Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00091
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen; its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.,
s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla
Publication Date: July 1, 1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00091
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Full Text






'Volume 31 Number 3

SUPPLEMENT TO


FLORIDA
QUARTERLY

BULLETIN
OF THE
AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT

JULY 1, 1921

W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAMASSEE FLA.



THE DASHEEN; ITS USES AND
CULTURE

Entered january 31. 1903. at Tallahassee. Florida. as second-chlss
matter under Act of Congress of Juie. 1900.
"Acc,'ptan(e for mailing at special rate of postage provided for
in Seclin 1103. Act of October 3, 1917. authorized Sept. 11. 1918."
THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED FRff TO THOSE REQUESIlNG THEM
T. J. APPLEYARD. STATN PRINTER
TALI.AHABSSI, FLOIIDA.
C
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THE DASHEEN; ITS USES AND CULTURE

By ROBERT A. YOUNG, Botanical Assistant, Office of For-
eign 'Seed and Plant Introduction, Bureau of Plant
Industry, Washington, 1). C'.



INTRODUCTION.

Anyone who has traveled much in the Tropics or the
Orient, and especially one who has visited the Hawaiian
Islands. can hardly have failed to make the acquaint-
ance of the taro. Even those who have become well
acquainted with it and learned really to like it, however,
probably have not thought of the possibility of its success-
ful introduction as a food crop into the United States.
But such a thing has already come to pass, and a variety
of the taro known as the Trinidad dasheen, front the
island of Trinidad, West Indies, is now becoming estab-
lished as a factor in the agriculture of the South.
There has been a growing need in the Southern States
for more crops similar in character to the potato, to sup-
plement the supply of that great staple food plant. Tie
dasheen seems largely to meet this need. The compara-
tive difficulty of growing more than one good crop of po-
tatoes a year, the further difficulty of successful storage
by small growers or dealers, and the fact that northern
markets consume a large portion of the crop at good
prices make the price of potatoes always high except in
cities that are reached by water from the North when the
supply is abundant there.
Dasheens for home use can be grown at small expense
by most farmers in the South, and by many can be grown
for local markets at prices no higher than for potatoes.
Since the Trinidad dasheen contains about 50 per cent.
more protein and 50 per cent. more starch and sugars
than the potato, dasheens at equal prices would really be
a chapter food. This crop is adapted for cultivation in
rich, moise, well-drained soils and matures in October
and November. It requires at least seven months to
reach full maturity.
Although the dasheen was introduced into the United
States from the West Indies, it is believed to have come
originally from China. This belief obtains partly because












the name dasheen appears to be a corruption of the French
phrase "de la Chine," meaning "from China," and partly
because other varieties, very closely allied to it, have been
found in southern China.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DASHEEN.

The Trinidad dasheen* is an especially fine variety of a
particular type of the taro. As will be seen from the
leaves, it bears a strong resemblance to the ordinary ele-
phant-ear plant. The two are closely related, though the
elephant-ear "tuber" makes very poor eating in compari-
son with the dasheen.
Each hill of dasheens usually contains one or two large,
central corms, besides a considerable number of lateral
cormels, commonly called tubers. In rare cases there may
be as many as three to five of the large corms in one hill.
The-corms of the Trinidad variety when grown in the
right kind of soil are of at least as good quality as the
tubers, and sometimes better. In texture and flavor the
Sdasheen may be described as being between the chestnut
and the potato.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE DASHEEN AND OTHER TAROS.

4'he taro, including the type recognized here as the
dasheen, is one of the important food plants in most of
the warm regions of tile world. The culture of the crop is
probably developed to a higher degree in the Hawaiian
Islands than elsewhere. It is grown as an upland crop in
certain parts of the islands, but much more extensively
under irrigation. A-s an irrigated crop it is usually
grown in patches from one-eighth to one-fourth acre in
size, each plat being inclosed with dikes and being at a
different level, so that the water runs one to the other.
The movement of the water is slow, but continuous. The
plants do not grow so tall as when grown in rich soil
that is only moist. The season required for maturing a
Crop varies from 8 to 15 months, depending on the va-
riety.
*Certain varieties of taros resemble the Trinidad dasheen, especially
In the character of the tuberous part of the plant. These varieties con-
stitut a distinct type of tnro :and are referred to here as dasheens. Where
the dasheen is mentioned in this article the Trinidad variety is a w*ys
to be understood.












The taro is eaten in Hawaii boiled or baked, like pA-
tatoes, or in the form of poi. It is as poi that it is eaten
most largely. In making poi the taro is thoroughly
cooked, by steaming or boiling, and peeled. With the ad-
dition of a little water it is then reduced, either by pound-
ing with a stone pestle or pounder, the old method, or by
grinding with a modern mill. to a sticky mass. The
pounding process includes the wetting of the empty hand
in a vessel of water, kept at the side, at each fall of the
pounder and moistening the lower surface of the pestle
as it is lifted for the next stroke. When the paste, or
poi, has become perfectly smooth from the pounding, it
is usually put into a covered receptacle for a day or so.
in order to ferment. Poi made by the modern process
is fermented in the same manner. The old method is still
in use to a limited extent.
The taro is credited, wherever grown, with being more
easily digested than most other starch foods, and poi is
held to be the most easily digested form in which it can be
prepared. Poi, however, is a dish that does not appeal
strongly to most persons unaccustomed to it, and its
use has not spread among other peoples. The expected
increase in the use of the dasheen, and perhaps other
taros. will ie as a vegetable .or in the form of of flour for
use in combination with wheat or other flours in bak-
ing.
In many countries where the taro is cultivated, because
of the inferiority of the varieties grown and the poor
methods of cooking it, the vegetable is esteemed but lit-
tle by Europeans and Americans. In parts of China,
according to Mr. Frank N. Meyer, Agricultural Explorer
for the Department of Agriculture, the taro is in the
class of luxuries, and the very poor can rarely afford to
eat it. In Japan, where it is classed among the so-called
imos, it is said to be used by all classes of people, often
being cooked with fish.
The taros and the yautias (another group of edible
aroidss," as the plants of the armu family are called) are
grown widely in tropical America and constitute a rather
important part of the food supply of the native peo-
ples. Dasheens, under the name "malanga," are brought
from Cuba to Tampa, Fla., for the Latin-American people
of that city.
For two centuries at least, from time to time, individ-
uals have brought into the Carolinas and grown there
2--Dnsheen.












oh a small scale inferior varieties of the taro. Even now
occasional patches of a rather strong flavored taro, known
as the tanier, or tanya, are met with in the South At-
lantic States.
A very inferior kind of taro, somewhat similar to the
tanier just mentioned, is grown in the eastern Mediter-
ranean region, especially in Egypt, where it is called
"qolqas." It appears to be eaten only by the laboring
classes. It has been imported into the United States,
apparently for consumption by the oriental population
in some of our eastern cities, but this market is now
supplied by dasheens from the Southern States. Taros
are also shipped to America from China and are sold
In Chinese shops as "China potatoes."

INTRODUCTION OF THE DASHEEN.

Until the investigation of the aroid root crops was be-
gun by the Department of Agriculture a few years ago,
it does not appear that any serious attempts were ever
made to grow them outside of tropical or subtropical
regions except in Japan and China. As a preliminary
part of this investigational work, there was assembled,
first by Mr. O. W. Barrett, at the Porto Rico Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, and later at Washington,
D. C., the largest collection of varieties of these plants
ever brought together. They weer collected from every
quarter of the globe where grown. From field tests uade
of these varieties in South Carolina and Florida it was
found that the Trinidad dasheen, taking into account its
adaptability to the climate and its food qualities, was
especially well'suited for culture and use in this coun-
try.
The propagation and testing work with the dasheen
since 1911 has been carried on by the department prin-
cipally at its Plant Introduction Field Station at Brooks-
ville, Fla. A large number of peoples in the South, es-
pecially in the Southeast, are now growing the dasheen
for home use, stock feed, and market.

USES OF THE DASHEEN.

It is not intended that the dasheen shall dis-
place either the potato or the sweet potato in
any market A greater variety of starchy vege-












table is needed, however, and the dasheen has been
welcomed by many as an addition to the small list
of those foods now in use in the United States. But for the
present, at leas*, outside of the regions where grown it is
not to be looked upon as a cheap food; the shipments are
not yet large enough to bring the prices to the level which
they may reach later. In the South, however, where the
dasheen is grown it is expected that it will eventually come
to be used extensively, partly as a matter of economy,
and especially during the long reason when potatoes have
to be shipped from the North.
Most persons when eating the dasheen naturally think
of comparing it with the potato. Many say they like it
better: others equally well; and some not so well. How-
ever, individual opinions nmay differ as to the relative
merits of the two vegetables, a sufficiently large number
of persons who have tried the dasheen have been so
favorably impressed that there seems to be no question
of its ultimate popularity as a table vegetable. e
I asheens, as well as other taros, are reputed to be more
easily digested than many other starch foods. This ease
of digestion has not been scientifically demonstrated, so
far as is known, but the belief is current and doubtless
has some basis in fact. The extremely small size of the
taro starch grain, one of the smallest known in food
plants, may possibly have some connection with its di-
gestibility.
PREPARATION FOR THE TABLE.

I)asheens are suitable for use in the same manner and
in quite as many ways as potatoes, with slight modifica-
tions, which are necessary in some cases on account of the
differences in the texture of the two vegetables. Some
housewives or cooks fail to get the best results, or fail
completely, with dasheens at first, wholly from lack of
care in following the directions for cooking and serving.
It should be remembered that in order to give a new
vegetable a fair trial every detail regarding its prepara-
tion for the table should be carefully followed. One
common mistake is to bake or boil the dasheens too long;
another is to cook them before the rest of the meal is
prepared and so keep them standing for some time before
they are served. Baked or boiled potatoes that are kept
standing lose in palatability, and the dasheen loses quite












as much if not served promptly. I)Dasheens do not require
so long a time to cook as potatoes of the same size, and
it is important to remember this, especially in boiling
or baking them.
There is an almost endless variety of ways in which
dasheens can be prepared for the table. A number of
recipes have been worked out carefully and a few of these
will be referred to here.
Baking is th most satisfactory method, in general, of
cooking either large or small dasheens. Large ones
(cornls) are usually first parboiled for 10 to 20 minutes.
in order to reduce the time necessary for baking and so
avoid the possibility of charring the outside. A mod-
erately hot oven is required. If the dasheens are well
scrubbed, to remove th fibrous part of the skin, and the
baking is properly done, a soft crust is formed, which
is very delicious. Large dasheens may be served in the
"half shell" if desired, the corms usually being cut in
half before baking. They are made still more attractive
by placing a lump of butter in a hole scooped out of
the center of the cut surface. The halves of corms that
are small enough can be .served as individual portions
and the larger ones used for several persons.
The interior of a well-grown dasheen is usually mealy
when baked or boiled, though often more firm than a po-
tato. It is sometimes of cream color, but more often it
is grayish white or tinged with violet. The same season-
ing is used as for potatoes, but on account of the com-
parative dryness of the dasheen more butter or gravy is
generally needed. To much importance can not be given
to serving baked or boiled dasheens promptly after they
are cooked.
1)asheens mashed like potatoes are likely to be too
sticky to be attractive, but when put through a potato
ricer after boiling or baking they make a most satis-
factory dish. A ricer stronger than the ordinary ones on
the market is desirable for the dasheen, because of its
firm texture.
Scalloped dasheen made with either latticework or
plain slices is a most satisfactory dish where a large
company of persons is to be served and where the dish
must of necessity stand for a time. The addition of a
few slices of onion will bring out the dasheen flavor.













Stuffed dasheens, especially the large corms, are exceed-
ingly attractive and when properly seasoned are as good as
they look. The stuffed halves may be served one to a
person or one for several persons, according to the size
of the corm.
)asheen crisps. made from raw dasleen with a fluted
vegetable slicer and fried in deep fat, are declared by
some epicures to be the most delicious of all dasheen
dishes. The delicate nutty flavor of the dasheen is ac-
centuated by this method of preparation. While tlese
crisps are better when freshly made, they often keep
their crispness for several days, depending on the amount
of moisture in the air.
As a filling for fowl and other meats the dasleen can
hardly be surpassed. Served an gratin, that is. cooked
with grated cheese, it is equal to any similar dish. It
makes a delicious salad and nmy he French fried or
German fried, like potatoes. It can also be used boiled
in making bread, as potatoes are used by many house-
wives, and with the same results.

DASIIEEN PLOLII.
A very good flour has been made from dasleens. The
corms and large tubers are pared and either sliced or
shredded and tleni dried and ground in a flour mill. As
the dasheen does not appear to contain gluten, the flour
can not be used alone in baking, but must he used in
combination with wheat or rye flour. Excellent bread,
muffins, biscuits, crullers, griddlecakes, soups, and va-
rious other products are made by using dasheen flour in
part. A proportion of one-fourth or one-third of dasleen
flour is generally used.

DASHEEN SHOOTS.
A secondary use of the dasleen is the forcing of the
large corms for their shoots.t These shoots are more ten-
der than asparagus and have a delicate flavor not unlike
that of mushrooms. They are forced in the dark in
order to blanch them. The slight acridity which the
blanched shoots contain is destroyed by the following
methods of cooking:
tA circular fully describing the forcing, blanching, and cooking of
dnlsheen shoots will be sent without charge upon request to the U. S.
* Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.













(1) Cut the blanched shoots into 2-inch lengths, pour
on an abundance of boiling water, add salt, and boil for
12 minutes; drain, pour on enough cold milk$ so that
the shoots will be completely covered when it boils, sea-
son with salt, and boil for 5 minutes; drain, season
with butter, and serve on toast or plain. It is necessary
to add a little butter to the milk in boiling if skim
milk is used. Cream sauce may be used in serving if
desired.
(2) Instead of boiling in milk, after draining off the
first water add a little piece of butter or bacon and then
cover the shoots with cold water, season with salt, and
boil for 5 minutes. Drain and serve.

DASHEENS AS STOCK FEED.

Although extensive feeding experiments with the da-
sheen have not yet been made, as a stock feed it is
probably equal in value to the potato, sweet potato, or
cassava. For this purpose, however, as with potatoes
and sweet potatoes, dasheens will, in general, be used"
omnl incidentally, as in cases of overproduction, or of
dasheens unsuited in size or quality for market. They
seem, in the raw state, to be more palatable to stock
than potatoes and, while doubtless less palatable than
sweet potatoes, they contain a higher proportion of pro-
tein to starch -and sugars than sweet potatoes. Both
cattle and hogs eat them with relish after getting the
taste, and pigs 8 months old have been fattened for the
nlarekt in a month by turning them in the autumn into a
patch of dasheens.

CULTURE OF TIIE DASHEENS.

PLANTING.

Dasheens are adapted for commercial culture only in
the Southern States. They require a frostless season of at
least seven months, with plenty of moisture, to fully ma-
ture a good crop. For a large crop of good quality the
dasheen must be grown in a moist but well-drained
SThe change from hot water to cold milk or water when the shoots
are nearly done is to keep them from becoming too soft.
tThe butter fat of the milk. or the bncon fat, appears to assist in
qstioying the acridity.













rich sandy hlam. The addition soon after planting of
a fertilizer containing S to 12 per cent. of potash, even
in good soil, as a rule has a beneficial effect on the crop.
A large proportion of either clay or nmuck in the soil
produces strong-flavored or tough dasheens, which often
are quite unfit for table use. However, those grown in
much soil yield heavily and are reported to be entirely
satisfactory for stock feed.
plantingg is done in February in Southern Florida
and as late as the early part of April in South Carolina.
Whole luhlers are used and are planted singly. 2 to :3
inches deep. Tubers weighing :3 to 5 ounces each are
better than smaller ones for planting, although the char-
acter of the soil and the amount of moisture present
are much more important factors than the size of tie
tubers.
In rich soil about 12 square feet is allowed for each
plant, the spacing being 4 by 3 or 34 by 3 feet. This
permits horse cultivation with the ordinary farm imple-
ments.
Recently the dasheern has been found to le subject to
the common root-knot* disease of the South, which at-
tacks many cultivated plants and weeds. The effect of
the disease is to reduce the yield of dasheens. The spread
of root-knot in dasheen culture is largely controlled by re-
serving for seed the tubers from selected, healthy plants
only and planting in land that is free from infection.

HARVESTING.

The digging of dasheens for home use can usually be-
gin in the middle of September and the main crop be har-
vested at any time after the last of October. The digging
can be done with a spade, or when the area is large enough
to warrant it the plants can be turned over with a plow.
When the dasheens are to be stored or shipped, the soil is
shaken from the clumps as soon as possible after digging.
The clumps are then left on the surface of the ground
in the field for two to four days to dry. The tops and
feeding roots are then broken from the corms and tubers.
In localities where autumn frosts are severe, harvesting
should be done before they occur, as the corms and tubers
are likely to be injured if exposed to frost after digging.
*"Hyars. L. I. A nematode disease of the danseen and Its control by
htt-walter treatment. 'hytopathology, vol. 7, No. 1, January, 1917.













STORAGE.

When dasheens have dried sufficiently in the field and
are stored, free from soil, in a covered but well-ventilated
place, they usually keep well. It is better not to store
them in large piles, but to spread them out so that the
air can circulate rather freely among them. There are sev-
eral rots** that are likely to attack dasheens in storage,
or even while on the ground, if the dasheens are left lying
in the field too long after digging or otherwise are im-
properly handled in harvesting or storing.
The fibrous covering of dasheens in the field seems to
enable them to withstand for a short time temperatures
several degrees below freezing before digging, but a tem-
perature in storage even as low as 41' F., if prolonged for
several weeks, has been shown to very injurious to them.
The results of experiments indicate that where the stor-
age temperature can be controlled, temperatures in the
neighborhood of 5(0 F. are better than lower or much
higher ones.
SHIPPING.

The dasheen is a good shipper, and as the railroads
of the country have co-operated with the department so
far a's to place the new vegetable on the same footing as
the potato in freight classification, shipment in barrel
lots to most eastern and northern points is entirely prac-
ticable. The same protection against cold should be
given dasheens in transit as is given potatoes.
The department is glad, so far as possible, to direct
intending purchasers of dasheens to the most conven-
ient commercial sources of supply.

CONCLUSION.

The dasheen is a recently introduced root crop, well
adapted for culture in the Southern States. It is very
similar to the potato in its food characteristics, but con-
tains a higher percentage of nutritive material than that
vegetable, owing to its lower water content. The flavor
is delicately nutty. The crop matures in the autumn.
when potatoes have to be shipped from the North, and
**' arter, L. L. Storage-rots of economic aroids. Jour. Agri. IIe-
search U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. vol. 0, No. 15, July 10, 101i. pp.
549-572.














is a god keeper. There seems to be no reason to doubt,
therefore, that in time it will become firmly established
in southern agriculture and be a welcome addition also
to the limited list of starchy vegetables at present found
on northern markets. Iasheens are easily shipped and
the freight rates are'no higher than for potatoes. The
successful establishment of tile dasheen industry means
a new and valuable food crop for the Nation as a whole
and at the same time an additional source of income for
the South.
D)ASHIEEN
A. 1. S'ENfIR
l'nic'ervity of Florida
Dasheens have been grown for thousands of years in
tropical countries but most extensively in some localities
of the West Indies. The first extensive systematic study
of this family of plants was made by 0. W. Barrett in
I'orto Rico. The dasheein belongs to the same family as
the Elephant's Ear and the colored ('aladiums used as
ornamentals.
The plants produce tubers underground similar to Irish
potatoes and sweet potatoes. They also resemble lpota-
toes in composition and are prepared for food in about
the same way. Chemical analysis indicate them to be
more nutritious than either sweet or Irish potatoes.
D)asheens grow best in a rich, moist, sandy soil with
good drainage. An occasional flooding does not.seem to
injure the production seriously.
The land should be prepared and cultivated as for Irish
potatoes. Small tubers nmay be used for "seed." The seed
should be planted during spring, just as soon as all danger
of frost is past. Set tile rows four feet apart and drop
the seed three feet apart in the row, covering it about
three inches deep. Well grown plants will stand about
shoulder high by mid-summer, though they require about
eight months to mature. A yield somewhat larger than
that of Irish and sweet potatoes may be expected.
Dasheens require about the same fertilization as Irish
potatoes, but given in one or two applications after the
first or second cultivation, since dasheens are a long-
season crop.
No experiments have been made to prove the value of
dasheens for pork or milk production. However, chemi-













cal analysis and the fact that stock relish them indicate
they are good stock feed.
They may be harvested and stored like potatoes and
should be dry before banking to avoid rotting in the
bank.
The flavor and consistency of the dasheen is quite differ-
ent from Irish or sweet potatoes. It can be prepared for
food in several ways.

THE I)GESTIBILITY OF THE DASHEEN.
C. L. LONCWORTIIY

In 10 digestion experiments with men, mature and im-
mature dasheens were eaten in conjunction with common
food materials in a simple mixed diet. The average coef-
ficients of digestibility for the total diet were: Protein.
80.8 per cent; fat, 96.1 per cent; and carbohydrates, 97.6
per cent.
The value obtained for the digestibility of the car-
bohydrates, 97.6 per cent, which for all practical pur-
poses represents the digestibility of the dasheen car-
bohydrates, compares very favorably with that of pota-
toes, the common vegetable most resembling the dasheen.
The subjects of their own volition ate on an average
approximately 11-4 pounds of dasheen daily without any
observed physiological disturbances, which would indi-
cate that considerable amounts of dasheens may be safely
used in the dietary and that they are palatable.
The results here reported were obtained from dasheens
cooked by one method only; in the absence of data to the
contrary it may be very well assumed that the dasheen
is equally well digested when prepared by other methods
similar to those employed with potatoes.
The data obtained in this investigation give evidence
to justify the belief that the dasheen is a valuable addi-
tion to the dietary, that it can replace the potato in those
regions where the potato can not be successfully grown
or easily obtained, and that it is also valuable for more
general use to give greater variety to the diet in other
localities. (Concbusions, from U. S. Department of Agri-
culture Bul. No. 612, 1917. BY C. F. LANGWORTHY, Chief.
and A. D. HOLMES, Specialist in Charge of Digestion Ex-
periments, Office of Home Economics.)













Don't Start to Prepare the Dasheens Until You Have
Read These Directions.

SPECIAL DIRECTIONS FOR THE
PLAIN COOKING OF DASHEENS.

Important Note: If the directions given below are fol-
lowed implicitly, especially with reference to promptness
in serving and eating, one cannot fail to be pleased with
the dasheen. However, it is strongly urged that when
one is eating dasheens for the first time, he be present
when they are taken from the stove and that he get the
first taste within one or two miilutes, in order that he may
obtain a fair impression of this delicious vegetable. We
have vet to learn of anyone who does not like a well-
grown dashcen 'hen& properly baked or boiled and tried
in this way.

IT'IEARATION FOR COOKING AND GIENEIAL INFORMATION.

(Clean the dry dasheens with a |rush or coarse cloth,
and then rinse them in clear water.
Dasheens require about the same length of time as po-
tatoes for cooking-less rather than more. They are
drier and firmer than potatoes when cooked. They con-
tain about 3 per cent. of protein as compared with 2 per
cent. in the white potato, and 27 per cent. of starch and
sugar as against 18 per cent. in the potato. In other re-
spects they are comparable with the potato, as a food.
Dasheens are considered to be more easily digested than
most other starchy, foods. A good dasheen well cooked
is mealy and has a delicate nutty flavor.

BAKED DASIEENS.

The cleaned dasheens may be put directly into a mod-
erate oven-same as for potatoes-or may first be par-
boiled 8 to 12 minutes (depending upon size). To facili-
tate baking, very large dasheens (corms) may be cut in
half, always from top to base. Parboiling hastens cook-
ing and lessens danger of waste from formation of a
hard crust in baking. Test with a fork or knitting
needle. When done, the dasheens should be SERVED
IMMEDIATELY, in a warmed dish covered with a nap-













kin, and EATEN WITHOUT DELAY. Season with salt
and butter. If dasheens are well cleaned, the light crush
formed in baking is especially good to eat, with or with-
out butter.

BOILED DASIIENS.

Put the dasheens into salted hot water, and boil until
done. Dasheens should never be pared before boiling.
Pour off water instantly when cooking vessel is removed
from fire, SERVED IMMEDIATELY in a warm dish cov-
ered with a napkin, and EAT AT ONCE. Season with
salt and butter. If desired, and the operation does not
involve delay, the dasheens may be peeled before being
placed on the table.

FRIED DASIIEENS.

Boild dasheens, either warm or cold, may be peeled,
cut into thick, even slices, salted and fried (sauteed)
quickly, one layer dip, in a covered frying pan. Fry
only until very slightly browned on each side, remove from
fire at once, and serve hot.
United States Department of Agriculture, Washington.
January 2, 1920.












UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY

Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction
,Washington, 1). C.



RECIPES FOR THE PREPARATION OF THE
DASHEEN

RICED DASHEENS

Boil (or parboil and bake) the dasheens in their skins.
Remove the skin immediately, rice the dasheen into a
heated dish; and proceed in one of the following ways:
(1 Stir in the desired seasoning, as butter and salt,
and serve in a warm, covered dish. The butter may be
omitted if gravy is to be used. (Milk or cream may be
beaten in it*desired, as for mashed potato; but dasheeens
prepared in this way will be rather sticky. Mashing in
the ordinary way is not recommended).
(2) Empty the riced dasheen in layers into a warmed
serving dish; season each layer. Do not stir.
(3 1Season the riced dasheen as desired and put into
a baking dish, with a liberal quantity of butter on top.
Bake for 8 or 10 minutes and serve.
In ricing dasheens the round or plunger type of ricer
rather than the triangular, lever type should be used.
One with wrought-iron handles is better than one with
cast-iron handles, as the latter are too easily broken.

STUFFED DASHEENS.

Proceed the same as in baking; and, when the dasheens
are done, follow the method used for stuffed potatoes,
using more butter, however. If moistened with cream,
instead of milk, still better results are secured.
The corms are especially adapted for serving in this
manner; they may be scraped or simply scrubbed, as pre-
ferred; and, unless much smaller than a pound in weight,
they may be.cut in half,-always from the top to the base.
Instead of mashing dasheens it will always be found bet-












ter to rice them with a potato ricer or rub them through
a coarse sieve. If, after baking, the upper part of the
corm is found to be hard, this part should be taken out
and discarded.

SCALLOPED DASHEENS.

Pare and slice raw dasheens, putting the slices in layers
into a buttered baking dish, and seasoning each layer with
butter, salt, etc. A few thin slices of onion added brings
out the dasheen flavor. Latticework slices of dasheen,
made with a fluted slicer, are a little more attractive in
appearance than the plain ones, and they do not mat to-
gether. Nearly cover with rich milk, and bake. Scalloped
dasheens require only about two-thirds as much time in
cooking as scalloped potatoes. When corms are used for
scalloping, it is well to discard about three-qufarters of an
inch of the upper, or bud end, as it may be tough after
cooking. On account of the firm texture of the dasheen,
a slicer with the sliding guard made of woodjather than
of tin, is desirable if a fluted slicer is used.
This method of serving the dasheen will be found par-
ticularly well adapted for banquets or formal dinners;
and in such cases individual baking dishes or casseroles
should be used if practicable.

DASHEENS AU GRATIN.

Proceed as for scalloped, but use less butter and add
grated cheese. Bread crumbs may also be added to the
top layer.

DASIIEEN CRISPS.

Dasheen crisps are especially recommended. They are
made by cutting the raw dasheens into latticework slices,
as for scalloped dasheens, or into fluted slices, and frying
slowly to a straw color in deep fat. Drain on clean
paper, and salt immediately. It is well to soak the sliced
dasheens in water for an hour or so, and dry them between
cloths, before frying.












DASHEEN SARATOGA CHIPS.

Dasheen 'Saratoga chips are made in the same way as
potato chips. Pare raw dasheens, and if the outside has
become wet with water, dry them; slice about one-six-
teenth inch thick, soak in plenty of water for from one to
two hours, changing the water once, and dry the surface
of the slices between cloths. Fry in deep fat to a straw
color. Place the chips on clean paper so that the excess
fat may be drawn from them. Salt immediately when
taken from the hot fat.

FRIED DASIEENS.

Slice boiled dasheens, either warm or cold, season with
salt, and fry quickly in plenty of fat. If fried too long
they become dry and hard.
French-fried dasheens are also exceedingly good. Care
should be taken to see that they are not fried too long.
Boiled dasheens, while still hot, may also be mashed
or put through a potato ricer, mixed with grated cheese,
made into cakes or croquettes, and fried. The cheese
may be omitted and the croquettesd ipped in egg and
cracker crumbs before frying.

DASHEEN GRIDDLECAKES.

Excellent griddlecakes are made by using one part of
grated raw dasheen to one, two, or three parts of wheat
flour, with the other ingredients as usual.

DASHIEEN FRITTERS.

1 cup of grated or finely teaspoonful of salt.
ground dasheen. 2 teaspoonfuls of baking
1 cup of white flour, powder.
1 tablespoonful of sugar. j cup of milk.

Mix the dasheen and the dry ingredients, and add the
milk. Drop heaping teaspoonfuls into deep hot fat and
fry to a golden brown. Sprinkle with powdered sugar,
and serve immediately; or, serve with maple or sugar
sirup. These fritters make one of the most thoroughly
delicious of all dasheen dishes.











CREAMED DASIIEENS.

Boil the dasheens in the skin and proceed as for
creamed potatoes.

S DASHEEN SALAD.

Boil medium-sized or small dasheens in the skin and
proceed as for potato salad. The addition of onion im-
proves the salad. It is very important to prepare the
dasheens while still warm and to add the dressing at
once.

I)DASHEENS AS FILLING FOR FOWL AND OTHER MEATS.


2 cups of riced dasheen.
1 cup of bread crumbs.
1 egg.


2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
Season to taste with salt.
pepper, sage and onion.


The dasheens should be boiled and riced in the usual
way. They make a particularly delicious filling, com-
parable with that made with chestnuts.

DASHEEN SOUP.


caps of boiling water.
cups of milk.
cups of riced dasheen.
tablespoonfuls of butter.


Salt and celery salt to
taste.
Parsley or grated onion
if desired.


Boil and rice the dasheens as described. Into a double
boiler put the boiling water, and add the milk and
dasheen. Bring to boil and cook for 5 to 10 minutes. Sea-
son and serve.

CANDIED DASUEENS.

Peel parboiled dasheens and cut into thick slices or
strips. Prepare a sirup made in the following propor-
tions:


cup of sugar.
cups of hot water.
to 3 tablespoonfuls of


butter.
Salt to taste.











Either granulated or brown sugar may be used. Cinna-
mon may be added if desired. Boil in this sirup in a cov-
ered dish until soft, and brown in the oven.
This dish is very similar to the candied sweet potatoes
so commonly served as one of the vegetables to accom-
pany roast meats and fowl.

DASHEEN BREAD.

Make the bread in the usual way; but replace one-
fourth or one-third, by measure, of the wheat flour with
boiled and riced or mashed dasheen. The dasheens should
always be boiled in the skin. The bread, which is much
like that made with potato in a similar way, is usually
a little darker than when made from all wheat; but the
texture and flavor are excellent, and the bread does not
dry out so quickly.

DASIIEEN PIE.

Any recipe for sweet potato pie will probably do, but
the following is.suggested as being economical and other-
wise satisfactory. The dasheens should be boiled and
priced as usual.

2 cups of riced dasleen. 1 egg (white and yolk
4 cup of butter. beaten separately).
i cup of white sugar. 2 cups of milk.
1 teaspoonful of cinnamon. 2 cups of milk.
teaspoonful of nutmeg. 4 lemon, juice and rind.
Bake in a deep pie tin. Serve warm.

DASHEEN P'DIDINIG.

Proceed the same as with the above recipe for pie. Bake
without crust in a deep dish well buttered.




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