• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 County map of state of Florida
 Part I
 The home garden and its advant...
 Samples of grain mixtures to be...
 Part II. Crop conditions, prospective...
 Divisions of the state by...
 Department of agriculture
 Part III
 Drainage vs. drying of productive...
 The potash situation
 Potash from wood ashes costly,...
 Fertilizers' proposed 30%...
 Worthless hog cholera cures
 New York and Florida quotation...
 Department of agriculture - Division...






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00052
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00052
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Part I
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The home garden and its advantages
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Samples of grain mixtures to be fed with various roughages
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Part II. Crop conditions, prospective yields and live stock conditions
        Page 65
    Divisions of the state by counties
        Page 66
    Department of agriculture
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Part III
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Drainage vs. drying of productive soils. Drainage, or circulation of water and air, necessary in all productive soils
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    The potash situation
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Potash from wood ashes costly, and not economical
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Fertilizers' proposed 30% reduction
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Worthless hog cholera cures
        Page 104
    New York and Florida quotations
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Department of agriculture - Division of chemistry
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
Full Text





VoL 29


No. 3


FLORIDA
QUARTERLY


BULLETIN
OF THB
AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT

JULY 1, 1919

W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE FLA.

Part 1-The Home Garden and Its Advantages. Feeding
Dairy Cows. Act Relating to the Sale of Produce
or Other Thing of Value on Commission. Act Re-
lating to Bees, Their Culture and Protection From
Contagious Diseases in Florida.
Part 2-Crop Conditions and Prospective Yields, and Live
Stock Conditions.
Part 3-Drainage vs. Dryinn Situation: Pro-
posed Proter"' -,ic Potash Detri-
ment- station" ..-ners' Interest. Potash
From .iuet -.. Costly and Not Economical.
Fertili-,. proposed 30% Reduction. Worthless
Hog Cholera Cures. New York and Florida Quo-
tations. Fertilizers, Stock Feed, Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 81, 1908, at Tallahasee, Florida, as soeeud-clam
matter under Act of CeagresM of June, 1900.
"Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for
in Section 1103, Act of October 3. 1917, authorized Sept. 11, 1918."
THESE BUUINS ARE ISSUE rIE TO THOSE EiQUESTING TIHE
T. J. APPLTARDs, STAT PalITma
TALLNrA88Il, FPl RIDA


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PART I


The Home Garden and Its Advantages.
Feeding Dairy Cows.
Act Relating to the Sale of Produce or Other Thing of
Value on Commission.
Act Relating to Bees, Their Culture and Protection
From Contagious Diseases in Florida.












From Fifteenth Biennial Report.


TEE HOME GARDEN AND ITS ADVANTAGES.

(By W. A. MdRae, Commissioner of Agriculture.)

In. 1916 I gave to the press of the State an article
entitled, "Why Not the State Beautiful'?"
In this article I stated, among other things:
".Florida is rich in its variety of trees, shrubs, vines,
ferns, herbs, sedges, grasses and mosses. No State in the
Union equals it in floral wealth.
"Many of our trees, shrubs and plants bear flowers,
glorious in color and fragrance, each month and season
having its share, making a constant procession of floral
beauties along the path of the year.
"In the winter season, when the rivers and lakes of
the North are covered with thick iee *and the ground
blanketed with snow, the Wistaria vine in Florida
clambers over our porches and trees and freights them
with masses of pennants bewildering in number and
beauty. And roses, too, of infinite number, size and color,
are in bloom at Christmas time-if they are given a
chance to grow. And it's in the winter, too, that the
orange tree is in height of bloom and fills the air with
indescribable fragrance.
"Then, in turn, comes the oleander and then the mag-
nolia, with a blossom having no rival for splendor among
the trees of America, accompanied by its prototype-
smaller, but no less beautiful-the cape jasmine, and just
at this time the crepe myrtle shrub is a vision-each a
massive bouquet.
"Florida has over two hundred kinds of deciduous
green trees of commercial utility-many more than any
other State-and countless shrubs and vines, with herbs
conspicuous when in bloom, but very inconspicuous or
practically invisible at other times.
"There are trees growing in Florida not known to
botanists anywhere else in the world, and found native
only on the east side of the Apalachicola river. These
are the Torryea taxifolium, or stinking cedar-and Taxus
Floridania, both very attractive evergreens. A fine speci-
men of the first named is to be seen on the grounds of








the State Capitol at Tallahassee and in several of'the
parks of Jacksonville.
"Besides the native flora of the State, ranging from
lichens to palms and mammoth sypress and oak trees,
there will be found great areas greatly modified by civili-
zation, such as new and old fields, roadsides, dooryards
and railroad rights of way. Some of tthese minute but
charming creatures of nature in their struggle to reach
out to the skies for 'a place in the sun' for their share in
the air, not only that they may thrive and silently teach
the lesson of the beautiful but to tempt man to utilize
them, are native varieties which and other branches of
tree and plant life. Let us make Florida the 'State
Beautiful.'

"Where the birds sing sweetly"
-(even at night);
"And the flowers ever bloom"
-(and in plenty);
"Where the roses and the orange"
-(none finer)
"Send out rarest of perfume."

"Everybody can help. The Federation of Women's
Clubs is doing a notable work, setting an example for
the men folks, in promoting the science of forestry, and
beauty. Among its achievements is the creation of what
is known as the Royal Palms State Park, an estate of
some 2,000 acres in Dade County, southwest of Florida
City, containing perhaps the finest collection of royal
palms-some of them a hundred feet high-to be found
in this country, besides fifty or more varieties of other
semi-tropical trees, in all a veritable wonderland. It is
planned to make it a game reserve and a bird sanctuary,
and many kinds of birds are already under protection.
"Not only has this federation established a wonderful
park, but it has been ,active in every direction in the
matter of beautifying the State, a work which has foun-
dation in,doing the small duties about us. Let me quote
fro ma circular sent out at the beginning of.the year by
the civics department to all members, in which the fol-
lowing duties were suggested:
"1. Observe State-wide clean-up week-April 10-15,
and October 9-14. (Why not clean up every day a little
of the time?)






7

"2. Destroy breeding places for flies and mosquitoes.
"3. Give special attention to colored districts.
"4. Inspect markets, fruit and grocery stores.
"5. Beautify school and railroad station grounds.
"6. Fight unsightly billboards and street scattering
of advertising matter.
"7. If you have no junior civic league, organize one
and have the members plant seed. Mrs. J. W. Sample, of
Bartow, Fla., is chairman; write for information.
"8. Post the enclosed card in every school house.
"9. Progress calls for community civics taught as a
text in the public schools. Have your civics chairman
interest school authorities in this very important work.
Along wit this introduction comes humane work, both
for the protection of children -and animals.
"10. Take pictures of unsightly places that may be
beautified or improved, and at the end of the federation
year take another one showing improvement.
"11. Let everybody in Florida co-operate and.work
to make Florida worthy of the name, 'Land of Flowers,'
by planting and beautifying.
"As your community, so your State.
"Getting down to brass tacks, as Kipling says:

"It isn't the guns nor armament nor funds that they
can pay,
But the close co-operation that made them win the day.
It isn't the individual, nor the army as a-whole,
But the everlasting team work of every bloomin' soul."

The article above referred to was very generously pub-
lished by the press of the State, and many favorable com-
ments were made, and the Department of Agriculture
was signally honbred by its appearance as the leading
article in the publication of the Federation of Women's
Clubs.
When the great world war brought strikingly home to
us the fact that we should all do our part in every way
we could, and that the "home garden" was a necessity,
I did all that I could by writing and speaking to urge
our people to greater activity along this line, and I
fairly believe the number of home gardens increased a
thousand-fold in this State during the four years of the
world war.
The year 1918 was not, on the whole, a good garden







































Multiplying Sunflower.











year, but I made a large quantity of vegetables from the
small space I could use for the garden, and in every nook
and corner of the yeard I had something growing, either
vegetables for the table, or flowers to add beauty, where
weeds and grass might otherwise grow.
Following up the idea of the home garden, I have
written the following article, illustrated, and this will
become a feature of future reports:

The Garden and Its Advantages.

When God made man he was placed in a garden to
cultivate and keep it. The garden was Well filled with
trees bearing fruit, and intermingled were many humbler
plants, each playing its part in supplying the occupants
with things for their sustenance and comfort.
The first man neglected his opportunities, and all along
the centuries to the present hour men have ignored the
early command of the Creator to make a garden and
keep it.
If there is a State in the Union where the garden can
be made to yield something for the use of man in every
month of the twelve, it is-in Florida. The absence of the
garden in town and country in our State or the poorly
cared for ones is evidence that a good many people are
disobeying one of the original and fundamental require-
ments placed upon man by the Maker of the Earth.
The garden was the starting point in the history of
man, not a sawmill, nor factory, nor store, nor office.
These were after thoughts.or adjuncts, and now neces-
sary, but they could not exist without the products 6f the
garden, field an dgrove. The land is the original source
of wealth. The possibilities of a plat of fertile land are
surprising when it is properly cultivated. Tons of food
can be produced on a single acre. To show what can be
grown, it is known that 43,000 plants set 1 foot by 1 foot
can be accommodated with room for full development.

2 feet by 2 feet will grow 18,000 plants.
3 feet by 3 feet will grow 4,800 plants.
3 feet by 4 feet will grow 3,600 plants.
4 feet by 4 feet will grow 2,700 plants.
5 feet by 5 feet will grow 1,700 plants.
6 feet by 6 feet will grow 1,200 plants.






































Fruits of the Garden.









SGardening was given a great impetus during the try-
ing period of the war as a patriotic measure, but the
world is not at ease and it will be a long time before
normal conditions can be realized. There is still need
of gardening; the world is still hungry. The ability to
make gardens successfully means efficient food produc-
tion, and on efficient food production naturally and in-
evitably depends the natural comfort and welfare.
Good seed is just as essential in the garden for vege-
tables as in the field for cereals and cotton. Some folks
disregard this fact, and the result is poor or indifferent
crops. They act as if nothing was to be gained in seed
selection. If that is so, then all cattle are cattle regard-
less of breeding and feeding. The Shorthorn, Jersey,
Herefor and the scrub are all the same. This is also true
of the hog. The Duroc, Berkshire, Poland China and the
razor-back would be the same. No one believes this, and
yet in the matter 'of seed many persons are indifferent.
The same law of nature holds true in plant life as in
animal life. Like produces like.
Our children should be taught the beauties and attrac-
tions of the plant creation. No State in the Union equals
Florida in its variety o ftrees, shrubs, vines, ferns, herbs,
hedges, grasses and mosses. If we hope to keep our chil-
dren at home on the farm the home place must be made
charming with flower beds and gardens to supply ample
and proper food. It has been said that "in the homes of
America are born the children of America, and from them
go out into American life, American men and womep.
They go out with the stamp of these homes upon them;
and only as their.homes are what they should be will our
children be what they should be."
The farm and garden can be made to supply food. The
meat, milk, eggs and corn of the farm acres and garden
vegetables provide every form of nourishment and min-
eral needed for a perfect body and continued health and
vigor.
Startling information came in 1917, when it was shown
that more than one-third of the country's young man-
hood ,examined under the selective draft, was rejected
for physical unsoundness. Could this have happened if
the children had entered manhood in proper condition?
If the foundation is not made at home the structure is
weak, and fails. Good nourishing food and sane regula-
tions in bringing up children in outdoor living an dactivi-










































Okra Garden.






/
13

ties would not have shown so many stunted, slouching,
atooping, crooked and awkward men. One young man
unfit in every three in thUis he greatest nation on earth
cannot be other than a matter of concern.
No one with a plot of ground in a t.0wn should think
that the time and labor given to it in growing vegetables
is. l'st. The oame is true 9f the farm, where the garden
can be made the most profitable acre. Vegetables are
cheaper and better than fat pork and cantied stuff as a
regular diet for both children and adults.
Florida, as is known, is one State in which vegetables
and fruits of one kind or the other cn be had all along
the processes of the months. It is only a question of
foresight and judgment. No one should depend on one
planting -of snap beans, radishes, lettuce, sweet corn, etc.,
but continue at intervals of several weeks apart, so, that
vegetables can be had fresh, brisp and tender throughout
the entire growing season.
Every garden, too, should have a few berries, but it is
an exception to find strawberries or blackberries grow-
ing on Florida gardens. This form of ruit is not only
a most healthful addition to the table when picked ripe
from the bushes, but it can be preserved in many appe-
tizing ways. And no garden should be without a fig tree,
a fruit as. delicious and serviceable now as it was in
aWient times, and no other fruit is more frequently men-
tioned in the Bible.
Nursery and seed catalogues are available to every one,
and nearly all of them supply practical information,
which applied with good judgment cannot help but serve
a good purpose,
One kind of garden not as general as it should be, and
most desirable, is the school garden, to which the too
often neglected and unsightly "yard" might be devoted.
Agriculture is always to be the chief industry of Florida.
The children should early be taught the importance of
plant life and its wonders. Gardening has been advo-
cated in all ages as being of the highest economic and
natural importance. Working in the garden gives needed
physical exercise to adults of the home as well as the
children. With a reasonable supply of tools the labor
need not be irksome. Killing weeds should begin just
as soon as it is possible to tell plants and weeds apart,
and be continued until the vegetables are strong enough










































Kentucky Wonder Beans.













to assert their individuality and crowd out the weeds.
The work will not be hard if done regularly.
The growing of flowers should be encouraged, but not
at the expense of vegetables. In regard to both flowers
and vegetables, those promising best returns at least risk
should be selected. A bouquet on the table from the
garden in connection with the vegetables appetizingly
and properly prepared adds to the attractiveness of the
display of tempting and savory foods.
The school garden could be made of inestimable value
to children when managed and conducted in a spirit to
encourage competitive interest wherein each participant
can have part in a garden fair, to be followed by a sale.
Talks can be made on soils, seed selection, planting, cul-
tivation, weeds, insects, birds and the many related feat-
ures of the work, all necessary facts in the beginning of
the business career of the young people of an agricul-
tural State.
To encourage persistent and uniform effort, garden pho-
tographs may be taken and records kept of the progress
made, all of which is part and parcel of any systematic
effort.
Accompanying this article will be found a series of
photographs made of various features of the garden cul-
tivated mornings and evenings by the Commissioner of
Agriculture at his home in Tallahassee. Most of the
products in this garden were transplanted from little
seed boxes, miniature substitutes for hothouses. These
garden plots, which otherwise would have remained
vacant and served no purpose, were made really profit-
able sources of a most excellent food supply-tomatoes,
beans, lettuce, okra and many other vegetables, the cost
of which bought in the market would have run into a
considerable sum of money. There was with it all, be-
sides healthy exercise, the pleasure 'of planting the seeds,
noticing the struggles of the tiny plants to break through
the soil for a place in the sunlight, and finally towering
high into the air, gave freely of fruitage for family use.





















































Squash Garden.


i -I_


;- :'~r i'









17


From Fifteenth Biennial Report.,

Feeding Dairy Cows.

(A Compilation of Information on this Topic by H. S.
Elliott, Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture.)

Successful feeding of dairy cows from an economic
standpoint involves the providing of an abundant supply
of palatable, nutritious feed, at the minimum cost per
unit of feed; and supplying it to the cow in such way as
to secure the largest production for feed consumed. This
bulletin suggests some factors involved in the economical
Selection of feeds to guide the producer in supplying them
to the cows.

Liberal Feeding Necessary for Profit.

The dairy cow has been likened by many writers to a
machine or a manufacturing plant. This comparison can
be applied literally, with certain reservations. 'A cer-
tain proportion of the power furnished any machine is
used for running the machine itself and is not in any
sense productive. In a steam engine this is represented
in the exhaust steam, in heat which escapes without pro-
ducing steam, and in the friction of the working parts of
the engine. In the manufacturing plant it is represented
by the managerial, the clerical and sales forces. These
forces, while necessary for the successful operation of
the business, are, in a sense, unproductive.
In the feeding of the dairy cow this overhead expense,
this unproductive force, is termed the 'maintenance ra-
tion,"' and is that portion of the feed given the cow which
is used by her to perform her own functions, such as
heating the body, pumping the blood, digesting the feed,
and moving the body from place to place. This feed,
from a productive standpoint, is entirely lost to the
farmer. The cow can produce without loss of body weight
only after she has exacted this toll of maintenance. Hav-
ing received feed enough to maintain her, practically all
the feed she consumes above this can be used for milk
'production. This maintenance ration iS a fixed charge,
and the more feed a cow can consume above that required
for maintenance, the greater the amount available for
production.
2-r,







































State Farm, Raiford. $










19

Feeding for profit can, therefore, be defined as liberal
feeding, to the full capacity of the cow. This point is
illustrated by table 1. (These figures are only approxi-
mate, but will serve to illustrate the point.)

Table 1. Approximate Proportions.of Cows Feed Required
for Maintenance and Available for Milk Production.

Proportion
Cost of Available of ration
Cost of mainte- for milk available
ration. nance production. forp roduc-
tion.

Cents. Cents. Cents.
10 10
15 10 5 One-third.
20 10 10 One-half.
25 10 15 Three-fifths.


It will be noted in Table 1 that when the cow is fed
only a maintenance ration no feed is available for milk
production; when she is fed twice this quantity, half the
feed can be used for milk production; when she is fed
two and a 'half times the maintenance, three-fifths of the
feed can be, so used. One of the most common mistakes
ih the feeding of dairy cattle on our farms is that the
good cows are not fed a sufficient quantity of feed above
that required for maintenance. This is especially true
of the highly specialized dairy cow; that is, the cow
which when fed all she will take makes it all into milk
except what is needed for maintenance. It is, however,
unfortunately true that all cows in the dairies of the
country are not this kind. Some cows when fresh make
all the feed above maintenance into milk for a period of
several months before they begin to lay on flesh; others,
if fed'heavily, begin to gain in weight soon after fresh-
ening. From the standpoint of economical milk produc-
tion one can not generally afford to give a dairy cow
more than she will consume without gaining in weight.
There are times, however, when it is desirable to make
exceptions to this rule; for example, practically all highly
specialized milk producers in the early part of the lacta-
tion period lose in weight; that is, they produce milk at
the expense "of their own body flesh. When such cows
approach the end of their milking period they normally
















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Sorghum Waiting at Silo to be Cut-Anthony Farms.









regain the flesh they have lost in the early part of this
period. The feeder can, therefore, well afford to feed
such cows liberally, being assured that the feed will be
returned to him in the form of milk when the cow's again
freshen.

Summer Feeding

The problems involved in winter aid summer feeding
are so different as to make a natural division between the
two. Summer feeding ordinarily consists in the use of
pastures or soiling crops. These may be supplemented
when necessary by silage or other roughage or by grain.
When dry feeds, alone are fed in the summer, the prob-
lems are not materially different from winter feeding.

Pasture.

Pasture is the natural feed for aairy cows, and in many
respects the best. With abundance of good grasses in
fresh, succulent condition, we have one of the rations
most conducive to heavy production. Even.with the very
best of pasture, however, a cow cannot be forced to maxi-
mum production on it alone. This is owing to the fact
that for the greatest production she must be induced to
take a large amount of nutrients. The bulky nature of
pasture grass places a positive limit upon the capacity of
the cow to take feed. In other words, the cow's stomach
can not contain grass enough to supply the required
nutrients for maximum milk production; therefore, a part
of the ration should be of a more concentrated nature.
Good pasture contains an abundant supply of succulent,
palatable and nutritious grasses. On such pasture it
should be possible for a cow to satisfy her appetite with
a few hours' grazing. Pasture of this kind will supply
all the food material needed for medium production and
a large part of that necessary for large production. For
average conditions, with ample pasture of good grasses
or legumes in'good, succulent condition, good production
can be secured. The economy of the use of pasture de-
pends chiefly upon several factors, such as the price of
land, the price of labor, and the lay of the land.





































Holstein-Jersey Steers, Three Years Old.
Weight Average, 1,360 Pounds. Raised on Skim Milk.











Price of Land.

The price of land has a direct bearing upon the cost of
pasture and is an important factor where land values are
high. If pasture is to be depended upon entirely for
from four to six months in the year, the production is to
be kept up to a profitable standard, anywhere from 1 to 4
acres or more must be provided for each cow. This is
assuming that in permanent pasture there is a good, clean
turf, with little or no waste places, and that for tempor-
ary pasture there is a good stand of grass or legumes
throughout. Land which will give these conditions fre-
quently sells at from $50 to $300 an acre, ond the interest
on the investment must necessarily also vary widely, as
is shown in Tables 2 and 3:

Table No. 2-Interest on Cost of Pasture per Cow for the
Season; Interest at 6 Per Cent on the Value of the
Land, Allowing From 1 to 4 Acres per Cow.

Acres Value of Land per Acre.
per
$25 $50 $100 $150 $200

1 $1.50 $3.00 $6.00 $9.00 $12.00
1y 2.25 4.50 9.00 13.50 T 18.
2 3.00 6.00 12.00 18.00 24.00
2% 3.75 7.50 15.00 22.50 30.00
3 4.50 9.00 18.00 27.00 36.00
3Y, 5.25 10.50 21.00 31.50 42.00
4 6.00 12.00 24.00 36.00 48.00



Table No. 3-Cost of Pasture per Cow per Day on Basis
of Table No. 2, with a Pasture Season of 1550 Days.

Acres Value of Land per Acre.
per
cow.
$25 $50 $100 $150 $200

SCents. Cents. Cents. Cents. Cents.
1 1 2 4 6 8
1/ I 1 3 6 9 I 12
2 1 4 8 12 16
2% 2% 5 10 15 20
3 3 6 12 18 / 24
3 /2 31/ 7 14 21 28
4 4 8 16 24 32'








































































Stock-Feeding Shed, State Farm, Ralford.


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4










It will be seen that the price of land may readily be-
come so high that it would be unprofitable to graze it.
In many sections of the country a cow can be fed for
average production for about 20 cents a day. Therefore,
when the daily rental or interest on the value of pasture
approaches that sum the farmer should carefully con-
sider other methods of summer feeding.
The cost of caring for permanent pastures must also
be taken into consideration. This will consist in the ex-
pense of cutting weeds, building and repairing fences, etc.

Price of Labor.

The pasture system of summer feeding reduces to the
minimum the amount of labor required to handle a given
number of cows, and therefore it is especially adapted
to conditions when labor is high.

Lay of Land and Roughness of Surface.

In mountainous or hilly sections of the country there is
often a part of the farm which, on account of steepness,
tendency to wash, or the presence of rock formation near
the surface, can not or should not be plowed frequently.
On such farms it is often best to plow only the bottoms,
keeping the uplands in permanent pastures. The dairy-
man will find ready application of the pasture system for
sumlier feeding on such farms.

Pasture With Supplements.

GRAIN.
As has been said, the supplementing of pastures with
grain is sometimes advisable, even when the pastures are
of the best. In many sections, however, pastures are
never of the best kind, and in no sections are they always
in the best condition. It is evident, therefore, that the
commercial dairyman will seldom depend upon pasture
alone. Grain should be fed to heavy-producing cows
under all pasture conditions.
Prof. C. H. Eckles, of the University of Missouri, sug-
gests tre following-named quantities of grain with abun-
dant pasture for varying production:
Jersey cow producing-









26

20 pounds of milk daily.......... 3 pounds of grain.
25 pounds of milk daily.......... 4 pounds of grain.
30 pounds of milk daily.......... 6 pounds of grain.
35 pounds of milk daily.......... 8 pounds of grain.
40 pounds of milk daily.......... 10 pounds of grain.

Holstein-Friesian or Ayrshire cow producing-

25 pounds of milk daily.......... 3 pounds of grain.
30 pounds of milk daily....... ... 5 pounds of grain.
35 pounds of milk daily.......... 7 pounds of grain.
40 pounds of milk daily.......... 9 pounds of grain.
50 pounds of milk daily..........10 pounds of grain.

While this is, of course, an arbitrary rule, and varia-
tions should be made to suit different conditions and
individual cows, it is in accord with good feeding prac-
tice and probably is as good a rule of its kind as has
been formulated.
For cows of medium production it is usually more
economical to feed silage or some green crop rather than
grain for supplementing short pasturage. In supplement-
ing pasture with grain it should be remembered that the
percentage of protein in the grain ration need not be the
same as for winter feeding. Good pasture is an approxi-
mately balanced ration. The grain ration to be fed with
pasture grass should, therefore, have approximately the
same proportion of protein to other nutrients. In the
cast of extra heavy producers the percentage of protein
in the grain mixture should be somewhat greater.
The following-named mixtures are suggested for sup-
plementing pasture without other roughage:
Mixture Ao. 1:
Ground oats .......... 100 pounds
Corn meal ............ 50 pounds Per cent digestible protein, 10.3.
Wheat bran .......... 100 pounds l
Mixture No. 2:
Wheat bran ...... ... 100 pounds
Corn meal ....... 100 pounds Per cent digestible protein, 12.7..
Cottonseed meal ...... 25 pounds
Mixture No. 3:
Corn-and-cob meal .... 250 pounds
Cottonseed meal ...... 100 pounds Per cent digestible protein, 15.5.

Mixture No. 4: ,
Wheat bran ......... 100 pounds
Gluten feed .......... 50 pounds Per cent digestible protein, 13.6.
Corn meal ........... 50 pounds


































































Field of Millet.









Soiling Crops

Pastures, except where irrigation is practiced, are so
dependent upon rainfall that there is practically sure to
be some period each season when they are short. It is a
well-known fact among dairymen that if a cow, for lack
of proper feed, falls off in her flow of milk for any period
of time it is difficult or impossible to bring her back to
a full flow until she again freshens. To carry the cows
over this period on grain alone is expensive; conse-
quently, the supplementing of pasture with soiling crops
is becoming much more common and is growing in favor.
In fact, in many sections it is extremely difficult to keep
a herd in maximum production throughout the summer
without furnishing some supplemental feed. Unless an
abundance of pasture is available, there is practically.
sure to be a shortage toward the end of the season.
Special crops can be grown for these shortages, but they
usually involve added expense and inconvenience com-
pared with standard farm crops. Second-growth red
clover, oats, peas or alfalfa are excellent. Corn is avail-
able in August and September. These crops are usually
a part of the regular cropping system of a well-conducted
dairy farm.
The advantages of soiling crops as a supplement to
pasture are that large quantities of forage can be grown
on a relatively small area, because it is frequently pos-
sible to harvest more than one crop in a season on land
used for soiling. Another advantage is the palatability
and succulence possessed by such crops. With their use
pasture need not be cropped so closely and less feed is
wasted through tramping by the cattle. By judicious
application of the soiling system it is often possible to
reduce the acreage of land used for pasture, which in
,addition to the saving in land required for pasture has
the added saving in the cost of fencing. Soiling crops
usually are fed in the stable, where the manure can be
saved for application on cultivated fields.
An objection which can be urged against the use of soil-
ing crops is the greater amount of labor required and the
difficulty in using this labor to the best advantage. An-
other difficulty is to plan a succession of special crops
which will at all times during the season supply an
abundant supplementary feed. Even with the best ar-















I: *






I-I


Stock Feeding, State Farm, Raiford.












ranged plan, its success depends very largely upon
weather conditions.
The Summer Silo.

Silage has found a wide use in this country as palat-
able, succulent and economical roughage for use during
the winter. Many of the advantages of its use in winter
apply equally well in summer, and there are additional
ones that apply alone to the latter season.
The use of a summer' silo is particularly applicable
on high-priced land. If the land is pastured it will re-
quire from 1 to 3 or more acres a season for each cow,
while 1 acre of corn put in the silo will supply succulent
roughage for several cows for a like period. It is true
that grain will be necessary in addition to silage, but
the great problem on high-priced land is to raise a suf-
ficient quantity of roughage.
As has previously been said, soiling crops have been
used to a great extent either in place of or in addition
to pasture. The greatest disadvantage in their use is that
much labor is required. In order to use these crops they
must be cut and hauled fro mday to day. This work is
expensive, because only small areas are cut at one time,
thus making it impracticable to use the harvesting ma-
chinery of the farm to advantage and entailing consider-
able loss of time in harnessing and unhitching the team. 0
Considerable inconvenience also is occasioned by the fact
that the field work is pressing at that season'of the year,
and both man and horsepower are badly needed in the
fields. Silage, on the other hand, is cut at one operation
when the work in the field is not pressing. The crop
ordinarily grown for silage is corn, which is a part of the
regular farm rotation and consequently fits in well with
the regular routine of work.
With a silo for summer feeding, the dairyman always
has an abundant supply of feed that is easily handled.
By using silage the necessity of cutting and hauling ,the
supplementary roughage during rainy weather is elim-
inated. Another advantage as compared with the soiling
system lies in the fact that with the latter it is often
necessary to feed a portion of each crop after it has
matured too much to be palatable, and probably to start
on the succeeding one while it is still a little too green.
It is difficult to plan exactly so as to prevent these con-











editions. With silage, however, the crop can be cut at the
best stage for feeding and preserved at that point.
One of the most important uses of silage in the sum-
mer is as a supplement for short or poor pasture. This
condition frequently occurs as a result of long-continued
dry weather. Under such circumstances even the most
carefully planned soiling system may fail: It is then
that the greatest value of the summer silo is realized,
for with the silo full of well-matured silage grown in
the previous season, an abundant supply of succulent
feed for the cows is available, regardless of weather con-
ditions.
When it is not necessary to use the silo during the-
summer, it can be sealed up and the silage preserved for-
winter use. This prevents any waste in feed.
One point, however, must be kept in mind in planning-
the summer silo. This is the diameter of the silo in rela-
tion to the number of cows to be fed and the quantity to
be fed to each cow. Silage enough must be fed daily to
prevent excessive surface fermentation. As a general
rule, a cow under summer conditions will consume about
20 pounds a day. On this basis the diameter of the silo
in reference to the number of cows to be fed in summer
will be as follows:

20 cows .................. ......... 8 feet in diameter
30 cows............................10 feet in diameter
40 cows............................ 12 feet in diameter

Inasmuch as 8 feet is about the minimum diameter of
a silo in best practice, it will be seen that the summer
silo for supplementing pasture has its best application in
herds of 20 cows or more.

Winter Feeding.

The problems involved in winter feeding are usually'
distinctly different from those of summer feeding. Pas-
ture (or green feed), usually the basis of summer feed-
ing, is not available. Broadly speaking, there are two
factors involved in this problem: first, to satisfy the
needs of the cow, and, second, to suit the pocketbook.
The cow must have an ample supply of feed of a palat-
able nature, and this feed must be supplied at a price
which will permit a profit on the feeding operation.











Viewed from an economic standpoint, there are some
fundamental considerations which should first receive
attention. In general farm practice it is advisable, so
far as is economical, to use the feeds produced on the
farm. Often the, freight rates and the middleman's
charges, if saved, will constitute a good profit for the
feeder. This is especially true of roughage. Such feeds
are bulky and in most cases must be baled at a consid-
erable cost; the freight rates also are much greater in
proportion to the nutrients contained than on the grains.
When land is high in price and the market for dairy
products are good, it is often impracticable to grow all
the feeds on the farm. In such cases arrangements first
should be made t6 grow the roughage, on account of the
high cost of transporting these feeds. In most cases the
prime object of the farm under such conditions will be
to supply the greatest possible quantity of roughage.
It is a difficult problem to provide a system of winter
feeding of roughage which will make the best use of
home-grown roughage and at the same time insure full
production. Only a general discussion of the problem
can be attempted.

Silage.

In addition to containing the proper nutrients in the
right proportion, part of the ration should be of a succu-
lent nature. It is extremely difficult, if not impossible,
to keep, cows in full production throughout the winter
without some succulent feed. There are two chief sources
of succulent feed for winter feeding-silage and roots.
Of these, silage is in almost universal use by commercial
dairymen. While almost any green crop may be used
for silage, the heavy yields of corn, as compared with
other crops, and its comparative ease of handling, to-
gether with its keeping qualities, make it the leading
silage crop. Where the cost of land and the prices of
dairy products are high, and the system of farming of
necessity is intensive, it is questionable whether the dairy
man should consider any other silage crop.

Roots.

The chief function of roots in cattle feeding is to sup-
ply a' succulent feed. Under general farm conditions the











quantity of nutrients grown per acre in root crops is
small in comparison to the cost of production. These
root crops, however, can be preserved during the winter
equally well whether large or small quantities are fed
each day, and therefore have special application when
only a fed cows are to be fed. Of the different root crops,
mangel-wurzels furnish the greatest yield per acre. Other
kinds of beets and turnips and carrots may be used.
Turnips, however, should be fed after milking rather
than before, as they cause a bad flavor in the products
if fed immediately before milking. Carrots impart a
desirable color to the milk.

Dry Roughage.

The best kind of dry roughage to be fed to the dairy
cow in connection with corn silage or roots are legumin-
ous hays, such as alfalfa, red, crimson or alsike clover
and soy-bean or cowpea hay. While corn silage is an ex-
cellent feed, it is not a balanced one ,as it does not con-
tain sufficient protein and mineral matter to meet fully
the requirements of the cow. The leguminous hays, in
addition to being very palatable, have a tendency to cor-
rect this deficiency. They are also one of the best and
cheapest sources of protein. One or more of these hays
can be grown on any farm, and in addition to their value
for feeding purposes, they improve the soil in which they
'are grown. Hay from Canada field peas, sown with oats
to prevent the peas from lodging, also makes an excel-
lent roughage.
Corn stover, coarse hay, etc., also find a good market
through the dairy cow. This class of roughage is low in
protein, however, and when it is used the grain ration
must be richer in protein.
No positive rlue can be laid down as to the quantity
of dry roughage that should be fed, but about 6 to 12
pounds a day fo reach cow, in addition to silage, will be
found to be satisfactory in most cases. When the dry
roughage is of poor quality, sue has coarse, weedy hay
or a poor grade of cornstalks, a large portion can often
be given to advantage, allowing the co wto pick out the
best and using the rejected part for bedding. With this
quantity of dry roughage the cow will take, according
to her size, from 25 to 50 pounds of silage. -This may
be considered as a guide for feeding to apply when the
3--B
















'd of D y C e.
Herd of Dairy Cattle.


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i











roughage is grown on the farm. When everything has
to be purchased, it is often more economical to limit the
quantity of roughage fed and increase the grain ration.

Roughage Alone Too Bulky a Ration.

While a cow's stomach is large and her whole diges-
tive system is especially designed to utilize coarse feeds,
there is'a limit t other bulk that she can take. This limit
is below the quantity of roughage that it would require
to furnish the nutrients she must have for maximum pro-
duction; that is, a ration may contain the proper propor-
tions of protein and carbohydrates and still be so bulky
that she can not handle it. She, therefore, should have
some grain, even though the roughage in itself is a bal-
anced ration.

Importance of a Balanced Ration.

It is probably well at this point to refer briefly to the
composition of feedstuffs as it relates to economical feed-
ing of the dairy cow. The cow takes into her digestive
system feeds which she utilizes for the production of
body tissues, heating the body, performing bodily func-
tions, such as digesting feed, moving from place to place,
and for mil production. For the purposes of the present
discussion, it is sufficient to say that the constituents or
compounds and the relative quantities necessary for these
operations have been determined; that is, we know that
milk contains protein and energy or heat-producing con-
stituents, the protein being represented by the casein and
albumin and the energy and heat-producing constituents
by the fat and sugar. In addition to the constituents or
compounds necessary for the production' of milk, she also
must have the constituents necessary for performing the
other functions mentioned. These for convenience have
been classified into proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Fats
perform much the same functions as carbohydrates and
are worth for production practically two and one-fourth
times as much per pound as carbohydrates, and in the
balancing of a ration are usually classed with them. This
brings us to a definition of a 'balanced ration," which is
a ration containing these various nutrients in the propor-
tion the cow needs them.
The economical importance of a balanced ration is











evident. The cow can use only certain elements or com-
pounds in certain proportions; consequently, if the ration
supplies an excessive amount of any one, the excess is
liable to be waste. Not only is this true, but as the cow
has to assimilate it, even though she can not use it, her
capacity for production is reduced.

Cost.
In making a ration, cost is one of the important fac-
tors. The best practice is to compound a grain mixture
so that it will balance with the home-grown roughage.
With this in mind, the separate grains should be selected
to supply the necessary nutrients at the lowest possible
cost. For this, not only the price per hundred pounds,
but also the relative cost of each, constituent, especially
protein, must be considered. For example, to determine
the cost of a pound of digestible protein in a given feed,
divide the price of 100 pounds by the per cent of diges-
tible protein in the feed. If this calculation is made for
several feeds, the relative cost of protein in each will be
apparent. Then the feeds that furnish protein at the
least cost can be selected. The same can be done to de-
termine the cost,of the carbohydrates and fat, which are
the heat-making or energy-producing part of the feed.
Bulk.
A certain bulk is necessary in the grain mixture to
obtain the best results. When heavy feeds are used, some
bulky ones should be included to lighten the mixture,
since it is probable that a certain degree of bulkiness aids
digestion. Some of the common feeds are classified as
to bulk in Table 4:
Table No. 4-Classification of Common Feeds as to
Bulkiness.

Bulky. Medium. Heavy or compact.

Alfalfa meal. Corn meal or feed. Cottonseed meal.
orn-and-cob meal. Hominy. Linseed meal.
Bran (wheat). Gluten feed. Cocoanut meal.
Drien brewers' gains. Rye Peanut meal.
Dried distillers' grains. Barley. Gluten meal.
Oats, ground. Buckwheat middlings. Wheat middlings.
Malt sprouts.
Dried beet pulp.










Palatability.

Palatability is of great importance in successful feed-
ing. The best results can not be obtained with any feed
which is not well relished by the cow; consequently any
unpalatable feed to be used should be mixed with those
that are appetizing.

Physiological Effect.

In making the grain mixture care should be exercised
that too large a quantity of either constipating or laxa-
tive feed is not included. Cottonseed meal, for example,
is decidedly constipating and should be fed with laxa-
tive grains or succulence, such as silage or roots. For
ordinary feeding in most parts of the United States not
more than one-third of the grain should be cottonseed
meal. In some sections larger quantities have been fed,
but this practice is not to be recommended. On the other
hand, linseed-oil meal, because of its distinctly laxative
action, should not be fed ordinarily in greater quantities
than 11/2 pounds a day.

Nutritive Value of the Grains and Concentrates.

As a general rule, the energy or heat-producing mate-
rial is found chiefly in the stem and leaves of the plant
and the protein is largely in the seeds. The great excep-
tion is in the case of legumes, which have larger percent-
ages of protein throughout the plant and particularly in
the leaves. It should be noted, therefore, that in supply-
ing grain we are chiefly concerned with the protein it
contains.
Two classes of feeds are used for making up the grain
ration, namely, grains and by-products of the manufac-
turing industries. The grain produced on the farm and
commonly used for cattle feeding are corn, oats, barley
and rye. In many cases the demand for these grains for
other purposes has become so great that the dairyman
can not afford to use them; consequently, it has usually
been found more economical to use the by-products of
the manufacturing industries. The following are among
the most common of these feeds: Wheat bran, wheat
middlings, linseed meal, cottonseed meal, gluten meal,
























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Dairy Herd in Everglades.


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distillers' grains, beet pulp, molasses, buckwheat mid-
dlings, cocoanut meal, peanut meal.
The following analyses represent digestible nutrients
in 100 pounds. The fat is multiplied by 2.25 and added
to the carbohydrates. This represents the energy or heat-
making part of the feed.

Wheat Bran.

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 12.5 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 48.4 per cent.
Bran is the outside coating of grains, and is the resi-
due or by-product from the manufacture of flour. Wheat
bran may be derived from winter or spring wheat, and
there is little difference in its composition from either
source.
From a physiological standpoint wheat bran is one of
the very best feeds for cows. It is slightly laxative in
nature and generally tends to keep the cow's digestive
system in good condition. The price based upon its pro-
tein content is usually so high that most commercial
dairymen combine it with other feeds in which protein
costs less per pound. Aside from the value of the
nutrients which it contains, it has a special value in a
feeding mixture as it gives bulk and adds to the palata-
bility. Wheat bran may be used when the rest of the
grain ration is lacking in palatability or is of a consti-
pating nature. It is especially good when the roughage
is all dry. The best grades of wheat bran are of light
weight with large flakes. Some of the large mills put
the sweepings from the mill into the bran; therefore, it
is usually best to buy the highest grade of bran, provided
the mills grading it are reliable. The output of small
country mills is usually of excellent quality. Bran con-
tains a high proportion of phosphorus and potash in its
ash content.

Wheat Middlings.

Digestive Nutrients.-Protein, 13.4 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 55.9 per cent.
Standard wheat middlings or shorts are composed of
the finer portions of the bran together with the coarser
portion of the flour. They are not so flaky as bran, are a
little less laxative, and contain a somewhat smaller quan-










tity of ash. In other respects they may be said to re-
semble bran closely. This feed is somewhat pasty when
moist, and consequently lacks bulk.

Linseed Meal.

Digestible Nutrients.-Old process: Protein, 30.2 per
cent; carbohydrates and fat, 47.7 per cent. New process:
Protein, 31.7 per cent; carbohydrates and fat, 44.2 per
cent.
Linseed meal is a by-product of the manufacture of
linseed oil from flaxseed( and is produced under two pro-
cesses, known as the old and the new. Linseed meal or
oil meal from a physiological standpoint is one of the very
best feeds. It is laxative, palatable, and is a very good
"conditioner," but, like wheat bran, its price is usually
excessive for its nutritive value. It has, however, a dis-
tinct place in a mixture in supplying protein to increase
the palatability and improve the physiological effect. It
is very heavy, so that it is well to feed it in connection
with a bulky feed. It is especially applicable in a mix-
ture to be fed with dry roughage.

Cottonseed Meal (Choice).

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 37 per' cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 41.2 per cent.
Cottonseed meal is the richest in protein of all the
common cow feeds on the market. It is usually the
cheapest source of protein available, but it does not have
the best physiological effect upon the cow, often causing
digestive troubles if fed in large quantities for long
periods. At first it is advisable to start with 1 to 2 pounds
a day, gradually increasing the quantity if no bad results
are observed. In some herds in the North as high as 5
to 6 pounds a day are fed without bad results. In the
South there seems to be no limit in this direction.
Cottonseed meal is a highly concentrated feed and
should, if possible, be fed in a mixture with some bulky
feed like bran. It can be fed to better advantage when
the roughage contains an ample quantity of succulent
feed. While its physiological effect in the North at least
is not good as compared with most other cow feeds, its
cheapness and the fact that in time the cows seem to
overcome this tendency to digestive trouble from it are










rapidly giving it great prominence as a cheap source of
protein for dairy cows.

Gluten Meal and Gluten Feed.

Digestible Nutrients.-Gluten meal: Protein, 30.2 per
cent; carbohydrates and fat, 53.8 percent. Gluten feed:
Protein, 21.6 per cent; carbohydrates and fat, 59.1 per
cent.
Gluten meal is a by-product of the manufacture of
starch from corn. The basis of the meal'is the germ part
of the corn kernel. Gluten feed is composed of the gluten
meal plus a certain quantity of corn bran, which makes
it lighter than the meal. Both feeds are fairly palatable
and are usually among the cheapest sources of protein.

Dried Brewers' Grains.
Digestive Nutrients.-Protein, 21.5 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 44.2 per cent.
Dried brewers' grains rank with wheat bran as a flaky,
bulky feed. The physiological eecfft is nearly if not quite
as good as bran. They differ in that they carry a some-
what larger percentage of protein than bran. Cows some-
times do not eat these grains readily at first, but soon
overcome this aversion.

Malt Sprouts.
Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 20.3 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 50.3 per cent.
Malt sprouts are loose and bulky and sows usually do
not take them readily at first. The chief place of this
feed is with other feeds in a mixture. Both brewers'
grains and malt sprouts come from barley and are by-
products from the manufacture of beer.
The proprietary feed companies control at the present
time a large percentage of the output of dried grains and
malt sprouts from the larger brewereies, and these ex-
cellent feeds do not appear unmixed on the market to so
great an extent as they did a few years ago.

Hominy Meal, Feed or Chop.
Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 7 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 77.6 per cent.











This by-product of the manufacture of hominy consists
of part of the starchy portion of the corn and part of the
germ. It is variously known, as (he heading suggests,
as hominy meal, feed or chop. In many respects it re-
sembles corn and is a good substitute for it. This feed
is used chiefly to furnish the energy or heat-making part
of the ration, but because of its low percentage of pro-
tein it is not an economical source of the latter.

Dried Distillers' Grains.

Digestible Nutrients.-Corn grains: Protein, 22.4 per
cent; carbohydrates and fat, 66.5 per cent. Rye grains:
Protein, 13.6 per cent; carbohydrates and fat, 52.8 per
cent.
These grains are the by-products of the manufacture
of alcohol and distilled liquors from corn and rye. Both
kinds are rather bulky and usually the corn grains are
among the cheapest sources of protein. These grains are
not particularly palatable, consequently they should be
used with other feeds in the grain ration.

Dried Beet Pulp.

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 4. 6 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 67 per cent.
Dried beet pulp is a by-product from the manufacture
of sugar from the beet. As a source of protein it is not
of high value, an dthe farmer should recognize this fact
when he buys it. It is bulky, however, and has an ex-
cellent physiological effect upon the cow, as it aids in
keeping her digestive organs in good condition. When
for any reason neither silage nor roots are available, the
pulp can be soaked for about 12 hours in about four
times its weight of water; it then constitutes a good sub-
stitute for a succulent roughage. Beet pulp should be
classed as a carbohydrates rather than as a protein feed.

Molasses.

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 1 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 58.2 per cent.
Molasses, from both the beet and cane sugar factories,
is valuable as a saurce of energy or heat-making material,
the main dierence between the two kinds being that the








43

former is more laxative when fed in large quantities.
When fed in small quantities, molasses adds materially
to the palatability of the ration, but unless it is very low
in price it is not usually an economical feed for dairy
cows.

Buckwheat Middlings.

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 24.6 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 52 per cent.
This floury feed is composed largely of that part of the
buckwheat kernel under the hull, together with some of
the coarsest of the flour. It is rather heavy and tends to
produce a tallowy butter if fed in large quantities. In
certain sections it is one of the cheap sources of protein.
Frequently bran and cha are added to the middlings,
thus greatly reducing their feeding value.

Cocoanut Meal.

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 18.8 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 60.2 per cent.
This meal is the ground cake resulting from the manu-
facture of cocoanut oil. It is a rather heavy feed, which,
on account of its high oil content, tends to become rancid
if kept for long periods in the summer. If it is possible
to obtain cocoanut meal at a reasonable price it will be
found to be a valuable addition to the ration.
Peanut Meal.

Digestible Nutrients.-Hulled nuts: Protein, 42.8 per
cent; carbohydrates and fat, 36.6 per cent. With hulls:
Protein, 20.2 per cent; carbohydrates and fat, 38.5 per
cent.
This meal is the by-product of the manufacture of pea-
nut oil and varies greatly in composition, depending upon
thd percentage of hulls it contains. It is an excellent
dairy feed and in some sections is a cheap source of pro-
tein.
Farm Grains.

Some of the more common grains that are grown upon
the farm will be described briefly below.







































Herd of Jersey Dairy.attle.










Corn.

Digestible Nutrients.-Corn meal: Protein, 6.9 per cent;
carbohydrates and fat, 76.9 per cent. Corn-and-cob: Pro-
tein, 6.1 per cent; carbohydrates and fat, 72 per cent.
Corn is probably the most common grain grown upon
the farm and is well adapted to be part of the ration of a
dairy cow. Corn is palatable, heavy, and one of the best
and cheapest sources of the energy or heat-making part
of the ration, but on account of its low protein content
it should not form the entire grain ration. In order to
lighten up this grain, the cob is often ground with the
kernel, the resulting meal being called corn-and-cob meal..
This feed is more bulky and better adapted for mixing
with heavy grains.

Oats (Ground).

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 9.4 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 60.6 per cent.
This very palatable cereal is slightly laxative and very
well adapted for feeding dairy cattle. Owing to the high
market price of oats, it is usually more economical to sell
them and purchase other feeds which furnish nutrients
at a cheaper price.

Barley (Ground).

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 9 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 70.4 per cent.
This is a palatable feed and one that can be used to
good advantage as a source of carbohydrates or energy
material for dairy cows where its price is moderate.
Like corn, it should not be the only grain in the ration.

Rye (Ground).

Digestible Nutrients.-Protein, 9.2 per cent; carbohy-
drates and fat, 70.5 per cent.
This grain is not' especially palatable and should not
be usedin large quantities, as it tends to produce a hard,
tallowy butter. Mixed with other feeds, it is often a
valuable addition to the ration.











Roughage.

All roughage may be divided for convenience into two
general classes with reference to its content of protein.
In the first, or low-protein, class are placed corn silage,
corn stover, timothy hay, millet hay, prairie hay, hays
from the common grasses, straws of the various cereals,
and cottonseed hulls. The second, or high-protein, class
includes the various legume hays, such as alfalfa, the
clovers, cowpea, soy bean, and oat and pea. Economy
in feeding demands that grain should supplement the
roughage, consequently the grain mixtures #ill b- com-
pounded to fit the class to which the roughage 1.clongs.

Compounding a Grain Mixture.

A few simple rules for making up a grain mixture are
givenbriefly below:
1. Make up the mixture to fit the roughage available.
With roughage entirely of the lpw-protein class the grain
should contain approximately from 18 to 22 per cent of
protein, while with exclusively high-protein roughage kthe
grain ration need contain only about 13 to 16 per cent.
2. Select grains that will furnish the various constit-
uents, especially protein, at the least cost, using home-
grown grains if possible.
3. Be sure that the mixture is light and bulky.
4. The mixture should be palatable.
5. See that the grain has the proper physiological
eect upon the cow.
All these suggestions should be kept in mind in order
to obtain the best possible combination of grains. For
the convenience of the feeder Table 5, showing the diges-
tible protein content of the more common grains and by-
products feeds, is given. The per cent columns are ar-
ranged in 5 per cent divisions.


























































L.OW areas ana QourrluJm.


- r











Table No. 5-Approximate Digestible Protein of Various
Grains and By-Products.

Average Average Average Average
5 per cent 10 per cent 15 per cent 20 per cent
(2.5 to 7.4 (7.5 to 12.4 (12.5 to 17.4 (17.5 to 22.4
per cent). per cent), per cent), per cent).

Corn meal. Wheat, ground. Wheat bran. Gluten feed.
Corn-and-cob Oats, ground. Wheat mid- Malt sprouts.
meal. Barley, ground. dlings. Dried brewers'
Hominy feed. Buckwheat, Dried distillers' grains.
Dried beet pulp. ground. grains (rye). Dried distillers'
Sorghum grains, grains (corn).
ground. Cocoanut meal,
Peanut meal
with hulls.
Cowpeas.


Average Average Average Average
25 per sent 30 per cent. 35 per cent 40 per cent.
(22.5 to 27.4 (27.5 to 32.4 (32.5 to 37.4 (37.5 to 42.4
per cent), per cent). per cent), per cent).

Buckweat Gluten meal. Cottonseed meal. Peanut meal
middlings. Linseed meal (hulled nuts).
(both pro-
cesses).
Soy beans.


'The per cent of protein in a grain mixture may be
Tound as follows: Take any number of parts of any num-

The per cent of protein in a grain mixture may be
found as follows: Take any number of parts of any num-
ber of feeds in the table, and for each part put down the
per 'cent of the column in which it is found. Add these
numbers and divide the sum by the number of parts.
Examples:

1 part wheat bran.....'......... 15
1 part cottonseed meal......... 35
1 part gluten feed............. 20

3 3) 70

23.3 per cenl protein.










3 parts wheat bran (3x5)...... 45
2 parts cottonseed meal (2x35).. 70
1 part gluten feed (1x20)...... 20

6 6) 135

22.5 per cent protein.

The approximate price of a ration per pound of pro-
tein may be ascertained as follows: Divide the total
price of the mixture by the average protein content as
derived above. The mixture costing the smallest price
per -pound of protein, other things being equal, is the
most economical. Unfortunately, other things are never
exactly equal, for the physiological effect of the grain,
bulk and palatability must also be taken into considera-
tion. Practically all the grain feeds low in protein are
rich in carbohydrates, but, as already stated,,grains are
purchased primarily for their protein content, as almost
invariably the carbohydrates can be produced more
cheaply in the form of corn silage, cornstalks, etc. While
the above-mentioned method of testing the economy of a
grain ration is not entirely accurate, it is usually a safe
method to follow.

'SAMPLES OF GRAIN MIXTURES TO BE FED WITH
VARIOUS ROUGHAGES.

With Low-Protein Roughages.

The following grain mixtures are adapted to be fed
with roughages of the low-protein class, such as corn
silage, corn stover, timothy, prairie, rowen or millet hays,
cottonseed hulls, etc.:
Mixture 1.-Per cent of digestible protein, 18.4:
500 pounds corn meal.
400 pounds dried distillers' grains (corn).
200 pounds gluten feed.
300 pounds linseed meal (old process).
Mixture 2.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.8:
100 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
200 pounds wheat bran.
4-B










,Mixture 3.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.8:
300 pounds corn meal. *
/200 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds dried distillers' grains (corn).
100 pounds gluten feed.
Mixture 4.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.8:
200 pounds corn-and-cob meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
Mixture 5.-Per cent of digestible protein, 18.8:
200 pounds corn meal.
150 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 6.-Per cent of digestible protein, 18.1:
200 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds oats, ground.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
Mixture 7.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.4:
400 pounds corn meal.
200 pounds cottonseed meal.
300 pounds gluten feed.
400 pounds dried brewers' grains.
Mixture 8.-Per cent of digestible protein, 18.3:
200 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
150 pounds gluten feed.
200 pounds dried brewers' grains.
Mixture 9.-Per cent of digestible protein, 18.4:
300 pounds corn-and-cob meal.
200 pounds cottonseed meal.
Mixture 10.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.1:
200 pounds corn-and-cob meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds buckwheat middlings.
Mixture 11.-Per cent of digestible protein, 19.1:
200 pounds barley.
200 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds alfalfa meal.
100 pounds wheat bran.










With High-Protein Roughages.

With roughage of the high-protein class, such as clover,
alfalfa, soy beans, cowpeas and vetch or other legume
hay, the following grain mixtures may be used:
Mixture 12.-Per-cent of digestible protein, 14.1:
400 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds cottopseed meal.
100 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 13.-Per cent of digestible protein, 15.6:
400 pounds corn meal.
200 pounds gluten feed.
200 pounds linseed meal (old process).
100 pounds oats, ground.
Mixture 14.-Per cent of digestible protein, 14.9: *
200 pounds corn meal.
200 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds malt sprouts.
100 pounds wheat bran.
SMixture 15.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.7:
300 pounds barley.-
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds alfalfa meal.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 16.-Per cent of digestible protein, 13.7:
100 pounds barley.
200 pounds cocoanut meal.
100 pounds oats, ground.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 17.-Per cent of digestible protein, 15.8:
300 pounds cbrn-and-cob meal.
200 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 18.-Per cent of digestible protein, 15.5:
100 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
100 pounds oats, ground.

With Combination of Low and High Protein Roughages.

The following grain mixtures are adapted for feeding
with a combination of the low and high protein classes of
roughage, such as silage and clover, or other regume hay;











corn stover and clover, or other legume hay; mixed hay,
or oat-and-pea hay, etc.:
Mixture 19.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.3:
400 pounds corn meal.
300 pounds dried distillers' grains (corn).
100 pounds gluten feed.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
Mixture 20.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.1:
300 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds linseed meal (old process).
200 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 21.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.4:
400 pounds corn meal.
o00 pounds cottonseed meal.
0 pounds dried distillers' grains (corn).
100 pounds gluten feed.
Mixture 22.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.7:
400 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
200 pounds gluten feed.
200 pounds dried brewers' grains.
Mixture 23.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.4:
200 pounds corn-and-cob meal. -
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
Mixture 24.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.7:
200 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds peanut meal (with hulls).
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds wheat bran.
Mixture 25.-Per cent of digestible protein, 16.4:
100 pounds corn meal.
100 pounds oats, ground.
100 pounds cottonseed meal.
100 pounds wheat bran.
The above named mixtures which contain linseed meal
are particularly adapted for use when ho succulence is
in the ration.










Rations Suitable for Florida Where Cottonseed Meal Is
of Moderate Price and Cowpea and Other Hays
SAre Raised on the Farm.

Pounds.
(1) Corn silage ............................... 35
S Cowpea hay ........ ...................... 8
Cottonseed meal or oil meal................ 7

(2) Corn silage ............................ 30
Cottonseed hulls ........................... 12
Cottonseed meal ........................... 7

Balanced Rations for Dairy Cows.


In the lists of rations given below, home-grown feeds
are separate from purchased feeds. The amount given in
each ration is sufficient for one day's feed for a cow
weighing 1,000 pounds and giving about three gallons of
milk per day. (Dairy cows in Florida usually weigh
from 600 to 800 pounds.) For cows giving a heavier flow
of milk, it will be necessary to increase the amounts of
feed accordingly. No attempt has been made to estimate
the cost of these rations, or to say which will be the
cheapest, as the prices of feeds vary in different places.
The amounts of each feed being given, it will be an easy
matter for the dairyman to calculate the local post of the
different rations and in this way find out which will be
the cheapest for him to use.

Rations of Home-Grown Feeds.

(1) Velvet beans in the pod............... 10 pounds
Japanese cane, cured in shock........... 10 pounds
Cowpea hay ......................... 8 pounds

(2) Velvet beans in pod.................. 10 pounds
Cottonseed meal .................... 2 pounds
Japanese- cane ...................... 12 pounds

(3) Velvet beans in the pod............... 8 pounds
Cowpea hay ........................ 10 pounds
Japanese cane ....................... 10 pounds








54

(4) Corn ............. .. ... ........ 3 pounds
Velvet beans in the pod............... 7 pounds
Cowpea hay ........................ 9 pounds
Japanese cane. silage ................... 20 pounds

(5) Velvet beans in the pod................ 8 pounds
Cowpea hay ......................... *10 pounds
Sorghum, green ...................... 20 pounds

(6) Velvet beans in the pod............... 8 pounds
Cowpea hay ........................ 8 pounds
Crabgrass hay ....................... 8 pounds
Sweet potatoes (or cassava) ............. 25 pounds

The above are well-known home-grown feeds, or feeds
that can be grown at home. Feeds can be, grown more
cheaply than they can be bought on the market. In these
rations, cowpea hay can be replaced by an equal weight
of beggarweed hay, velvet bean hay, or any other good
legume hay. .Which of these hays should be used will
depend largely on the cost of the hay on the market, or
rather on what it will cost to produce it. One may be so
situated as to be able to grow beggarweed hay, or velvet
bean hay, to better advantage than cowpea hay. All of
the hays in these rations are considered to be of good
quality, cut at the proper stage of maturity, and properly
cured.

0 Rations of Purchased Feeds.

(1) Alfalfa hay ........................ 10 pounds
Wheat bran ........................ 4 pounds
Shorts ............................... 4 pounds

(2) Alfalfa hay ........................ 10 pounds
Wheat bran ........................; 9 pounds
Crabgrass hay ..................... 13 pounds

(3) Alfalfa hay ........................ 10 pounds
Shorts ............................. 9 pounds
Crabgrass hay ..................... .. 13 pounds

(4) Alfalfa hay ....................... 10 pounds
Wheat bran ........................ 6 pounds
Beet pulp ................. ....... 10 pounds











(5) Wheat bran ........................ 9 pounds
Cottonseed meal ..................... 3 pounds
Cottonseed hulls ..................... 20 pounds

(6) Shorts .............................. 8 pounds
Cottonseed meal ..................... 21 pounds
Hay (any non-legume)................ 15 pounds

(7) Wheat bran ........................ 6 pounds
Cottonseed meal ..................... 2 pounds
Beet pulp .......................... 10 pounds
Timothy hay ........................ 7 pounds

(8) W heat bran ......................... 9 pounds
Cottonseed meal ..................... 3 pounds
Japanese cane ....................... 15 pounds

(9) Corn ............................... 5 pounds
Cottonseed meal ..................... 2 pounds.
Cowpea hay ........................ 12 pounds
Silage ............................. 30 pounds

It should be understood that the above rations are not
necessarily to be fed in the exact quantities given above,
but should be modified to suit local conditions or the
actual conditions on each farm. They are given to show
.approximately the average amounts and character of feed
that would be consumed daily by a 1,000-pound animal
'during the feeding period.
It is well to feed as near a balanced ration as possible
without materially increasing its cost. Sometimes the
prices of available feeds are such that a farmer is justified
in deviating from the standard. Such conditions are
illustrated by the use of some of the rations given above.
The second ration shown for the South is an example, as
that ration is very narrow, but in certain localities it is
more profitable than one which is balanced by the use of
high-priced carbohydrate feeds.

Supplementary Feeds.

While silage is an excellent feed, it is not a complete
one for dairy stock. It is too bulky and watery and con-
tains insufficient protein and mineral matter to fully meet










the requirements of the dairy cow. It should be combined
with some leguminous hay, such as clover, cowpeas, or
alfalfa. These will tend to correct the deficiencies of the
silage in dry matter, protein, and mineral constituents.
A ration of silage and, say, alfalfa hay alone is satisfac-
tory, however, only for cows which are dry or giving only
a small amount of milk, and for heifers and bulls. Cows
in full milk require some more concentrated feed than
hay or silage, else they can not assume enough feed to
meet the demands of the body. The result will be that
the cows lose in flesh and in milk flow.

Amount to Feed.

The amount of silage to feed a cow will depend upon
the capacity of the, animal to take feed. She should be
fed as much as she will clean up without waste when con-
sumed along with her hay and grain. Raise or lower the
amount until the proper quantity is ascertained. Gener-
.ally speaking, a good cow should be fed just short of the
limit of her appetite. If she refuses any of her feed it
should be reduced at once. The small breeds will take
25 or 30 pounds per day; the large breeds about 40; and
the medium-sized ones amounts varying between.

Rations.

Ironclad directions for feeding cows can not be given.,
In general, however, they should be supplied with all the
roughage they will clean up with grain in proportion to
butterfat produced. The hay will ordinarily range be-
tween 5 and 12 pounds per cow per day when fed in con-
nection with silage. For Holsteins 1 pound of concen-
trates for each 4 pounds of milk produced will prove
about right. For Jerseys 1 pound for each 3 pounds of /
milk or less will come nearer meeting the requirements.
The grain for other breeds will vary between these two,
according to the quality of milk produced. A good rule
is to feed seven times as much grain as there is butterfat
produced.
The following rations will be found good:
For a 1,300-pound cow yielding 40 pounds of milk test-
ing 3.5 per cent:








57

Pounds.
Silage ........................................ 40
Clover, Cowpea, or Alfalfa Hay ................. 10
Grain m ixture ................................. 10

For the same cow yielding 20 pounds of 3.5 per cent
milk:

Silage ........................................ 40
Clover, Cowpea, or Alfalfa Hay....... .......... 5
Grain mixture ................................ 5

For a 900-pound cow yielding 30 pounds of 5 per cent
milk:

Silage ...................................... 30
Clover, Cowpea, or Alfalfa Hay ................. 10
Grain mixture ................................. 11

For the same cow yielding 15 pounds of 5 per cent
milk:

Silage ......................................... 30
Clover, Cowpea, or Alfalfa Hay ................. 8
Grain mixture ................................. 5

A good grain mixture to be used in a ration which in-
eludes silage and some sort of leguminous hay is com-
posed of:
Parts.
Corn Chop ................................... 4
Wheat Bran .................................. 2
Linseed-oil Meal or Cottonseed Meal............. 1

In case the hay used is not of this kind, some of the
corn chop may be replaced by linseed or cottonseed meal.
In many instances dried brewers' grains or crushed oats
may be profitably substituted for the bran.

Time to Feed.

The time to feed silage is directly after milking or at
least several hours before milking. If fed immediately
before milking, the silage odors may pass through the
cow's body into the milk. Besides, the milk may receive











some taints directly from the stable air. On the other
hand, if feeding is done subsequent to milking, the vola-
tile silage odors will have been thrown off before the
next milking hour. Silage is usually fed twice a day.
Many objections have been made to the feeding of
silage; some condenseries even refusing to let their
patrons use it. These objections are becoming less com-
mon, since milk from cows fed silage in a proper manner
is in no way impaired; besides which there is nothing
about silage that will injure in any way the health of the
animals.

Silage for valves, Bulls and Dry Cows.

Calves may be fed silage with safety when they are
about 3 or 4 months old. It is perhaps of greater im-
portance that the silage be free from mould or decay
when given to calves than when given to mature stock.
After the calves are weaned they may be given all the
silage they will eat up clean. Yearling calves will con-
1ume about one-half as' much as mature stock; that is,
from 15 to 20 pounds a day. When supplemented with
some good leguminous hay, little if any grain will be re-
quired to keep the calves in a thrifty, growing condition.
There is a decided opinion among some breeders of
dairy stock that a large allowance of silage is detrimen-
tal to the breeding qualities of the bull. Whether tHere
is any scientific foundation for this opinion remains to
be determined Pending further investigations, however,
it is advisable to limit the allowance to about 15 pounds
of silage a day for each 1,000 pounds of live weight.
When fed in this amount silage is thought to be a good;
cheap and safe feed for bulls. It should of course be
supplemented with hay, and with a small allowance of
grain also in the case of bulls doing active service or
growing rapidly.
Cows when dry will consumne almost as much roughage
as when milking. Silage may well form the principal
ingredient of the ration; in fact, with 25 to 40 pounds of
silage and a small supplementary feed of clover, cowpea,
or alfalfa hay, say 5 or 6 pounds a day, the cows will
keep in good flesh and even make some gain. Cows in
thin flesh should receive in addition a small amount of
grain. Silage will tend to keep the whole system in a










state of healthy activity and in this way lessen the
troubles incident to parturition.

Silage for Summer Feeding.

One of the most trying seasons of the year for the dairy
cow is the latter part of the summer and early fall." At
this season the pastures are often short or dried up, and
in such cases it is a common mistake of dairymen to let
their cows drop off in flow of milk through lack of feed,
Later they find it impossible to restore the milk flow no
matter how the cows are fed. Good dairy practice de-
mands that the milk flow'be maintained at a high point
all the time from parturition to drying off. It becomes
necessary, therefore, to supply some feed to take the place
of the grass. The easiest way to do this is by means of
silage. Silage is cheaper and decidedly more convenient
to use than soiling crops.
The amounts to feed'will depend upon the condition of
the pastures, varying all the way from 10 pounds to a full
winter feed of 40 pounds. It should be remembered in
this connection that silage contains a low percentage of
protein, so that the greater the amount of silage fed the
greater must be the amount of protein in the supplemen-
tary feeds to properly balance the ration.

Individual Feeding.

Different cows have different capacities for converting
feed into milk. For this reason the above-mentioned rules
can serve only as indicators for the inexperienced feeders.
No man who has not a full appreciation of the wide
variation in individual cows will be fully successful as a
feeder. Some cows may have natural capacity for pro-
ducing large quantities of milk, and may not receive feed
enough for maximum production. By increasing the feed
of the highest-producing cows and carefully consulting
the milk sheets on which each cow's daily production is
recorded, the skillful feeder will soon find that some cows
in the herd will respond to the increased allowance and
return a good profit on the additional feed given. On'the
other hand, there are cows that have a limited capacity
for milk production and are very liable to be overfed. By
carefully studying each individual cow the feeder wiM










soon ascertain the point beyond which any addition to
thd grain ration becomes unprofitable.

Water for Cows.

All animals require plenty of good, pure water. This
is especially true of the milking cow, as water consti-
tutes more than three-fourths of the total value of milk.
The water supply, therefore, demands the dairyman's
most careful attention. Stale or impure water is diA-
tasteful to the cow and she will not drink enough for
maximum milk production. Such water may also carry.
disease germs which might make the milk unsafe for
human consumption or be dangerous to the cow herself.
Durin gthe winter, when cows are stabled the greater
part of the time, they should be watered two or three
times a day unless arrangements have been made to keep
water before them at all times. Th: water should, if pos-
sible, be 15" or 20" above the freezing point, and should
be supplied at practically the same temperature every
day. When water well above freezing temperature is
stored in tanks and piped directly to the cow, there is
probably little occasion for facilities to warm it. When
it stands in a tank on which ice often forms, it usually
pays well to warm it slightly. This can be done by a
tank heater, by live. steam, or by hot water from a boiler.
If a boiler is used for running a separator or for heating
water to wash and sterilize utensils, steam from it can
readily and cheaply be used to warm the water.
/
Salt.

Salt is required by all animals. The dairy cow requires
an ounce or more a day, and while she should be given
all she needs, she should not be forced to take more than
she wants. It is best, therefore, to< give only a small
quantity on the feed, and to place rock salt in boxes in
the yard where she can lick it at will.



CHAPTER 6921-(No. 115)-ACTS 1915.

AN ACT Regulating the Sale of Produce, or Other Thing
of Value, on Commissions.










Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:

Section 1. That all persons, firms or corporations in
this State engaged in the business of selling any produce
or other article on commission in this State, shall, if the
produce or other thing of value be shipped to them by
any person, firm or corporation, from any place in the
State of Florida, when the same is sold by them, issue in
duplicate sales account for the produce or article sold,
and with check shall cause same to be delivered by mail,
or otherwise, to the party furnishing the produce or
article for sale, and, should such sale be unsatisfactory to
'the party furnishing said produce or article for sale, then
at his request the commission house shall furnish to him
within five days the name or names, and residences, to
whom said produce or article has been sold; he shall also
have access to the original sales papers and books showing
the name and address of the purchaser of the produce or
article, to the commission house selling said produce or
article, and every reasonable assistance extended to him
to his satisfaction in the matter; provided that the pro-
visions of this section shall not apply to any consignment
or part thereof, sold at retail or in less quantity than
original packages. This Act shall not apply to produce
consigned to retail merchants.
Sec. 2. Any person, firm or corporation violating any
of the provisions of this Act, shall be guilty of a' misde-c
meanor and upon conviction shall be punished by a fine
not exceeding five hundred ($500.00) dollars, or sentenced
to the county jail for a period of not longer than six
months, or by both such fine zand imprisonment in' the
discretion of the Court; provided nothing in this Act shall
apply to lumber or naval stores..
Sec. 3. This Act shall take effect upon its passage and
approval by the Governor.
Approved May 18, 1915.



CHAPTER 7938-(No. 156).

AN ACT to Prevent the Introduction into and Dissemi-
nation Within the State of Florida of Contagious and
Infectious Diseases of Honey Bees; Providing for the










Eradication of Bee Diseases; Authorizing the State
Plant Board of Florida to Make Rules and Regula-
tions for .Sarrying out the Provisions of this Act; Pre-
scribing a Penalty for Violations, and Providing an
Appropriation for Carrying out the Purposes of this
Act.

Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:

Section 1. All honey bees shipped or moved into the
State of Florida shall be accompanied by a certificate of
inspection signed by the State Entomologist, State
Apiary Inspector or corresponding official of the State-
or Country from which such bees are shipped or moved.
Such certificate shall certify to the apparent freedom of
*the bees, and their combs and hives, from contagious and
infectious diseases and must be based upon an actual in-
spection of the bees themselves within a period of sixty
days preceding date of shipment; Provided, that when
honey bees are to be shipped into this State from other
States or Countries wherein no official Apiary Inspector
or State Entomologist is available, the State Plant Board
of Florida, through its chief executive officer, may issue
permit for such shipment upon presentation of suitable
evidence showing such bees to be free from disease; and
provided, further, that the provisions of this section shall
not apply to shipments of live bees in wire cages, when
without combs or honey.
Sec. 2. The State Plant Board of Florida, created by
Chapter 6885, Laws of Florida, shall have full and
plenary power to deal with American and European foul
'brood, Isle of Wight disease and all other contagious or
infectious diseases of honey bees which, in its opinion,
may be prevented, controlled or eradicated; and shall
have full power and is' hereby authorized to make, pro-
mulgate and enforce such rules, ordinances and regula-
tions and to do and perform such acts, through its agents
or otherwise, as in its judgment may be necessary to
control, eradicate or prevent the introduction, spread or
dissemination of any and all contagious diseases of honey
bees as far as may be possible, an dall such rules, ordi-
nances and regulations of said Plant Board shall have
the force and effect of law.
Sec. 3. The State Plant Board, its agents and em-
ployees, shall have authority to enter any depot, express










office, storeroom, warehouse or premises for the purpose
of inspecting any honey bees or beekeeping fixtures or
appliances therein or thought to be therein, for the pur-
pose of ascertaining whether said bees or fixtures are in-
fected with any contagious or infectious disease or which
they may have reason to believe have been or are being
transported in violation of any of the provisions of this
Act.
The said board through its agents or employees may
require the removal from this State of any honey bees or"
beekeeping fixtures which have been brought into the-
State in violation of the provisions of this Act, or if find-
ing any honey bees or fixtures infected with any con-
tabious or infectious disease or if finding that such bees.
or fixtures have been exposed to danger of infection by;
such disease, may require the destruction, treatment or
disinfection of such infected or exposed bees, hives, fix-
tures or appliances.
Sec. 4. The shipment or movement into this State of
any used or second-hand bee hives, honey combs, frames
or other beekeeping fixtures is hereby prohibited except
under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed
by the State Plant Board in accordance with Section 2
of this Act.
Sec. 5. Any person, firm or corporation violating any
of the provisions of this Act or of the rules and regula-
tions of the State Board adopted in accordance with the
provisions of this Act shall be deemed guilty of a misde-
meanor aid upon conviction shall be punished by a fine
of not more than five hundred dollars, or by imprison-
ident for not more than six months in the county jail.
Sec. 6. The sum heretofore appropriated at the pres-
ent session of the Legislature by An Act known as the
Citrus Canker Appropriation Act, and placed to the
credit of the State Plant Board Fund in the State Treas-
ury for the protection of the honey bee culture, to-wit:
the sum of Ten Thousand Dollars, or so much thereof as
may be necessary, shall be used and expended for the
purpose of enforcing and carrying out the provisions of
this Act, under the direction and control of thel State
Plant Board.
Sec. 7. All laws and parts of laws inconsistent with
the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed.








64

Sec. 7. All laws and parts of laws inconsistent with
the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed.
Sec. 8. This Act shall take effect upon its becoming
a law.
Approved June 9, 1919.


CHAPTER 6950.

AN ACT Regulating the Size and Construction of Boxes
for Field Purposes to be Used by Packers of Oranges,
Grape Fruit and Lemons in the Purchase of Said Fruit
from Growers, and Describing the Size and Construc-
tion Thereof, to be Known as the Standard Field Box,
and Providing Penalties Therefor.

Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:

Section 1. That all field boxesto be used in the sale of
Oranges, Grape fruit and Lemons by grower to Packer
or Buyer shall be of uniform size of twelve inches wide,
thirteen inches high and thirty-three inches long, and
shall contain a middle partition not less than three-
fourths of one inch thick.
Sec. 2. Any person, firm or corporation violating the
provisions of this Act shall be punished by a fine not ex-
ceeding one hundred dollars ($100.00), or imprisonment
not exceeding six months.
Sec. 3. That all laws and parts of laws inconsistent
with the provisions of this Act be and the same are hereby
repealed.
Sec. 4. This Act shall take eectff upon its passage and
approval by the Governor.
Approved June 3rd. 1915.























PART II.


Crop Conditions, Prospective Yields and Live Stock
Conditions.


5-B












DIVISIONS OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES.

Following are the subdivisions of the State, and the
counties contained in each:

Western Division.
Bay, Okaloosa,
Calhoun, Santa Rosa,
Escambia, Walton,
Holmes, Washington-9.
Jackson,
Northern Division.

Franklin, Leon,
Gadsden, Liberty,
Hamilton, Madison,
Jefferson, Taylor,
Lafayette, Wakulla-10.

Northeastern Division.

Alachua, Duval,
Baker, Nassau,
Bradford, Putnam,
Clay, St. Johns,
Columbia, Suwannee-10.
Central Division.


Brevard,
Citrus,
Flagler,
Hernando,
Hillsborough,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,


Orange,
Osceola,
Pasco,
Pinellas,
Polk,
Seminole,
Sumter,
Volusia-16.


Southern Division.


Broward,
Dade,
DeSoto,
Lee,
Manatee,


Monroe,
Okeechobee,
Palm Beach,
St. Lucie-9.


I .











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.


W. A. McRae, Commissioner. H. S. Elliot, Chief Clerk.


Condensed Notes of Correspondents-By Divisions.

Western Division.- General crop conditions in this
division are about the average. At the same time these
conditions indicate what is commonly known as spotted
conditions. For the first part of this quarter, including a
portion of May, the seasons were fairly favorable-pre-
cipitation and sunshine were very well balanced. These
conditions of course are admirable for bringing up the
crops into good stands if they could have been maintained,
but since that time precipitation has been largely exces-
sive in many localities. The hot, wet weather also in the
latter part of June was much against the growing corn,
which at this season of the year requires moderate moist-
ure. These conditions are what is termed spotted, and
the effect to a considerable extent has been exceedingly
unfavorable to general crop production, and especially to
corn and cotton. The above indicated conditions are
shown in the results of the tabulated portion of this divi-
sion. These conditions have not affected live stock as
badly as it has crops; therefore, pastures can be said to
be in the usual good condition. Cotton will be less than
a half crop, and corn much less than in 1918.
Northern Division.-Conditions obtaining in this divi-
sion do not differ essentially from those described in the
previous district, and what has been said in relation to
climatic conditions in the first district can be applied with
equal force to this division. The excess of precipitation
has probably cut the yield of the corn crop approximately
20% and of sweet potato crop about 25%, and has to a
great extent prevented development of the cotton plant.
The excessive moisture conditions that have obtained and
are continuing at this time are damaging to corn, cotton,
potatoes, and to pastures in particular. It has reduced
the yield of corn, peas and velvet beans from 40 to 60%.
Live stock is holding its own under the circumstances,
and, apparently, there will be plenty of pasture for the
fall and early winter.










Northeastern -Division.-In this division conditions are
no better than in the preceding ones. Precipitation has
been as great and quite as excessive as in the two former
districts. The cotton planted in this district is mostly
Sea Island, and the crop has suered from boll weevil as
well as rain; otherwise conditions in this district are quite
similar to those first discussed.
Central Division.-In this division crops were planted
to a considerable excess over 1918, and conditions are
probably no better; in fact, there has been little change
in climatic conditions in this district during the growing
season for some months. Good crops have been harvested
during the first part of the season, and in many instances
have been highly profitable, while many of them have
only come out about even. In this district climatic con-
ditions have been about the same as in the divisions first
named. Quite a number of new crops have been intro-
duced and have become standard crops practically in a
year. Had markets been good, growers in this district
would have been unusually prosperous. Live stock in
this district is in good condition.
Southern Division.-Climatic conditions in this district
have been somewhat better than for two or three years,
and the crops, which are principally fruits and vegetables,
have done well; production has been satisfactory. Under
these conditions citrus fruit trees have improved greatly,
and in spite of the cold of 1917 will yield satisfactory
crops. Live stock in this district is in good condition and
the industry is increasing rapidly. Few of the standard
crops are grown in this district, although a few of the
counties are experimenting with Sea Island cotton. The
counties in this, and the Central Division, growing Sea
Island cotton are suffering from the boll weevil. The
greatest drawback to successful farming in the East and
South at present appears to be the lack of transportation
formarketing the products of this portion of the State,
and not the ability of the country to produce them. Pro-
duction is not the problem; it is the lack of transporta-
tion facilities.
Summarizing the situation, indications are that few of
the crops in the State are up to normal. Corn and cotton,
cowpeas, velvet beans and sweet potatoes are likely to
be very short-cotton, in particular.










69


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD OF CROPS,
FRUIT AND FRUIT TREES FOR QUARTER ENDING JUNE 80th,
1919. ALSO CONDITION OF LIVE STOCK AS COMPARED WITH
SAME PERIOD FOR 1918.

Upland Sea Island Kafir
COUNTY Cotton Cotton Corn Corn

Western Division. Condition Condition ICondition Conditio
a .................. 90 ... 110.
Calhoun ............... 50 50 150
Escambia .............. 55 ... 75 ...
Holmes ............... 100 ... 120..
Jackson ............... 40 65 ...
Santa Rosa ........... 70 70 80 ...
Watton ............... 550 ... 75
Washington ........... 60 ... 85 ..
DTv. Av npr cent ...... 64 1 60 95


Nortern Division.
Gadsden ............ ..... 80
Hamilton .............. 75 70 100
Jefferson .............. 60 75 90
Lafayette .............. .. 50 100
Leon ............... .. 70 ... 100
Madison ............... 90 75 100
Taylor ................ 75 100
Wakulla .............. 50 | 50 100
Div. Av. per cent....... 69 I 66 96
Northeastern Division.


Alachua ............... .
Baker ................. i 75 75 110
Bradford ........... 50 80
Clay ..... .X......... ... 100
Columbia .............. 90 90 110 100
Duval ................. ... ... 75
Nassau ................ 70
St. Johns ............. ... 70
Div. Av. per cent....... 72 I 72 0 100
Central Division.
Brevard ............... .... ...
Citrus ................ . 105
Flagler ................ 100 .. 100
Hernando . ......... .. 110
Hillsborough ........... 10 125
Lake .................. 80 80 95 80
Levy .................. 80 50 75
Marion ............... .. 90 80
Orange ................. ... ... 125
Osceola .............. 80 i00
Pasco ................. 90 1 i00 120 100
Pinellaas .............. ... ... 100
Volusia ...............I ...... 70 .
I-- I
Dlv. Av. per cent........ . 88 I 60 100 90
Southern Division.
Broward ............... 120 120
Dade ............... .100
DeSoto ................ ... .. 100
Lee ............. .. . .85 80
Okeechobee ............ 200
Palm Beach ............ 95 ...
St. Lucie .............. ... ... 95 .
Dlv. Aver. per centt.... ... 113 100
State Aver. per cent..... 73 65 99 97











70

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD--Continued.


arCOUNTY Potoe Dasheens
COUNTY cane Potatoes

Western Division. Condition OonditionI Oondition Condition
Bay ............... .. 100 100 110 .
Calhotui ............... 1 00
Escambia .............. 90 75 100 50
Holmes ............... 100 100 105 ...
Jackson ................ 40 60
Santa Rosa.............. 100 ... 90
Watton ............... 100 50 100
Washington ............. 100 50 105 ...
Div. Av. ppr cent........ 98 69 98 50
Northern Division.
Gadsden ............... 100 9 55
Hamilton .............. 90 75 75
Jefferson .............. 80 ..
Lafayaette ............ 100 50 75
Leon .................. 100 75 90
Madison ............... 100 ... 100
Taylor ................ 90 ... 100
Wakulla ............... 100 ... 100
Div. Av. per cent........ 94 67 90 .
Northeast n Division.
Alachua ............... 95 ... 100
Baker ................. 90 100 120
Bradford ............. 90 ... 100
Clay .................. 100 100 100 100
Columbia .............. 100 110 120
Columbia .............. 100 110 120 100
Duval ............... 85 100 100 .
Nassau ................ 90 90 100 100
St. Johns .............. 110 ... 110 110
Div. Av. per cent........ 95 100 94 110
Central Division.
Brevard ............... 65 ... 70 90
Citrus ................ 85 . 80
Flagler ................ 110 100 80 .
Hernando .............. 90 ... 110
Hillsborough ........... 150 ... 125
Lake .................. 95 80 95 85
Levy .................. 100 40 80
Marion ................ 75 50 125
Orange ................ 95 ... 100
Osceola ............... 100 110 130 100
Pasco ................. 120 ... 110 .
Pinellas ................ ... ... 100
Volusia ................ 90 ... .90
Dir. Av. per cent........ .. 98 76 100 91
Southern Division.
Broward ............... 150 ... 110 ...
Dade ................. .. 100 ..
DeSoto ................ 100 95 100 100
Lee ................. 90 85 80 ...
Okeechobee ........... 125 100 125
Palm Beach ...... ..... 95 ... 80 90
SSt. Lucie ................ 90 ... 100 95
Div. Av. per cent........ 108 93 99, 95
State Av. per cent....... 99 81 96 87









71

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Field Bgg On4ons Cassava
Peas Plants _
Western Division. Condition Oonadton Coondition o o
a .........: ........ 110 .
Cahoun .............. ... 100
Escambia ............. 75 50 100 50
Holmes ................ 110 .........
Jackson ................. 40 ... **
Santa Rosa ............ 90 70
Watton ............... 50 ... 100
Washington ............ 75 ... ...
Div. Av. per cent ...... 79 60 100 50
Northern Dwision.
Oadsden ............. --- 5
Hamilton ".......... 70 100
Jefferson .............. 35
Lafayette ..... ..... 110
Leon ........ 975
Madison .......... 100 90 10500
Taylor ............ 100 .
W akulla .............. 100 ...
1--
Dtv. Av. per cent ....... 81 1 90 102 100
Northeastern Dvitsion.
Alachua ............... 100 90
Baker ................ 100 ....
Bradford .............. 90
Clay ..................: : 100 16 1 100
Columbia .............. 100
Dural ................ 100 80 100
Nassau ................ 100 .
St. Johns .............. 1100 00 ... 100
Div. A. per cent........ 99 93 100 100
Ueatral Division.
Brevard ...............I
Citrus ....... ...... 75 ... 95
Flagler ............... 90 ...
Hernando ............. 85
Hillsborough ........... 120 75 ... .
Lake ...............80
Levy ........... ....... 80 65 40
Marion ....... ........ 75 20 30
Orange................
sceola .............:.. oo '5 10i
Pasco ................ 100 ...
Pinelias ............... 100 100 100 100
Volusia ............... 80 80
Div. Av. per cent....... 91 65 78 80
Southern Division.
Broward .............. 110
Dade ................. 100
DeSoto ................ 100 7 100 100
Lee .................. 100 70 80 85
Okeechobee ............ 100 100
Palm Beach ............ ... 70 65
St. Lucle ............. 90 75 ......
Div. Av. per cent....... 100 77 .82 92
State Av. per cent....... 90 77 92 84











72

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Tobacco Peanuts Cow Peas Pastures

Western Division. Condition Condition Condition Condition
Bay ........... ..... 110 100 100
Calhoun ............ 110 100 100
Escambia ............ 80 85 75 100
Holmes ............... 125 ... 100
Jackson ............... 30
Santa Rosa ............ 100 90 90 90
Watton ................ ... 100 50 100
Washington ...........I ... 100 75 90

Div. Av. per cent........ I 90 93 82 97
Northern Division.
Gadsden ...............1 100 80 65 100
Hamilton ............... 60 90 100 100
Jefferson ..............I ... 65 40 85
Lafayette .............. ... 100 100 75
Leon .................. 100 100 100 90
Madison ................ 110 110 90 125
Taylor ...... ....... ... ... 100 100 90
Wakulla ............... 100 100 90
Div. Av. per cent...... 93 I 93 87 94
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... 1 70 100 100
Baker ............... 100 100 100 100
Bradford .............. ... 95 90 100
Clay .................. 110 110 125
Columbia ......-....... .) 110 110 125
Duval .............. ... 100 85 100
Nassau ................ . 100 100 90
St. Johns .............. ... 100 100 110
Div. Av. per cent........ 100 97 94 103
Central Division.


Brevard .......... ....
Citrus ................
Flagler ................
Hernando ........
Hillsborough ...........
Lake ..............
Levy ..................
M arion ................
Orange ................
Osceola ................
Pasco ............
Pinellas ...............
Valusia ...............
Div. Av. ner cent........


105

125 125
95
90
100 80
S 100
100 120
130 100

90


113 102 9a


lOO
100
90
80
120
90


100
120

90


100
110
150
90
85
60
90
100
110
110
100
100
99


Broward ............... ... 125 100
Dade .................100 105
DeSoto .............. ... 95 100 90
Lee .................... .. 98 95 100
Okeechobee ............ ... 200 100 125
Palm Beach ............... ... 85 85 80
St. Lucie ................. 90 80 100
Div. Av. per cent....... ... 116 93 100
State Av. per cent....... 99 100 90 99


A. ne et....


,


o ern Dilmio











73

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Hay Velvet I Soy Alfalfa
COUNTY Grasses Beans Beans Alfalfa

Western Division. I onditwon Condition I Condition Condition
Bay .................. 100 110 ..
Calhoun ................ 100 100
Escambia .............. 75 90 95
Holmes ................ 100 105 ..
Jackson ...............I ... 60
Santa Rosa ............ 85 100
Watton ............... 75 100 50
Washington ............ 80 100
Div. Av. per cent........ 88 I 97 73
Northern Division.
Gadsden .... .......... .. 90 I 50
Hamilton ........ .... 60 90 ...
Jefferson .............. 80 75
Lafayette .............. ... 100
Leon .................. 80 100
Madison ............... 95 95 100
Taylor ................. 80 95
Wakulla ............... 75 95 & ...
Div. Av. per cent....... I 80 88 100
Northeastern Division. L L L L
Alachua ............... 90 100
Baker ................. 80 80
Bradford .............. 90 95
Clay .................. 100 90 100
Columbia .............. 125 125
Duval ............. I ... 85
Nassau ................I 65 I 90
St. Johns .......... I ... | 100
I-- I
Div. Av. per cent........ 92 96 100
Central Division.
Brevard ...............I ... I 90
Citrus ................ 100 100
Flagler ................ 110 100
Hernando ............. ... 110 120
Hillsborough ........... ... 90 75
Lake .................. 80 80
Leon .................. 100 60
Marion ................ 75 100 90
Orange ................ ... 100
Osceola ............... 140 I
Pasco ................ 100 110
Pinellas ............... 100 I 100
Volusia ................ 100 90
Div. Av. per cent.......1 101 93 94
Southern Division.
Broward .............. 100 100 ... 10
Dade .............. 100
DeSoto ................ 100 100
Lee ................... 85 60
Okeechobee ............ 100 100 125 .
Palm Beach ........... ..... ... 85
St. Luce ............... 100 90 .
Div. Av. per cent....... 97 92 125 85
State Av. per cent .. 92 98 8
State Av. per cent.......I 92 93 98 85









74


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Miloe Guavas Avocados Pears

SPr'sp'tve |Pr'ip'ive
Western Division. Condition Condition Yield Condition Yield
Div. Av. per cent1.... 100 100 100 100 100
Bay ................ .. .
Calhoun ............. .... ... .. .
Escambia ............ ...... .
Holmes .............. ..
Jackson .............
Santa Rosa ............. ..
Watton ........... ..
Washington .......... ...
[- --
Dlv. Av. per cent...... .. ... ... ... .
Northern Division.
Gadsden .. .......... ... ..
HamIlton ...........
Jefferson ... ...... . .. . .. .. .
Jefferson ............ ... ... ... ... .
Lafayette ............ .
Leon ................. ...
M adison ............ .. .. ..
Taylor ............ .
Wakulla .......... ... .
*- I -- --
Div. Av. per cent .. ... ...
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............. .. .. ...
Baker ............... ......
Bradford ............ ..... ..
Bradford ............. .. ...
Clay ............... ... ... .. .
Columbia ............. .. ..
Duval ............... ... . ... .. .
Nassau .............. ... . ... .
St. Johns ............ | ... ... 100 100
Div. Av. per cent ..... ... I ... I 100 100
Central Division.
Brevard ................ .....7
Citrus ............... .
Flagler ..............
Hernando ............I
Hillsborough ......... 100 200 100 150
L ake ................I ...
Levy ........
Marion ............. .: 60
Orange ..............| 50 85
Osceola ..............I 100 90 70 130 100
Pasco ............. ... 75 20
Pinellas ............. ... I 150 150
Volusia .............. .. 100 I 70 70
Div. Av. per cent...... 87 87 1 96 115 125
Southern Division.
Broward ............ 100 90 85 100 50
Dade ............. I ... 100 90 100 95
DeSoto .............. ... 100 100 90 90
Lee ............. .... 100 100 100 80 10
Okeechobee .... . . ... 100 150
Palm Beach .......... I ... I 90 80 80 70
St. Lucie ......... ... I 100 100
Div. Av. per cent...... .100 I 97 101 90 63
State Av. per cent..... 93 | 92 98 101 96















75

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Basana Moae oe

Western Division. | Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
I | Yield Yield
B ay .................. ...
Calhoun ............... ... ...
Escambia .............. . .....
Holmes ............... .. ....
Jackson ............... ..... ...
Santa Rosa ............ .....
W atton ................
Washington ............ ... ...
Div. Av. per cent........
Vortlhern Division.
Gadsden ..............
Hamilton ..............
Jefferson ..............
Lafayette ..............
Leon .................. .....
Madison .............. ...
Taylor ................ ... ...

Div. Av. per cent....... . .
Northeastern Diviston.
Aluacha ............... .
Baker ...............
Bradford .............. ..
Clay .................. ....... .
Columbia ..............
Duval ............... ....
Nassau ............... ...
St. Johns .............. ..

Div. Av. per cent....... ..
Central Division.
Brevard .............. .........
Citrus ................ ... 1
Flagler .... ......... ... 1
Hernando ..............
Hillsborough .......... 1100 00 100 125
Lake .................. .
Levy .................. ...
Marion ................ ....
Orange ..................
Osceola ............. 140 130 80 80
Pasco ................. ......
Pinellas ............... .....
Volusia ............... ...

Div. Av. per cent....... 120 I 115 90 102
outhern Division.
Broward............... 70 75 7 60
Dade ................. 100 95 90 20
DeSoto ...... ......... . 90 90
Lee .................. 85 75 40 40
Okeechobee .. . ....... .
Palm Beach ... ...... 95 85 85 50
St. Lucie ........... ..
Div. Av. per cent. ...... 87 82 76 64
State Av. per cent...... 103 98 83 83


rT~ -1-1-- ---- r


LLU'L-.. r I


. I- -











76

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Orange Trees Lemon Trees

Western Division. Condition Prospective condition Prospective
Yield Yield
Bay ................... 100 100 100 100
Calhoun .............. 00 100
Escambia ............. ..
Holmes ..............
Jackson ............... 80 40
Santa Rosa ........... ... .
W atton ................ .
Washington ............. ... ___
Div. Av. per cent....... 93 80 100 100
Northern Division.
Gadsden ..............7 7 7 I
Hamilton ............
Jefferson .............
Lafayette .............
Leon ................. ..
Madison .............. ... ..
Taylor ................ .
Wakulla .............. ..
Div. v. per cent.........
Northeastern Division.
Alachua .................100 0
Baker .................. 100 100
Bradford .............. ...
Clay ............. . ...
Columbbiab bbb......... ..
Duval .... ........ 100 100
Nassau .............. .
St. Johns ............. . 100 100
Div. Av. per cent...t.... 100 o100.
Central Division.
Brevard .............. 75 80 3 80
Citrus ............... 100 75
Flagler ................ 100 I 120
Hernando ............. 120 125 .
Hillsborough......... 100 150
Lake ................ 90 85 65 85
Levy ....... ....... 50 30
Marion ......... 50 50
Orange .............. 100 80
Osceola 110 110 110 110
Pasco ............ : .... 100 110
Pinellas ............... 100 125
Volusia ............. 80 80
Div. Av. per cent.......j 89 91 90 91
outhern D1vision.
Broward ............. 1 85 50
Dade ........... 100 100 100 100
DeSoto ............... 90 75 90 75
Lee ................... 100 90 80 45
Okeechobee ............ 100 125 100 125
Palm Beach ........... 90 90g
St. Lucie ............ 90 75
Div. Av. per cent ....... 97 91 90 79
State Av. per c6nt...... 99 90 93 90














77

REPORT. OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY LAme Trees Grapefruit Trees

Western Division condition Prospective Condition Prospective
I Yield. Yield
Calhoun .. .....100 100
Escambia ..............
Holmes .............
Jackson ............
Santa Rosa . ......... 90 69
W atton ................
.Washington ...........
Div. Av. per cent....... ... I ... 95 95
Northern Division..
Gadsden .............. ... ...
Hamilton.............
Jefferson .............. ....
Lafayett ..............
Leon .................. ..
Madison .......... .. ...
Taylor ................ ........
Wakulla .............
Div. Av. per cent....... ... _
Northeastern Division.

Baker ............. ..
Bradford ..............
Clay .......................
Columbia .................... ..
Duval ............... ... ... ..
Nassau .............. .
St. Johns .................. 100 100
Div. Av. per cent............ .. 95 100
Central Division.
Brevard .............. ... ... 75 75
Citrus ................ ... ... 100 50
Flagler ............... ......
Hernando ............. ... ... 100 0
Hillsborough .... .. 150 150
Lake ......... ........ 85 100 85
Levy ............... . .. ... ...
M arion ............... . ... 50
Orange 5o. 10 "1
Oscealo ............... i60 100 120 100
Pasco .................I 100 100
Pinellas ................ 100 100 150 125
Volusia ...............I ... ... 80 80
Div. Av. per cent........ 97 96 103 90
Southern Division.
roward............ 95 100
Dade ................. 100 110 .
DeSoto ................ . ... 95 80
Lee ................... 80 75 100 80
Okeechobee ............ 100 125 100 125
Palm Beach ........... 90 85 95 90
St. Lucie .............. .. ... 90 75
Div. Av. per cent....... 89' 96 96 92
State Av. per cent ...... 93 96 97 94


'











78


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Japan Persimmon Plum

Western Di vison Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
Yield Yield
Bay .................. 100 100 100 100
Cahoun .... ....... ..
Escambia ............. ... 50 50
Holmes ...............
Jackson ...............
Santa Rosa ............ 85 90
W atton ............... ...
Washington ............ .. ...
Div. Av. per cent..... 92 95 83 86
Northern Division.
Gadsden .............. ...
Hamilton ...........
Jefferson ..........10 10
Lafayette .......... 90 90
Leon ................. 100 80
Madison ......... ... ... ... 90
Taylor ................ ..
Waqulla ................ .
Div. Av. per cent....... .. 100 80 90 95
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... I oo... o i
Baker ................ 100 100 100 100
Bradford ................. ...
Clay ................. . ...
Columbia ..............
Duval ............... i 8 8
Nassau ..................
St. Johns ................ 90 85
Div. Av. per cent....... I 100 100 90 85
Central Division.
Brevard .............. .... [
Citrus ................
Flagler ................ ..
Hernando ............. ... 50 50
Hillsborough, .... :: 9 0 125
Lake .........90 80 75
Levy ........ .... ... .. 90 75
Marion ................
Orange ............... 100 50 ...
Osceola ............... 100 100 120 120
Pasco ..... .... .. ... 75 50
Pinellas................
Volusia .:..............: 90 90 -6 i
Div. Av. per cent ........ 95 80 85 72
Southern Diviston.
Broward .............. **. *..**
Dade ................ .
DeSoto ................
Lee .......... ........ *** **
Okeechobee ............ .. ... .
Palm Beach ........... ... 8
St. Lucie .............. 90 80
Div. Av. per cent. ...... 90 80
State Av. per cent....... 95 87 87 84













79

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Pears Peaches

Western Diviion. Condition IProspective Condition Prospective
Y_ ield [ Yield
Bay ............... .. 40 100 100 125
Calhoun ................I 100 100
Escamba ............... 50 50 100 100
Holmes ............... ... ... 100 125
Jackson .............
Santa Rosa ............ 80 90 0 100
Watton .............. 50 50
Washington ............ 50 50 50 60
Dir. A. per cent....... 54 I 68 90 98
Northern Divito_.____
Gadsden ............... .
Hamilton .............. ... ... 100 100
Jefferson .............. 20 20 75 75
Lafayette .............. .. ... 75 75
Leon .................. 12 05 75 20
Taylor .................. ..... [ i
Wakulla .................. ... ... .80 90
Div. Av. per cent....... 27 31 80 77
Northeastern Division. '
Alahua ................ 75 I 50 100 75
Baker ............. .... ... ... 100 100
Bradford ................ ..
Clay ..................
Columbia ............. .. ... 100 100
Duval ................. ... 100 100
St. Johns ................. 60 7100 75
Div. AT. per cent....... 67 63 100 90
Central Division.


Brevard ...............
Citrus ............... ..
Flagler ................
Hernando ............. 20
Hillsborough ..........
Lake .. ....... .... . 70
Levy .................. 60
Marion ............... 75
Orange ................ 100
Osceola ............... 100
Pasco ................. 50
Pinellas .............. .
Volusia ................ 50
Div. Ay. per cent....... 66


.'. 95 65
25 75 75
100 200
70 90 80
50 80 50
75 75 60
50 100 80
90 130 150
20 75 50
100 100
10 80 60
49 91 .88


Southern Division.
Broward ............... ... I.....
Dade ..................
DeSoto ................ ... I 10 100
Lee ................ .. ... ......
Okeechobee ............
Palm Beach........... ..
St. Lucie .............. ..


Div. Av. per cent ....... ... ... 100 100
State Av. per cent...... .. 54 53 92 92


,











80


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Watermelons Cantaloupes

Western Division Condition IProspective Condition Prospective
I Yield Yield
Bay. .................. 90 90 90 90
Calhoun ............ 100 100 100 100
Escambia ............. 100 100 100 100
Holines ............... 90 95
Santa Rosa ............. 90 100 85 90
Watton ................ 50 50 50 50
Washington ........... 75 80 75 70
I- -____-I----
Div. Av. per cent....... 82 I 82 83 83
Northern Division.
Hamilton ............. 80 90 75 80
Jefferson .............. 75 75
Lafayette ............. 50 50
Leon ............ 75 75 50 50
Madison .............. 75 I 75 80 100
Taylor .............. 75 80 .
S W akulla ............... 80 I 85 ...
1----- |-- I----
Di. Av. per cent......... 73 76 68 1 77
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... 85 100 00 80
Baker ................ 70 75
Bradford . ......... ......... ...
Clay .................
Columbia............... 100 110 100 110
Duval .......... ...... 85 85 85 85
Nassau ............... 90 95
St. Johns .............. 30 30 50 30
Div. Av. per cent...... 80 1 83 84 76
Central Division.
Brevard ............... 50 60
Citrus ................ s4 80 40
Flagler .. .......... ...
Hernando .......... 100 40
Hillsborough ........... 90 75 75 100
Lake .................. 75 80 ..
Levy .................. I 90 60
Marion ............... 60 60 80 75
Orange ................. 100 125
Osceola .... .......... 125 110 50 50
Pasco ............... 75 75 50 50
Pinellas .............. 100 100
Volnsta ............... 70 50 70 40
Div. Av. per cent....... 93 103 65 63
Soutaher Division. 5
Broward .............. 50 I 20
Dade ... ...
Dade .............. ... .8. .5.
DeSoto ................ 85 7520
Lee .................. 40 20
Okeechobee ............ 75 80
Palm Beach ............ 85 75
St. Lucle .............. 100 100
Dlv. Av. per cent.... I 73 62 ... ...
State Av. per cent...... 80 81 75 75











81

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Pineapples Grapes

Western Division condition Propetive condition Prospectiv

Bay .... ............. ... o110-
Caho ............ ... ... 90 90
Escambia ... 50 75
Holmes ............... ... ... 100 105
Jackson ............... ..
Santa Rosa ............ .. ... 85 90
Watton ............... ....
Washington ........... ...
Div. A. per cent......... ... ... 8 92
Northern D avesion.
Gadsden .............. ...
Hamilton ............... ... .
Jefferson ... .
Lafayette ..100 10
Leon . 90 80
M adison ............... ... I .....
Taylor ........... .... ...
W akulla .............. .. I
Div. A. per cent....... ... .. 95 90
Northeastern D0i00on. s
Alachua .............. ... ... 100 100
*Baker ................. .. ...... 100 100
Bradford ......... ....
Clay ..................
Columbia .............. .. ... 100 100
Duval ................. ... ... 100 100
Nassau ................
St. Johns ............. ... ... 100 100
Div. Av. er cent ........ ... ... 100 100
Cental Division.
Brevard ...............
Citrus ................ ... ... 90
Flagler ............. .. .......
Hernando ............. ....
Hillsborough. ............ ... ... 100 100
Lake ...... ..... ... 80 100

Orange ............... ... ... 1660 2
Osceola .....40 70 100 90
Pasco .......... ....... ... I
Pinellas ...............
Volusia ................ .. .. 100 100
Dir. Av. per cent........ .. 40 o70 94 109
outhera Div4sion.
Broward ............... 50 20 100 50
Dade ................. 100 80 ..
DeSoto ................ 100 100 ...
Lee ........ ...........
Okeechobee ............ 100 100 ..
Palm Beach ............ 90 95 100 100
St. Lucie ................. 75 80 95 100
Div. Av. per cent........ 86 79 1 97 75
State Av. Der cnt....... 1 68 74 94 93


6-B











82:


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

Horses
COUNTY and Cattle Hogs Sheep
Mules
Western Division. I Condition I condition Condition Condition
Bay .................. 100 0 0
Calhoun ............... 100 50 75
Escambla .............. 80 75 60 60
Holmes ............... 120 125 110 85
Jackson ............... 40 80 40 60
Santa Rosa ............ 100 100 100 105
Watton ............... 100 100 50 75
Washington ........... 100 100 75 75
Div. Av. er cent....... 93 96 72 79
Northern, Divtison,
Gadsden .............. 85 100 75 j6
Hamilton ............. 100 100 100 100
Jefferson .............. 50 75 40
Lafayette ............. 90 100 100
Leon ................. 100 100 100 100
Madison ............... 105 115 125
Taylor ................ 100 100 90
Wakulla .............. 90 95 85
Div. Av. per cent....... 90 I 98 89 100
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ................. 100 100 100 100
Baker ............... 80 70 90 100
Bradford .............. 100 100 100
Clay .................. 100 110 100
Columbia .............. 100 100 100 100
Duval ................. 100 100 100 100
Nassau ............... 90 90 95 95
St. Johns ............. 100 100 90 100
Div. Av. per cent....... I 96 98 98 98
Central Division.
Bfevard ................ 80 90.
Citrus ......... 50 75 50 50
Flagler ................ 100 115 115 105
Hernando ............... 110 10 100
Hillsborough .......... 125 150 200 100
Lake .................. 90 90 75
Levy ... .... 60 50 60 80
Marion ... .... 75 80 80 50
Orange ................ 100 100 100
Osceola ............... 100 110 100 110
Pasco ....... ... 100 120 150
Pinellas ............... 100 100 100
Volusia ............... 100 85 90 90
Div. Av. per cent........ 92 97 102 83
Southern Division.
Broward ................. ... 0 57 90
Dade ................. 100 110 105 ...
Lee .................. .95 95 100
Okechobee ............ 100 100 110
Palm Beach ........... 100 100 98
St. Lucie ........... .. 90 80 85
Div. Av. per cent ........ 96 96 98 96
State Av. per cent... ;.. 93 97 92 91












83


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Tobacco Honey Wool

Western Division. Pounds I Pounds Pounds
Bay ...................... ........ 2000
Calhoun ................ ........ 82,000 6,500
Escambia .................. 5,000 12,000 7,000
Holmes .................... ........... ..... ......
Jackson .................... ........ 2,000 10,000
Santa Ros ................ 0,000 3,000 200,000
Watton .................... ................ ........
W ashington ................. ........ ........ ........
Division Avrage per cent.... 55,000 101,000 229.500
Northern Dvsion.
Gadsden ................... ........
H am ilton .................. ........ ........ .......
Jefferson .................. ...... ..... .. ........
Lafayette .................. ........ .... .... .... ...... ..
Lea ayon ............. .......
Madison ................... 200,000 .. ..
Taylor ... .... ........... ...... .. ....I
W akulla ..... .............. ........ .. ......
Division Averag per cent...... 200,000 .. ........
Northeastern Division.
Alachua .................... ........ .... ...
Baker ..................... 100,000 ........ 5,000
Bradford .................. ........ .....
Clay .......... ........ .. 2,000
Columbia .................I ....I .. .. .. .....
Duval .................. ........ 5,000
Nassau ..................... ... .. .......
St. Johns .................. ...... ........
Division Average per cent..... 100,000 I 5.000 7.000
Central Division.
Brevard ................... ...... 4,000 ..
Citrus ....... .. ....... ........ ........
Flagler .................... ........ ........ 20,000
Hernando .............. ..... ........ ...... .. .800
Hillsborough ............... 2,500 44,000 3,000
Lake ................. .... ........ 2,500
Levy ................ .. .........
Marion ..... .
Orange ............... . .... . 0,000 .
Osceola .............. 4,000 10,000
Pasco ..................... 1,200. .
Pinellas .................... ...... 10,000
Volusia .............. . 100,000 10,000
I ---- -- ---
Division Average per cent. .... 3,700 1 197,000 I 43.800
Southern Division.
Brow ard ................... ........ ........ I ......
Dade .................... ... ...
DeSoto ..............1,500
Lee ....................... .... 40,000
Okeechobee ........... 000
Palm Beach ............... ........ 30,000
St. Lucie ................... .I .
Division Average per cent..... I ........ 74,500 .......
State Average per cent....... I 358.700 372.500 280,300


















PART III.


Drainage vs. Drying.
The Potash Situation:
Proposed Protective Tariff on Domestic Potash Det-
rimental to American Farmers' Interest.
Potash From Wood Ashes Costly, and Not Economical.
Fertilizers' Proposed 30% Reduction.
Worthless Hog Cholera Cures.
New York and Florida Quotations.
Fertilizers, Stock Feed, Foods and Drugs.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist.
July, 1919.











DRAINAGE vs. DRYING OF PRODUCTIVE SOILS.
DRAINAGE, OR CIRCULATION OF WATER AND AIR,
NECESSARY IN ALL PRODUCTIVE SOILS.

Tallahassee, Florida, July, 1919.

In reply to numerous inquiries as to the probable suc-
cess of profitable agriculture on imperfectly drained saW-
grass muck land:
In my opinion, judging from experience and observa-
tion of attempts made to grow sugar cane or other crops
on imperfectly drained muck or swamp land, the proba-
bilities are that failure will occur.
However, the same lands, when "properly drained (not
simply dried by evaporation), saw-grass, or other muck
soil, will produce maximum crops of cane, corn, oats, rice,
potatoes, vegetables or fruits. Improperly drained, such
land will not produce profitable crops of any kind, except
grasses, and will by no means produce as profitable crops
of grass as they would if properly drained.
That more perfect drainage is necessary to make pro-
ductive the Everglade muck soils, now producing only
saw grass or other aquatic growth, is evidenced by the
superior size and luxuriance of the various non-aquatic
weeds-careless weed, fennel, poke weed, etc.-on the
spoil banks of the canals, and various lateral canals or
ditches; and the very inferior growth, or entire absence
of such non-aquatic weeds, on the lands away from these
spoil banks.
The mere presence of live saw-grass is an indication of
imperfect drainage, though the surface may be dry from
evaporation. Where saw-grass or any other class of muck
soil is perfectly drained, immediately saw-grass or other
aquatic growth disappears and is replaced by non-aquatic
plants-careless weed, poke, fennel, wild millet, etc.-
which are in a very few years replaced by elder, maple,









custard apple, gum, willow, etc. In fact, a tract of muck
soil, from which the surface water only has been removed,
and the soil to an extent has become dry from evapora-
tion, that still has a growth of saw-grass upon it, has not
been drained and is unfit for cultivated crops of any kind,
except rice, which, however, will produce much larger
crops when properly drained.
.Any muck soil, properly supplied with the necessary
lateral and sub-lateral canals and field ditches, will be-
come, as soon as drainage and circulation of water and
air in the soil is properly established, exceedingly pro-
ductive of any kind of crop suitable to the climate; pro-
vided always, that the State canals, into which the lateral
canal empty, are deep enough below the surface of the
soil to afford drainage, thus causing circulation of water
and air through the soil and permitting the growth of
bacteria necessary to all productive soils.
At the present time, excepting a comparatively narrow
belt immediately surrounding Lake Okeechobee, which
has been subject to drainage and the circulation of water
and air at divers times, since the first State canals were
cut in 1881-2, there is comparatively but little drained
land, except the spoil banks of the State canals, though
there are large areas of dried land.
There is practically no chemical difference between the
elder and custard apple soils, surrounding the lake, and
the saw-grass muck soils farther remote from the lake.
There is, however, a vast biological or physical difference.
The saw-grass muck, for lack of drainage, circulation of
water and removal of acids, and consequent lack of air in
the soil, has not been oxidized or "rotted"; no bacterial
action has occurred, hence the soil is not fitted for culti-
vated plants for lack of the necessary bacteria. Until
these lands are dra'med to a depth occupied by the roots
of cultivated crops, they will not be productive.
Such drainage can only be effected by lateral and sub-
lateral canals and field ditches of sufficient width and










depth to accommodate the rainfall, in order that the rain
may fall upon, pass down and through the soil, into the
drainage ditches and canals, washing out the acids and
circulating water and air throughout the soil, a condition
necessary in all productive soil, be it muck soil or any
other class of soil.
The water surface of the State, or District, main or
lateral canals should at all times (excepting in cases of
excessive rainfall) be sufficiently below the surface of
the soil to afford drainage-circulation of water and air-
throughout the territory, three to six feet below the sur-
face of the soil, altitude above tide-water considered. In
other words, the main State canals and laterals should
have a depth of not less than ten feet below the general
surface of the soil, with a gradual slope on the bottom
similar to the surface slope of the land, and of sufficient
width to remove the surface water promptly and afford
adequate drainage to the soil waters, and should be free
at all times of all dams, locks and other obstructions to
free drainage.
Properly drained muck soil, saw-grass or any other
muck soil will produce abundant crops of any kind, suit-
able to the climate, particularly sugar cane, rice, corn,
potatoes, oats, vegetables and tobacco, to say nothing of
grasses, both pasture and meadow; improperly drained
muck (or any other soil) will not produce maximum crops.
Owing to the practically level surface of the 'Glades,
and consequent slow movement of water, it is necessary
that the State canals be sufficiently broad and deep to at
all times afford a slope or fall into them from the laterals,
sub-laterals and field ditches, to drain the fields to not less
than three feet to the permanent water table.
Lateral canals, draining into the State canals, should
.not be to exceed two miles apart; sub-lateral canals not
to exceed one-quarter mile apart, leading into the later-
als; field ditches not to exceed 105 feet (z acre) apart,
and not to exceed one-quarter mile long. All these drains










should have sufficient slope to permit the entire territory
to be drained to at least three feet below the surface of
the soil, in ordinary seasons, thus circulating water and
air, washing out acids from the zone occupied by the roots
of healthy plants and the innumerable bacteria necessary
in all productive soils.
It is as necessary for water and air to circulate or drain
throughout productive soil as for the blood of man or
other animal to circulate (drain) throughout the body,
and for the same purpose, that is, to convey the properly
prepared food to the organs of absorption, which cannot
occur when the soil or the body is filled with stagnant,
non-circulating water or blood.
There are numerous tracts of imperfectly drained muck
soils in Florida; some of large size, on which immense
sums have been spent, that are, on account of dams, spill-
ways and other obstructions to drainage and lack of suf-
licient laterals and field ditches to drain the fields, unpro-
ductive and disappointing, which, if the canals were deep-
ened, all obstructions to drainage removed, and proper
field ditches, with free exit to the soil waters and conse-
quent removal of acids, and circulation of air, would at
once become exceedingly productive.
I send you herewith a pamphlet, "Perfect Drainage of
Farm Lands Necessary for Successful Farming." The
principles therein stated are by no means new and are
the conclusions of eminent practical and scientific agri-'
cultural authorities; while my conclusions are drawn from
a long experience in drainage and cultivating swamp
,lands. The principles underlying are fundamental and
are taught by all agricultural scientists, such as L. H.
Bailey, in his "Principles of Agriculture,". and his more
extensive work, the "Cyclopedia of American Agricul-
ture."
Numerous bulletins of the United States Department of
Agriculture treat of this subject exhaustively. One of the
most recent is "The Wet Lands of Southern Louisiana and









Their Drainage," Bulletin No. 652 of the United States
Department of Agriculture, which can be obtained from
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C., for 20 cents.
R. E. ROSE,
State Chemist.


Press Bulletin No. 116 April 17, 1909

FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
Gainesville, Florida.


THE AIR IN THE SOIL.

By B. F. Floyd.


Air for the Roots.

We may forget that roots breathe the same as do other
parts of the plant. They obtain oxygen from the air and
throw off carbon dioxide gas. The amount of air that
is available for the use of the roots depends principally
upon the condition of the soil. The spaces that occur be-
tween the soil particles are filled with air from which
the roots obtain their oxygen. These spaces vary with
the kind of soil and the treatment it has received. In clay
soils these spaces are very small; hence, under equal con-
ditions, the roots in clay soils are not likely to be as well
supplied with air as are those in sandy soils, where the
spaces are much larger.

Aeration by Plowing or Draining.

A most important result obtained from plowing or
draining is the admission of the air into the soil. Soil
that is water-logged has its air-spaces filled with water.
Nearly all of our farm crops, excepting rice, would die
in such a soil for lack of oxygen for the roots. As the










water is removed by drainage, air comes in to occupy the
spaces that were filled with water, and the soil is im-
proved. Water, passing through the soil after a rain or
after irrigation, tends to ventilate the soil by putting the
air in motion. This accounts for some of the advantages
obtained from rain and irrigation.
Clay soils should not be plowed while wet, as this
presses out the air and leaves the soil in a poorly aerated
condition. Cultivation when the soil is in the right condi-
tion breaks the cakes or clods and allows the air to enter
freely. Plowing at the same depth, year after year, pro-
duces a hard pan known as a plowsole. This interferes
with the free passage .of roots, moisture and air to the
subsoil. Varying the plowing depth each year will pre-
vent, this condition.
After rains or irrigation, soils are apt to have a crust
formed. This prevents the free passage of air into the
soil. We should, therefore, use a cultivator to break this
crust.
Excessive Aeration.

In sand soils, the spaces between the soil particles being
large, air enters freely under ordinary conditions, and
constant stirring of the soil may allow an excessive
amount of air to pass in.
The soil is inhabited by micro-organisms whose work
is to break down humus and other organic compounds.
The nitrogen of these substances is finally changed into
a nitrate, in which form it is available for the use of the
plant. If there is a lack of aeration, these organisms can
not do their work. Other organisms that grow only in
an atmosphere lacking in oxygen, develop, causing horm-
ful effects. But in the presence of an excess of air and
plenty of -moisture the former organisms may multiply
and act so rapidly that large quantities of humus may be
transformed into soluble forms which may be washed
away. This rapid transformation of humus is known as
a "burning out" of the soil. Since these soluble forms
of nitrogen are likely to be leached from the soil, it is
better that they should become available slowly. A rapid
transformation of the humus is undesirable from another
standpoint. In addition to its importance as a chemical
or food constituent, humus is very necessary to tLe best









93

physical condition of the soil. It not only enables the
soil to hold moisture, but it also acts as an absorbent for
certain fertilizing elements, thus keeping them from leach-
ing away.
In order to conserve the humus in soils that are being
"burned out," the soil must be treated so as to reduce
the amount of air which enters. If this is due to con-
stant cultivation, such as is sometimes practiced in orange
groves, the practice must be changed, or-humus should be
supplied to the soil to make up the deficit.











THE POTASH SITUATION.
(Editorial from The Progressive Farmer, June 19, 1919.)
Let Every Potash-Using Farmer Protest.
In both houses of Congress bills have been introduced
for the purpose of bleeding Southern potash users in
order to enrich the new potash makers in the Western
States.
These bills would require fertilizer manufacturers to
buy at least one-third of all their potash from American
producers and would allow a maximum price of over
twelve cents per pound to be charged. It is generally be-
lieved that if Congress does not interfere, potash from
Europe can be delivered here for seven and one-half cents
per pound this fall, and probably for less by Christmas.
If Congress allows a price of twelve cents a pound for
American potash, however, foreign potash will probably
be held to a similar figure.
Before the world war potash cost farmers about five
cents per pound. If Congress does not interfere we can
probably get it for less than ten cents a pound, With
Congressional interference it may cost fifteen centq, or
three times the pre-war cost.
Two arguments are made to justify guaranteeing high
prices to American potash producers. One argument is
that we should be independent of German potash. The
answer is that Germany no longer has a potash monopoly.
Extensive potash deposits are found in Alsace-Lorraine,
and we shall hereafter call on both France and Germany
for this fertilizing ingredient.
The other argument is that these domestic potash pro-
ducers took risks to furnish us potash during the war.
Our understanding, on the contrary,- is that they profit-
eered so shamelessly and forced potash prices so high that
they have already made fine profits and have no excuse
for calling for charity.
Every Southern farmer who objects to paying further
tribute to these new leeches on agricultural prosperity
should get busy at once. Write your Senators and Rep-
resentatives, your Farmers' Union officials and Cotton
Association officials, your Agricultural Department lead-
ers and Extension Service leaders, and ask all to join
hands to protect Southern farmers from the threatened
imposition.











REPUBLICAN RECIPROCITY.

(Editorial from Tampa Tribune, June 26, 1919.)

The farmers of the country during the past years have
been called on to do the greatest task humanity has
tackled in many centuries-grow food and feedstuffs lo
feed half a world fighting, to keep the other half from,
destroying the whole. The farmers of America answered'
that call with a spirit that was prophesied when the
farmers of New England leaving their furrows embattled
themselves against a foe which sought to bind this country
with a clanking chain of iron.
Our farmers grew the crops asked of them, and more;
and they did it by superhuman effort and with a shortage
of fertilizing material, and in the face of prices for labor,
seed and fertilizers that fairly staggered them. Potash,
especially in Florida, was the need of the farmer. It was
declared that the source was in Germany and that the
countries of the rest of the world would have to suffer
for this inducer of plant growth until peace came and
until the rest of the world "caught up with Germany"
in enterprise and ability to manufacture it.
The call for potash is from the farmer. It is essential,
therefore, if he is to contribute to the gradual reduction
of the cost of living to an equitable plane, that the mate-
rials needed by him shall be placed within his reach at a
fair price, and it matters not to him, or to the world,
whether that supply is from home or from abroad.
From the Progressive Farmer of June 21, we see that,
bills have been introduced in both houses of Congress for
the purpose of guaranteeing a price to the new potash
"makers" of the west, more than three times the cost of
potash prior to the war, and requiring all fertilizer manu-
facturers to buy at least one-third their potash from.
American producers.
There is every indication that unless Congress should
do this unfair-to-the-farmer thing, potash from abroad
will be delivered to the fertilizer men of this country for
approximately seven and a half cents a pound this fall.
The price proposed in Congress is twelve cents a pound
to the manufacturers of fertilizers, and that means at
least fifteen cents a pound to the farmer, or three times
the cost to him prior to the war!










Every farmer who objects to paying further tribute to
these new leeches on agricultural prosperity should get
busy at once. Write your representatives, your Farmers'
Union officials, your Cotton Association officials, your
Agricultural Department leaders and your Extension
Service leaders, asking all of them to join hands to pro-
tect southern farmers from this threatened imposition.



Agricultural News Service,
College of Agriculture, University of Florida,

July 10, 1919.
EVIDENCE OF POTASH STARVATION SHOWS IN
PLANTS IN POTATO FIELDS ,OF FLORIDA.

Since the war began the potato growers in Florida have
found it necessary to reduce the amount of potash con-
tained in their fertilizers. Many have fertilized without
any potash whatever. During the season of 1919, evidence
was found that the plants in some of these fields were
being injured by potash starvation.
During the past two years, B. F. Floyd, Plant Physiolo-
gist to the Florida Experiment Station, has been conduct-
ing a fertilizer experiment on a plantation near Hastings
to obtain more information on fertilizers. Complete fer-
tilizers were used that contained various amounts of pot-
ash from none at all to 5%. The land, consisting of five
acres, used in the experiment was new and had never re-
ceived any fertilizer or grown a crop previous to the time
the experiment was started.
During the first season, which was in the spring of 1918,
the plants in the blocks that were given ammonia and
phosphoric acid, but no potash, made just as good tQp
growth as did those receiving the fertilizers with potash,
but the yield of tubers was less.
Daring 1919 the plants in these same blocks that were
again given a fertilizer with no potash showed a slowness
of growth early in the season that continued during the
season. When top growth was completed the plants aver-
aged fully 25% less in size than did those receiving potash.











The plants receiving no potash developed an abnormally
deep green color, so that during the latter half of the
season the blocks of plants without potash could be easily
located in the field by their color.
When the crop was more than forty days old, plants
here and there showed an inward curling of the margin
of the leaves, with more or less crinkling of the tissue
between the large veins. This was later followed by a
dying of the tissue in spots along the margin and toward
the tips.
None of the plants in the blocks where fertilizer con-
taining potash was used, showed any of these symptoms.
In potato experiments carried out in the greenhouse at
the Experiment Station at Gainesville, when the same fer-
tilizers were used and a soil was used that had been
cropped repeatedly with velvet beans and other crops,
but given no fertilizers, every potato plant that was given
no potash developed the same symptoms that were found
in the field, but the appearances were more striking.


(Tampa Tribune, June 26, 1919.)

Editor Tribune: I note the press dispatches indicate an
effort being made by our Republican friends to revise the
tariff and to place the country again under a Republican
system of tariff, which will take at least $3.00 out of the
pockets of the consumer in order to get $1.00 into the
United States treasury, paying $2.00 of the three into the
pockets of the manufacturers (?) or producers of pro-
tected raw materials in America.
The South is particularly interested in obtaining at the
least possible price that very essential element of southern
agricultural production, potash, the supply of which has
been practically exhausted from our southern soils.
'Just prior to the war the German Kali Company
financed a propaganda for the use of potash. Our people,
particularly in Florida, used enormous quantities of pot-
ash, often applying as much as a ton per acre per annum
of high-grade potash on an orange grove; hence there
was considerable potash, in spite of leaching, within the
reach of our crops. This potash has now been either con-
sumed or has leached away in the drainage water% and
7-B











our lands at present are potash-hungry. This applies to
all our southern crops, particularly cotton, corn, potatoes,
tomatoes, melons, etc., for without a sufficiency of potash
our crops will necessarily be depleted, particularly on
sandy soils, which comprise 90 per cent of the cotton belt
of the South, and peculiarly applies to the coastal plain.
I have failed to notice any warning in the daily press
of the South in, reference to this important matter. I in-
e ose you an editorial from the Progressive Farmer, which
is well worth considering, and I also inclose an article
from the Agricultural News Service of the Agricultural
Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida, of June 19,
1919, which shows the'necessity of potash in considerable
amounts, not less than 5 per cent, which practically
doubles the crop, as against fertilizers with no potash.
I trust our prominent southern newspapers, particularly
the daily press, and our weekly papers will take this mat-
ter up as suggested by the Progressive Farmer.
When our citrus growers and truckers confine them-
selves to the well-known fertilizing elements-nitrogen
(ammonia), available phosphoric acid, and water-soluble
potash-they may depend upon maximum crops. If, how-
ever, they continue, as unfortunately has been the prac-
tice of a number, to invest in all the various fake fer-
tilizers that are advertised extensively, they may expect
inferior results as compared to the cost of the legitimate
fertilizers.
1R. E. ROSE,
Tallahassee. State Chemist.


POTASH FROM WOOD ASHES COSTLY, AND NOT
ECONOMICAL.

Manufacture Under Normal Conditions Not Paying
Proposition.

An investigation concerning the production of potash
from wood ashes, conducted by the U. S. Forest Products
Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, disclosed the follow-
ing facts:
The ash content of hardwoods ranges from .05 per cent
to 3.02 per cent, with an average of .61 per cent. The ash
content of the coniferae seems to vary from .02 to .82 per











cent, with an average of .30 per cent. There may, how-
ever, be very wide variations in the ash content of the
same species, as is instancedd by ,black walnut, with a
minimum ash content of .21 per cent, a maximum of 1.96
per cent, and an average of .79 per cent, or chestnut oak,
whose minimum, maximum and average ash contents are
respectively, .33 per cent, 1.96 per cent and .77 per cent.
The potash content of pure, well-burnt ashes may be
very high, ranging from 10 per cent up to 35 per cent.
These figures are, however, of but little commercial value,
since all commercial ashes contain impurities, such as
sand, sawdust or charcoal, and these impurities may make
up a very large per cent of the total ash. The potash con-
tent of the commercial wood ashes may vary over a com-
paratively wide range, depending somewhat on the wood
and the kind. of furnace or stove used. The average of
111 analyses made in Connecticut from 1906 to 1915 was
3.6 per cent K20.
The initial cost of a potash plant of 24 teachers, includ-
ing building, is between three thousand and four thousand
dollars. The cost of manufacture of potash, not includ-
ing the cost of the wood ashes, will vary from about 7 to
17 cents a pound, depending upon the kind of ashes ob-
tained and whether or not the plant is running at full
capacity.
It is evident, therefore, that the manufacture of potash
from wood ashes will not be a paying proposition when
normal prices are resumed, except in those cases where
the plant has already been paid for and is owned by the
potash maker, who makes no charge for his own labors,
but accepts his profit as compensation for his work.
Under these conditions the cost of manufacture of potash,
exclusive of the cost of ashes, may be reduced to about
5 cents a pound.










THIRTY PER CENT REDUCTION IN COST OF
SOUTHERN FERTILIZERS.

Department of Agriculture Announces That About Thirty
'Per Cent Less Should Be Paid for Mixed Fertilizers
Than What They Cost in the Spring Season of the
Year-Conferences Held With Manufacturers.

Washington, D. C., July 2.-The United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture announces that farmers of the South-
ern States should obtain their mixed fertilizers for the
fall season of 1919 at an average price about 30 per cent
lower than the price which prevailed for the spring season
this year.
SThis announcement for the Southern States follows a
similar one made on June 7 for the Northern States. It
follows conferences with individual manufacturers which
placed the department in a position to state that the price
of mixed fertilizers f. o. b. the South Atlantic and Gulf
ports of Baltimore, Norfolk, Wilmington, Charleston,
Savannah, Jacksonville, Pensacola and Mobile will be the
same as the f. o. b. prices for the Northern States. The
accompanying table gives the maximum f. o. b. prices at
which mixed fertilizers can be obtained for the South
Atlantic and Gulf ports mentioned.
200-Pound Bags Standard.
These prices are based upon delivery in 200-pound bags.
If in 167-pound bags 25 cents per ton will be added; if
in 125-pound bags 50 cents per ton, and if in 100-pound
bags 75 cents per ton. The prices are to wholesale dealers
and to farmers ordering thirty tons or more.
In general, flat delivered prices prevail in Virginia,
North Carolina, South Carolina ,Georgia, Alabama, Mis-
sissippi, Louisiana east of the Mississippi river, and Flor-
ida west of the Apalachicola river, for which a flat rate
of $2.50 per ton will be added to the port prices. In all
of these States except Mississippi and Louisiana, when the
actual freight is less than $2.50 per ton, the actual freight
is used. For flat delivered prices in Louisiana west of the
Mississippi river, Arkansas, Texas, Oklahoma and Ten-
Snessee, $3.75 per ton will be added to the port prices.
These flat delivery prices as a rule do not apply to the
C. & O. section of West Virginia or over the Overton




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