• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Main
 County map of state of Florida
 Half Title
 Note
 Preface
 The unused woods of Florida
 Woods used in Florida
 Planing mill products
 Packing boxes and crates
 Sash, doors, blinds, and general...
 Tobacco boxes
 Car construction
 Ship and boat building
 Vehicles and vehicle paths
 Miscellaneous
 Apportionment of wood among...
 Cost of species by industries
 Summary by industries of woods...
 Appendix














Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00064
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00064
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Main
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Half Title
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Note
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Preface
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The unused woods of Florida
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Woods used in Florida
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Planing mill products
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Packing boxes and crates
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Sash, doors, blinds, and general mill work
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Tobacco boxes
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Car construction
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Ship and boat building
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Vehicles and vehicle paths
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Miscellaneous
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Apportionment of wood among industries
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Cost of species by industries
        Page 70
    Summary by industries of woods used in Florida
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Appendix
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
Full Text




Number 4
II


Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.
THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED FREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM
T. J. APPLEYARD, State Printer,
Tallahassee, Florida


II


/'


(


'Q.q j/i1 t\


0_1 u


Supplement to

mLORIDA
QUARTERLY

BULLETIN
OF THE
AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT

OCTOBER 1, 1914.

W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.

WOOD viING INDUSTRIES OF
FLORIDA










COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FIIDA.
























ARTICLES ON WOOD-USING INDUSTRIES
OF FLORIDA.



























NOTE

The investigation upon which this report is based was
undertaken by the Forest Service in co-operation with
the Department of Agriculture of the State of Florida,
the work being done under the direction of O. T. Swan,
in charge of Industrial Investigations, United States De-
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. The statis-
tics were compiled from data collected in 1912, covering
a period of one year. The State Department of Agricul-
ture is authorized to publish the findings of the investi-
gation.
























































































































aY
r' -t













REPORT ON THE WOOD USING
INDUSTRIES OF FLORIDA.


By HU MAXWELL.


PREFACE.

Florida extends farther south than any other State,
and approaches within sixty miles of the torrid zone. It
covers six and one-half degrees of latitude. No part of
the State has a cold climate, but many tree species which:
flourish in the cool Appalachian Mountain ranges extend
into northern Florida, and there find the boundary of
their ranges. The southern portion of the State has a
sub-tropical climate, and the vegetation shows it. Where
there are soil and fertility enough .to support vegetation,
it is very dense. Trees belonging to tropical regions have
gained a foothold along the southern coasts and upon
the hundreds of islands and reefs lying near the shores
of the peninsula. Several tree species are found, there
and nowhere else in the United States.
The greatest length of Florida is 700 miles, and its
average width is 90 miles. Its area is 58,680 square miles,
of which 4,440 are water. Its coast line is longer than
that of any other State, and notwithstanding much shal-
low water near the shore, there are a number of excellent
harbors. No point in the State rises more than 300 feet
above sea level. Delaware is the only State which does
not at some point attain a greater elevation than Florida.
fTle' surface of Florida is far from being a dead level,
though the differences in elevation are small. The north-
ern portion is diversified with rolling hills and gentle
slopes. The south hplf has no hills, but irregularities of
surface are numerous. Some of the red soils which












abound in Georgia seem to have overlapped into portions
of northern Florida; but in the southern part of the
State, the white sand worn from the coral reefs and
limestone deposits covers most of the surface, and in
some localities the great coral reef which forms the skele-
ton of south Florida, protrude through the thin sand cov-
ering, and appears at the surface. Low swales and de-
pressions abound in places, and these have accumulated
and they hold black muck which looks like wet pulverized
charcoal.
The whole peninsula was originally wooded, except
about ten thousand square miles of swamp and coral
ledges known as the Everglades. A few trees of fair
size grow in that region, but most of the Everglades is
treeless, and during half of the year is covered with wa-
ter from a few inches to several feet deep. Tall, reed-
like grass grows out of the water, and at intervals over
small flat islands, a few inches above water, on which
grow thickets of myrtle, bay, and other bushes. Little,
if any, of this growth ever attains a size fitting it for
use, and the Everglades have never contributed to any
considerable extent to Florida's lumber supply.
Tropical species are found in the rocky hammocks of
the southern part, where they frequently grow in almost
impenetrable jungles; but when the hammock land ends
and the sand begins, the hardwoods give way to Cuban
and sand pine, and the change from a rich and luxuriant
vegetation to a thin and poor one is often almost instan-
taneous. The pines in the southern part of the State are
generally but not always small. There is abundance of
rain, but in many places the white sand contains so little
humus that trees do not reach a large size.
Agriculture has not yet greatly lessened the timber
areas of Florida. About one acre in eight has been
cleared. In many parts, in the southern half of the State
particularly, the forest cover is so thin that the woods
afford about as good pasturage as if the trees were not












there. In the northern part, where the hardwoods of
the Appalachian region overlap on Florida and soil is
better, the forests are generally much heavier.
Many of the Florida rivers are ideal as driving streams
for logs. The currents are sluggish, and the water
usually deep. There are a few bars and no rapids. On
small streams the chief obstacle in the way of log driving
is frequently trees which grow along the banks and down
to the extreme low water mark. These trunks sometimes
so nearly close the channels that little space is left for
logs to pass through. That difficulty is not often met on
the larger rivers.
The study of the wood-using industries of Florida was
made in the spring of 1912, and was carried out under
the same plan as other similar State studies. All known
manufacturers of wood commodities in the State were
sent blanks to be filled, showing the extent and character
of their operations, the kinds of woods employed, and
the cost of the lumber used. Those who neglected to
reply to the mail request were visited and the desired
statistics were procured in nearly every instance. The
accompanying tables will show summaries of the result.
The total annual output of manufactured wood commodi-
ties in Florida ranks rather low compared with some of
the other Southern States, but high compared with many
of the Northern and Central States. The Southern
States which exceed Florida in total product are Louis-
iana, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, and North
Carolina.
Florida is manufacturing its softwoods into flooring,
ceiling, siding, sash and mill products, but is not yet
doing much with its hardwoods. No States south of
North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas are active in
the way of manufacturing their hardwoods. Florida is
doing what other Gulf States are doing; that is, cutting
pine and cypress, and leaving the rest. These species
are most abundant, and under present conditions there












is more money in them than in' the smaller and more
dispersed hardwoods; but the people of Florida should
not lose sight of the fact that they have a rare lot of
hardwoods and that there is a good market for them if
pains are taken to reach that market in the right way.
More than 95 per cent of the wood now passing through
Florida's factories is pine and cypress. These species
are exploited at the expense of all others. While they
last, they will make the lumber business profitable, but
when they are gone, the wood-worker's attention will turn
to what is now being neglected-the hardwoods.
Florida appears to be suffering more from forest fires
than most of the other Southern States. The fires are
small and slow. They do not attract much attention as
they creep along among the pine, but-they get in their
deadly work no less surely, though more slowly, than the
forest conflagrations which wipe out many square miles
in one stretch. The traveler in Florida, almost anywhere
outside the boundaries of the swamps, is soon accustomed
to the sight of long lines of .fire which keep close to the
ground. The blaze may not be more than a foot high,
but when it has passed, it leaves every tree seedling dead.
The mat of saw palmettoes, which nearly always casts a
low shade to protect the ground, are scorched brown
wherever the fire touches them. They may sprout again
the next year, and tree seedlings may come up again, but
the fire will follow, and every visitation leaves the ground
more barren. No forests will stand fire indefinitely, and
Florida's in every part of the State are showing the re-
sults of burnings.
The control of forest fires in Florida should be easier U
than in most States, because the country is flat, the woods
often open and thin, and watercourses numerous. But
efforts to control are infrequent. Persons well acquaint-
ed with customs in the State say that ten fires are pur- -
posely set, for every one extinguished. The Florida razor
back hog is indirectly one of the forest's worst enemies.












It is a gaunt, ungainly animal, adapted for foraging and
built for speed, and it roams the woods in a never-tiring
search for something to eat. In the late winter the own-
ers of the hogs go out with a box of matches and burn
the range. That clears away old stalks, and tender shoots
spring up with a plentiful supply of swine pasture for a
few weeks. The men who set the fire care little for the
young trees destroyed and the old trunks weakened. A
thousand seedling pines perish that a hog may lay on a
few pounds of fat; and Florida sentiment generally does
not seem to oppose the process.

THE UNUSED WOODS OF FLORIDA.

Florida has 165 unused species of trees, a few more or
a few less, depending upon whether some of the minor
species are included or excluded. Trees which belong
in northern latitudes reach into the northern part of the
State and there have their southern limit, while others
which are tropical or semitropical reach their northern
limit somewhere in the State.
It is a wealth of species rather than a wealth of wood,
because in a commercial sense many of the trees are not
of much importance on account of scarcity, or the small
size, or poor form of trunks. A few of the most abundant
supply nearly all the lumber cut in Florida; while the
scores of others contribute very small amounts now, with
little prospect that the amount can ever be much increased.
The State is at present an important lumber producer;
but, with the depletion of the principal woods, it may be
expected that the annual output of sawmills will fall to
a much lower place. That will tend to bring into use
the numerous scarce and small species, and the wood-
using industries may be expected to undergo a change.
The output of planing mill products will diminish as the
pine and cypress grow scarcer; and the manufacture of
articles from cabinet woods, which are numerous and at-












tractive, though in total amount not large, may be ex-
pected to increase until in time that will become the
leading wood-using industry of Florida.

In view of what will probably be brought about in
the future, it is opportune to examine the State's timber
resources. In the first place, after excluding the pines,
cypress, and a few other species which now furnish the
bulk of Florida's sawmill output, it should be borne in
mind that the State's timber consists for the most part
of species which do not reach large size. Therefore, in
dustries which shall make use of them must produce ar-
ticles suited to the material. In the second place, most
of this timber belongs to the hardwood class, and a large
part of it is colored sufficiently t6 place it in the cabinet
woods list. Therefore, it may be expected that the fu-
ture wood-using industries of Florida will be such as
can profitably handle small timber, and hard and col-
ored woods. That will call for a rather unusual class
of commodities. They will be selected from many in-
dustries. That phase of the State's development lies al-
most wholly in the future, for very little of it is now
under way. The larger timber is being worked up, but
the great wealth of small woods remains-more than
one hundred species which at this time are scarcely
touched at all.

A study of the kinds and character of the many woods
suggests certain commodities which can be profitably
manufactured in Florida. The list, however, should be
considered simply as suggestive. Most of the articles
have not been manufactured to much extent in the State,
and in some instances a trial would probably show that
they could not be profitably made; but the majority of
the woods are valuable, and will some time attract manu
facturers. The following list of commodities is suggested
as probably suited to the character of many of the Florida
species which at the present time are not in use:












Athletic goods,
Balls,
Billiard cues,
Brackets,
Brush backs,
Canes,
Carved ornaments,
Castors,
Chairs,
Clothes pins,
Curtain rings,
Dyewoods,
Easels,
Games,
Grilles,
Handles,
Inlay,
Insulator pin,
Knobs,
Manicure sets,


Marquetry,
Mathematical instruments,
Medicinal extracts,
Musical instruments,
Pallettes,
Panels,
Parquetry,
Picture frames,
Rulers,
Shuttles,
Small furniture,
Souvenirs,
Spindles,
Sporting goods,
Toys,
Trays,
Turnery,
Umbrella handles,
Veneer,
Wooden ware.


Various other commodities might be added to the list.
For many of them a small tree may be used in that way
to advantage, though not large enough for ordinary lum-
ber. The list of species which follows includes only
those woods which are not now reported by any manu
facturer in Florida, according to returns secured in the
recent wood-using study in the State. It shows a re-
markable wealth of material waiting for manufacturers.
It is impracticable in the space here available to describe
each wood very fully. In each instance, however, the
best available information is given concerning each spe-
cies' average height, trunk diameter, hardness or soft-
ness, strength or weakness, weight, and color. Such gen-
eral information will indicate to the prospective manu-
facturer what woods will likely suit his purposes. If
favorably impressed with a sufficient number of them, he












can make further investigation for himself along his par-
ticular line.
American Holly (Ilex opaca).-The common holly that
bears the red berries used in Christmas decorations.
The tree may attain a height of forty feet and a diameter
of a foot or more. The wood is nearly white when freshly
cut, and changes to a brown with age.
Andromeda (Andromeda ferruginea).-It is often
called titi, and attains a height of twenty feet and a
diameter occasionally one foot, but usually smaller. The
wood is heavy, hard, not strong, light brown, tinged with
red. It grows on Cedar Keys and about Apalachicola.
Angelica Tree (Aralia spinosa).-Size is against much
use for this tree, which is often called Hercules Club.
The trunk may reach eight inches in diameter, and a
height of thirty feet. The wood is light, soft, brittle, and
brown with yellow streaks. It is found in the ni.,rihli n
part of the State.
Beech (Fagus atropunicea).-The comfnon and well-
known beech is found in the western part of Florida,
but the trees are small and rather poor, and are usually
found on sandy hammocks.
Bitternut (Hicora minima).-The bitternut species of
hickory grows in western Florida, where it reaches its
southern limit.
Black Calabash (Crescentia ovata).-It is found in
Florida only in the south, and is too small to be of use
for other than small articles. Its height is 15 or 20 feel,
trunk diameter 4 or 5 inches, wood heavy and hard, and
light brown or orange in color.
Black ('l,, i y (Prunus serotina).-The ordinary cherry
of which furniture and house finish are made is found
only occasionally in Florida.
Black Ironwood (Rhamnidium ferreunm).-This is one
of several ironwoods found in the south of Florida. It is












among the commonest of the small trees in the region
where it grows, and attains a height of 20 to 30 feet, and
a diameter of six to ten inches. The wood is exceed-
ingly heavy and hard, and is rich brown in color.
Black Jack (Quercus marilandica).-It is not one of
the valuable oaks, but in some localities trees of usable
size are found. It grows as far south as Tampa Bay.
Black Olive Tree (7'Tirwi,,iill; buceras).-A tendency
to branch near the ground is characteristic of the black
olive tree. Trunks may be two feet or more in diameter
and forty feet high. The wood is exceedingly hard and
heavy, and is usually light yellow brown. The tree, is
found on the southern keys.
Black Sloe (Prunus unmbellata).-A Florida name for
the tree is hog plum. The trunk is small and generally
crooked, the wood reddish brown and heavy..
Black Walnut (Juglans nigra).-A little black wal-
nut, the well-known cabinet wood, is found in the west-
ern part of the State.
Black Willow (Salix nigra).-Willow trees of commer-
cial size are not abundant in the State, but specimens
exist in many places.
Blackwood. (Avicennia. nitida).-This tree is often
called black mangrove. It reaches a diameter of one-or
two feet and a height of 60 or 70. The wood is very
heavy and hard, and is nearly black.
Blolly (Pisonia obtusata).-The blolly is found in the
extreme south of the State, where it attains a height of
30 to 50 feet and a diameter 15 to 20 inches. The wood
is heavy and weak, and yellowish- brown.
Blue Beech (Carpinfs carolinana).-The wood of blue
beech is strong, its color light, and the tree is generally
small and of poor form for lumber.
Blue Jack (Quercus brevifolia).-Large trees of this












species are not often seen, and the wood is too coarse for
any but rough uses.
Buckthorn Bilmelia (Bumelis lycoides).-Some call
this tree mock orange, and some ironwood. It attains a
trunk diameter of six inches and a height of 25 or 30
feet; wood is heavy and weak, and of yellow color.
Bustic (Dipholis salicifolia).-Cassado is one of the
names by which the tree is known in Florida. It attains
a height of 50 feet and a diameter of 20 inches. The
wood is red, exceedingly hard and heavy, and is found in
the extreme south of the State.
Cabbage Palmetto (Sabal palmetto).-The cabbage pal-
metto is abundant in many parts of the State, and trunks
40 feet high and a foot in diameter are not uncommon.
Chinquapin (Castanae pumila).-This little chestnut
tree grows in the northern part of the State, where it
reaches the southern boundary of its range.
C',inaln,, Bark (Canella winterana)'.-A height of 25
feet and a diameter of eight inches are usual, and the
wood is very heavy and exceedingly hard. Its color is
dark brown. The species grows on the southern keys in
the shade of other trees.
Cockspur (Crataegius crus-galli).-This thornbush occa-
sionally becomes a small tree. Its wood is heavy, hard
and strong.
Cocoa Plum (Chrysobalanus icaco).-Gopher plum is
another name for this tree which may be 25 feet high and
a foot in diameter, with strong, hard, heavy, brown-col-
ored wood. It is confined in Florida to the southern part
of the State.
Corkwood (Leitneria floridana).-A small amount of
this species is found in western Florida near Apalachi-
cola. It is little more than a shrub in size, and the wood
is soft and very light.
Crabwood (Gynmanthes lucida).-The wood is dark












brown and rich in color; very heavy and hard. Trunks
are six or eight inches in diameter and -20 or 30 feet tall.
The species grows in the extreme south of the State.
Cottonwood (Populus deltoides).-This is common cot-
ton wood.
Dahoon (Ilex cassine).-In practical use this holly is
about the same as the common holly. It is neither abun-
dant or of large size.
Deciduous Holly (Ilex decidua).-Most hollies are ever-
green, but this sheds its leaves in winter. The wood is
white like the others.
Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).-It is often called
wild olive, and reaches a height of 40 or 50 feet and a
diameter of ten or twelve inches. Wood is dark brown,
heavy, very hard, and difficult to work.
Dogwood (Cornus florida) is the common dogwood, a
hard, heavy, smooth wood that may reach a trunk diame-
ter of one foot and a height of twenty or thirty.
Dwarf Sumach- (Rhits copallina).-This is generally
quite small, but sizes large enough for use are found.
The wood is richly colored with yellow and black or dark
brown.
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus).-This is not a na-
tive tree, but has been introduced from Australia, and
is often called blue gum.
Fevertree (Pinckneya pubens), called Florida quinine
bark in some places, is so rare that the wood will prob-
ably not be much used, though the bark may possess
value.
Fiddlewood (Citharexylum villosum) abounds on the
southern keys, and is small. Trunks are four or five
inches in diameter and fifteen or twenty feet high. The
wood is bright red, heavy, and very strong.
Florida Buttonwood (Conocarpus erecta) grows on
muddy tidewater shores in southern Florida. It is 20 to
2-wood












30 inches in diameter and 40 to 60 feet high. The wood
is very heavy, strong, hard, and burns slowly like char-
coal. It is dark yellow-brown.
Florida Box.wood (Schaefferis frutescens) or yellow
wood as it is occasionally called, is found on the south-
ern keys, attains a height of 30 or 40 feet and a diame-
ter of six to ten inches. The bright yellow wood is heavy
and hard.
Florida Caper (capparis jamaicensis), locally known
as caper tree, is found in the extreme south of the State,
and is usually quite small. The wood is tinged with red
and is hard and heavy.
Florida Cat's Claw (Zygia unguis-cati) .-Some call this
tree longpod. It is found in the southern part of the
State, where it attains a height of 20 to 25 feet and a
diameter of 7 or 8 inches. The wood is a rich red, vary-
ing to purple, and very heavy and hard.
Florida Maple (Acer saccharum floridanum).-This
is a small maple found in western Florida.
Florida Plum (Drypetes lateriflora), called also Guiana
plum and whitewood, is found in the extreme southern
part of the State where it reaches a height of 20 to 30
feet and a diameter of five or six inches. The wood is
dark brown, brittle and hard.
Florida Torrcya (Tuniion taxifolium), is a scarce spe-
cies found in western Florida near the Apalachicola
River. The wood is yellow, and the tree is often called
stinging cedar.
Florida Yew ( Tai ,i floridanum), called also Savin
and Chattahoochee pine, has its range on the east bank
of the Apalachicola River in western Florida. The tree
is seldom more than 25 feet high and one foot in diameter.
Its wood is hard and is dark brown.
Fraser Umbrella (Magnolia fraseri), sometimes called
water lily tree, ranges through portions of western Flor-












ida. It is thirty or forty feet high and 18 or 20 inches
in diameter. The wood is soft, light, and weak.
Garber Stopper (Eugenia garberi) .is scarce and is
found in the extreme south of the State.
Geigertree (Cordia sebestina) is 25 or 30 feet high, six
inches or less in diameter, and is scarce. The wood is
brown, heavy, and hard.
Golden Fig (Ficus area) is a parasitic tree reaching
its best development in the south of Florida, where it may
be three or four feet in diameter and fifty or sixty high.
It is one of the lightest, weakest woods in this country,
and is subject to very rapid decay.
Green Ash (Frai.inus lanceolate) is found in small
quantity in the northern part of the State.
Green Haw (Crataegus viridis).-This is generally a
shrub, but is sometimes 30 feet high, with trunk a foot
or more in diameter.
Guettorda (Guettarda elliptica), or nakedwood as some
call it, grows on the southern keys, and is small, but the
wood is heavy and hard.
Guiana Plum (Drypetes keyensis) has its range on the
southern keys, where it develops a trunk five or six inches
in size. The dark brown wood is hard, heavy, and brittle.
Gumbo Limbo (Busera simaruba), or West Indies birch,
is sometimes 60 feet high and three in diameter. The
wood is soft, weak, spongy, light, and of a brown color.
Its range is in the southern part of the State.
Gurgeon Stopper (Eugenia buxifolia) is confined to
the south of the State, where it is usually a shrub, but
is sometimes twenty feet high and a foot in diameter. The
wood is brown, shaded with red, and is very, heavy and
exceedingly hard.
Gyminda (Gyminda grisebachii), or false boxwood,
grows on the southern islands, where it is occasionally
25 feet high and six inches in diameter. The wood is
nearly black and is very heavy and hard.












Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis).-It grows in most
parts of Florida and is of commercial size. The wood
is light in color, rather soft, and not very strong.
Hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata), or wafer ash, is a north-
ern species but reaches Florida, where it is too small to
be of much use. The yellowish brown wood is heavy and
hard.
Inkwccod (Exothca paniculata), and also one of the
numerous species locally called ironwood, is confined in
the United States to the south of Florida. It is 40 or
50 feet high, a foot in diameter, and the wood is very
strong, and bright red.
Ironwood (Cyrilla racenmiflora) .-This is likewise
known as red titi. The tree may be thirty feet high and
one in diameter. The wood is brown, tinged with red,
and, though hard and heavy, is not strong.
Jamaica Dogwood (Ichthyomethis piscipula), grows in
many parts of Florida, and may reach a height of 40 or
50 feet and a diameter of two or three. The yellow-brown
wood is heavy, hard, and durable in contact with the
ground.
Joewood (Jaqiinia armillaris) is a rather scarce wood
of southern Florida, and the trees are small. The wood
is a rich brown and is beautifully marked with darker
medullary rays. It is hard and heavy.
Lancewood (Ocotea catesbyana) is comparatively abun-
dant in south Florida, and is a tree 20 or 30 feet high and
a foot or more in diameter. The wood's color is rich
dark brown, and it is hard and heavy.
Largeleaf Umbrella (Magnolia macrophylla) is known
as cucumber tree in Florida. The wood is hard, but is
light and weak. It is not abundant.
Laurel Cherry (Prunus caroliniana), or mock olive, is
30 or 40 feet high and six or eight inches through, and
its hard, strong, heavy wood is dark brown.












Laurel Oak (Quercus laurifolia) attains largest size
in eastern Florida, where trees 100 feet high and 3 or
4 feet in diameter are occasionally seen. The wood is
heavy, very strong and hard.
Leucaena (Leucaena glauca).-The little of this species
in the State is on the extreme southern keys.
Lignum vitae (Guajacum sanctum) is found on the
Florida keys, where it forms a round-headed crown 25 or
30 feet high, and the trunk is two or three feet in diame-
ter. The wood is exceedingly hard, and much of it is
richly colored.
Loblolly Bay (Gordonia lasianthus), or tan bay, is a
tree 60 to'75 feet high and a foot or more in diameter,
with light, soft, not durable, red wood.
Longstalk Willow (Salia, occidentalis longipes) is small
and scarce in the State.
Manchineel (Hippomane mancinella).-This tree is
small in Florida, though larger in the West Indies. It
grows only in the immediate neighborhood of the ocean.:
Mangrove (Rhisophora mangle) is usually only fifteen
or twenty feet high and a few inches in diameter, form-
ing with its aerial roots impenetrable thickets; but some-
times trunks are thirty or forty feet long, clear of
branches, while the trees are 70 or 80 feet tall. The wood
is exceedingly heavy, hard, and strong.
Marlberry (Icacorea paniculata).-This tree is small,
but the wood is a rich brown beautifully marked with
darker medullary rays. It is heavy and hard.
Mastic (Sideroxylon mastichodendron), or wild olive,
has a trunk three or four feet in diameter and 60 or 70
tall. The hard, heavy wood is a bright orange yellow.
Mockernut (Hicoria alba) is a valuable and well-known
species of hickory.
Mountain Laurel (Kolmia latifolia) does not often at-
tain tree size, though it is sometimes 30 or 40 feet high











and a foot or more in diameter. The wood is hard, strong,
and brittle.
Naked Stopper (Anamonis dichotoma) may be six
inches thick and 20 feet higlh. It belongs in the southern
part of the State. The wood is light brown or red, and
is hard and very heavy.
Naked-wood (Colubrina reclinata), or soldierwood as
it is sometimes called, is native in the extreme south of
Florida, where it is 50 or 60 feet high and three feet or
more in diameter. The hard, heavy wood is dark brown
tinged with yellow.
Narrowleaf Crab (Pyrus angustifolia), or crabtree, as
it is frequently called, in northwestern Florida is 20 or
25 feet high, with hard, heavy reddish brown wood.
Odorless Myrtle (Myrica inodora).-This small tree is
very scarce in Florida.
Overcup Oak (Quercus lyrata) is a commercial species
with its southern limit in western Florida. It is not
abundant there.
Paradise-tree (Simarouba glauca), or bitterwood, is
native of southern Florida, occasionally 18 or 20 inches
in diameter and 40 or 50 feet tall. The brown wood is
soft and light.
Parsley Haw (Crataegus aplifolia) is found in the
northern part of the State, with a small trunk, seldom
more than 20 feet high.
Pawpaw (Asimina triloba).-This tree is small and
S the wood is light, soft, and weak.
Pigeon Plum (Cocolobis laurifolia) attains a diameter
of one or two feet and a height of 60 or 70. The wood
is strong, heavy, and exceedingly hard. It is a rich dark
brown, tinged with red.
Pignut (Hicoria glabra) is one of the commercial hick-
ories and grows in northern Florida.












Planertree (Planera aquatica) is 30 or 40 feet high
and a foot or more in diameter. The wood is light and
soft, and light brown in color.
Poisonwood (Rhus metopiumn), or coral sumach, grows
on the southern keys. It attains a height of 30 or 40
feet and a diameter of one or two. The wood is heavy
and hard, but is not strong. It is dark brown, streaked
with red, and within its range it is abundant.
Pond Apple (Annona glabra), or custard apple, ranges
through south Florida, and may be 30 or 40 feet high,
with a trunk often much swelled at the base. The weak,
light wood is brown, streaked with yellow.
Poplarleaf Fig (Pious populnea), or india-rubber tree,
is found in southern Florida, and is 40 or 50 feet high,
and a foot or more in thickness of trunk. The orange-
brown wood is light and soft.
Pond Pine (Pinus serotina), sometimes called loblolly
pine in Florida, though it is not the true loblolly, is of
moderate size, the wood is resinous and heavy, and of
dark orange color. It occurs in the northern part of the
State.
Post Oak (Quercus minor) is one of the commercial
trees of northern Florida and the wood resembles white
oak.
Prickly Ash (Xanthoxylum clavaherculis) is also called
stingtongue and toothache tree. It is from 25 to 30 feet
high and a foot or more through the trunk. The wood
is soft and light.
Princewood (Exostema caribaeum) is found on the
southern keys, with trunks 10 or 12 inches in size and
20 or 25 feet high. The wood is very heavy and exceed-
ingly hard and strong, light brown, and handsomely
streaked with different shades of yellow and brown.
Pumpkin Ash (Fraxinus profunda) is too scarce in
Florida to be attractive to wood users.












Queensland Pine (Casuarina torulosa) is an Australian
tree, which has been. introduced in southern Florida,
where it grows with great rapidity.
Red Bay (Persea barbonia), sometimes called sweet
bay and Florida mahogany, attains a height of 60 or 70
feet and a diameter of 2 or 3 feet. The bright red wood
is strong, hard, and heavy.
Redbud (Cercis canadensis), or Judas tree, is some-
times 50 feet high, but is generally small. The wood is
not strong, but is hard and heavy. It is rich dark brown,
tinged with red.
Red Ironwood (Reyibosia latifolia), often called darling
plum, is a southern Florida species of a height of 20 feet
and six or eight inches in diameter, with rich dark brown
very hard and heavy.
Red Maple (Acer rubrum) grows as far south as In-
dian River, but is not important or plentiful.
Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) occasionally reaches com-
mercial size in the State. The wood is dark reddish, hard
and strong.
Red Stopper (Eugenia procera).-Height 20 to 25 feet,
diameter one foot; wood light brown, heavy, and hard.
River Birch (Betula nigra) reaches commercial size;
the wood is plain, strong, and medium heavy.
Royal Palm (Oreodoxa regia).-Height 80 to 100 feet,
diameter 1 or 2 feet. The wood is spongy.
Saffron Plum (Bumelia angustfolia), also known as
downward plum and antswood, is 20 feet high with a six-
inch trunk. The wood is hard and heavy, brown or orange
colored.
Sargent Palm (Psuedophoenix sargentii) grows on the
southern reefs, but is very scarce.
Sassafras (Sassafras sassafras) reaches the southern
limit of its range in central Florida, and is not commer
cially important.












Satinleaf (Chrysophylltm monopyrenum).-Height 20
feet, diameter one foot, wood hard and heavy, light brown,
shaded with-red. The tree is not plentiful.
Satinwood (Xanthoxylum cribri. Esa).-This tree at-
tains a height of 30 or 35 feet and a diameter of one or
more. The wood is brittle, heavy, hard, and of light
orange color.
Scarlet Haw (Crataegus coccinea) ; height 18 or 20 feet,
diameter 4 inches, wood hard and heavy.
Sea Grape (cocolobis uvifera), or seaside plum. The
wood is hard and heavy, and of dark brown or violet color.
The trees are small, seldom more than fifteen feet high.
Shagbark Hickory (Hicoria ovata).-This is a valuable
and common species of hickory.
Shittimwood (Bumelia lanuginosa) reaches its south-
ern limit in the northern part of the State, and is not of
much commercial importance.
Silktop Palmetto (Thrinax parviflora), also called sil-
ver thatch, grows on the southern keys, and reaches a
diameter of eight or ten inches and a height of 20 or 30
feet.
Silverbell-tree (Mohlrodendron carolinum), also known
as snowdrop tree, extends'into northern Florida, which
is the southern limit of its range. The light brown wood
is soft, and sometimes finely figured.
Silvertop Palmetto (Thrinax microcarpa), or brittle
thatch, is native among the southern keys, where it may
reach a height of 30 feet.
Slippery Elm (Ulmus pubescens) is found in western
Florida, where the tree reaches commercial size. The
wood is strong and without much figure.
Small-leaf Haw (Orataegus uniflora) ; in northern part
of State.
Snowdrop-tree (Mohrodendron dipterum) ; height 20 or












'25 feet, diameter 6 or 8 inches, wood light brown, soft,
strong.
Soapberry (Sapindus saponaria), also called false dog-
wood in the southern part of the State, is 23 or 30 feet
in height, and 12 inches or less in diameter. The wood
is hard and rather heavy, light brown tinged with yel-
low.
Sour Tupelo (Nyssa ogeche), sometimes called gopher
plum, has the southern limit of its range in northern
Florida, where it is 50 or 60 feet high and two feet or less
in diameter. The wood is weak and soft, and light in
color.
Sourwood (Oaydendron arboreum) grows in north-
western Florida, but is of small size. The wood is heavy
and hard, and is brown, tinged with red.
Southern Red Juniper (Jun.iperus barbadensis).-This
species closely resembles the common red cedar.
Southern White Cedar (C('I i, i ii, iypri ; thyoides).-This
is a swamp cedar extending its range from the North into
northern Florida. The wood is light and soft.
Spanish Oak (Quercus digitata).-This tree is some-
times called red oak in Florida. It grows as far south
as the center of the State. There are several oak species
in this country which are called Spanish oak in some
part of their range.
Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra).-A number of trees are
called spruce pine in some parts of their range. The
species here listed as spruce pine grows in the Chatta-
hoochee region. The wood is tolerably white and soft.
It is sometimes called poor pine and white pine.
Stopper (Chytraculia chytraculia); height 20 feet, di-
ameter 4 inches, wood very heavy, hard, brown tinged
with red.
Strongback (Bourreria havanensis), also called strong-
bark, grows on the Florida Keys to a height of 30 or 40












feet, with a buttressed trunk 8 or 10 inches in diameter.
The wood is brown, strong, and hard.

Sugarberry (Celtis mississippiensis) is very similar to
hackberry and often passes as such.

Summer Haw (Crataegus aestivalis); or apple haw;
height 18 or 20 feet, diameter 12 or 18 inches.

Swamp Bay (Persea pubescens) ; 30 or 40 feet high and
up to one foot in diameter; wood heavy and soft, but
strong; orange in color, streaked with brown.

Sweet Birch (Betula lenta).-This is one of the birches
used for furniture in the North. A little grows in west-
ern Florida.

Sweetleaf (Symplocos tinctora), also called Florida
Laurel and horse sugar, attains a height of 30 or 35 feet,
with a slim trunk. The wood is light red, and soft. -
Sycamore (platanus occidentalis).-A little of this
species grows in the northern part of the State.

Titi (Cliftonia monophylla), or buckwheat tree, is found
in northern Florida; height 40 feet, diameter a foot or
more, wood heavy, hard, and brittle.
Torchwood (Amyris maritima).-This is a south Flor-
ida tree, 40 or 50 feet high, and rarely a foot in diameter.
The wood is exceedingly hard, heavy, and strong, very
resinous, extremely durable, light orange color.
Tough Bumelia (Bunmelia tenax), also called ironwood
and black haw, reaches a height of 20 or 30 feet, with a
bole not above 6 inches. The wood is heavy and hard
and is light brown, streaked with white.
Tree Huckleberry (Vaccinium arboreum), also known
as sparkleberry, farkleberry, and gooseberry, is 20 feet
high and 8 or 10 inches in diameter, with wood heavy
and hard.












Tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) is a wet-land tree that attains
large size, and its wood is serviceable for many purposes.
Turkey Oak (Quercus catesbaei), sometimes called
forked leaf, is generally a small tree of little commercial
importance, but occasionally is 60 feet high and two in
diameter. The wood is hard and heavy.

Wahoo (Evonymus atropurpureus), is a small slender
tree with heavy hard wood, and reaches its southern limit
in Florida.

Water Ash (Fraxinus caroliniana), called also pop ash
and swamp ash, is seldom 40 feet high or more'than a
foot in diameter. The wood is light, soft, weak, and
nearly white.

Water Gum (Nyssa biflora).-This is a small tree of
little commercial value.

Water Hickory (Hicoria aguatica), or swamp hickory.
This is one of the commercial hickories, and is sometimes
80 feet high and two in diameter.

Water Locust (Gleditsia aquatica), or thorn tree,
reaches a height of 50 or 60 feet, with trunk large enough
for sawlogs. The wood is strong and hard, and a rich
brown, tinged with red.

Water Oak (Quercus nigra) is often called red oak.
The wood is strong, hard, and heavy.

Wax Myrtle (Myrica cerifera).-This small tree has
many names, among them being puckerbush, candleberry,
and bayberry. The dark brown wood is brittle, soft, and
light.
West India Cherry .(Prunus sphaerocarpa); height 25
or 30 feet, diameter 5 or 6 inches, wood clear red, heavy
and hard.

White Elm (Ulmus americana).-This is the common












and most abundant elm in most regions of the United
States east of the Rocky Mountains.

White Buttonwood (Laguncularia racemosa), or white
mangrove, grows in southern Florida. Height 30 feet or
more, diameter one foot and upward. The wood is heavy
and hard, dark yellow brown.

White Ironwood (Hypelata trifoliata).-This species
grows on the southern keys, but is rare; height 35 or 40
feet, diameter 18 or 20 inches; wood rich dark brown,
hard and heavy.
WlVite Stopper (Eugenia monticola).-This tree is oc-
casionally 25 feet high, with a 12-inch trunk. The wood
is strong, heavy, hard, and is brown with red tinge.
Wild China (Sepindus marginatus) is sometimes called
soapberry. It may reach a trunk diameter of two feet
and a height of 50. The brown, yellow-tinged wood is
strong and heavy.
Wild Lime (Xanthoxylum fagaria) ; height 25 or 30
feet; wood heavy and hard; range, southern Florida.
Wild Sapodilla (Mimusops sieberi) ; only on the south-
ern keys and not abundant; height 30 feet; wood very
heavy, hard, and strong; rich very dark brown.

Wild Tamarind (Lysiloma laitisiliqua).-This species
in Florida is confined to the keys where it occasionally is
3 feet in diameter and 50 feet high. The wood is heavy,
hard, and tough, but not strong, and is of a rich dark
brown color.
Willow Oak (Quercus phellos), often called red oak in
Florida, is one of the State's commercial woods which
seldom appears under its own name as lumber.
Wing Elm (Ulmus alata).-This wood goes into lumber
simply as elm. The name refers to a flattening of the
small twigs.










S30

Witch, Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana).-This is gen-
erally a shrub, but it may attain a height of 25 or 30
feet, with a diameter of a foot or more. The wood is
hard and heavy, and light brown in color.

Yaupon (Ilex vomitoria).-This species of holly is often
called cassena. The trees are small, the wood white,
hard, and strong.
Yellow Buckthorn (Rhamnus caroliniana), or yellow
wood, is seldom more than six inches in diameter. The
wood is rather hard, but is light and weak.

Yellow Haw (Crataegus flava).-This tree is small, sel-
dom more than 20 feet high, and 8 or 10 inches in diam-
eter.
Yellow Oak (Quercus velutina).-This is one of the
large commercial oaks, and its wood often passes for red
oak.




























































































/












TABLE NO. 1-SUMMARY OF KINDS OF WOOD USED IN FLORIDA.

Quantity Used Annually. Average Total cost Grown in Grown out
KIND OF WOOD. cost per f.o.b. Florida. of Florida.
COMMON NAME. BOTANICAL NAME. Feet b. m. Per Cent. 1,000 ft. factory. Per cent. Per cent.


Longleaf pine......
Cuban pine........
Loblolly pine......
Cypress...........
Shortleaf pine.....

Spanish cedar.....
Evergreen magnolia
ted gum..........
White oak ........
White ash .........

Sand pine.........
Yellow poplar.....
Hickory ..........
Sweet magnolia...
White pine........

Mahogany..........
Black gum........
Live oak ..........
Birch.............
Red oak...........


Pinus palustris..........
Pinus heterophylla ......
Pinus tacda.............
Taxodium distichum.....
P.inus cchinata..........

Ccdrala odorata..........
Magnolia foetida........
Liquidamar stryaciflua..
Quercus alba............
Fraxinus americana.....

Pinus clause ...........
Liriodendron tulipifera..
Hicoria. ................
Magnolia glauca........
Pinus strobus...........

Swiietcnia mahogoni.....
Nyssa sylvatica ......
Qucrcus virginiana......
Betula ................:.
Quercus rubra.........


Sugar maple...... Acer saccharum ........
Spruce ............ Picea...............


305,330,872
63,563,000
33,049,000
32,838,727
10,775,000

10,189,208
2,658,000
992,000
701,179
280,000

250,000
104,344
103,500
80,000
79,071

33,495
33,000
32,000
28,000
6,200


5,000
5,000


70.10
12.20
0.34
6.30
2.07


$11.66
11.94
11.77
17.58
11.60


.96 24.95
.51 8.02
.19 11.55
.13 35.91
.05 25.07

.05 13.20
.02 89.02
.02 32.90
.02 22.00
.02 87.04

* 104.29
* .10.00
* 59.00
* 70.71
* 72.58

* 30.00
* 37.00


$4,259,886
758,710
389,023
577,372
124,950

254,185
21,330
11,460
S25,178
7,020

3,300
9,289
3,405
1,7C0
6,*82

5,503
330
1,888
1,980
450


92.19
98.90
89.41
99.16
100.00


100.00
87.10
1-14
49.64

100.00
3.83
93.72
100.00


31.41
100.00
100.00


7.81
1.10
10.59
.84


100.00

12.90
98.86
50.36


96.17
6.28

100.00

68.59


100.00
100.00


...... 100.00
...... 100.00











Basswood ......... Tilia Americana......... 2,000 35.00 70 ...... 100.00
SMadeira........... Lysiloma bahamensis.... 1,600 168.75 270 ...... 100.00
STeak.............. Tcctoria grandis......... 1,000 225.00 225 ...... 100.00

Red cedar ........ Junipcrus virginiana..... 44.00 22 100.00
Rosewood ......... Ptcrocarpa crinoccus .... 100 400.00 40 ...... 100.00

Total.............. 521.141.796; 100.00 $12.41 $6,464.863 91.48 8.52
*Less than 1-100 of 1 per cent.












WOODS USED IN FLORIDA.

Table 1 contains a list of 27 woods used in Florida last
year, according to reports made by manufacturers. It is
shown in the table also that some of these woods were
procured wholly in the State, others wholly from with-
out, while some came partly from within and partly from
the outside. The average cost of each and all at the fac-
tory is stated in the table, together with the amounts.
The table is a summary which shows in condensed form
the principal statistics of the wood-using industries of the
State. The detailed statistics are shown in the industry
tables which follow.
Preceding pages of this report list and briefly describe
a large number of unused woods in the State, those which
manufacturers either do not new employ, or use them
in so small amounts that they do not consider them
worth reporting. It now remains to take up in a similar
way the woods that are used. Longleaf pine leads in
amount, and rosewood is least. lRosewood is highest in
price, madeira next, mahogany third, and evergreen mag-
nolia is cheapest. Seven of the woods come wholly from
the State, ten entirely without, and the others are di-
vided.
Longleaf Pine.-More than half of the entire wood sup-
ply of the State, as shown in Table 1, is longleaf pine.
It is reasonably certain that some Cuban pine and some
loblolly are listed as longleaf, but is was not practicable
to ascertain how much or to separate them from long-
leaf. If the length of the needles alone is taken as a
means of identifying the several species of the Southern
yellow pines, it is not always a reliable test; for needles
of the same species vary in length, depending upon en-
vironment. Longleaf pine has thin sapwood and abun-
dance of heart; the other Southern pines may be expected
to show very thick sapwood in proportion to the heart.
That fact helps to distinguish longleaf logs and lumber












from other species. Some lumbermen have only two
names for'Southern pines: "heart pine" for longleaf, and
"sap pine" for the others. These terms express pretty
clearly the chief difference which lumbermen recognize in
the Southern pines. Of course there are other differences,
some of which do not appeal so directly to the eye. Long-
leaf pine is harder than the others, and stiffer, stronger,
and heavier than most. It is of slower growth and the
annual rings are narrower. The wood is generally but
not always of darker color than that of the other pines
associated with it. The longleaf pine occurs in the north-
ern two-thirds of Florida. Its reproduction is not gen-
erally vigorous, but in some sections many young trees
are taking possession of vacant places. As a whole, it is
doubtful if young growth can to any appreciable extent
make good the loss through sawmill operations, and the
result seems inevitable that longleaf pine supplies will
decline in the State, as in other -regions, until scarcity
results. The habit of frequently burning forest lands
perhaps works more harm to longleaf pine than to any
other tree, by killing the young growth.

Cuban Pine.-Next after longleaf, this species shows
longest use in the State. The same difficulties as in the
case of longleaf pine are met in separating it from asso-
ciated pines. One is often mistaken for another. The
Cuban pine is known under several names. It grows in
nearly all regions of Florida where any pine grows. It
has thick sapwood and is resinous; the rings of annual
growth are wide; the wood is stiff and strong. As the
southern part of the State is approached, the Cuban pine
becomes smaller. A good many stands exist in which
the mature trees are too small to attract sawmills. It
responds to good soil, and patches of merchantable tim-
ber may be found, surrounded by scrub growth.
Loblolly Pine.-This valuable timber tree belongs in
northern' Florida, extending south to about the center of
the State. In quantity of timber manufactured in Flor-












ida it is third largest, its total falling a little short of
one-tenth that of longleaf, and its average price per thou-
sand being practically the same. It grows rapidly, re-
produces vigorously, and is one of the softest and whit-
est of the yellow pines. It is known by so many names
that the name alone is not a certain means of identifi-
cation. It holds its ground better than longleaf pine,
and is more promising as a source of supply. The soft-
ness of its wood places it in a line of uses somewhat dif-
ferent from those of longleaf. It is popular for doors
and for window frames. It attains merchantable size in
less time than lonfleaf.
Cypress.-Fourth for quantity in the list of Florida
woods is cypress. It is a very little below loblolly pine,
but the average cost is considerable higher. Cypress is
one of the substantial, all-round woods of the South, and
one of the largest species. The-small trees are symmetri-
cal and graceful, but the old ones are not attractive with
their thin, ragged foliage, and dying tops. They are
among the longest-lived trees of the South, and an age
of two or three centuries is not unusual. At least a hun-
dred years are required under ordinary circumstances to
produce a trunk large enough for sawlogs. It is a swamp
species. Trees live standing in water much of the year.
Some of the best cypress timber in Florida grows along
the margin and about the mouths of large rivers, where
the land is frequently flooded. Some of the cypress for-
ests near the mouths of the Chattahoochee, Apalachicola
and Suwannee rivers are dense and dismal in the ex-
treme. When these forests disappear under the operation
of lumbermen, there will not be much young cypress com-
ing on to take their place, for it is not a tree that repro-
duces vigorously. It is not of much commercial im-
portance south of the center of the State.
Shortleaf Pine.-The Shortleaf pine is supposed to be
the opposite of the longleaf species, so far as needles are
concerned; for its leaves are shortest of the four leading












Southern yellow pines. The tree grows rapidly when
young, but after it reaches an age of forty or fifty years
it is apt to increase its size more slowly. For that rea-
son the annual rings in a characteristic shortleaf trunk
are broad near the heart and narrower as the bark is
approached. The sapwood is thick, the heartwood com-
paatively small. The wood is rather soft. The com-
mercial range of shortleaf pine extends into the northern
part of the State, its best development being in regions
farther north.
Spanish Cedar.-All of this wood is imported, as it
does not grow in the United States. It comes from Cuba,
Mexico, and adjacent regions. Most of that used in Flor-
ida was cut in Cuba.
Evergreen Magnolia.-It appears in Table 1 as the
cheapest wood in Florida, and more than two and a half
million feet were used. It is an evergreen of beautiful
foliage, and with wood varying much in value. The best
has been compared with yellow poplar, but the poorest
is intersected with hard streaks and black patches. The
largest trees are 80 or more feet high and three or four
feet in diameter; but an average size is scarcely half that..
It does best in rich, wet ground. In early lumber opera-
tions it was frequently left standing because its conver-
sion into lumber was not profitable; but in recent years
uses have been found for the wood and it is now cut
when lumbermen come to it. In Florida the boxmakers
are largest users of magnolia.
Red CGum.-Red gum is cut in most-parts of the north-
ern half of Florida, but it is not as important as in some
of the more northern and western States. It attains
large size and is of good form for sawlogs, but it does
not usually occur in thick stands like the pine, and it
goes to the mills along with other hardwoods. Its chief
use in Florida is for boxes and crates, but farther north
its greatest importance is as furniture material and house
finish.












White Oak.-A small quantity of this wood is credited
to Florida in the reports by manufacturers who use it,
but nearly all comes from outside the State. It is one
of the best known and most substantial of the oaks. It
is used for nearly all purposes for which any American
wood is used. The chief part of that reported in the
State went into car construction. While some of the
Florida white oak is of excellent quality, many users are
of the opinion that the average quality of the State-grown
oak is much beneath that of some of the Northern States.
White Ash.-The southern limit of the white ash's
range lies in northern Florida. It is of the most common
of the same species of ash in many parts of this coun-
try. The wood is characterized by stiffness and strength.
Its chief uses are. for farm tool handles, boat oars, and
vehicles.

Sand Pine.-In certain localities only does this tree
grow large enough for sawlogs. Trees of small pole
size are often numerous over-considerable tracts. It ex-
tends two-thirds of the distance down the Florida penin-
sula from the north. Its most common name is spruce
pine.
Yellow Poplar.-Some of the yellow .poplar manufac-
tured in the State was cut there, but most came from the
outside. The largest poplar timber comes from the moun-
tains of Tennessee, Kentucky, and West Virginia. It is
among the highest priced of American woods. The aver-
age reported in Florida was $89.02.
Hickory.-Several species of hickory are generally con-
sidered as one wood when they reach the factories. In
the forest, the lumberman knows the species separately,
but the wood of one so much resembles another that all
go together under one common name. Its toughness,
elasticity, strength, and hardness unite in such a remark-
able degree that hickory has been called the indispensable
wood. No substitute has yet been found anywhere in












the world for this wood, particularly for parts of small
vehicles, hammer and ax handles, and some kinds of ath-
letic goods. The State supplies nearly all home demands
for hickory.

Sweet Magnolia.-The entire quantity of this wood
went to a single industry and was made into boxes at
an average cost-of $22 a thousand. That is a high price
for box lumber, but magnolia is an attractive wood, and
much of it went into high grade boxes. All was cut in
the State. The heartwood of this tree is a pleasing red
or brown, which takes a fine polish.

White Pine.-Florida has no native white pine, and all
that was reported came from the Lake States. It grows
in several of the Northern and Northwestern States, as
far south as easterli Tennessee. Next. to yellow poplar,
it was the highest-priced native wood reported in Florida.
A number of other woods in this country are called white
pine with a modifying term. Western white pine grows
in Idaho; California's white pine is the western yellow
pine; Mexican white pine comes from Arizona and Mex-
ico, and is a white pine. The Norway pine of the Lake
States is often mixed with white pine and sold with it.

Mahogany.-More than ten thousand feet of mahogany
were reported cut in the forests of south Florida last year,
and used by industries in the State. Nearly one-third
of all this wood used was home-grown. It has been
popularly supposed that mahogany long ago ceased to
exist as a commercial wood in Florida, though it was well
known that botanical specimens were still obtainable.
The present investigation in Florida has shown that such
is not the case, and that the wood is still cut and mar-
keted there. More than half a century ago mahogany
cutters, who were likewise operating in the Bahama Is-
lands, invaded the keys south of the Florida mainland,
and also the mainland itself, and cut all the mahogany
trees within reach of water, and shipped the logs to Eu-












rope. Some trees escaped discovery in the dense ham-
mock forests; and some that were then small have since
grown to merchantable size.
Mahogany trees are now being cut, and the logs reach
Miami, and other points, where boat builders and others
buy them. The number thus reaching market is not large.
Logs generally come in one or two at a time. They are
cut by negroes, for the most part, who find a tree here
and there. The logs are rolled or hauled to the near-
est water and are towed by a canoe or boat through nar-
row and obscure channels, often several miles, to open
water, and are thence taken to some point designated
by the buyer.
Black Gum.-This tree is not in much favor anywhere,
but when it is convenient, the sawmills cut it, and it
finds its way to the factories. The whole reported quan-
tity used in Florida is only two carloads. Sometimes
there is doubt as to what is meant when black gum is
reported. That name is applied to water gum (Nyssa
biflora) in Florida.
Live Oak.-Considering the abundance of this wood
in Florida, its use is small. Formerly it was in much
demand for ship knees, and a flourishing business was
carried on in this State; but it is not so used now. It is
not a tree of good form for lumber. The trunk is short,
and is generally rough; but the wood is hard, strong,
and when carefully selected, is of good grain and color.
Birch.-Two species of birch grow in the State, but
none of either was reported by manufacturers. All came
from the outside of the State, and the high price indicates
that it was the sweet birch or yellow birch of the North.
These two species go to market together, and little at-
tempt is made to keep them separate. For that reason
birch is listed in this report without the species being
designated. The river birch of Florida was not reported
for any purpose.












,Red Oak.-The true red oak (Quercus rubra) does not
grow in Florida. Other oaks pass by that name. The
red oak listed in Table 1 is the Northern tree, one of the
highest grade of the many species of oak. There is much
confusion in classifying oak lumber. A dozen different
species are called white oak, and so many others are
known as red oak.

Sugar Maple.-The maple sugar and syrup of com-
merce is made from the sap of this tree; and from this
species is cut the hard maple lumber, or most of it. The
tree is found in Florida, but it is not abundant, and none
was cut in the State, according to reports of manufactur-
ers. Very little was used.

Spruce.-Spruce is in the list with birch and hickory
in one respect-several species are often grouped under
one name. When the word spruce is used in Florida
it generally refers to the black or red spruce of the North-,
ern States, but it might be the Sitka spruce of Oregon
and Washington. There are other spruces occasionally
found in the lumber markets, or woods which pass by
that name.

Basswood.-The demand for this soft, white wood is
so small in Florida that it is hardly worth taking note
of. It is a Northern species, the largest quantity of lum-
ber coming from the lake States and the central Appa-
lachian region.

Madeira.-This wood from the West Indies was used
to a small extent by Florida boat builders. It ranges
in price with mahogany, and is of a dark color and is hard.
Other tropical woods sometimes pass by that name, and
it was once applied to mahogany in some parts of this
country.

Teak.-Boat builders brought this Asiatic wood into
use in the State because it is regarded by many as one












of the best woods in the world for some parts of boat
building. .It is very hard and not very heavy.
Red Cedar.-Much red cedar is cut in Florida, and
scarcely any is used for manufacturing purposes. Pencil
makers take much of the best.
Rosewood.-This is the most expensive and least used
wood reported by manufacturers in Florida. A number
of trees in different countries are called rosewood. That
reported in Florida came from Africa.


PLANING MILL PRODUCTS.

This industry is much larger than any other among
the wood .uses of Florida. More than 92 per cent of all
the material considered in this report is found in the out-
put of planing mills. Not only in quantity, but in value
it surpasses all the other industries. The cost of the
rough lumber laid down at the planing mills ready for
the machine to work on, was $4,747,165; and the cost of
all the rough lumber used in the State was $6,464,863.
Planing mill lumber averaged cheaper than the other, but
that does not mean that it is of poorer grades.
Planing mill products are the simplest forms of manu-
facture after lumber leaves the sawmill. In fact, the
planing mill is usually an adjunct of the sawmill that
cuts the logs. The product that comes from the ma-
chines consists of flooring, ceiling, and siding. Stock
sizes and kinds are made and put on the market. It is a
commodity which goes from the mill that makes it with-
out having any particular market or buyer in view, and
thus differs from those commodities which are largely
made to order and for a particular place or purpose.
Longleaf pine leads by long odds all the other woods
appearing in Table 2. Nearly 77 per cent consists of
longleaf, which is at present usually. regarded as the
most abundant timber tree of Florida, and among the










43

best. Its great strength makes it suitable for flooring, its
grain, figure, and color fit it for ceiling, and its lasting
properties qualify it for siding. The mills that turn it
out are generally those of large capacity, and it is lum-
bered and otherwise handled by the most advanced scien-
tific methods, from the felling of the trees to the comple-
tion of the finished product.
Cuba pine is second in quantity for planing mill prod-
ucts. This species is known under several names, and
it is not infrequently called longleaf, though the men who
work it know very well the difference between it and the
genuine, thin-sap longleaf yellow pine. Some call it slash
pine. That alludes to its habits of coming up in old cut-
tings when fire is kept out, which, unfortunately, does not
happen as often as it should. The relative abundance
of Cuban pine increases southward in the State.
Loblolly pine falls somewhat under Cuban pine in quan-
tity, according to the reports supplied by manufacturers.
Very probably that is a fact, but a good deal of confusion
exists at some of the mills as to what is Cuban and what
is loblolly; for the species bear considerable resemblance
both in the standing tree and in the wood. Both are
frequently called loblolly. The ground for confusion does
not extend far southward through the peninsula, for lob-
lolly gradually disappears.
Ten million feet of shortleaf pine was reported by mills
in the northern part of the State. This species does not
range far south, and it is probable that some of that list-
ed under the name of shortleaf was loblolly or Cuban.
Four-fifths of the sand pine reported in the State was
listed with this industry. The trunk of this pine is usual-
ly quite small, but occasionally groups of trees are found
large enough for good sawlogs. The wood has thick sap-
wood which is nearly white, while the heartwood is light
yellow. It is moderately light in weight and not very
strong. It is likely that a good deal of this wood is mar-










44

keted under some other name. When the trunk is seen
at, a distance of thirty or forty yards it resembles the
red or the black spruce of the North, though it is usually
more limby than the spruce which grows in the deep shade
of Northern forests. The foliage, being light and thin,
looks somewhat like that of spruce when too far away
for the individual needles to be seen. This similarity is
responsible for the name spruce pine which is commonly
given it.
The birch and the yellow poplar in Table 2 are the most
costly woods listed. They were imported from the North.
Nearly half of the cypress reported in the State is found
in this table.










TABLE 2.-PLANING MILL PRODUCTS.


KIND OF WOOD.


Longleaf pine ............. ...
Cuban pine .........................
Loblolly pine ........................
Cypress ............................
Shortleaf pine .................... .
Sand pine ..........................
B irch ...............................
Yellow poplar ........ ..............
T otal ..........................
*Less than 1-100 of 1 per cent.


Quantity Used C
Annually. o .







10,775,000 2.64 11.60 124.950 10.775,000
C0 0



312,760,007 76.71 $11.36 $3,552.290 286,523,315 | 26,2-6 692
39,715,000 9.74 13.46 534,725 39,015,000 700,000
30,270,000 7.42 12.08 365,680 26,770,000 3,500,000 &j
13,9ojS,000 3.43 11.82 I 165.160 13.968,000 .........
10,775,000 2.64 11.60 124.950 10.775,000 .........
200,000 .05 14.00 2,800 200,000
12,000 65.00 780 .......... 12,000
12,000 65.00 780 .......... 12,000
,07 712,007 100.00 I $11.64 $4.747.165 377,251.315 30.460,692












PACKING BOXES AND CRATES.

Cuban pine leads in Table 3. That is because this
species is most abundant in the south of Florida where
the large market gardens and citrus orchards are located.
Boxes are made near where they are needed, when it is
practicable to do so. The demand for large-quantities
of shipping crates and boxes draws upon the most avail-
able supply of timber, and Cuban pine's geographical
range makes it convenient and cheap for the orange and
grapefruit growers, and for the gardens which ship early
vegetables.

Longleaf pine is so close a competitor of Cuban pine
that the latter has very little advantage in quantity. The
longleaf averages forty cents a thousand feet cheaper,
which, in all likelihood, is due to better facilities for log-
ging it rather than to any weaker demand. The aver-
age is low for all woods used in box and crate making
in Florida, but three of them run fairly high. They are
Spanish cedar, sweet magnolia, and hickory. The last
named was made into crates for shipping vehicles and
machinery, and was employed to meet the demand for a
strong, tough wood.

Spanish cedar and sweet magnolia are handsome woods
suitable for high-grade boxes for fancy commodities.
Sand pine supplies fifty thousand feet to the industry.
This rather small tree should be able to contribute liber-
ally to the supply of cheap box and crate nmterial in
the future. In some localities it is abundant, and much
of the best is within easy reach of orange, pineapple, and
vegetable lands where crates and boxes in large numbers
are needed. Though it is not a very strong wood, it pos-
sesses enough strength to answer all ordinary purposes
of Florida fruit and vegetable shippers.

Evergreen magnolia is the cheapest material used by
the box and crate makers, and many persons consider it












about as good as the best, unless some particular property
is required; but it does not run even in color. Some trees
have wood much darker than others, and where printing
and stenciling of the packages are necessary, the mag-
nolia must be graded, and the dark wood thrown out.
Some of it is sufficiently white to meet all requirements
of a good stenciling wood. Now and then the wood of
a certain tree contains hard, flinty streaks which may be
objectionable, and there may be black knots which de-
tract from appearance and value.
Black gum is used in less quantity than any other wood
on the box maker's list. It is plain material, never sought
after, but is cut when it is found among other woods.
In some localities the name black gum is applied to tupelo
and water gum, but never under the mistaken notion that
they are the same species. Their leaves bear some re-
semblance, but the characteristic swell in the tupelo trunk
near the ground is not found in the black gum.
The abundance and cheapness of cypress in Florida
ought to lead to its more extensive employment by box
makers.













TABLE 3.-BOXES AND CRATES, PACKING.


KIND OF WOOD.


Cuban pine ........................
Longleaf pine ......................
Loblolly pine ......................
Evergreen magnolia ................
Spanish cedar ......................
Red gum ................ ...........
H ickory ............................
Sweet magnolia ....................
Sand pine ..........................
Cypress ............................
Black gum .........................


Total ..............


Quantity Used
Annually.


23,800,000
23,230,000
2,750,000
2,658,000
2,120,000
739,000
80,000
80,000
50,000
49,000
33,000
55,589,000


42.82
41.79
4.95
4.78
3.81
1.33
.14
.14
.09
.09
.06


100.00


$546,125 1 53,469,000


0
.

.S




23,800,000
23,230,000
2,750,000
2,658,000

739.000
80,000
80,000
50,000
49,000
33.000


$9.82
8.96
8.27
8.02
28.47
8.58
25.00
22.00
10.00
8.71
10.00


$9.82


$222,225
208,110
22,743
21,330
60,260
6,340
2,000
1,760
500
427
300


0o

orf





. .........


2,120,000






2,120.000


'


~L~












SASH, DOORS, BLINDS, AND GENERAL MILL
WORK.


Longleaf pine and cypress make up nearly the whole
amount of material reported in Table 4. Six other species
are represented, but altogether do not constitute a quarter
of one per cent of the total of the nearly 36 million feet
made into sash, doors, blinds, and general millwork in
Florida.
The presence of a little live oak in this industry is un-
usual, for the wood is almost universally rejected by man-
ufacturers of these commodities in the Southern States;
and the rejection is often without just cause. The lum-
ber does not come in as good form as white and red oak;
the logs are always short and frequently of poor shape,
but when live oak is carefully selected it is handsome and
serviceable. The people have not been accustomed to
use it, otherwise it would enjoy a better reputation. It
is strong, and though it does not show the variety in
figure of some of the other woods, it has a color that is
pleasing. The lighted flecks in the wood, dispersed in
profusion, show well in furniture and finish. The live
oak reaches its best development in northern Florida,
and good logs of large size may be had in many localities.
Manufacturers would do well to investigate its possibili-
ties, and see if a trade in this wood can not be developed.
The industry shown in Table 4 differs from that in
Table 2 in being more highly developed. Four kinds of
machines are needed to make flooring and siding; but
more specializing is required, and machinery with greater
range of uses is needed in producing doors, frames, sash,
stairwork, panels, turned posts and balusters, spindles
for grills, and the many other commodities included in
the general term mill work.
Few doors other than pine and cypress are produced
in Florida. White oak, live oak, and birch are employed
4-wood










50

to some extent, but chiefly as thin veneers covering soft-
wood cores. The average cost of the hardwood employed
in this industry is about five times as much as in soft-
woods.
A large part of the product is sold outside of Florida,
some of it reaching Northern cities and some going to
foreign countries.











TABLE 4.-SASH, DOORS, BLINDS, AND GENERAL MILL WORK.

C


Quantity Used O
Annually. .
KIND OF WOOD. o E -.


Longleaf pine ......................
Cypress ............................
W hite oak ..........................
Loblolly pine ........................
Birch ..............................
W hite pine ........................
Live oak ............................
Red cedar ..........................


21,220,000
14,545,000
36,000
25,000
16,000
12,000
2,000
500


59.18
40.57
.10
.07
.04
.03
*
*


$16.20
21.56
93.06
20.00
75.00
31.00
44.00
44.00


$343,830
313,566
3,350
500
1,200
372
88
22


20U,90U,UUU
14,545,000

25,000


2,000
500


530U,U000

36,000 -

16,000
12,000


Totals ..........................I 35.856,500 I 100.00 $18.49 1 $662,928 35,262,500 | 594,000

*Less than 1-100 of 1 per cent.


, ,












TOBACCO BOXES.

The manufacture of cigar boxes is the fourth in size
in Florida's wood-using industries, and is shown in Table
5. More than nine and a half million feet are listed. As
far as shown by statistics of wood manufacturers thus far
collected in the United States, Florida far surpases any
other State in the amount of wood converted into cigar
boxes. The center of this industry is at Tampa.
In most of the Northern States where cigar boxes are
made, the Spanish cedar, which is the leading material,
is usually sliced in thin veneer which is glued over other
woods in making boxes. The prevailing custom in Flor-
ida is to use the Spanish cedar solid. It is sawed in thin
lumber and is handled that way.
Most of the Spanish cedar comes from Mexico and
Cuba. Some of the large Florida users procure their
supplies in Cuba. The Spanish cedar grows to large size
when circumstances are favorable and time is sufficient.
Early explorers in the West Indies spoke of cedar canoes
large enough to carry twenty or more men, and the Carib
Indians made long journeys in vessels of that kind. Cedars
of large size are not often found now. The supply with-
in reach of the sea was cut long ago. The cigar box
wood imported into Florida comes from trunks about the
size of telegraph poles. These are carried to Florida in
the rough form, the knots being trimmed, and the bark
generally peeled from the logs. A whole tree often comes
in one piece. The larger box factories buy that way, and
have sawmills of their own for converting the logs into
box lumber. Small box makers purchase lumber partly
manufactured.
Spanish cedar enjoys the prominent place it holds in
the cigar box business because the wood has an odor which
adds to the value of the cigars packed in the boxes. It
is handsome, and increases the attractiveness of the wares.
It is not a high-priced wood, considering that it is an










53

import from foreign countries and is not very plentiful
there. It is lumbered by cheap labor and is brought from
the interior mountains where it grows. Transportation
from the stump to the seashore is often by oxen. The
average cost in Florida is $24.02 per 1,000 feet log meas-
ure. It is too cheap to offer much temptation to the imi-
tator.
A million and a half feet of cypress was reported for
this industry in Florida, but the cost per thousand was
less than half that of Spanish cedar.











TABLE 5-BOXES, TOBACCO.


KIND OF WOOD.


Spanish cedar.......................
Cypress ...........................


T otal .......................... I


Quantity Used P,
Annually. 0
__ __ _V_ 00.
0.0
04J

0* -o0n ( .
r- 0~
8a S ^ ^* fa

fe ~~. iii <; o *


8,069,208
1,547,027


9.616.235 I


83.91
16.09
100.00


$24.02
11.00
$21.93


96162350 21 93 A210 842 1547027 8 00 20
, I ______


$193,825
17,011
$210 842


1,547,027
1 K4707 n.


8,069,208

. .fi ..92n .












CAR CONSTRUCTION.

No large car factories are located in Florida, but a con-
siderable amount of building and repairing is done.
Twelve woods are listed, but more than 81 per cent of all
is longleaf pine. For many parts of car building it is
ideal. It is strong, stiff, lasting. It is made into sills
and frame where it carries loads and sustains jars and
strains. It is good for car floors and siding, for braces
and roofing. It may be had in long pieces, measurably
free from knots and defects, and with little or no sap.
No loblolly pine was reported by car builders, but it
grows of proper size and form in the State, and likely
some of that passing as longleaf is loblolly. It is not
considered quite as strong as longleaf, but for a num-
ber of purposes it is as good, and-for some it is preferred.
Cypress is an all-round car timber, but it lacks some
of the longleaf's strength and rigidity, and was not used
in one-tenth of the amount of pine in Florida, but what
was bought cost more by the thousand. The small
amount of white pine reported in Table 6 was for pat-
terns. It cuts so easily and holds its shope so well that
it stands pre-eminent among pattern woods.
There is so much difference in the cost of the red oak
and white oak used by car builders in Florida that an
explanation is necessary. These two woods, if of the
same grade and in the same market, cost about the same;
but in Table 6 the white oak is less than nineteen dollars
and the red oak more than seventy-two. They were not
of similar grade. The white oak was used for repair
of freight cars, and the red oak was for high-class finish.
Both came from outside the State. By reversing the
grades, the costs might have been reversed-the red oak
would have been cheap and the white oak expensive.
Mahogany was the most costly lumber in the industry.
It is a cabinet wood and is employed for fine finish in
passenger cars, chiefly as veneer laid upon cheaper woods.










56

Yellow poplar is second lightest in cost, and it is used
much the same as mahogany. The smoothness of its
grain makes it among the best of woods for fine paint-
ing.










TABLE 6.-CAR CONSTRUCTION.


'0
Quantity Used 0
Annually.
KIND OF WOOD. -
0 0.
0Q ce S *a


Longleaf pine ...................... 6,970,865 81.57 $17.52 $122,102 5,204,435 1,766,430
Cypress ............................ 505,500 5.01 20.23 10,225 255,500 250,000
White oak.......................... 457,679 5.36 18.65 8,535 ...... 457,679 2
White ash .......................... 257,000 3.00 21.50 5,525 125,000 132,000
Red Gum ........................... 250.000 2.93 20.00 5,000 125,000 125,000
Yellow poplar ...................... 72,344 .85 96.19 6,959 ........ 72,341
Cuban pine ......................... 8,000 .09 20.00 160 8,000
Mahogany ........................... 6,500 .08 137.23 892 ........ 6,503
Red oak ............................ 6,200 .07 72.58 450 ........ 6,500
Spruce ............................. 5,000 .06 37.00 185 ........ 5,000
Sugar maple ........................ 5,000 .06 30.00 150 ........ 5,000
W hite pine ......................... 1,500 .02 60.00 .90 ........ 1,500
Total ........... ............. 8,545,588 | 100.00 $18.76 ] $160,273 | 5,717,935 | 2,827,653












SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING.

With more length of coast line than any other State;
with several fine harbors for large vessels, and with al-
most innumerable small harbors; with hundreds of miles
of navigable rivers flowing through semitropical scenes
of rare beauty; with many lakes of ample size and with
romantic surroundings to invite the pleasure seeker; with
a climate so mild and equable that the waters are en-
joyable the whole year round, Florida holds a very low
place in the boat-building industry. It is not because
boats are not used. The harbors, rivers, lakes, and pas-
sageways swarm with vessels during many months of the
year, and the landscape, with its interlocking waters, are
scenes of the greatest activity; but the boats seen by thou-
sands are nearly all made elsewhere than in Florida.
The resources for boat building are ample, and the mar-
ket for high pleasure boats ought to be among the best
in the United States. A large proportion of the winter
visitors in Florida are possessed of means sufficient to buy
yachts, canoes, dories, and craft of every kind that the
place and climate call for. Vessels in large numbers ply
the waters, but they are not made in Florida. They come
from New England, New York, Michigan, Maryland, and
many other places where lumber is not as plentiful or
cheap as in Florida.
A few manufacturers have taken advantage of the op-
portunities, and are building boats. Table 7 shows the
amount of wood used and the kinds. The total is a mil-
lion and a half feet, which is about one-fourth as much
as Maryland demands annually. The Maryland market
calls chiefly for business boats, while Florida demands
pleasure vessels. Yet boats for business purposes are by
no means few in Florida. The tradesmen about Pensa-
cola, the sponge fishermen in the shallow water off Apa-
lachicola, the lumber tugs which load the sea-going ves-
sels, the many fishermen on both the east coast and the












west, and the barges which transfer freight up and down
its rivers-all of these constitute-a market for home-built
boats.
Eleven woods were used last year by Florida boat build-
ers, and longleaf pine constituted about seventy per cent
of it all. Some vessels are built almost wholly of this
wood, and all that was used was grown in Florida. It
makes both inside frame and outside covering. It pos-
sesses the required strength, and its lasting properties
insure long service. The price of longleaf pine is higher
in this than in any other industry in Florida. High-
grade material was demanded, and price goes with grade.
Cypress is next in quantity, and is higher in price than
long leaf. It is used for. finish and deckwork. The dif-
ference in price between it and longleaf is largely re-
sponsible for keeping cypress below that wood in quantity
in boat building.
White pine, which is soft, white, and expensive, is em:
played only when some customer demands it.
Live oak is reported to the amount of 30,000 feet, at
$60 a thousand. It was made into rudder stock, and is
bought in hewed logs eighteen inches square. These logs
are sawed into heavy stuff for rudders. Live oak is hard
and strong, and lasts well under water.
Nearly 27,000 feet of mahogany is reported in this in-
dustry, and more than a third of it is native of Florida.
This is the species cut in the West Indies and Mexico,
and it is not found growing in any other State than Flor-
ida. This and other expensive woods listed in the boat
industry show that high-class work is being turned out
of the yards.











TABLE 7.-SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING.



Quantity Used '
Annually. .
KIND OF WOOD. g

CdO=


Longleaf pine....................... 1,110,000 69.76 $29.35 $32,574 1,110,000
Cypress ............................ 197,000 12.38 41.02 8,080 172,000 25,000
W hite oak .......................... 177,000 11.13 64.01 11,330 ........ 177,000
Cuban pine ......................... 40,000 2.51 40.00 1,600 40,000 .......
Live oak ............................ 30,000 1.89 60.00 1,800 30,000 ......
Mahogany .......................... 26,900 1.69 170.74 4,593 10,500 16,400
W hite pine ......................... 6,500 ..41 80.00 520 ........ 6,500
Madeira ............................ 1,600 G .10 168.75 270 ........ 1,600
Teak ............................... 1,000 .06 225.00 225 ........ 1,000
W hite ash .......................... 1,000 .06 40.00 40 1,000
Rosewood ........... .......... ... 100 ** 400.00 I 40 j ........ 100
Total ........................... 1,591,100 1 100.00 $38.38 $61,072 1,363,500 227,600
*Less than 1-100 of 1 per cent.












VEHICLES AND VEHICLE PARTS.
Table 8 presents statistics of vehicle manufacturers in
Florida. The quantity of wood demanded is small, but
the shops are well distributed over the State. There are
only a few factories which make buggies and wagons as
a business. The shops occasionally make a few vehicles,
but their principal work is repairing. Nearly all coun-
try blacksmith shops, and practically all in the towns,
repair wagons. A considerable part of the 167,095 feet in
Table 8 was used for repair work. The same woods which
eitter into new vehicles serve for repairs of old. The aver-
age price is higher than in any other of the wood-using
industries of Florida. The species are the same as in
other industries, but the grades are better. Cypress is
third from highest; and is twenty-nine dollars above the
cost of the wood in any other table. The other woods
higher in this table than in any other are hickory, loblolly,
pine, mahogany, and white ash. One of the contributing
causes of the high cost of wood to the Florida vehicle
makers is that many of them buy in small amounts, and at
retail, and must pay more than if they took advantage of
wholesale prices.











TABLE 8.-VEHICLES AND VEHICLE PARTS.

o

Quantity Used g
Annually. '.
KIND OF WOOD.
S~0 3 B4


S.0
44 0 0r


Longleaf pine ......................
White oak ........ ...............
Cypress ............................
H ickory ............................
W hite ash .........................
Yelow poplar .......................
Loblolly pine .......................
M ahogany ..........................


40,000
30,500
27,000
23,500
22,000
20,000
4,000
95


23.04
18.25
16.16
14.06
13.17
11.97
2.39
.06


$24.50
64.36
70.00
59.79
66.14
77.50
25.00
189.47


$ 980
1,963
1,890
1,405
1,455
1,550
100
18


40,000
8,000
27,000
17,000
13,000
4,000
4,000
20


Total ........................... 167,095 | 100.00 $56.02 $9,361 113,020 ( 54,075


22,500,
.. .
6,500
9,000
16,000

75










63

MISCELLANEOUS.

Table 9 is made up of four woods and contains some-
thing over two million feet. This represents the odds
and ends left over after all that properly belongs with
industries has been taken care of. Some commodities are
not manufactured in amounts large enough to entitle
them to be called industries, and they go in this mis-
cellaneous table. Among some which fall in that class in
Florida are lard buckets, candy tubs, water pails, pat-
terns, trunks, sample cases, and wooden ware of several
kinds.













TABLE 9.-MISCELLANEOUS.


KIND OF WOOD.


Quantity Used
Annually.






Pk9


Cypress ............................. 2,000,200 66.00
W hite Pine ......................... 50,071 2.86
Red gum..... ...................... 3,000 .14
Basswood .......................... 2,000 .10
Totals ........................ 2,064,271 100.00


$30.50
99.88
40.00
35.00
$32.50


0




-o


$61,007
5,900
120
70
$67,097


2,000,200


2,000,200


59,071 _
3,000 (
2,000
64,071


I


I


'


--













APPORTIONMENT OF WOOD AMONG
INDUSTRIES.

Of the twenty-seven woods reported by Florida manu-
facturers, and listed in Table 10, ten are used by only
one industry each, and also one in all the industries. Cy-
press is that one, and as far as Florida is concerned, it is
the universal wood. The makers of vehicles use the
smallest quantity, the planing mills the most. Some of
the industries take woods because they are cheap, others
because of particular properties desired. Boxes -and
crates afford an instance of the first kind, vehicles of the
second. Certain boxes make exacting demands upon lum-
ber, generally whatever is convenient and cheap is used.


5-wood












TABLE 10.-PERCENTAGE OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF WOOD USED BY EACH INDUSTRY.



U2
a )_
0
0 a)H
a) 0 -. g
KIND OF WOOD. 0f 0 as
0 a) P
P3 r
raL3 S 2 Sl '"'o a i
"iU "' FIS.A 1'^ S
I)CS I) u -S~
x x g (1 .-0 M .
00 Cd "s
Pq ;>


asswoo uuu ....... ...................
Birch ............................
Black gum ..........................
Cuban pine .....................
Cypress ............................

Evergreen magnolia ................
H ickory ...........................
Live Oak ..........................
Loblolly pine .......................
Longleaf pine .....................

M adeira ..........................
Mahogany ..........................
Red cedar ...........................
Red gum ...........................
Red Oak .........................
Rosewood ...........................


..........

100.00
37.45
.15

100.00
77.29

8.32
6.36


4.71


........- -.. .. .
.......... ........
74.50 ....
.......... ......
.......... I .


0.01
1.54


. ...... i


100.0



6.09
""6^


42.86

62.48
42.54




91.59
85.61


19. 1 ......... ........

25.20 .30 .......
100.00 ......... .......
.. ...... ......... ........


57.14


44.29


0.06
.60


0.08


22.71

.01
.01


...... .2



...... ..
..........


6.25 93.75
.08 ........
5.81 .30

........ 100.00
...... .. 80.31
.... 100.00

....... .100. 00.....
......... 1 100.00













Sand pine ..........................
Shortleaf pine.......................
Spanish cedar ......................
Spruce .............................

Sugar maple.................. ..
Sweet magnolia ....................
Teak .......................... .
W hite ash ..........................
W hite oak ..........................

W hite pine ....................... ..
Yellow poplar ......................


Total per cents ................


20.00

20.81



..........


I .. .. .. .. .


I . . .


. .. ...... .. ...... 80.00 .........
.0.. 0.... ..... 100.00 .........
79.19 ... 00.. .......... ........ ....
........ 100 00 ......... ........ ...

........ 100 .00 ......... ........ ... ......
........ ....... ......... ....... .........

........ 91 .78 ......... ........ ........
........ 65:27 ........ ........ 5.14

..... 1.90 74.70 ........ 15.18
........ 69.33 ......... 11.50 .........


S 10.67 1.84 1.64
1 10.671 1.841 1.641


........ . . ..
100.0 ...
.36 7.86
25.24 4.35

8.22 .... ...
... 19.17


.40 78.23 6.88 .31 .03
.401 78.231 _6 ___--- _
--I


.........
.........
.........
.. .. .


--------











TABLE 11.-COSTS OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF WOOD USED BY EACH INDUSTRY.







KIND OF WOOD. 1 ,


t I .a
C.) C 02
C) C) F


Basswood ..........................
Birch .............................
Black gum ...... ...................
Cuban pine .........................
Cypress .............................

Evergreen magnolia ................
H ickory ............................
Live oak ........................
Loblolly pine ......................
Longleaf pine ......................

Madeira ............................
Mahogany ....................... ..
Red cedar ..........................
Red gum ..........................
Red oak ..........................
Rosewood ..........................


10.00
9.34
8.71

S8.02
25.00
...... .
8.27
8.96




8.58
. ... .. .. .
. .. ... .. .


11.00


35.00


20.00. ........
20.23 30.50


17.52


137.23 .......

20.00 40.00
72.58 ........
. ......... .......


65.00

13.46
11.82
........

"... ...


75.00


21.56



44.001


12.08 20.00
11.36 16.20



........ : 44.00


$. ......


40.00
41.02



60.00

29.35

168.75
170.74


$ ...
..........'

... .. o'.
70.00


59.79

25.00
24.50


189.4i


$..... .. ..| ... .. ..... $
.......... .....:.. ..


:I












Sand pine .......................... 1
Shortleaf pine ........... .......... ......
Spanish cedar ...................... 2
Spruce ............................. ....

Sugar m aple ........................ ....
Sweet magnolia .................... 2
Teak .................... .......... .....
W hite ash .......................... ......
W hite oak .......................... .....

W hite pine ................. ..... ......
Yellow poplar ...................... ....


Total Average costs........... $


0.00 ....... .. ...... ......... 4....... ..... 0. ........
.... ....... ..... .. ......... ... ..... ... ...... 400 .00 ......
!8.47 24.02 ........ ....... 14.00 ................. ....... ..
.. .. .. 37.00......... 11.60 .....................

.... ........ 30.00 ...... ......... ....
2.00 ........ ........ ......... .. ..........
..... ........ ........ ......... ........ ......... 225 .00 .........
.... ........ 21.50 ......... ........ ......... 40.00 66.14
..... ........ 18.65 ........ ........ 93.06 64.01 64.36

.. ........ 60.00 99.88 ........ 31.00 80.00 .........
.. ..... .. 96.19 .. 65.00 ........ ........ 77.50

9.82$ 21.931$ 18.76$ 32.501$ 11.641$ 18.491$ 38.38 $ 56.02












COST OF SPECIES BY INDUSTRIES.

Table 11 is a companion of 10. One shows the appor-
tionment of woods among the industries, the other shows
the cost per 1,000 feet of the several woods by the indus-
tries. A cursory examination will show that wood is not
fixed in price, as wheat and cattle, or many other staple
commodities are. Differences in prices for the same spe-
cies are not due to differences in freight and handling
charges, as is the case with many other wares. The red
gum for cars costs more than twice that bought by box
makers. Ash employed by vehicle manufacturers is three
times as expensive as what car builders use. The white
oak which goes to the door manufacturers is five times
as high in price as that purchased for car shops. Cypress
varies in cost as four to one, depending upon what the
manufacturer is buying it for.
These instances are representative of the rule. The
cost of wood depends on quality to a larger extent than
with most commodities. Cypress good enough for boxes
would fall far below the requirements of the vehicle mak-
er who uses it in tops for light business wagons. Hickory
which will make satisfactory crates is too cross-grained
or knotty for buggy spokes or carriage poles, consequently
the buyer of wood for those purposes must pick his grades
and pay the price, while the crate maker takes the refuse
at less than half the cost.












SUMMARY BY INDUSTRIES OF WOODS USED IN
FLORIDA.

Table 12 is arranged to show at a glance the quantity
of wood used by each of the industries in 'Florida, to-
gether with the average price paid by each industry, and
the per cent of the material grown in the State and out.
The average cost of the wood demanded by the Florida
manufacturers does not differ much from the reported
average cost in other States which grow large amounts
of yellow pine. Following are averages:
Arkansas ..................... $11.49
Louisiana ................... 11.63
Mississippi .................. 12.22
Alabama .................. .. 12.24
Florida ..................... 12.41
Texas ........................ 13.30
In the six large lumber-producing States of the South
the average cost of material varies only $1.81 per thou-
sand between the highest of the States, Texas, and the
lowest, Arkansas. No such agreement in price as this
could be found in an equal number of the Northern States.










TABLE 12.-SUMMARY OF WOODS USED BY INDUSTRIES IN FLORIDA.


'C

Quantity Used, E
Annually.
INDUSTRIES. 0 Cd a )
n orr o Ca O n
a ) ~o a

F1 0 0


Planing mill products...............
Boxes and crates, packing..........
Sash, doors, blinds, and general mill
w ork .............................
Boxes tobacco ......................
Car construction ....................
Miscellaneous .......................
Ship and boat building.............
Vehicles and vehicle parts..........
Totals ..... .....................I


407,712,007
55,589,000

35,856,500
9,616,235
8,545,588
2,064,271
1,591,100
167,095
521,141,796


78.23
10.67

6.88
1.84
1.64
.40
.31
.03
100.00


$11.64
9.82

18.49
21.93
18.76
32.50
38.38
56.02
$12.41


$4,747,165
546,125

662,928
210,842
160,273
67,097
61,072
9,361
S$6,464,863


92.53
96.10

98.34
16.09
66.91
96.90
85.70
67.64
91.48


7.47
3.81

1.66
83.91
33.09
3.10
14.30
.32.36
8.52














APPENDIX.

There are other wood-using industries in Florida than
those shown in preceding tables and statistics of this
report. The Bureau of the Census, in co-operation with
the Forest Service, collects certain data each year and
publishes it. These statistics show the quantity of lum-
ber cut annually by the sawmills in the State; the num-
ber of lath and shingles; the extent of the wood distilling
industries; amount of tanbark and tanning extracts pro-
duced; railroad ties bought; staves and headings for bar-
rels; cut of veneer and the kinds of wood used; and other
facts of interest.
In order to make this report for Florida more com-
plete, an abridgement of the several census reports is
presented below. The total cut of lumber in the State
for 1910 was 992,091,000 feet, apportioned among species
as follows:


Yellow pine ..................
Cypress ....................
Yellow poplar ...............
Red Cedar ..................
H ickory .................. .
Oak ......................
Cottonwood ...............
Ash .............. ..........
Tupelo ......................
Red gum ...................
M aple .......................


921,323,000
66,117,000
1,306,000
.1,275,000
1,119,000
298,000
240,000
238,000
153,000
11,000
11,000


Lath used by plasterers are made at many sawmills
from large slabs and defective logs, which otherwise would
be wasted. Most of the lath are pine, but any wood,
except the hardest, will answer. The output in Florida
in 1910 was 42,404,000 lath.
Shingles in Florida are nearly all manufactured from












cypress and pine, the former predominating. A consid-
erable part of the output is a by-product :of sawmills,
made from crooked or faulty logs, or from large slabs.
There are mills which make shingles only, and they use
good timber as well as poor. The latest returns give
Florida's yearly cut at 171,421,000 shingles.
Two classes of cooperage are made, one for liquids,
the other for dry substances. The former is called tight
cooperage, the latter slack. The former is much more
exacting in its demand for wood, and the material costs
more. Good tight cooperage should not only be free from
knots and other defects which might cause leakage, but
the wood must be dense. Otherwise the contents of the
barrel or cask may escape through the pores of the wood.
Most woods are of such open structure that they will not
hold alcoholic liquors. Slack cooperage is not so exclu-
sive. Nearly any wood will do for some classes of slack
cooperage, while others are more exacting. A consider-
able part of Florida's cooperage stock is bought by the
naval dealers who ship rosin in cheap, but strong bar-
rels. Fruit growers and truck gardeners use many bar-
rels for their products, and oyster rakers and fishermen
are pretty large users.
The output of tight cooperage staves in the State in
1910 was 1,350,000 staves and 61,000 sets of heading.
Slack staves were largely pine and totaled 24,451,000.
There were produced 1,122,000 sets of heading and 1,-
029,000 hoops.
The production of veneers in Florida was seven and a
half million feet less in 1910 than in 1909. The output
for four years was: 1907, 18,183,000 log feet; 1908, 28,-
256,000; 1909, 33,293,000; 1910, 25,842,000. Most of the
veneer is rotary cut; that is, it is produced by pressing a
heavy knife against the rim of a revolving log, and peel-
ing off long ribbons of wood, round and round, until the
log is reduced to a small center piece called a core. Sta-
tistics do not show what species of wood are used in












making the Florida veneers, but it is known that most of
it is pine, and that the veneer is manufactured into bas-
kets, boxes, crates, and other shipping containers.
There are higher classes of veneer than this, but little
of it is made in Florida. It is made by sawing or slicing
hardwoods very thin, and is used principally by makers
of furniture, fixtures, and interior finish. The thin sheets
of the costly veneer are glued upon backing of cheaper
woods. Most furniture, except the cheapest and the most
expensive kinds, is veneered. The cheapest kinds are of
plain, inexpensive material, while the most costly sorts
are often made of solid in order that the carver's orna-
ments may be cut in the wood.
Statistics of tanning materials are not compiled in a
way to show what each of the States contribute, but
the country is considered as a whole. The listing of
mangrove, however, shows that Florida is an important
contributor to the general supply, because that is the
only State producing it. The principal supply comes
from foreign tropical countries, and is'of record among
the imports. In 1909, 18,925 tons of mangrove bark, and
1,401,000 pounds of extract were used in this country
for tanning and dyeing purposes. The imports of the
bark that year were 12,263 tons, leaving a balance of
6,662 tons which was presumably obtained in Florida.
Complete statistics later than 1909 have not been pub-
lished; but the imports of mangrove bark in 1910 were
17,088 tons.
Next after Alabama, Florida contributes more to the
softwood distillation industry than any other State. Most
of the wood used in Florida is longleaf and Cuban pine.
The total amount in 1910 was 52,144 cords, which was
27,000 cords more than was reported the year before.'
Both kinds of distillation are used, the destructive pro-
cess, which destroys the wood by burning, and the steam
process which employs heat, but not enough to char the
wood. The principal products secured by the destructive














process are charcoal, tar, and turpentine; and by the
steam method, turpentine and heavy oils. Owing to the
difference in the resinous content of pine wood, the yield
per cord of the several products varies greatly. About
one-half of the material was body wood, the remainder
was limbs, stumps, slabs, sawdust, and other mill waste.
Florida contributes largely to the country's output of
naval stores. Almost half of the whole product of spirits
of turpentine in 1909 came from Florida, and it led all
the other States in rosin.


WOOD USES BY SPECIES.


The manufacturers who reported the woods which have
been tabulated in this report, reported likewise the pur-
poses for which they were used. That information is
given in the following list:

Basswood.
Sample cases.
Birch.


Blinds.
Ceiling.
Doors.


Finish.
Flooring.
Molding.
Black Gum.


Sash.
Siding.
Stairs.


Fruit boxes.


Ceiling.
Crates (veneer).


Blinds.
Boats.
Cabinets.
Car lining.
Car repairs.
Car siding.
Cases for cigars.


Vegetable packages.
Cuban Pine.
Finish. Molding.
Flooring. Siding.


Cypress.
Coach roofs.
Counters.
Doors.
Furniture.
Interior finish.
Molding.
Packing cases.
Evergreen Magnolia.
Fruit boxes.


Pails.
Sash.
Tanks.
.Tubs.
Wagon bodies.
Wagon panels.


Vegetable packages.


Hoors.

















Crating.


Dredges.


Balusters.
Blinds.
Baskets.
Brackets.
Cabinet work.
Car repairs.
Cases.
Ceiling.
Columns.
Crates.


Balusters.
Baskets.
Blinds.
Boxes.
Brackets.
Cabinets.
Car decking.
Car finishing.
Car repairs.
Car siding.
Ceiling.
Columns.
Crates.
Deadwoods.
Door frames.


Auto shields.
Auto trim.


Ceiling.
Finish.


Boats.
Crates.
Boxes.
Furniture.


77


Hickory.

Handles.

Live Oak.
Friction blocks.

Loblolly Pine.

Door frames.
Doors.
SFinish.
Flooring.
Framing.
Molding.
Porch Work.
rests.
Rails.
Sash.
Longleaf Pine.

Doors.
Finish.
Flooring.
Fruit boxes.
Keels.
Lighters.
Molding.
Novelties.
Packing cases.
Porch work.
Posts.
Rails.
Sash.
Scows.
Scroll work.
Madeira.

Boats.
Mahogany.

Boat Inish.
Car finish.
Red Cedar.

Flooring.
Moldings.

Red Gum.

Hoops.
Shook veneer.
Store fixtures.
Trunks.


Vehicles.


Rudder stock.


Scroll work.
Siding.
Store Fixtures.
Tables.
Vegetable packages.
Veneer.
Veneer boxes.
Window frames.


Siding.
Sills.
Store fixtures.
Stringers.
Table legs.
Tables.
Tanks.
Vegetable packages
Vehicles.
Veneer.
Veneer boxes.
Wagon beds.
Window frames.


Interior finish.


Siding.


Vegetables.
-Packages.

















Furniture.


Boat finish.

Blinds.
Boxes.


Balusters.
Baskets.
Blinds.
Boats.
Brackets.
Cabinet work.
Car repairs.
Cases.
Ceiling.
Columns.


Cigar boxes.

Finish.

Car building.


Hoops.

Boats.


Boats.
Cabinets.
Furniture.


Blinds.
Boat ribs.
Boats.
Cabinet work.
Car repairs.
Cases.


Blinds.
Boats.
Ceiling.
Coach repairs.


Red Oak.

Car sills.
Rosewood.

Sand Pine.
Doors.
Sash.
Shortleaf Pine.
Crates.
Door frames.
Doors.
Finish.
Flooring.
Framing.
Fruit packages.
Moldings.
Porch work.
Posts.
Spanish Cedar.
Cabinets.
Spruce.

Sugar Maple.


Sweet Magnolia.
Cabinets.
Teak.

White Ash.
Launches.
Store fixtures.
Trim.
White Oak.
Ceiling.
Doors.
Flooring.
Frames.
Gunwales.
Interior finish.
White Pine.
Doors.
Finish.
Flooring.
Molding.


* Rails.
Sash.
Scroll work.
Siding.
Store fixtures.
Tables.
Vegetable packages.
Veneer.
Veneer boxes.
Window frames.


Wagon bodies.
Wagon gears.
Wagon panels.


Moldings.
Sash.
Siding.
Sills.
Stairs.
Vehicles.


Patterns.
Sash.
Siding.













Yellow Poplar.
Car repairs. Vehicles.
Interior finish. Wagon bodies.




DIRECTORY.

Below -is a list of Florida wood-using manufacturers
who supplied much of the data contained in this report.
Those manufacturing several products classified under
different industries will appear in the list, with their ad-
dresses, under more than one industry.

BOXES AND CRATES, PACKING.

Consumers Lumber & Veneer Co ................ Apopka
Archer Crate & Basket Co ............. ........ Archer
E. 0. Carver ................................ Carters
J. J. Mendenhall ........................Clearwater
Biscayne Box Co. ..................... Cocoanut Grove
A. T. Kelley & Co. .......................Gainesville
Standard Crate Co. ................. ...... Gainesville
The Irvine Crate & Basket Co. .................. Irvine
Lakeside Veneering Mills ................... Kissimmee
Leesburg Saw & Planing Mill ............... .Leesburg
Overstreet Crate Co. ........................Lockhart
King Lumber Co. ........ .................Nocatee
The McDowell Crate & Lumber Co. ............... Oak
Ocala Mfg. Co. ..... ............................ Ocala
J. R. Pounds & Son ................. :..........Ocala
L. Warnell Veneer Co. .................... Plant City
NW M. Bothamly ............................. Sanford
D. N. Holway & Co. ........................... Tampa
The Shelp-Weidman Co. ...................... Tampa
Wauchula Mfg. Co. ......................... Wauchula
Newsom Mfg. Co. .... ....................... W illistolL










80

Williston Mfg. Co. ......................... Williston
Wolfenden & Co .......................... Worthington

BOXES, TOBACCO.

D. N. Holway & Co. ...........................Tampa
Sheip & Weidman Co. ..........................Tampa
Tampa Cigar Box Co ..........................Tampa

CAR CONSTRUCTION.

John Marshall Co. ...................... Apalachicola
Gress Mfg. Co. ..........................Jacksonville
Jacksonville Electric Co. ................... Jacksonville
Seaboard Air Line Ry. ..................... Jacksonville
Florida East Coast Ry. .................. St. Augustine
Tampa Electric Co. ...........................Tampa
Edge-Dowling Lumber Co. ................ Taylorville
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad .............. Wilmington

MISCELLANEOUS.

Florida Trunk Mfg. Co. ..............:..... Jacksonville
Merrill Stevens Co. .................. ....Jacksonville
G. M. Davis & Son ......: .................. Palatka
Florida Woodenware Co. ....................Palatka
Florida East Coast Ry. .................. St. Augustine
C. E. W ittmyre ............................... Tampa

PLANING MILL PRODUCTS.

L. R. Davis ................................ Alachua
Standard Lumber Co. ..........................Alton
Cypress Lumber Co. .................... Apalachicola
Aycock Lumber Co. ...........................Aycock
J. W. Bevis ................................ Bascom
Blountstown Mfg. Co. ................... Blountstown
Bonifay Lumber Co ..........................Bonifay










81

Southern Saw Mill Co ....................... Bonifay
The Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co. ............... Century
Carolina-Florida Lumber Co. ................... Corey
Ingram-Dekle Lumber Co. ..................... Dade City
Beach Rogers & Co. ................. DeFuniak Springs
McCormick Lumber Co............ ........... DeLand
Browning Lumber Co. ...................East Palatka
Dantzler, Williams Lumber Co. .............. Edenfield
Geneva Lumber Co. ..........................Eleanor
Gainesville Planing & Coffin Co. ........... Gainesville
Holmes Lumber Co. ........................... Glen
Bond Lumber Co. .............................Glenwood
Simpson & Harper .........................Graceville
E. I). Abernathy ............................. Graham
V. D. Eddy .............. ........Green Cove Springs
Wager, Von Horn & Wager ......... Green Cove Springs
Greenville Yellow Pine Co. ................ Greenville
Union Mfg. Co. ...........................Greenville
J. L. Greer ............... .................. Greer
Gulf Lumber & Railway Co. ................... Helen
West & Reaves Lumber Mills ................. Inverness
Cummer Lumber Co. .....................Jacksonville
The Doscher-Gardner Co. ................. Jacksonville
Enterprise Planing Mill Co. ............... Jacksonville
Forsyth Street Planing Mill ............... Jacksonville
.1. C. Halsema Mfg. Co. ................... Jacksonville
Middleburg Lumber Co. ................... Jacksonville
Morgan Lumber Co. .......................Jacksonville
Renfroe & Williams ................... .. Jacksonville
Upchurch Lumber Co. ..................... Jacksonville
Hamilton Lumber Co. ........................Jasper
Strickland Lumber Co. .......................Kathleen
J. Mizell & Bro. .......................... Kings Ferry
Kissimmee Lumber Co. ................. ...Kissimmee
Osceola Lumber Co. ....................... Kissimmee
The E. W: Bond Co. .................. .....Lake Helen
Britton Lumber Co. ....................... Lakewood
G-wood










82

J. S. H ussey ................................... Largo
Leesburg Saw & Planing Mill ................ Leesburg
McGehee Lumber Co. .........................Levon
Geo. E. Porter, Jr. ........................ Marianna
Marianna Mfg. Co ..........................Marianna
Martel Lumber Co... ........................ Martel
Martin & Co. .................................. Martin
Scotland Mills .......................... Middleburg
German-American Lumber Co. ................ Millville
Alabama & Florida Lumber Co. .................. Noma
E. E. Converse .............. ................ Ocala
Gulf Pine Co. ................................ Odessa
A. L. Beck Lumber Co. .......................Orlando
Orlando Novelty Works ...................... Orlando
Pounds Bros. .............. ... ............ Orlando
Otter Creek Lumber Co. ................... Otter Creek
Escambia Land & Mfg. Co ...................... Pace
Wilson Cypress Co. ........................Palatka
Battle Bros. ................ .'.................. Pasco
Florala Saw Mill Co .........................Paxton
The DeSilva & Ferriss Co. .................. Pensacola
B. C. Duvall .............................. Pensacola
Florida & Alabama Land Co. ................. Pensacola
Joel Frater Lumber Co. ................. .. Pensacola
S. H. Peacock ....................................Perry
McMillan Mill Co .......................Pine Barren
Bay Point Mill Co. ................... -.....Pinewood
S. J. Fletcher .......................... River Junction
Rodman Luipber Co. .........................Rodman
Canfield Co. ............................St. Augustine
Gulf Novelty Works ................. St. Petersburg
W. P. Carter & Co. ..........................Sanford
E. P. Rentz Lumber Co .................... Silversburg
Childs Bros. ............................. Tallahassee
Tallahassee Lumber Yards ................. Tallahassee
Gulf Pine Co. ...........................:....Tampa
Kirkland Lumber Co. .........................Tampa










83

T. W. Ramsey .............................. Tampa
Southern Lumber & Supply Co. ............... Tampa
Tarpon Springs Lumber Co. .... ...... Tarpon Springs
*Hall Lumber Co. ............................. Terrell
East Ooast Lumber Co. .................... Watertown
West Bros. ........................ ........ Westlake
Roess Lumber Co. ........................... Zuber

SASH, DOORS, BLINDS AND GENERAL MILL
WORK.

Cypress Lumber Co ................... .Apalachicola
Lamb & Price ............ ..................... Arcadia
Carters Mfg. Co. ........................... .. Carters
Joe M. McCormick & Co. ..................... Eustis
The Lumber Mfg. Co. ...................... Gainesville
The Doscher-Gardner Co. ................. Jacksonville
The Duval Planing Mill Co. .................. Jacksonville
Paul & Wayman ........................... Lakeland
M. G. Rushton ............................... Manatee
Marianna Mfg. Co. ......................... Marianna
Seminole Novelty Works ....................... Miami
C. S. Marcy ...........................New Augustine
Orlando Novelty Works .....................Orlando
Selden Cypress Door Co ..................... Palatka
E. T. Roux & Son ................. ...... Plant City
Quincy Variety Works ............. ............ Quincy
G. E. Hood & So ....................... St. Augustine
W H. Mitchell .........................St. Augustine
St. Petersburg Novelty Works ........... St. Petersburg
Tracy & Richardson ............................. Taft
Empire. Novelty Works ...................... Tampa
Jetton Lumber Co. .................... ..... Tampa
T. W Ramsey .................................. ... ampa
Southern Lumber & Supply Co. ................. Tampa
D. B. Whittle ..............................Tampa
Ybor City Novelty Works ..................... Tampm
W. H. Lambert .......................... .Wauchula













SHTP AND BOAT 1ITILDITNG.

Merrill-Stevens Co. .................. ..... Jacksonville
W I. Huffstetler ............................. Miami
Southside Boat W works .................. ........Miami
Al McCabe ........................ South Jacksonville
St. Johns River Ship Building Co. ... South Jacksonville
South Jacksonville Dry Dock Co. .. South Jacksonville
Thiebeaut & Lundstrom ........... South Jacksonville
Tampa Steam Ways .......................... Tampa

VEHTIOLES AND VEHICLE PARTS.

Chapman's Carriage Factory .............. Jacksonville
McMurray & Baker ...................... Jacksonville
Smith & Neil Co. ......................:.. Jacksonville
Terrill Wagon Works .......................Lakeland
J. A. Dann Wagon Works .....................Miami
K. M Large .................................. M iam i
G. M. Dykes ............................... ..Miami
Magic, City Wagon Works .................. .... Miami
Florida Hickory Wagon Works ...........Tallahassee




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