• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 County map of state of Florida
 Part I
 Part II. Crop conditions, prospective...
 Part III






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00049
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00049
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Part I
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Suggestions for fall, winter and early spring planting
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Angora goats and sheep in Florida, why not both?
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
        Corn earworm
            Page 36
            Page 37
        Tick eradication
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
        why the leaves change their color
            Page 41
            Page 42
    Part II. Crop conditions, prospective yields and live stock conditions
        Page 43
        divisions ofthe state by counties
            Page 44
        Department of agriculture
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
    Part III
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Fertilizer, feeding stuffs, and foods and drugs
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
        Department of agriculture - Division of chemistry
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
Full Text






Vol. 28 Number 4



FLORIDA.

QUARTERLY


BULLETIN
1 OF THE
AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


OCTOBER 1, 1918

W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.

Part 1-Suggestions for Fall, Winter and Early Spring
Planting. Angora Goats. Cattle Tick Eradica-
tion Progress. Why the Leaves of the Trees
Change Their Color. Miscellaneous.
Part 2-Crop Conditions, Prospective Yields and Live
Stock Conditions.
Part 3-Fertilizers, Feeding Stuffs, and Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, an secoad-elass
matter under Act of Congrees of June. 1900.
"Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for
in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized Sept. 11, 1918."
THESE BULLTINS ARE ISSUED FREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

T. J. APPLITARD, STAT. PRIXTBa
TALLAJABS8N, FLORIDA





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E/ A u I' MADISO
8/ U ^:-- --I )^---i .
) WAKULLA I I









COUNT Y
MAP OF
STATE oF LO R IDA
SHOWING SUBDIVISION S


ffo




















PART I.


Suggestions for Fall, Winter and Early Spring
Planting. Angora Goats. Cattle Tick Eradi-
cation Progress. Why the Leaves of the
Trees Change Their Color. Miscellaneous.













SUGGESTIONS FOR FALL, WINTER AND
EARLY SPRING PLANTING

As this is the last Quarterly Bulletin of the year in
which crop conditions will be discussed, and there will
not be another issue of this kind until April of 1919, we
have decided to call attention to the possibilities of grow-
ing profitable crops throughout the fall and winter
months.
We, therefore, suggest the following plan of crop plant-
ing and production as being well adapted to the major
portion of the state-in whole or in part as the condi-
tions warrant:

WHEAT.

By all means plant some wheat, as much as
you can consistently with the size of your farm and the
needs of the family and farm hands. We consider that
the growing of wheat in Florida, owing to the condition
of the times and the demand for lreadstuffs by the al-
lied powers, is practically a necessity, and that Florida
in common with other States should live within herself
as nearly as possible. In fact, it is a patriotic duty,
which the people of our State owes to our country and
the cause we are engaged in defending, to grow every
kind of food products that is necessary not only to
.maintain the people at home, but to supply our quota of
foodstuffs to the armies in the field. Wheat can be grown
in Florida from the north central portion of the State,
northeast and west to the Perdido River. Most of the
land in the region named will produce one or more va-
rieties of wheat adapted to southern conditions. Wheat
is the world's choicest bread crop and the .source of one
of the principal foods of the most progressive and intel-
ligent peoples and nations of the world. The only other
crop that approaches it in food value, and that is grown
to any extent, is rice. With these conditions before us
we feel justified in suggesting that all farmers who can,
and whose lands are adapted, in whole or in part, to
wheat growing, plant at least enough for home consump-
tion. A few acres planted by each farmer will give him












all of the flour that he needs throughout the year. If
each farmer in Florida, of the ordinary size farm, should
plant from three to five acres to wheat, he would find it
the most profitable crop that he could plant. In doing
this, if he does no more, it would set free many hundred
thousands of bushels of wheat for war consumption. We
suggest the following varieties as being adapted to Flor-
ida soils: Blue Stem, Red May, 'Georgia Red and Leap's
Prolific. Of these, the Blue Stem, a smooth-headed wheat,
is well adapted to the better quality of sandy loam soils
of Florida; likewise, the Red May wheat. The Georgia
Red and Leap's Prolific do best on the clay loam soils.
Any of the varieties mentioned will do well on the better
gradations of the soils mentioned above.

SOILS-Light fertile clay and medium fertile sanuy
loams of good depth, and well drained, are the best lands
for wheat culture. Heavy clays are too close in texture
and liable to bake under certain conditions. But light
clay loam and good sandy loams have about the proper
consistency or degree of compactness necessary to retain
moisture, and are better adapted to wheat cultivation
than the heavier clays or lighter loams. Good drainage
is necessary to the proper development of the wheat
plant, and a medium porous, permeable sub-soil is also
important during most of the growing period of wheat.
A great deal depends on the soil as regards the yield as
nell as the quality of the grain. Deep plowing is not
necessary to the successful growing of wheat. In break-
ing land that has not been in cultivation the year pre-
viou:s, six to ten inches, depending upon conditions of
the soil, will be about correct. If it is stubble land that is
to be planted in wheat, it need not be broken with a turn
plow. If in the first instance the land is well broken, then
harrowed cross-wise with a disk, and later with a straight-
toothed smoothing harrow, a good seed bed will be
obtained. If it is stubble land, such as corn land, cow-
peas or velvet beans, where the crop has been cut off for
hay, the soil will need no turning, but the planting can
be equally as well done by preparing the land with a
heavy disk; then if the wheat is to be sown broadcast
it can be sown on the disked soil and harrowed in with
a straight-toothed harrow. The best way of planting
wheat, however, is with a drtll, which opens the furrows,












drops the seed, covers and rolls it with one operation.
In preparing the land, however, the surface should be
left clean without sticks or weeds left lying on the
ground, which would interfere with the handling of the
harvest machinery. In the case of fallow lands, it should
be well broken early in the fall, or in Florida in the late
sulnmer, from three weeks to a month, at least, before the
wheat ts torbe planted. One thing to remember is that
it will be a waste of both time and seed to neglect a
proper preparation of the soil. A good seed bed is half
the battle.
The time for sowing wheat in Florida of course de-
pends upon the section of the State where it is to be
grown. In Northern and Western Florida the best time
would be from about the middle of October to the middle
of November. In Southern Florida the best time would
be about the first of November to December. There can
be no fixing of positive dates in this matter, and the
grower will have to use his discretion as to the time best
suited for planting.

FERTILIZING.-The best form of manuring for
wheat, and in general the best kind of manure adapted
to wheat growing, is farm lot or stable manure, but if
this kind of manure is applied it should be under the
crop preceding the sowing of the wheat. If commercial
fertilizers are to be relied on, then it is best to apply that
broadcast, and later, if there is barn yard manure to
spare, that can be applied as a top dressing. Manures
containing too much nitrogen should not be used. A
good formula for this purpose is, and one that is general-
ly recommended by most growers, on the character of
soils we have in Florida, a mixture analyzing about three
and one-half per cent nitrogen, ten to twelve per cent of
available phosphoric acid, and about four per cent potash,
to be followed in the spring, when the wheat indicates
a swelling of the upper portion of the plants prior to
heading, with nitrate of soda. This will be about four
weeks before the plant heads The application of about
100 to 150 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre will add
greatly to the yield of grain. If the land has been well
cultivated and kept in a reasonably fertile condition, es-
pecially manures, like stable manure, that contain a con-
siderable amount of humus, then the following formula












would be an excellent one in producing a good yield: Acid
phosphate, 350 pounds; sulphate of ammonia, 130 pounds;
muriate of potash, 90 pounds; mixed and used on one
acre. This also should be followed in the spring as above
suggested with about 100 pounds of nitrate of soda broad-
cast. This is rather on the intensive system of manuring,
but it will pay well. Some soil under certain conditions
will be much benefited by the application of well slacked
lime. From 25 to 40 bushels per acre on poor land, and
especially the clay land, will have a good effect. Its
benefit consists in loosening up the clay lands, making
them more friable, of easier cultivation and sets free
the potash in the clay for the use of the plants.
If the chemical manures are not available, then land.
that has grown a good crop of cowpeas or velvet beans
will do well and will also produce a good crop. But grow
wheat-make your own bread.

RYE.

Don't fail to plant a good-sized patch of rye. It is
good for bread, as well as one of the best crops-for win-
ter pasture for either cattle or hogs. Every farmer should
plant rye in rotation with other crops. In this way it
yields best either for grain or pasture purposes.
Soils Best Adapted to Rye.
Rye is one of the most important cover crops grown in
the State, although planted in a small way. Its real value
as a grazing crop, as well as a cover crop, does not seem
to have been appreciated as it deserves. Rye can be grown
on almost all of the well-drained soils of the State,
especially those in the North-Central, Northeastern and
Middle and Western sections of Florida. It is best
adapted to the lighter loam or sandy soils than to the
heavy clay lands, and it yields best and produces the best
quality of grain on well-drained sandy loam soils that
contain a fair supply of lime. It is not limited, however,
to such conditions, and it does about as well on acid soils
or neutral soils, and is possibly the best grain for plant-
ing on sandy lands, which are rough and to a considerable
extent exposed to the cold of winter. It is also better
adapted to sandy and poorer classes of lands than wheat
and will stand a much greater amount of acidity in the
soil than either wheat, oats or barley. It is also












especially good for drained marsh lands and also for cut-
over lands, which are being brought under cultivation for
the first time. Rye should be generally the first crop
grown on this character of lands, and it may be grown
with equal success on other sandy soils where most
cereals fail to succeed, but the growing of rye should not
be attempted on lands that are subject to overflow or
where water may come or stand for any length of time.
If too rich in nitrogen or too much on the order of-muck
lands, it is likely to cause the rye when grown to fall
down, or in other words, to lodge. Neither does rye grow
so well on wet lands, but in dryer soils it is much more
resistent to cold than wheat or oats. If the land is made
too rich, however, this condition is reversed.
Rye in Rotation:
Rye, like all other farm crops, does best when planted
in rotation, although it can be grown year after year on
the same land with as great degree of success, if not
more so, than most small grain crops. This is because
few diseases that affect this plant are found in the soil.
In many cases rye is grown in place of wheat, and there
are many people in the world who prefer rye flour and
bread to wheat flour or wheat bread. Rye also takes less
from the soil than most of the small grain, unless it be
rice, though the difference is slight in any case. One of
the best rotations is to follow other crops with rye. For
instance, rye can be sown in the corn field after the corn
has been gathered, and in this case where the soil has
been baked it is best to plow the rye in. The better plan
is to use a disk plow and not a turn plow, and follow this
by a straight tooth harrow slanted carefully and proper-
ly. In this way labor is saved by harrowing in the grain,
which is a quicker and more practical way than by plow-
ing in under the ordinary conditions. In disking, the
grain in the standing corn stalks will be leveled by the
time the grain is ready for harvest; if it is to be har-
vested, the corn stalks will have decayed to such an ex-
tent, at least, that they will not be in the way of the har-
vest machinery. If it is only intended for grazing, and
in the early Spring and turning under as a green manure
crop, should some of the stalks be left standing under
these conditions, they will not be in the way.
Varieties:












For Florida, in the sections previously mentioned,
there are really only two varieties that can be depended
on. These varieties are the Ebruzzes and the South
Georgia. Under some circumstances the Ebruzzes seems
to be the best, and under other circumstances the South
Georgia appears to give best results, but like most grains
these also are subject to fluctuations in growth, depend-
ing more favorable location in the one case or in the
other. The South Georgia rye, in soils best adapted to
its growth, grows perhaps a little taller than the
Ebruzzes, but both are excellent rye and can be depended
on. One advantage of the rye crop is that it can be, and
is often used to fill gaps between other crops. It can be
sown at most any time, early or late, on lands that are
either rough or well placed, and it will nearly always
take care of itself, and make a good growth, which can-
not be said of any other grain under like conditions. It
is also a good crop to grow on hillsides or on lands that
are threatened with washing, and to this extent it is one
of the best crops that can be planted. It is an excellent
preventer of soil erosion, as it prevents the washing of
the soil and the debris down into the valleys, thus hold-
ing the soil in place. After the rye has grown to prac-
tical maturity, and especially while in the milk stage,
it makes an excellent hay if cut at that time and properly
cured. It can also be made a good pasture for hogs, and
after the hogs have eaten down the grain then the crop
can be turned under for manurial purposes. For these
purposes it is one of the best winter crops that can be
grown. Hogs will harvest the crop and benefit the soil
by the dropping of manure in so doing. Rye is also con-
sidered a better crop for Fall, Winter and Spring pas-
ture than either wheat or oats. It does not affect
cattle to the extent that oats and wheat does, and it
makes a better crop to turn under for green manurial
purposes.
Preparing Seed Bed:
While in most cases rye does better than any of the
other cereals on poorly prepared soil, it is not a good
reason for neglecting the proper preparation of the soil.
As the expenses of preparing the soil is very slight and
will not be noticed to any appreciable extent, this will be
greatly repaid by a much larger yield of grain. The land












should be plowed, as a rule, front five to seven inches
deep, and it should 'be done from three to four weeks
before planting the seed, if possible. After the land is
plowed, it should be well harrowed and made level and
as smooth as possible, then allow it to stand for a few
days. When rye is to follow a cultivated crop it is best
to plow the land three or four inches deep and harrow it
well so as to eliminate as much of the grass and weeds
as possible. This of course puts the land in better con-
dition. This process can be carried out best by the use
of the disk and a straight-toothed harrow, As before
stated, cowpea land or corn-stubbled land can usually be
planted to rye by simply disking and harrowing. It then
can be covered, if so desired, by a wide shovel plow run-
ning between the rows of the cowpeas or the corn stubble
as the case may be. On land that has been properly
broken other than corn or stubble land rye may be sown
broadcast, but the better way to plant all grain, whether
it be rye, wheat, oats or barley, is by drilling with the
machine. This machine opens the furrow, sows the seed
and covers it with one operation. If sown broadcast it
should be disked in and the land well harrowed, which
will give a smooth seed bed.
Fertilizers:
Although rye will grow well on very poor soil, com-
paratively speaking, large yields of the forage or the
grain cannot be expected on these soils, neither will rye
succeed well on very rich soils. If grown for green pro-
duction the land should only, be moderately fertilized,
nor should these fertilizers contain a too large quantity
of nitrogen. This would make the crop top-heavy and
liable to fall when the winds blow. Stable manure is
the best fertilizer for rye, but acid phosphate should gen-
erally be applied with it. It is best to mix forty to fifty
pounds of acid phosphate to each ton of stable manure,
into a form of compost. In this way each of the ingre-
dients is better and more evenly distributed. There
should be a mixture of this kind of two to four tons
applied to the acre. If commercial fertilizer only is avail-
able, it would be well to apply acid phosphate at the rate
of about two to three hundred pounds per acre at the
time the crop is sown, and this can be harrowed in with
the seed. Cotton seed meal may also be used, but with












that there is a liability of getting too much nitrogen, but
this should be applied from two to three weeks before the
grain is sown. If the rye is grown for pasturage or soil
purposes, or for the straw that is in it, then a greater
quantity of nitrogen-bearing compound could be applied
in the fertilizer, but not otherwise, as it would cause the
grain to fall or lodge. To obtain the best stand it is best
to re-clean the seed before it is sown. Rye often loses its
germinating power, and when this is the case the grain
becomes light and should be separated by putting through
a wind mill.
Rye is good for your live stock; grow it.

OATS.

No farmer should fail to plant this, the most valuable
of all feed crops; hd can hardly plant too largely, as oats
are among the best and safest of all feeds for farm work-
ing animals, even better than corn as a single feed ra-
tion, as they never produce sickness as corn does. Of
course, oats and corn in proper portion are a safer and
far better feed in combination than singly, and every
farmer should always strive to make enough to carry his
stock through from season to season. It saves making
large quantities of other forage not near its equal in feed-
ing value and much more expensive to produce.
Feed your oats mostly in the sheaf, and your stock
will eat the greatest part of the straw, but you should
arrange to feed your oats and corn in combination the
year round; but plant oats.
In this way you can make more feed to the acre of land
than you possibly can on the same acre, no matter what
crop you plant on it. You can make it at smaller cost
and less work with greater certainty of a good yield than
any other. It grows in the Winter season when nothing
else will, and it requires no cultivation. In this respect
it excels corn, and no budworm and weeds are waiting
ever ready to destroy it, Oats are easy to plant and
easy to grow. Oats and vetch go well together in Florida.
Together they will give you a splendid forage crop in the
Spring. Cowpeas'and velvet beans both will do well after
oats, or you can follow with corn, or potatoes. But plant
oats, and get the recleaned. Fulgum, Apples, Burt, Ban-
croft Hundred Bushel, or some other rust-proof variety.











Oats are a crop that every progressive up-to-date, real
farmer should grow, specially the farmer who does most
of his own work. They are equally as good for the farmer
who can grow a thousand or more acres, for they are a
crop that can be planted and harvested by hand or with
machinery. *
Grow oats and live stock, for between the two they
will build up your lands, put money in your pocket and
contentment and happiness in your homes. Therefore
do not forget that oats is one of the two greatest food
and, feed producing crops in the world, therefore one of
the most profitable.
There is no special method necessary in planting oats,
except that the better the preparation of the seed bed, the
better will be the crop. If your lands have been recently
cultivated-say in potatoes or some such crop-or where
cowpeas or velvet beans or other legumes have been
grown and there has been a thorough cleaning up of
sticks and brush of all kinds, a disking of the land one
way will be sufficient.
The oats then can be sown on good land at the rate
of a bushel and a peck an acre; or, if the land is rather
thin, a bushel and a half to three-quarters per acre. Then
turn under with a disk harrow across the previous way
of the harrowing and finally smooth the surface all down
with a slanting, straight-tooth harrow. This will make
the surface of your seed-bed smooth and you will have no
difficulty in harvesting your crop.
If the lands have not been previously cultivated then
the first thing is to plow them up well with the turn
plow. After this use the disk harrow and other methods
as prescribed above.
Should you have to fertilize the soil, a good manure
under the circumstances would be about 400 pounds of
acid phosphate-high grade-to the acre, with about 50
pounds of nitrate of soda thoroughly mixed with the acid
phosphate.
Next Spring when the oats are growing up well and
are beginning to show signs of swelling then sow broad-
cast 100 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre-this will
add at least one-third to your crop.
While you are growing grain of this kind, when you re-
move the oats, why not follow with a rice crop? This is
one of the best and most profitable grain crops that can












be grown in Florida, and is well adapted to the lands in
all sections of the State. IGrow some.

OTHER VALUABLE WINTER CROPS.

There are numbers of valuable grazing crops that
should be planted by every farmer for pasture purposes
in winter time; among these are barley, rape and vetch.
They should be planted singly for the pasturing of hogs,
pigs and calves, or they can be combined into a mix-
ture sown all together-either way is good.
The combination is especially good, as it gives the ani-
mals that graze on it a variety of plants to choose which-
ever they most desire. The pasture mixture comprising
barley, rye, rape, vetch, wheat, or oats in equal parts
makes a most valuable mixture for pasture purposes. But
if not convenient to the farmer any one of these can
be planted in the sized patches or areas to suit the re-
quirements. All are good and every farmer should util-
ize these plants to a greater or less extent.
It will help materially to grow the forage supplies
through the winter, and it will be of great benefit to
the live stock. In addition to this it is well not to for-
get to plant root crops as largely as can be provided
for; turnips, rutabagas, beets, collards are all good for
poultry, .calves and mill stock-likewise pigs.
In addition for the farm table or market we suggest
that you grow cabbage, onions, lettuce and in the proper
seasons Irish potatoes; all of these will cut down store
bills and go a long way to supplying the family need
with nutritious and palatable and healthful food. It is
surprising to what extent grocery bills can be reduced
by giving good attention to the gardening end of the
farm in the Spring and early Summer.
Irish potatoes this Fall in the North and West have
been a poor crop and the chances are that this crop
will be in great demand before Florida can get her crop
on the market next Spring. We, therefore, believe it
would pay to plant a moderate acreage of Irish pota-
toes.
Do not forget to plant a good acreage of sugar cane
or sorghum or both; but be sure to plant one or the
other.











When you plant your Summer crops be sure to mix with
or follow them with leguminous plants of some kind--sow
peas in your corn or follow your oat crop with peas or
with both peas and corn. If every crop is followed by a
legumionus crop or plant in connection with it, there
would be few farms of poor lands in the State, in a few
years, as with leguminous crops in the manner sug-
gested you can cultivate your lands and make them rich-
er all the time. It is a great mainstay of the farm, its
live stock; and the families who operate it. Thus make
your farm self-sustaining.
Any detailed information on the subjects herein re-
ferred to, the department will be glad to supply on ap-
plication.


ANGORA GOATS AND SHEEP IN FLORIDA
WHY NOT BOTH?

In the interest of sheep meat of the highest quality
we suggest the growing of Angora Goats in Florida, as
well as sheep. We offer some suggestion to those inter-
ested, which we hope will induce the growing of An-
goras on a much larger scale in Florida than heretofore.
But before deciding upon which is the more profitable
for the farmer it will be necessary to look into the hab-
its of both. The habits of sheep are so well known that
it would seem to mention them is a waste of ink, but in
order to make a comparison it is necessary to do so.
Goats and sheep belong to two different classes of ani-
mals. The sheep are grazers, eat grass; the goats are
browsers, eat the twigs and shrubs. Sheep love to nip
the short and tender grass close to the ground. Goats
prefer the leaves and twigs of shrubs and want to feed
with head up and hate to lower the head to get a bite.
The goat prefers to eat the top off everything .he comes
across weeds, brush, briars, etc. How often do we see
spots in the sheep pasture where 'the sheep have eaten
the grass to the roots and left other places where the
grass had grown up and covered the ground with fine
grass, because they had gotten this one spot eaten down
until it is very short and tender they kept it there (be-
cause it is tender) until it is so poor it will hardly pro-











duce grass at all. Goats eat the coarser foliage in their
pasture such as brush, briers and weeds, and leave the
grass for the other stock until the former is all consumed.
No other stock will feed after sheep, but they do not ob-
ject to eating after goats. Turn a flock of sheep into a
wheat stubble sown to grass badly grown up with weeds,
etc., and the sheep will make paths through the weeds
and eat up the young grass and probably kill it. Turn
goats into the same field and they will eat off the weeds
and leave the grass to grow. Wild carrots, daisies, cock-
leburs, thistle, and such weeds have no terror for the
man who keeps goats, as they make good grazing in Sum-
mer, and if cut before they bloom good hay for Win-
ter.
Fencing:
Goats are not hard to fence if they have never been
in any inclosure except a corral, and hence do not know
how to jump. Any good fence will turn them; they are
more apt to crawl under than jump over. But when they
to learn to jump they are good at the job.. A woven
wire fence three feet high is an ideal goat fence; one
with square meshes is preferable, with stay wires not
closer than twelve inches apart. Angora goats breed but
once a year, and usually bring forth their young in late
Winter or Spring, usually one, but sometimes twins. The
kids are delicate when first born, but when once filled
with mother's milk they stand lots of exposure. The
Fall is the best season to buy goats, and then you can
see the mohair and it has not added much to the price.
If you buy in the Spring you must buy the fleece as
well as the goat. Shorn goats all look alike, and no one
can tell a good-haired goat after it is clipped. Does are
more apt to disown their kids if moved close to kidding
time.
THE FLESH.

The flesh of the Angora goat is considered superior to
mutton by everyone who has eaten it. It has a wild
gamey flavor, and is called Angora venison by a great
many in the Western markets, because it has the same
flavor as venison. This is because both are browsers
and not grazers, and as they both live on the same kind
of food it is natural their flesh should have the same












flavor. The flesh of goats raised on grass alone resem-
bles mutton more than venison. All animals that are
shorn for their fleece should be kept out of the rain as
much as possible, and some breeders of fine sheep bring
in their sheep whenever it looks like rain because sheep
having such a thick coat of wool over their backs do not
care for the rain and will not go to shelter. But the
goat whose hair parts on the back and leaves his back
to take the rain will rush pell-mell to shelter from the
slightest shower and stay there until it ceases, or he is
compelled to go out on account of hunger.
But about the returns from keeping these two kinds
of animln-.. We all know that good sheep shear from E to
8 pounds of wool worth from 25 to 40 cents per pound
at this time, and the heavier the fleece (other things be-
ing equal) the less the price, so much so that ram's
fleeces that weigh as much as 15 pounds and over bring
but half price. With the heavier fleece bringing the low-
est price it is not much inducement for the sheepman to
breed for the heavier fleeces. With the Angora goat it
is just the opposite. Mohair, the fleece of the Angora
goat is worth one year's growth from 75 cents to $1.00
per pound at this time, while good long hair (12 inches
and up) is worth from $1.00 to $6.00 per pound, accord-
ing to condition. It has been grown 22 inches long in
one year and to weigh 21 pounds to the fleece. Two buck
fleece grown in Montana weighed 42 pounds; and brought
$6.50 per pound, and a doe's fleece in New Mexico weighed
14 pounds and sold for $43.00. A buck's fleece in New
Mexico weighed 19 1-4 pounds and sold for $84.00. So
you see that the longer and heavier hair that you can
grow the better price you can get. There is a market in New
York and Boston for mohair 12 inches and over in length
at $1.00 to $6.00 a pound. And evidence that it can be
grown 12 inches and over in length is shown in the fact
that no buck can be registered in South Africa that does
not show a growth of 12-inch hair in 12 months. Goat
raising in the United States is in its infancy, and yet
we are producing some of the finest mohair in the world.
The man that will feed and breed his goats with the same
care as his sheep will soon be producing a quality of
hair that will top the market and he will have no briars,
brush or noxious weeds on his farm. The United States
Department of Animal industry is authority for the state-
2-Bul.












ment that 40 goats will clear as much land as a man
with a mattock and do it much better, and that there
are millions of acres of land in almost every state that
could be doubled in value by keeping goats on it for a
few years.
Climate:
Goats have been successfully raised from Maine to
Texas, and in Asia Minor, where they originated, the
climate is similar to the United States, with hot Sum-
mere and cold Winters, with snow and rain.
GOAT INDUSTRY.

The raising of Angora goats has more to work up to than
any other animal industry, as by careful breeding and feed-
ing one can increase the clip of his goats fully 300 per
cent. And increases the price of the hair at about the
same rate, and at the same time free the land of brush
and weeds, so the pasture will look like a lawn.

ADAPTABILITY.

The Angora goat is as adaptable to Florida conditions,
climate, etc., as our common goat, and far more profit-
able as the foregoing article shows. We advise our peo-
plelto grow them. Their mohair is the most valuable wool
in the world, their flesh is in every respect equal to mut-
ton, and the cost of their keep is less than any other food
animal in the world.
The following bulletin by the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture will be interesting:

THE ANGORA GOAT.

U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Farmers' Bulletin No. 573.
Contribution from the Bureau of Animal Industry, A.
D. Melvin, Chief, April 27, 1914.

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION.

The Angora originated in the vilayet of Angora in
Asia Minor. This location and South Africa are to-
day the two large foreign centers of mohair production.












The Sultan of Turkey passed an edict in 1881 prohibit-
ing the exportation of Angoras, expecting thereby to
confine the industry to Asia Minor and have a monopoly
upon the mohair trade.
In 1901 South Africa also passed a law for the same
purpose, which is usually referred to as the Angora ex-
port-duty act. This act provided for an export duty of
100 1$486.65) on each Angora goat exported. Since
that time importations have been entirely prohibited.
It was feared for a time that prohibiting the importa-
tion of breeding stock would have a bad effect upon the
industry in America, but later evidence has indicated
that some of the best blood had already been brought to
the United States and that deterioration apparently does
not take place here, as experts say that the best Ameri-
can product is equal to the best grown in Turkey or
South Africa.
Faith in the excellence of American Angoras has been
demonstrated by other nations, as quite a number of ex-
portations have been made from the United States. In
1894 six Angoras were exported to South Africa from
California, and the next year 20 bucks followed for $1,000
cash. Canada, Alaska, and some, of the Pacific Islands
also have flocks that came originally from California.
Recently exportations have been made to Brazil and Ar-
gentine Republic.
The Angora was evidently bred pure in Asia Minor
for many years previous to the last half century. About
50 years ago they were largely crossed upon the common
Kurd goats of the district. Some authorities give their
opinion to the effect that not a flock escaped the influx
of Kurd blood. This has generally been considered a
very harmful proceeding, and many hold that kemp in
the Angora's fleece is still an outward sign of the pres-
ence of this foreign blood.
The Angora, as brought from Turkey, was considered
too small for American purposes and was largely crossed
upon the common goat. One eminent Angora author-
ity has said that he doubted whether there was a pure-
bred Angora in America. This statement is probably
a little overdrawn, as other well-known Angora breed-
ers claim that some flocks have been kept entirely pure,
but undoubtedly crossing was at one time a very common









20 1


practice. The purposes were to obtain a larger, hardier
animal, and to increase the breeding stock. This has
largely been accomplished, and it is the general opinion
that the American Angora is better suited to local con-
ditions and gives wider satisfaction than the original
could ever have done.

DESCRIPTION OF THE AMERICAN ANGORA.

The Angora, as bred in the United States, is almost
pure white, but occasionally a black one appears. Some
profess to see in this the cropping out of impure strains
of blood. Both sexes are usually horned, but polled in-
dividuals occur. The ears are either partially erect or
pendulous. The body should be built upon lines denoting
a good constitution and should be symmetrical. The
fleece should cover all parts of the body except the in-
side of the upper part of the legs; should be of fine qual-
ity, closely curled, of a high luster, and as nearly as pos-
sible free from kemp.

IMPORTANCE OF THE ANGORA.

New uses are constantly being found for the Angora.
Their value in clearing, up brush lands has been men-
tioned in the introduction, but it is worthy of more ex-
tended discussion. It is estimated that there are 3,000,-
000 acres of logged-off lands in the Northwest that could
be profitably converted into homesteads. Already many
fields in this section have been enabled to smile under
bountiful harvests made possible by the repeated brows-
ing off of the brush by the Angora. Many settlers who
have developed farms in this section are loud in their
praise of the Angoras and attribute their rapid progress
to the use of this animal.
ThA following indicates a new use to which the An-
gora has been placed in the West:
Angora Goats to Prevent Forest Fires.-In order to
keep the fire breaks on the southern California forest
reserves clear of weeds, an ingenious plan has been put
into operation which will save the 'Government thousands
of dollars and incidentally provide forage for large herds
of Angora goats. The plan was originated by Forest
Supervisor R. H. Charlton, of Los Angeles, and provides












for free grazing for a herd of 600 goats on the reserve,
They were shipped into the State from Arizona and al-
lowed to roam at will over the parts of the range where
their services are required. Their help to the forest
rangers is in keeping down the growth of weeds, grass
and small srubs on the strips of cleared land, known as
fire breaks, which follow the ridges through the forest
and serve to check the spreading of forest fires. These
fire breaks are of little value unless such growth is kept
down, as the weeds and grass dry up in California Sum-
mers and would carry the flames across the clearings.
The goats feed close, keeping the fire breaks bare of vege-
tation, and thus do the work of gangs of laborers. In
this way the Government's pay roll is kept down, while
the owners of the goats are provided with free grazing
for their herds.
The Interurban Railway Company between Seattle
and Tacoma recently purchased a band of Angoras to
keep their right of way clean and attractive. The above
two are simply examples of a general type that may
suggest local uses to which the Angora might be suit-
able.
It should not be thought that the West is the only
part of the country where the Angora will fit in. In
the Central West, many pasture fields that have "grown
up" while other stock was being pastured upon them
could be reclaimed and made to carry more stock by
their use. In the South there are also many abandoned
fields that might profitably pasture a band of Angoras
and gradually be made ready -for cultivation.
While the Angora will get along upon grass and weeds
it is more satisfactory to have a browse in connection
with these. Browsing is the natural way for them to feed
and they do not generally give the best results unless
they have access to a certain amount of brush, etc. How-
ever, it should be stated that rough brush land is not
suitable for growing extra long mohair, especially after
the fleece is about 6 inches long.
The question as to whether goats can be pastured with
other live stock can.be answered in the affirmative. Their
presence is in no way objectionable to cattle and sheep.
In the case of the latter a few goats are often allowed
to run with the flock for the purpose of keeping the












dogs away. It is doubtful whether this purpose is ac-
complished, as there are instances where the goats them-
selves have been killed, but it illustrates the point that
the sheep and goats feed together satisfactorily.
Allowing goats to run with horses is not objection-
able to the latter, but there is danger of the goats being
kicked. Accordingly, this plan does not give very great
satisfaction. This is even more true with jacks and
young mules. Pasturing with hogs is generally imprac-
tical because of the danger of the hogs devouring the
young kids.
Regarding the number of goats that can be pastured
per acre, only general figures can be given. The soil
length of pasture season, the climate and whether the
pasture is to be permanent or-the goats turned in merely
to clean up the brush are some of the factors deciding
this. There are sections unsuitable for cultivating pur-
poses where it might be desirable to pasture the goats
year aftei year. Eating off the browse too closely would
kill it, hence it is desirable under these conditions to
have several fields that are pastured for short periods in
rotation. Even then the goats will often peel the brush
and gradually destroy it.
For cleaning up brush land for other agricultural pur-
poses from two to five goats per acre from two to four
years will usually do the work. It has been asserted that
the Angora can eat all kinds of poisonous plants with-
out ill effects. They naturally feed upon a wide variety
of vegetation, browsing a leaf here and another there
and the amount of the poisonous plants consumed at any
one time is usually small. No bad results would be like-
ly under these conditions. There are other records of
where hnnery goats have been turned in upon fields con-
taining little else than poisonous plants and of large num-
bers dying because of having eaten heavily of them. This
has been found true of the laurel plant especially. Green
brier has also been found objectionable but from an-
other standpoint. This applies especially to goats with
considerable length of fleece. They become entangled
among the vines and frequently die, being unable to free
themselves.










23

VALUE AND USE OF MOHAIR.

It has often been said that the Angora works and pays
for its board at the same time. The value of the fleece or
mohair is considerable and is increasing. The ideal fleece
should possess length, quality or fineness, luster, strength
of fiber, freedom from kemp, and it should be closely
curled but not kinky. Mohair is made into plush for rail-
road cars and upholstering furniture. It is also used
for automobile tops, coat linings, dress goods, men's sum-
iner suits, braids, rugs, carriage robes, imitation furs.
couch and table covers, sofa pillows, portieres, and curled
false human hair. For a number of years the price of mo-
hair varied between wide imitations, depending upon the
decree of fashion, 'but during the past few years there
has been a steady increase in price, undoubtedly caused
by the more extended use of the article, and fashion no
longer plays an important role in determining its value.
The weight of fleece for American Angoras ranges from
2 to 12 pounds. The average weight of fleece has been
placed at 2 1-2 pounds for one year's growth. Shearing
once a year is practiced, except in the Southwest. Here
climatic conditions are such that the Angoras often shed
their fleeces if not clipped twice, hence they are usually
sheared both in the Spring and Fall. Where the fleece
is allowed to grow for 12 months the average length is
about 10 inches. The total production of mohair in.the
United States for 1913 will probably approach 5,000,000
pounds. The best of it comes from the Northwest. In
Oregon, Polk County leads and the product of this county
has sold for from 42 to 55 cents per pound for the past
few years. The Northwest Angora Goat Association re-
ports an average cash production of about $1.75 per head,
with many flocks averaging as much as $2.25. From su-
perior flocks of California and Oregon it is not unusual
to get 15 to 20-inch staple in one year's growth. In Texas
and New Mexico much mohair falls under the 6-inch
standard (because of shearing twice a year), which is
the shortest length generally desired. The short product
is largely responsible for the lower average quality of
American mohair. The Southwestern product shrinks
heavier than that from other sections. This is especially
true of the Arizona and New Mexico product, but some












Texas hair shrinks as light as 5 per cent. California mo-
hair often has a characteristic reddish cast,
Notwithstanding the large domestic production about
2,000,000 pounds of mohair are annually imported into
the United States. The imported mohair is of better qual-
ity than the average American product. If the practice
of clipping twice a year could be abolished, the differ-
ence in quality would probably largely disappear, as
these short fleeces reduce the average quality to a consid-
erable extent. The shrinkage of American hair is said
to average more than that imported, but some American
authorities dispute this statement. The shrinkage is es-
timated at from 12 to 15 per cent. The shrinkage of
Arizona and New Mexico mohair is largely due to dirt,
etc., while that of the Oregon hair is caused by natural
grease. In most cases the foreign mohair is blended with
the American product and spun in this manner. The aim
for future advancement in this industry should be toward
increasing the average quality rather than the quantity
of mohair produced. There need be no discouragement
in this, as it has already been said that the best mohair
of this country is equal to any produced. Another word
of encouragement spoken by competent authorities
praises the marked improvement that has already taken
place in American mohair, both in the matter of quality
and freedom from kemp.
The best mohair comes from the kids, the young
wethers, and does. As the goats grow older the hair be-
comes coarser and gradually loses its luster and curling
qualities. The production of extra long mohair, from 12
to 24 inches, has been the subject for considerable dis-
cussion of late. This quality of goods is used for making
false hair, etc., and sells for a much higher price than
the ordinary grades. A notable instance is the one of
the fleece of Romeo, sweepstakes buck at the El Paso
show in 1910. It weighed 18 pounds, measured 20 3-4
inches in length, and sold for $115. This quality of hair
could not be grown, however, under average conditions.
It could not be produced upon rough brush land nor un-
der any conditions where feed and care were not the
best. In the Southwest it would be difficult to produce
it, on account of climatic conditions, yet some breeders











have succeeded in producing an excellent quality of
fiber in this section.
As a rule, the extra long fleeces must be allowed to
grow for a longer time than 12 months. Some authori-
ties claim that certain non-shedding goats are essential
for the production of the extra long fleeces; others dis-
pute this, maintaining that care, food and climatic con-
ditions are the deciding factors.

CARE OF FLEECE.

Mohair fleeces should not be tied, but should be rolled
up, cut side in, and in suitable bags. Bags that have
previously been used for wool should never be used, as
the wool fiber that adheres to the sides becomes mixed
with the mohair. It will not take the dye used for mo-
hair, and is the source of considerable trouble in the
manufactured goods.
A great deal of American mohair is sold direct to the
mills by the producer. Quite often it is pooled, and the
growers of the Northwest have realized considerably bet-
ter prices by this method of sale. Commission men also
handle this product. Some of the principal mills in this
country are the Sanford Mills, Sanford, Me.; the Massa-
chusetts Mohair Plush Co., Lowell, Mass.; the Queens-
bury Mills, Worcester, Mass., and the Multnomah Mills,
Portland, Oreg.
The skins of Angoras with the hair attached are some-
times tanned for rugs and carriage robes. This material
is also used for making muffs, trimming coats, etc. It
makes a very attractive "fur." With the hair removed,
the skins are also tanned and made into leather. This
is not suitable for the production of kid gloves or shoes,
but is sometimes made into morocco and similar grades,
the poorer product being used for the manufacture of
workmen's gloves.
ANGORA MUTTON.

The flesh of the young Angora is delicious, although
there has been a prejudice against its use. Kansas City
is the leading goat market in America. Two classes of
goats are offered for sale, designated as "fat" and "brush-
ers." The fat class are those in condition for slaughtering









26

and the "brushers," as their name would indicate, are
stockers of the caprine family. The average weight of
goats at Kansas City is 68 pounds.
Because of the prejudice against Angora mutton it has
been almost invariably passed over the counter as lamb.
In Oregon a law has been passed making it necessary to
properly label the carcass. That the Angora will not
suffer from this is evinced by the fact that the carcasses
have previously sold as lamb and that the consumer has
been unable to detect any difference. As soon as the ex-
cellence of Angora mutton is more commonly appreciated,
* it will undoubtedly be in greater demand and its value
will be enhanced accordingly.

ADAPTABILITY OF ANGORAS.

So far as temperatures are concerned the Angora
flourish in any part of the United States. In Turkey and
South Africa the ranges in temperature are almost if not
quite as great as those of the United States. It is
claimed that the coldest weather will not affect them,
provided it is dry. In Montana the goats are undaunted
by the heavy snowfalls so long as they have a dry place
for the night.
In Texas, New Mexico and Arizona the high tempera-
tures make it necessary to shear the goats twice a year,
but the heat has apparently no ill effects upon the health
of the flocks.
Wet and swampy land, wherever it may be, is unsuit-
able for Angoras. The native home of all goats is upon
the high hills and mountains and their preference for
altitudes is still manifested by their ascending to the
highest available point, if it is only the feed trough.
Well-drained land and pure water are very essential for
the health of the flock. The fact that these conditions
are common to considerable portions of this country, and
that flocks of, Angoras are to be found in almost every
State, would indicate that the country as a whole is fair-
ly well adapted to the Angora industry. However, a
closer scrutiny of the conditions will show that some sec-
tions are especially favored, and that the industry will
probably always be largely confined to these. The large
areas of new lands, the comparative low values of these.











and the almost ideal climate have combined to create and
maintain the industry in the Willamette Valley and the
surrounding country, and the great amount of cheap
range lands in Texas, Arizona and New Mexico has fos-
tered it in the Southwest.

BUILDING UP A FLOCK.

As mentioned before in this bulletin, when Angoras
were first brought to America, considerable crossing was
practiced with the common goat. At that time breeding
stock was scarce, and it was necessary to increase the
supply by any practical means. It was found that the
.first and second crosses upon the common goat produced
little mohair and a large amount of kemp, and that it
was necessary to cross with a pure Angora five or six
times before a really superior animal could be produced.
In the past the fifth cross has been considered to produce
a purebred. Beginning with common does and crossing
with Angora bucks was necessary at the beginning of
the industry, but it would no longer be profitable to
start a flock in this way. It would be far better to buy
a few purebred Angoras outright and develop a flock
from these by the natural increase.

MANAGEMENT OF THE FLOCK.

Contrary to a formerly common opinion Angoras need
considerable care and personal attention. The kids are
especially in need of this, and if it is denied them a
large mortality among them often results. For this
reason it has been found inadvisable to turn them out
with the does before they are 6 weeks or 2 months old.
Sheds or other shelter must be furnished both in the
adults and the young, and if the country is infested with
dogs or wild animals a dog and wolf proof fence should
be built about the pasture. The expense of this will be
repaid in a few years.
The manageemnt of a flock of Angoras does not differ
radically from that of a flock of sheep. It is not considered
necessary to have a herder constantly present with the
flock. A dog is often sent out to herd and guard them, the
herder riding out two or three times during the day to









28

note the direction of the flock and to see that they do not
roam too widely.
BREEDING.

The age at which the does should be bred has an im-
portant bearing on the welfare of the flock. The general
opinion prevails that if they are forced to bear the bur-
den of reproduction before they are 18 months old their
growth will be stunted. Neither is it regarded advis-
ablse to use the bucks for breeding purposes before they
attain this age.
The goats are supposed to be in their prime when from
2 to 6 years of age, but they have been known to repro-.
duce regularly up to the age of 15 years. It does not
generally pay to keep them too long, as the mohair be-
comes continually coarser with advancing age.
The does come in heat during August and September.
The bucks also have a period of heat, but it usually starts
sooner and lasts longer than that of the does. The time
the does should be bred depends upon the climate. The
kids are not so hearty or able to take care of themselves
as lambs. If they come early and have not proper
shelter and care a great many of them will die if the
weather is cold and wet. A single bad night has caused
the loss of 50 per cent of the kid crop in flocks of the
Southwest where the shelter was insufficient.
The number of does a buck will cover satisfactorily
depends upon the vigor and fertility of the individual
and the care and food received. From 40 to 50 is a
common average. The gestation period is from 147 to
155 days, or 5 months, as it is more commonly ex-
pressed.
NUMBER OF KIDS.

The does usually drop single kids, twins being rather
uncommon. The Tariff Board found that the kid crop
in the flocks investigated was about 65 per cent. Some
authorities hold this figure too low. It is certain that in
some well-managed flocks the average is from 100 to 120
per cent. A record of extraordinary fecundity is the one
of a doe that produced twins, quadruplets, and triplets
in three successive seasons.











FEEDING.

It is a good plan to feed a little heavier previous to
kidding to start the milk flow. A small amount of grain
is often desirable. It is not meant by this that the goats
should be underfed at other seasons of the year. Some
people have been of the opiinon that all that is neces-
sary for the Angora is to turn them out in the Winter,
regardless of the depth of snow. They cannot be expected
to browse under these condition's if they cannot reach the
twigs. Some breeders cut down the high trees, and this
makes very satisfactory browsing, but other feed, both
hay and grain, is necessary, especially in the Northern
climates, if good results are to be expected. Flocks have
been wintered out, however, without artificial feeding as
far north as Nevada.
Angoras are very particular about the cleanliness of
their feed and if it be pulled out of the manger and
trampled under foot they refuse to touch it. For this
reason it is considered the better plan to have an open-
ing in the manger large enough to permit the entrance
of the goat's head rather than to make it small, thus
necessitating the pulling out of the hay in bunches with
a large part of it falling upon the ground.

SHEARING.

In the Southwest shearing is done during February and
March in the Spring and the Fall clip is removed in Sep-
tember or October. In other sections shearing usually
takes place during March and April. It should be done
before shedding begins, but it should not take place too
early or the goats may suffer severely from the cold. Both
hand shears and machines are used, but shearing by the
latter means has increased rapidly during the last few
years.
Goats are not so gentle in the hands of the shearers
as sheep, and many men, especially beginners in the in-
dustry, are anxious to know how best to handle them
during the operation of shearing.
The late F. W. Ludlow, of Lake Valley, N. Mex., de-
vised a shearing table which has proved to be of great
service. It is a collapsible trough, or combination table
and trough.











Mr. Ludlow's description of this table is given here-
'with:
The table is simple in construction. It is about 22
inches high, 2 feet 10 inches long, and 21 inches wide.
The top is composed of two 9-inch sides, which are hinged
to the 3-inch centerpiece.. On the lower side of these mov-
able flaps is a narrow piece 8 inches long, which catches
on the framework of the table when the sides are lifted
and holds them stationary. When the sides are ele-
vated the top of the table forms a trough 3 inches wide
at the bottom and possibly a foot wide at the top. Into
this trough the goat to be shorn is thrown, feet up. A
small strap, which hangs from the end of one of the sides,
is run over the goat's neck and fastened to the other
side. The goat's head is hanging over the end of the table
and the strap prevents it getting free. The belly and legs
are then shorn. The legs of the goat are then tied to-
gether, the strap removed from the neck, and the sides of
the table dropped, so that one has a plane surface on
which to shear the rest of the animal. An untrained man
can shear 100 goats a day with a shearing machine and
such a table.
THE KIDDING SEASON.

The kidding season is an important one upon the An-
gora farm, and problems are presented that are often puz-
zling, especially to the beginner. The following two meth-
ods of handling the flock as described by a Western breed-
er have given general satisfaction.
The Corral Method.-This method may be used with
any number of goats. With various modifications and
adaptations which best suit the size of the flock, the cli-
matic conditions, the facilities for feeding, etc., it may
be used by the beginner with success. We have prac-
ticed this method in Nevada for more than 25 years. If
the herd is a large one, say 1,000 head, three men are
required to handle the goats at kidding time. The serv-
ice of the bucks is so managed that the kids will be
dropped gradually several weeks. At the height of the
season we expect from 75 to 100 kids a day. The sea-
son lasts about 30 or 40 days. Fortunately, most of
the kids are dropped in the daytime.
We have four or five small corrals fenced with 36-inch












woven wire and large enough to hold 50 does and their
kids. The doe should be allowed plenty of room, because
if too close to her neighbor she may adopt the other doe's
-tid. Besides these small corrals, two large ones are'
needed, each large enough to hold 1,000 does. Along the
fence of one of these corrals are a dozen small pens just
large enough to hold a doe and kid. At the gate of this
large corral a jump board is placed. This jump board
is intended to keep back those kids which are not large
and strong enough to jump over it. A 2-inch board about
18 inches high will answer the purpose. Another device
sometimes used is a platform open at the end, so that
the kids may run under it, and thus avoid being trampled
upon when the goats are going out over the platform.
The small corrals may be made of panel fence and lo-
cated in a meadow where some feed is afforded. The
does should always have some kind of feed at kidding
time..
In the morning the flock is carefully examined, and all
does which show signs of kidding during the day should
be separated and placed in one of the small corrals. The
large flock is now turned out, and one of the men is sent
with them with instructions to take the herd at once
as far as he intends to go for feed that day, and then to
let them feed over a limited area and gradually work
their way home. A few does will drop their kids
on the range, and the herder should carefully note the
number and their location. He should see that the herd
does not feed around one of these does, as she is apt
to leave her kid and join the band, thus necessitating
much extra work in finding the kid and in giving it to
its mother. Early in the afternoon the band is placed
in one of the large corrals. Now, the herder and another
man go out with a wagon or on foot and carry the kids
home, gently driving the mothers. The kids should not
be handled or rubbed against one another more than is
necessary, as the doe knows her kid by the scent. These
does and kids are placed in the small corral which con-
tains the does held back in the morning with the ex-
pectation that they would kid during the day. We now
have one day's kidding in one of the small corrals. The
does and kids 'should be watched to see that they are
properly arranged. Do not bother them more than is ab-











solutely necessary. Do not be in a hurry to make a
doe own a kid. Do not drive the goats around one of
the small pens.
The does should remain with their kids in the corrals
for a day or two at least, or until the kids are properly
mothered. Any does which have not kidded should be
taken out. The next morning any kids which may have
been born during the night are put in another small cor-
ral with their mothers, as well as the does which are ex-
pected to kid during the day. The procedure of the pre-
vious day is repeated. In about three days, if one has
limited quarters, the first day's mothers and kids may
be put in the second large corral-that is, the one with
the jump board at the gate. Now this "wet" band is
placed in charge of one of the men and sent out to feed.
The gate is opened, the mothers passing out over the
jump board, and the kids remain in the corral. The
herder must not range his goats near the does that are
kidding upon the range, and he should be cautioned to
come in later than the "dry" band, so as to avoid any
possibility of their mixing. When his band arrives at
the corral, the gate is opened and each mother hunts for
her kid. Some of the kids may not find their mothers,
and if after a day or two there are a few unnourished
kids and some does with overdistended udders they should
be placed together in the small pens along the side of the
corral. The doe will own the kid in a day or two whether
she is its mother or not. The kids should not be allowed
to become too weak before this is done. If one does not
have enough small pens a doe may be held while two or
three kids suckle her, and thus tide them over until sR.me.
of the small pens are vacant.
The next day the second day's kidding is added to the
wet band. The wet band thus gradually grows, while the
dry band decreases. During the day two men will be em-
ployed at herding the dry and wet bands, respectively,
and,the third man will be kept busy inspecting the kids,
feeding the does in confinement, etc. If the weniher is
stormy, some of the kids will have to be sheltered. The
advisability of having kids dropped gradually through a
period of 30 or 40 days will readily be seen. If help is
inexperienced, that may be gradually trained, or if the
weather is stormy there will be time to get all things ar-
ranged properly.











The kids should not be allowed to go with their moth-
ers until they are about 6 or 8 weeks old. If they go
before this, they will probably become tired very soon
and go to sleep. When they awake, the band will have
gone and they are liable to be'lost. During the day, while
the mothers are feeding, the kids would eat a little grass
if they could be herded near the corral.
As stated before, thee may be many modifications of
this method which will suggest themselves, but the above
is a general outline of a method commonly in use.
The Staking Method.-This method is largely employed,
even with large flocks, in New Mexico, but is possibly
best suited to small flocks. It is without doubt the best
method for certain surroundings. About the same amount
of help will be required as with the corral method. There
should be a good supply of stakes similar to tent stakes.
There should also be a supply of swivel blocks which are
about 4 inches long and having a hole bored near each
end. A piece of rope about 6 inches long-is fastened to
the stake and the other end is passed through one of
the holes in the swivel block and a knot tied in the end.
Another piece of rope of equal length is likewise knotted
and passed through the other hole of the swivel block,
the loose end being tied to the kid's leg. Any swivel will
take the place of this primitive method. The herder or
owner can busy himself during the winter months by
making stakes and swivels and by cutting and attaching
the ropes.
When a kid is born it is taken to a convenient place
to stake, and the mother iB gently coaxed to follow. The
stake is securely driven into the ground, and the kid
fastened to it by the hind leg. The mother is left with
the kid in order that she may know where to find it upon
return from feeding. The kid should be staked where he
can get plenty of sunshine; shade and shelter. A small
bush, a post, or' a box will answer the purpose adimrably.
If there are twins, they must be so staked that they can
suckle at the same time. The rope should be changed
from one hind leg to the other occasionally to prevent
unequal development. Sometimes a vigorous kid gets
thoroughly tangled and requires help.
The kid may thus be left staked until he is old enough
to go with. the flock, which is after six or eight weeks
3-Bul.











or he may be put in a corral after a few days, .as is done
in the corral method.
There are many successful breeders who use this
method entirely. One may expect to get good results if
he follows either the coritl or staking method care-
fully.
There is very small loss among kids cared for as set
forth above. Many of the breeders on a large scale re-
port the percentage of increase as 100. This does not
mean that every kid lives, but that so few die that the
loss is offset by the number of twins that are dropped.
The most practicable fencing to be used at kidding
time is made of portable panels. By the use of these
panels a pen may be made large or small, and be moved
from one place to another without difficulty and with
very little work.
Does will occasionally refuse to own their kids. In
such cases they should be tied up and compelled to al-
low the kid to suck. Small claiming pens are handy
for these unmotherlike creatures. Tying a dog near
them has had the effect of inducing them to mother their
offspring sooner than they would have otherwise done.

CASTRATION.

All buck kids not intended for breeding purposes
should be castrated when from 2 to 4 weeks old. This
is best accomplished by cutting off the lower third of the
scrotum with a sharp knife, forcing down the testicles
one at a time with the thumb'and forefinger of one hand
and pulling them out with the spermatic cord attached
with the other hand. A good firm grip should be taken
so that one's fingers do not slip off. A 3 to 5 per cent
solution of creolin or carbolic acid will keep out infec-
tion and repel the flies.

WEANING.

Kids should be weaned when from 4 to 5 months of age.
Buck kids older than 5 months should never be allowed
to run with the does, as they will often breed, beside
causing endless annoyance to the does.









35 *


ASSOCIATIONS.

The American Angora Goat Breeders' Association was
organized in 1900. This association up to the present
time has recorded about 50,000 animals. Mr. R. C. John-
ston, Lawrence, Kansas, is the present secretary. There
can be no doubt but that the association has done the
industry a great deal of good. There has been consider-
able agitation in favor of an advanced registry, based
upon superiority of the animals entered, but it is
not possible to say the exact form this movement will
take.
Other associations for the promotion of the Angora
goat and the mohair industries are the National Mohair
Growers' Association, founded September 23, 1909, and
the Northwest Angora Goat Association, which came into
existence January 8, 1910.

SCORE CARD FOR ANGORA GOATS.

There is no official American soore card, but the fol-
lowing has been suggested by prominent breeders.
Physical animal 25 per cent, subdivided as follows:
Per Cent.
Size and constitution ........................ 15


Shape of body, head, horns, ears, etc., deducting
for black spots on skin, colored hair, black
streaks in hoofs, horns, etc., up to 10 points..
Fleece 75 per cent, subdivided as follows:
Must be soft, silken, velvety, with small compact
ringlets ............... ................... .
Must be of evenness in length, density and growth
1 inch or more per month, which gives weight.
Freedom from kemp ........................
Luster ............................ ...... ..........

Total ................. ................ .....


10


30

20
15
10

100









36


CORN EARWORM

BEST WAY TO ERADICATE TROUBLESOME PEST
THAT INJURES SEVERAL DIFFERENT CROPS.


Strike at the bollworm or corn earworm in the Fall.
Plowing has proved the most effective weapon against
this $30,000,000 pest. The defenses of this ravager of
cotton, corn, tomatoes, and tobacco are never so vulner-
able as when the insect is in the pupal or wintering
stage.
NAMES OF THE WORM.

The worm has several names-cotton bollworm, corn
earworm, tomato fruitworm, and false budworm of tobac-
co. Under' these names it is widely known in nearly all
parts of the United States, and the damage it does is in-
creasing from year to year. The character of its attack
on all the crops affected is similar. The caterpillars
usually bore into andfeed within the plant tissues.
When mature the insect is a moth or miller about 11-3
inches across the wings when spread. It varies in color
from a light brown or olive green to pale yellow, and
it is commonly seen flying about in the evening. The
larvae or caterpillars are very small when first hatched.
When full grown they are about 11-2 inches in length,
and their color varies from pale green to almost black.
They leave the plant when fully fed and burrow into
the ground, where they form a kind of cell in which they
transform to the resting stage. The last brood in the
Fall stays in the ground at a depth of 4 to 6 inches un-
til warm weather the following spring.

IMPORTANT STEP IN CONTROLLING PEST.

Thorough breaking of the land in which the worms
have buried themselves for the Winter, at some time in
late Fall or Winter, is the most important single step
in controlling this pest. The practice of Fall and Win-
ter plowing, aside from bollworm control, is desirable be-
cause it conserves the moisture, puts the ground in bet-
ter condition for planting and enables the farmer to












plant at the proper time the following Spring. Further-
more, Fall plowing destroys eggs of grasshoppers, hiber-
nating places of chinch bugs and other destructive in-
sects.
OTHER METHODS OF CONTROL.

It is not too much to say that for every worm the grow-
er destroys early in the season he will .save a crate of to-
matoes later on. Each moth will lay as many as 500
eggs, and there is a generation every 30 days under the
most favorable weather conditions.
At the close of the picking season, the vines with in-
fested fruit should be burned or plowed under as soon
as possible. This is very important, as a means of com-
bining not only this insect, but other insects and fungus
diseases as well. Growers sometimes object to burning
old plants, on the ground that they are destroying so
much fertilizer which would be returned to the soil by
the rotting of the plants. While it is true that some of
the nitrogen would be destroyed, the loss is infinitesimal
in comparison with that resulting from the injuries
caused by the insects and fungi if they are allowed to
live over.
Birds, especially the bluejay and mocking bird, feed
large numbers of these worms to their young. These
birds, and also wasps, should be protected by the grower.
The above solutions are -made as follows:
1. Paris Green, 1 pound; water 50 gallons.
2. Lead Arsenate, 11-2 pounds; water, 50 gallons.
3. Zinc Arsenate, 1 pound; powdered lime, 1 pound;
water, 50 gallons. If mixed in powdered form, and
dropped or blown over plants is good.
Use either formula desired as a spray. No. 3 as a
powder also, if desired.
Keep all of this in mind for next Spring and Summer.



FUEL

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Information.
Supplies following relative to the comparative heat-
ing capacity of wood and poal.










. 38


HOW WOOD COMPARES WITH COAL IN HEAT-
ING VALUE.

In heating value one standard cord of well-seasoned
hickory, oak, beech, bird, hard maple, ash, elm, locust or
cherry wood is approximately equal to one ton (2,000
pounds) of anthracite coal, according to estimates by the
Forest Service, United States Department of Agricul-
ture. However, a cord and a half of soft maple and two
cords of cedar, poplar or basswood are required to give
the same amount of heat.
One cord of mixed wood, well seasoned, equals in heat-
ing value at least one ton of average-grade bituminous
coal.


TICK ERADICATION

United States Department of Agriculture,
Bureau of Animal Industry.
Local Office, Jacksonville, Florida.
Progress of tick eradication work in the State of Flor-
ida for the month of September, 1918, through the State
Live Stock Sanitary Board, County Commissioners,
Farmers, Cattlemen and the United States Bureau of
Animal Industry:

SYSTEMATIC WORK REGULARLY DIPPING CAT-
TLE EVERY 14 DAYS.


COUNTY u*' 3. 04 .
gp W a ug| Zo u zwg Z g ; V2
K U Q s, z a s sa I

Lake ........ 1,927126,508, 1,693124,479 2341 2,029 0 58
Orange ..... 2,188130,848 2,009 30,265 179 583 0 50
P. Beach.... 144 3,384 60 99 84 2,391 0 9
Total ..... 4,259160,740 3,76255,7371 4971 5,003 0 117










39

PRELIMINARY WORK VOLUNTARY DIPPING AND
VAT CONSTRUCTION.


County'


*Alachua ............
*Baker ..............
*Bay ................
*Bradford ...........
**Brevard ........ i
*Citrus ..............
*Calhoun ............
*Clay ................
*Columbia ...........
*DeSoto .............
*Duval ..............
**Escambia ..........
*Flagler .............
*Franklin ............
*Gadsden ............
*Hamiltoi ...........
*Hernando ...........
*Hillsboro..........
*Holmes .............
*Jackson .............
Jefferson ............
*Lafayette ...........
*Lee .................
*Leon ...............


121.
540

369
425


565


4,570
5,102


80o

868
38,320
3,094
1,056
1,000


1,040

57,960


1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
O
0
2
1
'0
0
40
3
0
1
0
'0
0
0

9


.PM

36
6
5
24
12
11
10
6
16
20
36
40
0
0
6
5
5
43
16
29
10
5
21
35

407









40

PRELIMINARY WORK VOLUNTARY DIPPING AND
VAT CONSTRUCTION.- (Continued.)


County g 1


*Levy ............... 1,593 1 7
*Liberty ..........:.. 1,200 0 8
*Madison ............ 368 0 11
*Manatee ............ 4,707 1 7
*Marion ............. 1,839 1 29
*Nassau ............. ... 0 18
*Okaloosa ............ ... '0 1
*Okeechobee ......... ... 0 1
*Osceola ............. ... 0 23
*Pasco .............. 320 0 10
*Pinellas ............ 536 1 9
*Polk ............... ... 0 44
*Putnam ............. ... 0 7
*Santa Rosa .......... ... 0 26
"*Seminole .......... ... 0 5
*St. Johns ........... 609 1 5
*St. Lucie .... .... ... 0 12
*Suwanee ............ ... 0 8
*Sumter ............. 1,537 0 20
*Taylor .............. ... 3
*Volusia ............. 1,141 0 16
*Wakulla ............ 60 0 1
*Walton ............. 3,050 1 24
*Washington ......... 5,708 1 17

S22,668 7 312
57,960 9 407
Total preliminary -
work .......... 80,628 16 "19
Total systematic -
work .......... 60,740 0 117

141,368 16 836
*Counties co-operating by appropriating funds.
**Counties that have voted favorably on tick eradication.











This work means extermination of a disease known as
splenetic or tick fever in cattle.
E. M. NIGHBERT,
Inspector in Charge.


WHY THE LEAVES CHANGE THEIR
COLOR
From the Forest Service, U. S. Dept. 'of Agriculture.
Washington, October -.It requires no vivid imagina-
ti6n to picture Mother Nature going about these days
with a liberal supply of paint with which she colors the
leaves of the trees and other plants and thereby produces
the vivid tints which characterize the foliage of this sea-
son. In reality the change in coloring is the result of cer-
tain chemical processes which take police in the leaves.
The change is.not, as many people suppose, due to the
action of frost, but is a preparation for Winter. All
during the Spring and Summer the leaves have served as
factories, where the foods necessary for the trees' growth
have been manufactured. This food making takes place
in numberless tiny cells of the leaf and is carried on by
small green bodies, which give the leaf its color. These
chlorophyll bodies, as they are known, make the food of
the tree by combining carbon taken from the carbonic
acid gas of the air with hydrogen, oxygen, and various
minerals supplied, by the water which the roots gather.
In the Fall when the cool weather causes a slowing down
of the vital processes, the work of the leaves comes to an
end. The machinery of the leaf factory is dismantled,
so to speak, the chlorophyll is broken up into the various
substances of which it is composed, and whatever food
there is on hand is sent to the body of the tree to be
stored up for use in the spring. All that remains in the
cell cavities of the leaf is a watery substance in which a
iew oil globules and crystals, and a small number of yel-
low,. strongly refractive bodies can be seen. These give
the leaves the yellow coloring so familiar in autumnal
foliage.
It often happens, however, that there is more sugar in
the leaf than can be readily transferred back to the tree.
When'this is the case the chemical combination with the












other substances produces many-colored tints varying
from the brilliant red of the dogwood to the more austere
red-browns of the oak. In coniferous trees, which do not
lose their foliage in the Fall, the green coloring matter
takes on a slightly brownish tinge, which, however, gives
way to the lighter color in the spring.
While the color of the leaf is changing, other prepara-
tions are being made. At the point where the stem of
the leaf is attached to the tree, a special layer of cells
develops, which gradually sever the tissues which sup-
port the leaf. At the same time nature heals the cut, so
that when the leaf is finally blown off by the wind or
falls from its own weight, the place where it grew on the
twig is marked by a scar.
Although the food which has been prepared in the
cell cavities is sent back to the tree, the mineral sub-
stances with whiqP the walls of the cells have become im-
pregnated during the Summer months are retained. Ac-
cordingly, when the leaves fall they contain relatively
large amounts of valuable elements, such as nitrogen
and phosphorous which were originally a part of the
soiL The decomposition of the leaves results in enrich-
ing the top layers of the soil by returning these elements
and by the accumulation of humus. That is why the mel-
low black earth from the forest floor is so fertile. But
if fires are allowed to run through the forest and the .
leaves are burned, the most valuable of the fertilizing ele-
ments are changed by the heat into gases and escape into
the air. As a result, forests which are burned over regu-
larly soon lose their soil fertility even if no apparent
damage is done to the standing timber.



















PART II.

Crop Conditions, Prospective Yields and Live
Stock Conditions.












DIVISIONS OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES

Following are the subdivisions of the State, and the
counties contained in each:


Western Division.
Bay,
Calhoun,
Escambia,
Holmes,
Jackson,
Okaloosa,
Santa Rosa,
Walton,
Washington-9.


Northeastern Division.
Alachua,
Baker,
Bradford,
Clay, .
Columbia,
Duval,
Nassau,
Putnam,
St. Johns,
Suwannee-10.


Broward,
Dade,
DeSoto,
Lee,
Manatee,


Northern Division.
Franklin,
Gadsden,
Hamilton,
Jefferson,
Lafayette,
Leon,
Liberty,
Madison,
Taylor,
Wakulla-10.

Central Division.
Brevard,
Citrus,
Flagler,
Hernando,
HillsborQugh,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,
Orange,
Osceola,
Pasco,
Pinellas,
Polk,
Seminole,
Sumter,
Volusia-16.


Southern Division.
Monroe,
Okeechobee,
Palm Beach,
St. Lucie-9.











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
W. A. McRAE, Commissioner H. S8 ELLIOT, Chief Clerk


CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.
BY DIVISIONS.

WESTERN DIVISION.-The reports from our correspon-
dents in this division show a very considerable decrease
from the previous year (which includes this period) of
almost all of the general farm crops in this division.
Specially that of cotton, although cotton is in slightly
better shape than it was at this time last year. The aver-
age improveemnt in this division as referred to cotton
is very small, but it is better just the same. The boll
weevil, of course, is at the bottom of the shortness of the
cotton crop. At this time the indications are that the
yield will be about one-half of a crop. All other crops
grown in this section will produce practically normal
crops, and possibly an increase over last year. The
corn crops indicate a much smaller yield in this sec-
tion of the State and this can also be said of sweet po-
lato and peanut crops. In fact, there is a small in-
crease in all the leguminous crops, and grain crops, ex-
cepting corn, including the yield of leguminous hays.
Pasturage has been fairly good as a general thing, and
the condition of live stock, as well as its health, has also
been good on the average. Few diseases have been re-
ported to this date.
NORTHERN DIVISION.-In this division conditions.vary
little from the one just discussed. The chief difference
is in the cotton crop, which is smaller than in the above-
mentioned district. The indications are that the crop
in this division will be little over 30 per cent of the usual
crop, and it may fall somewhat below that. The condi-
tions that produce this change are the same that con-
trol the success or the failure of the cotton crop in all
sections of the State, that is the boll weevil. The crop
generally has been fairly good, but the boll weevil knows
no difference, and is not affected by climatic conditions
to any appreciable extent. In this district the upland
cotton indicates something over 40 per cent of the- usual











yield. The Sea Island cotton indicates a yield of about
only 30 per cent. As with the foregoing district the ma-
jority of the field crops show about the same increase
in all of the counties contained in this division. The
corn, sugar cane, field peas, rice, sweet potatoes and pea-
nuts are generally fine. The live stock in this division
is in as good condition as in the Western division, and
in this connection we will mention that there is great
improvement in the growing and feeding of live stock
and their care. Other than cotton and corn the
entire crops in this division indicate good yields.
NORTHEASTERN DIVISION.-In this division there is no
improvement in the cotton crop worthy of note. This is
because the boll weevil has made the same advances
in this district that he has in the two former ones. Both
the upland cotton and the Sea Island cotton are in the
same condition and indicate about same yields as in the
Northern and Western divisions of the State. As for the
other farm crops, they are, as a rule, about the gen-.
eral average and indicate fair yields, both in the grain
crops and in the grass and hay crop. One reason that
the field crops in the sections of the State going east-
ward and southward are smaller in extent than in the
northern and western sections of the State, is because
not so much importance is given to the field crops, and
part of the farming industry is divided between this
and the vegetable and fruit growing industries. This
same condition occurs as we go farther East and South,
but there is a great improvement in many of the field
and grain crops of this district, all of which contributes
to the extra volume of farm products. In this district
live stock has maintained its own and is in first-rate
average condition. In this district the condition of
citrus fruit crops show a condition much improved over
1917.
CFNTRAL DIvIsIoN.-The crops in this division indicate
a production of a good normal yield. Some of the
crops are better than in 1917, and most of them are
equally as good. There is a good deal of cotton being
grown in this district, where but little has been grown
before. This year quite an acreage of cotton has been
grown and the yield has been; unusually good. In fact,
the yield has been so satisfactory as to stimulate the











industry in a number of the counties, and will undoubt-
edly cause a much larger acreage the coming year. Most
of this cotton is Sea Island, but a fairly good acreage
of upland cotton was also planted, and both varieties
have succeeded well. No boll weevils have been seen,
and with proper precautions it would seem that the boll
weevil could be kept out of that section for several years
at least. In this district there are several counties that
grow Sea Island cotton, and others that grew short cot-
ton, all successfully. The same condition as to live stock
exists in this section as in the foregoing one. The con-
dition of the fruit trees and the prospect of the fruit
crop is shown in the tables, about as correct as it is
possible to get estimates. The information in this re-
spect practically has been obtained by almost a grove
to grove canvass, and we have no reason to doubt its
correctness. The trees show a wonderful improvement,
considering what they went through with in February,
1917, and the indications for a good crop are better
or at least equal to any reasonable expectations.
SOUTHERN DIVISION.-In this division the climatic
conditions have been as favorable as they should be to
producee the best effect on the vegetables as well as the
fruit trees. There has not been a lack of precipitation
that is shown to a considerable extent in its effect on
the growth of trees and the setting of fruit From this
district the vast majority of the fruit production in the
State will have to come. This district produces most of
the vegetables as well as the frlit crop of the State grown
or commerce. The result of the vegetable production was
favorable and the condition of those crops growing at
present shows excellent conditions. The fruit in this dis-
trict is, of course, in much better condition, and the pros-
pective yield also, than these to the North and West of
this division. In this division our crop correspondents
also paid particular attention to the fruit crop in their
efforts to obtain as near as possible the correct situation
regarding the fruit trees and the yield of fruit. In, nu-
merous instances the correspondents made personal trips
through almost all of the several counties from which
they report. The tables show the result of this informa-
tion. While it is apparent that for the present year the
crop of fruit 'will be limited, the progress w'ade in re-
viving the orchards show that it will not be long before









48

the condition of the fruit groves will be such as to pro-
duce practically their normal crops a crop of about 8,-
00,000 boxes of oranges and grapefruit combined is ap-
parently possible. Looking at the report from all sections
of the State carefully, it must be admitted that Florida's
agricultural and horticultural interest are in good con-
dition and offer good prospects for abundant yields. There
can be no danger of want, when nature is lavish in her
gifts and the soil so generous in its yields. The effect
will be simply to show the possibilities of Florida soils
to produce in all Agricultural and horticultural lines and
stimulate to greater exertion the work of the future. It
is proof that Florida could live within her own boun-
dries easily.












49

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD OF CROPS FOR
QUARTER ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1918, AS COMPARED WITH
SAME PERIOD FOR 1917.


COUNTY Upland Cotton ea Island Cetton

Western Division Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
Yield Yield
Bay .................. 75 125 ....................
Escambia ............... 60 60
Holmes ............... 75 50 ......... ..........
Jackson ............... 75 60 .......... ..........
Okaloosa .............. 100 100 .......... ..........
Santa Rosa ............ .100 100 100 100
Waltton ............... 0 48 .......... ..........
Washington ............ 60 45 ....................

I. At. per cent..... 76 66 100 100
LNor ..the Diision...
Gadsden ............... 10 1 .......... ..........
Hamilton .............. 100 100 75 75
Jefferson .............. 75 75 .......... . ....
Lafayette .............. 90 0 990 80
Leon .................. .... .... ..........
Liberty ................ 80f 90 ........ ..........
Madison ............... 100 65 100 50
Taylor .................................. 50 20
Wakulla ................ 100 ..0 ............................
Wakulla ...............,1 0O 0


Div. A. per cent..... |


79 70 79 1 56


Northeastern Division.
Alacbua ............... 65 55 62 30
Baker .................. 50 50 25 25
Bradford .............. ......... ......... 25 25
Clay ................ ......... 75 30
Duval ................. 80 80 80 80
Nassau ................. 65 65 45 45
Suwannee ............. 50 40 50 40


Div. Ar.. per cent.....


.1 62 58 I 52 I 39


Central Division.
Brevard ................ ..........
Citrus ................. ..........
Flagler ................ 50
Hernando .............. ..........
Hillsborough ........... 50
Lake .................. .......
Le y ...... ....... .. .. 35
Marion ................ 75
Orange ................ 100
Osceola ................ .... ......
Pasco ................. 90
Pinellas ............... .........
Polk ................... 100
Seminole .............. 100
Voluslia ................ 60


DTv. Av. nor cent..... 73 74


50


80
125
..........
90

75
100
60


..... A6....
85
..........
85
50
75
40
65
50
70
80
75
100
luO
60

68


..... i&...
75
.....t.....
60
50
70
40
65
50
110
90
100
65
100
60

72


SSouthern Division.
Broward ............... .. ..... .......... 65 75
Dade .................... 100 100 ......... ..........
Lee ................. .......................... .. .
Manatee .............. ......... ............ 100 100
Okeechobee ............. .. .... .... ..... 100 100
St. Lucie .............. 95 90 i0O 100

Div. Ar. per cent..... 98 95 91 94

State Average, per cent.. 78 73 78 72

4---Bal.


l ? ,











50

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY orn Kaffir Corn
I I
Western Division. Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
S_ Yield Yield
Bay ................... 90 100 ...
Escambia .............I 75 75
Holmes ................. 60 70 ... .....
Jackson .............. 60 50 ............
Okaloosa ............ 60 60 ....
Santa Rosa ............ 85 85 :............
W alton ............... 60 50 .........
Washinton ............ 50 42 ..... ..
C---- ]---- 1 ------


Gadsden ...... ...... 75 ..... ......
Hamilton ............ 65 100 ..... ...
Jefferson .............. 60 70 50 60
Lafayette .............. 90 100 .......... .
Leon ................. 80 85
Liberty ............... 80 85
Madison ............. 100 80 .......
Taylor ............... 80 75 ........ .....
Wakulla .............. 75 75 .........
Div., A., per cent ..... 78 83 50 60
Sortheaster. Division.
Alachua ........... .... 100 1 ..... .... .....
Baker ................ 80 75
Bradford .............. 100 110
Clay ................. 80 90 .. .....
Duval .............. 95 95 ........... ...
Nassau ............... 75 75 75 70
Suwannee .............. 68 80 ......... .... ...
Dir. Av., per cent.... 85 1 91 75 | 70
-ewtenal-. Dli4s4on.l


Brevard .............. 75 75 ..........
Citrus ................ 65 65 .......... .....
Flagler ................ 60 60 ....... .....
Hernando...........
Hillsborouhg......... 80 80 75 75
Lake ................. 80 60
Levy .................. 85 85 ...
Marion .... ......... 70 65 ........ ..
Orange ............... 60 65 .......... ..
Osceola ................ 100 100 75 80
Pasco ................ 80 80
Pinellas .............. 75 100 .... ..
Polk .................. 100 150
Seminole ............. 100 110 .. ... ..........
Volusia ...... ......... 90 90 .........
Div. Av. per cent .... 82 85 75 77
Toiuttern Division.


Broward .. . . I1 . .....
Dade ......... ..... 100 100 ... .
Lee ................ 60 50 95
Manatee ............... 95 95 ... .
Okeechobee ........... 100 100 ... .... ..
St. Lucie ........... 70 75 90 95
Div. Av., per cent..... 89 I 87 90 95
State Average, per cent..| 80 83 I 72 75












51

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Sugar Cane Borgkum
II i I
Western Division Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
Y__ield Yield
Bay i.........0 50.......... 80 .......
Escambia . . . .. . 50 50
Holmes ............. 90 90 ...... .... ...
Jackson ................ 80 90 60 50
Okaloosa ............. 75 75 . ..
Santa Rosa ........... 100 125 100 125
Walton ................ 80 85 75 70
Washington ........... 75 75 80 75
Div. Av., per cent..... 79 84 79 80
Northern Division.
Gadsden ............. 85 90 100 90
Hamilton .............. 80 85 100 100
Jefferson .............. 85 90 75 80
Lafayette ............ 100 100
Leon ................. 85 900 100
Liberty ............... 90 95 85 90
Madison .............. 100 80
Taylor ................ 80 75
Wakulla .............. 100 100
I- I----
Div. Av., per cent..... 89 89 90 92
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... 65 70 100 100
Baker ............... 70 '70 ........... ........
Bradford ................ 60 60
Clay .................. 100 100 100 100
Duval ................ 50 50 85 8Q
Nassau ............... 55 55 85 9
Suwannee ............. 65 90 70 90
Div. Av. per cent..... 66 71 88 92
Central Division.
Brevard ....... ...... .. ......... .. ......... .... .
Citrus ................ 80 85 50 75
Flagler . . . ...... 40 40
Hernando .......... .... . 90 90.
Hillsborough ..... ..... 50 60 80 30
Lake .. ........... 75 75
Levy ... ...... 90 90 70 70
Marion ............... 100 100 100 '100
Orange ...... ... .. ...... ....
Osceola ............. 100 100 100 00
Pasco so so 'O0 100
Pinellas ............... 80 100
Polk .................. 100 100 100 100
Seminole ........... ........ . ....
Volusia ............... 100 110 100 110
SI I I
Div. Av., per cent I... 87 I 91 81 83
Southern Division.
Broward ............... 110 100 .......... ...
Dade ............ . 100 100
Lee ..................... 95 100 90 100
Manatee ...... .... 80 80 ......
Okeechobee ............ 100 100 100 100
St. Lucie ....... ..... 95 100 100 75
Div. Av., per cent..... I 97 97 97 92
State Average, per cent..| 84 1 86 7 I 88












52


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Fiel Pews Rice
PeaI I
Western Division Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
Yield I Yield
Bay .................. 75 80 ...... .. ........
Escambia ............. 75 75 50 50
Holmes ................ 90 90 100 100
Jackson ............... 80 60 60 70
Okaloosa .............. 90 90 .......... ..........
Santa Rosa ........... 90 80 100 135
W alton ................ 90 85 .......... ..... ...
Washington ........... 80 80 85 90

Div. Av. per cent..... 84 80 79 89
Northern Division.
Gadsden .............. 100 100 100 100
Hamilton ........ .... 100 100 100 100
Jefferson ............... 80 90 .......... ..........
Lafayette .............. 90 90 100 100
Leon ................. 90 100 75 75
Liberty ................ 90 100 100 100
M adison ............... .......... .................. .. ........
Taylor ............... ......... .. .. ........
W akulla ............... ........................... ... .......
Di. A., per cent..... 92 97 95 95
Northeastern Division.
Tachua .............. 90-- ...................
Baker ................ 60 75 100 100
Bradford ........ ... . ........ .
Clay .................... 100o 100 100 100
Duval ................ 100 100 100 100
Nassau ............... 80 85 75 75
Seminole ............... 80 90 95 95


Div. Av., per cet.....
Central Division.


85 I 90 I 94 I 94


Brevard ............... .......... ..
Citrus ................ 100 100
Flagler ....... .... ........... ........
Hernando ... .......... .......... .......
Hillsborough .......... 95 95
Lake ................. 75 70
Levy ................ 85 I 85
Marion ............... 90 I 90
Orange ............. ........ .
Osceola ............... .....
Pasco ................ 100 100
Pineellas ............... .... .....
Polk ................. [ 100 100
Seminole .............. 100 100
Volusia ................. 100 100
I. p
Div. Av., per cent..... 94 93


80
90
90
..........
50
..........
...... ....
80"'
100
100
100
..........
80


80
85
90
..........

.........

90
100
100

80
82


southern Division.
Broward .............. .......... .... ..... .......... ..........
Dade ................. 100 100
Lee .................. 85 65 75 85
Manatee ..... .......................... 80 80
Okeechobee ..... ...... 100 150 80 100
St. Lucie ............. 90 85 100 50
Dir. Av., per cent..... 94 100 82 79

State Average, per cent.. 90 I 92 87 87


,












'53

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Sweet Potatoes Das hen

Western Division Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
SYield_ Yield
Bay ................... 95 95 .......... .....
Escambia ............. / 125 125 ........ .
Holmes ................ 100 100 ..... .
Jackson ............... 80 60 .. .... ...
Okaloosa ............... 100 100 ... ..
Santa Rosa. ........... 100 130 100 100
Walton ............... 90 80
Washington ............ 80 85
Div. AV., per cent..... .96 97 100 100
Northern Division.
adsden .............. .......... ..........
Hamilton ............. 100 100 :: : ...
Jefferson ............... 70 75 .. ... .. ...
Lafayette .......100 100 ...... .......
Leon ............ .... 100 95 ....
Liberty ............. 100 100 . .
Madison .............. 100 100 ... .. ..... .
Taylor ........... 100 100 ... .... .
Wakulla ............... 1 0 100 ...... .. .....
Div. Av., per cent..... 97 96 ............
Northeastern Division.
Alachua .............. 1I00 1o00 ..........I.. 5
Baker ................ 100 100 75 7
Bradford .............. 100 100 ................
Clay ................. 100 90 .......... ........
Duval ................. 100 100 ..... .
Nassau ............... 80 75 75 75
Suwannee ............. 90 100 ..\....... .......
Div. Av., per cent..... 96 95 75 ] 75
Central Division. 5
Brevard ............. 65 75 100 100
Citrus ................ 80 90 ... ... ....
Flagler .............. 75 75
Hernando .............. 80 75 .......... ...
Hillsborough .......... 60 65 .......... .........
Lake ................. 85 70 80 80
Levy .................. 90 90 .......... ......
Marion .............. 100 110 .. .. .
Orange .............. 45 45. ..
Osceola ............... 90 100 80 100
Pasco ................ 100 100 90 .1 90
Pinellas .............. 50 50 .......... ......
Polk .................. 100 100 .. ..6 .
Seminole .............. 100 100 100 100
Volusia .............. 100 110 .......... .... .
I I
Div. Av., per cent.... 82 I 85 90 74
Sdothern Division.
Broward ............. 45. 60 8.5
Dade ................ 100 100 ... ....... .
Lee ................... 95 90
Manatee .............. 75 80
Okeechobee.... 100 100 100 100
St. Lucie ............... 95 85 100 110
Dit. Av., per cent..... 85 | 86 95 87
State Average, per cent.. 91 92 90 56












54'

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Cassava Peanuts
I I_ I
Western Division. Condition. Prospective Condition Prospective
SYield Yield
Bay .................. 100 100 98 100
Escambia ... .......... .. ........ 100 100
H olm es ................ .......... .......... .......... ..........
Jackson ............... .......... .......... 90 90
Okaloosa .............. .. .... .......... 100 100
Santa Rosa ............ ................. 100 140
Walton ............... ..................... 75 80
Washington ........... .................... 75 80
Div. Av., per cent..... 100 1 100 91 99


avortnern division.
Gadsden ................ .......... .......... 90 100
Hamilton .............................. 100 100
Jefferson ........ ......... ...... 75 85
Lafayette .............. .......... ........... 100 100
Leon ................. ....... ..... ..... .. 100 100 -
Liberty ............... .......... ............. 100 130
Madison ............... .......... .......... 100 100
Taylor ................ .......... .......... 100 100
Wakulla ............. ......... ......... 100 100
Dv. Ac. per cent..... .. ........... 96 I 102
I ... .. .... ...


Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... ......i..........i 90 90
Baker .. ......... ... ....... I.......... 90 90
Bradford ................ ........ .......... 60 80
Clay ........................ ..... ..... .......... 100 100
Duval ................ .......... .......... 100 100
Nassau ......................... ........... 80 85
Suwannee ............. .......... .......... 80 95
Div. Av., per cent..... ..... .. .......... 86 I 91
Central Division.


Brevard .............. ...................
Citrus .. ..' ........ ....................
Flagler ............... ...
Hernando ........................ ........ .
Hillsborough .......... 85 85
Lake ................. 90 90
Levy ... ............ .. .......
Marion ..........
Orange .............. .....................
Osceola ................ .......... ..........
Polk ................. .
Semin ole .............. ........ ....

Volusia .............. ..... ..........

Div. Av.. per cent.....I 88 92


100
10o
80
85
100




100
100

100
100
95


-. .i66

100
85
85
100

110
125
100
100


Southern Division.
Broward ............... .......... .......... 100 110
Dade ........................... .......... 100 110
Lee ............... .......... ........... 95 90
M anatee .............. .......... .......... 90 90
Okeochobee ....................... .......... 100 200
St. Lucie .... ........ ... ... ... ......... 95 95

Div. Av., per cent..... 1.... ... .......... 97 82
State Average, per cent.. I 94 I 96 93 95


.. .. . . I I ?













55


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Broom Corn MMilo aize
I I I
Western Division condition Prospecte Condition Prospectve
Yields Yield
Bay .................. .......... .......... ....................
Escambia ....................... ...... ...................
Holmes ............... ...... .............. .......... ..........
Jackson ............... .......... .......... ..... .. ........
Okaloosa .............. ....... ................... .........
Santa Rosa ....................... .... .... ...... ......
Walton ................ .......... ....... ...................
W ashington ........... .......... .. .......

Div Av.. per cent..... .......... .......... ...... ..........
Northern Division.
Gadsden ....
Hamilton............. ........ ........... .....
Jefferson .............. ... ...... .......... .......... ........
Lafayette .......
Leon ....................... .................. ...........
Liberty ......................... .......... ........... .........
Madison ............... ..... ...... ...............
T aylor ........... . ........... ... ............ ..........
W akulla ............... .... . .

Div Av.. per cent ....... .. .. .. ......... .......... .......
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ........................ .........................
Baker ................ .... ....... .......... ** **
Bradford ............ .... . ................. .. ...
Clay .... ............... .......... .......... .......... ....
D uval ................. .......... ..... ......
Nassau ............... .......... ........ .. .. ...**
Suwannee ............. .......... .......... *..................

Div Av.. per cent..... ........................
Central Division.
Brevard ............... .......... .......... ...... ............
Citrus .................. ................. ...... .........
Flagler ............... .......... ..... ........... ..........
H ernando ............. .......... ... ....... ... *** .....
H ills b o r o u g h . . . . . . . . .. .. .... .. . ... . . . ..
Lake ............... .......................................
Levy .. ....... .... ** ** *
M arion ............... . ... . ** ****
Orange ...........-..... I .. ................* .......
Osceola .............. ] ....... ..I..........
Pasco ............ *...... .......... .**** ..... .* .*...
Pinellas ................ ..... ............................
Polk .......... ....... ...... ............. ..... ..........
Seminole ........... ................... .....................
Volusia .............. ........ .. .. . ....... ..........

D iv A v., per cent..... .......... . ... I ..........
southernn Division.
Broward .............. .. ...... ....... .........
D ade .................. I .. .. .. .. .. .
Lee ............ ...... .......... .
M anatee .......... ......... .......... .......
Okeechobee ........... .......... .... .. ...... ..
St. Lucie ......... ..........* *8

Div. Av., per cent.............. I ..... 85 85

State Average. per cent.. .......... . ....... 85 85












56

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Native Hay Grasses Rhodes Gras# for Hay
I II
Western Division I Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
______ Yield i Yield
Bay ................... . ... .. .... .. ... ....
Escambia ............ 100 100 ....... .......
H olmes ............... .......... .......... ....... .. ....
Jackson ................ 60 50 .......... ....
Okaloosa .............. 100 100 ..................
Santa Rosa ........... .. .... .................... ..........
Walton ................. ........ ........... . ... ..........
Washington ......... ......... .... ......... .........
Av. per cent..... 87 8 ......... ..........
Northern Division.
Gadsden ............... 75 75 ..... ........
Hamilton ............. .......... .......... .......... .............
Jefferson ........................ .................... .......
Lafayette ......... ... .. ....... ........ .......... .......
Leon ................. 75 80 .......... .....
Madison ............. .......... .... ....................
Taylor ............ ... ........ .... .. .... .......
Wakulla ................ 50 50 .......... ....
D v. Av.. per cent.....I 73 76 ........ .........
North tern Division.
Alachua .............. 100 100 ........
Baker ............... 100 100 ..........
Bradford ............. 90 80 ....... .. ..
Clay ................. 100 100 .... ....
Duval ............... ...... .......... ....
Nassau ............... 60 70 ....... .
Suwannee ............. .......... .... ...... ......... .........
I I


Div. Av.. nor cent.........90 I


central Divison


Brevard ............... ..........
Citrus ................ 100
Flagler ................ 85
Hernando ............. ..........
Hillsborough ......... 60
Lake .................. 90
Levy ................. 60
Marion ............... 90
Orange ............... 100
Osceola ................. 100
Pasco ................ 70
Pinellas ............. 90
Polk ................. 100
Seminole ............. 100
Volusia ............... 100

Div. Av., per cent...... 89
Southern Division.


o90 i.. ..........


...i66 ... i6.
85
65 .......... .........
90 .......... ......
60 .... .. . .... .
100 100 100
100 .... ... . .........
100
100 100 60
70 ..... ...
100
150 ....... .....
100 .. ... ....
100 .... ..... .........

94 100 87


Broward .............. 90 75 1 I
Dade .................. 95 100 .. ... ... ...
Lee ................... 80 90 .......... ...
Manatee .............. 80 80 ..
Okeechobee ........... 100 100 ............
St. Lucl .............. 100 95 ... .
Div. Av., per cent...... 91 90 100 110


State Average, per cent. 86 I 87 100


r


98













57



REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Alfalfa I Natal Gross for HaV

Western Division Condition ProspectiveI Condition Prospective
__ Yield I0 Yield
Escam bia ........... ..... .. .................... ....
Holmes ........... .. ....... ........ .......... ..........
Jackson ....... ......... . ...... . .. ..
Okaloosa .............. ... ... . .. .
Santa Rosa ............ .......... ... ....... .......
W alton ............... .......... .......... ...... .... ..........
W ashington ........... .......... .......... .......... ..........

Div. Av., per cent..... ........... .......... ........ .
Northern Division.
Gadsden .......... . 75. 75. .. ........ .
Hamilton ........
Jefferson ........ ... ....
Lafayette .......... .. . .. ...
Leon .............. ...... .........
Liberty ........................ ....
Madison ................ ...... ...
Taylor ................ .......... .. ....... ... .
Wakulla .............. .................... 5
Div. Av., per cent. .... 75 75 50 50

Ala hua................. ................... .......... ..........
Baker .............. ........ .
Bradford ... ......... .
Clay .............. .. .. ......... .............. . . .::::::
D uval ................. .......... ......... . ......... . .. .. ....
N assau ... .... . .. ...... ........ ........ .........
Suwannee .. ......... ....... ......... .......... .. .......

Div. Au ., per ent..... ........ .. .......... .......... ..........
Central Division.


Brevard ............... .......... ..........
Citrus ......... .............. ............
Flagler ........ .. .......... ..........
Hernando ....................................

Levysborough .... .. ........ ..........
Lakerion..... ....... ......... ..........
Levy ................. .......... ...........
M arion ............... .......... ..........
Orange .............. ......... ..........
Osceola ................ ...... ....
Pasco ................ 70 70
Pinellas ............. ..... .........
Polk ................... ......... ..........
Sem inole .. .. .................. .. ........
V olusia ............... .......... ..........

Div. Av., per cent ..... 70 I 70


.......... I ........
75 75
75 75
... ...... ,** .....







75 50


Southern Division. ..
Broward ............... .......... .......... IS00 110
Dade ................. ........ ..... ...
Lee ................ ..... ...... ... ....... 65 50
M anattee ............. ........ .... .. .. .. .. .. ..........
Okeechobee ............. ......... ......... ... .. .......
Stt. Lucie ............. ..... . .......... .......... ..........

Div. Av., per cent...... ........ ... ........... 8- 1 8

State Average, per cent.. 72 72 70 68


I


I













58

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Velvet Beans I Boy Beans

Western Division Condition IProspective Condition Prospective
Yield Yield
Bay .................. 100 100 .......... ... .
Escambia ............... 100 150 100 100
Holmes ............... 100 100 ....... .. ..
Jackson .............. 80 80 .. .. ... ..
Okaloosa ............. 75 75 .......... ..........
Santa Rosa ............ 100 100 100 100
W alton ................ 90 95 ...... ..... ....
Washington ........... 90 90 ........ .........
Div. Av., per cent..... 92 99 100 100
Northern Division.
Gadsden ............... 100 100 100 100
Hamilton ............. 100 100 .......... ..........
Jefferson ............... 60 70 .......... ..........
Lafayette .............. 100 100 .......... ..........
Leon ................. 90 100 50 75
Liberty ................ 85 90 .......... ..........
Madison .............. 100 100 ....................
Taylor ................ ..... . ..
Wakulla .............. 100 100 75 100
Div. Av., per cent..... 92 95 72 92
T-rb-theastern Diviaton.
Alachua ............. 100 100 ...................
Baker ................ 100 100 ....................
Bradford .............. 90 80 ....................
Clay ...............'.. 100 100 ......... ..........
Duval .................. 100 100 ....................
Nassau ................ 80 80 80 80
Suwannee ............. 100 100 ....................
Div. Av., per cent..... 96 94 80 80
central Division.
Brevard ...... .. .. .. .. ..........
Citrus ...................... 100 100 ....................
Flagler ................ 50 60 .........
Hernando ............. ..... ...... .. ...... .. .... ..........
Hillsborough .......... 90 90 ........ ..........
Lake ................. 90 90 .................
Levy ...... .......... 80 80 .......... .........
Marion ................ 90 100 .......... .......
Orange ............... 85 90 ........ .....
Osceola ................ 80 100 ............. ..
Pasco ................ 90 100 ..... ..........
Pinellas ....... ........ 90 100 ....................
Polk .................. 100 100 ....................
Seminole .............. 100 100 .......... .........
Volusia ............... 100 100 70 50
F I I --

outhern Division.
Broward .............. 60 60 95 80
Dade ................. 100 100 .......... ....... .
Lee .................... 50 50 .......... .........
Manatee ............... 80 80 ...
Okeechobee ............ 75 100 .... ...
St. Lucle .............. 85 90 90 95
Dir. Av., per cent..... 75 80 92 88
State Average, per cent.. 89 92 83 82












59

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Jap (ane for Forage Pasture (All Kinds)

Western Division. Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
_Yield I Yield
Escambia ............ 7 75 100 75
Holmes .... ........... .................. 100 90
Jackson ................................... 80 80
Okaloosa ............. ....... ............. .. .. .
Santa Rosa ........... 100 100 100 120
Walton ............... 90 90 90 85
Washington ........... ... ..... ..............
Div. Av., per cent.....I 88 88 I 94 I 90
Northern Division.
Gadsden .............. .......... .......... 85 85
Hamilton ............. 100 100 .......... .......
Jefferson ............. .. ...... ....... 60 60
Lafayette .............. 100 90 75 80
Leon ................. 90 90 75 80
Liberty .......... ......... ......... 80 85
Madison ......... ..... .. .................
Taylor ........... . ...... .. 1........ 100 100
Wakulla .............. .......... ......... 75 I 75
Div. Av., per cent..... 97 93 1 79 I 81
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ................ 100 100 100 100
Baker ....... .. .. .... ............ 100 90
B radford ............. .......... .......... .... ......
Clay ......... ......... .......... 100 100
Duval ................. ......... ........... 95 90
Nassau ........... ................... 75 90
Suwannee ............ 100 95 1 80 90
Div. Av.. per cent..... 100 I 97 I 92 I 93


Central Division.
Brevard ..... .....
Citrus ................
Flagler ...............
Hernando .............
Hillsborough .........
Lake .........
Levy .........
M arion ...............
Orange...............
Oseeola .... ...
Pasco ................
Pinellas .. .......
Polk ..................
Seminole ..............
Volusia ...............


.........."
100

95
..........
100
90
. ..........
90.
. i66


100
..... 6 ...
65
95
....i56"..
100
80
.........
900
100


""ido i66t


Ir .... i66 ... I ... 662 I .1
Div- Av.. ne9 cent..... I 91 I


---80- 90
100 100
1gO
65 65
70 "' 75
90 90
80 80
100 105

..... "' ...... .. -
. .90. '. . 5"'"

100 100
100 100
100 100
89 1 91


Southern Division.
Broward .............. 100 110 .......... ........ .
Dade ... ..... ..... ... .....
Lee .................. 90 85 75 85
Manatee .............. 95 95 90 90
Okeechobee ............ . 100 125 100 125
St. Lucie ............. 100 95 100 1 100
1I I I
Div. Av., per cent .... 97 I 102 I 91 i 100
tate Average, per cent. 95 94 89
State Average, per cent. I 95 I 94 1 89 I 91














60


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Bananas Mangoes

Western Division. Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
Yield Yield
Bay .................. .... .. .. .... ....
Escambia .............. .. ........ .....
Holmes ............... ....... ... . ........
Jackson ............................ ... ... ...*
Okaloosa ............... .... ...... ....... ... ........*
Santa Rosa ............ ......... .......... ......... ...........*
Walton ........................... ...........................
W ashington ........... .......... ... .... .. .......... .....
Washington .......................

?Dv. Av., per cent..... ......... ..I.. ..... ........****
Northern Division.______________
Gadsden ............... ....... .......... ............
Hamilton ............. .......... .................
Jefferson .............. ......... .......* ..... . .* *..
Lafayette ............. ..................* ....
Leon ................. ........ .... .... ....... .....
Liberty ....... ............ .......... .............
Madison ........................ ............. .I ....... ........
Wakulla ..........................***. I ...... *.

Dir. Av.. per cent..... I..... ......... ...I........ ........ ....
Northeastern Division.
SI I


alachua ..........
Baker ........................ .......... .......... ........
Bradford ............. .......... ......... ....... . ......
Clay ................... .......... .......... .......... ..........
Duval ................. .......... .......... .......... ..........
Nassau ...................... ........... ........... .. .........
Suwannee ........... .... ...... .... ..........**** * *..

Div. AT., per cent..... .......... .. I.... .......... .........
enutmrl Df.innvia ~


Brevard ...............
Citrus ................
Flagler ................
Hernando .............
Hillsborouh ............
Lake ..................
Levy .................
Marion ...............
Orange ................
Osceola ...............
Pasco .................
Pinellas ...............
Polk .................
Seminole...............
Volusia ................

Div. Av., per cent.....


50 50
. . . . . . *

.....56" ******o




.... .. ... .........
80 80




... 6. 1 ......
61 51 ,


Southern Divits$on.
Broward ........... 100 110 ..... ... 125
Dade ............100 0 110 100 90
Lee ............... .. .... .. 100 10
Manatee ....... .... ...0 20 20 j0 10
Okeechobee .......- ......*...-- ** ..... ** ... *****...
St. Lucie ............. 90 100 65 50

Div. Av., per cent..... 76 75 64 51

State Average, per cent.. 68 63 64 51


..... ... ...
.......... ..........
.......... ..........




......... ..... ...
.......... ....




.......... i..... .* . -.


r


S...... ... ..


I


I
















REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


nay ..................
Escambia ..............
Holmes ...............
Jackson ...............
Okaloosa ..............
Santa Rosa ............
W alton ..............
Washington ............


Div. Av., per cent.
VtJ.c...~ flfnJoJne


.......... ...---***-
|.......... .........
.......... .. *
.......... **
.. . ... .......***
. .. ... ......*

.. ....... .- -


..........................

..........................



I.


Gadsden ........................ .......... .......... ..........
Hamilton ....................... ........... ....................
Jefferson .............. .................... .... . ..
Lafayette ...................... .......... 100 150
Leon ........................... .......... 90 90
Liberty................................... .. ..................
Madison ............... .................... .......... ........
Taylor .............. ..... .......... .......... ........
Wakulla ............. .. ....... .........

Div. Av.. per cent .......... .......... 95 121
Northeastern Diviaton.
Alachua .............. .......... .......... ..... '' ..... *"
Baker .................. ....... ......... 9 0
Bradford ............. ........ .......... .......... ..........
Clay ................... .........................
Duval ................ ...................... 90 90
Nassau ................ ...... .... .. .. 90 90
Suwannee ............. .......... .......... .......... ..........

Di. Av.. per cent...... ......... ......... 90 90
Central Divisio


B
C
F
H
H
L
L
M
0
0
P
P
P
St
V


revard .............. . ..........
citrus ................ .........
lagler ................ *.. ..........
ernando ............. ..........*** .*
illsborough ........... ........... .........
ake .................. *.......... ..........
evy ................. ......... ..........*
arion ............... ........ .. .........
range ............. ........ .....
sceola ............... o io
asco .................. .......... ..........
inellas ............... .......... ..........
olk ..... ..... ..... . .......... ..........
eminole .............. ........... ..........
olusia ...................... .........* *
nir Av.. nr cent..... 60 I 10


Noutnern tson. 100 125
Broward .............. 90 925
Lee .................. 25 25
Manatee .............. 25 25
Okeechobee ....... .......... .. ._. *
St. Lucie .............. 85 B

Dir. Av., per cent..... 65 55

State Average, per cent.. 62 822


90 90
100 10
85 84

. ... .. .. ... -' .

.... "' ".......


........ .. ...... .""

88 "' 8'""4"

88 84


100
........ ...


....10
95

98

93


lou


100
95

S 115

102


I


*


... '


r


-- -- 5--


,


I












62

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY GI uavas Orange Trees

Western Division. Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
I Yield Yield
B ay .................. .......... ..... .
Escambia ...........
Holmes ... ........... ..................................
Jackson...............................................
Okaloosa ...........
Santa Rosa ............ ........ ......... o0 85


Div. Av., per cent..... .......... .......... 80 85
Northern Division.

Hamilton .................
Jefferson .............. ........... ......... ... .. .....
Lafayette ............... ....... ............ 75 100
Liberty ............... .... 100 100
M adison ........... .......... .... . .
Taylor ............... .... ...... ..... ..... ....
W akulla ............... .... ...... .......... ..... ..... ......
Div. Av. per cent.....|....................I 87 I 100
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... ........ .......... 75 50
Baker ............... ......... ......... 25 75
Bradford ............... .......... .......... .
Clay ................ .......... ....... . ........ .... ...
Duval ................ .................... 80 60
uwannee s ..... ........... .. ........ ......... ......

Div. Av., per cent..... ..... ..... .... .. 60 62
Central Division.
Brevard ............................ 80 75
Citrus .................................... 85 100
Flagler ......................... ....... ... 35 75
Hernando ...................... ....... 75 50
Hillsborough ........... 55 35 75 50
Lake .................. .......... .......... 8560 70
Levy .............. 60 50
M arion ............... .................... 75 90
Orange ..................................... 90 60
Osceola :............... 30 80 95 90
Pasco ................. 10 10 90 90
Pinellas ................ .......... .......... 80 100
Polk .................. ..................... 100 125
Seminole ................................... 100 110
Volusia ............... .................... 85 80

Div. Av., per cent..... 32 42 81 82
Southern Division.
Broward .............. .......... .......... 0012
Dade ................. 80 80 95 80
Lee .................. 65 25 80 80
Manatee .............. 30 30 75 75
Okeechobee ........... .......... .......... 100 100
St. Lucie ............. 90 10 95 100

Div. Av., per cent..... 66 | 36 91 93
State Average, per cent.. | 49 39 80 84













63


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


Escambia .............. ..........
Holm es ............... ..... ....
Jackson .............. ..... ....
Okaloosa .............. ..........
Santa Rosa ............ ..........
Walton ............... .........
Washington ......................

Div. Av., per cent................


............
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . .. . . . .
. . . . .. . . . .
.. .. . .. ... . .

.. .. ..... ..


Northern Division.
Gadsden ... : : ::::::::........... ..........
H am ilton ................ .... . ...... . ...... .. ... .....
Jefferson .............. .......... .... ..........
Lafayette ......................... ...............................
Leon .......................... .......... .. .. ........
Liberty ............ .......... ....... ....................
M adison ........... ........ .......... .......... ......
Taylor ................. .......... ... ... ..... ........ ..........
W akulla .............. .... .......... ......... ..........

Div. Av., per cent..... .... .... ... ... .......... ...... ...
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... .......... ......... ........ ...........
B aker ............... ....... .. ...... .. .. ...... ...
Bradford ............... .......... ......... ............
Clay ................. ..... .......... .. ... ... .........
Duval .............. .. ...... ........
Nassau ..... ......................... . ..... .... ...
Suwannee ...... ... .. .............. ... ..: ........

Div. Av., per cent..... .......... I ..... .. ... ..... .... ..
Central Division.


Brevard ............... ...... .
Citrus ..........................
Flagler .............. ..........
Hernando ............ ..... .
Hillsborough ........... 75
Lake ................. .. .........
Levy .............. .. ........
Marion ............... 75
Orange ......... ....... ...
Osceola ............... 70
Pasco ............... ... .........
'Pinellas .......... .........
Polku ............ ..........

SDiv. v., per cent.... 7
Volusia

Div. Av., per cent ..... 73


.........."




*"**...."






33


.... ...-*
50


75
60






59


10


50




92


39


Southern Division.
Broward .............. 10 110 100 110
Dade ....... .. ..... ........ 100 100
Lee ............... 85 75 95 100
Manatee
Okeechobee...... 0 ..... i.....50 75
St. Lucie ............. 95 85 95 15

Div. Av., per cent..... 95 92 88 80

State Average, per cent.. 1 84 62 73 59


,


I












64

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Grape Pruit Trees Grapes

Western Diviosion Condition Prospectivel Condition Prospective
S Yield I Yield

Escambia............... ......... .......... .......... ..........
Holmes ................ ......... .......... 100 100
Jackson ................ .. .. . .......
Okaloosa ..........
Santa Rosa ............. ......... .......... .......... ..........
W alton ............... ......... ....... .... ....
W ashington ............ ....... ..... ......
Div. Av.. per cent.... ......... .......... 100 10t
Northern Division.


Gadsden .............. .......... .................. .
Hamilton ............... ........... .. ....... 100
Jef:erson...............
Jefferson ................ .......... .......... ......
Lafayette .............. 90 100 90
Leon .................. ........ ......... 190
Liberty ............... ....................I 100
Madison ............... ........ ..................
Taylor ............... ........ ......... ...... .
Wakulla ........... ... .......... ......... 100

Div. Av.. Der cent....l 90 i 100 I 9


.. o...o"


90
100

100
....i66"
100


Northeaster* Division.
Alachua ............... .......... ..........
Baker ................. 15 25 100 100
Bradford ........ ...... .......... .... ..... ... ...........
Clay ............................ ......... 100 100
Dural .................. 80 50 100 60
Nassau ............... i ......... .......... 90 100
Suwannee ............. ......... ..... . ........


Dir. AY nor cent .


47 27 07


Central Division.
Brevard ............ .... 70 60 .......... .........
Citrus ............. 80 80 100 100 *
Flagler ................ 50 50 75. 75
Hernando ............... 40 0 ..... ... ....
Hillsborouh ............ 75 50 65 50
Lake ................. 85 40 .......... ......
Levy ............ .......... .. .... ... 75 7
Marion ............... 75 0 100 100
Orange ................ 75 50 .. ..... .....
Osceola ............... 100 100 100 100
Pasco ................. 80 90 100 100
Pinellas ................ 75 75 ..... .. ....
Polk .................. 100 125 100 100
Seminole .............. 100 110 ........ ..........
Volusia ................ 85 h0 .......... ..........

Div. A., per cent..... 78 74 89 87
Southern Division.
Broward ........... 95 95 .......... ........
Dade ................. 95 75 .......... .... ......
Dade ................. 95 75
Lee ................... 90 90 ..... .. .. ........
Manatee ................ 90 90 30 30
Okeechobee ............ 100 100 100 100
St. Lucie .............. 95 100 85 20

Div. Av., per cent..... 94 92 72 50
State Average, per cent.. 77 76 1 87 84






















PART III.


Fertilizers, Feeding Stuffs, and Foods and Drugs.













R. E. ROSE,
State Chemist


&-But.












FERTILIZER, FEEDING STUFFS, AND
FOODS AND DRUGS

ANALYSES MADE BY STATE LABORATORY.

Only such materials are analyzed by the State Labora-
tory as are directed by the Pure Food, the Fertilizer, and
Stock Feed Laws.
There are no fees or charges of any kind made by the
State Laboratory.
The State Laboratory is not permitted to compete with
commercial laboratories.
No commercial work of any kind is accepted.
The State 'Laboratory does not analyze the materials
used by, nor the products of Fertilizer, Feed Stuffs or
other factories, by which to guarantee their goods. Such
analyses are commercial problems.
The State Laboratory does not analyze samples for in
dividual account wherein the public is not interested.
Such samples should be sent to a commercial laboratory.
The State Laboratory does not make bacteriological
examinations for disease germs. Such examinations are
made by the State Board of Health at Jacksonville, Fla.,
which has entire charge of the public health.

ANALYSES IN C IMINAL CASES.

The State Laboratory doe, not make post mortem ex-
aminations, nor furnish evidence in criminal cases, (ex-
cept as provided by the Pure Food, Fertilizer and Stock
Feed Laws). Such analyses and examinations are made
by specialists employed by the grand jury and prosecut-
ing attorney, the cost being taxed as other criminal costs,
by the court.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist.
Approved:
W. A. McRAE, Commissioner of Agriculture.
Tallahassee, Fla., July 1, 1917.,












STATE OF FLORIDA.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

JULY 1, 1917.

REGULATIONS GOVERNING THIE TAKING AND
FORWARDING OF SAMPLES OF COMMERCIAL
FERTILIZER AND COMMERCIAL FEEDING
STUFF TO THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICUL-
TURE FOR ANALYSIS BY THE STATE CHEMIST.

The following regulations for drawing, preparing and
sending samples of commercial fertilizer and commercial
stock feed, under the authority given in Section 15 of
Chapter 4983, Acts of 1901, (Chapter XXII, General
Statutes), as amended by Chapter 5660, Acts of 1907, and
Section 15, Chapter 5452, Acts of 1905, as amended by .
Chapter 5661, Acts of 1907, are this day adopted.

OFFICIAL SAMPLES, drawn by State Chemist, As-
sistant State Chemists or Inspectors.

An approximately equal quantity (a pint or a pound
approximately), shall be taken from each of ten original
packages of the same brand in the possession of any
manufacturer, dealer or person, when the lot being sam-
pled contains ten or more packages of the same brand.

In case the lot contains less than ten packages of the
same brand, each package shall be sampled as directed.

Preparation of Sample.-The several samples, drawn as
above from each package, shall be carefully and thor-
oughly mixed. From this well mixed lot drawn from
each package as above, a fair sample of not less than one
pound, in the case of fertilizers, and of not less than
one-half pound in the case of stock feed, shall be placed
in a bottle or tin can-approximately a quart can or
bottle.











The sample shall be delivered to the State Chemist,
who shall prepare the same for analysis (by properly
grinding, mixing and sifting the same). The State Chem-
ist shall retain one-half of this prepared sample for ana-
lysis, the remainder shall be placed in a glass bottle,
sealed, and identified by the laboratory number and date,
and placed in the custody of the Commissioner of Agri-
culture. These duplicate samples shall be retained for a
period of three months from the date of the certificate
of analysis. In case of appeal from analysis of the State
Chemist (within three months from the date of the cer-
tificate), the sample shall be retained indefinitely, until
the final disposition of the case.
Special Samples.-Samples drawn and transmitted by
the purchaser under Sections 9 of both the Conmercial
Fertilizer and the Commercial Stock Feed Laws.
The purchaser or owner of the material to be sampled,
when the lot or shipment contains ten or more original
packages, each bearing the guarantee tag and stamp re-
quired by law, of the same brand, shall take in the pres-
ence of two witnesses, within sixty days after delivery,
an approximately equal quantity from each of ten pack-
ages of the same brand (approximately a pint or a
poundd, after carefully and thoroughly mixing these
samples, a fair sample of the mixture, not less than a
pound in the case of commercial fertilizer, and not less
than one-half pound in the case of commercial stock feed,
shall be placed in a bottle or tin can, and sealed in the
presence of the witnesses.
On the sample thus drawn shall be written the name
and address of the purchaser, and the name of a disin-
terested party, who shall transmit the package to the
Commissioner of Agriculture by mail or express, properly
packed to prevent damage in transportation.
In case the lot or shipment contains less than ten
original packages of the same brand, each bearing the
guarantee tag and stamp required by law, each package
shall be sampled as provided in the foregoing paragraph,
the samples mixed and a fair sample of the lot, "one or
more packages," shall be drawn and transmitted as pro-
vided in the foregoing paragraphs.











The purchaser, or sender of the sample, shall also ad-
dress a letter to the Commissioner of Agriculture, advis-
ing him of the sending of the sample, stating the number
of original'packages purchased, each bearing the guar-
anteed analysis and inspection stamp required by law,
the number of packages represented by the sample, the
date of purchase, and the date of delivery of the goods.
THIS LETTER MUST NOT BE ENCLOSED IN THE PACKAGE.

The object of the sealed bottle or tin can is to prevent
the evaporation of the moisture from the sample-an im-
portant determination.

SAMPLES IN PAPER OR WOODEN PACKAGES WILL NOT BE
ACCEPTED.

These regulations are adopted to secure fair samples
of sufficient size to allow the preservation of a duplicate
sample in case of protest or appeal. This duplicate sam-
ple will be preserved for three months from the date of
certificate of analysis.

The State Chemist is not the proper officer to receive
special samples from the purchaser.

The propriety of the method of drawing and sending
samples as fixed by law is obvious.

The drawing and sending of special samples is in rare
cases in compliance with law. Samples are frequently
sent in paper boxes, badly packed, and frequently in very
small quantity (less than an ounce); frequently there
are no marks, numbers or other means of identification;
the postmark in many instances being absent.

The attention of those who desire to avail themselves
of this privilege is called to Sections 9 and 10 of the
laws, which are clear and explicit.












NOTE: HEREAFTER, STRICT COMPLIANCE WITH ABOVE
REGULATIONS WILL BE REQUIRED. THE SAMPLE MUST NOT BE
LESS THAN ONE POUND OF FERTILIZER OR ONE-HALF POUND OF
STOCK FEED, IN A TIN CAN OR BOTTLE, SEALED AND ADDRESSED
TO THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. THE PURCHASER'S
NAME AND ADDRESS, AND THE NAME OF THE SENDER, MUST
ALSO BE ON THIS PACKAGE, THIS RULE APPLYING TO SPECIAL
SAMPLES OF FERTILIZER OR COMMERCIAL FEEDING STUFF,
DRAWN AS DIRECTED.

NOTE: A one-pound baking powder tin can', properly
cleaned, filled with a fairly drawn, well-mixed sample,
drawn as directed, is a proper sample. IT MUST BE SEALED
AND ADDRESSED TO THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTrURE, AT
TALLAHASSEE. THE "PURCHASER'S NAME AND ADDRESS, AND
THE NAME OF THE SENDER MUST ALSO BE PLACED ON THE
PACKAGE.

IF MORE THAN ONE SAMPLE IS SENT REPRESENTING DIF-
FERENT BRANDS, THE SAMPLES MUST BE NUMBERED SO AS TO
IDENTIFY THEM. ALL THIS SHOULD BE DONE IN THE PRES-
ENCE OF THE WITNESSES, AND THE PACKAGE MAILED OR EX-
PRESSED BY A DISINTERESTED PERSON.

NOTE: The tags off the sacks with the guaranteed
analysis and stamps, and names of manufacturers, should
be retained by the purchaser, to compare with the certifi-
cate of analysis when received and NOT SENT TO THIS OF-
FICE. /

Raw Phosphates: Ground raw phosphate rock-hard
or soft-contains phosphoric acid, more or less available,
hence is classed a fertilizer, when sold to consumers for
fertilizing purposes, under Section 11 of the law; and is
required to be guaranteed and stamped as required by
Section 3; listed and guaranteed under oath, as required
by Section 5, and the inspection fee paid previous to sale
as provided by Section 6.

Lime is not classed as a fertilizer. It is not required to
be sold under guarantee, nor the inspection fee paid;
hence is not subject to free analysis by the State Labora-
tory.











OBJECTS OF THE LAWS.

The objects of the Fertilizer and Stock Feed Laws are:
First, to' protect the consumer from fraud, false repre-
sentations by illegitimate dealers who have not complied
with the law, nor filed their guaranteed analysis under
oath, and who have not paid their inspection tax fixed
by law.

Second, to protect the lawful dealer who has fully com-
plied with the law, by filing his guarantee under oath,
and has paid his inspection fee, and who has placed upon
each bag or other package, a guarantee tag showing the
minimum percentage of valuable ingredients in the ferti-
lizer or feed stuff, as provided by the law.

These regulations supercede and revoke all previous
regulations governing the drawing and transmitting of
samples of commercial fertilizer and commercial stock
feed.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist.
Approved:

W. A. McRAE, Commissioner of Agriculture.
Tallahassee, Florida, July 1, 1917.

NOTE: These regulations are adopted to conform with
the decision of the Supreme Court of Florida of May 12,
1917, as follows:
"The terms of the statute in giving the special right
of action to 'any person purchasing' fertilizer clearly con-
templates that the test shall be made with at least some
degree of promptness after the delivery of the fertilizer,
and that more than one sample shall be taken when the
quantity of fertilizer purchased makes it expedient to
have plural samples to secure a fair test."











SPECIAL SAMPLES.

Florida is the only state in the Union that provides
for the "Special Sample" drawn by the consumer or pur-
chaser, UNDER PROPER RULES AND REGULATIONS FIXED BY
LAW-to be sent to the Commissioner of Agriculture for
analysis free of cost. Any citizen in the State who has
purchased fertilizers or feeds FOR HIS OWN USE MAY DRAW
A SAMPLE OF THE SAME, ACCORDING TO LAW AND REGULA-
TIONS and have the same analyzed by the State Chemist
free of cost. In case of adulteration or deficiency, the
purchaser can, on establishing the fact, receive double
the cost demanded for the goods.

The law requires the "special samples" to be drawn in
a manner to prevent the submission of spurious samples;
rules and regulations are published in every Quarterly
Bulletin for drawing and transmitting "special samples."

This special sample has been a most potent factor in
enforcing the law and discouraging the sale of adulter-
ated or misbranded goods.

Special samples of foods and drugs may also be sent to
the State Laboratory for analysis free of cost when the
sample is properly drawn according to' law. The neces-
sary instructions and blanks required to properly draw
and transmit samples of foods and drugs will be sent to
any citizen requesting the same.

"THE SPECIAL SAMPLE FURNISHES THE CON-
SUMER WITH THE SAME PROTECTION- DEMAND-
ED BY THE MANUFACTURER, WHO BUYS HIS
MATERIALS ONLY UPON GUARANTEE AND PAYS
FOR THEM ACCORDING TO ANALYSIS, AND IS
PAID FOR BY THE CONSUMER OUT OF THE
FUNDS DERIVED FROM THE INSPECTION FEE
OF TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER TON PAID ON FER-
TILIZERS AND FEEDS SOLD IN THE STATE."











COPIES OF LAWS, RULES AND REGULATIONS
AND STANDARDS.

Citizens of the State interested in fertilizers, foods and
drugs, and stock feed, can obtain, free of charge, the
respective laws, including rules and regulations and
standards, by applying to the Commissioner of Agricul-
ture, or State Chemist. Application for the Quarterly
Bulletin of the State Department of Agriculture should
also be made to the Commissioner of Agriculture, or
State Chemist. The bulletins of the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station can be had by application to
the Director, at Gainesville.
The form letter for transmitting special samples of
fertilizers or feeding stuffs as shown below is adopted and
must be explicitly complied with in order to obtain a legal
certificate of analysis.

FORM FOR TRANSMITTING SAMPLES OF COM-
MERCIAL FERTILIZER OR COMMER-
CIAL FEEDING STUFF.

.................., Fla., ............ 191..
HON. W. A. McRAE,
Commissioner of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Sir:
I send you today by mail (or express) a sample of
(Indicate Fertilizer, Cotton Seed Meal, or Feed Stuff.)
for analysis by the State Chemist.
This sample is taken from a lot'of...... packages, each
bearing the guarantee tag and stamp required by law,
purchased from a registered dealer, on the ..... day of
......... 191 ...., and delivered on or about the......
day of ..................., 191.....
This sample was drawn from..... .. .packages in the
presence of two witnesses, this day.
The guarantee tags and stamps off the packages sam-
pled are retained by the purchaser.
This sample is sent by me, one of the witnesses, for
Mr .............................., the purchaser.
Very truly,











HOW TO LEGALLY DRAW PACK AND TRANSMIT
SAMPLES OF FERTILIZERS AND COMMER-
CIAL FEED STUFFS FOR ANALYSIS
BY THE STATE LABORATORY.

1. Only such samples as are drawn from original
packages, EACH BEARING THE GUARANTEE OF A LAWFUL
DEALER, AND THE INSPECTION STAMP REQUIRED BY LAW, will
be analyzed by the State Laboratory, when drawn within
sixty days after date of delivery.
2. If the lot or shipment be TEN or more packages, the
sample must be drawn from NOT LESS THAN TEN packages.
3. If the lot or shipment be LESS THAN TEN packages,
the sample shall,be drawn from EACH package.
4. The sample shall be drawn in the presence of TWO
disinterested witnesses, and shall be SEALED IN THEIR
PRESENCE, and TRANSMITTED by a DISINTERESTED PARTY
(one of the witnesses), to the COMMISSIONER OF AGRI-
CULTURE.
5. Not less than one pound of fertilizer, or one-half
pound of commercial feed stuff must be placed in a tin
can or glass bottle and addressed and sent, prepaid to
the Commissioner of Agriculture.
6. The purchaser (or sender) shall address a letter
to the Commissioner of Agriculture, stating:
1. The number of original packages represented by
the sample, and the number of packages sampled.
2. That each package had attached to it the guaran-
tee tag and stamp required by law.
3. That the sample was drawn in the presence of two
or more witnesses within sixty days of delivery.
4. THIS LETTER MUST NOT BE ENCLOSED IN THE PACKAGE.
5. The tags OFF THE PACKAGES SAMPLED, with the guar-
anteed analysis and stamps, must be RETAINED by the pur-
chaser, to compare with the certificate, and for future
evidence, if necessary, and BY NO MEANS SENT TO THIS
OFFICE.
The State Chemist is not the proper officer to receive
the sample.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist.
Approved:
W. A. McRAE; Commissioner of Agriculture.
Tallahassee, Fla., July 1, 1917.









76

STATE VALUATIONS.

(Based on Commercial Values, October 1, 1918.)

For Available and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, Ammonia
and Potash, for the Season of 1918:

Available Phosphoric Acid ...............$ .071/2 a pound
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid ........... .01 a pound
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen) .35 a pound
Potash (as actual potash, KO) ........ .35 a pound
If calculated by units:
Available Phosphoric Acid ............ 1.50 per unit
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid ........... .20 per unit
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen) 7.00 per unit
Potash .......................... .... 7.00 per unit
With a uniform allowance of $3.50 per ton for mixing
and bagging.
A unit is twenty pounds, or 1 per cent. of a ton. We
find this to be the easiest and quickest method for cal-
culating the value of fertilizer. To illustrate this, take
for example, a fertilizer which analyzes as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid 6.22 per cent. x $1.50-$ 9.33
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid. .1.50 per cent. x .20- .30
Ammonia .... .............3.42 per cent. x 7.00- 23.94
Potash ................... 3.23 per cent. x 7.00- 22.61
Mixing and Bagging ...... 3.50

Commercial value at seaports ................. 59.68

Or a fertilizer analyzing as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid .8 per cent. x $1.50--12.00
Ammonia .................... 2 per cent. x 7.00- 14.00
Potash ......................2 per cent. x 7.00- 14.00
Mixing and Bagging ........ 3.50

Commercial value at seaports ............... 43.50

The valuations and market prices in preceding illus-
trations are based on market prices for one-ton lots.












MARKET PRICES OF CHEMICALS AND FERTI-
LIZING MATERIALS AT FLORIDA SEA-
PORTS, OCTOBER 1, 1918.

"Under unsettled conditions, quotations are wholly
nominal."
AMMONIATES.

Nitrate of Soda, 17% ammonia ................ 110.00
Sulphate of Ammonia, 25% ammonia ........... 175.00
Dried Blood, 16% ammonia .. .................. 144.00
Cyanamid, 20% ammonia ...................... 140.00
POTASH.

High-grade Sulphate of Potash, 90% sulphate
48% K20, ............................... Nominal
Low-grade Sulphate of Potash, 48% sulphate,
26% K,O ...... .......................... Nominal
Muriate of Potash, 80% ; 48% K20, ........... Nominal
Nitrate of Potash, imported, 15% ammonia,
44% potash K,O, ........................ Nominal
Nitrate of Potash, American, 13% ammonia,
42% potash K20, ........................ Nominal
Kainit, potash, 12% K20, .................. Nominal
Canada Hardwood Ashes, in bags, 4% K20
potash ................................. Nominal
AMMONIA AND PHOSPHORIC ACID.
High-grade Tankage, 10% ammonia, 5% phosphor-
ic acid .... .... ............... .......... 99.00
Tankage, 8% ammonia, 10% phosphoric acid ..... 84.00
Low-grade Tankage, 61/2%% ammonia, 12% phos-
phoric acid ................ ............. . 76.00
Sheep Manure, 31/2% ammonia, 1/2 potash ...... 31.00
Imported Fish Guano, 10% ammonia, 7% phos-
phoric acid ...............................107.00
Pure Fine Steamed Ground Bone, 3% ammonia,
22% phosphoric acid ....................... 50.00
Raw Bone, 4% ammonia, 22% phosphoric acid .... 55.00
Ground Castor Pomace, 51/2% ammonia, 2% phos-
phoric acid .............................. 56.00
Bright Cotton Seed Meal, 7% ammonia ........... 60.50
Dark Cotton Seed Meal, 41/2 ammonia .......... 35.00












PHOSPHORIC ACID.

High-grade Acid Phosphate, 16% available phos-
phoric acid ............ ............. .. .$24.00
Acid Phosphate, 14% available phosphoric acid .... 22.50
Bone Black, 17% available phosphoric acid ....... 32.00

MISCELLANEOUS.

High-grade Ground Tobacco Stems, 2% ammonia,
7% potash .... ........................... 73.25
High-grade Ground Kentucky Tobacco Stems,
21/2% ammonia, 8% potash .................. 77.00
Tobacco Dust No. 1, 2% ammonia, 2% potash .... 32.00
Cut Tobacco Stems, in sacks, 2% ammonia, 4%
Potash .................................... 54.00
Dark Tobacco Stems, baled, 2.% ammonia, 4% pot-
ash ................................ ...... 38.00
Land Plaster, in sacks ....................... 17.00
The charges by reputable manufacturers for mixing
and bagging any special or regular formula are $3.50 per
ton in excess of above prices.











NEW YORK WHOLESALE PRICES, CURRENT OCT.
1, 1918-FERTILIZER MATERIALS.
"Owing to unsettled conditions quotations are wholly
nominal."
AMMONIATES.

Ammonia, sulph...... '...... per 100 lbs.. 4.75 @ -
futures ............................. Nominal
Fish scrap, dried, 11 p. c. ammonia and 14
p. c. bone phosphate, f. o. b. facto-
ries .......................per unit 7.25 & 20
wet, acidulated, 6 p. c. ammonia, 3 p. c.
phosphoric acid, f. o. b. fish factories. 7.00 & 75
Ground fish scrap, 11 to 12 p. c. ammonia,
15 p. c. B. P. L., f. o. b. fish factory. 7.75 & 20
Tankage, 11 p. c. and 15 p. c., f. o. b. Chicago. 6.90 & 10
Tankage, 10' and 20 p. c., f. o. b. Chicago,
ground ............................ 6.90 & 10
Tankage, 9 and 20 p. c., f. o. b. Chicago,
ground ........................... 6.90 & 10
Tankage, concentrated, f. o. b. Chicago, 14 to
15 p. c. ..'........................ 6.70 @ -
blood, f. o. b. Chicago............. 7.10 @ -
Garbage, tankage, f. o. b. Chicago ........ 5.50 @ 5.75
Hoofmeal, f. o. b. Chicago ........ per unit 6.85 @ 6.90
Dried blood, 12-13 p. c. ammonia, f. o. b. New
York ............................. 7.25 @ 7.35
Tankage, New York .................... 7.25 @ 7.30
Garbage tankage, New York ............ 5.50 10 & 2.00
Nitrate of soda, 95 p. c., spot..per 100 lbs.. 4.324@ -
96 per cent ........................ 4.45 @ -











PHOSPHATE.
Acid, phosphate, bulk ............per ton 18.00 @ -
Southern ports .....................16.25 @17.50
Bones, rough hard ......................30.00 @32.00
soft steamed, unground .............. 24.00 @ -
ground, steamed, 1 p. c. ammonia and
60 p. c. bone phosphate ...........31.00 @ -
ditto, 3 and 50 p. c. ................. 37.00 @37.50
raw, ground, 4 p. e. ammonia and 50
p. c. bone phosphate ............... 50.00 @ -
South Carolina phosphate rock, kiln dried,
f. o. b. Ashley River ......'........... Nominal
Florida land pebble phosphate rock, 68 p. c.,
f. o. b. Tampa, Fla. ................. 5.00 @ -
Florida land pebble phosphate rock, 75 p. c.,
f. o. b .Tampa .................... 7.50 @ 8.00
Florida high grade phosphate hard rock, 77
p. ,c., f. o. b. Florida ports .......... 8.50 @ 9.00
Tennessee phosphate rock, f. o. b. Mt. Pleas-
ant, domestic, 78@80 p. c.....per ton 7.00 @ 8.00
75 p. c. guaranteed, per ton, 2,240 lbs.... 7.50 @ 8.00
78 p. c. ............per ton, 2,240 lbs. 7.50 @ 8.00
68@72 p. c., ground so that 90 p. c. will
pass through 100-mesh screen......
.................per ton, 2,000 lbs. 7.50 @ 8.00
POTASHES.
Muriate of potash, 38@42 per cent., basis
40 per cent., in bags........per ton.182.00 @ -
Muriate of potash, 80@85 per cent., basis
80 per cent., in bags........per ton.260.00 @310.00
Muriate of potash, min., 90@95 per cent.,
basis 80 per cent., in bags..........260.00 @325.00
Muriate of potash, min. 98 per cent., basis
80 per cent., in bags...............260.00 @325.00
Sulphate of potash, 90@95 per cent., basis
90 per cent., in bags...............325.00 @350.00
Double manure salt, 48@53 per cent., basis
48 per cent., in bags............... Nominal
Manure salt, min. 20 per cent., K20, in
bulk .............................. Nominal
Hardsalt, min. 16 per cent., K20, in bulk. Nominal
Kainit, min. 12.4 per cent., K20, in bulk. Nominal
First sorts potashes...............per lb. 22@ 25











COMMERCIAL STATE VALUES OF FEED
STUFF FOR 1918.

For the season of 1918 the following "State values" are
fixed as a guide to purchasers, quotation January 1st.
These values are based on the current prices of corn,
which has been chosen as a standard in fixing the com-
mercial values, the price of corn, to a large extent, gov-
erning the price of other feeds, pork, beef, etc.:
Indian corn being the standard at $73.50 per ton.
($3.65 per sack of 100 lbs., $2.04 per bu., 56 lbs.)
To find the commercial State value, multiply the per-
centages by the price per unit.
A unit being 20 pounds (1%7) of a ton.

Protein, 7.60c per pound .................... .$1.52 per unit
Starch and Sugar, 3.50c per pound ........ .70 per unit
Fats, 7.90c per pound .................... 1.58 per unit

EXAMPLE NO. 1.

Corn and Oats, Equal Parts:
Protein .........................11.15 x 1.52, $16.95
Starch and Sugar ............... 64.65 x .70, 45.25
Fat ............................. 5.20x 1.58, 8.22

State value, per ton .............. $70.42

EXAMPLE NO. 2.
Corn:
Protein ..........................10.50 x 1.52, $15.96
Starch and Sugar ................. 69.60 x .70, 48.72
Fat .............................. 5.40 x 1.58, 8.53

State value, per ton ............. $73.21


6---Bul.











STATE VALUES.

It is not intended by the "State valuations" to fix the
price or commercial value of a given brand. The "State
values" are the market prices, for the various approved
chemicals and materials used in mixing or manufactur-
ing commercial fertiliers or commercial stock feed at the
date of issuing a Bulletin, or the opening of the "season."
They may, but seldom do, vary from the market prices,
and are made liberal to meet any slight advance or de-
cline.
They are compiled from price lists and commercial re-
ports by reputable dealers and journals.
The question is frequently asked, "What is Smith's
Fruit and Vine worth per ton ?" Such a question cannot
be answered categorically. By analysis, the ammonia,
available phosphoric acid and potash may be determined
and the inquirer informed what the cost of the necessary
materials to compound a ton of goods similar to "Smith's
Fruit and Vine" would be, using none but accepted and
well-known materials of the best quality.
State values do not consider "trade secrets", loss on
bad bills, cost of advertisements and expenses of collec-
tions. The "State value" is simply that price at which
the various ingredients necessary to use in compounding
a fertilizer or feed, can-be purchased for cash in ton lots
at Florida seaports.
These price lists published in this report, with the
"State values," October 1, 1918, are nominal.











(ADDRESS BY R. E. ROSE, STATE CHEMIST, BE-
FORE THE LIVESTOCK ROUND-UP AND CITRUS
SEMINAR, GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA, SEPTEM-
BER 24-27, 1918).

I know of no better means of intelligently discussing
these very important subjects than to quote largely from
the report of the State Chemist for 1917; a reoprt which
doubtless each of you have received, but I imagine that
very few, if any, have considered the salient points there-
in contained; or recognize the enormous sums that are
annually paid by the stockman, the dairyman, and par-
ticularly the citrus grower, trucker and farmer, for these
two important commodities so largely consumed in the
State of Florida. I quote from the first page of the re-
port of 1917, as follows:
"The report of the State Treasurer shows the sale of
inspection stamps covering 214,087.92 tons of commer-
cial fertilizers and cottonseed meal, amounting to $53,-
521.92, and 132,789.12 tons of commercial feeding stuffs,
amounting to $33,197.28. A total revenue of $86,719.20.
Paid into the State Treasury to the credit of the general
revenue fund. From which is to be deducted the total
expenses of the chemical division, incident to the execu-
tion of the fertilizer, feed stuffs, and pure food and drug
law, including the expenses of the immature citrus fruit
law ($1,859.05), total expense of the chemical division
being $21,075.12, showing a balance of $65,644.08 paid
into the general revenue fund of the State.
I also quote from page 6, as follows:
"The samples 6f complete fertilizer, drawn by the State
Chemist, and inspectors had the following average com-
position and guarantees:
Avail.
Ammo. Phos. Acid Potash
Official analysis ...............3.52% 5.93% 2.10%
Guarantee ................ 3.19% 5.89% 2.28%
Excess above guarantee..... 0.33% 0.04% .....
Deficiency below guarantee....... .. 0.18%
Average State value found, per ton............ $47.05
Average State value guaranteed, per ton....... .$45.95"











Again, from page 7:
"The average composition of the official samples of
feed stuffs was as follows:
Starch and
Protein Sugar Fats
Official analysis ..........14.66% 52.67% 3.08%
Guaranteed analysis ......13.00% 52.50% 2.97%
Average excess ........... 1.66% 0.17% 0.11%
.To which I add the the following, which was omitted:
'The average commercial value of mixed feeding stuff
was $63.75 per ton, when compared with Indian corn at
$2.04 per bushel, or $73.00 per ton." Indian corn has been
selected as a standard, and a method devised with the
assistance of Prof. P. H. Rolfs, and others, for estimat-
ing the commercial value of various mixed feeds, as
shown on page 76 of the report.
I again quote from page 77 of the Report of 1917, as
follows:
"State Values.

* "It is not intended by the 'State valuations' to fix the
price or commercial value of a given brand. The 'State
values' are the market prices for the various approved
chemicals and materials used in mixing or manufactur-
ing commercial fertilizers or commercial stock' feed at
the date of issuing a Bulletin, or the opening of the 'sea-
son.' They may, but seldom do, vary from the market
prices, and are made liberal to meet any slight advance
or decline.
"They are compiled from price lists and commercial
reports by reputable dealers and journals.
"The question is frequently asked: 'What is Smith's
Fruit and Vine worth per ton?' Such a question cannot
be answered categorically. By analysis the available
ammonia, available phosphoric acid and water soluble
potash may be determined and the inquirer informed
what the cost of the necessary material to compound a
ton of goods similar to 'Smith's Fruit and Vine' would
be, using none but accepted and well-known materials
of the best quality.
"State values do not consider 'trade secrets,' loss on
bad bills; cost of advertisements and expenses of col-
lection. The 'State value' is simply that price at which









85

the various ingredients necessary to use in compounding
a fertilizer or feed can be purchased for cash in ton lots
at Florida seaports.
"The price lists, published in this report, with the
'State values,' January 1, 1918, are nominal."
Using these figures, which are obtained from the best
available sources-price lists published by reputable
dealers, fertilizer and feed stuff trade journals, and the
market prices quoted in the market reports of the larger
cities, Chicago, St. Louis, New York, and particularly our
seaport cities-with due allowance for freights and aver-
aging the cost of the raw materials, with no allowance
made for credits or cost of collections, but assuming a
strictly cash transaction and the purchase of materials
in ton lots, we have found the estimates are fair. Of
course, in purchasing in larger lots, carlots, reasonable
deductions can be obtained. However, the majority of
our consumers seldom purchase in more than ton lots.
It will be noted that the commercial feed stuff bill,
132,789 tons, valued at $63.75 per\ton at Florida seaports,
was $8,465,298;, which is equivalent (assuming Florida's
population to be one million) to $8.46 for each man,
woman and child in the State.
Again, we ,purchased 214,087 tons of commercial fer-
tilizers, the-average State value of which was $47.05 per
ton, or $10,072,783. costing each resident of the State. in-
cluding children, $10.07 per annum; a total bill of $18,-
538,092, or $18.53 per capital; always provided our aver-
ages, as shown by the analysis of the samples drawn
by our inspectors, gives a fair average of the goods sold
throughout the State.
Judging, however, by the "special samples" sent in
by the various growers of the State (the guaranteed
analysis of which the State Laboratory is not aware) and
the numerous complaints brought to our attention of de-
ficiencies, and the numerous settlements made, under Sec-
tions 9 and 10 of both the commercial "stock feed law
and the commercial fertilizer law, I am impressed that
numerous cases have occurred wherein the guarantee, as
expressed upon the tag, has not been fully met.
The few inspectors employed by the State, their mul-
titudinous duties in the inspection not only of feeds and
fertilizers, but all classes of foods, drugs and liquors,











makes it difficult, if not impossible, for the inspector to
visit the smaller localities and distributing points; hence
he finds it difficult to inspect feeds and fertilizers that
are frequently bought by the trucker and the dairyman
from itinerant agents of various "wild cat" feed and fer-
tilizer manufacturers, who may, or may not, have prop-
erly and lawfully registered their goods under oath with
the Commissidner of Agriculture; hence making it diffi-
cult, if not impossible, for the victim of these unholy
profiteers to obtain redress through the courts.
I wish to call your attention to the cost of the chemi-
cal control and inspection of foods, drugs, feeds and fer-
tilizers.
The cost of the control of this huge business, involving
some 350.000 tons of feed and fertilizer, valued at $18,-
000,000, has been some $21,000 per annum, which sum
also includes the cost of the inspection of foods and drugs
and the enforcement of the citrus fruit law-practically
6 cents per ton; and has paid into the treasury of the
State, over and above the cost of the execution of all the
inspection laws, $65,000 per annum; a sum paid by the
manufacturer, though charged to, and collected from,
the consumer.
In other words, a business involving some $18.000,000
pays to the State for its licenses and supervision, $87,000;
or less than one-half of one per cent, for protection from
the unscrupulous, unfair competition of illegitimate man-
ufacturers of inferior goods.
I have averaged the composition of 99 brands, or
formulas sold by two of our most reliable Florida fac-
tories (45 brands by one and 54 brands by the other)
with the following results:
Ammonia, 4.02%; available phosphoric acid, 6.51%;
potash, 2.67%; price, $60.75, as compared to the "State
value" of the average of all official samples (Ammonia,
3.52%; available phosphoric acid, 5.93%; potash, 2.10%;
State value, $47.05).
The price as quoted for the same quality of goods was
$53.50; or $6.45 in excess of the "State value" of ma-
terials in ton lots for cash, at Florida seaports; or
13.70% in excess of the cost of the materials necessary
to compound the goods.
The Agricultural Department, and the State Chemist,











have published numerous bulletins and warnings to the
consumers of feeds and fertilizers in Florida, advising
them to purchase only from reputable, legally registered
Florida dealers and manufacturers, who, being located,
and having a reputation to maintain, within the State,
will readily rectify any error in manipulation or mixing,
and amicably settle differences in value, where the short-
age has been demonstrated by analysis.
Owing to the abnormal prices of fertilizer materials,
the enormously increased demand for materials used for
fertilizers which are similar in many, if not all instances,
to the materials also used in the manufacture of explo-
sives; particularly nitrogen potash and sulphur; fertil-
izer materials are costing manufacturers enormously
more than the same materials prior to the present war.
Sulphuric acid, a necessary ingredient in most fertilizers,
particularly available phosphate, has more than doubled
in price; while potash, an essential fertilizing element, is
unobtainable from our former source of supply, Germany,
hence we have had to depend largely upon the compara-
tively small amount of potash obtained from divers or-
ganic sources; though I am pleased to say that a recent
communication, September 7, from Washington, on this
subject, states:

"Mid-Year Statistics on Production of Potash."

"The statistics on the production of potash for the first
six months of 1918 received by the United States Geolog-
ical Survey, Department of the Interior, to date show a
total output of 20.000 to 25,000 short tons of pure
potash, indicating that the output for the entire year
may reach 50,000 to 60,000 tons. As only 32,573 tons was
produced in 1917 the production is evidently increasing
rapidly. The domestic production now equals 20 to 25
per cent of the normal domestic consumption before the
war, which is estimated to have been about 240,000 tons.
The statistics for the first half of the year are not com-
plete, for returns have not yet been received from a few
large producers, and it is possible that the production in
1918 may exceed 60,000 tons, for reports indicate that a
number of new enterprises may be put into operation
during the second half of the year."











1 have always believed, and believe my confidence was
well founded, that diligent search would certainly de-
velop in America sources of potash equal in extent and
availability to the German mines; and believe that the
present war, with the necessity of obtaining an Ameri-
can supply, will result in the production of American
potash, which can be supplied at a reasonable price; that
not only will America become independent of German
dyes, but divers other manufacturers and materials,
which were formerly imported almost exclusively, but are
now being manufactured or produced in our own coun-
try.
In this connection I am pleased to quote a press dis-
patch of September 9, showing the rapidity with which
the American people are preparing to become indepen-
dent of imported, manufactured goods, particularly fer-
tilizers, potash and nitrogen, the two most necessary and
expensive fertilizer materials now used. Doubtless the
construction of this enormous hydro-electric plant will
greatly cheapen the cost of available nitrogen, potash
and phosphoric acid to our farmers, thus increasing our
crops of cereals and forages.
"One of the greatest of modern power projects, that
will furnish the power to take nitrogen from the air and
by the cyanamid process to make nitric acid and am-
monium nitrate for war use is under way at Mussel
Shoals, on the Tennessee river in northern Alabama.
"The nitrate plant is the outcome of a ten-years' fight
to secure water power development at this point. The
government is spending $30,000,000 to develop the 660,-
000 available horsepower, and with it produce nitrate
from the air. Twenty thousand men are at
work. Housing structures have already been erected to
take care of 19,000, and more are going up as rapidly as
lumber and nails and man power can construct them.
The, muddy waters of the Tennessee river are filled with
barges of stone, coal and all kinds of material marked
U. S. Government. Long lines of mule teams, their ne-
gro drivers nodding in the sunshine, move along the river
bank.
"Remarkable progress has been made in the work. Two
immense power dams must be constructed to develop the
water power. They will not be finished in time for use











during the war, unless it should last far longer than is
now anticipated. "
"Its ammonium nitrate shipments are already going to
the government powder mill at Hadley's Bend, near
Nashville. Eventually it will supply one-half of its out-
put to explosive plants where it will be loaded int shells.
"What this will mean to the American farmer can
scarcely be realized. Nitrogen is an essential in soils.
Nitrogenous fertilizers have been high in cost, but be-
cause the sole source of supply for the United States
has been the Chilean nitrate beds. After the war, with
this great plant in government ownership, and the neces-
sity of producing nitric acid and ammonium nitrate for
explosives reduced to a minimum, the plant will be able
to devote much of its capacity to the production of fer-
tilizer. This can be sold at cost to farmers.
"The power developed here is going to make this part
of the South the center of a great electro-chemical and
electro-metallurgical industry. Within a 300-mile radius
of Mussel Shoals are to be found raw materials for half
a dozen industries. These include potash from the high
grade potash feldspars of the southern Appalachians;
ferro-phosphorous; calcium carbide from limestone and
coal nearby, phosphorous fertilizer from the deposits of
phosphate rock within sixty miles of Mussel Shoals. It
only require an abundance of cheap power to make these
raw materials available.
"When Mussel Shoals produces cheaper power and has
the advantage of raw material at its doors, it would
seem that a new industrial era is opening here for the
South."
It is to be regretted that there are still among us, and
I suppose there will always be, a certain class of unscru;-
ulous profiteers, speculators if you please, who, taking
advantage of the necessity of their fellow countrymen,
and often of their ignorance, have foisted upon the pub-
lic so-called fertilizers and feed stuffs made of inferior,
and in many instances valueless, material, which under
high-sounding titles, extravagant claims of value, and ex-
tremely high prices (500 to 1,000 per cent above cost)
are sold tb those who are anxious to get "something
cheap," or unusually efficacious; who find at the end of









90

the season that their hopes have been vain and their in-
vestment lost.
I regret to say that a number of farmers and stock-
men, being honest themselves, are extremely credulous;.
and become the victims, sometimes of their own cupidity,
but generally of the unscrupulous profiteer who sells
them, at enormous prices, a wonderful feed stuff, or fer-
tilizer, a very small quantity of which, he alleges, will
take the place of a ton of honest goods made from the
recognized fertilizer materials-available nitrogen, phos-
phoric acid, and potash-or of protein, fat and soluble
carbohydrates in the case of feeds.
It is gratifying to know, however, that many if not
a majority of our orange growers are men of intelli-
gence and discrimination; and I am glad to say that
many such men are now being trained in our Univer-
sity, and that rudimentary science, particularly the
science of agriculture, is now being taught in our pub-
lic schools; and trust that the rising generation, the boys
and girls of the present age, will not continue to be the
victims of those unohly swindlers and profiteers.
The world-wide war for liberty and democracy, in
which we are now engaged, is also one of national and
individual co-operation. National, to preserve the lib-
erty and independence of nations, by the co-operation of
all nations. "One for all; all for one"-each individual
state or country an equal sovereign; its rights to be
protected by the Union of States. Personal rights, free-
dom and liberty, within the law, to be protected from in-
fringement by tyranny or fraud, or deception, by individ-
uals, society, state or nation.
The price of this world-wide liberty and freedom from
tyranny and autocracy will be terrible to ourselves and
our allies, in life and blood.
The material or economic cost will be neglible when
compared with the benefits received from this new birth.
The greatest of which will be the universal education
of the people of the world in the arts and sciences,
particularly the art and science of agriculture; when
"they shall beat their swords into.plough-shares and their
spears into pruning hooks;" when "peace on earth, good
will toward men" shall prevail.













COMPOSITION OF FERTILIZER MATERIALS.
NITROGENOUS MATERIALS.

Pounds Per Hundred.
Total
Ammonia. Phosphoric Potash.
Acid.
Nitrate of Soda.......... 17 to 19 .......................
Sulphate of Ammonia.... 21 to 26 .....................
Dried Blood ............ 12 to 17 .......................
Concentrated Tankage... 12 to 15 1 to 4..........
Bone Tankage .......... 6 to 9 10 to 15 ............
Dried Fish Scrap........ 6 to 11 3 to 8 ...........
Cotton Seed Meal........ 7 to 10 2 to 3 1 to 2
Hoof Meal .............. 13 to 17 1 to 2 1 to 2
PHOSPHATE MATERIALS.

Pounds per Hundred.
Available Insoluble.
Ammonia Phos. Acid. Phos. Acid

Florida Pebble Phosphate. ........................ 26 to 32
Florida Rock Phosphate.. ............ ............ 30 to 35
Florida Super Phosphate. ............ 14 to 45 1 to 3
Ground Bone ........... 3 to 6 5 to 8 15 to 17
Steamed Bone .......... 1 to 4 6 to 9 10 to 20
Dissolved Bone .......... 2 to 4 13 to 15 2 to 3
POTASH MATERIALS AND FARM MANURES.

Pounds Per Hundred.
Actual Am'onia. Phos. Lime.
Potash. Acid.

Muriate of Potash...... 50 to 62 ....... ......... ........
Sulphate of Potash..... 48 to 52 ......... ......... .........
Carbonate 'of Potash.... 55 to 60 ......... .................
Nitrate of Potash.......140 to 44 12 to 16..................
Ibl. Sul. of Pot. and Mag. 25 to 30 ...........................
Kainit .................12 to 13 ..................
Sylvinit ............... 16 to 20 ......... .................
Cotton Seed Hull Ashes.. 15 to 30 ......... 7 to 9 10
Wood Ashes, unleached. 2 to 8 ......... 1 to 2 .........
Wood Ashes, leached.... 0 to 2 ......... 1 to 1|35 to 40
Tobacco Stems ......... 3 to 9 2 t 4 ......... 3
Cow Manure (fresh).... 0.45 0.50 0.30 0.30
Horse Manure (fresh).. 0.50 0.60 0.25 0.30
Sheep Manure (fresh).. 0.60 1.00 0.35 0.35
Hog Manure (fresh).... 0.30 1.00 0.40 0.10
Hen Dung (fresh)...... 0.85 1.75 1.25 0.25
Mixed Stable Manure... 0.50 0.75 0.50 0.70











FACTORS FOR CONVERSION.

To Convert-
Ammonia into nitrogen, multiply by ............ 0.824
Ammonia into protein, multiply by ............. 5.15
Nitrogen into ammonia, multiply by ............ 1.214
Nitrate of soda into nitrogen, multiply by ...... 0.1647
Nitrogen into protein, multiply by .....:....... 6.25
Bone phosphate into phosphoric acid, multiply by 0.458
Phosphoric acid into bone phosphate, multiply by 2.184
Muriate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.632
Actual potash into muriate of potash, multiply by 1.583
Sulphate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.541
Actual potash into sulphate of potash, multiply by 1.85
Nitrate of potash into nitrogen, multiply by .... 0.139
Carbonate of potash into actual potash, multiply 0.681
Actual potash into carbonate of potash, multiply 1.466
Chlorine, in "kainit" multiply potash (K20) by.. 2.33

For instance, you buy 95 per cent. nitrate of soda, and
want to know how much nitrogen is in it, multiply 95 per
cent. by 0.1647, you will get 15.65 per cent. nitrogen; you
want to know how much ammonia this nitrogen is equiv-
alent to, then multiply 15.65 per cent. by 1.214, and you
get 18.99 per cent. the equivalent in ammonia.
Or, to convert 90 per cent. carbonate of potash into
actual potash (K,O), multiply 90 by 0.681, equals 61.29
per cent. actual potash (KO).











AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA FEEDING
STUFFS.



NAME OF FEED. F 4




Maiden Cane Hay..... 28.60 11.60 42.40 2.60 4.20

Natal Grass Hay...... 36.70 7.40 39.20 1.80 5.00

Para Grass Hay...... 31.20 8.00 45.70 1.60 6.20

Rhodes Grass Hay.... 41.10 7.70 36.80 1.30 6.60

Beggarweed Hay...... 24.30 21.60 35.10 4.10 4.00

Kudzu Vine Hay...... 32.30 15.90 33.00 1.60 6.80

Cow Pea Hay......... 20.50 13.00 45.90 4.20 7.50

Velvet Bean Hay..... 29.70 14.70 41.00 1.70 5.70

Velvet Beans ......... 7.00 21.00 53.10 5.40 3.60

Velvet Bean Hulls...: 27.00 7.50 44.60 1.60 4.30

Velvet Beans and Hulls 10.70 19.40 50.60 4.50 3.50

Cow Peas ............ 4.10 20.80 55.70 1.40 3.20

Soy Bean Meal....... 4.50 48.40 27.50 6.40 4.40

Peanut Vine Meal..... 29.60 9.90 38.40 6.30 6.60

Cotton Seed.......... 23.20 18.40 24.70 19.90 3.50

Cotton Seed Hulls.... 44.40 4.00 36.60 2.00 2.60

Bright Cotton S'd Meal 9.40 38.62 28.60 7.80 5.80









94

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA FEEDING
STUFFS- (Continued).



NAME OF FEED.


Dark Cotton Seed Meal

Corn Grain...........

Corn Meal..........

Hominy Feed.........

Corn and Cob Meal....

Ground Corn Shucks..

Ground Corn Cobs....
Equal parts, Corn in
Shucks & V'lv't Beans

Oats (grain) .........

Rice (grain) .........

Rice Bran............

Wheat (grain) .......

Wheat Bran..........

Wheat Middlings .....

Wheat Mixed Feed....

Wheat Ship Stuff.....

Dry Jap Sugar Cane..


20.00

2.10

1.90

4.00

5.80

30.20

30.00

16.03

9.50

0.20


23.15

10.50

.9.70

10.50

7.50

2.80

3.00

12.56

11.80

7.40


9.50 12.10

1.80 11.90

9.00 15.40

5.40 15.40

7.80 16.90

5.60 14.60

26.20 2.30


37.10

69.60

68.70

65.30

70.80

54.60

56.60

53.71

59.70

79.20

49.90

71.90

53.90

53.90

54.40

59.80

62.60


5.00

1.50

1.40

2.60

1.20

1.90

1.60

4.33

3.00

0.40

10.00

1.80

5.80

5.80

5.30

3.70

2.80









95

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA FEEDING
STUFFS-- (Continued).



NAME OF FEED. "



Peanut Hulls ........ 56.6 7.3 18.9 2.6 5.5

Peanut, with Hulls.... 16.41 20.4 16.4 36.2 4.1

Peanut Kernel ....... 2.6 26.4 17.5 44.9 2.2

Peanut Meal (without

Hulls ............. 5.1 47.6 23.7 8.0 4.9

Peanut Feed, (includ-

ing Hulls .......... 23.4 28.4 27.0 11.0 5.5








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FERTILIZER SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1918. FRANK T. WILSON, Asst. Chemist.
Samples Taken by Purchaser Under Section 9, Act Approved May 22, 1901.

Phosphoric Acid

NAM, OR BRAND. FOR WHOM SENT.
AZ Z
I 1 I I
NAMlE O B -


Fertilizer ..................... 4670 8.90 6.40 2.85 9.25 4.40 3.12 Robt. S. Shimmons, Sanford.

Fertilizer (No. 2) ............. 467110.87 4.38 4.77 9.15 4.10 ..... L. Wichtendahl, Orlando.

Fertilizer (No. 6) ............. 4672 12.12 7.55 0.40 7.95 4.60 1.38 Dr. P. Phillips, Orlando.
Fertilizer (No. 7) ............. 467312.03 7.231 0.47 7.70 4.47 1.38 Dr. P. Phillips, Orlando.

Fertilizer .................... 4674 10.93 8.30 5.10 13.40 5.45 0.48 J. L. Dillard, Orlando.
Fertilizer .................... 4675 1.40 3.28 1.57 4.851 0.6510.10 Henry Anner, Titusville.

Fertilizer (Raw Ground Bone). 46761 ..... 4.3518.50 22.85 4.80.... L. W. Whitehurst, Wauchula.
Fertilizer .....................467718.43 8.38 0.82 9.20 3.10 2.43 Lake Tracy Dev.. Imp. Co.,Beresford.

Fertilizer ("A") ............. 4678 6.97 0.68 0.12 0.80 2.85 2.02 Ed Veinman, White City.








Fertilizer ("B") ..............

Fertilizer ("C") .............

Fertilizer ("Y") ...........

Fertilizer ("Z") ...............

Fertilizer .....................

Fertilizer .....................

Fertilizer ................

Fertilizer .....................

Fertilizer .....................

Fertilizer ............... .... ..

Fertilizer 1126 (Acid Phosphate)

Fertilizer 1196 (Acid Phosphate)

Fertilizer .....................

Fertilizer .................. .

Fertilizer (Sample "A") .......


S9.07

8.051

7.70

12.07

5.65

15.70

8.85

10.13

14.63

10.40


17.781 0.12

3.32 1.78

6.98 4.02

4.70 4.75

7.78 2.27

5.26 4.98

7.90 4.00

7.60 1.60

8.35 1.60

6.70 0.30

17.50 0.55

17.70 0.65

8.88 2.32

7.03 5.22

5.23 5.72


17.90

5.10

11.00

9.45

10.05

10.24

11.90

9.20

9.95

7.00

18.05

18.35

11.20

12.25

10.95


9.18 0.68

3.47 1.63

4.68 3.46

3.60 0.91

4.33 1.01

3.00 5.181

4.70 0.64

4.47 1.81

4.25 3.29

.. ......


3.75 1.03

4.75 0.62

4.50 1.14


Ed Weinman, White City.

Ed Weinman, White City.

W. R. Hardee, White City.

W. R. Hardee, White City.

C. E. Riddle, Mt. Dora.

S. D. Daniels, Viking.

C. E. Helseth, Viking.

Comte-de-Malherbe, Viking.

Seminole Fruit Co., Viking.

Edwin Binney, Viking.

A. Lament, White City.

A. Lamont, White City.

L. Christensen, White City.

N. C. Jorgensen, White City.

D. T. McCarty, Ft. Pierce.








SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1918-Continued.

Phosphoric Acid.
O

Sg .5 ' _

1-3 1
NA OR BRAND. FOR WHOM SENT-




Fertilizer (Sample "B")....... 4694 14.38 4.13 3.12 7.25 2.78 3.13 D. T. McCarty, Ft. Pierce.

Mixed Fertilizer (No. 1) ....... 4695113.48 6.38 0.97 7.35 4.20 2.85 L. A. Brumley, Sanford.
Mixed Fertilizer (No. 2) ...... 4696 6.20 8.75 0.70 9.45 3.60 0.92 L. A. Brumley, Sanford.

Mixed Fertilizer ............... 4697 6.55 8.50 0.45 8.95 4.05 1.18 L. W. Wallace, Sanford.

Mixed Fertilizer .............. 4698 9.89 5.10 0.50 b.60 4.90 3.26 W. A. Fitts, Jr., Sanford.

Fertilizer ...................... 4699 10.8o 8.18 1.32 9.50 3.15 2.63 Kanawha Groves Co., Ft. Pierce.
Fertilizer ("A") .............. 4700 15.88 6.53 0.77 7.30 3.70 0.03 H. J. Schultz, Jensen.
Fertilizer ("B") ............... 4701 6.71 6.20 0.851 7.05 5.20 0.75 H. J. Schultz, Jensen.

Fertilizer ("C") ............... 4702 14.00 4.08 3.12 7.20 2.82 3.34 D. T. McCarty, Ft. Pierce.
Fertilizer ..................... 470310.90 7.10 1.80 8.90 4.75 1.48 James A. Martell, Fellsmere.








Fertilizer ..................... 4704 10.30

Mixed Fertilizer ............. 4705 8.17

Mixed Fertilizer .............. 4706 19.33

Mixed Fertilizer .............. 4707 13.28

Castor Beans Burrs ............ 4708 11.02

Fertilizer (Acid Phosphate).... 4709 .....

Black Potash Salts ............ 4710 8.90

Cotton Seed Meal ............. 4711 .....

Bone and Potash Fertilizer .... 4712 6.02

Fertilizer ................... 4713 8.57

Fertilizer .................... 4714 15.53

Fertilizer ("A") .............. 4715 10.83

Fertilizer ("B" (Bone Meal)... 4716 7.10

Cotton Seed Meal ............. 4717 .....

Mixed Fertilizer .............. 4718 10.62


8.38

6.30

6.25

6.45


6.62 15.00

0.60 6.90

1.85 8.10

1.95 8.40


16.55 0.10




4.30 9.60

9.38 1.12

7.15 2.25

11.681 1.17

5.70 15.80



5.28 0.72


16. 65

16.65


3.90

5.50

1.40

1.75

2.20
. ..


. . .. 6.52

13.90 3.75

10.50 5.35

9.40 5.3'0

12.85 4.05

21.50 4.85

.. 8.15

6.00 5.05


0.70 R. E. L. Youngblood, Parrish.

1.05 A. H. Watkins, White City.

3.65 S. E. Williams, Ft. Pierce.

3.55 Wallace R. Moses, Ft. Pieree.

3.40 R. E. Rose, Tallahassee.

L..... W. Tilden, Orlando.

37.00 S. E. Hubbard, Federal Point.

... S. E. Hubbard, Federal Point.

3.30 J. H. Le Tourneau, Eden.

0.60 H. A. Regener, Gotha.

7.43 Ponce De Leon Grove,-Viking.

3.05 Edwin Binney, Viking.

.... Edwin Binney, Viking.

..... Joseph L. Cameron, Sanford.

1.42 C. Stootoff, Sanford.


I


. ?


















Mixed Fertilizer ........

No. 1 Tankage ..........

No. 2 Tankage .........

No. 3 Mixed Fertilizer ...


SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1918-Continued.

Phosphoric Acid

o c .3 FOR WHOM SENT.

I i i -


...... 471913.75 7.70 3.15110.85 4.65 1.40 Stone & Stewart, Sanford.

..... 4720 8.58 4.45 5.051 9.50 10.10 .... Albert Dorner, Sanford.

.....472110.65 4.65 6.9511.60 8.35 ... Albert Dorner, Sanford.


......147227110.501 7.731 0.771 S.5O


1.74 Albert Dorner, Sanford.




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