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Title: Science and partnerships to reduce povery and hunger : medium-term plan of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
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Title: Science and partnerships to reduce povery and hunger : medium-term plan of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
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Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2004
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 13
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        Page 15
        Page 16
    Budget tables
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    CIMMYT's project portfolio - log frames
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
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Science and Partnerships to

Reduce Poverty and Hunger




Medium-Term Plan of the
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(CIMMYT)
2005-2007


July 2004











CIMMYT (www.cimmyt.org) is an internationally funded, not-for-profit organization that conducts research
and training related to maize and wheat throughout the developing world. Drawing on strong science and
effective partnerships, CIMMYT works to create, share, and use knowledge and technology to increase food
security, improve the productivity and profitability of farming systems, and sustain natural resources.
Financial support for CIMMYT's work comes from many sources, including the members of the Consultative
Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) (www.cgiar.org), national governments, foundations,
development banks, and other public and private agencies.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 2004. All rights reserved. The
designations employed in the presentation of materials in this publication do not imply the expression of any
opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT or its contributory organizations concerning the legal status of
any country, territory, city, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
boundaries. CIMMYT encourages fair use of this material. Proper citation is requested.

Correct citation: CIMMYT. 2004. Science and Partnerships to Reduce Poverty and Hunger: Medium-Term
Plan of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), 2005-2007. Mexico, D.F.:
CIMMYT.

Abstract: This publication describes how CIMMYT and its partners are applying science to reduce poverty
and hunger through six new research programs established as a result of the Center's recent strategic
planning exercise. It outlines the challenges the programs are designed to meet and their activities and
expected impacts, with details on financing, staffing, and contributions to the objectives of the Consultative
Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

AGROVOC descriptors: Planning; project management; research projects; research institutions; research
support; budgets; finance; international organizations; trends; technical properties
Additional keywords: CIMMYT; CGIAR
AGRIS category codes: A50 Agricultural Research; E14 Development Economics and Policies
Dewey decimal classification: 658.404

Printed in Mexico.










Contents



1 Part 1: Introduction
1 Poverty and Livelihoods
1 Applying Quality Science to Reduce Poverty
1 People focused methods (social science / anthropology / human ecology/)
2 Policy analysis
2 Breeding approaches with farmers in mind
2 Geographic information systems and remote sensing
3 Improving the efficiency of field research
3 Biophysical systems: Research on soil and root health
3 Extending the use of conservation agriculture
3 Integrated natural resource management research
4 Biotechnology tools to unlock and leverage genetic potential

7 Structuring the Global Research Program
7 Program 1: Genetic resources
8 Program 2: Impacts targeting and assessment
9 Program 3: African livelihoods
10 Program 4: Rainfed wheat systems
11 Program 5: Tropical ecosystems
12 Program 6: Intensive agroecosystems

14 Financial and Managerial Highlights
14 CIMMYT Funding Overview
14 Implementing CIMMYT's Strategic Plan
15 Working Capital Reserves
15 Staffing
16 Staff Relocation
16 Staff development
16 Infrastructure

17 Part 2: Budget Tables

28 Part 3: CIMMYT's Project Portfolio-Log Frames
29 Program 1: Genetic resources
34 Program 2: Impacts targeting and assessment
38 Program 3: African livelihoods
42 Program 4: Rainfed wheat systems
46 Program 5: Tropical ecosystems
50 Program 6: Intensive agroecosystems
54 The Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains










Part 1: Introduction






Poverty and Livelihoods

Impacts on poverty and the livelihoods of the poor are CIMMYT's starting points for targeting
agricultural research and development. To clearly focus its work in this direction, CIMMYT
undertook an extensive strategic planning exercise in 2002-03 (see CIMMYT's new strategy,
"Seeds of Innovation: Strategy for Helping to Reduce Poverty and Hunger by 2020). By providing
agricultural alternatives that empower people to improve their way of life, CIMMYT and its
partners can set in motion a chain of events-such as greater access to nutrition, health,
information, markets, and wider social participation-that contribute to sustainable development.
Confidence in this approach is based on robust evidence that agricultural research and
technology help to reduce poverty, especially in Africa and Asia, and are often more effective
than interventions in other sectors.

In line with the aim of reducing poverty, in 2004 CIMMYT has restructured its global research
agenda and mode of operation. Research management has been strengthened by organizing the
Center's work into a matrix of six research programs and five disciplinary groups, as well as
through the appointment of a Deputy Director General for Research. The matrix is designed to
ensure the close contact of CIMMYT researchers with partners and clients; the disciplinary
groups serve among other functions as monitors of scientific excellence. To improve the
relevancy of programs and develop enhanced outputs that can be adopted by partners, the
Center is deploying several program directors to strategic locations in the developing world. A
critical component of this transition will be an open search, to be completed by the end of 2004,
for the most skilled talent to lead the newly formed research programs.

Partnerships are one of CIMMYT's key assets, a fact resoundingly echoed by stakeholders in the
consultation conducted as part of strategic planning. Reflecting this assessment, the Center will
strengthen and expand linkages with a range of partners, including other CGIAR centers, the
CGIAR Challenge Programs, various regional and system-wide programs, national agricultural
research systems (NARS) in developing countries, non-government organizations, and public and
private research institutes.

As mentioned above, in the deliberations leading to its new vision, CIMMYT has not lost sight of
its main intervention point for reducing poverty and hunger: the application of quality science. The
following sections of this introduction first outline the Center's continuing efforts to harness the
best science available in ways directly applicable to the concerns of partners and the resource
poor. Next comes a description of the new programs, including the challenges they are designed
to address, their expected outputs, and the impacts for which they are to be held accountable.
The introduction closes with a statement of how CIMMYT is managing its resources to ensure
achievement of the new vision.


Applying Quality Science to Reduce Poverty

People Focused Methods (Social Science / Anthropology / Human Ecology/)
CIMMYT will use a wider spectrum of social science and anthropological methods and tools to
understand technical innovation and develop new strategies to address the complex needs of the
poor, helping to lift them from poverty and misery. Social science will play an increasingly










important role in research on complex issues regarding users' perspectives, farmers' local
knowledge, and the social rules that affect their behavior and well-being. Much information
related to these issues is best elicited using qualitative ethnographic and participatory methods.
CIMMYT will give increasing attention to ways in which qualitative and quantitative approaches
can be combined, and we will systematically study the variation/variability of results and lessons
learned from participatory methods applied to common global problems.

Policy Analysis
CIMMYT's programs and partnerships offer a unique vantage point for examining factors that
affect the productivity of maize- and wheat-based farming systems in developing countries.
Approaches for analyzing these factors, diagnosing constraints to technical change, and
prescribing policy interventions to overcome constraints will feature more strongly in the Center's
research. Much of the work will be done in close cooperation with NARS and CGIAR partners.

Breeding Approaches with Farmers in Mind
How can the scarce resources of breeding programs in developing countries be used effectively
to make an impact in difficult environments? Insights into this question rarely come from graduate
training at universities in industrialized countries, but they do come from innovation, experience,
and collaboration in the target environments. CIMMYT helps to meet the challenge by bringing
together innovative partners of diverse affiliations in the use of new breeding and seed
dissemination approaches. Many small-scale farmers still lack access to improved seed or use
outdated improved varieties. CIMMYT is committed to research that accelerates the development
and deployment of stress tolerant, stable, and well-accepted crop varieties; training in new
breeding approaches; and collaboration that increases the effectiveness, impact, and
sustainability of breeding approaches in developing countries. As part of this, the Center has
developed and helped others to implement alternative maize and wheat breeding approaches
that systematically improve varieties' resilience under farmers' conditions, while satisfying other
farmer criteria for a "good" variety. Models for participatory breeding and varietal selection have
enabled small-scale farmers to influence large-scale breeding priorities and to make informed
choices about what variety to grow. Work will continue, drawing added strength from the social
science capacity mentioned above.

Where farmers earn an income from their maize and wheat crops and must meet stringent quality
standards, CIMMYT can provide varieties with improved micronutrient and protein content,
improved quality for specialized food and feed products, and improved storability, among other
value-added traits.

Understanding complex genotype x environment interactions. A better understanding of
G x E is needed to develop system-based solutions to farmers' problems. The use of international
trials, coupled with more sophisticated statistical analyses, remote sensing, crop modeling, GIS,
and improvements in CIMMYT field trials, will open the way for much more precise development
of varieties and crop management options for specific target environments. CIMMYT's extensive
partnerships make it possible to quantify G x E through experiments at agronomically
representative sites worldwide.

Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing
In collaboration with a private GIS company, the Center has developed, distributed, and provided
training to developing country partners on a suite of packages for specific countries and regions.
Work in this applied and enabling mode will continue. Meanwhile, the growing availability of
spatial data, access applications, and models will significantly influence the ways in which
CIMMYT assesses adoption and impacts, makes decisions, targets and promotes technologies,
and manages information. Geographic information systems will become seamlessly linked to
simulation models to guide the development and diffusion of new technologies on a wider scale.
Developments in three other areas are of particular interest: global positioning system (GPS)
technology, high-resolution imagery and satellite sensors, and timely (real-time) data provision.










Improving the Efficiency of Field Research
The application of powerful statistical tools can contribute significantly to improving the quality of
data obtained from field trials and to reducing their number and size. Technological advances,
such as equipment that collects data, handles and packages seed, and automatically recognizes
plots and samples, will save labor and time. Sensory tools will increase field selection efficiency
and effectiveness by permitting tens of thousands of single plant progenies to be screened in
relatively small areas before larger trials are conducted. Physiologists will continue to identify
traits that enable significant improvements in the efficiency of early generation selection by saving
time, land, and other costs associated with direct estimates of yield.

Biophysical Systems: Research on Soil and Root Health
The intensification of agricultural-particularly in monoculture systems in marginal areas-has
often disturbed the soil's ecological and structural balance. One result is that soil-borne agents
such as microscopic nematodes and root-rotting fungi begin cutting into crop yields. In
combination with drought and micronutrient deficiencies, these pathogens can reduce yields by
as much as 60%, and many scientists and farmers are unaware of the problem. Continuing work
begun several years ago, CIMMYT will address these "underground problems" through a
systems-oriented, interdisciplinary approach. New technologies, particularly from molecular
biology, will enhance the understanding of factors affecting soil health, plant productivity, and
system sustainability. Wheat cultivars that resist multiple root diseases and tolerate micronutrient
imbalances will be the most economic options for farmers and will also use soil moisture more
efficiently. Significant genetic variability for several of these traits exists in the wheat gene pool,
and CIMMYT has obtained the associated molecular markers through partnerships with
advanced research institutes. Genetic engineering, based on a better understanding of gene
function, may play a major role in developing resistant varieties.

The underlying effects of crop management on soil health will also receive attention, as
researchers determine which practices (diversification, rotations, and/or alternative soil
management) are best for healthy soils and plants. Direct seeding without tillage, commonly
referred to as "zero-tillage," is being adopted rapidly in South Asia to sow wheat after rice;
CIMMYT and partners will study the long-term health of soils under this practice.

Extending the Use of Conservation Agriculture
Conservation agriculture includes the retention of crop residues as mulch, zero-tillage, crop
rotations, and in some cases green manure cover crops. Over 70 million hectares are under
conservation agriculture around the world, largely in the Americas and Australia, and the practice
has spread mainly through farmers. Frequent constraints to its adoption by smallholders,
however, include the need for retaining residue (which many small-scale farmers use as animal
feed), for special seeding implements (generally of little interest to large-scale manufacturers), for
input and credit systems, and for convincing tradition-bound scientists and farmers of its benefits.
CIMMYT will continue to interact with conservation agriculture networks and farmers' associations
and use its expertise to catalyze innovation systems in poorer rural populations. Among other
things, this will involve (1) facilitating the exchange of information on small equipment and its local
adaptation and manufacture; (2) fostering the development of the specialized input supply
systems required; and (3) providing relevant component technologies and knowledge through
research on genotype x environment interactions, soil and root health, and related topics.

Integrated Natural Resource Management Research
The key word in research on natural resource management is "integration." Efforts to foster
adoption of new resource-conserving technologies need to be integrated with supporting policies.
Technology development needs to be integrated with farmer and private-sector participation.
Individual incentives to change natural resource management practices need to be integrated
with rules governing common property and collective action. Information on near-term technology
performance needs to be integrated with information on longer-term consequences. Technical
innovations need to be integrated with institutional innovations. An understanding of how natural
resource management practices work at the plot or village level needs to be integrated with an










understanding of their outcomes at higher levels of analysis (e.g., the river basin). At the broadest
level, the interaction of all partners in the development and dissemination of resource-conserving
practices needs to be integrated in the context of an innovation system.

New science will be used to achieve better integration at less cost. New crop and system models
will be more capable of simulating the long-term performance and riskiness over time of resource-
conserving technologies. Plot-level models will be linked closely with river basin models to
determine such things as the consequences of plot-level water savings on basin-level water
balances. Information technology will facilitate the sharing of information on what works, where,
and why. The new science of innovation systems will help integrate the efforts of different
stakeholders to deal more effectively with productivity and sustainability issues through
improvements in natural resource management.

Biotechnology Tools to Unlock and Leverage Genetic Potential
One exciting aspect of CIMMYT's new strategy is the cross-linking of disciplines and the building
of partnerships with world class organizations, allowing for a comprehensive, integrated approach
to crop improvement. This and advances in molecular biology will allow Center researchers to
identify, locate, and define the functions of genes of interest, as well as to apply learning across
cereal species (see Box 1). A challenge for CIMMYT and its partners-among them, the CGIAR
Generation Challenge Program-will be to use this capability to address the needs of small-scale
farmers.

Molecular fingerprinting. Important applications of fingerprinting for CIMMYT include improved
management of genetic resources in the genebank, identification of useful combinations of inbred
lines to make hybrids, more efficient pre-breeding research, detection of allelic variation for
further phenotypic screening, and the protection/identification of individual varieties. Newer
methods based on single nucleotide differences (SNPs) will provide better discrimination among
maize and wheat genetic resources. In addition, the application of functional genomics to genetic
resources will provide more detailed analysis of potentially useful genes for breeding. CIMMYT
must learn how best to access fingerprinting technologies and develop database systems that
allow worldwide sharing of the resulting information.

Marker-assisted selection (MAS). CIMMYT will maintain and build its capabilities in this area,
especially in regional programs. Among other things, this will require a high-throughput laboratory
for routine analysis of markers, along with information systems that provide results rapidly to
researchers. Efforts at CIMMYT or through collaboration with advanced research institutes to
develop new marker systems and/or linked markers for additional traits will be undertaken based
on CIMMYT's research priorities and with a view to reducing breeding costs. Advances in
comparative genetics will allow linked markers to be used for more than one cereal species.
Advances in genomics will allow the simultaneous identification of many traits-and markers-for
MAS.

Gene and trait mapping. A prerequisite for MAS is the identification of linked molecular markers.
The development of sets of molecular markers that can saturate a genome has provided powerful
tools for mapping specific genes and genomic segments responsible for particular phenotypes.
The role of mapping is changing, as functional genomics research progresses, but mapping will
remain important for some time to validate candidate genes for a given trait and to develop
contrasting materials for use in functional genomics approaches. CIMMYT has a number of
segregating populations and genetic resources that are useful in mapping studies, whether in-
house or through partnerships.

Functional genomics and gene discovery. Genomics, the study of the genome of living
organisms, is made possible by the rapid achievements in molecular biology combined with
properly phenotyped genetic resources and information science. In addition to innovations from
the private sector, advanced research institutes are developing publicly available genomics tools
and information to identify genes for a range of traits in many biological systems. Given gene and










genome similarities among all organisms, and especially among cereal crops, much of this
research is applicable to maize and wheat. The public sector has recently finished sequencing
the rice genome, is sequencing a significant portion of the maize genome (including the recent
release by the private sector of significant quantity of maize sequence data), and has initiated
discussion on a similar project for wheat.

One of CIMMYT's primary contributions to this work will be to continue supplying key maize and
wheat segregating populations and lines. These materials represent extremes in phenotypic
expression for important, stress-related traits, such as tolerance to drought and nitrogen-deficient
soils or acidic soils, and resistance to fungal diseases and insect pests. Another important
contribution will be to continue providing molecular maps with genes and genetic regions
(quantitative trait loci, or QTLs) identified for stress tolerance/resistance. By combining the
genetic resources and trait knowledge available at CIMMYT with genomic tools and knowledge in
the public and private sector, the Center will be able to identify key genes for important
traits-information of great use in its own breeding programs and those of partners.

Gene discovery for pre-breeding research. Pre-breeding research seeks to identify genes or
gene complexes for traits of value in breeding, and to make the trait available to breeders in a
readily usable form (see Box 1). The efficacy of this work can be measured in the expression of
valuable traits in locally adapted, finished varieties. Pre-breeding research at CIMMYT will benefit
by adopting an applied genetic resources approach that takes advantage of new science and
incorporates all genebank operations, including collection, characterization, and regeneration.
CIMMYT will interact closely with plant breeders and a range of partners to set priorities and
evaluate accomplishments in this area.


Box 1. Taming "Wild" Genetic Diversity

Over millenia, the grasses known as wheat's "wild relatives" have been exposed to cold, drought, heat,
waterlogging, and all kinds of diseases and pests. The species alive today have acquired a genetic
protection that is almost invincible. Now a brilliant pre-breeding strategy is reclaiming this genetic heritage
for bread wheats.

Realizing the wealth of useful traits in wheat's wild relatives, CIMMYT scientist Dr. Abdul Mujeeb Kazi used
an elegant and effective strategy to transfer those traits into improved bread wheat, the most commonly
used wheat. This painstaking research, which Dr. Kazi has conducted for more than 15 years, involves
crossing durum wheat with a wild relative to replicate the original cross that gave rise to bread wheat in
nature about 10,000 years ago. The CIMMYT program has been far more successful than other programs in
applying this technique, and the "original" wheats it produces have inherited the genetic protection that
served their undomesticated parents so well.

The process does not stop there. These original wheats are crossed with high yielding, improved wheats to
produce descendants that yield well and possess combinations of traits to withstand tough conditions in
varied growing environments. The wheats developed show genetic resistance to six or seven diseases at
the same time, plus tolerance to such problems as salinity, waterlogging, and drought. This gives them a
huge advantage in most environments where wheat is grown. These materials also have a much broader,
and different, genetic diversity than their "normal" counterparts. In farmers' fields this translates into more
stable yields. As genetic diversity and its many advantages become increasingly important in modern
cropping systems, the value of the work is increasingly evident. Dr. Kazi was named CGIAR Outstanding
Scientist in 2003 for these results.


Genetic engineering. Widely publicized is genetic engineering's capability to provide completely
new products for farmers (see Box 2). Its use in this regard is most powerful and critical in the
case of traits for which there is insufficient genetic diversity within a species. Examples include
nutritional traits such as the content of beta-carotenoid, a vitamin A precursor, in wheat, and iron
and zinc content in maize. However, the ability to modify specific genes or to introduce an entirely
novel gene is also an important tool for studying gene expression and physiological processes.










This approach has been adapted to investigate potential genes for enhancing drought tolerance
and disease resistance in bread wheat.

Box 2: Kenya Prepares to Grow Genetically Engineered Maize

Every year, Kenya loses USD 90 million to stem borers that consume 400,000 tons of maize-about 15% of
the farmers' annual harvest. The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) project is using biotechnology to
develop varieties of maize that are resistant to insects, in particular the stem borer.

The IRMA project is beingjointly implemented by the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARl) and
CIMMYT, with support from the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture. Recently, the President of
Kenya inaugurated a biosafety greenhouse at the KARl National Agricultural Research Laboratory (NARL) in
Nairobi. The greenhouse is being used to evaluate Bt maize developed by CIMMYT to determine the level of
resistance to insect pests. Seed increase of Bt maize inbred lines and crosses to locally adapted maize
germplasm will also be made to develop locally adapted maize types.

The greenhouse has been constructed following all of the necessary biosafety design requirements
including features that focus on security, emergency situations, personnel, sanitation, pollen management
and material disposal. All these are in accordance with Kenya's regulations and guidelines on biosafety.


Bioinformatics. Structural and functional genomics research and the massive data collections
they generate have brought bioinformatics to the forefront of thinking on biotechnology research.
Specifically, studies are needed on efficient ways to integrate functional genomics data with
structural genomics data in public repositories such as Genbank, and to integrate structural
genomics data with the contents of germplasm and breeding databases.

Several advanced research institutes, including the US Department of Agriculture, are developing
genetic databases for the major crops, including maize and wheat. CIMMYT need not develop
similar systems, but it will need to link to them. A comprehensive and integrated system to
manage future genomic data will also be required, whether it is produced by the Center or by its
partners. The platform will require links to several crop information and genebank systems, to
breeding simulation software, and to the genetic databases mentioned above.

Crop information systems to amplify the power of genetic research. CIMMYT's immense
collection of phenotypic information from international crop trials and its stores of maize and
wheat genetic resources are arguably its most important assets. This information cannot be used
effectively, however, without an information management system that links islands of data
collected from dispersed research efforts and provides continuous access to a multitude of
researchers around the world. As a global institute with many partners, CIMMYT is uniquely
positioned to anchor such an information management system. Accordingly, the Center will make
a significant strategic investment in information and communications technology to support a
high-capacity, relational database platform, along with rapid data input methods that rely on geo-
referencing and electronic data capture technologies. Components of this platform will include a
genebank and breeding management system that integrates molecular maps and plant
pedigrees, a GIS, bioinformatics systems and linkages, and data management systems relating
to G x E. Information in each subsystems will be linked, permitting powerful new insights into the
relationships between genes, environment, and the productivity of crops and agricultural systems.










Structuring the Global Research Program


As a framework for applying the science described in the preceding section and other aspects of
its work, CIMMYT has defined six new research programs. Programs 1 and 2 are global in scope.
The remaining programs have an eco-regional and systems focus, are composed of
multidisciplinary teams, and will seek to develop and deliver relevant science products and
services that improve the food security and reduce the vulnerability of small-scale farm
households and consumers in developing countries. The challenges the programs address,
outputs they will provide, and impacts they will achieve are outlined below.

Program 1: Genetic Resources
"Harnessing maize and wheat genetic diversity for humanity" (global, maize and wheat)

Challenges. Genetic resources are CIMMYT's primary asset, and the Center is ethically and
legally committed to conserving and facilitating the use of maize and wheat genetic diversity for
all humanity, current and future. Essential components to achieve this will include the expanded
application of information technology and access to proprietary technology, information, and other
resources in the private sector.

Emphasis and outputs. This global program, which contributes to two CGIAR Challenge
Programs (Generation; HarvestPlus), encompasses many areas of research: germplasm
collection for ex situ conservation; characterization of genetic resources; applications of
genomics; pre-breeding; food safety and toxicology, especially in an overall food quality context;
improved and more accessible information on genetic resources; management of intellectual
property associated with germplasm; economic assessment of the value of genetic resources;
analysis of policies relating to genetic resources and genetic diversity; conservation of wild
relatives of maize and wheat; on-farm management of maize and wheat genetic diversity; studies
of gene flow under conditions of farmers' management; and the development of alternatives that
help traditional communities to continue growing unique genetic resources. The role of
bioinformatics will be especially important to link vast amounts of data produced through
genomics research to other kinds of information: pedigrees, trial results, and agronomic and
socioeconomic data.

Projected impact. Within the term of this MTP, this program will:
Expand CIMMYT's collection of genetic resources to include more diverse African and
Asian maize varieties, wheat cytogenetic stocks, and maize and wheat genetic
populations.
Develop and use a comprehensive data management system to enable global, web-
based access to information on genetic resources.
Assess strategies for on-farm management of genetic diversity, the incentives needed to
make them feasible, the effects of gene flow within and between varieties, and the
implications for policy analysis and interventions.
Enhance the molecular and phenotypic characterization of key maize and wheat
accessions.
Identify the genetic bases (genes, alleles and biological pathways) of key traits in maize
and wheat through the use of genomic approaches.
Develop and use the most effective technologies to broaden and deepen the genetic
value of wheat and maize germplasm distributed throughout CIMMYT's multiple
locations.
Develop and use improved conventional and molecular pre-breeding techniques for
integrating improved traits into maize and wheat varieties.
Enhance the capacity of CIMMYT partners to manage and use genetic resources in their
own crop improvement programs.










Program 2: Impacts Targeting and Assessment
"Strengthening the global maize and wheat innovation network through capacity building,
policy development, and the analysis of strategic global issues" (global)

Challenges. To strengthen and increase the impact of the global maize and wheat innovation
network formed by CIMMYT and its partners, it is essential to adopt new methods for capacity
building, strengthen policy research, and develop center- and system-wide decision tools for
improved impact. Such actions must be undertaken in a way that allows comparative analyses
that cut across countries and regions. Research with a global focus is needed to understand
changes affecting the economic, political, and institutional environments in which CIMMYT
operates; identify cross-cutting issues that transcend national and regional boundaries; ensure
that the overall portfolio of resources is being used efficiently and effectively; identify key entry
points at which policy interventions can improve the likelihood that products and services will
reach potential users quickly and effectively; and ensure that when CIMMYT speaks out on
issues of importance to the Center and its partners, it does so in a consistent and coherent way.

Emphasis and outputs. This global program, which contributes to the HarvestPlus Challenge
Program, will emphasize activities of strategic global importance: building capacity through
learning and enhanced knowledge management skills, collaborative research, and mentoring
(see Box 3); designing policy interventions and advocating for change; monitoring trends in the
world maize and wheat economies; setting overall research priorities; and assessing impact. It
will produce new information and methods for research, policy advocacy, and priority setting.

Projected impact. Within the period of this MTP, this program will:
Establish a strong knowledge management team that can effectively bank and
disseminate knowledge to CIMMYT and its partners and translate the acquired
knowledge into decision support mechanisms.
Design policy interventions to strengthen technology delivery systems and remove
constraints to the adoption of new technologies.
Encourage awareness and implementation of policies and contribute to public debate on
issues of importance to CIMMYT and its partners.
Ensure that CIMMYT's research continues to address the priority needs of farmers by
monitoring long-term trends in world maize and wheat markets.
Assist with ongoing priority setting based upon a comprehensive assessment of potential
research and development activities worldwide.
Assess and document impacts of individual CIMMYT projects as well as the global
impacts of CIMMYT's work, including the impacts associated with productivity, incomes,
livelihoods, and the international dissemination of technologies.


Box 3: Success is in the Hands of People

The key to the success of the green revolution was not so much the dwarf gene technology, but rather a whole package of
genes and a capacity building program throughout Asia, primarily of young, keen scientists who could make it happen
Norman E. Borlaug

As part of its new strategy, CIMMYT will establish strong, collaborative, learning and mentoring service to
build human capital among research partners, rural communities, and Center staff. Empowering people to
develop, deliver, and use information and products that provide new options for research or for farmers'
livelihoods will require the service to:

* Coordinate, support, and innovate capacity building.
* Provide information on learning resources and opportunities within and outside CIMMYT.
* Develop instructional materials that can be adapted to specific local interests and needs.
* Connect people and organizations to foster continued learning.

The spectrum of people who learn through CIMMYT is wide. Our capacity building agenda will be based on
a prioritized assessment of needs and demand, done in conjunction with partners and staff in each region,










and matched to expertise and other resources. As much as possible, courses will be demand-driven,
interdisciplinary, employ rapidly developing information and communications technology, and count towards
advanced degrees. All instructional materials will be available and searchable through the internet and other
electronic formats. These materials will be part of CIMMYT's digital knowledge base.

Because learning needs vary greatly, CIMMYT will place greater emphasis on flexible combinations of short
courses that can be locally adapted and taught. With other CGIAR centers, CIMMYT will explore and
develop distance learning opportunities and other capacity building initiatives, such as the Global
Agricultural Open University. Additional partnerships with universities, advanced research institutes, and
private organizations in industrialized and developing countries will make it possible to offer a wider range of
complementary learning opportunities and share expertise in the development of instructional materials.
CIMMYT's strength in these partnerships is its ability to help people apply theoretical knowledge in a real-
world setting.


Program 3: African Livelihoods
"Increasing food security in Africa through better technology and improved markets" (sub-
Saharan Africa, primarily eastern and southern Africa; emphasis on maize and crop
diversification)

Challenges. Of all regions of the developing world, sub-Saharan Africa poses a crucial challenge
for sustained improvement of rural livelihoods and agricultural productivity. A combination of
uncertain and variable rainfall, poor soils, insect pests, outbreaks of the parasitic weed Striga,
and poorly developed markets and rural infrastructure has stalled efforts to improve the
productivity and sustainability of agroecosystems. In some countries, conflict, prevailing
macroeconomic and agricultural policies, and/or a high incidence of HIV/AIDS have exacerbated
these problems. Malnutrition is common among children and women.

Farm households in much of eastern and southern Africa grow mainly maize, the most important
staple in most areas, to avoid purchasing it in the hungry season prior to harvest, when prices are
high. Maize is frequently grown in rotation or association with groundnut, beans, or other
legumes, or with cash crops such as cotton. Livelihood strategies often feature a close integration
of livestock and crop management, as well as a reliance on migration and remittances. Farm
households need production systems that reduce losses in bad seasons (e.g., under drought);
are substantially more productive in good seasons; improve labor productivity to compensate for
loss of family labor to migration or HIV/AIDS; exploit in a sustainable manner relatively favorable
niches in the landscape; use scarce and expensive inputs efficiently; take advantage of locally
available inputs (e.g., leaf litter, cattle manure) to maintain soil fertility; and foster market
development to reduce input prices and improve product prices at the farm level.

Emphasis and outputs. This program, which contributes to four CGIAR Challenge Programs
(Sub-Saharan Africa; Generation; HarvestPlus; Water and Food), emphasizes improving system
resilience and productivity in the face of biophysical and socioeconomic risk. It will develop a
range of maize varieties with tolerance to drought and low soil fertility (see Box 4), resistance to
insect pests, improved nutritional content, or tolerance to a herbicide seed treatment that controls
the parasitic weed, Striga spp.. In the context of local biosafety regulations and informed
deliberation by civil society, the program will also explore the release of maize that is genetically
engineered to resist stem borers. With partners, it will provide suitable wheat varieties to
smallholders in Ethiopia. Participatory selection of varieties will expand, and systems will be
established to disseminate improved seed effectively through the private sector and community
organizations. The program will support efforts to make good seed reliably available at fair prices
to smallholders. Policy and market analyses will be conducted to foster market development and
better integrate smallholder cropping systems into national markets. Complementary research on
crop and natural resource management will focus on soil fertility management practices for clearly
defined land types and farmer categories. Considerable attention will be given to crop-livestock
interactions.










Projected impact. Within the period of this MTP, this program will:
Ensure that at least 15% and, ideally, many more farm families managing maize systems
in eastern and southern Africa grow maize that is better at withstanding drought and low
soil fertility.
Develop and promote effective techniques to combat Striga, maize field pests, and maize
grain storage pests.
Develop and promote decision aids that match resource-conserving practices with land
types and farmer categories.
Strengthen collaboration among partners to address development concerns more
effectively.
Foster market development and better integrate smallholder cropping systems into
national markets.
Contribute to the debate on policy and institutional issues affecting the agricultural sub-
sector.
Document impacts of improved practices on incomes, livelihoods, soil and water
resources, and the environment.


Box 4: Strengthening Seed Production of Open-pollinated Maize in Southern Africa

In 2003, seed production of drought-tolerant maize varieties was scaled up four-fold in southern Africa
compared to the previous year. The new open-pollinated maize varieties (OPVs), with tolerance to drought
and low soil nitrogen, were developed through a long-term research collaboration between CIMMYT and
NARS partners based on an innovative, farmer-participatory varietal testing scheme involving rural schools,
NGOs, and extension agencies. Several donors, including the Swiss Agency for Development and
Cooperation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and USAID, have contributed to this effort.

The new OPVs are now being grown on more than 250,000 ha in Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, South
Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. This area is expected to increase to 800,000 ha during the next
season. On average farmers plant about one hectare to the new OPVs, so it is estimated that they are being
grown by about 0.25 million families. The varieties have also shown to be suitable in Kenya, Nepal, and
drought-prone areas of India.

Seven seed companies in southern Africa, mostly small and medium-sized, are producing seed of the new
OPVs. Some of these companies have come into existence due to the accelerated demand for the new
OPVs, so the development of the new varieties has had an important catalytic effect on the local seed
industry. This impact is much needed, as both farming families and the seed industry have suffered the
affects of repeated droughts and economic downturns.


Program 4: Rainfed Wheat Systems
"Reducing vulnerability by managing risk in rainfed wheat systems" (Eurasia, northern
India, South America; comparable ecologies in southern Africa are included in the program on
Africa; emphasis on wheat)

Challenges. In these ecologies, crop production focuses on bread and durum wheat, barley, and
pulses, although maize is important in some areas and triticale has shown great potential as a
food and fodder crop. Often livestock are at least as important as grain production in farm family
livelihoods. Widespread land degradation is provoked by over-grazing of pastures, intensive
tillage of agricultural land, and the grazing of crop residues. The growing period is short and
options for diversification limited. Rainfall is variable, rainfall-use efficiency is low, and drought
stress is common. Food security often depends heavily on wheat, which sometimes provides
more than half of the calories consumed daily. Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread (see Box
5).

Farmers require production technologies that improve local and regional food security; reduce the
risks associated with recurrent drought; combine livestock and crop production; make the most of
limited or variable water resources; help reduce land degradation; promote efficient use of scarce










inputs; foster improved input and product markets and related institutions; and contribute to
system diversification for more stable production of a wider array of crops.

Emphasis and outputs. This eco-regional program, which contributes to three CGIAR Challenge
Programs (Water and Food; HarvestPlus; Generation), emphasizes the development of drought-
tolerant, input-responsive, disease-resistant wheat varieties; resource-conserving technologies;
crop diversification; and policy analysis and advocacy to foster market development.

Projected impact. Within the period of this MTP, this program will:
Promote successful adoption of resource-conserving technologies, together with varieties
specifically adapted to them (especially wheat with increased drought tolerance,
resistance to soil-borne diseases, and better nutritional value).
Raise water productivity and improve soil fertility by expanding cereal-legume rotations
and diversifying cropping systems, including the use of cash crops.
Improve the nutritional value of wheat.
Help meet the demand for better livestock feed through triticale and drought- and heat-
tolerant maize with enhanced protein quality.


Box 5: This Day our Daily Bread be Biofortified

Zinc deficiency is implicated in health problems throughout the world, especially across a wide band of
countries in West Asia and North Africa and the Asian subcontinent where more than half of inhabitants'
daily calories come from wheat. In South and West Asia, millions of heavy wheat consumers are also iron
deficient. Women and children are particularly prone to zinc and iron malnutrition.

As part of HarvestPlus, the CGIAR's global alliance to breed and disseminate crops for better nutrition,
CIMMYT is developing high-yielding wheat varieties whose grain contains 30 to 50% more iron and zinc.
Given that wheat varieties developed by CIMMYT and its partners cover 80% of the global spring wheat
area, the potential impact is dramatic. The best sources of these micronutrients are grass species that do
not cross easily with modern wheats. Researchers have therefore created a "bridge" variety by crossing one
such grass (Aegilops tauschii) with a high-micronutrient primitive wheat (Triticum dicoccon). The resulting
varieties combine readily with modern wheat varieties, producing lines whose grain contains more iron and
zinc than modern wheat. Partners in India and Pakistan are using this approach to develop high yielding,
disease-resistant, biofortified wheat for the region.

In Turkey, home to pioneering research on zinc deficiency and wheat, wheat landraces and cultivars that
take up and use zinc more efficiently are being combined with wheat varieties that have resistance to yellow
rust and root diseases. Staff in CIMMYT labs and elsewhere are identifying molecular markers for genes
that control grain iron and zinc levels, to facilitate their transfer to new varieties. Finally, studies have begun
on iron and zinc losses in milling and cooking. This and the center's research on bio-availability will help
determine exactly how much it helps to eat biofortified daily bread.


Program 5: Tropical Ecosystems
"Improving livelihoods and conserving natural resources in tropical ecosystems" (Latin
America, Southeast Asia, and tropical areas of southern China; emphasis on maize)

Challenges. Poor farm households require production systems that improve their livelihoods;
exploit ecologically-friendly principles to control weeds, pests, and diseases; conserve soil and
water; and help meet increasing demand for food and feed (especially in Asia). In Latin America,
households often grow maize to avoid purchasing it when prices are high and to feed small
numbers of livestock. Livelihood strategies may include the production of cash crops (e.g.,
coffee), remittances from family members or seasonal off-farm work. In Asian systems, maize is
grown predominantly for feed (although Asians consume more maize for food than the entire
population of Latin America). Throughout the tropics, mounting demand for maize has caused
production to encroach on tropical forests and fragile hillsides.










Emphasis and outputs. This eco-regional program, which contributes to the HarvestPlus
Challenge Program, emphasizes the integration of high-yielding, stress-tolerant, nutrient-
enhanced maize germplasm with resource-conserving technologies. It will develop maize that
copes with acidic soils, drought, low soil fertility, diseases, and insects. Many of these varieties
will have improved protein quality and some will have higher micronutrient content. They will
increased tolerance to harsh conditions and yield well under favorable conditions. Resource-
conserving practices to control weeds and erosion, improve water-use efficiency, and improve
soil fertility will include direct sowing with reduced or zero tillage, cover crops, crop residue
management, mulch management, and alternative and more diverse cropping patterns.
Substantial farmer participatory experimentation will contribute to the development of new
varieties and help to refine resource-conserving practices and associated equipment. The
program will encourage system diversification to avoid continuous maize cultivation, a goal that
requires a combination of policy analysis and advocacy, market analysis, and farmer
experimentation with alternative crops. The impact of technical change on the livelihoods of
resource-poor farmers and the longer-term consequences of resource-conserving practices will
be studied.

Projected impact. Within the period of this MTP, this program will:
Improve the productivity and profitability of maize-based agro-ecosystems in tropical
ecologies.
Promote successful adoption of conservation agriculture, especially zero tillage with
mulch soil cover, on more than one million hectares of tropical lowlands and uplands
(improving incomes and livelihoods, reducing production costs, and reducing land
degradation).
Promote successful adoption of more stress-tolerant and nutritious maize varieties.
Promote diversification of cropping systems and substantially reduce the area under
continuous maize cultivation, especially in fragile areas.
Document impacts and consequences for farm family livelihoods and the environment of
technical change in maize systems.
Promote technical options that help improve the availability of livestock feeds to resource-
poor farmers

Program 6: Intensive Agroecosystems
"Safeguarding food security through sustainable intensification" (Indo-Gangetic Plains,
Mediterranean littoral, Yellow River Basin, northwestern Mexico; emphasis on maize, wheat, and
crop diversification)

Challenges. Many of the world's poor live in densely populated rural areas where cropping
systems are intensive and complex. Farmers in these areas tend to be more market-oriented and
driven by the need to sustain local communities and neighboring cities. Globally, improved food
security and livelihoods for poor people depend heavily on these production systems, which are
often irrigated. The challenges are to foster the development of farming systems that are more
intensive and more sustainable than current systems; assure food-grain security while delivering
a more diverse set of higher-value products; use external inputs more efficiently; generate more
employment for the landless; supply less expensive food for poor urban consumers; and
conserve and improve soil and water resources. Water is a particular concern because of
competition for urban, industrial, ecological, and other non-agricultural uses.

Emphasis and outputs. This eco-regional program, which contributes to the Rice-Wheat
Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains (see Box 4) and two Challenge Programs (Water and
Food; HarvestPlus), emphasizes improvements in system productivity and diversity, which may at
times imply a decrease, not an increase, in resources devoted to cereal production. Instead of
increasing input use for higher grain yields, the program will improve nutrient- and water-use
efficiency, which should ultimately lead to better harvests with fewer inputs.










Research will focus on resource-conserving technologies (zero-tillage for wheat after rice; zero-
tilled, rice-based rotations on permanent beds, with rice grown as an aerobic crop followed by
wheat, maize, legumes, or other crops; non-traditional rice transplanting practices; and surface
seeding of wheat after rice in low-lying, poorly drained soils). Methods will be developed to allow
a third crop after wheat and substitute pulses, maize, or potatoes for wheat. Laser-leveling of
irrigated fields will be emphasized. Maize and wheat varieties for these systems will be adapted
to new resource-conserving practices. They will also yield well, possess durable disease
resistance, resist pests, reduce the need for irrigation, tolerate salinity, and have good quality for
consumer and industrial use. Quality protein maize varieties may become important for meeting
China's growing demand for feed maize. Policy analysis will focus on maximizing the benefits of
improved technologies for smallholder farmers and poor consumers.

Projected impact. Within the period of this MTP, the program will:
Promote successful adoption of resource-conserving technologies and specifically
adapted maize and wheat varieties across a significant area in Asia, Africa, and Latin
America.
Promote successful adoption of more holistic cropping systems so that grain supply
keeps pace with demand and food remains affordable for the poor.
Reduce water use in agriculture by more than 20% and substantially decrease fuel use.
Enhance farmers' access to markets by providing cereal varieties with specific value-
added traits (e.g., improved quality for making leavened, steamed, and flat breads; maize
with better nutritional characteristics).
Measure impact of the technologies deployed in terms of poverty alleviation and
livelihood improvement.


Box 6: Promoting Zero-tillage for the Indo-Gangetic Plains

The Rice Wheat Consortium (RWC) for the Indo-Gangetic Plains comprises international agricultural
research centers, national agricultural research organizations from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan,
and advanced research institutes. The RWC has developed and promoted several practices that increase
farm-level productivity, conserve natural resources, and limit negative environmental impacts. These
resource-conserving technologies have been actively promoted for some 10 years in the Indo-Gangetic
Plains, a region where more than 300 million people depend largely on the rice-wheat crop rotation for food
and livelihoods.

Zero-tillage was introduced into South Asia nearly 20 years ago, among other things as a way to overcome
late planting of wheat after long-duration basmati rice crops. Puddling fields to grow rice essentially destroys
the soil structure, which must be laboriously rebuilt through six-to-eight tractor passes using several
implements over as long as two weeks, to sow wheat. By the time late-sown wheat matures, summer heat
may have set in, adversely affecting yield and grain quality. In zero-tillage, farmers seed the wheat crop
directly into rice stubble right after rice harvest.

Experience in other parts of the world show that successful adoption of zero-tillage depends critically on
farmer knowledge and the availability of appropriate machinery. Researchers under the RWC organized an
extensive program of on-station and on-farm trials, leading to suitable zero-tillage management
recommendations. A parallel program of research focused on the design of effective and affordable zero-
tillage seeding equipment and the strengthening of local manufacturing capacity.

These efforts, together with active participation by farmers, strong input from manufacturers, and the
dramatic benefits of zero-tillage for wheat have accelerated its adoption, particularly in the irrigated Indo-
Gangetic Plains. Informal surveys (based on machinery sales) suggest that the area under zero-tillage
exceeded 500,000 ha during the 2002-03 wheat season and is expanding quickly. Net benefits in India and
Pakistan through higher yields and lower land preparation costs amounted to more than USD150 million in
winter 2003 alone. Use of zero-tillage for wheat saves about 50 liters of diesel per hectare. Besides farm-
level savings in fuel and labor, zero-tillage help spare the release of huge amounts of C02, even at current
levels of adoption.










Financial and Managerial Highlights


CIMMYT Funding Overview
Our grant revenue estimates for unrestricted and restricted grants, as detailed in this MTP
submission, indicate total revenues of $37.657M for 2004 and $37.461M for 2005 which
represent an increase of approximately 6.5% over actual 2003 results. Grant revenue projections
for 2006/2007 are predicted to return to 2003 levels as this is currently considered to be a
sustainable long term target. These projections are more conservative that those provided in
previous years MTP submission and management believes that not only are achievable and
realistic, but there is a reasonable probability that actual results will exceed our projections,
particularly in the out years of the plan.

The increase in activity during the initial two year period (2004 2005) is driven by changes
arising from the implementation of our new strategic plan, details of which are outlined below.
Obviously the speed and success of implementing our new strategic plan will depend on careful
cash flow management, particularly given that CIMMYT is determined to move from reliance on
external debt financing to being debt free by the end of 2004. The vagaries of the timing of receipt
of investor funding will be a major factor in our ability to achieve this goal delays in receipt of
one or two major investor contributions which normally are received at the end of the financial
year, as happened in 2003, will have a severe impact on our operations and cause us to incur
unplanned financing costs.

Due to a change in the nature of funding by DfID in 2004 from restricted to unrestricted support,
we expect that unrestricted funding will increase to approximately 42% of total funding in 2004.
Unfortunately, our percentage of unrestricted funding is expected to decrease to 36% in 2005,
and decline further in out years, as investors continue the trend of increasingly targeting their
contributions.

Implementing CIMMYT's Strategic Plan
CIMMYT's new strategy envisions CIMMYT as a research center that has gone far beyond a
commodity and production focus to become more effective at responding to local needs,
improving livelihoods in rural communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation. The new
strategy and mission requires CIMMYT to: 1) continue to maintain the skills, infrastructure,
opportunities, and management to remain a center of scientific excellence; 2) work as an
extremely decentralized organization with an expanded field presence; and 3) forge strategic,
highly complementary, and enduring partnerships that use resources more efficiently, achieve
results more widely, and encourage the management, sharing, and application of knowledge at
all levels.

To align itself with this vision of the future, CIMMYT is currently undertaking decisive action in
three crucial areas:
1. Core competencies. CIMMYT must possess the core competencies to implement its strategy
and has therefore initiated action to:
o recruit young researchers with essential new skills;
o phase out skills that are no longer essential, and implement a succession
planning program; and
o build capacity in locally recruited staff working in key support areas.
2. Relocation. CIMMYT is in the process of relocating key staff to regional locations, consistent
with its plan to decentralize its management structure.
3. Infrastructure. CIMMYT is carefully investing in its field, laboratory, and office operations to
ensure that they will be both efficient and safe, and will provide the support needed to
undertake our mission within the parameters of our new strategic plan.










Working Capital Reserves
CIMMYT's ability to undertake these critical first steps towards implementing the new strategy
has been severely constrained by its financial situation. Between 1997 and 2002, CIMMYT
maintained an overly ambitious program of activities that eroded the working capital reserve from
more than $ 9M to just $ 0.2M (the equivalent of two days of working capital).

In March 2003, the CIMMYT Board approved a plan developed by CIMMYT management to
restore the working capital reserve to an appropriate level of 90 days by the end of 2007. To
achieve this target CIMMYT has placed very strict controls on expenditure in an environment
where funding levels are expected to remain flat. This is a severe constraint at the same point in
time when additional costs need to be incurred in order to effectively implement the strategic plan.

During the 2003 year, CIMMYT was able to increase unappropriated unrestricted reserves from a
low of approximately $300K (3 days) to a much more acceptable level of approximately $3M
(more than 30 days). This rate of increase cannot be sustained during the next two years as
expenditures are incurred to implement the strategic plan however management has planned to
achieve the Board target through increased contribution to reserves during the 2005 2007
years. On average, CIMMYT will need to put aside at more than $2M per year over the 2005-07
period to reach the target of 90 days this can only be achieved through generating an increased
surplus from unrestricted funding income during these years.

Staffing
In response to financial constraints, CIMMYT implemented two significant downsizing in
December 2002 and in May 2003 which resulted in a reduction of 21 internationally recruited staff
and more than 60 nationally recruited staff positions. The recurrent savings that accrued as a
result of these measures amounted to more than $ 2.6M.

It is important to note that national staff numbers have increased during 2004 due to the effect of
regularizing the status of many NRS who were employed on long term temporary staff contracts
and therefore not recognized in prior years.

In order to ensure that CIMMYT has the core competencies needed to implement its strategy,
additional IRS positions will be introduced during the '04 and '05 years. This will result in an
increase in the number of IRS however the demographic balance of staff will change significantly
due to the focus on recruiting young scientists and Post Doctoral positions. The key positions to
be recruited over the '04/'05 years include:

* Social science positions (2). An impact assessment specialist will develop methods and
conduct research to demonstrate how the adoption of improved technologies contributes to
CIMMYT's mission of improving livelihoods and alleviating poverty. A poverty specialist will
help ensure that CIMMYT's work has a strong pro-poor orientation and document how the
work of CIMMYT and its partners contributes to improving the livelihoods of the rural poor
who depend on maize and wheat for food and income.
* Farming systems positions (3) A systems agronomist for maize- and wheat-based systems
in eastern Africa will identify constraints to system productivity in the region and work with
national programs on priority issues. Two conservation agriculture specialists will work on
1) the development and adoption of resource-conserving technologies across rainfed wheat
systems and intensive systems, especially in South Asia and China; and 2) regional
constraints to improved productivity and sustainability in Central and West Asia and North
Africa.
* Seed systems specialists (2). Two seed systems specialists will work on 1) seed production
and dissemination in sub-Saharan Africa, where access to improved seed is a major
constraint to increased productivity; and 2) seed systems and technology dissemination in
South Asia, where a lack of functional seed production systems is a major impediment to the
adoption of improved varieties.










* Postdoctoral fellows (3). Two postdoctoral fellows will work on 1) nutritional enhancement
of maize and 2) expanding the use of genetic resources for traits of interest. One
postdoctoral fellowwill develop research on the impacts of farming systems and changing
environmental conditions (e.g., shorter growing seasons) on biotic stresses, especially rust
and powdery mildew, which are diseases of global importance.
* Bioinformatics specialist (1). One bioinformatics specialist will provide leadership at
CIMMYT for developing and implementing information management systems that integrate
molecular information with data from more than 30 years of international maize and wheat
performance data, pedigree data, GIS, and other data. New tools to link this information,
much of it extremely valuable and unique, will permit powerful new insights into the
relationships between genes, environment, and the productivity of crops and agricultural
systems.

Staff Relocation
As stated in its strategy, CIMMYT seeks to decentralize and locate management staff throughout
the regions rather than in one head office. CIMMYT's Program Directors were formerly all located
at its head office, but three Directors will now be based outside of Mexico.

Staff Development
In recent years CIMMYT has invested little in building capacity in its locally recruited staff
throughout the world, especially in key support areas such as information technology, human
resources, and financial management. Several of these areas were previously staffed by
internationally recruited staff however budget constraints, as well as a historical reluctance to
recognize the importance of these support functions, caused the Center to appoint locally
recruited staff to some of these positions without providing adequate training. A training needs
analysis has recently been undertaken and the results of this will be used to develop a consistent
training plan for all CIMMYT staff.

Infrastructure
In 1999, CIMMYT resorted to a capital "savings" measure that reduced the capital budget by 50%
to free up more funds to meet obligations for its research operations. This temporary measure
unfortunately prevailed through 2003 (for 2004, a full capital budget has been allocated). A total
of US$ 3.425M was diverted from capital investments to operational expenditures over 1999-
2003.

The result has been a severe decline in the maintenance of fixed assets (i.e., buildings, including
laboratories) and the inability to replace key laboratory and field equipment. For example, the five
experiment stations in Mexico that are the base of CIMMYT's global crop improvement research
have very significant field and other assets. Many of these assets should have been replaced
long ago. An additional, and worrisome, symptom of insufficient capital investment is increasing
concern about occupational health and safety.

CIMMYT's MTP includes a commitment to reinvest an amount equal to its depreciation expense,
in order to maintain the value of its fixed asset base.








Part 2: Budget Tables










Table la. CIMMYT Cost Allocation: Financial Requirements by CGIAR Output, 2005.


Germplasm


Germplasm


Sustainable


Enhancing


Project


Center Projects improvement collection production Policy NARS Totals

1. Genetic Resources 1.35 3.44 0.00 0.62 0.74 6.15
2. Rainfed Wheat Systems 1.51 0.79 3.27 0.00 0.48 6.06
3. Sustaining African Livelihoods 2.87 0.64 2.39 0.80 1.27 7.96
4. Intensive Agro-ecosystems 1.94 1.55 3.34 0.00 0.93 7.76
5. Tropical Ecosystems 2.04 0.92 0.77 0.00 1.38 5.11
6. Targeting Knowledge for Impact 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.35 0.50 1.86
7. Genetic Diversity (Generation) Challenge Program 3.16 6.42 0.48 0.94 2.30 13.30
8. Rice-Wheat Consortium 0.13 0.05 0.48 0.05 0.13 0.83

Output Totals 13.00 13.81 10.72 3.76 7.73 49.01


Table lb. CIMMYT Cost Allocation: Financial Requirements by CGIAR Output, 2006.

Germplasm Germplasm Sustainable Enhancing Project
Center Projects improvement collection production Policy NARS Totals

1. Genetic Resources 1.28 3.27 0.00 0.58 0.70 5.83
2. Rainfed Wheat Systems 1.41 0.73 3.04 0.00 0.45 5.63
3. Sustaining African Livelihoods 2.83 0.63 2.36 0.79 1.26 7.86
4. Intensive Agro-ecosystems 1.85 1.48 3.17 0.00 0.89 7.38
5. Tropical Ecosystems 1.91 0.86 0.72 0.00 1.29 4.77
6. Targeting Knowledge for Impact 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.14 0.42 1.56
7. Genetic Diversity (Generation) Challenge Program 3.60 7.20 0.60 1.05 2.55 15.00
8. Rice-Wheat Consortium 0.13 0.05 0.48 0.05 0.13 0.83

Output Totals 13.00 14.21 10.37 3.61 7.68 48.86










Table Ic. CIMMYT Cost Allocation: Financial Requirements by CGIAR Output, 2007.


Germplasm


Germplasm


Sustainable


Enhancing


Project


Center Projects improvement collection production Policy NARS Totals

1. Genetic Resources 1.28 3.26 0.00 0.58 0.70 5.82
2. Rainfed Wheat Systems 1.40 0.73 3.03 0.00 0.45 5.61
3. Sustaining African Livelihoods 2.82 0.63 2.35 0.78 1.25 7.84
4. Intensive Agro-ecosystems 1.84 1.47 3.17 0.00 0.88 7.36
5. Tropical Ecosystems 1.86 0.84 0.70 0.00 1.25 4.65
6. Targeting Knowledge for Impact 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.13 0.42 1.55
7. Genetic Diversity (Generation) Challenge Program 3.96 7.92 0.66 1.16 2.80 16.50
8. Rice-Wheat Consortium 0.13 0.05 0.48 0.05 0.13 0.83

Output Totals 13.29 14.90 10.39 3.71 7.88 50.16










Table 2. CIMMYT Cost Allocation: Project & Output Cost Summary.


Actual Estimate Proposed Plan Plan
Project 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

1. Genetic Resources 0.00 6.03 6.15 5.83 5.82
2. Rainfed Wheat Systems 0.00 6.08 6.06 5.63 5.61
3. Sustaining African Livelihoods 0.00 8.20 7.96 7.86 7.84
4. Intensive Agro-ecosystems 0.00 7.75 7.76 7.38 7.36
5. Tropical Ecosystems 0.00 5.13 5.11 4.77 4.65
6. Targeting Knowledge for Impact 0.00 2.73 1.86 1.56 1.55
7. Genetic Diversity (Generation) Challenge Program 0.50 8.39 13.30 15.00 16.50
8. Rice-Wheat Consortium 0.00 0.88 0.83 0.83 0.83

Total 0.50 45.19 49.01 48.86 50.16


Actual Estimate Proposed Plan Plan
Summary by CGIAR Output 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Germplasm Improvement 0.00 11.93 13.00 13.00 13.29
Germplasm Collection 0.50 11.37 13.81 14.21 14.90
Policy 0.00 4.05 3.76 3.61 3.71
Sustainable Production 0.00 10.70 10.72 10.37 10.39
Enhancing NARS 0.00 7.13 7.73 7.68 7.88

Total 0.50 45.19 49.01 48.86 50.16









Table 3. CIMMYT Cost Allocation: Allocation of Project Costs to CGIAR Activities.

Actual
Project Activity 2003


Estimate Proposed
2004 2005


1. Genetic Resources
Documentation, Publication, Info, Dissemination
Germplasm Enhancement and Breeding
Improving Policies
Saving Biodiversity
Training & Professional Development


2. Rainfed Wheat Systems
Documentation, Publication, Info, Dissemination
Germplasm Enhancement and Breeding
Networks
Organization & Management Counselling
Production Systems Development Crops
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity


3. Sustaining African Livelihoods
Documentation, Publication, Info, Dissemination
Germplasm Enhancement and Breeding
Improving Policies
Networks
Organization & Management Counselling
Production Systems Development Crops
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Training & Professional Development


4. Intensive Agro-ecosystems
Germplasm Enhancement and Breeding
Networks
Production Systems Development Crops
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Training & Professional Development


5. Tropical Ecosystems
Documentation, Publication, Info, Dissemination
Germplasm Enhancement and Breeding
Networks
Production Systems Development Crops
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Training & Professional Development


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total 0.00


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total 0.00


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total 0.00


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total 0.00


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total 0.00









Actual
Project Activity 2003


Estimate Proposed
2004 2005


6. Targeting Knowledge for Impact
Documentation, Publication, Info, Dissemination
Improving Policies
Networks
Organization & Management Counselling
Training & Professional Development


7. Genetic Diversity (Generation) Challenge Program
Networks


8. Rice-Wheat Consortium
Documentation, Publication, Info, Dissemination
Germplasm Enhancement and Breeding
Improving Policies
Production Systems Development Crops
Protecting the Environment
Saving Biodiversity
Training & Professional Development


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total 0.00


0.50
Total 0.50


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total 0.00


Center Total 0.50


Summary by Undertaking:

Saving Biodiversity
Increasing Productivity
Improving Policies
Protecting the Environment
Strengthening NARS



Summary by Output:

Sustainable Production
Germplasm Improvement
Policy
Germplasm Collection
Enhancing NARS


Total 0.50



0.00
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.00

Total 0.50


0.14
0.93
0.20
0.14
0.14
1.56


15.00
15.00


0.05
0.13
0.05
0.20
0.28
0.05
0.08
0.83

48.86


0.14
0.93
0.20
0.14
0.14
1.55


16.50
16.50


0.05
0.13
0.05
0.20
0.28
0.05
0.08
0.83

50.16


45.19


49.01


7.01
11.69
2.35
6.54
21.26

48.86


7.35
12.35
3.11
6.96
15.42

45.19



10.70
11.93
4.05
11.37
7.13

45.19


6.98
11.62
2.35
6.51
22.72

50.16



10.39
13.29
3.71
14.90
7.88

50.16









Table 4a. CIMMYT Cost Allocation: Allocation of Resources by CGIAR Undertaking.

Actual Estimate
Allocation of Resources by CGIAR Activity 2003 2004

Increasing Productivity 0.00 12.35
of which:
Germplasm Enhancement & Breeding 0.00 8.94
Production System Development & Management 0.00 3.41

Protecting the Environment 0.00 6.96

Saving Biodiversity 0.00 7.35

Improving Policies 0.00 3.11

Strengthening NARS 0.50 15.42
of which:
Documentation, Publication, Info, Dissemination 0.00 1.61
Networks 0.50 10.34
Organization & Management Counselling 0.00 0.90
Training & Professional Development 0.00 2.58

Total 0.50 45.19


Table 4b. CIMMYT Cost Allocation: Allocation of Resources


Allocation of Resources by Outputs

Germplasm Improvement
(Activity: Germplasm Enhancement
& Breeding plus Networks as appropriate)

Germplasm Collection
(Activity: Saving Biodiversity,
plus Networks as appropriate)

Policy
(Activity: Improving policies,
plus Networks as appropriate)

Sustainable Production
(Activity: Production System Dev & Mgmt
Protecting the Environment plus Networks as appropriate)

Enhancing NARS
(Activity: Strengthening NARS the three
sub-activities, plus Networks as appropriate)


by CGIAR Output.

Actual Estimate
2003 2004

0.00 11.93


11.37



4.05



10.70



7.13


Proposed
2005

13.00



13.81



3.76



10.72



7.73


Plan
2006

13.00



14.21



3.61



10.37



7.68


Plan
2007

13.29



14.90



3.71



10.39



7.88


Total 0.50 45.19 49.01 48.86 50.16


Proposed
2005

12.24

8.88
3.36

6.88

7.39

2.57

19.93

1.53
15.12
0.81
2.48

49.01


Plan
2006

11.69

8.46
3.23

6.54

7.01

2.35

21.26

1.43
16.73
0.76
2.35

48.86


Plan
2007

11.62

8.40
3.22

6.51

6.98

2.35

22.72

1.42
18.22
0.76
2.32

50.16










Table 5a. CIMMYT Investments: Investment by Production Sector and Commodity.


Actual Estimate Proposed Plan Plan
Production Sectors & Commodities 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Germplasm Improvement
Crops 0.00 9.92 9.84 12.64 10.13
Maize 0.00 5.01 4.92 6.32 5.06
Wheat 0.00 4.91 4.92 6.32 5.07
Total 0.00 9.92 9.84 12.64 10.13
Sustainable Production
Crops 0.00 10.36 10.24 9.77 9.73
Maize 0.00 7.72 5.12 4.89 4.87
Wheat 0.00 2.64 5.12 4.88 4.86
Total 0.00 10.36 10.24 9.77 9.73
Total Research Agenda
Crops 0.00 36.81 35.70 33.86 33.66
Maize 0.00 17.12 17.85 16.93 16.83
Wheat 0.00 19.69 17.85 16.93 16.83

Center Total 0.00 36.81 35.70 33.86 33.66



Table 5b. CIMMYT Investments: Investment by Developing Region.

Actual Estimate Proposed Plan Plan
Region 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) 0.00 13.62 14.28 13.54 13.46
Asia 0.00 10.31 12.50 11.85 11.78
Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) 0.00 9.20 5.36 5.08 5.05
West Asia and North Africa (WANA) 0.00 3.68 3.57 3.39 3.37

Center Total 0.00 36.81 35.71 33.86 33.66










Table 6. CIMMYT Financing: Unrestricted and Restricted Grants.


Actual Estimate Proposed
Investor 2003 2004 2005
(Nat'l. currency) (US$) (Nat'l. currency) (US$) (US$)
Unrestricted Grants
Australia (AUD) 0.74 0.38 0.70 0.45 0.45
Belgium (BEF) 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.11
Canada (CAD) 1.81 1.26 2.20 1.72 1.63
China 0.00 0.15 0.00 0.15 0.15
Denmark (DKK) 4.00 0.60 4.00 0.69 0.65
Germany (DEM) 0.25 0.29 0.25 0.29 0.30
India 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.11 0.11
Japan (JPY) 148.05 1.36 133.25 1.27 1.20
Korea 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.05
Mexico 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.09 0.09
New Zealand 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.10
Norway (NOK) 1.50 0.21 1.50 0.22 0.21
Peru 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.02
Philippines 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01
Sweden (SEK) 2.80 0.32 2.70 0.38 0.35
Switzerland (CHF) 0.40 0.29 0.40 0.31 0.31
Thailand 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01
United Kingdom (GBP) 0.00 0.00 0.86 1.58 1.59
United States 0.00 4.90 0.00 4.50 4.50
World Bank 0.00 2.50 0.00 1.80 1.80

Subtotal 159.62 12.64 145.93 13.80 13.64


Actual Estimate Proposed
Restricted Grants (US$) 2003 2004 2005


ADB
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Bolivia
Canada
CGIAR
Challenge Program Generation
Challenge Program Harvest Plus
Challenge Program Water and Food
China
Colombia
Denmark
EC
FAO
FENALCE
FONTAGRO










Actual Estimate Proposed
Restricted Grants (US$) 2003 2004 2005
France 0.84 0.27 0.27
Germany 0.70 1.28 1.08
IFAD 0.15 0.15 0.50
Iran 0.30 0.32 0.26
Japan 0.65 0.94 1.18
Korea 0.10 0.04 0.04
Mexico 0.35 0.02 0.02
Miscellaneous 1.40 0.00 0.00
MONSANTO 0.21 0.00 0.14
Netherlands 0.47 0.43 0.43
New Zealand 0.11 0.00 0.00
Nippon Fdn 0.69 0.74 0.64
Norway 0.03 0.00 0.00
Oklahoma State Univeristy 0.00 0.00 0.14
OPEC 0.03 0.05 0.05
Paraguay 0.02 0.00 0.00
Peru 0.04 0.04 0.04
Pioneer 0.03 0.04 0.00
Rockefeller Foundation 1.99 2.39 2.40
Sasakawa Global 2000 0.06 0.00 0.00
South Africa 0.06 0.05 0.05
Spain 0.26 0.22 0.22
Stanford University 0.15 0.06 0.07
Sweden 0.02 0.12 0.10
Switzerland 0.88 1.03 1.03
Syngenta Foundation 1.10 0.78 0.78
Unidentified 0.00 1.92 1.75
United Kingdom 1.42 0.00 4.60
United States 3.26 2.90 3.05
Uruguay 0.13 0.00 0.00
World Bank 1.12 5.55 4.74

Subtotal 23.20 32.24 37.11

Total Unrestricted and Restricted Grants 35.83 46.04 50.75











Table 7. CIMMYT Staff Composition: Internationally and Nationally Recruited Staff by Function.


Actual Estimate Proposed Plan Plan
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Hired By: Center Other Center Other Center Other Center Other Center Other

Internationally-Recruited Staff (IRS)

Research and Research Support
Associate Professionals 5 6 7 3 7 6 7 6 7 6
Post-doctoral Fellows 6 2 7 2 11 2 11 2 11 2
Regular Appointments 56 13 56 12 59 8 53 8 53 8

Subtotal 67 21 70 17 77 16 71 16 71 16

Research Management
Associate Professionals 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Post-doctoral Fellows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Regular Appointments 6 2 8 2 8 2 8 2 8 2

Subtotal 6 2 8 2 8 2 8 2 8 2

Training/ Communications
Associate Professionals 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Post-doctoral Fellows 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Regular Appointments 4 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0

Subtotal 4 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0

IRS Center Total 77 23 83 19 90 18 84 18 84 18


Nationally-Recruited Staff (NRS)

NRS Center Total 584 0 654 0 654 0 654 0 654 0

Total IRS and NRS Staff 661 23 737 19 744 18 738 18 738 18







Part 3: CIMMYT's Project Portfolio-Log Frames












Genetic Resources


Narrative Summary Verifiable Indicators Means of Verification Assumptions
Goal. Enhance the productivity and nutritional quality of At least 25% of the new maize and wheat varieties Ability to access genetic resource Access to global genetic resources
maize and wheat varieties through the targeted use of produced by CIMMYT and its partners containing information and seeds via the web Sufficient variation for a trait in
genetic resources novel gene combinations derived from elite or Database reports available genetic resources
untapped genetic resources (e.g., landraces and New useful germplasm incorporated Suitable phenotypic screening
wild relatives) into breeding programs methodology for target
Scientific articles and reports traits/environments
A genetic basis of trait phenotypes
Ability to negotiate necessary
freedom-to-operate for any required
intellectual property
Purpose 1. Global custodianship, characterization and Genetic resource information available for at least Database reports Access to global genetic resources
management of the genetic resources of maize, wheat and 25000 maize and 75000 wheat accessions Scientific articles and reports Willingness to establish global
related species Global maize and wheat genetic resource network Feedback from partners network
involving at least 75% of the maize and wheat
genebanks
Result 1.1. Enhanced global collection of maize and related By 2007, a 5-10% increase in the number and type Database reports Access to global genetic resources
species resources, including key genetic materials of maize and related species accessions available Genebank seed requests
in the gene bank
By 2007, a 5% increase in the number of requests
for seed
Activity 1.1.1. Improve the Latin American, African and Asian
maize germplasm collections
Activity 1.1.2. Access key related species and genetic
materials of maize into the collection
Result 1.2. Inventoried wheat and related species collection, By 2007, a database with data for at least 75000 Database reports
including key genetic and cytogenetic materials wheat and related species
Activity 1.2.1. Inventory entire wheat collection checking Complete inventory by end of 2006 Database reports
quantity, viability and data quality
Activity 1.2.2. Access key genetic and cytogenetic materials A 25% increase in the number of genetic and Database reports
of wheat into the collection cytogenetic stocks by 2006
Result 1.3. Characterized maize and wheat genetic At least 25% of the gene bank accessions Database reports Suitable phenotypic screening
resources characterized at the phenotypic and/or molecular Scientific articles and reports methodology for target traits
levels by end of 2006 A genetic basis of traits
Activity 1.3.1. Phenotype maize and wheat accessions for 5-10% of the maize and wheat accessions Scientific articles and reports
key traits phenotyped for at least 1 trait each year Database reports
Activity 1.32. Fingerprint using molecular markers key maize 5-10% of the maize and wheat accessions Scientific articles and reports
and wheat accessions and related species fingerprinted each year Database reports
Result 1.4. Web-based genebank information, management A global web-accessible maize and wheat genetic Ability to access genebank
and distribution system resource information system information globally
Activity 1.4.1. Develop an updated, web-accessible genebank Beta-version available by end of 2005 Available software
management and information system Operational version by 2006 User reports












Narrative Summary Verifiable Indicators Means of Verification Assumptions
Activity 1.4.2. Incorporate existing genebank data into the Data entered by end of 2005 Database reports
new system, improving data quantity and quality
Result 1.5. Statistical and simulation models for efficient Computer-based models for regeneration of Scientific articles and reports
maintenance and use of maize and wheat genetic resources genebank accessions Computer software
Strategies for efficient genebank management Genebank operating manual
Activity 1.5.1. Evaluate statistical genetic models for Initial models available by 2005 Scientific articles and reports
classifying genetic resources, studying phenotypic and Testing of models in 2006+
genetic diversity, and forming core subsets.
Activity 1.5.2. Develop population genetic models for efficient Initial models available by 2005 Scientific articles and reports
regeneration and collection of genetic resources. Testing of models in 2006+
Result 1.6. Strategies for on-farm management of genetic Knowledge of geneflow in farmers fields Scientific articles and reports Willingness of farmers to participate
resources At least 1 strategy to improve conservation of farmer Farmer interviews
varieties
At least 50 farmers participating in the on-farm
management of genetic resources
Activity 1.6.1. Study the effects of gene flow within and
between farmer grown varieties
Activity 1.6.2. Determine incentives required for in-situ
conservation of genetic resources
Purpose 2. Effective approaches identified in genetic At least 1 genetic solution in maize for improved Improved sources identified Sufficient variation for a trait in
resources and transferred to useful maize and wheat tolerance to abiotic stresses (drought, low nitrogen Novel genetic diversity transferred available genetic resources
germplasm for improving critical traits as prioritized by and acid soil), biotic stresses (storage insect pests through pre-breeding into adapted A genetic basis of trait phenotypes
CIMMYT and its partners and pathogens) and grain nutritional quality (QPM, genetic backgrounds Ability to negotiate necessary
vitamin A, iron and zinc) Useful diversity being incorporated freedom-to-operate for any required
At least 1 genetic solution in wheat for improved into breeding programs directly or intellectual property
tolerance to abiotic stresses (drought, low nitrogen, through use of pre-breeding products
heat and salt), biotic stresses fusariumm, septoria Scientific articles and reports
and powdery mildew diseases) and grain nutritional
quality (vitamin A, iron and zinc)
Result 2.1. Maize and wheat consensus maps for Consensus maps for drought tolerance and insect Scientific articles and reports Traits are controlled by key
tolerance/resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, and resistance in maize by 2005 consensus genomic regions
enhanced grain nutrition Consensus maps for drought tolerance and
fusarium resistance in wheat by 2006
Activity 2.1.1. Develop and analyze maize and wheat genetic At least 1 mapping population analyzed per year Scientific articles and reports
populations to identify QTL for tolerances to abiotic and biotic
stresses, and grain nutritional quality components
Activity 2.1.2. Assemble consensus maps for maize and
wheat and display multiple traits across environments and
populations
Activity 2.1.3. Link genomic regions of interest identified on
maize and wheat consensus maps with other species (and
vice versa)












Narrative Summary Verifiable Indicators Means of Verification Assumptions
Result 2.2. Identification of genes, alleles and biological Genes, alleles and/or pathways identified for Scientific articles and reports Sufficient variation for a trait in
pathways involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, improving abiotic stress tolerance by 2005 available genetic resources
enhanced grain quality, and asexual reproduction apomixiss) Genes, alleles and/or pathways identified for Ability to produce apomictic seed in
improving biotic stress resistance by 2006 diploid species
Genes, alleles and/or pathways identified for Ability to negotiate necessary
asexual reproduction by 2007+ freedom-to-operate for any required
intellectual property
Activity 2.2.1. Identify and validate candidate genes and
biological pathways involved in tolerances to abiotic, biotic
stresses and grain quality in maize and wheat using
functional genomics, allele mining and association genetics
Activity 2.2.2 Identify gene systems for conditioning asexual Nucellar/ovule-specific and inducible promoters Scientific articles and reports Ability to negotiate necessary
reproduction apomixiss) in cereals identified by 2005 freedom-to-operate for any required
Embryogenesis genes identified by 2006 intellectual property
Cell differentiation genes identified by 2007
Activity 2.2.3. Screen candidate genes from cereals and Screen 10 genes for abiotic stress tolerance in Scientific articles and reports Ability to negotiate necessary
other species in maize and wheat for improved tolerances to wheat by 2006 freedom-to-operate for any required
abiotic and biotic stresses, and nutritional quality using Screen 10 genes for biotic stress tolerance in wheat intellectual property
genetic engineering by 2007
Screen 5 genes for grain nutritional quality in wheat
by 2007+
Result 2.3. Bioinformatics platform for handling and Bioinformatics platform established and functioning Scientific articles and reports
analyzing genomic data by end of 2005 Bioinformatic tools
User feedback
Activity 2.3.1. Implement central data repository for CIMMYT- Data repository available by end of 2005
derived genomic data
Activity 2.3.2. Identify and adopt key bioinformatics packages Packages available in 2005+
for analyzing genomic data
Result 2.4. Useful maize and wheat germplasm with At least 10 maize and wheat lines as sources for Scientific articles and reports Sufficient variation for a trait in
enhanced tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses and improved tolerance and/or nutritional quality Germplasm requests available genetic resources
enhanced grain quality produced per year Abilityto negotiate necessary
freedom-to-operate for any required
intellectual property
Activity 2.4.1. Develop novel 'synthetic' or 'bridge' wheats At least 50 new 'synthetic' or 'bridge' wheats Scientific articles and reports
using wild A, B and D genome donors produced
Activity 2.4.2. Produce doubled haploid populations of wheat At least 10000 doubled haploid individuals per year Scientific articles and reports
for mapping projects and pre-breeding purposes
Activity 2.4.3. Characterize at the phenotypic and molecular At least 1000 accessions evaluated for key traits Scientific articles and reports
levels key maize and/or wheat genetic resources under each year
water-stress, low nitrogen, and/or acid soils conditions and
for resistance to fusarium, septoria and powdery mildew to
identify novel sources of tolerance












Narrative Summary Verifiable Indicators Means of Verification Assumptions
Activity 2.4.4. Incorporate novel sources of tolerance into Drought tolerant maize lines by 2005+ Scientific articles and reports
useful maize and wheat germplasm using conventional, Acid soil and drought tolerant wheat lines by 2006+
molecular-marker and/or genetic engineering strategies for Fusarium and septoria resistant wheat lines by
further use by breeding programs of CIMMYT and its 2006+
partners
Activity 2.4.5. Screen maize and wheat genetic resources for Maize and wheat lines screened by 2005+ Scientific articles and reports
elevated levels of iron, zinc and pro-vitamin A in the grain
Activity 2.4.6. Incorporate novel sources of elevated levels of Increased iron and zinc wheat lines by 2007+ Scientific articles and reports
micronutrients into useful maize and wheat germplasm using
conventional, molecular-marker and/or genetic engineering
strategies for further use by breeding programs of CIMMYT
and its partners
Result 2.5. Improved marker-assisted selection strategies At least a 10% increase in the number of MAS MAS use reports Good knowledge of gene networking
and use by CIMMYT and its partners assays per year Scientific articles and reports and interaction
At least 1 new effective MAS strategy proposed by Improved germplasm Continued demand for MAS
2006
Activity 2.5.1. Model use of molecular markers in breeding At least 1 new strategy by 2006
programs to identify optimal application
Activity 2.5.2. Increase the number and efficiency of marker At least 2 new marker systems adopted per year
systems for use by CIMMYT and its partners
Activity 2.5.3. Establish regional marker laboratories At least 1 regional marker lab established by 2005 MAS use reports Continued demand for MAS in the
backstopped by a central facility At least 4 regional marker labs established by 2007 regions
Result 2.6. Genetic engineered event of key genes for Maize and wheat germplasm containing at least 10 Scientific articles and reports Ability to negotiate necessary
ultimate deployment to CIMMYT partners transgenic events each for at least 2 genes by 2007 Improved germplasm freedom-to-operate for any required
intellectual property
NARS and public interest in
transgenic varieties
Simple gene solutions for critical
traits
Activity 2.6.1. Produce low-copy and selectable marker free Agrobacterium transformation system for wheat by Scientific articles and reports Ability to negotiate necessary
events of most effective genes 2005 freedom-to-operate for any required
Gene excision/recombination system for maize and intellectual property
wheat by 2007
Activity 2.6.2. Develop source lines containing these events At least 6 events in extended field trials by 2007 Scientific articles and reports Appropriate biosafety regulations for
along with required regulatory information Biosafety applications and approvals field trials in target countries
Purpose 3. Capacity in genetic resource management, At least 50 NARS staff trained per year Workshop and training reports
maintenance and use enhanced globally NARS and farmer feedback
Result 3.1. Improved capacity for storage and management Quality of maize and wheat global genetic resources NARS feedback
of genetic resources by CIMMYT's partners increased in at least 5 NARS each year
Activity 3.1.1. Develop user-friendly, portable genetic System available by 2006 Software reports
resource information system User feedback












Narrative Summary Verifiable Indicators Means of Verification Assumptions
Activity 3.1.2. Conduct workshops and/or host visiting At least 1 workshop held each year Workshop and training reports
scientists/students on genebank management (ex-situ and in- At least 2 scientists/students hosted each year
situ)
Activity 3.1.3. Help NARS and CIMMYT partners develop or At least 5 NARS or partners helped each year NARS feedback
improve genebank facilities
Result 3.2. Increased use of genomic approaches by At least 5 NARS scientists trained in genomic NARS reports
CIMMYT and its partners approaches each year Scientific articles and reports
Activity 3.2.1. Develop user-friendly bioinformatics tools
Activity 3.2.2. Conduct workshops and/or host visiting At least 1 workshop held each year Workshop and training reports
scientists/students in the application of genomics (QTL/gene At least 2 scientists/students hosted each year
discovery, MAS) in maize and wheat breeding
Activity 3.2.3. Provide appropriate software tools to CIMMYT
partners












Impacts Targeting and Assessment

Narrative Summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Goal. Increase CIMMYT's impact on helping to improve Current focus on poverty and livelihoods
the livelihoods of poor maize and wheat producers and maintained
consumers in the developing world



Purpose 1. CIMMYT's work has a strong anti-poverty CIMMYT resources allocated in pro poor Internal and external reviews Institutional support; adequate staffing with
orientation fashion; CIMMYT outputs useful to the poor appropriate skills available; financial
and jointly developed when appropriate resources available; new partnerships
established; effective collaboration
established with current and new partners


Result 1.1. Better understanding of causes and Heightened awareness among staff and Content analysis of CIMMYT's internal
symptoms of poverty and of the livelihood strategies of partners, e.g., through increased access to and external communications (e.g.,
the poor relevant information research proposals, documents,
speeches, presentations)

Activity 1.1.1. Monitor current thinking on poverty and Relevant papers reviewed and synthesized; Publications and presentations; analysis
livelihoods workshops and external events attended; of CIMMYT staff performance appraisals
linkages established to centers of (MBOs)
excellence

Activity 1.1.2. Develop and maintain databases Data relevant for poverty analysis Inventory of CIMMYT databases
containing information on poverty accessed, archived, and made available


Result 1.2. Better understanding of the role played by Heightened awareness among staff and Content analysis of CIMMYT's internal
maize and wheat in the livelihood strategies of the poor partners, e.g., through increased access to and external communications (e.g.,
relevant information research proposals, documents,
speeches, presentations)

Activity 1.2.1. Conduct descriptive and diagnostic Studies conducted; papers published; Publications and presentations; analysis
studies to clarify the role of maize and wheat in the learning workshops organized of CIMMYT staff performance appraisals
livelihood strategies of the poor (MBOs)












Narrative Summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 1.2.2. Develop and maintain databases Data relevant for maize and wheat sector Inventory of CIMMYT databases
containing information about the maize and wheat analysis accessed, archived, and made
sectors available

Result 1.3. Better understanding of the potential of Heightened awareness among staff and Content analysis of CIMMYT's internal
improved maize and wheat technologies to provide partners, e.g., through increased access to and external communications (e.g.,
pathways out of poverty relevant information research proposals, documents,
speeches, presentations)


Activity 1.3.1. Conduct targeted case studies to identify Case studies conducted, papers published Publications and presentations
impact pathways through which technology interventions
affect livelihoods of the poor


Result 1.4. Improved knowledge of poverty and Heightened awareness among staff and Content analysis of CIMMYT's internal
livelihoods used for research priority setting in CIMMYT partners, e.g., through increased access to and external communications (e.g.,
relevant information research proposals, documents,
speeches, presentations)



Activity 1.4.1. Communicate methods and findings to Collaborative work carried out; papers Publications and presentations; research
colleagues published; seminars delivered, workshops collaborations; existence and use of
organized; web-based knowledge knowledge management tools
management tools developed


Activity 1.4.2. Participate in CIMMYT priority setting More sophisticated priority setting tools Existence and use of priority setting tools
process developed (e.g., RAT 2.0); data analysis and analysis results
carried out

Activity 1.4.3.Track changes in evolution of CIMMYT's CIMMYT research portfolio patterns and Internal and external reviews
activities outputs analyzed

Purpose 2. CIMMYT's work is carried out cost- CIMMYT is competitive supplier (of Competitive grants obtained by CIMMYT Institutional buy-in and willingness to
effectively using "best practices" (optimal mix of tried- technology) in global research marketplace change; Partners willing to help generate
and-true methods and cutting edge methods) and to apply best practices












Narrative Summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Result 2.1. Best practices identified and utilized Relevant papers reviewed and synthesized; Publications and presentations; analysis
workshops and external events attended; of CIMMYT staff performance appraisals
linkages established to centers of (MBOs)
excellence

Activity 2.1.1. Analyze the cost-effectiveness of current Case studies conducted and published Publications and presentations
practices

Activity 2.1.2. Compare cost-effectiveness of current Case studies conducted and published Publications and presentations
practices to cost-effectiveness of best practices


Result 2.2. Current practices modified as appropriate Practices change periodically Periodic internal and external reviews;
appropriate adoption of new practices


Activity 2.2.1. Communicate information about best Papers published; workshops organized; Publications and presentations; research
practices effectively collaborative research carried out collaborations


Activity 2.2.2. Implement best practices CIMMYT practices considered state of the Periodic internal and external reviews;
art, e.g., emulated by others appropriate adoption of new practices


Purpose 3. Impact of CIMMYT's work is rigorously Information on impacts readily available Publications, presentations, and reports; Open-mindedness within CIMMYT and
documented and effectively communicated information utilized by stakeholders partners; willingness to ask hard questions
and admit shortcomings

Result 3.1. Adoption of improved technologies well Information on adoption readily available Publications, presentations, reports, and
documented databases

Activity 3.1.1. Conduct technology adoption studies Adoption studies conducted and published Publications and presentations
(including baseline studies)

Result 3.2. Impacts attributable to technology adoption Information on impacts readily available Publications, presentations, reports, and
well documented databases

Activity 3.2.1. Conduct ex-ante impact assessment Ex-ante impact assessment studies Publications and presentations
studies (including baseline studies) conducted and published













Narrative Summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 3.2.2. Conduct ex-post impact assessment Ex-post impact assessment studies Publications and presentations
studies (including baseline studies) conducted and published


Result 3.3. Impacts communicated successfully Communication activities undertaken e.g., Publications and presentations; media
scientific publications, press releases and events, etc.; target audiences
conferences, media events, etc. knowledgeable about CIMMYT's impacts



Activity 3.3.1. Disseminate results to a variety of Research papers published, seminars Publications and presentations, media
appropriate audiences delivered, workshops organized events, etc.


Purpose 4. Policy implications inform policy debates Heightened awareness among staff, Content analysis of policy dialogue Policy linkages available and effective;
and are used by policy makers in decision-making partners, and policymakers relevant to CIMMYT's mission (e.g., willingness to take position; external policy
documents, speeches, presentations) makers trust and appreciate our findings and
advice

Result 4.1. Policy implications analyzed Implications drawn from research results Publications and presentations,
workshops

Activity 4.1.1. Conduct focused policy studies on topics Policy studies conducted and then Publications and presentations
of relevance to CIMMYT research published

Result 4.2. Policy implications communicated Awareness of target audiences Publications, press releases, learning
workshops, interaction with policy makers


Activity 4.2.1. Communicate policy implications to Research papers published; policy briefs Publications and presentations,
relevant audiences published; seminars delivered, workshops workshops
organized

Activity 4.2.2. Advocate in favor of selected policies (as Research papers published; policy briefs Publications and presentations,
appropriate) published; seminars delivered, workshops workshops
organized












African Livelihoods

Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Goal. Enhance food supply, food security, and improve livelihoods of National GDP of agricultural sector; commercial Government statistics; statistics of Governments are committed
resource-poor smallholder farm families in eastern and southern Africa. and foreign aid imports of food, especially UN, Aid agencies and NGOs. to the goal; international
cereals; numbers of people affected by drought community finances the
and famine. agenda; global fair trade
practices are implemented;
food aid is not used as a
means of dumping surplus
production from the North
Purpose 1. In close collaboration with partners (NARS, SROs, NGOs, private Increased maize production and productivity; National maize production Food security, livelihoods and
sector, farmers, etc.), develop and disseminate improved maize varieties increased use of improved varieties including statistics; seed sales of improved increased food supplies are a
production technologies targeted at maize-based systems and related policy those with special traits (nutritionally rich, nutritionally rich varieties; PRAs priority for governments of
recommendation that contribute to higher and more stable farm-level herbicide resistant); increased adoption of better and surveys of extension services countries in sub-Saharan
productivity, and improved nutrition of resource-poor smallholder families cereal-legume and cash crop production and agriculture oriented NGOs on Africa; national economies
while protecting and enhancing the natural resource base. systems for soil fertility maintenance and pest adoption of improved production and political stability do not
management, that conserve natural resources systems; NARS Annual Reports deteriorate substantially.
and increase productivity; number of trained and staff lists
researchers from NARSs who contribute to the
development of sustainable maize and wheat
production systems.
Result 1.1. Improved Germplasm-related technologies developed Number of releases of varieties with specified Reports of national seed release NARSs and donors continue
tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and certification agencies, NARS to invest in maize research
Activity 1.1.1. Develop stress-tolerant nutritionally enhanced maize varieties and nutritional attributes; sales of fertilizers to reports, seed company sales and development activities;
by screening germplasm from various origins at key screening and hot spot smallholder farmers; area under maize systems information; surveys of seed risk that human resources in
sites in ESA, and by improving populations and developing inbred lines and or numbers of farmers using improved crop and companies and stockists; NARS will continue to
hybrids for characteristics particularly important to resource-poor farmers, soil management techniques such as household surveys, interviews of decline; clients find the seed
including: tolerance to drought and low soil fertility; resistance to important conservation agriculture practices; sales of grain extension service; surveys of and NRM technologies
pathogens, insect and weed pests; early maturity; and traits conferring of grain legumes associated with maize-legume stockists, fertilizer wholesalers, attractive; recipients will use
improved storability, nutritional value and food safety. systems; no. of mother-baby trials, government statistics on imports; economic and policy
network progress reports. recommendations.
Activity 1.1.2. Develop adapted maize varieties which are resistant to
herbicide seed treatment for Striga control.

Activity 1.1.3. Identify and incorporate traits in maize germplasm (including
farmers' varieties) that improve the suitability of varieties for integrated maize-
livestock systems and provide other opportunities for alternative use of maize
(e.g. oil or starch production).

Activity 1.1.4. Include farmer input in varietal development through
participatory rural appraisals and farmer-participatory variety evaluation such
as 'Mother-Baby' trial evaluations, of new varieties and hybrids.












Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 1.1.5. Develop national and regional facilities for ensuring sustainable
development and maintenance of stress tolerant, nutritional enhanced
varieties.

Result 1.2 Improved crop management-related technologies developed Number of best-bet technologies developed and Annual reports of partner NARSs and donors continue
disseminated; no. of best-bet options adopted. organizations; surveys of farmers to invest in crop management
Activity 1.2.1. Develop and/or evaluate and promote soil fertility management in target areas. research; NARS will continue
practices to enhance productivity of improved maize varieties, including to decline; clients find the
fertilizer management, and use of green manures and grain legumes in 'best- conservation tillage and NRM
bet' systems. technologies attractive;
recipients will use economic
Activity 1.2.2. Develop and facilitate the accelerated adoption of conservation and policy recommendations.
agriculture practices for soil and moisture conservation in maize-based
systems through the development and synthesis of information and
methodologies based on multi-stakeholder collaboration and farmer
experimentation.

Activity 1.2.3. Develop and promote decision aids that match resource-
conserving practices with land types and farmer categories.

Result 1.3. Improved technologies delivered Number of farmers aware of improved varieties Farmer surveys conducted by Maize continues to be a
with particular attributes such as QPM, drought CIMMYT and others on no. of commodity considered
Activity 1.3.1. Conduct maize production demonstrations and field days in tolerance. technologies tested in a important for food security
farm communities in collaboration with extension staff and other stakeholders participatory manner; annual and income generation
reports of partner organizations.
Activity 1.3.2. Promote adoption and use of improved maize varieties by
involving farmers in the varietal development process such as 'Mother-Baby'
testing.

Activity 1.3.3. Evaluate alternative storage practices and methods of storage
pest control including the use of botanicals and inert dusts.

Activity 1.34. Promote the use of improved post-harvest technologies among
small-scale farmers.

Activity 1.35. Develop and provide promotional materials (brochures,
publications, leaflets, videos, news releases) to publicize technology
recommendations and demonstrations among farmers and other stakeholders
such as extension, NGOs, rural schools and other farmer-support
organizations.












Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 1.36. Continue to improve efficiency of technology transfer activities in
particular to outlying areas and where farmers are insufficiently linked to
markets.

Result 1.4. Human resource capacity enhanced Number of maize breeders/ scientists active in Surveys of partner organizations NARS and donors continue to
NARS programs and small seed companies in on no. of their staff pursuing invest in human resource
Activity 1.4.1. In particular given the high staff-turn around in NARS, provide the region; no. and discipline of scientists degrees and conducting research development; motivated and
NARS scientists and partners with training to maintain and enhance their skills participating the regional networks (ECAMAW, and technology transfer activities; interested young staff are
in development and delivery of improved technologies to resource poor SADLF, etc); no. of conferences and training informal surveys of trainees on available for training.
farmers and in the development and implementation of more appropriate courses organized. quality of training and training
policies, materials.

Activity 1.4.2. Help to maintain and enhance the regional pool of researchers
by providing opportunities for graduate training in national, regional, and
international universities

Activity 1.4.3. Train staff from farmer-associated organizations (NGOs,
extension, rural schools, churches) in implementing activities that augment
farm-level productivity (e.g. seed production) and link farmers to markets.

Activity 1.4.4. Organize symposia and conferences on issues of regional
importance (e.g., NARS role in a more liberalized seed industry, effective
control of Striga, post-harvest issues, etc.) and provide opportunities to
partners to participate
Result 1.5 Social science research and policy interventions Number of impact and other social studies List of publications, especially NARS and donors continue to
conducted and published; no. of policy refereed ones; subjective emphasize on agriculture as
Activity 1.5.1. Conduct socio-economic and gender analyses to estimate recommendations made and implemented. assessment of the contributions an engine to growth and
demand for improved maize technologies and agronomic practices to by informal surveys of partners. development; maize
determine constraints to their adoption. continues to be an attractive
commodity for food security
Activity 1.5.2. Analyze input/output markets to determine their effects on and income generation.
adoption of improved maize technologies.

Activity 1.5.3. Analyze the institutional framework in which farmers operate,
determine its constraints and identify means to overcome constraints to
enhance adoption of agronomic practices, improved varieties and inputs.

Activity 1.5.4. Conduct ex-ante and ex-post assessment of the potential
impact of improved maize technologies on farmers' income, rural poverty and
nutrition. This includes the impact of nutritionally enhanced maize varieties on
vulnerable human populations (women, children) and as livestock feed on
farm-level income.












Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 1.5.5. Develop policy recommendations to reduce or remove
constraints to increased use of improved varieties, inputs and the adoption of
improved agronomic technologies, and assess the impact of different policies.

Activity 1.5.6. Examine opportunities for value addition or alternative uses of
maize to reduce price collapse in times of surplus.

Activity 1.5.7. Foster the implementation of more effective models for NARS
given more liberalized economies and the need for more client-oriented
program activities of the public sector.

Activity 1.5.8. Contribute to the debate on policy and institutional issues
affecting the agricultural sub-sector.


Result 1.6. Partnerships strengthened

Activity 1.6.1. Develop strong partnerships with NARS, SROs, FARA, and
NEPAD to effectively address development concerns especially related to the
maize sector.

Activity 1.6.2. Participate in national, sub-regional, and regional discussions
on priority setting in agriculture, policy debates, and align our priorities with
those of our partners

Activity 1.6.3. Encourage linkages between NARS breeding programs and
appropriate partners (NGOs, CBOs, small seed companies) for research and
dissemination of new technologies and in particular seed production.

Activity 1.6.4. Enhance the availability of improved seed to farmers by
clarifying and advocating a harmonized seed policy to accommodate
community-based seed production systems, identifying and empowering small
seed companies, and identifying areas where smallholder farmers are not
served by the commercial seed sector and where there is potential capacity
for seed production and dissemination.

Activity 1.6.5. Work with regional organizations to harmonize seed laws
across the region to increase access to improved germplasm by resource-
poor farmers


Volume of seed sales of improved varieties by
seed companies and production of seed by
CBOs registered with seed certifying agencies;
subjective assessment of partner satisfaction
with ALP performance in the SSA.


Annual reports of partner
organizations acknowledging ALP
participation and contributions.


National governments,
partner organizations, and
donors continue to
emphasize on agriculture as
an engine to growth and
development; maize
continues to be an attractive
commodity for food security
and income generation.











Rainfed Wheat Systems


Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Goal. To reduce poverty by increasing the ability of farm Release and adoption of improved bread and durum Impact assessments of varieties Funding secured and
households to manage risks to their livelihoods by improving wheat, triticale, barley and maize cultivars contribute grown by farmers, cultural functioning partnerships
local and regional food, feed and fodder security in rainfed to production increases in rainfed wheat-systems of practices used, economic established. Enhanced
wheat systems (RFWS), and by slowing or halting land the developing world. opportunities and impacts, ICARDA/CIMMYT
degradation. Increase adoption by farmers in target Increased sustainability of cropping systems through principles learned, technological collaboration.
ecoregions of new conservation agriculture (CA) practices, adoption of resource-conserving and durable failures, R&D capacity, etc., new
more diverse cropping systems and rotation options, and new resistance technologies by farmers. partnerships developed.
value-added wheat varieties, all of these compatible with Increased feed and fodder supplies for livestock and
improved livestock and crop residue management practices poultry systems
and less susceptible to the effects of drought Greater diversity of crops in farmers' fields.
Increased on-farm water productivity.
Strengthened research, development, human
resource, and technology transfer capacity.
More efficient allocation of agricultural research
resources in developing countries.
Partnerships established to improve RFWS
productivity.
Purpose 1. New or improved crop or agronomic components Increased RFWS productivity and sustainability Cultivars released and adopted;
in sustainable wheat-based production systems will be used by Farmers adopt and partners use higher yielding, Area using CA technologies; Area
partners, and adopted by farmers. stress tolerant varieties under new introduced crops.
Farmers adopt resource conserving, CA practices and
have greater systems diversity.
Result 1.1. Specific trait genepools developed, characterized Increase in genetic diversity available to partner
and distributed. breeding programs.
Activity 1.1.1. Development of gene pools with Advanced bread and durum wheat lines (200+) and International Wheat Improvement HarvestPlus continuing
resistances/tolerances unique to the RFWS for abiotic (nutrient segregating populations (40+) targeted to abiotic Network (IWIN) germplasm collaboration.
deficiencies including zinc and boron, drought-tolerance, heat, stresses limiting production in RFWS assessed by distribution and phenotypic
cold) stresses using trait-oriented analytical, physiological tools partners. records; HarvestPlus progress
and molecular approaches. Drought tolerant germplasm (60+) with enhanced reports.
seedling vigor developed/verified.
Zinc efficient germplasm tested by partners
Activity 1.1.2. Development of bread and durum wheat gene Advanced bread and durum wheat lines (300+) and IWIN germplasm distribution and Morocco germplasm
pools with resistances/tolerances for biotic (e.g. cereal rusts, segregating populations (50+) with enhanced durable phenotypic records; ACIAR project improvement project funded.
bunts, smuts, root rot and nematodes, Hessian fly, Tan spot, resistance/tolerance to the major biotic stresses reports. NARS data return. MAS NARS strong to contribute to
Septoria spp., Russian wheat aphid, BYDV and sunn pest) distributed, assays performed. pathology data collection
stresses using trait-oriented analytical, physiological tools and Lines with enhanced cereal rust and root pathogen networks.
molecular approaches. resistance using conventional and MAS (20k+)
methods
Activity 1.1.3. Development of gene pools with enhanced Advanced lines (100+) and segregating populations IWIN germplasm distribution; NIR screening capabilities
nutritional, consumer preference and market-oriented, valued- (40+) targeted to specific end-use quality and Industrial partners feedback. improved. NARS quality











Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
added traits, unique to the cultural identity of our diverse preference requirements used by partners. testing capacity strengthened.
partner communities.
Activity 1.1.4. Enhanced use of shuttle breeding methodology Participation in global and regional wheat IWIN germplasm distribution and Cooperation with ICARDA-led
for both generation advancement and screening at disease improvement networks increases. phenotypic data return; IWIN data regional disease monitoring
and stress hot spots. Global monitoring and pre-emptive screening against "hits" via the Internet; Global and and research networks.
new diseases and new virulences before major Regional Disease Monitoring
epidemics occur. Bulletins; Publications defining
Sharing of improved, multi-disease resistant relevance of shuttle locations.
germplasm and performance data increases.
Activity 1.1.5. Physiological or morphological enhancements Advanced lines (80+) targeted to the major abiotic and ACIAR, GRDC and Generation CP
of drought and heat tolerance (e.g., modified canopy biotic stresses limiting production in RFWS. progress reports.
architecture, enhanced spike fertility and stay-green capacity) Novel wheat genetic resources (25+) developed with
using trait-oriented analytical, physiological tools and stress adaptive traits identified.
molecular approaches.
Activity 1.1.6 Development of spring wheat germplasm and Photosensitive lines spring bread wheats (100+) ICAR annual progress reports. Tripartite network linkages
establishment of shuttle breeding program for high latitude tested in northern latitudes with focused end-use between Central Asia, USA
wheat (N. Kazakhstan, Siberia). quality selected (20+) and CIMMYT strengthened.
Result 1.2. Genetically diverse wheat varieties and crops are Measurable increase in productivity, genetic diversity Variety release data; New Market-oriented technologies
made available to partners. in farmers' fields. partnerships established. available.
Activity 1.2.1. Improvement of spring and winter bread and At least 80 bread and durum wheat lines identified by Annual national planning meeting International, Regional and
durum wheat and triticale using: conventional and molecular NARS, NGOs, Private Sector for advanced testing. reports; Varietal candidate and National varietal release
approaches; shuttle breeding; global and regional research At least 30 lines submitted for varietal testing by release records. regulations harmonized.
networks; and participatory approaches with NARS, NGOs, Private Sector and 10 cultivars
farmers/consumers/processors to evaluate technology registered for release.
preferences and acceptability.
Activity 1.2.2. Enhanced options for farmers, involving cultivar Increased crop diversification considered. RFWS and partner annual Partners involved to test and
and alternate crop (including maize and triticale) suitability will At the minimum, maize, triticale, oats and safflower progress reports. induce new legume, oil-seed
be investigated. germplasm tested. and forage crops.
Activity 1.2.3. Germplasm and data distributed through the Annual transfer/exchange of international and regional IWIN germplasm distribution and Phytosanitary, intellectual
international and regional wheat improvement networks to germplasm nurseries (15+) and data published on phenotypic records; Central Asia, property rights and germplasm
partners. Internet. China, Asian Sub-Continent, TCI- sharing constraints minimized.
Regional germplasm exchange and testing networks IWWIP, Southern Cone reports.
supported
Result 1.3. Resource conserving technologies will be Networks of partners working to develop and promote CA training course attendance, Applied, appropriate agronomic
developed, tested, and adopted with partners and farmers. conservation agriculture, and alumni impact studies. Case expertise available.
Principles affecting tailored adoption of Conservation study principles published.
Agriculture (CA) practices.
Activity 1.3.1. Develop and adapt improved crop management CA implements and practices tested, refined in 12 NARS progress reports; Industrial Government policies foster
strategies including CA practices such as zero, reduced and RFWS affected countries, partner reports; Publications; resource conserving
minimum tillage, and input efficiency and water productivity. Locally produced CA implements (8 countries). Traveling seminars, husbandry practices.
Long-term rotation trials maintained (2).











Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 1.32. Develop a rapid appraisal methodology to Rapid Appraisal Tool(s) developed, verified, and used Tools published for peer review ILRI collaboration.
assess effective CA implementation, recognizing alternative by partners. and partner use.
residue uses, household value (fodder, fuel, thatch, etc.) and
communal cultural receptivity.
Purpose 2. To characterize agroecological, societal and Better focused, more efficient research and Disciplinary Group, Program and
livelihoods environments faced by partners and farmers in technology development by understanding significant network discussions and
RFWS. points of intervention, recommendations and
More effective technology and information transfer implementation plans; E-
among and between partners. Databases.
Result 2.1. Rainfed crop and livestock systems will be better Information will be used to target and monitor Research methodology changes. ILRI/CIMMYT Livestock
characterized, and the information will be used to target and technology development activities and goals. Partner profiles are affirmed or Mapping Initiative successful.
monitor technology development goals. change.
Activity 2.1.1. Improve the characterization and definition of International Adaptation Trial published (4+). Publications. Research methods Strengthened Crop Information
target production and consumption environments, to direct Regional/national IWIN and GIS studies (2+). affected or re-focused. databases used.
wheat research objectives and germplasm screening Wheat-based production environments re-classified
methods/locations better. (2+).
Activity 2.1.2. Assess yield loss due to nematode and root rot Document (4) frequency/distribution, biology and Publications. Research strategies Constraint awareness
pathogens and develop strategies to reduce damages. economic losses due to root diseases in Turkey, Iran. initiated. enhanced.
Activity 2.1.3. Characterization of field soil quality. Rapid method for assessing soil salinity/fertility. Surveys conducted/published.
Result 2.2. The risk assessment of potential adoption of new Adoption constraints will be better understood and Publications. Impact pathways Livelihoods approaches
technologies and reoccurring environmental and socio- documented (2) with research priorities oriented defined, understood and embraced in
economic stresses, in the context of livelihood security, towards partner/client needs. the research planning and
understood and quantified. conduct processes.
Activity 2.2.1. Investigate technology use, constraints to use, Farm-level survey (1 country) to collect primary data Publications (3). Research
factors influencing adoption, implications for income and for household decision-making behavior, methods affected or re-focused.
gender equity, resource conservation, and anticipated future Identify obstacles to adoption of technologies.
research priorities. Estimate and understand the impacts of technology
adoption on livelihoods.
Purpose 3. Institutions -- including CIMMYT and Stronger institutions and partnerships, higher quality, Retention of researchers in
partnerships are strengthened to increase our capacity to more relevant research addressing the needs and research roles; Quantified outputs
contribute to our missionss. constraints of RFWS farmers. and impacts.
Result 3.1. Increased effectiveness of partner and CIMMYT Farmers' livelihoods improve, production sustainability Impact assessments.
research activities is achieved, enhanced, poverty reduced, and incomes increase
through RFWS technologies.
Activity 3.1.1. Utilization of new field/lab screening Increased efficiency in field operations through New methods defined. Additional CIMMYT adopts and migrates
methodologies, and marker assisted selection (MAS) for greater mechanization (examples, 5+). MAS markers used. ICIS to ICIS database.
germplasm enhancement. CIMMYT and partners use and disseminate more migration. NIR selection for quality.
efficient (3-5) selection methodologies.
Activity 3.1.2. Seed production schemes will be supported. Quicker response to private sector/NGO /farmer Constraints to wheat/maize seed Market-oriented technologies,
demand for improved or candidate varieties, production report. Quantities of and markets available.
Production and dissemination of high quality breeders seed produced and distributed.
seed Afghanistan and Central Asia.











Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 3.1.3. Promotion of new research methods, crop Technology development specific to end-user Impact assessments. Involvement Effective extension and NGO
management practices and varieties through, training, demands and preferences (examples, 15+). in training, participation in dissemination channels.
demonstration and participatory on-farm trials. On-farm promotion (70+) of CA technologies and in research, verification and
areas affected by salinity. dissemination.
Activity 3.1.4. Partnerships developed with organizations and Collaboration established or enhanced with traditional Annual planning meetings. Projects with ICARDA, ILRI,
institutions contributing to improved livelihoods for farmers in and new partners. Tapping into new, plentiful sources etc.
RFWS. New joint projects (3) with partners. of funding.
Result 3.2. Training of NARS will be increased in areas of Enhanced human resource capacity of NARS and Trained colleagues. Post-training
specific need. partners. impact assessments.
Activity 3.2.1. Conduct international and regional training Courses, conferences, workshops, seminars, field Colleagues trained. Curricula Qualified and willing partners.
courses, regional conferences and workshops. days, educational curricula, annual published. Post-training impact
planning/coordination meetings. assessments.
Activity 3.2.2. Supervise M.Sc. and Ph.D. university students, Theses, dissertations completed (15+). Students supervised. Publications Institutional mentors available
and facilitate opportunities for training in ARIs from partner Research on program-relevant topics will increase (5+). for legacy planning.
organizations. program/partner effectiveness
Result 3.3. Technology and information dissemination. Better informed and participating partners.
Activity 3.3.1. Program objectives, challenges, partners, Scientific and general audience publications, press Publications. Numbers of people Internet access and use. High
linkages, and outputs will be distributed to partners, the releases, oral presentations, field days, traveling reached. literacy rates. Multi-lingual
general public and policy makers. seminars, Internet access and use. publications.
Activity 3.32. Dissemination and use of experiences in Ex ante case study (1) projecting likely future impacts Case studies (3).
successful technology development and transfer to partners of improved technologies.
and CIMMYT scientists to improve relevance of technologies. Case studies (2) on-farm demonstrations, partner
participatory evaluations.












Tropical Ecosystems Program

Narrative Summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Goal. Improve the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers Nutritional, production, and income statistics Various statistics and reports Governments' policies congruent with
in the tropics by increasing the productivity and for target countries attended by TES orientation to food security and poverty
profitability of farming systems that include maize (or alleviation
wheat)
Purpose 1. Farmers' livelihoods and well-being are Various impact assessments In-house or contracted consultancy Targetted farmers have access to improved
improved by TES Program's products reports, e.g. Center Commissioned technologies; suitable impact assessment
External Reviews; publications methods are available

Result 1.1. Appropriate, improved maize hybrid and OP Farmers' and scientists' assessments of Internet, on-line reports; national, Adequate financial resources are available
varieties will be available on a five-year "replacement performance of new vs. previous and vs. best regional and international farmer- (e.g. to maintain or strengthen breeding
cycle" check varieties participatory and scientist-managed trial work); effective partnerships can be
reports; reports to donors of special established for germplasm evaluation
projects
Activity 1.1.1. Breed stress-tolerant (abiotic and biotic), Performance of new vs. previous and vs. best Internet, on-line reports; 'Maize-finder' or
productive maize germplasm suitable for resource-poor check varieties in researcher- and farmer- similar data management system
farmers in lowland and highland tropical environments managed target environments


Activity 1.1.2. Breed maize germplasm suitable for acid Performance of new vs. previous and vs. best Internet, on-line reports; 'Maize-finder' or It is feasible to develop improved acid soil
soils check varieties similar data management system tolerant maize cultivars


Activity 1.1.3. Breed maize germplasm with enhanced Performance of new vs. previous and vs. best Internet, on-line reports; 'Maize-finder' or
nutritional value, especially high-lysine maize (QPM), check varieties similar data management system
and increased pro-vitamins A

Activity 1.1.4. Introduce elite alleles (e.g. drought Performance and farmer-acceptance of new Internet, on-line reports; 'Maize-finder' or Farmers are willing to participate
tolerance or lodging resistance) to farmer-preferred germplasm vs original farmers' varieties similar data management system
germplasm

Activity 1.1.5. Conduct farmer-participatory research to Farmers' maize varietal preferences Internet, on-line reports; Reports of Effective partnerships established; farmers
assess technology preferences and acceptability documented farmer surveys and farmer-participatory willing to participate
trials

Result 1.2. Profitable crop management or farming Estimates of economic, social and agronomic Internet, on-line reports; in-house or Strategic partnerships can be enhanced or
systems options identified or developed within 5 years benefits of recommended technologies contracted consultancy reports; reports to established to access farming systems
for at least 2 major farming systems that include maize in donors of special projects expertise; adequate financial resources
the tropics available












Narrative Summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 1.2.1. Crop management (including tillage) Performance estimates from scientist- Internet, on-line reports; phone calls to,
research for/in various defined agro-ecosystems (e.g. managed trials or invited seminars by participating
acid soil, weathered hillsides, etc.) scientists

Activity 1.2.2. Evaluate genotype x management, or Performance estimates from scientist- Internet, on-line reports; phone calls to,
genotype x system (e.g. rotations, livestock, etc.) managed trials or invited seminars by participating
interactions scientists

Activity 1.2.3. Farmer-participatory research to assess Quantitative and qualitative data from farmer- Internet, on-line reports; reports or invited Effective partnerships established; farmers
acceptability and profitability of emerging options participatory trials seminars by participating scientists willing to participate


Result 1.3. Effective methodologies for technology Comparison of breeding, testing and Internet, on-line reports; in-house or Adequate financial resources are available;
development and dissemination identified or developed; dissemination strategies used in 2004 vs. contracted consultancy reports; reports to effective partnerships and alliances are
and used those used in 2009 donors of special projects; publications established


Activity 1.3.1. Develop and test protocols to effectively Various breeding efficiency parameters (e.g. Internet, on-line reports; phone calls to, Available lab and field screening
breed maize germplasm suitable for acid soils heritability of selection parameters, expected or invited seminars by participating technologies to identify maize genotypes
gains from selection); economic comparison scientists tolerant to acid soil.
of selection methods
Activity 1.32. Identify or develop criteria to predict and/or Research results comparing effectiveness Internet, on-line reports; phone calls to,
assess the impact of tillage and crop management and practicality of various methods and or invited seminars by participating
options on system sustainability and profitability parameters to assess impact of tillage and scientists
crop management options on system
productivity and sustainability



Activity 1.3.3. Develop and/or identify, and test Estimates of health, economic, social and Internet, on-line reports; phone calls to, Strategic partnerships can be enhanced or
technology options that increase human and livestock agronomic benefits/gains associated with use or invited seminars by participating established to access mycology, health
health by reducing mycotoxins and pest damage post- of new technologies scientists science, and engineering expertise
harvest

Activity 1.3.4. Develop and test methods for introgressing Agronomic and socio-economic comparison Internet, on-line reports; phone calls to, Necessary permissions are granted to work
favorable alleles to farmer-preferred varieties of at least three experimental models by end or invited seminars by participating with farmers' germplasm
of 2009 scientists

Activity 1.35. Develop and/or test models for technology Farmer, farmer organizations, NGO, Internet, on-line reports; phone calls to,
dissemination, including seed systems, with particular extension service, social scientists' or invited seminars by participating
emphasis on reaching resource-poor farmers assessments scientists












Narrative Summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 1.3.6. Use various information/data Quantitative and qualitative assessment of In-house or contracted reviews Technical expertise is accessible
management, analysis and sharing tools (e.g. GIS, frequency, creativity and effectiveness of use
spatial data analyses, data management tools, varied of available tools
media) toward outputs 1.3 and 1.4

Result 1.4. Ex-ante, livelihood and prioritization analyses Reports. Productivity, sustainability, Internet, on-line reports; in-house or Strategic partnerships and resources to
conducted; effects and impact of TES/CIMMYT profitability and livelihood impact parameters; contracted consultancy reports; reports to access impact assessment and livelihoods
technologies documented (includes developing means of statistics on use of improved technologies donors of special projects; publications expertise; adequate financial resources
verification for other activities and outputs) (e.g. seed) available

Activity 1.4.1. Define our primary "clients" in at least 5 Socio-economic / livelihood analysis reports Reports; internet, on-line reports; phone Technical expertise to guide this work is
"target" countries, characterize their livelihoods and calls to, or invited seminars by available; partners in selected countries are
relate our products to their livelihoods to define impact participating scientists willing and interested to collaborate
pathways

Activity 1.4.2. Design and conduct field research Research data and analysis Internet, on-line reports; phone calls to, Access to appropriate farming systems and
experiments to compare productivity, sustainability and or invited seminars by participating economics expertise
profitability of recommended vs previous technologies scientists

Activity 1.4.3. Commission, or design and conduct Number and quality of pertinent theses and Phone calls to, or invited seminars by Access to appropriate socio-economic and
research projects (including base-line studies) to other publications produced by supervised participating scientists; theses, reports livelihoods expertise; effective partnerships
measure the socio-economic, livelihood and ecological students or consultants; research data and and publications established
sustainability consequences of adopting recommended analysis
technologies

Purpose 2. Capacity of others to contribute to our goal is Number of stakeholders benefiting from In-house or contracted consultancy Adequate financial resources available;
enhanced various types of technical or academic reports, e.g. Center Commissioned political, "global" interest in serving the
development opportunities External Reviews; publications resource-poor increases, or at minimum
does not decline

Result 2.1. Professional development opportunities Number of scientists benefiting from various Internet, on-line reports; CIMMYT data Adequate financial resources available;
provided to at least 100 scientists each year types of technical or academic development bases; phone calls or follow-up surveys political, "global" interest in serving the
opportunities with beneficiaries resource-poor increases, or at minimum
does not decline

Activity 2.1.1. Convene or facilitate relevant conferences, Number of events and event participants Internet, on-line reports; CIMMYT data Strategic partnerships can be formed to
workshops, training courses, etc. bases; phone calls or follow-up surveys offer events beyond our in-house expertise
with beneficiaries












Narrative Summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 2.1.2. Provide, facilitate or mentor professional Number of beneficiaries of various types of CIMMYT data bases; reports, theses, Adequate physical facilities to support
development opportunities (e.g. thesis research, visiting professional development opportunities publications; phone calls, invited and/or host beneficiaries
scientists, etc.) seminars, or follow-up surveys with
beneficiaries

Result 2.2. Active international and inter-institutional Number and productivity of regional and sub- Internet, on-line reports and information; Continued scientific interest and political
partnerships in Latin America and Southeast Asia regional collaborative projects, collaborative in-house or consultancy reports; CIMMYT support for regional collaboration; adequate
trials data, joint publications, scientific data bases; publications; reports to financial support
exchange visits, number and type of donors of special projects
technologies shared

Activity 2.2.1. Convene, facilitate, advise and/or Number and scope of partners enhancing the Internet, on-line reports and information; Adequate partnership-building skills of TES
participate in global, regional or sub-regional networks or productivity of collaborative projects, reports; phone or written stakeholder staff; adequate financial support
collaborative projects collaborative trials data, joint publications, surveys
scientific exchange visits, number and type of
technologies shared


Activity 2.2.2. Explore and facilitate public private Number, diversity and (quantitative and Reports; CIMMYT data bases; phone or Adequate partnership-building skills of TES
sector, and other synergistic alliances qualitative) contribution of partners to output written surveys of stakeholders and staff; suitable partners can be identified
2.2 CIMMYT scientists (with common goals and complementary
assets)

Result 2.3. Technical information disseminated through Number, quality and effectiveness of In-house or consultancy reports; Access to communications expertise;
various media informative messages CIMMYT data bases; internet site(s); effective partnerships established;
publications adequate financial resources

Activity 2.3.1. Disseminate information to farmers, Number of bulletins and multi-lingual reports; CIMMYT data bases; internet, on-line
particularly resource-poor farmers percent of farm households aware of reports and information; phone or written
technologies developed by CIMMYT or by stakeholder surveys
partnerships involving CIMMYT

Activity 2.32. Disseminate information to non-scientific, Number and "reach" of non-technical CIMMYT data bases; internet, on-line Access to communications expertise
stakeholder community publications, presentations and formal reports and information; phone or written
communications; extent of stakeholder stakeholder surveys
awareness of CIMMYT

Activity 2.3.3. Disseminate information to scientists Number and "reach" of scientific publications, CIMMYT data bases; internet, on-line Continued or enhanced institutional value
presentations and information exchange reports and information; publications of scientific information












Intensive Agroecosystems

Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Goal. Reduce poverty and conserve natural resources in densely-populated areas Income levels, livelihood indicators, Secondary data, targeted
where intensive maize and wheat systems underpin the livelihoods of the poor by employment rates, malnutrition rates, surveys, water balance data,
improving incomes for poor farm families, fostering expanded employment for the rural basin level water use, land quality GPS studies
landless, improving food security for rural consumers and conserving water and land indicators
resources
Purpose 1. Employment for the landless poor and higher incomes for farm families Area under food grains vs. District level data on land use, labor-intensive activities can
through diversification Increase incomes and reduce poverty by expanding diversification crops, wage rates, rural surveys of livelihoods of the be identified that are
employment in rural areas via expanded high-value, labor-intensive crop and livestock non-farm employment landless, standard livelihood attractive to farm families
activities in maize and wheat systems indicators
Result 1.1. Freeing resources for diversification New maize and wheat production In adopting areas, farm resources Adoption studies Grain prices are allowed to
technologies that facilitate diversification are developed and adopted. These are devoted to cereals declines by 15% fall as cost-reducing grain
practices that free up land, labor, water, and other resources for use by crops other over three years in adopting areas production practices are
than maize or wheat used
Activity 1.1.1. Crop improvement to develop input-use efficient, stress-tolerant maize Fifty varieties developed and released Data on variety release Partners invest in crop
and wheat germplasm that increases factor productivity in three years improvement
Activity 1.1.2. Participatory research and development of technologies that make it Three practices and/ or implements Technical reports, reports on
easier to insert high value crops into maize and wheat systems (e.g., zero tillage to developed and adapted in three farmer feed-back
reduce turnaround time) or that facilitate poor farmer access to input and product regions in three years
markets (e.g., mechanization)
Result 1.2. Adding diversity to maize and wheat systems New management In adopting areas, the importance of Adoption studies
technologies that increase diversity in maize and wheat systems are developed and non-cereals increased by more than
used by partners and communities 30%
Activity 1.2.1. Research and development on introducing into maize and wheat Ten high value diversification crops Technical reports, farmer feed- Viable diversification crops
systems high value crops, e.g., legumes and vegetables identified and tested in three years back can be identified
Activity 1.2.2. Research and development on the use of bed and furrow systems that Bed and furrow systems developed Field reports, reports on farmer Private sector helps with
facilitate the establishment and management of a diverse range of crops in intensive and adapted in three regions in three feed-back implement development and
agroecosystems years sales
Activity 1.2.3. Crop improvement (with germplasm and data distribution) of triticale, Ten varieties developed and released Data on variety release
maize, and wheat for livestock feed and fodder, and for good performance when used in three years
with new rotations
Result 1.3. Social science and policy support for diversification Information useful for At least two high level presentations Policy decisions and their Access to policymakers can
informing the decision-making process regarding policies and institutions that support per year with key policymakers documentation be arranged
and foster increased agroecosystem diversity is produced and shared with
policymakers
Activity 1.3.1. Analysis on the consequences of alternative policies and institutional Two case studies of the effect of policy Policy briefs and publications
arrangements on agroecosystem diversification on diversification
Activity 1.3.2. Marketing studies to guide diversification activities towards commercially Two marketing studies conducted in Publications, extension material
viable alternatives three years__
Purpose 2. Food security for poor consumers Improve food security and reduce Incidence of malnutrition, especially Monitoring of health status of
vulnerability for poor consumers through production technologies that better tolerate during years with crop stress vulnerable groups, official data












Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
biotic and abiotic stress, improved post-harvest storage of food, and supporting policies. on malnutrition
Result 2.1. Stress tolerant varieties for food security Higher yielding maize and wheat Level of adoption of stress tolerant Adoption studies, research work
varieties, of higher quality, and that are more resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses are maize and wheat varieties plans
developed and used
Activity 2.1.1. Crop improvement in maize and wheat for resistance/ tolerance to abiotic Twenty varieties developed and Data on variety release Partners continue to invest in
stresses (nutrient deficiencies, drought-tolerance, heat), biotic stresses (cereal rusts, released in three years crop improvement
leaf blights, root diseases) and for enhanced nutritional, consumer preference and
valued-added traits
Activity 2.1.2. Shuttle breeding on a global scale to screen improved materials in "hot One summary report submitted Screening reports Resources available to
spots" for diseases or other stresses, guided by epidemiological and crop surveillance describing progress in source support global shuttle
studies germplasm due to shuttle breeding breeding
finished by third year
Activity 2.1.3. Physiological or morphological enhancements of drought and heat Advanced germplasm with enhanced Technical reports
tolerance (e.g., modified canopy architecture) traits
Result 2.2. Diversified systems for food security New production technologies for In adopting areas, hunger during the Land use data, livestock
introducing increased diversity in agroecosystems, featuring livestock or crop "hungry season" reduced by at least surveys
production activities that generate food or income in hungry seasons, are developed 30%
and used
Activity 2.2.1. Research and development on maize and wheat system management to At least one study on how changes in Farmer feed-back, crop
provide reliable food during hungry seasons system mgt affects timing of food calendars
availability
Activity 2.2.2. Research and development on strengthening livestock production in Information on feed, fodder and crop- Technical reports, reports on Poor families own livestock
maize and wheat systems through feed and fodder production from maize, wheat or livestock integration farmer feed-back (e.g., ":landless livestock")
triticale grain or stover/ straw
Result 2.3. Improved storage for food security New production technologies that In adoption areas, storage losses Market studies, storage loss
reduce post-harvest storage losses are developed and used by partners and farming reduced by 40% in three years surveys
communities
Activity 2.3.1. Crop improvement in maize and wheat for reduced storage losses, e.g., Two varieties developed and released Data on variety release
through husk cover, seed hardness, etc.
Activity 2.3.2. Research and development on seed and grain storage practices to Two storage practices developed and Technical reports, farmer feed- Viable practices can be
reduce storage losses adapted back identified
Result 2.4. Social science and policy support for food security Information useful for Policy changes in directions that Policy decisions and their Access to policymakers can
informing the decision-making process, regarding policies and institutions that affect enhance food security documentation be arranged
food pricing and availability, is produced and shared with policymakers
Activity 2.4.1. Policy analysis on the consequences of alternative policies and Two studies finished on policy and Policy briefs
institutional arrangements food security and vulnerability food security
Activity 2.4.2. Market and policy analysis on grain trade and drying One study finished re markets, policy Publications
and grain drying
Purpose 3. Conserving resources for civil society Reduce water consumption in Increased water available for non- Water balance studies, data on
agriculture to make more water available for alternative uses (urban, industrial, agricultural uses, improved soil health urban water utilization, GPS
ecological and environmental). In addition, foster improved soil health and avoid land surveys of soil health
degradation.












Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Result 3.1. Increased "crop per drop" of water New technologies for maize and wheat Farm level water productivity, adoption Adoption studies Plot level water productivity
systems that improve water productivity are developed and used of water efficient practices also helps at the basin level
Activity 3.1.1. Crop improvement in maize and wheat for varieties that yield well while Twenty varieties developed and Data on variety release
using less water released
Activity 3.1.2. Research and development on introducing into maize and wheat Two new rotations developed and Farmer feed-back
systems new crops that are water use efficient adapted
Activity 3.1.3. Research and development on crop and system management practices Three practices developed and Technical reports, reports on
that improve water productivity. These include land leveling, zero tillage, crop residue adapted in three regions in three years farmer feed-back
for mulch, bed systems, etc.
Activity 3.1.4. Whole basin modeling of water balances to assess the effect of plot level At least one case study on basin-level Model outcomes Models can be adapted
techniques on basin level in water productivity water balances finished in three years
Result 3.2. Social science and policy support for water use Information useful Policy changes that favor improved Policy decisions and their Policy change is politically
regarding water use and water productivity in agriculture is produced and shared with water productivity documentation feasible
policymakers
Activity 3.2.1. Policy analysis on the consequences of alternative policies and At least two studies on policy and Policy briefs
institutional arrangements on water productivity water use finished in three years
Activity 3.2.2. Market and policy analysis on factors governing adoption of water use At least two adoption/ policy studies Adoption studies
efficient crops and practices done in three years
Result 3.3. Resource conserving technologies (RCTs) New production technologies Levels of adoption of RCTs, soil health Adoption studies, GPS surveys
for maize and wheat systems that foster improved soil health are developed and used indicators of soil health
Activity 3.3.1. Research and development on management practices that improve soil Four new practices developed and Technical reports, reports on
health (e.g., reduced tillage, bed systems, crop residue mulch, green manures) or that adapted in three regions in three years farmer feed-back
ameliorate salinity
Activity 3.3.2. Crop improvement (and related germplasm and data distribution) for Twenty varieties developed and Data on variety release
maize and wheat varieties that perform well with resource conserving technologies released in three years
Activity 3.33. Farm level monitoring and long-term trials to understand the long-term At least two studies on long-term Periodic reports on long-term Sustainable funding for long-
consequences of the use of new land and water management practices consequences conduct in three years trends term research
Activity 3.3.4. Strategic research on biophysical processes associated with resource At least two studies on biophysical Refereed publications
conserving technologies processes finished in three years
Purpose 4. Capacity strengthening and targeting Strengthen the capacity of partners External judgments on quality of work Review reports, bibliographies, Partners encourage stability
to conduct research for sustainable intensification and diversification of maize and and publications, use of decision documentation of research of staffing in key positions in
wheat systems, and to use decision support systems to target work towards priority support tools process their organizations
areas
Result 4.1. Training and HR development The capacity of partners (NGOs, At least 1000 partner staff benefiting Training database
universities, farmer groups, public and private sector entities) in research and from training over the MTP time period
development is strengthened
Activity 4.1.1. International, regional and bilateral training courses, conferences, At least 30 training events carried out Training reports Funding available
workshops, study tours and traveling seminars per year
Activity 4.1.2. Supervise doctoral and other advanced students At least one advanced student University documents
supervised
Result 4.2. Technology targeting and priority setting The efficiency of collaborative Recommendation domains established Maps and research reports Stakeholders "buy in" to
activity with partners is improved by a clear focus on priority areas and activities and used by stakeholders in at least priority setting processes
one region












Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 4.2.1. Consult with stakeholders on priority areas and activities At least one stakeholder meeting held Meeting reports
per year
Activity 4.2.2. Use GIS in site characterization and definition of recommendations and Spatial information on technology Maps Data available
areas of site similarity targeting developed for at least two
regions in three years
Activity 4.2.3. Develop decision support tools to match technologies to specific sets of Decision support system developed Materials for users of decision
agro-climatic and socioeconomic circumstances support tools
Activity 4.2.4. Monitor and evaluate program activities as part of a continuous process At least one monitoring and evaluation Monitoring and evaluation
to improve program efficiency activity per year reports











Rice Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains


Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Goal. Improve the productivity and sustainability of cropping systems in those parts of the Factor productivity levels, Secondary data, targeted
Indo-Gangetic Plains where land, water and other resources are primarily used for rice- income levels, livelihood surveys, water balance data,
wheat cultivation, while improving the livelihoods of the poor indicators, basin level water use, GPS studies
land quality indicators

Purpose 1. Developing technologies and policies (all RWC members and partners) Technologies and policies District level data on land use, Technologies attractive to
Through collaborative research, develop technologies and policies to improve rice-wheat developed, adapted, tested, with adoption studies, water quality farmers in the near term can
system productivity and diversity, enhance soil fertility and soil health, reduce the extent of good initial adoption data, diagnostic surveys be identified
salinity and sodicity, slow or stop groundwater depletion, and resolve problems of pests,
diseases and weeds in rice-wheat systems
Result 1.1. Improved water productivity in rice-wheat systems. Water productivity measures, Adoption studies, government Basin level management
Technologies for rice-wheat systems that improve water productivity and stop/ reduce groundwater levels surveys of groundwater levels practices do not undermine
groundwater depletion are developed and used progress made through plot-
level practices
Activity 1.1.1. Crop improvement in rice and wheat for varieties that perform well but use Suitable varieties developed and Data on variety release
less water (CG Centers and NARS) released
Activity 1.1.2. Research and development on introducing into rice-wheat systems, crops that Cultivar choices and new Technical reports, reports on Crops that are economically
are water use efficient, e.g. expanding the area of legumes (Partners) rotations developed and farmer feed-back attractive to farmers in the
adapted near term can be identified
Activity 1.1.3. Research and development on crop and system management practices that New practices developed and Technical reports, reports on
improve water productivity. These include rice establishment methods (e.g., rice on beds), adapted farmer feed-back
weed management, seed metering systems, land leveling, zero tillage, crop residue for
mulch, bed systems, etc. (Partners)
Activity 1.1.4. Whole basin modeling of water balances, to ascertain the extent to which plot Information on basin-level water Technical reports
level improvements result in basin level improvements in water productivity (CG Centers and balances
NARS)
Activity 1.1.5. Monitoring spatial incidence of changes in groundwater levels and quality Trends in groundwater levels/ Technical reports, government Data is available
(NARS) quality statistics
Activity 1.1.6. Social science research and policy analysis on the consequences of Information on policy and water Policy briefs, impact studies
alternative policies and institutional arrangements for improving water productivity, and the use, and on impacts of technical
livelihood and equity impacts of changes in water management practices (Partners) change
Activity 1.1.7. Market and policy analysis on factors governing adoption of water use Adoption of water conserving Adoption studies
efficient crops and practices (Partners) practices
Result 1.2. Improved soil health. Level of adoption of new Adoption studies
New technologies for rice-wheat systems that improve soil health and soil fertility are technologies that improve soil
developed and used health
Activity 1.2.1. Participatory research and development of resource-conserving technologies Second generation resource Technical reports, reports on
that improve soil organic matter, fertility, and soil biology, e.g., zero tillage, crop residue conserving technologies farmer feed-back
management, green manures, fertilizer management practices, weed management, control developed and adapted
of root diseases (Partners)__
Activity 1.2.2. Research and development on crop, system and water management New practices developed and Technical reports, reports on
practices that ameliorate / facilitate crop production in saline environments, e.g., salt adapted farmer feed-back











Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
tolerance in crops, use of amendments, conjunctive use of multi-quality irrigation waters,
planting systems, rainwater management and salt leaching etc. (Partners)
Activity 1.2.3. Crop improvement for maize and wheat varieties that perform well in Suitable varieties developed and Data on variety release
combination with resource conserving technologies (CG Centers and NARS) released
Activity 1.2.4. Farm level monitoring and long-term trials to understand the long-term Information on long-term Monitoring reports, long-term Sustainable financial support
consequences and impacts of the use of new land and water management practices on rice- consequences trial reports for long-term measurements
wheat system productivity and sustainability (Partners)
Activity 1.2.5. Strategic research on crop residue management (including development and Information on biophysical Refereed publications, technical
refinement in planting machinery) and other biophysical processes associated with resource processes, new implements reports
conserving technologies (Universities, CG Centers, partners)
Activity 1.2.6. Interaction among researchers, scientists, farmers, private sector Study tours conducted Study tour reports RWC continues to be
manufacturers and external experts on how to best implement conservation agriculture accepted as suitable for
practices (NARS) _running study tours
Result 1.3. Enhanced diversity in rice-wheat systems. Diversity in rice-wheat systems Adoption studies
New management technologies that increase diversity in rice-wheat systems are developed is increased
and used by partners and communities
Activity 1.3.1. Research and development on introducing into rice-wheat systems high value High value crops for different Technical reports, reports on
crops, e.g., legumes and vegetables (Partners & NARS ) systems identified farmer feed-back
Activity 1.3.2. Research and development on the use of bed and furrow systems that Bed and furrow systems Technical reports, reports on Suitable implements can be
facilitate the establishment and management of a diverse range of sole/ intercrops in rice- developed and adapted farmer feed-back developed or identified
wheat systems
Activity 1.3.3. Social science research and policy analysis on the consequences alternative Information on policies and Policy briefs
policies and institutional arrangements on rice-wheat diversification, and the livelihood and diversification
equity impacts of diversification (CG centers and NARS)
Activity 1.3.4. Marketing studies to guide diversification activities towards commercially Information on diversification Policy briefs and publications Commercially viable
viable alternatives (NARS ) options __alternatives can be identified
Purpose 2. Accelerating adoption of technologies and policies (all RWC members and Change over time in adoption State and district level
partners) rates for key technologies and production statistics, adoption
Through collaborative development activities, accelerate the adoption of those technologies policies studies
that lead to improved rice-wheat system productivity and sustainability
Result 2.1. Tapping national and local resources. Government resources Government and RWC budgets Financial windows that can be
National and local government human and financial resources are tapped to support scaling committed and project documents tapped are available
out of RWC technologies (NARS partners)
Activity 2.1.1. Display of successful RWC activities to VIP visitors from national, state, Field visits conducted Field visit reports, photographs
province and local government agencies
Activity 2.1.2. Assistance to RWC members in developing and submitting proposals for Proposals submitted and Proposal and project documents
World Bank and related loan funds through national governments approved
Activity 2.1.3. Interaction with NGOs and extension agencies whereby these, with their own Resources allocated by NGOs Partner budget/ staff allocation Extension agencies are willing
resources, assist with scaling out of RWC technologies and extension agencies to information to invest own resources
scaling out RWC technologies
Activity 2.1.4. Participation of development workers, along with farmers, in RWC member Team membership/ composition Annual reports, with lists of team
research activities members











Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Result 2.2. Technology targeting and priority setting. Recommendation domains Maps and research reports
The efficiency of collaborative activity with partners is improved by a clear focus on priority established and used
areas and activities
Activity 2.2.1. Consult with members and partners on priority areas and activities, with RTCC and RSC/ Executive Meeting reports
decisions emerging from the RSC Executive meetings
Activity 2.2.2. Use GIS and remote sensing tools in site characterization and definition of Spatial information on Technical reports, maps Spatially referenced data
recommendations and areas of site similarity ( NARS and CG Centers) technology targeting exists
Activity 2.2.3. Develop decision support tools to match alternative technologies to specific Decision support system Technical reports,
rice-wheat system transects in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (CG centers and NARS) developed
Result 2.3. Community participation Recommendation domains Maps and research reports Senior research managers
Scaling out of RWC technologies is accelerated by innovative uses and approaches to established and used are willing to try community-
community participation based approaches
Activity 2.31. Build community participation into new project proposals for funding for Participatory methods included Project proposal documents
scaling out of RWC technologies in proposals
Activity 2.3.2. Assist member organizations to improve their skills in methods for scaling out Training events Training reports
involving community participation
Purpose 3. Governance and knowledge management (Facilitation Unit). Expert judgments on capacity External program reviews, The FU is financially
Strengthen the capacity of RWC members and partners to address rice-wheat system and research quality training reports sustainable
problems and opportunities
Result 3.1. Knowledge management and human resource development. Information accessible in user- Databases, web-based
Information on problems, opportunities, technologies, policies, projects, partners, and friendly form information sources functional
financial resources is properly organized and shared
Activity 3.1.1. Study tours that allow farmers, researchers, development workers and other Study tours conducted Study tour reports
partners to visit and learn from each other's activities and projects
Activity 3.1.2. Data management systems such as "PRISM" for web-enabled access by Level of development and use of Number of "hits", user feedback
members to information on RWC projects and activities PRISM surveys
Activity 3.1.3. Recurring meetings of the Regional Steering Committee and the Regional Meetings held and decisions Meeting minutes
Technical Coordination Committee to share technical knowledge and take decisions on taken
consortium priorities
Activity 3.1.4. A continuously updated internet web page describing RWC activities and Web page available Web page accessible to users
products
Activity 3.1.5. Publishing of research findings through the RWC publications series and Paper series available Documents, publications
Information sheets.
Activity 3.1.6. Training events for NARS and partner staff on priority issues for the RWC; Training events held Training reports
capacity building in NARS on GIS and PRISM.
Activity 3.1.7. Public awareness activities on behalf of the RWC Public awareness activities held Materials available
Result 3.2. Governance and administration. Expert judgments on financial External management reviews,
The affairs of the RWC as an ecoregional program and as a consortium are properly management and administration external audits
managed
Activity 3.2.1. Implementation of decisions of the RSC Executive Whether decisions implemented Facilitator reports, RSC
Executive minutes
Activity 3.2.2. Prudent management of RWC FU budgets, assets, staff Financial indicators External audits
Activity 3.2.3. Adequate financial and technical reporting to the RSC Executive, Convening Reports submitted Reports on file
Center and other partners











Narrative summary Verifiable indicators Means of verification Assumptions
Activity 3.2.4. External management reviews and evaluations commissioned as appropriate Reviews conducted Review reports
Result 3.3. Project development and implementation Projects submitted, approved RWC budgets, Facilitator
Financial resources from donors are secured and project activities relevant to the RWC and implemented reports, RSC Executive minutes
agenda are implemented
Activity 3.3.1. Development and submission of proposals to donors for funding of FU Resources from donors for RWC budgets
activities relevant to the RWC agenda program activities
Activity 3.32. Project implementation by the FU in partnership with RWC members and Projects implemented Project reports
partners, with resources shared with members
Activity 3.3.3. External program reviews and evaluations commissioned as appropriate, Reviews held Review reports
especially regarding livelihood, equity, and natural resource outcomes of projects




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