Editor
and Translations Coordinator
Miguel Mellado E., Mexico, Publications
Production
David Poland, USA, Writer/Editor II



Efren Orozco, Mexico, Interim Head
Fernando Garcia P., Mexico, Electronic
Information Specialist
John Woolston, Canada, Visiting Scientist



Francisco Magallanes, Mexico, Field
Superintendent, El BatAn
Jose A. Miranda, Mexico, Field Superintendent,
Toluca
Rodrigo Rascon, Mexico, Field Superintendent,
Cd. Obreg6n
AbelardoSalazar, Mexico, Field
Superintendent, Poza Rica
Alejandro Lopez, Mexico, Field Superintendent,
TlaltizapAn



Jaime Lopez C., Mexico, Supervisor, Soils and
Plant Nutrition Laboratory




William Bias, Peru, Universidad Nacional de
Trujillo/Peru, Applied Biotechnology Center
Richard Brettel, Australia, CSIRO/Australia,
Applied Biotechnology Center


Daniel F.R. Calderini, Argentina, Universidad de
Buenos Aires, Wheat Program
Aldo Crossa, Uruguay, Wittenberg University/
USA, Applied Biotechnology Center
Ali Asghar Dadashi Dooki, Iran, Seed and Plant
Improvement, Wheat Program
Olivia Damasco, Philippines, University of the
Philippines at Los Banos/Philippines, Applied
Biotechnology Center
Ahmad Dezfouly, Iran, Fars Agricultural
Organization, Wheat Program
Ismahane Elouafi, Morocco, ICARDA/Syria,
Applied Biotechnology Center
Syed Fazlul Karim Dewan, Bangladesh,
Department of Agricultural Extension, Maize
Program
Hayde Galvez, Philippines, University of Los
Banos/Philippines, Applied Biotechnology
Center
Miguel Ignacio Gomez, Colombia, University of
Illinois, Economics Program
Nelson Nhamoinesu Gororo, Zimbabwe,
University of Melbourne, Wheat Program
Hu Ruifa, China, Center for Chinese Agricultural
Policy, Economics Program
Man Pasand Jain, India, Zonal Agricultural
Research Station, Wheat Program
Roger Peter Kinywee, Kenya, KARI/Kenya,
Applied Biotechnology Center
Jennifer Kosarek, USA, University of Illinois,
Economics Program
Xinghai Li, China, Central China University/
China, Applied Biotechnology Center
Agrey Mbaya, Zimbabwe, SIRDC/Zimbabwe,
Applied Biotechnology Center
Adamsu Melake-Berhan, Kenya, IITA/Nigeria,
Applied Biotechnology Center
Javed Iqbal Mirza, Pakistan, Crop Diseases
Research Institute, Wheat Program
Ghazi Mola Hoveyzeh, Iran, Teheran University
Khouzestan Agricultural Organization, Wheat
Program
Abu Alam Mondal, Bangladesh, BARI, Maize
Program
Onias Moyo, Zimbabwe, SIRDC/Zimbabwe,
Applied Biotechnology Center
Alejandro Navas, Colombia, Iowa State
University/USA, Applied Biotechnology Center
Kwandwo Obeng-Antwi, Ghana, Crops
Research Institute, Maize Program
Mohammed Abdus Salam, Bangladesh,
Department of Agricultural Extension, Maize
Program
Raul H. Bias Sevillano, Peru, Universidad
Nacional La Molina/Peru, Applied
Biotechnology Center
Mohamed Adel Kamel Shalabi, Egypt, Field
Crops Institute, Maize Program
Peter Sharp, Australia, University of Sydney/
Australia, Applied Biotechnology Center
William Wamala, Uganda, National Agricultural
Research Organisation, Wheat Program
Tang Zhaohui, China, Crop Genetics Research
Institute, Wheat Program
Xu Xiangyang, China, Henan Academy of
Agricultural Sciences, Applied Biotechnology
Center

* Project Coordinator (CIMMYT research is
organized into a series of multidisciplinary
projects described in our Medium-Term Plan.)











CIMMYT CONTACT INFORMATION


Mexico (Headquarters) CIMMYT, Lisboa 27, Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico, D.F, Mexico
Tel. +52 5804 2004 Fax: +52 5804 7558/59 Email: cimmyt@caiar.ora
Primary contact: Timothy Reeves, Director General

Bangladesh. CIMMYT, PO Box 6057, Gulshan, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh
Fax: +880 (2) 883 516 Email: cm@cimmyt.bdmail.net
Home page: www.cimmyt.caiar.org/banaladesh Primary contact: Craig Meisner

Bolivia CIMMYT, c/o ANAPO, Casilla 2305, Santa Cruz, Bolivia Fax: +591 (3) 427 194
Email: cimmvt@bibosi.scz.entelnet.bo Primary contact: Patrick Wall

China CIMMYT, c/o Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 30 Baishiqiao Road,
Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China Fax: +86 (10) 689 18547
Email: zhhe@public3.bta.net.cn Primary contact: Zhonghu He

Colombia CIMMYT, c/o CIAT, Apdo. Aereo 67-13, Cali, Colombia
Fax: +57 (2) 4450 025 Email: c.deleon@caiar.org Primary contact: Carlos De Leon

Costa Rica CIMMYT, Apartado 55, 2200 Coronado, San Jose, Costa Rica
Fax: +506 2160281 Email: gsain@iica.ac.cr* Primary contact: GustavoSain

Ethiopia CIMMYT, PO Box 5689, ILRI Sholla Campus, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Fax: +251 (1)611 892/614 645 Email: cimmyt-ethiopia@caiar.org
Primary contact: Thomas Payne

Guatemala CIMMYT, 12 Calle 1-25 Zona 10, Edificio Geminis, Torre Norte, 16 Nivel,
Of. 1606, Apdo. Postal 231-A, Guatemala, Guatemala Fax: +502 335 3407
Email: jbolaros@ns.guate.net* Primary contact: Jorge Bolahos

India CIMMYT, c/o Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, IARI Campus
(Old NBPGR Building), Pusa, New Delhi 110012, India Fax: +91 (11)582 2938
Email: cimmyt@vsnl.com Primary contact: Palit K. Kataki (RWC Facilitator)

Kazakhstan CIMMYT, PO Box 374, Almaty 480000, Kazakhstan Fax: +7 (3272) 282551
Email: cimmyt@astel.kz Primary contact: Alexei Morgounov

Kenya CIMMYT, PO Box 25171, Nairobi, Kenya Fax: +254 (2) 522 879
Email: a.diallo@cgiar.org Primary contact: Alpha Diallo

Nepal CIMMYT, PO Box 5186, Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal Fax: +977 (1) 419 352
Email: cimkat@mos.com.np Primary contact: Peter Hobbs

Philippines CIMMYT c/o IRRI, MCPO Box 3127, Makati City, Philippines
Fax: +63 (2) 891 1292 Email: m.george@cgiar.org Primary contact: Maria Luz George

Syria. CIMMYT, Cereal Improvement Program, ICARDA, PO Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria
Fax: +963 (21) 2213 490 Email: m.nachit@cgiar.org Primary contact: Miloudi Nachit

Thailand CIMMYT, PO Box 9-188, Bangkok 10900, Thailand Fax: +66 (2) 561 4057
Email: svasal@loxinfo.co.th Primary contact: Surinder Vasal

Turkey CIMMYT, PK 39 Emek, Ankara, Turkey Fax: +90 (312) 287 8955
Email: cimmyt-turkey@cgiar.org Primary contact: Hans-Joachim Braun

Uruguay CIMMYT, CC 1217, Montevideo, Uruguay Fax: +598 (2)9023633
Email: cimmyt@inia.ora.uy Primary contact: Man Mohan Kohli

Zimbabwe CIMMYT, PO Box MP 163, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
Fax: +263 (4) 301 327 Email: cimmyt-zimbabwe@cgiar.org Primary contact: Kevin Pixley

For latest information see www.cimmyt.cgiar.org.


Credits
Writing and editing: Mike Listman,
Alma McNab, David A. Poland, and
Kelly Cassaday, with CIMMYT staff

Production and design: Miguel Mellado E.,
Weceslao Almazan R., Juan Jose Joven C.,
Antonio Luna A., Marcelo Ortiz S., and
Eliot Sanchez P

Photos: Kathryn Elsesser, Mike Listman,
David Fbland, Leslie Rose, Ana Maria
Sanchez, CIMMYT staff, and Xinhua News
Agency.

Correct citation: CIMMYT. 1999. CIMMYT in
1998-99: Science to Sustain People and
the Environment. Mexico, D.F: CIMMYT.
ISSN: 0188-9214
Agrovoc descriptors: Zea mays; maize;
Triticum; wheats; plant production; food
production; food supply; nutrient
improvement; conservation 1I11 i
I, i 1, ,.i iIi resource conservation;
genetic resources; plant I,
technology transfer; research projects;
research policies; innovation adoption; Latin
America; Central America; Asia; Peru; Africa
Additional keywords: CIMMYT
AGRIS category codes: A50, E14
Dewey decimal classification: 630

Bibliographic Information
O International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 1999.
Printed in Mexico. Responsibility for this
publication rests solely with CIMMYT. The
designations employed in the presentation
of material in this publication do not imply
the expressions of any opinion whatsoever
on the part of CIMMYT or contributory
organizations concerning the legal status
of any country, territory, city, or area, or of
its authorities, or concerning the
delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.


F U T U R E CIMMYT supports Future Harvest, a public awareness campaign that builds understanding
R about the importance of agricultural issues and international agricultural research. Future

H A _IE S T Harvest links respected research institutions, influential public figures, and leading
agricultural scientists to underscore the wider social benefits of improved agriculture-
peace, prosperity, environmental renewal, health, and the alleviation of human suffering
http://www.futureharvest.org.






















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