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Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00085
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00085
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
    County map of Florida
        Page 2
    Feeding dairy cows
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
Full Text





Volume 29


No. 3
===


Supplement to

FLORIDA
QUARTERLY

BULLETIN
OF THE
AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT

JULY 1, 1919

W. A. McRAE

COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE FLA.



FEEDING DAIRY COWS


Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida. as secoad-class
matter under Act of Congreu of June, 1900.
"Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for
in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized Sept. 11, 1918."
THOSE BULLEINS ARE ISSUED REE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM
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From Fifteenth Biennial Report.


FEEDING DAIRY COWS

(A Compilation of Information on This Topic by H. S.
Elliott, Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture.)

Successful feeding of dairy cows from an economic
standpoint involves the providing of an abundant supply
of palatable, nutritious feed, at the minimum cost per
unit of feed, and supplying it to the cow in such way as
to secure the largest production for feed consumed. This
bulletin suggests some factors involved in the economical
selection of feeds to guide the producer in supplying them
to the cows.

Liberal Feeding Necessary for Profit.

The dairy cow has been likened by many writers to a
machine or a manufacturing plant. This comparison can
be applied literally, with certain reservations. A cer-
tain proportion of the power furnished any machine is
used for running the machine itself and is not in any
sense productive. In a steam engine this is represented
in the exhaust steam, in heat which escapes without pro-
ducing steam, and in the friction of the working parts of
the engine. In the manufacturing plant it is represented
by the managerial, the clerical and sales forces. These
forces, while necessary for the successful operation of
the business, are, in a sense, unproductive.
In the feeding of the dairy cow this overhead expense,
this unproductive force, is termed the "maintenance ra-
tion, and is that portion of the feed given the cow which
is used by her to perform her own functions, such as
heating the body, pumping the blood, digesting the feed,
and moving the body from place to place. This feed,
from a productive standpoint, is entirely lost to the
farmer. The cow can produce without loss of body weight
only after she has exacted this toll of maintenance. Hav-
ing received feed enough to maintain her, practically all
the feed she consumes above this can be used for milk
production. This maintenance ration is a fixed charge,
and the more feed a cow can consume above that required
for maintenance, the greater the amount available for
production.

































State Farm, Raiford.


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P SI











Feeding for profit can, therefore, be defined as liberal
feeding, to the full capacity of the cow. This point is
illustrated by Table 1. (These figures are only approxi-
mate, but will serve to illustrate the point.)

Table 1. Approximate Proportions of Cows Feed Required
for Maintenance and Available for Milk Production.


It will be noted in Table 1 that when the cow is fed
only a maintenance ration no feed is available for milk
production; when she is fed twice this quantity, half the
feed can be used for milk production; when she is fed
two and a half times the maintenance, three-fifths of the
feed can be so used. One of the most common mistakes
in the feeding of dairy cattle on our farms is that the
good cows are not fed a sufficient quantity of feed above
that required for maintenance. This is especially true
of the highly specialized dairy cow; that is, the cow
which, when fed all she will take, makes it all into milk
except what is needed for maintenance. It is, however,
unfortunately true that all cows in the dairies of the
country are not this kind. Some cows when fresh make
all the feed above maintenance into milk for a period of
several months before they begin to lay on flesh; others,
if fed heavily, begin to gain in weight soon after fresh-
ening. From the standpoint of economical milk produc-
tion one can not generally afford to give a dairy cow
more than she will consume without gaining in weight.
There are times, however, when it is desirable to make
exceptions to this rule; for example, practically all highly
specialized milk producers in the early part of the lacta-
tion period lose in weight; that is, they produce milk at
the expense of their own body flesh. When such cows
approach the end of their milking period they normally


Proportion
Cost of Available of ration
Cost of mainte- for milk ave.llable
ration. nance production, for produc-
tion.

Cents. Cents. Cents.
10 10
15 10 5 One-third.
20 10 10 One-half.
25 10 15 Three-fifths.






































Sorghum Waiting at Silo to be Cut-Anthony Farms.










regain the flesh they have lost in the early part of this
period. The feeder can, therefore, well afford to feed
such cows liberally, being assured that the feed will be
returned to him in the form of milk when the cows again
freshen.

Summer Feeding.

The problems involved in winter and summer feeding
are so different as to make a natural division between the
two. Summer feeding ordinarily consists in the use of
pastures or soiling crops. These may be supplemented
when necessary by silage or other roughage or by grain.
When dry feeds alone are fed in the summer, the prob-
lems are not materially different from winter feeding.

Pasture.

Pasture is the natural feed for dairy cows, and in many
respects the best. With abundance of good grasses in
fresh, succulent condition, we have one of the rations
most conducive to heavy production. Even with the very
best of pasture, however, a cow cannot be forced to maxi-
mum production on it alone. This is owing to the fact
that for the greatest production she must be induced to
take a large amount of nutrients. The bulky nature of
pasture grass places a positive limit upon the capacity of
the cow to take feed. In other words, the cow's stomach
can not contain grass enough to supply the required
nutrients for maximum milk production; therefore, a part
of the ration should be of a more concentrated nature.
Good pasture contains an abundant supply of succulent,
palatable and nutritious grasses. On such pasture it
should be possible for a cow to satisfy her appetite with
a few hours' grazing. Pasture of this kind will supply
all the food material needed for medium production and
a large part of that necessary for large production. For
average conditions, with ample pasture of good grasses
or legumes in good, succulent condition, good production
can be secured. The economy of the use of pasture de-
pends chiefly upon several factors, such as the price of
land, the price of labor, and the lay of the land.





































Holstein-Jersey Steers, Three Years Oldl.
Weight Average, 1,360 Pounds. Raised on Skim Milk.












Price of Land.

The price of land has a direct bearing upon the cost of
pasture and is an important factor where land values are
high. If pasture is to be depended upon entirely for
from four to six months in the year, the production is to
be kept up to a profitable standard, anywhere from 1 to 4
acres or more must be provided for each cow. This is
assuming that in permanent pasture there is a good, clean
turf, with little or no waste places, and that for tempor-
ary pasture there is a good stand of grass or legumes
throughout. Land which will give these conditions fre-
quently sells at from $50 to $300 an acre, and the interest
on the investment must necessarily also vary widely, as
is shown in Tables 2 and 3:

Table No. 2-Interest on Cost of Pasture per Cow for the
Season; Interest at 6 Per Cent on the Value of the
Land, Allowing From 1 to 4 Acres per Cow.

Acres Value of Land per Acre.
per
COW.
$25 $50 $100 $150 $200

1 $1.50 $3.00 $6.00 $9.00 $12.00
11/2 2.25 4.50 9.00 13.50 18.
2 3.00 6.00 12.00 18.00 24.00
18.00 24.00
2% 3.75 7.0 5.00 22.50 30.00
3 4.50 0.00 18.00 27.00 36.00
3%1 5.25 10.50 21.00 31.50 42.00
4 6.00 12.00 24.00 36.00 48.00



Table No. 3-Cost of Pasture per Cow per Day on Basis
of Table No. 2, with a Pasture Season of 1550 Days.

Acres Value of Land per Acre.
per
COW.
$25 $50 $100 $150 $200

Cents. Cents. Cents. Cents. Cents.
1 1 2 4 6 8
1% 1% 3 6 9 12
2 I 1 4 8 12 16
2% 2% 5 10 15 20
3 3 6 12 18 24
3% 3% 7 14 21 28
4 4 8 16 24 32

























































Stock-Feeding Shed, State Farm, Raiford.


_










It will be seen that the price of land may readily be-
come so high that it would be unprofitable to graze it.
In many sections of the country a cow can be fed for
average production for about 20 cents a day. Therefore,
when the daily rental or interest on the value of pasture
approaches the sum the farmer should carefully con-
sider other methods of summer feeding.
The cost of caring for permanent pastures must also
be taken into consideration. This will consist in the ex-
pense of cutting weeds, building and repairing fences, etc.

Price of Labor.

The pasture system of summer feeding reduces to the
minimum the amount of labor required to handle a given
number of cows, and therefore it is especially adapted to
conditions when labor is high.

Lay of Land and Roughness of Surface.

In mountainous or hilly sections of the country there is
often a part of the farm which, on account of steepness,
tendency to wash, or the presence of rock formation near
the surface,can not or should not be plowed frequently.
On such farms it is often best to plow only the bottoms,
keeping the uplands in permanent pastures. The dairy-
man will find ready application of the pasture system for
summer feeding on such farms.

Pasture With Supplements.

GRAIN.

As has been said, the supplementing of pastures with
grain is sometimes advisable, even when the pastures are
of the best. In many sections, however, pastures are
never of the best kind, and in no sections are they always
in the best condition. It is evident, therefore, that the
commercial dairyamn will seldom depend upon pasture
alone. Grain should be fed to heavy-producing cows
under all pasture conditions.
Prof C. H. Eckles, of the University of Missouri, sug-
gests the following-named quantities of grain with abun-
dant pasture for varying production:









12

Jersey cow producing-
20 pounds of milk daily.......... 3 pounds of grain.
25 pounds of milk daily.......... 4 pounds of grain.
30 pounds of milk daily.......... 6 pounds of grain.
35 pounds of milk daily.......... 8 pounds of grain.
40 pounds of milk daily.......... 10 pounds of grain.

Holstein-Friesian or Ayrshire cow producing-
25 pounds of milk. daily .......... 3 pounds of grain.
30 pounds of milk daily.......... 5 pounds of grain.
35 pounds of milk daily .......... 7 pounds of grain.
40 pounds of milk daily.......... 9 pounds of grain.
50 pounds of milk daily.......... 10 pounds of grain.
While this is, of course ,an arbitrary rule, and varia-
tions should be made to suit different conditions and in-
dividual cows, it is in accord with good feeding practice
and probably is as good a rule of its kind as has been
formulated.
For cows of medium production it is usually more
economical to feed silage or some green crop rather than
grain for supplementing short pasturage. In supplement-
ing pasture with grain it should be remembered that the
percentage of protein in the grain ration need not be the
same as for winter feeding. Good pasture is an approxi-
mately balanced ration. The grain ration to be fed with
pasture grass should, therefore, have approximately the
same proportion of protein to other nutrients. In the
case of extra heavy producers the percentage of protein
in the grain mixture should be somewhat greater.
The following-named mixtures are suggested for sup-
plementing pasture without other roughage:
Mixture No. 1:
Ground oats .......... 100 pounds
Corn meal ............ 50 pounds Per cent digestible protein, 10.3.
Wheat bran .......... 100 pounds
Mixture No. 2:
Wheat bran .......... 100 pounds
Corn meal ........... 100 pounds Per cent digestible protein, 12.7.
Cottonseed meal ...... 25 pounds
Mixture No. 3 :
Corn-and-cob meal .... 250 pounds
Cottonseed meal ...... 100 pounds Per cent digestible protein, 15.5.

Mixture No. 4:
Wheat bran ......... 100 pounds
Gluten feed ............ 50 pounds Per cet digestible protein, 1.6
Corn meal ........... 50 pounds.)
















/ \
I/ r


Field of Millet.











Soiling Crops.

Pastures, except where irrigation is practiced, are so
dependent upon rainfall that there is practically sure to
be some period each season when they are short. It is a
well-known fact among dairymen that if a cow, for lack
of proper feed ,falls off in her flow of milk for any period
of time, it is difficult or impossible to bring her back to
a full flow until she again freshens. To carry the cows
over this period on grain alone is expensive; conse-
quently, the supplementing of pasture with soiling crops
is becoming much more common and is growing in favor.
In fact, in many sections it is extremely difficult to keep
a herd in maximum production throughout the summer
without furnishing some supplemental feed. Unless an
abundance of pasture is available, there is practically
sure to be a shortage toward the end of the season.
Special crops can be grown for these shortages, but they
usually involve added expense and inconvenience com-
pared with standard farm crops. Second-growth red
clover, oats, peas or alfalfa are excellent. Corn is avail-
able in August and September. These crops are usually
a part of the regular cropping system of a well-conducted
dairy farm.
The advantages of soiling crops as a supplement to
pasture are that large quantities of forage can be grown
on a relatively small area, because it is frequently pos-
sible to harvest more than one crop in a season on land
used for soiling. Another advantage is the palatability
and succulence possessed by such crops. With their use
pasture need not be cropped so closely and less feed is
wasted through tramping by the cattle. By judicious
application of the soiling system it is often possible to
reduce the acreage of land used for pasture, which in
addition to the saving in land required for pasture has
the added saving in the cost of fencing. Soiling crops
usually are fed in the stable, where the manure can be
saved for application on cultivated fields.
An objection which can be urged against the use of soil-
ing crops is the greater amount of labor required and the
difficulty in using this labor to the best advantage. An-
other difficulty is to plan a succession of special crops
which will at all times during the season supply an
abundant supplementary feed. Even with the best ar-








































Stock Feeding, State Farm, Raiford.











ranged plan, its success depends very largely upon
weather conditions.

The Summer Silo.

Silage has found a wide use in this country as palat-
able, succulent and economical roughage for use during
the winter. Many of the advantages of its use in winter
apply equally well in summer, and there are additional
ones that apply alone to the latter season.
The use of a summer silo is particularly applicable
on high-priced land. If the land is pastured it will re-
quire from 1 to 3or more acres a season for each cow,
while 1 acre of corn put in the silo will supply succulent
roughage for several cows for a like period. It is true
that grain will be necessary in addition to silage, but
the great problem on high-priced land is to raise a suf-
ficient quantity of roughage.
As has previously been said, soiling crops have been
used to a great extent either in place of or in addition
to pasture. The greatest disadvantage in their use is that
much labor is required. In order to use these crops they
must be cut and hauled from day to day. This work is
expensive, because only small areas are cut at one time,
thus making it impracticable to use the harvesting ma-
chinery of the farm to advantage and entailing consider-
able loss of time in harnessing and unhitching the team.
Considerable inconvenience also is occasioned by the fact
that the field work is pressing at that season of the year,
and both man and horsepower are badly needed in the
fields. Silage, on the other hand, is cut at one operation
when the work in the field is not pressing. The crop
ordinarily grown for silage is corn, which is a part of the
regular farm rotation and consequently fits in well with
the regular routine of work.
With a silo for summer feeding, the dairyman always
has an abundant supply of feed that is easily handled.
By using silage the necessity of cutting and hauling the
supplementary roughage during rainy weather is elim-
inated. Another advantage as compared with the soiling
system lies in the fact that with the latter it is often
necessary to feed a portion of each crop after it has
matured too much to be palatable, and probably to start
one the succeeding one while it is still a little too green.
It is difficult to plan exactly so as to prevent these con-











editions. With silage, however, the crop can be cut at the
best stage for feeding and preserved at that point.
One of the most important uses of silage in the sum-
mer is as a supplement for short or poor pasture. This
condition frequently occurs as a result of long-continued
dry weather. Under such circumstances even the most
carefully planned soiling system may fail. It is then
that the greatest value of the summer silo is realized,
for with the silo full of well-matured silage grown in the
previous season, an abundant supply of succulent feed for
the cows is available, regardless of weather conditions.
When it is not necessary to use the silo during the
summer, it can be sealed up and the silage preserved for
winter use. This prevents any waste in feed.
One point, however, must be kept in mind in planning
the summer silo. This is the diameter of the silo in rela-
tion to the number of cows to be fed and the quantity to
be fed to each cow. Silage enough must be fed daily to
prevent excessive surface fermentation. As a general
rule, a cow under summer conditions will consume about
20 pounds a day. On this basis the diameter of the silo
in reference to the number of cows to be fed in summer
will be as follows:

20 cows............................ 8 feet in diameter
30 cows........................... 10 feet in diameter
40 cows........................... 12 feet in diameter

Inasmuch as 8 feet is about the minimum diameter of
a silo in best practice, it will be seen that the summer
silo for supplementing pasture has its best application in
herds of 20 cows or more.

Winter Feeding.

The problems involved in winter feeding are usually
distinctly different from those of summer feeding. Pas-
ture (or green feed), usually the basis of summer feed-
ing, is not available. Broadly speaking, there are two
factors involved in this problem: first, to satisfy the
needs of the col; and, second, to suit the pocketbook.
The cow must have an ample supply of feed of a palat-
able nature, and this feed must be supplied at a price
which will permit a profit on the feeding operation.


2-Feeding











Viewed from an economic standpoint, there are some
fundamental considerations which should first receive
attention. In general farm practice it is advisable, so
far as is economical, to use the feeds produced on the
farm. Often the freight rates and the middleman's
charges, if saved, will constitute a good profit for the
feeder. This is especially true of roughage. Such feeds
are bulky and in most cases must be baled at a consid-
erable cost; the freight rates also are much greater in
proportion to the nutrients contained than on the grains.
When land is high in price and the market for dairy
products is good, it is often impracticable to grow all
the feeds on the farm. In such cases arrangements first
should be made to grow the roughage, on account of the
high cost of transporting these feeds. In most cases the
prime object of the farm under such conditions will be
to supply the greatest possible quantity of roughage.
It is a difficult problem to provide a system of winter
feeding of roughage which will make the best use of
home-grown roughage and at the same time insure full
production. Only a general discussion of the problem
can be attempted.

Silage.

In addition to containing the proper nutrients in the
right proportion, part of the ration should be of a succu-
lent nature. It is extremely difficult, if not impossible,
to keep cows in full production throughout the winter
without some succulent feed. There are two chief sources
of succulent feed for winter feeding-silage and roots.
Of these, silage is in almost universal use by commercial
dairymen. While almost any green crop may be used
for silage, the heavy yields of corn, as compared with
other crops, and its comparative ease of handling, to-
gether with its keeping qualities, make it the leading
silage crop. Where the cost of land and the prices of
dairy products are high, and the system of farming of
necessity is intensive, it is questionable whether the dairy-
man should consider any other silage crop.

Roots.
The chief function of roots in cattle feeding is to sup-
ply a succulent feed. Under general farm conditions the









quantity of nutrients grown per acre in root crops is
small in comparison to the cost of production. These
root crops, however, can be preserved during the winter
equally well whether large or small quantities are fed
each day, and therefore have special application when
only a few cows are to be fed. Of the different root crops,
mangel-wurzels furnish the greatest yield per acre. Other
kinds of beets and turnips and carrots may be used.
Turnips, however, should be fed after milking rather
than before, as they cause a bad flavor in the products
if fed immediately before feeding. Carrots impart a
desirable color to the milk.

Dry Roughage.

The best kind of dry roughage to be fed to the dairy
cow in connection with corn silage or roots are legumin-
ous hays, such as alfalfa, red, crimson or alsike clover
and soy-bean or cowpea hay. While corn silage is an ex-
cellent feed, it is not a balanced one, as it does not con-
tain sufficient protein and mineral matter to meet fully
the requirements of the cow. The leguminous hays, in
addition to being very palatable, have a tendency to cor-
rect this deficiency. They are also one of the best and
cheapest sources of protein. One or more of these hays
can be grown on any farm, and in addition to their value
for feeding purposes, they improve the soil in which they
are grown. Hay from Canada field pease, sown with oats
to prevent the peas from lodging, also iakes an excellent
roughage.
Corn stover, coarse hay, etc., also find a good market
through the dairy cow. This class of roughage is low in
protein, however, and when it is used the grain ration
must be richer in protein.
No positive rule can be laid down as to the quantity
of dry roughage that should be fed, but about 6 to 12
pounds a day for each cow, in addition to silage, will be
found to be satisfactory in most cases. When the dry
roughage is of poor quality, such as coarse, weedy hay
or a poor grade of cornstalks, a large portion can often
be given to advantage, allowing the cow to pick out the
best and using the rejected part for bedding. With this
quantity of dry roughage the cow will take, according
to her size, from 25 to 50 pounds of silage. This may
be considered as a guide for feeding to apply when the















r .


Herd of Dairy Cattle.


.*yfc^'vp










roughage is grown on the farm. When everything has
to be purchased, it is often more economical to limit the
quantity of roughage fed and increase the grain ration.

Roughage Alone Too Bulky a Ration.

While a cow's stomach is large and her whole diges-
tive system is especially designed to utilize coarse feeds,
there is a limit to the bulk that she can take. This limit
is below the quantity of roughage that it would require
to furnish the nutrients she must have for maximum pro-
duction; that is, a ration may contain the proper propor-
tions of protein and carbohydrates and still be so bulky
that she can not handle it. She, therefore, should have
some grain, even though the roughage in itself is a bal-
anced ration.

Importance of a Balanced Ration.
It is probably well at this point to refer briefly to the
composition of feedstuffs as it relates to economical feed-
ing of the dairy cow. The cow takes into her digestive
system feeds which she utilizes for the production of
body tissues, heating the body, performing bodily func-
tions, such as digesting feed, moving from place to place,
and for milk production. For the purposes of the present
discussion, it is sufficient to say that the constituents or
compounds and the relative quantities necessary for these
operations have been determined; that is, we know that
milk contains protein and energy or heat-producing con-
stituents, the protein being represented by the casein and
albumin and the energy and heat-producing constituents
by the fat and sugar. In addition to the constituents or
compounds necessary for the production of milk, she also
must have the constituents necessary for performing the
other functions mentioned. These for convenience have
been classified into proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Fats
perform much the same functions as carbohydrates and
are worth for production practically two and one-fourth
times as much per pound as carbohydrates, and in the
balancing of a ration are usually classed with them. This
brings us to a definition of a "balanced ration," which is
a ration containing these various nutrients in the propor-
tion the cow needs them.
The economical importance of a balanced ration is











evident. The cow can use only certain elements or com-
pounds in certain proportions; consequently, if the ration
supplies an excessive amount of any one, the excess is
liable to be waste. Not only is this true, but as the cow
has to assimilate it, even though she can not use it, her
capacity for production is reduced.
Cost.
In making a ration, cost is one of the important fac-
tors. The best practice is to compound a grain mixture
so that it will balance with the home-grown roughage.
With this in mind ,the separate grains should be selected
to supply the necessary nutrients at the lowest possible
cost. For this, not only the price per hundred pounds,
but also the relative cost of each constituent, especially
protein, must be considered. For example, to determine
the cost of a pound of digestible protein in a given feed,
divide the price of 100 pounds by the per cent of diges-
tible protein in the feed. If this calculation is made for
several feeds, the relative cost of protein in each will be
apparent. Then the feeds that furnish protein at the
least cost can be selected. The same can be done to de-
termine the cost of the carbohydrates and fat, which are
the heat-making or energy-producing part of the feed.
Bulk.
A certain bulk is necessary in the grain mixture to
obtain the best results. When heavy feeds are used, some
bulky ones should be included to lighten the mixture,
since it is probable that a certain degree of bulkiness aids
digestion. Some of the common feeds are classified as to
bulk in Table 4:
Table No. 4-Classification of Common Feeds as to
Bulkiness.

Bulky. Medium. Heavy or compact.

Alfalfa meal. Corn meal or feed. Cottonseed meal.
orn-and-cob meal. Hominy. Linseed meal.
Bran (wheat). Gluten feed. Cocoanut meal.
Drien brewers' gains. Rye Peanut meal.
Dried distillers' grains. Barley. Gluten meal.
Oats, ground. Buckwheat middlings. Wheat middlings.
Malt sprouts.
Dried beet pulp.










Palatability.

Palatability is of great importance in successful feed-
ing. The best results can not be obtained with any feed
which is not well relished by the cow; consequently any
unpalatable feed to be used should be mixed with those
that are appetizing.

Physiological Effect.

In making the grain mixture care should be exercised
that too large a quantity of either constipating or laxa-
tive feed is not included. Cottonseed meal, for example,
is decidedly constipating and should be fed with laxa-
tive grains or succulence, such as silage or roots. For
ordinary feeding in most parts of the United States not
more than one-third of the grain should be cottonseed
meal. In some sections larger quantities have been fed,
but this practice is not to be recommended. On the other
hand, linseed-oil meal, because of its distinctly laxative
action, should not be fed ordinarily in greater quantities
than 11/2 pounds a day.

Nutritive Value of the Grains and Concentrates.

As a general rule, the energy or heat-producing mate-
rial is found chiefly in the stem and leaves of the plant
and the protein is largely in the seeds. The great excep-
tion is in the case of legumes, which have larger percent-
ages of protein throughout the plant and particularly in
the leaves. It should be noted, therefore, that in supply-
ing grain we are chiefly concerned with the protein it
contains.
Two classes of feeds are used for making up the grain
ration, namely, grains and by-products of the manufac-
turing industries. The grain produced on the farm and
commonly used for cattle feeding are corn, oats, barley
and rye. In many cases the demand for these grains for
other purposes has become so great that the dairyman
can not afford to use them; consequently, it has usually
been found more economical to use the by-products of
the manufacturing industries. The following are among
the most common of these feeds: Wheat bran, wheat
middlings, linseed meal, cottonseed meal, gluten meal,















-- ^ ^-*e.^r
^^1H-~ R~h .~l1?It fv


4%f.1"~l


Dairy Herd in Everglades.








25

distillers' grains, beet pulp, molasses, buckwheat mid-
dlings, cocoanut meal, peanut meal.
The following analyses represent digestible nutrients
in 100 pounds. The fat is multiplied by 2.25 and added
to the carbohydrates. This represents the energy or heat-
making part of the feed.

Wheat Bran.

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 12.5 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 48.4 per cent.
Bran is the outside coating of grains and is the residue
or by-product from the manufacture of flour. Wheat
bran may be derived from winter or spring wheat, and
there is little difference in its composition from either
source.
From a physiological standpoint wheat bran is one of
the very best feeds for cows. It is slightly laxative in
nature and generally tends to keep the cow's digestive
system in good condition. The price based upon its pro-
tein content is usually so high that most commercial
dairymen combine it with other feeds in which protein
costs less per pound. Aside from the value of the
nutrients which it contains, it has a special value in a
feeding mixture, as it gives bulk and adds to the palata-
bility. Wheat bran may be used when the rest of the
grain ration is lacking in palatability or is of a consti-
pating nature. It is especially good when the roughage
is all dry. The best grades of wheat bran are of light
weight with large flakes. Some of the large mills put
the sweepings from the mill into the bran; therefore, it
is usually best to buy the highest grade of bran, provided
the mills grading it are reliable. The output of small
country mills is usually of excellent quality. Bran con-
tains a high proportion of phosphorous and potash in its
ash content.
Wheat Middlings.

Digestive Nutrients.-Protein, 13.4 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 55.9 per cent.
Standard wheat middlings or shorts are composed of
the finer portions of the bran, together with the coarser
portion of the flour. They are not so flaky as bran, are a
little less laxative, and contain a somewhat smaller quan-










tity of ash. In other respects they may be said to re-
semble bran closely. This feed is somewhat pasty when
moist, and consequently lacks bulk.

Linseed Meal.

Digestive Nutrients.-Old process: Protein, 30.2 per
cent; carbohydrates and fat, 47.7 per cent. New process:
Protein, 31.7 per cent; carbohydrates and fat, 44.2 per
cent.
Linseed meal is a by-product of the manufacture of
linseed oil from flaxseed (and is produced under two pro-
cesses, known as the old and the new. Linseed meal or
oil meal from a physiological standpoint is one of the very
best feeds. It is laxative, palatable, and is a very good
"conditioner," but, like wheat bran, its price is usually
excessive for its nutritive value. It has, however, a dis-
tinct place in a mixture in supplying protein to increase
the palatability and improve the physiological effect. It
is very heavy, so that it is well to feed it in connection
with a bulky feed. It is especially applicable in a mix-
ture to be fed with dry roughage.

Cottonseed Meal (Choice).

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 37 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 41.2 per cent.
Cottonseed meal is the richest in protein of all the
common cow feeds on the market. It is usually the
cheapest source of protein available, but it does not have
the best physiological effect upon the cow, often causing
digestive troubles if fed in large quantities for long
periods. At first it is advisable to start with 1 to 2 pounds
a day, gradually increasing the quantity if no bad results
are observed. In some herds in the North as high as 5
to 6 pounds a day are fed without bad results. In the
South there seems to be no limit in this direction.
Cottonseed meal is a highly concentrated feed and
should, if possible, be fed in a mixture with some bulky
feed like bran. It can be fed to better advantage when
the roughage contains an ample quantity of succulent
feed. While is physiological effect in the North at least
is not good as compared with most other cow feeds, its
cheapness and the fact that in time the cows seem to
overcome this tendency to digestive trouble from it are










rapidly giving it great prominence as a cheap source of
protein for dairy cows.

Gluten Meal and Gluten Feed.

Digestible Nutrients.-Gluten meal: Protein, 30.2 per
cent; carbohydrates and fat, 53.8 per cent. Gluten feed:
Protein, 21.6 per cent; carbohydrates and fat, 59.1 per
cent.
Gluten meal is a by-product of the manufacture of
starch from corn. The basis of the meal is the germ part
of the corn kernel. Gluten feed is composed of the gluten
meal plus a certain quantity of corn bran, which makes
it lighter than the meal. Both feeds are fairly palatable
and are usually among the cheapest sources of protein.

Dried Brewers' Grains.
Digestive Nutrients.-Protein, 21.5 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 44.2 per cent.
Dried brewers' grains rank with wheat bran as a flaky,
bulky feed. The physiological effect is nearly if not
quite as good as bran. They differ in that they carry a
somewhat larger percentage of protein than bran. Cows
sometimes do not eat these grains readily at first, but
soon overcome this aversion.

Malt Sprouts.
Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 20.3 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 50.3 per cent.
Malt sprouts are loose and bulky and cows usually do
not take them readily at first. The chief place of this
feed is with other feeds in a mixture. Both brewers'
grains and malt sprouts come from barley and are by-
products from the manufacture of beer.
The proprietary feed companies control at the present
time a large percentage of the output of dried grains and
malt sprouts from the larger breweries, and these ex-
cellent feeds do not appear unmixed on the market to so
great an extent as they did a few years ago.

Hominy Meal, Feed or Chop.
Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 7 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 77.6 per cent.










This by-product of the manufacture of hominy consists
of part of the starchy portion of the corn and part of the
germ. It is variously known, as the heading suggests,
as hominy meal, feed or chop. In many respects it re-
sembles corn and is a good substitute for it. This feed
is used chiefly to furnish the energy or heat-making part
of the ration, but because of its low percentage of protein
it is not an economical source of the latter.

Dried Distillers' Grains.

Digestible Nutrients.-Corn grains: Protein, 22.4 per
cent; carbohydrates and fat, 66.5 per cent. Rye grains:
Protein, 13.6 per cent; carbohydrates and fat, 52.8 per
cent.
These grains are the by-products of the manufacture
of alcohol and distilled liquors from corn and rye. Both
kinds are rather bulky and usually the corn grains are
among the cheapest sources of protein. These grains are
not particularly palatable, consequently they should be
used with other feeds in the grain ration.

Dried Beet Pulp.

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 4.6 per cent; carbohy-
drates, and fat, 67 per cent.
Dried beet pulp is a by-product from the manufacture
of sugar from the beet. As a source of protein it is not
of high value, and the farmer should recognize this fact
when he buys it. It is bulky, however, and has an ex-
cellent physiological effect upon the cow, as it aids in
keeping her digestive organs in good condition. When
for any reason neither silage nor roots are available, the
pulp can be soaked for about 12 hours in about four
times it weight of water; it then constitutes a good sub-
stitute for a succulent roughage. Beet pulp should be
classed as a carbohydrates rather than as a protein feed.

Molasses.

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 1 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 58.2 per cent.
Molasses, from both the beet and cane sugar factories,
is valuable as a source of energy or heat-making material,
the main difference between the two kinds being that the










former is more laxative when fed in large quantities.
When fed in small quantities, molasses adds materially
to the palatability of the ration, but unless it is very low
in price is is not usually an economical feed for dairy
cows.

Buckwheat Middlings.

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 24.6 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 52 per cent.
This floury feed is composed largely of that part of the
buckwheat kernel under the hull, together with some of
the coarsest of the flour. It is rather heavy and tends to
produce a tallowy butter if fed in large quantities. In
certain sections it is one of the cheap sources of protein.
Frequently bran and chaff are added to the middlings,
thus greatly reducing their feeding value.

Cocoanut Meal.

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 18.8 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 60.2 per cent.
This meal is the ground cake resulting from the manu-
facture of cocoanut oil. It is a rather heavy feed, which,
on account of its high oil content, tends to become rancid
if kept for long periods in the summer. If it is possible
to obtain cocoanut meal at a reasonable price it will be
found to be a valuable addition to the ration.

Peanut Meal.

Digestible Nutrients.-Hulled nuts: Protein, 42.8 per
cent ;carbohydrates and fat, 36.6 per cent. With hulls:
Protein, 20.2 per cent; carbohydrates and fat, 38.5 per
cent.
This meal is the by-product of the manufacture of pea-
nut oil and varies greatly in composition, depending upon
the percentage of hulls it contains. It is an excellent
dairy feed and in some sections is a cheap source of pro-
tein.

Farm Grains.

Some of the more common grains that are grown upon
the farm will be described briefly below.










































Herd of ersey Dairy Cattle.


__ _~I










Corn.

Digestible Nutrients.-Corn meal: Protein, 6.9 per cent;
carbohydrates and fat, 76.9 per cent. Corn-and-cob: Pro-
tein, 6.1 per cent; carbohydrates and fat, 72 per cent.
Corn is probably the most common grain grown upon
the farm and is well adapted to be part of the ration of a
dairy cow. Corn is palatable, heavy, and one of the best
and cheapest sources of the energy or heat-making part
of the ration, but on account of its low protein content
it should not form the entire grain ration. In order to
lighten up this grain, the cob is often ground with the
kernel, the resulting meal being called corn-and-cob meal.
This feed is more bulky and better adapted for mixing
with heavy grains.

Oats (Ground).

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 9.4 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 60.6 per cent.
This very palatable cereal is slightly laxative and very
well adapted for feeding dairy cattle. Owing to the high
market price of oats, it is usually more economical to sell
them and purchase other feeds which furnish nutrients
at a cheaper price.

Barley (Ground).

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 9 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 70.4 per cent.
This is a palatable feed and one that can be used to
good advantage as a source of carbohydrates or energy
material for dairy cows where its price is moderate. Like
corn, it should not be the only grain in the ration.

Rye (Ground).

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 9.2 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 70.5 per cent.
This grain is not especially palatable and should not
be used in large quantities, as it tends to produce a hard,
tallowy butter. Mixed with other feeds, it is often a
valuable addition to the ration.











Roughage.

All roughage may be divided for convenience into two
general classes with reference to its content of protein.
In the first, or low-protein, class are placed corn silage,
corn stover, timothy hay, millet hay, prairie hay, hays
from the common grasses, straws of the various cereals,
and cottonseed hulls. The second, or high-protein, class
includes the various legume hays, such as alfalfa, the
clovers, cowpea, soy bean, and oat and pea. Economy
in feeding demands that grain should supplement the
roughage, consequently the grain mixtures will be com-
pounded to fit the class to which the roughage belongs.

Compounding a Grain Mixture.

A few simples rules for making up a grain mixture are
given briefly below:
1. Make up the mixture to fit the roughage available.
With roughage entirely of the low-protein class the grain
should contain approximately from 18 to 22 per cent of
protein, while with exclusively high-protein roughage the
grain ration need contain only about 13 to 16 per cent.
2. Select grains that will furnish the various constit-
uents, especially protein, at the least cost, using home-
grown grains if possible.
3. Be sure that the mixture is light and bulky.
4. The mixture should be palatable.
5. See that the grain has the proper physiological
effect upon the cow.
All these suggestions should be kept in mind in order
Sto obtain the best possible combination of grains. For
the convenience of the feeder, Table 5, showing the diges-
tible protein content of the more common grains and
by-products feeds, is given. The per cent columns are
arranged in 5 per cent divisions.






























































LOW reda adlu oulrnurlm.










34


Table No. 5-Approximate Digestible Protein of Various
Grains and By-Products.


Average
5 per cent
(2.5 to 7.4
per cent).


Corn meal.
Corn-and-cob
meal.
Hominy feed.
Dried beet pulp.







Average
25 per sent
(22.5 to 27.4
per cent).


Average
10 per cent
(7.5 to 12.4
per cent).

Wheat, ground.
Oats, ground.
Barley, ground.
Buckwheat,
ground.
Sorghum grains,
ground.





Average
30 per cent.
(27.5 to 32.4
per cent).


Buckweat Gluten meal.
middlings. Linseed meal
(both pro-
cesses).
Soy beans.


Average
15 per cent
(12.5 to 17.4
per cent).

Wheat bran.
Wheat mid-
dlings.
Dried distillers'
grains (rye).


Average
20 per cent
(17.5 to 22.4
per cent).

Gluten feed.
Malt sprouts.
Dried brewers'
grains.
Dried distillers'
grains (corn).
Cocoanut meal.
Peanut meal
with hulls.
Cowpeas.


Average Average
35 per cent 40 per cent.
(32.5 to 37.4 (37.5 to 42.4
per cent), per cent).

Cottonseed meal. Peanut meal
(hulled nuts).


The per cent of protein in a grain mixture may be found
as follows: Take any number of parts of any number of
feeds in the table, and for each part put down the per
cent of the column in which it is found. Add these num-
bers and divide the sum by the number of parts.
Examples:

1 part wheat bran.............. 15
1 part cottonseed meal .......... 35
1 part gluten feed............... 20

3 3) 70

23.3 per cent protein.









3 parts wheat bran (3x5)....... 45
2 parts cottonseed meal (2x35.... 70
1 part gluten feed (1x20)........ 20

6 6) 135

22.5 per cent protein.

The approximate price of a ration per pound of pro-
tein may be ascertained as follows: Divide the total
price of the mixture by the average protein content as
derived above. The mixture costing the smallest price
per pound of protein, other things being equal, is the
most economical. Unfortunately, other htings are never
exactly equal, for the physiological effect of the grain,
bulk and palatability must also be taken into considera-
tion. Practically all the grain feeds low in protein are
rich in carbohydrates, but, as already stated, grains are
purchased primarily for their protein content, as almost
invariably the carbohydrates can be produced more
cheaply in the form of corn silage, cornstalks, etc. While
the above-mentioned method of testing the economy of a
grain ration is not entirely accurate, it is usually a safe
method to follow.

SAMPLES OF GRAIN MIXTURES TO BE FED WITH
VARIOUS ROUGHAGES.

With Low-Protein Roughages.
The following grain mixtures are adapted to be fed
with roughages of the low-protein class, such as corn
silage, corn stover, timothy, prairie, rowen or millet hays,
cottonseed hulls, etc.:
Mixture 1.-Per cent of digestible protein, 18.4:
500 pounds corn meal.
400 pounds dried distillers' grains (corn).
200 pounds gluten feed.
300 pounds linseed meal (old process).
Mixture 2.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.8:
100 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
200 pounds wheat bran.










Mixture 3.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.8:
300 pounds corn meal.
200 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds dried distillers' grains (corn).
100 pounds gluten feed.
Mixture 4.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.8:
200 pounds corn-and-cob meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
Mixture 5.-Per cent of digestible protein, 18.8:
200 pounds corn meal.
150 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 6.-Per cent of digestible protein, 18.1:
200 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds oats, ground.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
Mixture 7.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.4:
400 pounds corn meal.
200 pounds cottonseed meal.
300 pounds gluten feed.
400 pounds dried brewers' grains.
Mixture 8.-Per cent of digestible protein, 18.3:
200 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
150 pounds gluten feed.
200 pounds dried brewers' grains.
Mixture 9.-PeF cent of digestible protein, 18.4:
300 pounds corn-and-cob meal.
200 pounds cottonseed meal.
Mixture 10.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.1:
200 pounds corn-and-cob meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds buckwheat middlings.
Mixture 11.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.1:
200 pounds barley.
200 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds alfalfa meal.
100 pounds wheat bran.










With High-Protein Roughages.

With roughage of the high-protein class, such as clover,
alfalfa, soy beans, cowpeas and vetch or other legume hay,
the following grain mixtures may be used:
Mixture 12.-Per cent of digestible protein, 14.1:
400 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 13.-Per cent of digestible protein, 15.6:
400 pounds corn meal.
200 pounds gluten feed.
200 pounds linseed meal (old process).
100 pounds oats, ground.
Mixture 14.-Per cent of digestible protein, 14.9:
200 pounds corn meal.
200 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds malt sprouts.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 15.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.7:
300 pounds barley.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds alfalfa meal.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 16.-Per cent of digestible protein, 13.7:
100 pounds barley.
200 pounds cocoanut meal.
100 pounds oats, ground.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 17.-Per cent of digestible protein, 15.8:
300 pounds corn-and-cob meal.
200 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 18.-Per cent of digestible protein, 15.5:
100 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
100 pounds oats, ground.

With Combination of Low and High Protein Roughages.

The following grain mixtures are adapted for feeding
with a combination of the low and high protein classes of
roughage, such as silage and clover, or other legume hay;










corn stover and clover, or other legume hay; mixed hay,
or oat-and-pea hay, etc.:

Mixture 19.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.3:
400 pounds corn meal.
300 pounds dried distillers' grains (corn).
100 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
Mixture 20.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.1:
300 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
200 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 21.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.4:
400 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
200 pounds dried distillers' grains (corn).
100 pounds gluten feed.
Mixture 22.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.7:
400 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
200 pounds gluten feed.
200 pounds dried brewers' grains.
Mixture 23.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.4:
200 pounds corn-and-cob meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
Mixture 24.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.7:
200 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds peanut meal (with hulls).
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 25.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.4:
100 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds oats, ground.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds wheat bran.

The above-named mixtures which contain linseed meal
are particularly adapted for use when no succulence is
in the ration.










Rations Suitable for Florida, Where Cottonseed Meal Is
of Moderate Price and Cowpea and Other
Hays Are Raised on the Farm.
Pounds.
(1) Corn silage ............................... 35
Cowpea hay ............................... 8
Cottonseed meal or oil meal. ................. 7

(2) Corn silage ............. ................. 30
Cottonseed hulls ........................... 12
Cottonseed meal .......................... 7

Balanced Rations for Dairy Cows.

In the lists of rations given below, home-grown feeds
are separate from purchased feeds. The amount given
in each ration is sufficient for one day's feed for a cow
weighing 1,000 pounds and giving about three gallons of
milk per day. (Dairy cows in Florida usually weigh
from 600 to 800 pounds.) For cows giving a heavier flow
of milk it will be necessary to increase the amounts of
feed accordingly. No attempt has been made to estimate
the cost of these rations, or to say which will be the
cheapest, as the prices of feeds vary in different places.
The amounts of each feed being given, it will be an easy
matter for the dairyman to calculate the local cost of the
different rations and in this way find out which will be
the cheapest for him to use.

Rations of Home-Grown Feeds.

(1) Velvet beans in the pod................ 10 pounds
Japanese cane, cured in shock.......... 10 pounds
Cowpea hay .......................... 8 pounds

(2) Velvet beans in pod.................... 10 pounds
Cottonseed meal...................... 2 pounds
Japanese cane......................... 12 pounds

(3) Velvet beans in the pod................ 8 pounds
Cowpea hay........................... 10 pounds
Japanese cane......................... 10 pounds








40

(4) Corn ............................... 3 pounds
Velvet beans in the pod................ 7 pounds
Cowpea hay ........................... 9 pounds
Japanese cane silage................... 20 pounds

(5) Velvet beans in the pod................ 8 pounds
Cowpea hay........................... 10 pounds
Sorghum, green ...................... 20 pounds

(6) Velvet beans in the pod ................ 8 pounds
Cowpea hay ......................... 8 pounds
Crabgrass hay........................ 8 pounds
Sweet potatoes (or cassava) ............ 25 pounds

The above are well-known home-grown feeds, or feeds
that can be grown at home. Feeds can be grown more
cheaply than they can be bought on the market. In these
rations, cowpea hay can be replaced by an equal weight
of beggarweed hay, velvet bean hay, or any other good
legume hay. Which of these hays should be used will
depend largely on the cost of the hay on the market, or
rather on what it will cost to produce it. One may be so
situated as to be able to grow beggarweed hay, or velvet
bean hay, to better advantage than cowpea hay. All of
the hays in these rations are considered to be of good
quality, cut at the proper stage of maturity, and properly
cured.

Rations of Purchased Feeds.

(1) Alfalfa hay ....................... 10 pounds
Wheat bran.............. ............ 4 pounds
Shorts .............................. 4 pounds

(2) Alfalfa hay.......................... 10 pounds
Wheat bran.......................... 9 pounds
Crabgrass hay........................ 13 pounds

(3) Alfalfa hay ........................ 10 pounds
Shorts .............................. 9 pounds
Crabgrass hay........................ 13 pounds

(4) Alfalfa hay .......................... 10 pounds
Wheat bran.......................... 6 pounds
Beet pulp............................ 10 pounds










(5) Wheat bran.......................... 9 pounds
Cottonseed meal...................... 3 pounds
Cottonseed hulls...................... 20 pounds

(6) Shorts ........................... 8 pounds
Cottonseed meal ..................... 24 pounds
Hay (any non-legume) ................ 15 pounds

(7) W heat bran....................... 6 pounds
Cottonseed meal...................... 2j pounds
Beet pulp ............................ 10 pounds
Timothy hay ......................... 7 pounds

(8) W heat bran....... .................. 9 pounds
Cottonseed meal ..................... 3 pounds
Japanese cane............ ........... 15 pounds

(9) Corn ................................ 5 pounds
Cottonseed meal ...................... 24 pounds
Cowpea hay ....................... 12 pound.
Silage .............................. 30 pounds

It should be understood that the above rations are not
necessarily to be fed in the exact quantities given above,
but should be modified to suit local conditions or the
actual conditions on each farm. They are given to show
approximately the average amounts and character of feed
that would be consumed daily by a 1,000-pound animal
during the feeding period.
It is well to feed as near a balanced ration as possible
without materially increasing its cost. Sometimes the
prices of available feeds are such that a farmer is justified
in deviating from the standard. Such conditions are
illustrated by the use of some of the rations given above.
The second ration shown for the South is an example, as
that ration is very narrow, but in certain localities it is
more profitable than one which is balanced by the use of
high-priced carbohydrate feeds.

Supplementary Feeds.

While silage is an excellent feed, it is not a complete
one for dairy stock. It is too bulky and watery and con-
tains insufficient protein and mineral matter to fully meet










the requirements of the dairy cow. It should be combined
with some leguminous hay, such as clover, cowpeas, or
alfalfa. These will tend to correct the deficiencies of the
silage in dry matter, protein, and mineral constituents.
A ration of silage and, say, alfalfa hay alone is satisfac-
tory, however, only for cows which are dry or giving only
a small amount of milk ,and for heifers and bulls. Cows
in full milk require some more concentrated feed than
hay or silage, else they can not assume enough feed to
meet the demands of the body. The result will be that
the cows lose in flesh and in milk flow.

Amount to Feed.

The amount of silage to feed a cow will depend upon
the capacity of the animal to take feed. She should be
fed as much as she will clean up without waste when con-
sumed along with her hay and grain. Raise or lower the
amount until the proper quantity is ascertained. Gener-
ally speaking, a good cow should be fed just short of the
limit of her appetite. If she refuses any of her feed it
should be reduced at once. The small breeds will take
25 or 30 pounds per day; the large breeds about 40; and
the medium-sized ones amounts varying between.

Rations.

Ironclad directions for feeding cows can not be given.
In general, however, they should be supplied with all the
roughage they will clean up with grain in proportion to
butterfat produced. The hay will ordinarily range be-
tween 5 and 12 pounds per cow per day when fed in con-
nection with silage. For Holsteins 1 pound of concen-
trates for each 4 pounds of milk produced will prove
about right. For Jerseys 1 pound for each 3 pounds of
milk or less will come nearer meeting the requirements.
The grain for other breeds will vary between these two,
according to the quality of milk produced. A good rule
is to feed seven times as much grain as there is butterfat
produced.
The following rations will be found good:
For a 1,300-pound cow yielding 40 pounds of milk test-
ing 3.5 per cent:








43

Pounds.
Silage ....................................... 40
Clover, Cowpea, or Alfalfa Hay ................. 10
Grain mixture .................... ............ 10

For the same cow yielding 20 pounds of 3.5 per cent
milk:

Silage ........................................ 40
Clover, Cowpea, or Alfalfa Hay .................. 5
Grain mixture ................................ 5

For a 900-pound cow yielding 30 pounds of 5 per cent
milk:

Silage ....................................... 30
Clover, Cowpea, or Alfalfa Hay. .................. 10
Grain mixture ................. ........... 11

For the same cow yielding 15 pounds of 5 per cent
milk:

Silage ............ ........................... 30
Clover, Cowpea, or Alfalfa Hay................. 8
Grain m ixture ...................... .......... 5

A good grain mixture to be used in a ration which in-
eludes silage and some sort of leguminous hay is com-
posed of:
Parts.
Corn Chop ..................... .............. 4
W heat Bran................................... 2
Linseed-oil Meal or Cottonseed Meal ............. 1

In case the hay used.is not of this kind, some of the
corn chop may be replaced by linseed or cottonseed meal.
In many instances dried brewers' grains or crushed oats
may be profitably substituted for the bran.

Time to Feed.

The time to feed silage is directly after milking or at
least several hours before milking. If fed immediately
before milking, the silage odors may pass through the
cow's body into the milk. Besides, the milk may receive











some taints directly from the stable air. On the other
hand, if feeding is done subsequent to milking, the vola-
tile silage odors will have been thrown off before the
next milking hour. Silage is usually fed twice a day.
Many objections have been made to the feeding of
silage, some condenseries even refusing to let their
patrons use it. These objections are becoming less com-
con, since milk from cows fed silage in a proper manner
is in no way impaired; besides which there is nothing
about silage that will injure in any way the health of
the animals.

Silage for Calves, Bulls and Dry Cows.
Calves may be fed silage with safety when they are
about 3 or 4 months old. It is perhaps of greater im-
portance that the silage be free from mould or decay
when given to calves than when given to mature stock.
After the calves are weaned they may be given all the
silage they will eat up clean. Yearling calhes will con-
sume about one-half as much as mature stock; that is,
from 15 to 20 pounds a day. When supplemented with
some good leguminous hay, little if any grain will be re-
quired to keep the calves in a thrifty, growing condition.
There is a decided opinion among some breeders of
dairy stock that a large allowance of silage is detrimen-
tal to the breeding qualities of the bull. Whether there
is any scientific foundation for this opinion remains to
be determined. Pending further investigations, however,
it is advisable to limit the allowance to about 15 pounds
of silage a day for each 1,000 pounds of live weight.
When fed in this amount, silage is thought to be a good,
cheap and safe feed for bulls. It should of course be
supplemented with hay, and with a small allowance of
grain also in the case of bulls doing active service or
growing rapidly.
Cows when dry will consume almost as much roughage
as when milking. Silage may well form the principal
ingredient of the ration; in fact, with 25 to 40 pounds of
silage and a small supplementary feed of clover, cowpea,
or alfalfa hay, say 5 or 6 pounds a day, the cows will
keep in good flesh and even make some gain. Cows in
thin flesh should receive in addition a small amount of
grain. Silage will tend to keep the whole system in a









state of healthy activity and in this way lessen the
troubles incident to parturition.

Silage for Summer Feeding.

One of the most trying seasons of the year for the dairy
cow is the latter part of the summer and early fall. At
this season the pastures are often short or dried up, and
in such cases it is a common mistake of dairymen to let
their cows drop off in flow of milk through lack of feed.
Later they find it impossible to restore the milk flow no
matter how the cows are fed. Good dairy practice de-
mands that the milk flow be maintained at a high point
all the time from parturition to drying off. It becomes
necessary, therefore, to supply some feed to take the place
of the grass. The easiest way to do this is by means of
silage. Silage is cheaper and decidedly more convenient
to use than soiling crops.
The amounts to feed will depend upon the condition of
the pastures, varying all the way from 10 pounds to a full
winter feed of 40 pounds. It should be remembered in
this connection that silage contains a low percentage of
protein, so that the greater the amount of silage fed the
greater must be the amount of protein in the supplemen-
tary feeds to properly balance the ration.

Individual Feeding.

Different cows have different capacities for converting
feed into milk. For this reason the above-mentioned rules
can serve only as indicators for the inexperienced feeders.
No man who has not a full appreciation of the wide
variation in individual cows will be fully successful as a
feeder. Some cows may have natural capacity for pro-
ducing large quantities of milk, and may not receive feed
enough for maximum production. By increasing the feed
of the highest-producing cows and carefully consulting
the milk sheets on which each cow's daily production is
recorded, the skillful feeder will soon find that some cows
in the herd will respond to the increased allowance and
return a good profit on the additional feed given. On the
other hand, there are cows that have a limited capacity
for milk production and are very liable to be overfed. By
carefully studying each individual cow the feeder will











soon ascertain the point beyond which any addition to
the grain ration becomes unprofitable.

Water for Cows.

All animals require plenty of good, pure water. This
is especially true of the milking cow, as water consti-
tutes more than three-fourths of the total value of milk.
The water supply, therefore, demands the dairyman's
most careful attention. Stale or impure water is dis-
tasteful to the cow and she will not drink enough for
maximum milk production. Such water may also carry
disease germs which might make the milk unsafe for
human consumption or be dangerous to the cow herself.
During the winter, where cows are stabled the greater
part of the time, they should be watered two or three
times a day unless arrangements have been made to keep
water before them at all times. The water should, if pos-
sible, be 15 or 20 above the freezing point, and should
be supplied at practically the same temperature every
day. When water well above freezing temperature is
stored in tanks and piped directly to the cow, there is
probably little occasion for facilities to warm it. When
it stands in a tank on which ice often forms, it usually
pays well to warm it slightly. This can be done by a
tank heater, by live steam, or by hot water from a boiler.
If a boiler is used for running a separator or for heating
water to wash and sterilize utensils, steam from it can
readily and cheaply be used to warm the water.

Salt.

Salt is required by all animals. The dairy cow requires
an ounce or more a day, and while she should be given
all she needs, she should not be forced to take more than
she wants. It is best ,therefore, to give only a small
quantity on the feed, and to place rock salt in boxes in
the yard where she can lick it at will.




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