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 County map of Florida
 Cabbage growing






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00087
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00087
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
    County map of Florida
        Page 2
    Cabbage growing
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text




Vol. 29 Number 4

Supplement to


FLORIDAL
QUARTERLY

BULLETIN
OF THE
AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT

OCTOBER 1, 1919

W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE FLA.



CABBAGE GROWING

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee. Florida, as second-class
mtter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.
"Acceptance for milling at special rate of postage provided for
in Section 1103, Act of Octolbr 3, 1917, authorized Sept. 11, 1918."
TNESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED FRT TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM
T. J. APPLEYARD, STATE PRINTER
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA.

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CABBAGE GROWING

By H. S. Elliott, Chief Clerk Department of Agriculture.

This is probably more universally grown in the family
garden than any other vegetable. It is a biennial plant,
quite hardy, enduring, if properly transpanlted, a tem-
perature of five degrees Fahrenheit, if hardened by a
gradual lowering of temperature. It is found growing
wild on the coasts of England and many parts of Eu-
rope, but has been vastly improved, under cultivation,
from the wild type, which produces no head. It was
cultivated by the Romans and probably introduced into
England by them. Bailey, in his "Cyclopedia of Ameri-
can Horticulture," says: "From the one original stock
has sprung all the forms of cabbages, cauliflower, Brus-
sels sprouts and kales." Cabbages are edible in all stages
of growth from the time they leave the seed bed until
they form hard heads. Many prefer the green leaves as
a boiled salad to the blanched heads. While the cab-
bage will endure a low temperature, it is intolerant of
a very high degree of heat, especially after the heads
are formed. For this reason our best crops are grown
in the South in late winter and early spring, and in the
late fall and early winter. Only the coarse types such
as our southern collards will survive our summers, and
these reach their best condition for use after they have
been subjected to severe frosts. The crop is less subject
to fungus diseases and insect pests in early spring and
late fall. The crop should be transplanted in November
and December and matured and removed from the gar-
den by the first of June and nothing of the cabbage fam-
ily should be allowed in the garden after June 1.
During these months of summer we have better and
moredelicate vegetables in abundance and the cabbage
Ts not needed. If allowed in the garden after June, those
that are headed are destroyed by fungus growths, pro-
ducing a nursery for the'propagation of both fungus dis-
eases and insect pests.
The cabbage succeeds best upon clay loam, rendered
friable by thorough and deep preparation and a most
liberal use of animal manure. It is a gross feeder and
while it will endure much neglect and abuse, best results
are obtained only under the most favorable conditions











as to soil, available plant-food, climatic conditions, cul-
tivation, and supply of moisture. All plants grown for
their leaves or stems must be grown under favorable con-
ditions to be tender and wholesome. If grown rapidly
the cells will be large and the cell walls thin, and tender,
and when properly cooked the plants make wholesome
food. If grown slowly because of poor cultivation and
deficient food and moisture, woody fiber is increased, and
the plants become tough and form unwholesome food.
There is little danger of manuring too heavily, provided
the soil is deeply and thoroughly prepared and soil mois-
ture retained by stirring the surface frequently amongst
the plants.
A combination of animal manures and commercial fer-
tilizers is best and most economical. When judiciously
composted and fermented to break dow nthe coarse ma-
terial, this combination destroys the seeds of grass and
weeds which are present in the manure, and properly ad-
justs the ratio between the three principal elements of
plant-food. Since cabbages are grown for the leaves, the
fertilizer used should analyze high in potash and nitro-
gen, and low in phosphoric acid compared with that for
plants grown for seed production.
It is of the first importance to secure good seed which
has been gorwn from well-selected plants in a section
especially adapted to the cabbage. Seed saved from plants
grown in the middle south has a tendency to run to seed
or to produce only leaves, without heading. By select-
ing plants of ideal development from the fall-grown
crop, protecting them during the winter and transplant-
ing in early spring not less than three feet each way
and protecting them from plant-lice and harlequin bugs,
good seed may be saved i nour alpine region. The sub-
stances needed for the growth of the seed-stalk are stored
during the first year's growth in the stalk and iyrys of
the head. It is well to slit the leavr of the head in two
directions at right angles to f. 'itate the escape of the
seed-stalk. It is claimed by sck; that the seeds produced
on the branches of the st A- are better than those formed
at the extremity, but this has not been proved by experi-
ment. The seed may be sown for the spring crop in Oc-
tober and allowed to remain in the open ground until
time to transplant in the warmer parts of the South. By
sowing thinly on well-prepared land, stocky, hardy plants











are secured, which may be transplanted as early as
February 1st with safety, if the transplanting is prop-
erly done. Cabbage plants are seldom injured by the
freezing of the leaves, but if the stem freezes, the plant
is destroyed. To prevent this and produce a spreading,
stocky plant, it should be set so that the bud will be a
little below the surface of the soil. This protects the
stem from freezing in winter, causes the leaves to spread
on the surface around the plant, and prevents the freez-
ing of the soil, to the injury of the roots. The leaves
being drawn up over the bud, the cut-worm will attack
teh leaf-stalks instead of the stem of the plant.
This method of transplanting protects the plant from
the injurious effects of drought in summer by shading
the soil over the roots and retaining moisture where it
is most needed. It has been stated that the plants may
be left in the open ground during the winter in the warm-
er parts of the South. In the colder parts, they may be
grown in the open ground, and transplanted to cold
frames protected by glass, or both, if necessary as win-
ter advances, giving each plant four square inches of
space. It is not necessary to cover them except in ex-
tremely cold spells. Slight frosts will not injure them
and exposure to the sunlight whenever the minimum tem-
perature is not below 20 degrees Fahrenheit will be bene-
ficial.
As to the best varieties, the Jersey and Charleston
Wakefield are the best of the pointed head cabbages and
seem to be the favorites with many Florida truckrs. If
you prefer the flat head varieties, any of the following
will make fine shippers: The Early Flat Dutch, Early
Summer, Succession, Surehead, Large Flat Dutch and
the large Late Drumhead.
When the plants are ready to set, tley should be put
out imn~ie'iely, as a stunted plant is sure to make a
poor crop. The field where you age going to set the
plants should be in the best condition possible. lit should
be plowed several times, then harrowed. If you wish to
broadcast the fertilizer, it should be applied before you
harrow it; but I would advise putting the fertilizer under
the row where you set the plants. To do this, lay the
field off in furrows the width you wish the rows; some
prefer them two and a half feet apart, while others prefer
the three-foot rows. Apply the fertilizer in these fur-











rows, using about 1,000 pounds to the acre. Of course,
you could make a crop with less, but it does not pay to be
stingy with fertilizer, as cabbages are rank feeders. I
prefer to put 1,000 pounds in the furrows and then drill
an equal quantity to them after they start to grow. The
following makes a fine fertilizer for cabbages: Ammo-
nia, from 4 to 5 per cent.; available phosphoric acid, 6 to
8 per cent,; and potash, 8 to 10 per cent. I always like
to have plenty of potash in the fertilizer for this crop.
Apply it about two weeks before you are ready to set the
plants. If you will do this and giev them all work and
water they require, the chances are you will be smiling
when you figure up the profits on the crop.
In setting the plants, it is well to get them down fairly
deep in the ground. I set them up to the first leaves. The
best tool for this purpose is a plasterer's small pointing
trowel or a round stick or dibbler. Pack the dirt well
around the roots and awter the plants immediately after
setting, pouring it at the side of the plant and not on it.
The distance to set the plants deep'ds upon the variety
of the cabbage you are planting, the early and small
varieties only requiring about eighteen inches between
the plants.
Start working the plants as soon as they take root,
and do not stop until the heads are about formed. Ship
the cabbages as soon as the heads are fully grown, as
you may lose the crop by leaving it in the fipld after it
matures.
If the crops do not grow fast enough to suit you or
start to turn yellow at any stage of their growth, give
them an application of nitrate of soda, about 150 or 200
pounds to the a'cre, drilling it in the row about six inches
from the plant, being careful not to get it on them, as it
burns.
Ship the cabbages in barrels, or, better -A barrel
cabbage cartes. YVou can get these from any Flor-i?
crate manufacturer.
The only insect that will be apt to bother this vege-
table is the green cabbage worm or looper, and a solu-
tion of arsenate of lead sprayed on the plants will fix
them, using about one and a half pounds of arsenate of
lead to 50 gallons of water.




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