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 County map of state of Florida
 Drainage in Florida
 Proceedings Florida drainage...






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00069
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00069
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Drainage in Florida
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Proceedings Florida drainage association
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
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        Page 39
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Full Text





Volume 25 Number 2

Supplement to


FLORIDA

QUARTERLY

BULLETIN
OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT

APRIL 1, 1915.


*W. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAMASSEE, FLA.

PROCEEDINGS
FLORIDA DRAINAGE ASSOCIATION.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.
THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED FREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

T. J. APPLEYARD, State Printer,
Tallahassee, Florida












COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA.









DRAINAGE IN FLORIDA.


The total area of the State of Florida amounts to ap-
proximately thirty-seven and a half million acres (37,-
500,000). Of this amount, according to report of the
Department of Agriculture, April 21, 1908, nineteen mil-
lion eight hundred thousand acres (19,800,000) are sub-
ject to inundation at times, but which are reclaimable
permanently for agricultural purposes and for settle-
ment and development.
' This wet area is known to be made up in large part of
soils which, when reclaimed, will become among the most
fertile of Florida. It is clear, therefore, that the develop-
ment of this great area is of immense importance to the
State. This development is primarily dependent upon
drainage.
During the past few years the general subject of drain-
age has begun to be recognized as one of the greatest
forces in the development of the State, of increasing its
agricultural productivity, of enlarging the usable and
valuable area, of improving health and sanitary condi-
tions, and of affording thousands of across of new lands
for settlement and cultivation, which without drainage
would be valueless.
On March 5, 1914, a convention was held at Bar-
tow, Florida, for the purpose of organizing a drainage
association for the furtherance of drainage in Florida.
For the reasons above given, this Department considers
that the subject of drainage is of such great importance
from an agricultural standpoint alone, that the Depart-
ment deems it to be a proper subject for the Agricultural
Quarterly Bulletin and publishes in full herein the pro-
ceedings of the said convention.





















PROCEEDINGS
FLORIDA DRAINAGE ASSOCIATION.

Organization Meeting

BARTOW, MARCH 5, 1914-












THE CALL.


Whereas, Important problems relative to the public
health and prosperity, involving the eradication of mala-
ria and kindred maladies, the construction and mainten-
ance of good roads, the development of waterways for
transportation purposes, the reclamation of our swamp
and overflowed lands for agricultural and sanitary pur-
poses, the conservation of our agricultural resources
through the restoration and preservation of our soil fer-
tility, and other kindred problems, now confront us and
must be met by the citizens of Florida; and
Whereas, In the opinion of the undersigned, as well
as others who are interested in and who have given much
thought to the questions involved, there is urgent need
for a State Association or congress having for its objects
the study and solution of these problems, and the initia-
tions and prosecution of plans, and the diffusion of
knowledge pertaining thereto; and
Whereas, The Board of Trade of the City of Bartow,
Florida, and the Board of Supervisors of the Peace Creek
Drainage District, have extended an invitation to those
interested, to meet in said City of Bartow for the purpose
of effecting such organization; now,
Therefore, We, the undersigned, do hereby call a meet-
ing, to be convened in the City of Bartow, Florida, on
the 5th day of March, 1914, at 10 A. M., to be composed
of and participated in by all those who are interested in
the solution of the aforesaid problems and the develop-
ment of the various resources of the State of Florida, as
well as the improvement of the public health and welfare
generally, for the purpose of perfecting a statewide or-
ganization having for its objects and purposes the solu-
tion of the aforesaid problems, and the study and dis-
semination of knowledge relative to matters that may
properly be brought before such an organization.











At the said meeting it is desired that an organization
be perfected and a constitution adopted, and such other
steps taken in the premises as may be deemed proper and
expedient. All persons who are interested are invited
and urgently requested to attend said meeting.
A short, but interesting, program will be prepared and
given to the press in due time, and persons of national
reputation, and who are recognized authority on ques-
tions enumerated, will be present.
This February 3, 1914.
GEO. W. OLIVER,
Member Executive Committee, National Drainage Con-
gress, for Florida.
R. C. HATTON,
Mayor of the City of Bartow, and Honorary Vice Presi-
dent, National Drainage Congress.
T. W. GARY,
President Board of Trade, Bartow.
E. L. MACK,
Secretary Board of Supervisors, Peace Creek Drainage
District.












THE CONVENTION.


Pursuant to the foregoing call some sixty persons, rep-
resenting about fifteen counties in Florida, met at the
Court House in Bartow, March 5, 1914.
The meeting was called to order by Geo. W. Oliver, the
Executive Committeeman for Florida, of the National
Drainage Congress. On motion of Secretary Mears, of
the Bartow Boarl of Trade, Hon. F. C. Bowyer, President
of the Tampa Board of Trade, was unanimously chosen
Chairman of the meeting, and Mr. S. F. Sherman, Secre-
tary of the Apalachicola Chamber of Commerce, was
elected Secretary.
T. T. Hatton, representing his father, Hon. R. C. Hat-
ton, Mayor of the City of Bartow, in a few well chosen
words welcomed the delegates in his usual happy and
pleasing manner; to which Secretary Sherman responded
on behalf of those in attendance.
Mr. Geo. W. Oliver was called to address the meeting
briefly on "Some of the objects of the meeting and why
it was called." He stated that he had discovered some two
years ago, after careful investigation, that Florida did
not have a modern drainage law, and that the old drain-
age laws were entirely inadequate, tending to retard in-
stead of facilitate the drainage of wet and overflowed
lands; that, together with some others in Polk County
who were interested, he had attended the National Drain-
age Congress at New Orleans in 1912; that they had pro-
cured copies of the drainage laws of many different States
wherein reclamation of lands by drainage had been suc-
cessfully accomplished by the organization of drainage
districts; that he had attended the session of the Nation
Drainage Congress at St. Louis in 1913; that upon his re-
turn from St. Louis the Florida Legislature was in ses-
sion, and that he and others interested determined to ask











the Legislature to enact a modern drainage law, under
which those owning lands requiring reclamation by drain-
age might organize drainage districts under supervision
of the.courts, and reclaim their lands.
Mr. Oliver stated that, pursuant to the aforesaid deter-
mination an Act was prepared, modeled after the Mis-
souri Circuit Court Drainage Law, and the Model Drain-
age Law prepared by a committee of the National Drain-
age Congress; that he had gone to Tallahassee and pre-
sented this proposed drainage law to the Trustees of the
Internal Improvement Fund, composing the Board of
Drainage Commissioners of the State of Florida, and
after having their approval, with such modifications as
was thought proper, it was submitted to the Chief Engi-
neer for said Board of Drainage Commissioners, and to
the Attorney for said Board, and that after obtaining
suggestions from them, as well as others interested, the
proposed law was rewritten and made to conform to the
Constitution and Laws of the State of Florida, and that it
was then introduced in the State Senate by the President
of the Senate, Hon. H. J. Drane; that with some minor
amendments proposed by those who had been interested in
the preparation and perfecting thereof, the same was fi-
nally passed by both houses without a dissenting vote,
and received the approval of the Governor on June 9,
1913, becoming Chapter 6458 of the Laws of Florida,
known as the "Drane Drainage Law." That the matter
of the organization of a State Drainage Association was
discussed by those interested, who were of the opinion
that such an organization was essential in order to create
a sentiment in favor of drainage in the State, to the end
that the wet and overflowed lands, which exceed those of
any State in the Union, might be reclaimed and made
valuable additions to the rich agricultural lands of the
State; and that for the purpose of beginning this impor-
tant work this meeting was called. He stated that the
reason the meeting was called for this time and place was











because it was ascertained that prominent men of National
reputation who were authority on drainage mat (ers, would
be at Bartow at this time, and for the further reason that
Bartow is one of the best cities, in the best county in
Florida, and no good reason could be found why the meet-
ing should not be held here.

ADDRESS OF HON. H. J. DRANE, PRESIDENT OF THE FLORIDA
SENATE, AND WHO INTRODUCED THE BILL WHICH BECAME
CHAPTER 6458 OF THE LAWS OF FLORIDA, 1913:

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Association:-
When the gentlemen who were active in promoting this
meeting were kind enough to invite me here to address
you, as they expressed it, upon the "Drane Drainage
Law," I was rather amused by the euphony of the title,
but 1 beg that you be not deceived into the idea that I
am solely responsible for it. Your chairman has, by his
kindly words of introduction, made me keenly ambi-
tious to measure up to the high standard of usefulness in
behalf of my State, which he ascribes to me. I must as-
sure you that whatever of good may come from the pass-
ing of this law must be credited more to a gentleman
who is with us today, I refer to Mr. George W. Oliver, of
this city, than to myself. My duties as President of the
Senate were such as to consume practically all of my
time, and I have often thought that but for Mr. Oliver's
loyalty to the cause and his constant, untiring activity
in its behalf, the "Drane Drainage Law" would never
have been a part of our statutes today.

As to the authorship of the bill, one may well ascribe
it to "many men of many minds." It was conceived in
the brain of no one individual, but was first taken from
what seemed to be the best portions of the Drainage
Laws of several States, where said laws have not only
been proven as to their usefulness and practicability-
where they have been a blessing to mankind-but where
2 1). C.











they have been tested through the highest courts to prove
their constitutionality.

With this as a foundation the bill was then brought to
the attention of the distinguished Board of Drainage
Commissioners or Board of Trustees of the Internal Im-
provement Fund of the State of Florida, and the ap-
proval of that distinguished body obtained. It was then
submitted to the eminent counsel of the Drainage Com-
missioners and suggestions or modifications suggested by
that gentleman adopted. The object of this procedure be-
ing to avoid any possible conflict with the larger drain-
age operations in the Everglades.
The utmost publicity was given the proposed law while
the bill was pending, as, because of its vast importance
to the public, it was desired that the public should not
only be informed, but that it should lend its aid to the
perfecting of the measure. The bill was printed at pri-
vate expense, and a synopsis of each section was also
printed and scattered throughout the State. It was, also,
at the request of the introducer, printed as an official
document of the Senate. It was held upon the calendar
for several weeks before its passage. The intimation made
in certain quarters, therefore, to the effect that the bill
was "slipped through," is not only absolutely untrue but
is a reflection upon the intelligence of the people.
No one can reasonably doubt the wisdom of the great
drainage operations in the Everglades, next to the Pan-
ama Canal one of the most isupendous enterprises ever
undertaken in the Western Hemisphere-a work which
will give an empire to the thrifty husbandman of the
East Coast, but not an acre of land or a dollar of money
to his equally industrious brother in the central portion
or Gulf Coast. In the latter places there are lands
equally rich and at present more accessible, in smaller
areas, belonging to small corporations and individuals,
which, by reason of conditions, can be reclaimed more











readilyy and more easily than through the great enter-
prise referred to, which affects us not at all.
This county has, even within a few miles of this beau-
tiful little City of Bartow, as rich an area as the sun
shines upon. Its prosperous and happy farmers have oc-
cupied its broad acres wherever available, and have al-
ways made good. Now they desire to occupy more acres
and to invite others, less fortunate, to join them in their
prosperity, and the Peace Creek Drainage District, now
being organized under this beneficent law, makes this
possible.
If the law is to be amended (and perfection is not
claimed for it) let the amendments come from the hands
of its friends, not its enemies.

"How A DRAINAGE ASSOCIATION MAY FURTHER THE AGRI-
CULTURAL INTERESTS OF FLORIDA."

Address of Hon. C. G. Elliott, Consulting Drainage Engi-
neer, Washington, D. C., Formerly Chief of Bureau of
Drainage Investigations, U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture:

That drainage is destined to be an important factor in
the agricultural and commercial development of Florida,
no one who is familiar with the topograph of this great,
State, and conversant with the results achieved by drain-
age in other parts of the country can question.

Its cultivated and productive lands will no longer be
limited to the sand and rock covered districts, but will
include many of those swamp acres which have hitherto
been regarded with distrust by transient visitor and pros-
pective settler and which are a constant menace to the
health of its people. Not only will those waste regions be
cultivated, after proper drainage, but it is possible and











even probable that they will become the most important
and productive sections of the State.
While it is not reasonable to expect that, the possibili-
or value of vorious tracts of wet land can be definitely
known until they have been drained, we believe that re-
sults which have been obtained in this and other coun-
ties or value of various tracts of wet land can be definitely
sion that the future productiveness of these lands will
well repay the outlay necessary to reclaim them.
The importance and value to the State of Florida of the
reclamation and cultivation of the waste land within its
borders are beyond estimate. Such reclamation will
mean the utilization of millions of acres of uninhabit-
able areas which have long been regarded as ap unattrac
tive feature of the State, and afford opportunity for thou-
sands of families attracted by Florida's delightful clim-
ate to become permanent residents. It will mean a
tremendous increase in the revenues of the State, and
advance Florida to a prominent place among the agri-
cultural States of the Union.
It should be noted, however, that drainage is a process
which carries with it problems of economics, design, con-
struction and finance, that will present themselves
throughout the different stages of the work and which
must be solved in an intelligent, practical and business-
.!ike manner. Failure to handle these matters wisely has
.been responsible in a majority of cases for the disap-
pointing results which have occasionally been reported.
Preliminary to undertaking a work of such importance
and magnitude as the reclamation of Florida's wet lands,
and to aid and hasten its successful accomplishment,
there should be inculcated in the minds of her citizens the
agricultural possibilities of the State, together with the
essential principles and methods of work which will be
required in the various stages of development. They
should have an intelligent understanding of the sanitary











and industrial conditions surrounding them, and the ben-
efits to be derived from proposed'improvements. To this
end information pertaining to such matters should not
only be accessible to those desiring it, but should be dis-
seminated among those not yet interested. This should
include, in addition to a presentation of the principles,
theories and methods of work which will Te required, a
discussion of the successes and mistakes of those who
have been engaged in similar undertakings, in order that
the experience of others may be taken advantage of.

This is a day of social and industrial organizations for
the interchange of thought and opinions, and for the pro-
motion of all forms of intellectual and material activity.
That no movement in the way of organization will re-
spond more generously, and with more beneficent results
than a State Drainage Association has been demon-
strated in those States which have organized such bodies.
Its field of effort, however, should be carefully and wisely
defined at the outset, clearly understood and faithfully
adhered to. It should under no circumstances be a poli-
tical organization, nor subserve political interests. Its
aim should be to educate the people of the State in drain-
age principles, methods, benefits and laws; to create con-
fidence in the value of drainage; to stimulate the pur-
pose of her citizens to reclaim the waste lands of the
State; to foster and encourage public sentiment in drain-
age matters; and to investigate the methods and prac-
tices of drainage best suited to the soils of the State.
It should see to it that the State Drainage law is so
framed at to meet tl(, requirements of the various condi-
tions that may ari.c, and stand the tests to which it may
be subjected in the courts. An adequate and satisfactory
drainage law is of the first importance.
Such an organization should lend encouragement to all
worthy drainage enterprises, both public and private, and
sound a warning against unreliable exploitations, advis-











ing a careful examination of all drainage projects. The
fact that Florida has suffered in the past in this direc-
tion, suggests that a State Drainage Association may
very properly include these matters among its legitimate
duties.
While but few of the States have organized Drainage
Associations the work which has been accomplished by
them has been very gratifying and has contributed largely
to the growth of their respective States. Iowa is the
pioneer in such organizations, and one of the important
results accomplished in that State was the passage of a
satisfactory drainage law. In 1906 the State was con-
fronted with a fatal defect in her drainage law. After
large contracts had been let and others were under way,
it was discovered that the law providing for co-operative
drainage and the collection of assessments was invalid.
The State Drainage Association took up the matter,
through a committee, and as a result a new law was
drawn and piloted through the Legislature, and after its
enactment, friendly suits were instituted and entertained
by the courts to test its validity.
Annual meetings of this association are held at differ-
ent points in the State for the discussion of all matters
relating to land drainage, and the proceedings are printed
at the expense of the association in pamphlet form for
general distribution. These 'meetings are attended by
land-owners, drainage commissioners and engineers. The
association has been most helpful in elevating the stand-
ard of drainage design and construction, and in perfect-
ing methods of making special assessments, besides creat-
ing a general favorable sentiment upon the subject. Iowa
has obtained greater benefits from public and private
drainage within the past ten years than any other State,
and much of the credit for this belongs to the State
)Draiinge Association.
The Drainage Association of North Carolina was or-
ganized in 1908, and like the iowa association was largely










instrumental in securing the passage of a much needed
drainage law, under which a large amount of drainage
has already been accomplished. The annual meetings,
which are well attended, are characterized by the pre-
sentation of able papers upon practical drainage topics
and the free discussion of matters relating to land re-
clamation, including reports upon the progress of work
in different parts of the State. The proceedings are re-
garded of sufficient importance to be printed annually
by the State Geological and Economic Survey as serial
economic papers, and copies can be obtained in the same
manner as other bulletins issued by that Survey. As a
result of the efforts of this association and of its mem-
bers, who have obtained their inspiration from it, drain-
age methods in the State are more or less correlated, the
defects of the law are detected, and means taken at once
to correct them. A standard of thoroughness is thus de-
veloped, which has been of increasing value since the or-
ganization was started.
New York's Drainage Association was formed in 1910.
In this State a peculiar condition of the land reclama-
tion movement is worthy of notice. As is generally
known, land drainage in this country began in Western
New York, in 1835. Its value was apparently fully de-
monstrated, and for a time attracted widespread atten-
tion among the prominent agriculturists of the State.
The movement seemed well established in New York, and
from there spread westward, but was later checked by
the Civil War, and finally, strange as it may seem, farm
drainage was nearly lost sight of in the State where it
originated. Land conditions, particularly of the orchard
lands in the western part of the State, became such that
an investigation was undertaken by the State College of
Agriculture. It was then ascertained that 8 per cent.
of the orchard required complete drainage, and 30 per
cent. partial drainage, while swamps which were a menace
to health were reported in plain view of the spires











of large cities. Not the least among the advantages that
should be attributed to the drainage association that was
later formed, is the teaching to the younger land-owners
of the State the correct principles and methods of drain-
ing land, and the re-establishment of the practice of
drainage as a factor in good agriculture inaugrated in
the State by John Johnston 75 years ago. The meetings
of the association have been held annually since its or-
ganization, and the principles, methods and benefits of
drainage have there been discussed and made public in
print. Prizes have been given for papers describing ac-
tual work, and efforts have been made to correct defects
in the drainage law. Swamps as well as farm lands are
now being drained, and there is a general revival of in-
terest in drainage.

Georgia has a well organized State Drainage Congress,
and as a result of the three annual meetings which it has
held, attention has been attracted to the possibilities of
the swamp lands of the State, and interest awakened in
their reclamation.
While Missouri has been engaged for many years in
reclaiming her wet lands, and according to the report of
the State Commissioner of Land Reclamation had in 1912
one hundred and ninety-one drainage districts under or-
ganization, ranging in size from 500 to 560,000 acres, with
a combined area of 3,800,000 acres, the total estimated cost
of the work being $16,,000000, still the desirability of a
State Drainage Association was so strongly felt that one
was organized last year to promote more thorough work
in drainage.

Three things are essential to the success of a State
Drainage Association: First, that at least one of the
officials, whether President or Secretary is immaterial,
shall have the time, ability, desire and enthusiasm neces-
sary to so work up the annual meetings that they shall
be "live wires" each year, not failing in the meantime to











keep the subject of drainage constantly before the public
in some attractive form or other. Second, sufficient in-
terest and loyalty on the part of the membership to
respond heartily to the calls which the leading officer may
make upon them, and to assist him in all laudable efforts
for the advancement of the cause. Third, some method of
financing the organization which shall insure sufficient
funds to provide programs of interest and value, to handle
properly the publicity part of the work, to disseminate the
information presented at the meetings and to mee what-
ever needs may arise in the prosecution of the work.
There should also be funds enough to provide for the com-
pensation of the active officer who must devote much time
and personal effort to the work of the association if it is
to accomplish what should reasonably be expected of it.
It may not be out of place to call attention to methods
of financing that are in use in similar organizations.
Some of the State Drainage Assocations, perhaps all, have
a dollar membership fee, but unless the membership is
very large this does not provide sufficient funds to enable
the association to carry on the work which it ought. The
State Societies of Engineers and Surveyors, of which there
are several, and which are organized for the mutual im-
provement of their members, are sustained by annual dues
of from $3 to $5 per member. The proceedings of the an-
nual meetings are published largely by funds received
from advertisements solicited each year for insertion in
the publication by the Secretary, this method of supple-
menting the amount received from dues being found nec-
essary and satisfactory. Other societies have in addition
to the membership which pays the regular fee, a body of
patron members whose dues are ten, twenty or twenty-
five dollars a year. Such membership in a drainage as-
sociation should be drawn from those well-to-do individ-
uals or corporations who will be especially benefited by
drainage or are deeply interested in such improvement,
as large owners of land subject to reclamation, trans-











portation companies, Chambers of Commerce, etc. In
this connection we may note the action of State Legisla-
tures which make appropriations for the maintenance of
State Dairy, Horticultural and other societies. This is
true of Illinois, and if I am correctly informed, of other
States. The Legislature of Florida could well afford to
appropriate a modest sum to assist a State Drainage Asso-
ciation in its work of promoting public welfare. The fore-
going methods of financing associations which have for
their object the furtherance of industrial interests in a
rational and beneficial manner, are offered as possibly fur-
nishing some helpful suggestions for the present under-
taking.
A review of the various forces and influences which
have contributed to the development of farm lands dur-
ing the last 25 years, discloses the fact that associations
of those who were engaged in agricultural pursuits have
proven most helpful factors in arousing and directing pub-
lic sentiment along lines which have led to sound progress.
Such organizations have multiplied rapidly in all fields
of activity, and have undoubtedly had much to do with
the advancement of our country of which we are so justly
proud.
The people of this State may very appropriately con-
sider all of the legitimate agencies that can be used to ad-
vantage in developing its resources, and in view of the vast
areas of unreclaimed land in the State, a drainage asso-
ciation will be of especial benefit. It will form a center
from which shall emanate helpful information, judicious
advice and merited encouragement to every sound enter-
prise looking to the reclamation of Florida's waste lands.

REMARKS BY STATE CHEMIST R. E. ROSE, MR. FELL AND MR.
HUr PTTREY-

Capt. R. E. Rose, State Chemist of Florida, who is an
enthusiastic advocate of the reclamation of our wet and










overflowed lands by drainage, was called, and gave some
of the benefits to be derived from drainage in Florida,
which he was enabled to give from his own actual expe
rience as well as observation. He also gave some of the
results derived by other States from the adoption of
modern drainage laws authorizing the organization of
drainage districts by owners.of the lands needing drain-
age, showing that Florida has not taken the advanced
position in the matter of reclamation of her wet lands, as
she ought, when it is considered that there is more lands
in Florida needing drainage than any other State in the
Union, and which are the best lands in Florida.
Fellsmere, on the Indian River, conPicting of some
118,000 acres of formerly wet and overflowed lands, but
which is now almost completely reclaimed by drainage,
being one of the greatest and best projects of its kind in
the State, Mr. E. Nelson Fell was called and gave an in-
teresting account of the progress and results of the work
being carried to a successful termination by the Fellsmere
Farms Company. His remarks were greatly appreciated.
Hon. Joseph H. Humphrey, formerly State Senator, of
Manitee County, was called and gave an interesting ac-
count of drainage operations in his county, which was one
of the first to begin drainage operations under the old
laws.

COMMITTEES.

On motion, the Chair appointed the following commit-
tees:

Resolutions:-Hon. H. J. Drane, Senator F. M. Cooper,
S. F. Sherman.

Constitution:-Geo. W. Oliver, F. C. Elliot, E. Nelson
Fell.


The meeting adjourned to 1:30 p. m.











AFTERNOON SESSION.



WHAT DRAINAGE AND RECLAMATION MEAN TO FLORIDA.

By Hon. W. A. McRae, Commissioner of Agriculture of
the State of Florida.

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen:-
I am glad to be present here today and to be numbered
among those who are interested in the subject of drainage
and reclamation in our great State. I am glad to have
the pleasure of meeting such a representative body of our
citizens and discuss with them a subject that is of such
vital interest to our people. I am glad to meet also with
the good people of Bartow.
It was a happy choice to have this beautiful City of
Bartow selected as the place for the organization of a
State Drainage Association, located as it is in one of the
best counties of Florida, and in a section where there are
thousands of acres of our best land that need to be re-
claimed and can be reclaimed at a small cost per acre;
it is indeed the ideal place for such a meeting as this.
Before discussing the question, "What Drainage and
Reclamation mean to Florida," I think the following
statement of facts will be of some interest:
1. Florida is the second largest State East of the Mis-
sissippi River.
2. Florida has more sea coast than all of the other
Atlantic States combined.
3. Florida has more sea coast than all of the other
Gulf States combined.
4. Florida has thirty-seven million acres of land.











5. Florida has more than eighteen million acres of wet
and overflowed land that cannot be used for agricultural
purposes without drainage and reclamation.
6. The greater per cent of the wet and overflowed land
can be drained by means of large ditches, and at a small
cost per acre.

7. The wet and overflowed land in most of the coun-
ties would, if drained, be the best land in those counties.
8. Florida has more wet and overflowed lands to be
reclaimed or drained than any State in the Union.
9. Florida's wet and overflowed lands can be re-
claimed at as small or even smaller cost per acre than
the same class of land in any other State.

What Drainage and Reclamation Would Mean to Florida:

1. Through drainage and reclamation 18,000,000 acres
of our best land would be made ready for the farmer and
stock raiser.
2. 18,000,000 acres of land now of questionable value
would be reclaimed and would represent a real value of
many millions of dollars.
3. Thousands of good settlers would find homes on
these reclaimed lands, and millions of dollars would soon
be represented in the improved farms.
4. Drainage would add beauty to the sections now
known as our wet, marsh and overflowed lands.
5. Drainage would add to our already healthful clim-
ate, by giving us in some instances a drier atmosphere,
and also in ridding the State of millions of mosquitoes.
6. When our wet and overflowed lands are reclaimed,
which can be done by some system of drainage, Florida
will have more acres of good tillable land than any State
in the Union except Texas.












7. Possessing the best climate of any State in the
Union, and with good soil and sufficient rainfall to grow
crops without irrigation, our claim that Florida is a land
of the greatest opportunities does not need argument to
prove our statement.
My friends, in conclusion, let me urge on all present
that we do all in our power to show to our people the need
of drainage and reclamation in Florida, and let us do all
we can to assist in making our State Drainage Law a
model law.


A telegram from Mr. W. G. Brorein, Manager of the
Peninsular Telephone Co.. of Tampa, who was compelled
to be absent in Cincinnati, was read, in which he expressed
his regret at not being able to attend the meeting.


"THREE YEARS' EXPERIENCE WITH DRAINA(IE LAWS OF
FLORIDA."

By W. M. Whitten, Drainage Engineer, Punta Gorda.
Florida.

About three years ago the viewers who had been ap-
pointed under the provisions of Chapter XV of the Re-
vised Statutes of Florida to act upon a petition for a
public drain, employed me to make the necessary surveys
for the proposed work.
On examining that chapter I recognized it as almost an
exact copy of an old Indiana Drainage Law, enacted by
the Legislature of that State in 1867. It was under that
law, about forty years ago, that I served my apprentice-
ship as a drainage engineer.
Familiarity with that old law led me to note the omis-
sion from Chapter XV of the clause of the Indiana law
which makes provision for payment to the contractor











for the work. This seemed to me to be very much like
a play of Hamlet with Hamlet left out, and I called the
attention of the viewers to this omission. They instructed
me to consult with the County Attorney, who had drafted
the petition, and call his attention to the omission, which
I did. After an examination of the matter he assured me
that Chapter XV was all right and that other counties
were successfully working thereunder.
The viewers then proceeded with their duties and re-
ported to the County Commissioners, who then estab-
lished the drain and called for bids for its construction.
Then came a halt in the proceedings, for bidders and
contractors, with one accord, demanded that they be
shown when, where and by whom they were to be paid for
doing the work. But the County Attorney was unable to
satisfy contractors on that point, and so Chapter XV
proved to be a failure as a drainage law. The petitioners
then decided to drop proceedings thereunder and try to
work under Chapter XVI.
Here they met an almost insurmountable obstacle in
the requirement that the petition be signed by a ma-
jority of land owners. These owners were scattered
through many different States of the Union. A large ma-
jority of the resident owners favored the petition, but
non-residents were so numerous that the proceedings
must have failed had not the Board of Trade of Punta
Gorda taken the matter up, instituted a diligent search
through half the States of the Union to locate the land-
owners, and, after protracted correspondence with such
owners as could be located, finally secured the requisite
number of signatures to the petition.
Now that we have succeeded in starting under Chapter
XVI, it may be asked, "What more do you want?" In
reply I will say that some of the provisions of that chap-
ter ought to be clarified. That this is only one drain
of at least a dozen drains that must be constructed be-
fore the agricultural resources of this one road district











can be developed, and before a large percentage of the
lands can be made habitable during the rainy season, and
before the roads, for which bonds to the extent of two
hundred thousand dollars have been authorized, can be
maintained. Some of these districts may be able to or-
ganize under existing law, but a majority of them cannot.
The difficulty encountered in securing signatures and
organizing this district, greatly discourages efforts to or-
ganize other districts.
In political matters it is proper that the majority should
rule, and to the average politician majority rule, provided
in present law, may seem to be good politics. But is it
either good politics or good sense to permit residents of
other Slates, without regard to age, sex, race or color, to
vote upon the question of whether or not white citizens
of the State of Florida shall be permitted to drain their
lands? Is such a course consistent with the time-honored
Democratic doctrine of States Rights and local self-
government ? Furthermore, it is a well established fact
that mosquitoes scatter malaria for miles around the
swamp in which Ihey breed. Every person residing in the
community has a greater interest in the drainage of the
swamp and overflowed lands than a non-resident owner
thereof. The non-resident owner has a vote (generally a
negative vote) on the question of drainage, while the resi-
dent, whose health is at stake, has no vote on the question.
The fact is, however, that this question of drainage or no
drainage is not, or at least it should not be, a question of
majority or of politics. It is, or should be, a question of
State policy.
Is it the policy of the State to encourage or to discour
age drainage? If it be tie policy to discourage drainage
then the law as it stands is satisfactory. It is generally
conceded, however, that the State should encourage ef
forts in this direction by every legitimate means.
Individual effort toward drainage can accomplish lit-










tie- or nothing. Concerted action is as absolutely neces-
sary to efficient drainage as it is to efficient highways.
In this respect it would. seem to me that we are getting
the "cart before the horse" when, in our enthusiasm for
good roads we forget that good drainage is the very first
requisite for a good road. In this district good roads
may be built during the dry season, but they cannot be
maintained throughout the rainy season without drain-
age. It follows, then, that works designed to improve
drainage are necessarily "Public Works." Every Statute
governing the subject bases the grant of power of taxa-
tion, which is necessarily conferred in all such statutes,
upon the grounds that the works are public works.

The Legislature, therefore, may provide that the public,
through its properly constituted authorities, shall have
power to institute proceedings for the construction of
public works without asking the assent, and even against
the active opposition, of property owners. Examples of
such extreme power are seen in abatement of nuisances,
and frequently in sewer and street improvements in cit-
ies. On the other hand, the Legislature may go to the
other extreme and adopt a policy requiring the assent of
a majority of the landowners, as does the present law.

But it is to be hoped that this Convention, and the pro-
posed Drainage Association, will not permit the interest
which naturally attaches to immense undertakings, such
as the Everglades drainage operations, and districts
counting their acreage by the tens and hundreds of thou-
sands, which have been or may be organized under the
Drane Drainage Law, to overshadow the interests of
smaller but more numerous drainage projects, the aggre-
gate of the acreage and importance of which is certainly
large, if not equal to the larger districts. -I sincerely
hope that before the next Legislature convenes, a practical
Act for the encouragement of drainage in'these districts
may be drafted by its legislative committee and receive
3-D. C.











the support of the proposed Drainage Association for its
enactment into law.
Such an act need not and should not in any way anta-
gonize the Drane Drainage Law, but be supplemental
thereto; leaving that law to work all the good possible
in districts to which it is adapted.
Since 1881 Indiana, my native State, has had two ef-
fective Drainage Laws working side by side and sup-
plementing each other. There is no good reason why
Florida should not be as well provided in this respect,
thus giving to petitioners an option to choose the law
best suited to the needs of their districts. Nor is there
danger that drainage work will be overdone, even though
the State in its laws adopts a more liberal policy and
encourages rather than discourages the reclamation of
wet and overflowed lands.
Without intending to encroach upon the subject to be
treated by the distinguished engineer whose address
comes next on the program, I venture to mention one
requisite which ought to be embodied in any act for the
purpose above described, to-wit: It ought to be made
possible for owners of land in these districts to initiate
proceedings regardless of a majority either of owners
or acres, whenever such owners shall give bonds for the
cost, necessarily incurred, in determining, to the satis-
faction of a competent tribunal, the question as to
whether or not the work petitioned for will be conducive
to public health, convenience or welfare.
This policy is a reasonable compromise between the
policy which, on the one extreme, would ignore the prop-
erty owners, but it does not go to the other extreme and
ignore the public, the interests of both being taken into
account and subserved. It has been in operation since
1867 in the act known as the County Commissioners Law
of Indiana; aAd in the act known as the Circuit Court
Law of that State since 1881. Both of these laws are











still in successful operation. And I venture to predict,
that if a law were enacted in which this policy is recog-
nized, and otherwise embodying the seeming intent (but
more clearly expressed, of Chapter XVI as amended in
1913, with jurisdiction somewhat enlarged, and perhaps
vested in the Circiut Court, there would be at least two
petitions for drainage under such an act for every one
under the illiberal and undemocratic policy of the pres-
ent laws.

ADDRESS BY C. F. ELLIOTT, CHIEF DRAINAGE ENGINEER OF
THE STATE OF FLORIDA, TALLAHASSEE :

It is hardly necessary'for me to say that this is a very
happy occasion for me. For the past several years all of
my thought, time, attention and efforts have been ex-
pended in the cause of drainage. My reading and study
have been along this line. My association has been very
largely with men who are interested in it, and whatever
I have accomplished has been accomplished in this cause.
Therefore, to me, the organization of a Drainage Asso-
ciation in this State is of great interest. It means that
drainage is growing in the minds of the public; that the
necessity for it is becoming more apparent and important;
that the people at large are beginning to appreciate what
we-by we I mean those who are engaged in the actual
work of drainage-have long known, viz., that so long as
the soil remains the principal source of wealth, and so
long as so much of the best and richest of the soil remains
covered or partly covered with water, so long will drain-
age be one of the greatest problems of the age, the solv-
ing of which will mean as much or more to the Common-
wealth than the solving of almost any other one problem.
This is a great general problem, which the National Gov-
ernment has recognized, and which through its faithful
employees, the former Chief of whom we have the pleas-
ure of numbering among us today, it has been struggling











with for years. But the solving of this problem cannot be
accomplished in a year, or even in a few years. The ele-
ment which has laid hold of so large a portioii of our most
fertile soil will not surrender it at a word from Science.
It is going to take a long campaign of concerted action
by engineers, statesmen and financiers, supported and en-
couraged by the general public, to rout the enemy. And
that is mainly the object of this association-to study this
problem from every standpoint, to influence the enact-
ment of adequate drainage laws, to interest, to educate
and to spread the philosophy of drainage especially to
the people of our State.
In this State we should have the subject more at heart
than almost anywhere else, because so much of our land
is subject to overflow, and can be reclaimed by drainage.
Ten years ago drainage was only a theory to the citizens
of this State. Today it is a fact, a fact attested by more
than 400 miles of drainage canals, constructed in the past
five years, and more than four million acres of land now
in process of reclamation by drainage, representing a
money value of a hundred million dollars, which, with-
out drainage, would be absolutely valueless.
Ten years ago, vast portions of our State were consid-
ered as worthless marshes. Today, on account of their
susceptibility to economical drainage, these marshes, river
hammocks, marl prairies and muck beds are recognized
as comprising the most valuable undeveloped resources
which the State possesses. Ten years ago these inundated
lands could be bought anywhere in the State for fifty cents
per acre. Today it is recognized that when drainage is
made effective these same lands will constitute our most
productive soil. Ten years ago lands in the Everglades
sold for fifty cents per acre. Today some of that same
land is bringing one hundred dollars per acre, and it is
worth every cent of that amount. If the drainage work in
the Everglades region progresses as planned, and reclama-
tion is carried out to the perfection contemplated, there










will hardly be a limit to the value of some of those lands.

Every section of the State can be greatly benefited by
drainage, and wherever the torch of progress lights the
way to drainage, there will certainly follow increased de-
velopment and increased prosperity. Drainage is be-
coming one of the fixed policies of this State, just as
has the improvement of its public highways and the per-
fecting of its convict system. Drainage is one of the
great developing factors of the age. It is the one which
has been preserved more especially to the people of this
generation. To former generations has fallen the task of
exploiting forests, developing our mines and building our
railroads, but to the present generation is reserved the
privilege of rescuing from inundation and bringing into
usefulness a part of our domain which will become,
through drainage, a valuable and inexhaustible resource,
but which, without drainage, would be condemned to for-
ever remain a useless waste, a rookery of insects, rep-
tiles and miasma, a menace to human habitation and
progress.
Various phases of this drainage problem have already
been presented for your consideration. The various as-
pects of the subject have been discussed by authorities in
their respective lines. I shall not attempt to amplify or
extend those discussions, but I do express myself as be-
ing in accord with the ideas in general advanced here
today.
I trust that success will attend upon this endeavor.
I bespeak for this organization the support of the public,
and I am glad to enlist in the cause of drainage with
whatever capability I have.










DRAINAGE DISTRICTS: ADVANTAGE OF, OVER PRIVATE EFFORT.

By J. G. Melluish, of Melluish & Broyhill, Bloomington,
Ill., Chief Engineer of Peace Creek Drainage
District.

A complete reply to the subject assigned me on the
program was given this morning by Mr. Fell, when he
stated that only by concerted action will the reclamation
of the mass of Florida's wet lands be effected; and drain-
age districts offer the best means for attaining this end.
A drainage district ordinarily represents a group of
land owners, who, by common agreement, have become
associated under legislative license for the purpose of
improving their property by drainage works. Usually
district formation is indicated for large areas where the
owners are many in number and sometimes non-residents
of the State. The early legislative enactments of some
of the States were framed for the purpose of reclaiming
very large bodies of land held by many diverse owner-
ships and interests. But the success of these large dis-
tricts and the growing sentiment in favor of lawfully con-
stituted organizations for drainage reclamation led to
the passage of additional laws to provide for the many
cases which had arisen where small, even very small acre-
ages, found it necessary and desirable to have the as-
sistance of drainage laws, in order to provide a way for
reclaiming the lands. That drainage district organiza-
tion has become popular in those States which have elab-
orate drainage laws, needs no comment. There prob-
ably has been no regular legislative session in States ac-
tively engaged in drainage that some additional laws, de-
signed to provide for the reclamation of tracts of land
somewhat differently situated from those already served,
have not been passed. And the process of amendment
and enlargement of the State drainage laws will continue,
in order to serve most completely the varied conditions










of drainage, etc., not included or anticipated by the ear-
lier acts.

I have dwelt above on the growth of laws affecting
drainage district organizations in order to impress upon'
us the fact that, once established, this form of reclama-
tion is popular,-contrary to the opinion fostered by
some not fully informed people, viz., that drainage laws
are not needed and are unpopular, and in short, have
been forced on the public. There are many reasons why
district organization is preferable to partnership effort.
In the first place, most of the drainage works of any dis-
trict require maintenance, some in perpetuity. Manifestly
it would be impracticable to carry on the work effected
by most districts without a corporate existence, when new
ditches are required to be made and old ones improved;
bridges renewed or enlarged; levees repaired, improved or
rebuilt; pumping stations kept in active operation, calling
for the expenditure of large sums of money for fuel or
electric current, renewals of mechanical parts, etc. Ima-
gine 20, 30, 50 or 100 or more owners of land agreeing
upon a drainage program which would comprehend ev-
ery angle, and executing same by individual effort! Dis-
agreement and financial loss would be inevitable. There-
fore, the benefit of corporate existence and establishment
for the management of drainage works is .of the greatest
value.

It is hardly possible to create a drainage district with-
out exercising the right of eminent domain. Rights of.
way have to be provided, outlets secured, property con-
demned for the use of the district, structures erected and
works constructed upon lands sometimes lying wholly
outside the bounds of the district. The failure of most
private districts may be traced in most instances to dif-
ficulties encountered through being deprived of the ex-
ercise of the right of eminent domain, which was essen-
tial to the enterprise at some stage of its existence. There-










fore, the advantage of district rights over private organi-
zation is clearly shown in this respect.
In attempting to organize a drainage district, it usual
ly occurs that some land owners are not willing or do not
care to drain their property. In some cases it arises from
the fact that on account of the central position of their
lands the land owners argue that they will receive the
drainage without being obliged to pay for it. Of course,
under a private scheme, there is no way of compelling
these lands, which are greatly benefited, to pay the cost
of drainage; but under a district formation an equitable
distribution of the entire cost over all the lands benefited
is secured.
Another feature in which district organization excels
is in distributing the burden of taxation upon the proper-
ty to be improved and benefited. The drainage laws of
most States provide an equitable distribution of the cost
of constructing, maintaining and operating drainage dis-
tricts. Disinterested assessors under the drainage laws
apportion the amount which each owner should pay to-
ward the cost of reclamation; ample opportunity for the
adjustment of error or inequality in assessment is guar-
anteed land owners; and then when the tax roll is per-
fected the courts confirm the amount which each owner
of property in the district must pay. It might be possi-
ble to levy as equitable an amount under a partnership
relation as under a district organization, but the former
would many times fail because of its weakness in enforc-
ing collection of taxes. The enforced payment and col-
lection of taxes is one of the equities which is guaran-
teed owners under district organization.
A situation is conceivable wherein a body of land is
owned by an estate, or by a few closely affiliated parties,
and where reclamation by individual effort might be more
quickly effected and at a little less cost than by district
organization; and where the body of land was designed








41

to be held as an estate in perpetuity and the.drainage
could be affected within the limits of the property-that
is, was an isolated independent drainage unit,-it might
be preferable to effect the reclamation of same by indiv-
dual effort. On the other hand, if the unit comprised
large acreage and there wvas a possibility of same being
subdivided for sale or otherwise, the certainty of drain-
age maintenance, etc., could not easily be guaranteed to
all; and in such cases it would certainly be better to
effect the reclamation under the provisions of drainage
laws. As the number of isolated independent drainage
units is so small as to be negligible, it is fortunate and
desirable that there has been built up in most of our
United States a set of statutes dealing definitely with
the several problems of drainage, whereby owners of wet
lands may secure the reclamation of same effectively and
continually.
The State of Florida is' to be highly congratulated on
the drainage laws which were passed at the last session of
the Legislature; it is comprehensive and without doubt
the best drainage act that was ever passed by any State
as a primary act. It will enable great bodies of wet land
to be drained which could not be undertaken privately
on account of the excessive cost to a few out of many
owners. As the years pass, the wise provisions of Flor-
ida's laws will reflect the courage and convictions of the
Senator after whom the act takes title, and his colleagues,
as well as the ability of our beloved fellow-townsmen,
Mr. Oliver and his associates.

Capt. David Burns, of Loughman, Fla., was called to
discuss "The Practical Use of Dynamite in Drainage
Work," and gave some valuable suggestions, results of
his own experience.










RESOLUTIONS.

The Committee on Resolutions then submitted the fol
lowing resolutions.

Whereas, it being a well defined and adopted sentiment
that the conservation of all lands, including those over-
flowed or swamp lands of the State, should be conserved
to the uses of agriculture at the earliest possible date; and

Whereas, the Legislature at its last session placed
upon the Statutes of the State a comprehensive and val-
uable Drainage Law, known as Senate Bill 389, and

Whereas, this assembly has met for the purpose of
creating an organization whose function should be to fur-
ther the reclamation and improvement of all overflowed
and swamp lands under the aforesaid Act; now, there-
fore, be it

Resolved, That this body in meeting assembled do de-
clare that for the purposes set forth there should be
formed a permanent organization to be known as the
FLORIDA DRAINAGE ASSOCIATION, which should
be composed of members from all Counties in the State,
and that such organization should be governed by a Pres-
ident, five Vice-Presidents, and a Secretary, who shall
also be Treasurer of the Association, which named offi-
cers should compose the Executive Board, all of whom
should be elected or appointed at their meeting, and who
shall be governed by a Constitution and such By-Laws as
may be adopted, and serve for one year, or until the first
annual meeting hereafter held. Also,

Resolved, That the thanks of this assembly be tendered
the Board of Trade of the City of Bartow, its Secretary,
Mr. Mears, the Mayor, and the citizens of Bartow, for










their invitation to make this the meeting place of this
convention, and for the hospitality extended its delegates.
Respectfully submitted,
H. J. DRANE,
F. M. COOPER,
S. F. SHERMAN,
Committee.

Upon motion, the foregoing resolutions were unani-
mously adopted. Hon. F. C. Elliot offered a resolution,
which was unanimously adopted, commending and com-
plimenting Mr. Geo. W. Oliver for his eminent and valiant
services in securing the passage of the new Florida Drain-
age Law (Senate Bill 389), Chap. 6458, Laws 1913; also
thanking and commending the Chairman and Secretary
for their services.
Resolution offered by Hon. H. J. Drane, extending the
thanks of the convention to Hon. Chas. G. Elliott, Hon.
W. A. McRae, Hon. F. C. Elliot, Mr. Wm. M. Whitten,
and others for their presence and valued addresses.
The committee on permanent organization reported the
following nominations for the various offices, who were
unanimously elected, viz.:
President, Geo. W. Oliver, Bartow. Vice-Presidents:
W. S. Jennings, Jacksonville; A. W. Gilchrist, Punta
Gorda; E. Nelson Fell, Fellsmere; S. F. Sherman, Apa-
lachicola; P. A. Vans Agnew, Kissimmee. Secretary-
Treasurer, E. L. Mack, Bartow.
Committee on Constitution made its report, which be-
ing amended, was unanimously adopted, as follows:

CONSTITUTION OF FLORIDA DRAINAGE ASSO-
CIATION.

Vhereas, according to the report of the United States
Department of Agriculture, April 24th, 1908, there were










in the State of Florida, 19,800,000 acres of swamp and
overflowed lands, the greater part of which yet remain
unreclaimed; and

Whereas, a large portion of the lands of the State, not
being actually swamp or overflowed lands, will be ren-
dered more productive by efficient drainage; and

Whereas, the creation and development of a sentiment
which will recognize the importance and desirability of
effective drainage for the full development of the agri-
cultural resources of the State, and the necessity of de-
vising proper systems for carrying out the same, is great-
ly to be desired; and

Whereas, there is a'great need for an organized effort
on the part of all those interested in the foregoing, as
well as the general welfare and progress of our great
State;

Therefore, there is now hereby organized the Florida
Drainage Association, of which the following shall be
the Constitution:


ARTICLE I.-NAME.

This organization shall be known as the FLORIDA DRAIN-
AGE ASSOCIATION.


ARTICLE II.-PURPOSES.

The objects and purposes of this Association shall be
to study the problems relating to drainage, and dissemi-
nate information relating thereto; to promote the effi-
cient drainage of the lands in the State; to improve and
make more effective the drainage laws of Florida; and
to hold meetings for the discussion of questions relating
to drainage.











ARTICLE III.-MEMBERSH IP.

All individuals, firms, corporations, boards of trade
chambers of commerce, scientific and other societies in-
terested in the drainage of lauds in Florida, shall be
eligible to membership in the Association. Memberships
shall be of three classes, viz.: Regular, Sustaining and
Contributing. The dues which shall be assessed against
the members of the several classes shall be as follows:-
Regular, $1.00 per annum; Sustaining, $10.00 per annum;
and Contributing, $25.00 per annum. Individuals shall
be eligible to membership in any of the three classes;
Boards of Trade, Chambers of Commerce, Scientific and
other Societies, to either the Sustaining or Contributing
class; and firms and corporations to the contributing
class.

ARTICLE IV.--OFFICERS.

The officers of this Association shall consist of a Presi-
dent, five Vice Presidents, and a Secretary who shall be
ex officio Treasurer of the Association. They shall be
elected at the Annual Meeting, and shall hold office form
the time of their election until the succeeding annual
meeting, or until their successors are elected and quali-
fied, and such officers shall constitute the Executive
Board of the Association, and in which shall be vested
the Government of the Association. Any vacancies in
the Executive Board may be filled by the remaining mem-
bers or by appointment of the President until the next
annual meeting.
The Executive Board shall have power to arrange for
the place and time of the annual meeting of the Associa-
tion, and may call special meetings when they shall deem
it necessary, and shall prepare the program for all meet-
ings, and perform all business of the Association not oth-
erwise provided for. Five members of the Executive











Board shall constitute a quorum to transact business,
and a proxy shall be considered the same as' a member
present.
In addition to the five Vice President above provided,
the President may appoint an honorary vice president
from each of the several counties in the State.

ARTICLE V-RIGHT TO VOTE.

The right to vote or hold office in this Association shall
be limited to persons who .are members in good standing,
or properly accredited representatives of firms, corpora-
tions, or other associations in good standing, and all
members shall be entitled to receive copies of all printed
reports and other matter issued by the Association.

ARTICLE VI-DUTIES OF PRESIDENT.

The President shall preside at all sessions of the As-
sociation, and shall be ex-officio chairman of the Execu-
tive Board. In case the President be absent from any
session of the Association the Vice Presidents shall act
in his place in their order. The President shall, unless
otherwise ordered, appoint all special and standing com-
mittees.

ARTICLE VII-SECRETARY-TREASURER.

The Secretary shall keep records of all proceedings,
both of the Association and the Executive Board, and
shall render an account at each annual meeting, of the
money collected and expended, which account shall be au-
dited by a committee appointed for that purpose.

ARTICLE VIII-ANNUAL MEETING.

There shall be held an annual meeting of the Associa











tion for the purpose ot the election of officers and such
other matters as may properly come before the Associa-
tion, and the Secretary shall, when requested by the Ex-
ecutive Board, call such special meetings as may be
deemed necessary.

ARTICLE IX-COMMITTEES.

At each annual meeting of the Association there shall
be selected the following committees: Credentials, Reso-
lutions, and Permanent Organization, each to consist of
three members, unless otherwise ordered. A committee
of five members shall be appointed, to be known as thq
Legislative Committee, and which shall draft such pro-
posed legislation as the Association shall endorse, and
present the same to the Legislature.

ARTICLE X-POLITICAL.

The Association shall at no time allow any political
discussions, nor endorse any political resolutions; and
no special reclamation project or scheme shall be en-
dorsed by it.

ARTICLE XI-AMENDMENTS.

This Constitution may be altered or amended by a
majority vote of those present at any annual meeting;
and the Association may by a majority vote at any meet-
ing adopt rules to govern its procedure.

CLOSING OF.CONVENTION.

President Geo. W. Oliver was called to the chair, and
thanked the convention for the honor conferred on him, in
a few brief remarks, And pledged his best efforts to the
furthering of the objects of the Association. The presi-










dent then announced the appointment of Mr. Wm. M.
Whitten and Hon. F. C. Elliot, as two of the members of
the Legislative Committee, the other members to be an-
nounced later.
Meeting adjourned.

MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION.

Being in sympathy with the purposes of the FLORIDA
DRAINAGE ASSOCIATION, the undersigned hereby
makes application for membership in said Association as
indicated below. Enclosed find $......... in payment of
dues for year ending March 5th, 1915.

(N am e) .................................
(A address) ...........................

Annual Dues: Regular Membership, $1; Sustaining
Membership, $10; Contributing Membership, $25.

N. B.-Make all checks and money orders payable to
E. L. Mack, Secretary-Treasurer, Bartow, Florida.




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