County map of state of Florida
 Wheat in Florida
 Growing rye in Florida

Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00080
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00080
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Wheat in Florida
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Growing rye in Florida
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text

Volume 27 Number 4 p, C LC





OCTOBER 1, 1917.



Entered January 81, 1908, at Tallahasse, Florida, as second-claw
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.


V.L a^^ -





By H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk Department of Agriculture.
That wheat can be successfully grown in Florida, there
is no doubt. The early settlers in Florida grew their
own wheat and made their own flour. True, the mills
used in those days were of vastly different type from the
present, but the quality of the flour was equally as nutri-
tions and wholesome, if not more so, than the new process
flours of today. We consider that the growing of wheat
in Florida, owing to the condition of the times and the
demand for breadstuffs by the allied powers, is prac-
tically a necessity, and that Florida in common with
other States should live within herself as nearly as pos-
sible. In fact, it is a patriotic duty, which the people of
our State owes to our country and the cause we are en-
gaged in defending, to grow every kind of food products
that is necessary not only to maintain the people at home,
but to supply our quota of foodstuffs to the armies in the
field. Wheat can be grown in Florida from the north
central portion of the State, northeast and west to the
Perdido River. Most of the land in the region named
will produce one or more of the varieties of wheat adapted
to southern conditions. Wheat is the world's choicest
bread crop and the source of one of the principal foods
of the most progressive and intelligent peoples and na-
tions of the world. The only other crop that approaches
it in food value, and that is grown to any extent, is rice.
With these conditions before us we feel justified in sug-
gesting that all farmers who can, and whose lands are
adapted, in whole or in part, to wheat growing, plant at
least enough for home consumption. A few acres planted
by each farmer will give him all of the flour that he needs
throughout the year. If each farmer in Florida, of the
ordinary size farm, should plant from three to five acres
to wheat, he would find it the most profitable crop that
he could plant. In doing this, if he does no more, it
would set free many hundred thousands of bushels of
wheat for war consumption. We suggest the following
varieties as being adapted to Florida soils: Blue Stem,
Red May, Georgia Red and Leap's Prolific. Of these, the
Blue Stem, a smooth-headed wheat, is well adapted to
the better quality of sandy loam soils of Florida; like-

wise, the Red May wheat. The eGorgia Red and Leap's
Prolific do best on the clay loam soils. Any of the
varieties mentioned will do well on the better gradations
of the soils mentioned above.
SOILS.-Light fertile clay and medium fertile sandy
loams of good depth, and well drained, are the best lands
for wheat culture. Heavy clays are too close in texture
and liable to bake under certain conditions. But light
clay loam and good sandy loams have about the proper
consistency or degree of compactness necessary to retain
moisture, and are better adapted to wheat cultivation
than the heavier clays or lighter loams. Good drainage
is necessary to the proper development of the wheat
plant, and a medium porous, permeable sub-soil is also
important during most of the growing period of wheat.
A great deal depends on the soil as regards the yield as
well as the quality of the grain. Deep plowing is not
necessary to the successful growing of wheat. In break-
ing land that has not been in cultivation the year pre-
vious, six to ten inches, depending upon cond-tions of
the soil, will be about correct. If it is stubble land that is
to be planted in wheat, it need not be broken with a turn
plow. If in the first instance the land is well broken, then
harrowed cross-wise with a disk, and later with a straight.
toothed smoothing harrow, a good seed bed will be
obtained. If it is stubble land, such as corn land, cow-
peas or velvet beans, where the crop has been cut off for
hay, the soil will need no turning, but the planting can
be equally as well done by preparing the land with a
heavy disk; then if the wheat is to be sown broadcast
it can be sown on the disked soil and harrowed in with
a straight-toothed harrow. The best way of planting
wheat, however, is with a drill, which opens the furrows;
drops the seed, covers and rolls it with one operation.
In preparing the land, however, the surface should be
left clean without sticks or weeds left lying on the
ground, which would interfere with the handling of the
harvest machinery. In the case of fallow lands, it should
be well broken early in the fall, or in Florida in the late
summer, from three weeks to a month, at least, before the
wheat is to be planted. One thing to remember is that
it will be a waste of both time and seed to neglect a
proper preparation of the soil. A good seed bed is half
the battle.

The time for sowing wheat in Florida of course de-
pends upon the section of the Statewhere it is to be grown.
In Northern and Western Florida the best time would
be from about the middle of October to the middle of
November. In Southern Florida the best time would be
about the first of November to December. There can be
no fixing of positive dates in this matter, and the grower
will have to use his discretion as to the time best suited
for planting.
FERTILIZING.- The best form of manuring for
wheat, and in general the best kind of manure adapted
to wheat growing, is farm lot or stable manure, but if
this kind of manure is applied it should be under the
crop preceding the sowing of the wheat. If commercial
fertilizers are to be relied on, then it is best to apply that
broadcast,and later, if there is barn yard manure to ipare,
that can be applied as a top dressing. Manures contain-
ing too much nitrogen should not be used. A good
formula for this purpose is, and one that is generally
recommended by most growers, on the character of soils
we have in Florida, a mixture analyzing about three and
one-half per cent nitrogen, ten to twelve per cent of
available phosphoric acid, and about four per cent potash,
to be followed in the spring, when the wheat indicates
a swelling of the upper portion of the plants prior to'
heading, with nitrate of soda. This will be about four
weeks before the plant heads. The application of about
100 to 150 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre will add
greatly to the yield of grain. If the land has been well
cultivated and kept in a reasonably fertile condition, es-
pecially manures, like stable manure, that contain a con-
siderable amount of humus, then the following formula
would be an excellent one in producing a good yield: Acid
phosphate, 350 pounds sulphate of ammonia, 130 pounds-
muriate of potash, 90 pounds; mixed and used on one acre.
This also should be followed in the spring as above sug-
gested with about 100 pounds of nitrate of soda broadcast.
This is rather on the intensive system of manuring, but it
will pay well. Some soils under certain conditions will be
much benefited by the application of well slacked lime.
From 25 to 40 bushels per acre on poor land, and es-
pecially the thin clay land, will have a good effect. Its
benefit consists in loosening up the clay lands, making

them more friable, of easier cultivation, and sets free the
potash in the clay for the use of the plants.
These brief descriptions and instructions are intended
more for those who have not planted wheat on their
farms. The average, older and expert farmer will easily
understand the best methods of growing grain crops.
There is much similarity in the methods used in growing
wheat, oats and rye. The same fundamental principles
underlie the characteristics of each of these crops and
the methods of their cultivation. In closing this, the
Department of Agriculture urges the people whose lands
are adapted to wheat raising in Florida to plant the
acreage that they can handle best.


BY H. S. ELLIOT,'Chief Clerk Department of Agriculture.

Soils Best Adapted to Rye:
Rye is one of the most important cover crops grown in
the State, although planted in a small way. Its real value
as a grazing crop, as well as a cover crop, does not seem
to have been appreciated as it deserves. Rye can be grown
on almost all of the well-drained soils of the State,
especially those in the North-Central, Northeastern and
Middle and Western sections of Florida. It is best
adapted to the lighter loam or sandy soils than to the
heavy clay lands, and it yields best and produces the best
quality of grain on well-drained sandy loam soils that
contain a fair supply of lime. It is not limited, however,
to such conditions, and it does about as well on acid soils
or neutral soils, and is possibly the best grain for planting
on sandy lands, which are rough and to a considerable
extent exposed to the cold of winter. It is also better
adapted to sandy and poorer classes of lands than wheat
and will stand a much greater amount of acidity in the
soil than either wheat, oats or barley. It is also
especially good for drained marsh lands and also for cut-
over lands, which are being brought under cultivation for
the first time. Rye should be generally the first crop
grown on this character of lands, and it may be grown
with equal success on other sandy soils where most cereals

fail to succeed, but the growing of rye should not be
attempted on lands that are subject to overflow or where
water may come or stand for any length of time. If too
rich in nitrogen or too much on the order of muck lands,
it is likely to cause the rye when grown to fall down, or
in other words, to lodge. Neither does rye grow so well
on wet lands, but in dryer soils it is much more resistent
to cold than wheat or oats. If the land is made too rich,
however, this condition is reversed.
Rye in Rotation:
Rye, like all other farm crops, does best when planted
in rotation, although it can be grown year after year on
the same land with as great degree of success, if not
more so, than most small grain crops. This is because few
diseases that affect this plant are found in' the soil. In
many cases rye is grown in place of wheat, and there are
many people in the world who prefer rye flour and bread
to wheat flour or wheat bread. Rye also takes less from
the soil than most of the small grain, unless it be rice,
though the difference is slight in any case. One of the
best rotations is to follow other crops with rye. For
instance, rye can be sown in the corn field after the corn
has been gathered, and in this case where the soil has been
baked it is best to plow the rye in. The better plan is to
use a disk plow and not a turn plow, and follow this by
a straight tooth harrow slanted carefully and properly.
In this way labor is saved by harrowing in the grain,
which is a quicker and more practical way than by plow-
ing in under the ordinary conditions. In disking, the
grain in the standing corn stalks will be leveled by the
time the grain is ready for harvest; if it is to be harvested,
the corn stalks will have decayed to such an extent, at
least, that they will not be in the way of the harvest
machinery. If it is only intended for grazing, and in
the early Spring and turning under as a green manure
crop, should some of the stalks be left standing under
these conditions, they will not be in the way.
For Florida, in the sections previously mentioned, there
are really only two varieties that can be depended on.
These varieties are the Ebruzzes and the South Georgia.
Under some circumstances the Ebruzzes seems to be the
best, and under other circumstances the South Georgia
appears to give best results, but like most grains these

also are subject to fluctuations in growth, depending on
more favorable location in the one case or in the other.
The South Georgia rye, in soils best adapted to its growth,
grows perhaps a little taller than the Ebruzzes, but both
are excellent ryes and can be depended on. One advan-
tage of the rye crop is that it can be, and is often used
to fill gaps between other crops. It can be sown at most
any time, early or late fall, on lands that are either rough
or well placed, and it will nearly always take care of
itself, and make a good growth, which cannot be said of
any other grain under like conditions. It is also a good
crop to grow on hillsides or on lands that are threatened
with washing, and to this extent it is one of the best crops
that can be planted. It is an excellent preventer of soil
erosion, as it prevents the washing of the soil and the
debris down into the valleys, thus holding the soil in
place. After the rye has grown to practical maturity,
and especially while in the milk stage, it makes an ex-
cellent hay if cut at that time and properly cured. It
can also be made a good pasture for hogs, and after the
hogs have eaten down the grain then the crop can be
turned under for manurial purposes. For these purposes
it is one of the best winter crops that can be grown. Hogs
will harvest the crop and benefit the soil by the dropping
of manure in so doing. Rye is also considered a better
crop for Fall, Winter and Spring pasture than either
wheat or oats. It does not affect cattle to the extent that
oats and wheat does, and it makes a better crop to turn
under for green manurial purposes.
Preparing Seed Bed:
While in most cases rye does better than any of the
other cereals on poorly prepared soil, it is not a good
reason for neglecting the proper preparation of the soil.
As the expenses of preparing the soil is very slight and
will not be noticed to any appreciable extent, this will be
greatly repaid by a much larger yield of grain. The land
should be plowed, as a rule, from five to seven inches
deep, and it should be done from three to four weeks
before planting the seed, if possible. After the land is
plowed, it should be well harrowed and made level and
as smooth as possible, then allow it to stand for a few
days. When rye is to follow a cultivated crop it is best
to plow the land three or four inches deep and harrow it
well so as to eliminate as much of the grass and weeds

as possible. This of course puts the land in better con-
dition. This process can be carried out best by the use
of the disk and a straight-toothed harrow. As before
stated, cowpea land or corn-stubbled land can usually be
planted to rye by simply disking and harrowing. It then
can be covered, if so desired, by a wide shovel plow run-
ning between the rows of the cowpeas or the corn stubble
as the case may be. On land that has been properly
broken other than corn or stubble land rye may be sown
broadcast, but the better way to plant all grain, whether
it be rye, wheat, oats or barley, is by drilling with the
machine. This machine opens the furrow, sows the seed
and covers it with one operation. If sown broadcast it
should be disked in and the land well harrowed, which
will give a smooth seed bed.
Although rye will grow well on very poor soil, com-
paratively speaking, large yields of the forage or the
grain cannot be expected on these soils, neither will rye
succeed well on very rich soils. If grown for green pro-
duction the land should only be moderately fertilized,
nor should these fertilizers contain a too large quantity
of nitrogen. This would make the crop top-heavy and
liable to fall when the winds blow. Stable manure is
the best fertilizer for rye, but acid phosphate should gen-
erally be applied with it. It is best to mix forty to fifty
pounds of acid phosphate to each ton of stable manure,
into a form of compost. In this way each of the ingre-
dients is better and more evenly distributed. There
should be a mixture of this kind of two to four tons
applied to the acre. If commercial fertilizer only is avail-
able, it would be well to apply acid phosphate at the rate
of about two to three hundred pounds per acre at the
time the crop is sown, and this can be harrowed in with
the seed. Cotton seed meal may also be used, but with
that there is a liability of getting too much nitrogen, but
this should be applied from two to three weeks before the
grain is sown. If the rye is grown for pasturage or soil
purposes, or for the straw that is in it, then a greater
quantity of nitrogen-bearing compound could be applied
in the fertilizer, but not otherwise, as it would cause the
grain to fall or lodge. To obtain the best stand it is best
to re-clean the seed before it is sown. Rye often loses its
germinating power, and when this is the case the grain
2-Wheat Sup.

becomes light and can be separated by putting through a
wind mill. Even then the seed should be tested for germi-
nation. The best thing for sowing of rye depends on the
use to be made of the crop. When intended for green pro-
duction, it is best .to sow it about October 1st in Florida
in the Northern part and November in the North-Central
portion of the State. If it is intended as a pasture cover
or green manure crop, or for combination purposes, it is
best to sow it from two to three weeks earlier, because
this gives it a longer season of growth for these several
purposes. The rule for the sowing of rye in Florida
would be to sow it early enough in each section of the
State so that the roots may become well established be-
fore frost or cool weather sets in. After the roots are
established rye will stand almost any degree of cold
known in Florida. When rye is harvested, if the grain
is to be saved, it can be bound in bundles and shocks, the
same as wheat, and can be threshed in the same threshing
machine that is used for threshing wheat. The usual
quantity to sow per acre is about six pecks; or in other
words, one bushel and a half. On the sandy loam soils
best adapted to rye, from three to six pecks will meet the
requirements. When sown for forage or soil purposes,
then more seed can be sown, because of the purpose for
which the rye is to be used; in other words, it makes more
grazing to the acre. As has been indicated in the begin-
ning, rye is one of the best cover and soil crops, as well
as for pasturage, that the Florida farmer can plant. It
is possibly the best crop of the kind for winter, even
better than rape, because of its root system and its ability
to prevent soil erosion, as well as supplying a large quan-
tity for pasturage, at a season when green food is scarce
for live stock. Every farmer that is interested in the
growing of live stock should make it a point to grow
a certain acreage of rye for winter pasturage. Let the
acreage be in proportion to the number of head of live
stock to be pastured; in this way he will protect his soil
in the winter and benefit it as well.

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