Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00048
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen; its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.,
s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla
Publication Date: April 1, 1918
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00048
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Full Text






lo. 2


FLORIDA


QUARTERLY


BULLETIN

OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


April 1, 1918

W A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAMASSEE, FLA.

Part 1-Request to Farmers and Fruit Growers of Florida,
etc. Proceeding of the Florida State Live Stock
Association. Pocket Gophers as Enemies of Trees,
etc. Pink Boll Worm. Peanuts for Oil Production.
Growing Broom Corn in Florida.
Part 2-Crop Acreages and Conditions.
Part 3-Fertilizers, Feeding Stuffs, and Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-clas
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.
THtES BULLEINS ARO ISSUED fRff TO THOSE REQUESTING THEr
T. J. APPLwIARD, STATE PRINMTu
TALLAHABIAn, FULOIDA


Vol. 28


I I


r






























COUNTY i
MAP OF

STATEo F LO RIDA
SHOWING SUBDIVISIONS


0
KEY Wr3T




















PART I.


Request to Farmers and Fruit Growers of
Florida, Etc.
Proceeding of the Florida State Live Stock
Association.
Pocket Gophers as Enemies of Trees, Etc.
Pink Boll Worm.
Peanuts for Oil Production.
Growing Broom Corn in Florida.














REQ U EST TO THE FARMERS, FRUIT
GROWERS, TRUCK GROWERS, LIVE
STOCK GROWERS AND INDUSTRIAL
OPERATORS OF FLORIDA.

The time is near at hand when the listing of the Agri-
cultural, Horticultural, Live Stock and Industrial Census
of the State will begin in accordance with the provisions
of the Laws of Florida, and the County Enumerators will
visit each farm and proper place of business in his county
collecting the information upon which the agricultural
and other statistics are based for publication in the State
reports and bulletins.
The Department urges every person to give to the
Enumerators all the assistance possible in obtaining these
statistics quickly and accurately. If there ever was a
time when the fullest and most complete statistics of food
products of all kinds was necessary, that time is-now.
These statistics are absolutely necessary in the solution
of marketing problems that daily arise, and they must
supply also the condition and forecast of production for
future years. Without this information we will have no
basis on which to build in making provision for adequate
supplies of food for ourselves as well as for our Allies in
our righteous struggle for liberty and law.
As long as the products of the soil fluctuate in results,
statistics will be necessary; otherwise we can have no
knowledge of-the quantities we have or those that will be
available, or of any additional amounts that will be nec-
essary to meet an unusual demand. When we know the
extent of our food supplies for 1917-18, we will then be in
a position to meet any threatened shortage and provide
for it. If we will meet the issues as indicated here we
need have no fears. "Knowledge is power" and "Fore-
warned is forearmed."
Therefore the Department asks you for all the facts on
production.
This is a time when every man owes to his country the
best that is in him; give it your best efforts in the'manner
above suggested. Let every farmer, horticulturalist, stock
grower, or artesan give the County Enumerator his best












assistance when he calls for the information wanted.
You may not realize it, but the fate of your country,
your loved ones, and all else of every nature that is yours,
rests upon you equally with the soldier who confronts the
barbarous Hun upon the battlefield. In fact yours is the
greater responsibility, for the soldier cannot defend you
without the food for his support. Thus, does the world's
future greatness, happiness and perpetuation of civiliza-
tion itself depend upon the aggregate efforts of the tillers
of the soil. Let us meet the issue fully and squarely and
back up the men who are offering their lives as a sacri-
fice to their country while we can only offer them our
moral and material support in return.
It is our duty to do this. We must not fail. Consider
the cause at stake and act for your country's good and the
safety and liberty of mankind.



PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA STATE
LIVE STOCK ASSOCIATION

OFFICERS.

Dr. W. F. Blackman, President .............Lake Monroe
Mrs. Potter Palmer, Honorary President....... Sarasota
Z. C. Chambliss, First Vice-President............. Ocala
Pat Johnston, Second Vice-President..........Kissimmee
Z. C. Herlong, Third Vice-President.......... Micanopy
R. W. Dunlap, Fourth Vice-President.. Green Cove Springs
C. L. Willoughby, Treasurer................ Gainesville
R. W. Storrs, Secretary.............. DeFuniak Springs
A. A. Coult, Assistant Secretary........... Jacksonville
Office of Secretary, P. O. Box 1181, Jacksonville, Florida.

ANNOUNCEMENT.

This somewhat condensed report of the Sixth Annual
Convention of The Florida State Live Stock Association,
held in Jacksonville, January 8-11, 1918, is published in
the Quarterly Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
through the courtesy of Hon. W. A. McRae, Commis-
sioner of Agriculture.












PROCEEDINGS

Tuesday, January 8

The convention was called to order in the Siminole
Hotel auditorium at 10 o'clock a. m., by Dr. W. F. Black-
nan.
Mayor John W. Martin. of Jacksonville, welcomed the
members and told lhem he knew of no other association
that can do the State as much good, for live stock is the
foundation of successful agriculture, and the people in
the cities prosper in proportion as the people in the
country prosper.
President F. C. Groover of the Chamber of Commerce
extended a welcome on behalf of the business organiza-
tion and said that live stock is one of his hobbies.
"There is an opportunity for every business man, bank-
er, and live stock man to become a big brother to the
small boys on the farms, by loaning money to buy pigs
or calves to start the juvenile live stock men on the road
to success and future interest in farming and live stock
raising, and thereby insure the enlargement of the live
stock industry," he emphatically stated.
Dr. Blackman responded to the welcomes with a few
weil chosen words, assuring the Association's hosts that
the memebrs were glad they had accepted the invit:flion
to meet in Jacksonville.

A GLANCE BACKWARD AND FORWARD

President's Annual Address. Dr. W. F. Blackman,
Lake Monroc.

Never before have we met in circumstances so extraor-
dinary and under the stress of thoughts and emotions so
many, so various, so conflicting and perplexing, as today.
Our minds are engrossed and appalled by the world catas-
trophe into which we have been plunged.
Since our last meeting, life for every man and woman
of us has been changed in all its major aspects, and fall-
en into disorder. All the peaceful routine of our thoughts
and habits has been upset. Our sons and neighbors are
on their way to the hideous and heroic and bloody work












abroad to which they have been summoned. Possibly, at
this moment so tranquil for us, some youth whom we
have known and loved may be flinging himself out of the
muddy trenches of France, "over the top," straining,
struggling, panting, firing, thrusting with the dreadful
bayonet or himself thrust through. in the horrible tur-
moil and anguish of battle.
The ancient prophecy has been reversed-plows are be-
ing beaten into swords and pruning hooks into weapons
more potent and pitiless than the spear. Moreover, our
buying and selling have been disarranged; our resources
are being taxed beyond all precedent, beyond all that
we formerly supposed ourselves able to endure, for the
support of the war; and we are being called upon for
other and almost endless contributions for the care of
the soldier, the merciful work of the hospitals. and other
tasks incidental to the awful struggle. We hear the in-
sistent call from our kinsmen in the trenches, from our
European Allies, from the starving in countries which
Germany has exploited and stripped with ruthless and
lawless hand, and from hungry neutral nations, as well
as from our own people, for the wheat and the meat which
we farmers must supply-their prayer is to us, as to
heaven, "Give us this day our daily bread." And besides,
we perceive that we and all the world are being thrust,
all unprepared and against our will, into a revolution
compared to which all the other revolutions of history
seem pale and insignificant-a revolution in all our
economic, industrial, social, political. and moral habi-
tudes and ideals, the extent of which we cannot now
measure and the end of which the wisest of us cannot
foresee.
These are the unaccustomed and disturbing thoughts
which we bring with us to this assembly, and which must
of necessity give a solemn undertone to all our proceed-
ings. I believe. however, that every member of this As-
sociation is facing these new problems of the world's life
and of our own, with high courage, with unfaltering de-
termination to meet and solve them as they arise, with
full consecration of all his powers and possessions to the
task, and with firm faith in an overruling Providence
and in the happier future which awaits us. We must
""win the war" at whatever cost; we must wipe the earth
clean of autocracy, militarism, Kaiserism, and ruthless-











ness, and establish forever in'the earth the reign of law
and liberty and justice and democracy. This is our task;
let us not doubt for a moment that it will be successfully
accomplished.
But disquieting as are the times, the business of the
stock raiser in America and particularly in Florida was
never on so sound a basis as today, never so full of
promise. The exhaustion of domestic animals through-
out Europe and the increasing shortage in our own
country are creating a demand which will insure for
many years to come a profitable market for all the beef,
pork, mutton, and dairy products which we can supply.
Definitely, I think it can be said that there can be no
danger of overproduction in these lines for a long time to
come. And for this industry, which we may perhaps
properly call the most ancient, fundamental, necessary,
stable, wholesome, honorable, and delightful of all the
occupations in which men are engaged, Florida has ad-
vantages of soil, climate, rainfall and location, greater
on the whole than those enjoyed by any other State of
the American Union. This is being recognized in increas-
ing measure, far and wide.
The eyes of discerning and experienced men are being
turned this way as never before. Inquiries by mail and
visits of exploration from the North, the West and the
Southwest, have never before been so numerous as dur-
ing the year which we are reviewing, and our own people
are awakening to the opportunities which lie all about
them, unused and inviting, There are vast areas of cheap
and hitherto waste lands in every part of the State, lying
open the year round to the genial and fructifying rays of
a semi-tropical and sub-tropical sun, which need only the
expenditure upon them of money and labor, to fit them
for the support of herds and flocks greater than any other
region can maintain. We have every reason, as we face
the new year, to take courage and to gird ourselves for
the task of turning into reality these gracious possibili-
ties which nature has spread about us with a lavish hand.
The past year has been signalized by one great achieve-
ment, carrying two others in its train. The great achieve-
ment to which I refer, the greatest by all odds ever ac-
complished in this State, is the creation by the Legislature
of a State Live Stock Sanitary Board and the appropria-
tion of public monies for the carrying on of its work; and











the two consequent achievements are the beginning of
definite, determined, state-wide, cooperative and ade-
quately supported efforts to eradicate the pestilent cattle
tick from all our borders, and to control hog cholera.
It will be remembered that at the last meeting of the
Association, the president was directed to appoint a com-
mittee to undertake'this work. As members of this Com-
mittee I named Messrs. C. A. Carson of Kissimmee, H.
T. Lykes of Tampa, H. H. Simmons of Jacksonville, W.
J. Hillman of Live Oak, A. Sessom of Bonifay, and R. W.
Storrs of DeFuniak Springs; the president of the Asso-
ciation also acted as a member of the Committee. These
gentlemen, all or most of them, assisted by the late P. L.
Sutherland, manager of the Florida Cattle Tick Eradica-
tion Committee of the Southern Settlement and Develop-
ment Organization, Dr. E. M. Nighbert, inspector in
charge of the Federal Bureau of Animal Industry, and
other able men, were in Tallahassee during the entire
session of the Legislature, where I can assure you we had
a strenuous and a merry experience.
We prepared a bill, after close study of the live stock
legislation of other southern states and consultation with
the best attorneys, which we pressed upon the attention
of our law makers with every honorable means at our dis-
posal. Into the details of this fight-for a veritable and
incessant fight it was-I do not need to enter. We en-
countered the most determined and subtle opposition, in
part from quarters where we least expected to meet it,
but we also had strong and faithful friends in both the
Senate and the House. The Senate passed our measure
promptly and almost unanimously, and finally, at the
very end of the session, the House also acted upon it fav-
orably, though by the majority of a single vote. I shall
never forget the final roll call in the House, where the
Ayes and Noes followed one another with equal pace, our
hopes rising and falling in a most nerve-racking man-
ner as each name was called, nor the meeting of exhaust-
ed but happy men which gathered at the headquarters
of our Committee after the favorable decision was an-
nounced by the Speaker. In due time the Governor af-
fixed his signature to the bill, and it became a law.
And I venture now to say-and I say it with pardon-
able pride and great pleasure-that no State in the Union
has a more carefully considered, better balanced and












guarded, and more rigid and effective law, covering the
matter of live stock sanitation, than has Florida. Per-
haps a detail here and there needs to be amended and
strengthened -of this no doubt Senator Carson will
speak but on the whole the measure was a good one,
and is working well. I wish in this public manner to
thank the members of the Committee, and the friends in
the Legislature, and out, who assisted them, for their in-
telligent, shrewd and untiring efforts in this matter-one
of these friends, alas, and one of the ablest and most effi-
cient of them all, has passed untimely beyond the reach
of our praise. It is fitting also that grateful recognition
should be accorded to Governor Catts for his approval of
the measure.
The Governor appointed as members of the Live Stock
Sanitary Board, in addition to Commissioner of Agricul-
ture W. A. McRae, State Treasurer J. C. Luning, Super-
intendent of Public Instruction W. N. Sheats, who were
ex-officio members, R. W. Storrs, and the president of this
Association, and the Board selected Dr. J. W. DeMilly as
acting veterinarian. The organization and work of
the Board will be reported on this floor tonight by
Chairman McRae and Mr. Storrs. I may add, how-
ever, finally, that the State Live Stock Sanitary
Board, in the two great undertakings to which for
the present and the immediate future it will of ne-
cessity chiefly devote its energies, the eradication of the
cattle tick and the control of hog cholera, we are leaning
heavily on two co-operative agencies. The first of these
is the Federal Government, through its Bureau of Ani-
mal Industry and the States Relations Service. In Dr.
E. M. Nighbert, inspector in charge of the work of tick
eradication, Dr. A. H. Logan, inspector in charge for hog
cholera control, l)ean P. H. Rolfs, of the university, di-
rector of the experiment station, in charge of the work in
Florida of the States Relations Service, and the nmmer-
ous assistants placed by the Federal Government under
the direction of these three gentlemen, we have a numer-
ous body of capable, trained, and energetic experts whose
co-operation with our Board is of inestimable value to
the State, and whose maintenance costs us nothing. The
members of the Live Stock Sanitary Board serve without
remuneration, so that we have in Florida approximately
thirty men who are engaged in promoting the work of












live stock sanitation without expense to tile taxpayers of
the State. It is fitting. I think, that this Association
should he reminded of this very great and very costly,
but nevertheless wholly gratuitous, service which is being
rendered to the interests which we represent.
Similar assistance of the highest quality and value,
has been and is still being freely given to our cause by
the Florida Cattle Tick Eradication Committee of the
Southern Settlement and Ievelopment Organization. To
Messrs. J. M. Burguieres, Chairman; W. F. Coachman,
Secretary, and A. G. Cummer, Treasurer, of this Com-
mittee and their associates, I wish on behalf of the
cattle men in this body and of the State, to extend
our thanks for the work they have done and are pro-
posing to. do, to rid Florida of that most prolific,
discouraging, expensive, and nasty scourge, the cattle
tick. To this work, the successful accomplishment of
which is absolutely essential to any satisfactory de-
velopment of the cattle industry among us, this Com-
mittee has devoted very large sums of money, ability of
the first order, and time and effort without stint. Its
work has been done hitlheto mainly through the late
Manager of tile committee Mr. P. L. Sutherland, a man
of brilliant intellect, indefatigable energy. great gifts of
speech, and most engaging personality. We miss his
friendly presence here today, but we hope that the work
he planned and began will be carried on by other hands.
As President of this Association, and also a member of
the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. I count it both a
duty and a privilege to say to tile officers of this Commit-
tee that we all appreciate what they have done-a work
unmatched, indeed unalpproached, by any similar work
undertaken by private interest in any other state. And
if any- one should object that the corporations represent-
ed by this Committee are interested in a large way in
lands and transportation in Florida, and that what they
are doing for the ridding of the State of the tick is being
done from selfish motives only, my reply is that such an
objection can spring only from a narrow mind. Fortu-
nately, however, by arrangement of heaven, private in-
terests and public interests, in matters of this sort are
never antagonistic, never even separable, they are iden-
tical. And in point of fact, I know no more public spirit-
ed or more sagacious citizens, no more devoted lovers of












Florida, than the gentlemen who constitute this Commit-
tee.
So much for the past year; now for a glance forward.
What I have just been saying indicates clearly the
special wdrk to which we ought, in my judgment, to de-
vote ourselves in the immediate future-I mean, the com-
plete and final eradication of the tick in every county in
Florida and the largest possible measure of control of
hog cholera. If we see clearly, we see that these tasks are
preliminary to all others. The noisome tick impoverishes
and poisons the blood of our cattle, reduces their vitality
and power to resist disease, diminishes the annual crop of
calves, stunts the growth of such as are born, lessens the
flow of milk, punctures the hide and makes it less val-
uable, produces the debilitating and often fatal disease
known, as Texas fever, makes impossible the importation
of breeding stock from the North for the re-invigoration
of our herds, and establishes a quarantine line across
which we cannot ship our cattle to market without con-
siderable cost. It is the enemy, and must be destroyed.
Fortunately, it is a very weak and vulnerable enemy,
though so mischievous.
Put all the cattle of Florida through the dipping vat
once a fortnight for five or six months, and there would
be no more ticks left in this State than there are snakes
in Ireland. So simple is the strategy, so certain is the
triumph, in this good war; the trouble is, that so many
of our people are ignorant, conservative, careless, opin-
ionated; they are hard to persuade and to move.
But persuaded and moved they must be. And if this As-
sociation, the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, the State
Board of Health, the representatives of the Federal Gov-
ernment, the Florida Cattle Tick Eradication Com-
mittee of the Southern Settlement and Develop-
ment Organiation, the forces of the State Uni-
versity and Experiment Station, the Boards of
Commissioners in the several counties, the press, the
women's clubs, even the pulpit, would set their minds and
their hands steadily and in the spirit of co-operation to
this task, it would be accomplished within two or three
years. Let us consecrate ourselves here in this meeting
to the doing of this thing, and doing it soon.
Hog cholera is not so simple and manageable an af-
fair. In the micro-organism which causes this disease,












we face an enemy far subtler, more cunning, more elusive,
more persistent, and more swiftly fatal than is the tick.
It escapes observation by the most powerful microscope,
it laughs at quarantine lines, it flows in the stream, it
lurks in the pool, it rides upon the foot of beast and
bird, the shoe of man, the wagon's wheel; it soars aloft
on the buzzard's wing; you cannot catch and dip it. And
so cholera breaks out here and there, and again and
again; perhaps we cannot hope to eradicate it utterly as
we can easily eradicate the cattle tick. But we can do
much to control its movements and to lessen its ravages.
Vaccination under proper conditions, and careful sanita-
tion under all conditions, are the weapons of our war-
fare against this serious scourge. During the coming
year the State Live Stock Sanitary Board and the Federal
Government propose to do all in their power-more by far
than has ever before been done-to control and curtail
this disastrous disease among us. But what measure of
success awaits these efforts will depend upon how much
and how hearty co-operation they have on the part of the
farmers and stock men represented in this body.
I earnestly advise the formation of local live stock as-
sociations throughout the State, at least one in each
county affiliated with the State Association, and having
special committees on Tick Eradication and Hog Cholera
Control, composed of the ablest, the most energetic, and
the most influential men in the various communities. Let
these associations hold meetings at regular intervals for
the free exchange of views and experiences; let expert
and interesting speakers from abroad bring to these meet-
ings fresh information and impetus; let there be added
such social and entertaining features as may be available
-music, barbecues, moving pictures, boat excursions,
what-not-to attract the multitude, relieve the monotony
of farm life, and increase neighborliness and good com-
munity feeling. Let the co-operation of the banks of the
region be secured, for the generous financing of pig clubs
and corn clubs. In particular, let the tick and cholera
committees make use of the press, the public schools, bul-
letin boards, advertising boards, fences, wayside trees, for
the display of the placards and dissemination of the leaf-
lets concerning these pests which may be obtained freely
from the Federal Bureau of Animal Industry, our own
Live Stock Sanitary Board, and elsewhere. If a hundred












or more such local associations could be formed and
maintained in vigorous life throughout Florida, there is
no computing the influence they would exert in further-
ing the interests of the live stock industry of the Stale.
There is one other matter of prime importance to which
I invite your attention. If the live stock industry of
Florida is to be put on the most stable basis and devel-
oped with reasonable rapidity, immense sums of money
will be required. Fences must be built; drainage canals
and ditches must be dug; improved and more nourishing
grasses must be introduced over vast areas; other great
areas must be planted with forage crops; silos must be
built; plows, harrows and other expensive implements
must be purchased; horses, mules and tractors, herdsmen,
farmers and laborers must be secured and put to work in
great numbers; a multitude of pure-bred bulls and cows,
boars and sows, rams and ewes, stallions, jacks and
mares must be imported for the improvement of our na-
tive stock. Where are the necessary funds coming from
for the financing of these enterprises? Perhaps the large
land owners can take care of themselves, but what our
State needs above all things else is thrifty farmers by
the thousand, now on the ground or drawn from olher
states by our surpassing advantages of soil and climate;
where shall these secure the funds necessary for the devel-
opment of their more modest holdings?
Florida is a relatively new and scantily populated
state; there are here no great reserves of cash and secur-
ities, accumulated and bequeathed by generations of toil-
ing and thrifty ancestors, as in some parts of the country.
Many of the banks are doing their best to care for our
live stock interests, but the ability of our local banks-
and I speak now as a banker-is strictly limited in this
direction. What we need in Florida, in my judgment, as
the very next step to be taken, is one or more strong cat-
tle loan companies, such as flourish in the West, whose
sole business it will be to provide the funds necessary for
the developments which I have mentioned, so far as cattle
are concerned.
This is a matter which will occupy us during one en-
tire session of this meeting, and I need not, therefore,
deal with it further now, except to say that the present
time seems especially propritious for the securing of such
funds as we need for this business. Men are asking how











Aley smany make mlfe investment of tLeir mraviigs iln these
troiulbledl tliesw: the future of the rilways no4w under
{toverneillitl *toIlrol. is uncertain; iludsltrial enterlriseen
have" IIen largely thrown into abnormal iulonitionu ly ihe
wari stocks, liontls and other Mimilar seouirilies, have in
theli today a considerable speculative elenmenl which Viver
Imtausem o rtinruier' fire itlvestor. Just asnid sll thlis tl.xI
aind rlntrrialmly. here lies the land. ais froill of old, m-ll-
clhauging. oPnerful. fritfllll. a t1unolitr's frll lhn-s,. allIn
tlmNs ili.e Ihulnd feidl lsnd grow. enlrichilg and rensewin it
forever .eve.n I ILhey ftCl Ulon it. lhet friseailly anlilnllmu
whole tfiels nld whlosI milk l uilmnrt our lifr froln, the
cradle io ihe grave. Tihre in iotlhing xqllerilalive here,
1lisd I mtils oillllelit lhill ilevesilors. |wrnplexed now 1hy the
ullnieard of lsliN'Te or the w4sorls, aIliri. will IN. dlilusied
to liltf lheir fClliid llle mor' isl re l ill lou (Iie soll stlld ilt
prodInctx. irf lthy rl e xlemowe the wIay-andl ri. iltile loan
otlllml;.v'. urliuixZd aidl iadlllisistern'l lyv exleirie1crtl
sindl i-riell iseIti. nis sliow liIes lsthi u'way. ailiet hinIl iresti
Msarly In ii.
.Andl now. 'tinsllells. we will ront g dl ito Ishe i |rornani
0w 11 it e tttliv e 4'lllllelitive Ihats, vide.ld. I hopse rilll oulr
Ie etli h1gl t9rllnr. Trle wucslIsetge wllirih will tI hriagingll u
from auromd. anld the varioioi discuesioime in which we our-
eIrx sohalill engage, will serve to hearten Ius for our work
and Ihelp u to feel, amid the toil aed perpllexilkie of our
duily tatk. that in providing a mlore copious wsuilply of
food for the world, in CaITin two blades of grase to
grow where one grew before, and in transiforming these
blades o-f grnas by the mysterious and wonderful pro-
ese' of lnatiure into the thoughts and loves of men and
women, tile orator's sjeech. the pwt'c oan#g the xlatew-
maunl wisulont. the soldier's Ileire energy tIe motherr*
broiling care. and the baber new life we are doiag our
aurt to mupplort and render more rich and worthy this
wondrous hiniane drama, and are jertners with God in
tihe work of His earthly klogdom.
Frlarrtna NErIWm LNUIseurTIro.
By Hfon. V. A. ..arMso, Kiewimmer.

All legislation in largely the resuli of a demand on the
part of the people.












The cattle industry in Florida should be recognized as
embracing two distinct industries; the range, or grazing
industry; and the feeding industry. The exponents of
each must co-operate to secure the greatest good to the
industry as a whole.
We must have better cattle and we must eradicate the
cattle fever ticks. I congratulate Dr. Nighbert, repre-
senting the United States Bureau of Animal Industry,
and the members of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board,
on the tremendous advance that has been made in the
tick eradication campaign during the past few months.
When this State shall become tick-free and the cattle
owners have an opportunity to develop their live stock
without the tick handicap, Florida will be second to no
other State in the production of live stock.
I am not prepared to say at this time, that we shall
need a state-wide compulsory dipping law, as the cam-
paign of education which has been carried on for several
months has enlightened the people to the needs of doing
the work and indications favor a complete clean-up with-
out resorting to drastic action.
The hog cholera situation seems to be well taken care
of by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board and other in-
terests and I do not now see the necessity for any fur-
ther legislation along that line.
We do need some laws to protect the sheep industry,
which at present suffers from two serious handicaps, the
sheep-killing dogs and the sheep-killing hogs. In some
sections of the State the latter are more disastrous than
the former and I believe that a law should be enacted,
giving the owners of sheep the right to kill sheep-killing
hogs, with the provision that the hog owners be remun-
erated for the killed animals. That will be fair to all
parties and keep from engendering strife between the
owners.
The present method of registering marks and brands
is not satisfactory and it seems necessary to have a law
enacted compelling a state-wide registration of marks and
brands with one officer located in Tallahassee, such reg-
istration being prima facie evidence of the ownership of
that mark or brand; with the further provision that no
marks or brands shall be accepted for register if they
duplicate or can be easily made from any registered
marks or brands.











The chattel mortgage laws are not ample for protection
of loans on cattle and should be changed to provide heavy
penalties for fraudulently disposing of mortgaged prop-
erty. When that is done and the proper registering of
marks and brands is provided for, cattle paper will be
an attractive investment for capital and the industry
will get increased finances for developing the business.
The law is adequate for punishing cattle stealing, the
minimum sentence on conviction the first time being two
years in the penitentiary, with a sentence of five years in
the penitentiary for conviction on second offense.
That law has been on the statute books for some time
and has had a salutary effect in discouraging the pastime
of cattle stealing, which was prevalent in the State at
one time.
Cutting fences on property of another is a felony which
is punishable by heavy fine, and probably will not need
to be given further legislative attention. The fencing of
private property by the owners is commendable and
should be protected to the fullest extent of the law.

First Day-Afternoon Session

EXPERIENCES IN TICK ERADICATION.

Program in Charge of Dr. E. M. Nighbert, Inspector
B. A. I., Jacksonville.

TICK ERADICATION IN MISSISSIPPI.

By Dr. J. A. Barger, Inspector B. A. I., Jackson.

The.work of eradicating cattle fever ticks from Missis-
sippi was started in the year 1908 when the Legislature
appropriated $5,000.00 to co-operate with the government,
which put a few veterinary inspectors in the northern
counties.
The last of the quarantined counties in the State were
cleaned up last year and released from quarantine and
Mississippians are proud that they have finished the
work.
There are now twenty creameries operating in the State
and shipping large quantities of butter and butter milk
2-Bull.











to other states. One of the leading separator manufac-
turing companies in the United States has advertised
that they sold more cream separators in Mississippi last
year than in any other State in the Union.
Some of the communities learned to consider cattle
fever ticks as they would a mad dog in a school yard. It
is probable that more ticks were killed under the state-
wide law than during the nine previous years.
Conditions in Mississippi were very similar to those ex-
isting in Florida. Much of the territory in the southern
part of the State was covered with swamps and cut-over
pine lands and the cattle owners thought they would not
be able to get their stock out. But the work was not so
difficult when we got it properly organized and some of
the southern counties did the best work in the State.
If people will realize in the beginning what they must
expect in the end, that every tick has to be killed before
release from quarantine can be given, they will give
closer attention to the work.
Some of the stockmen say that the value of their cattle
has been increased 25 per cent. through carrying more
weight and wintering better. By crediting only 10 per
cent. increase in value on the 392,752 cattle in the area
cleaned up last year, which were appraised at $25 per
head around, we showed a profit of $471,880 over and
above the total expense to the counties, State and Federal
Government for eradicating the ticks in those counties,
which is a pretty good profit for the first year while the
work was being done.

TICK ERADICATION IT GEORGIA.

By Dr. Peter F. Bahnsen, Inspector B. A. I., Atlanta.

The same old story is a new story to some people. I
offered $100 at one of your live stock meetings in Gaines-
ville for one sensible reason why cattle fever ticks are a
good thing. I now raise the offer to $200.
Gentlemen, you are doing fine work in Florida, but I
want to say to those who think that the tick eradication
campaign should be extended over a long time that you
cannot dilly dally with it and accomplish any thing.
Greene county, Georgia, started theip-campaign with
a whoop and hurrah several years ago, but did not want











to accomplish the work too soon. Dr. Nighbert and I did
what we could to punch them up, but they just thought
so much of their ticks they did not want to get rid of
them, so finally we pulled out the State and Federal in-
spectors and let the people enjoy their ticks to their
hearts' content. Pretty sooii they came and wanted to
start the campaign over, so we told them' to go as far
as they liked with the work, but that we would not help
them until they were willing to help themselves. Then
they got busy and cleaned up the county.
The government tick fever quarantine was established
to prevent the spread of tick fever and not to prevent the
disease. It was the big economic waste that interested
the southern people at first.
Florida is paying $1,500,000 -a month to feed the ticks,
but if I had all the ticks in one big pile I could not get
30 cents for them.
The tick does not come to see you. He just gimlets a
hole in your cow's hide and gets into your bank account
that way. As long as you do not see him carrying off
your money, you seem to pay little attention to him, but
if one big tick should come along and rob one of your
banks of the amount the tick family are stealing from the
people of Florida every month, there would be the biggest
row imaginable.
Are you going to keep ticks, or buy automobiles and
gasoline? We are co-operating fully with Florida. Our
Legislature has made it illegal for you to ship your ticky
cattle into our State.
We want to help you so much we will give you all the
trouble we can if you try to ship ticky cattle into Georgia.

TICK ERADICATION IN FLORIDA.

By Dr. A. C. Stever, General Field Supervisor,
B. A. I., Jacksonville.

About twelve or fourteen years ago the nation's beef
and dairy supply began to attract attention of our far-
mers and statesmen. The large cattle ranches of the
west were being cut up into farms and the eyes of the
cattle owners were directed to the South and Southeast,
where good grazing lands could be purchased at a reas-
onable price.











However, in this section of the country with all its
natural advantages, such as climate, plenty of running
water and good grazing nine to ten months of the year,
some of the cattlemen who transferred their beef cattle
from the tick-free area to the quarantined or tick-infested
area made very little success in cattle improvement and
in some cases lost as many as ninety per cent. of their
cattle from tick fever, the remaining ten per cent. revert-
ing to a type not much better than our native scrub cat-
tle. Such a condition was discouraging and is one of
the reasons for the slow progress being made in breeding
up our native cattle.
The statement has oftimes been made that "enough
pure bred bulls have been shipped into Florida during
the past twenty or thirty years to make the State a high
class range country which would compare favorably with
some of the Northwestern States, had the majority not
died from tick fever."
On April 1, 1915, the first quarantine notice was pro-
claimed by the State Health Officer, in whom such power
was then delegated. It placed a quarantine on the whole
of Dade county on account of splenetic or Texas fever in
cattle, which prohibited the further introduction of cat-
tle, horses or mules infested with or exposed to the cattle
fever tick into that territory.
All cattle in this area were dipped regularly every
fourteen days in the standard arsenical solution under
State and Federal supervision, and it was possible to
release Dade, Broward and that part of Palm Beach
county south and west of the Hillsborough drainage canal
on December 1, 1915.
Tick eradication day was celebrated at Key West on
December 1, 1917, at which time Monroe county was re-
leased from State and Federal quarantine.
The commissioners of thirty counties in the State
have made appropriations for vat construction and pre-
liminary organization work.
The county commissioners of every county in the State
that has not made an appropriation for vat construction
and conducting preliminary organization work, should do
so this year, because at this time tick eradication is one
of the most important problems which they have to con-
sider. It is fundamental in developing the State's as-












sets. By such action and if the results are as satisfac-
tory during 1918 in comparison with what was accom-
plished by all interested in 1917, there is absolutely no
reason why Florida cannot be released from quarantine
by the close of the year 1920.

TICK ERADICATION ON A DAIRY FARM.

By V. C. Johnson, Dinsnore, Florida.

While I had had a general idea for the past five or six
years of some day attempting to control as far as possi-
ble (working as an individual) the injury done our cat-
tle by the tick, it was not until Dr. E. M. Nighbert and
his assistant, Dr. H. A. Smith, personally and repeatedly
pressed the matter upon my attention last winter that I
took the first step in this direction by constructing a vat
on our farm, and this personal effort was necessary on
their part, though I had always been agreed as to the
need of the work, so easy is it to neglect a special work
of this kind in the pressure of routine business. I think
my case should impress the need of interested personal
work in this matter of ridding our country of this very
serious pest.
Now as to the result of the work in our herd so far:
The Cost.
Vat and chutes complete, about ................ $100.00
First charge of dipping solution ................ 9.00
Replenishing loss of solution in dipping, about... 10.00
Cleaning and refilling vat in September ......... 12.00
Cost of labor for dipping cattle (100 cows and 60
young stock) each dipping about 60 cents, or
for past season approximately ............. 7.20

Total cost to date, vat included, about ......... $138.20
Total cost to date, exclusive of vat, about ........ $ 38.20

The Returns.
It is more difficult for me to give exact figures on the
benefit received from the dipping, some of the most im-
portant results such as better growth of young stock,
etc., being impossible to figure exactly into dollars and












cents, but the way dollars have been saved in small items
where I had definite figures show me that the total cost
including vat construction has been saved several times
over in eight or nine months.
As an instance, during the previous six years we found
it necessary to supplement the range feed of our dry stock
with an average of about two pounds of grain daily to
bring them to calving in good condition, except in the
early spring months when pasture was at its best. Dur-
ing the year past this item would have cost us not less
than seventy cents daily or $105.00 for the season-
three-fourths of the total cost of dipping on this small
side line.
Some of my dairymen friends have complained of loss
of milk following each dipping and I noticed the same
difficulty generally when we began to dip, but recently
we have overcome this small loss by feeding a small
amount of additional grain for about three feedings;
one before and two after dipping.

HOG CHOLERA.

By Dr. T. B. White, United States Bureau of Animal
Industry, Washington, D. C.
Hog cholera is nothing more or less than a blood pois-
oning. The use of serum for the next 200 years will find
cholera still breaking out in the herds unless sanitary
measures are added. They count about seventy-five per
cent. in disease prevention.
After long experience in working for eradication of
hog cholera the Bureau has done away with the word
"eradicate" and substituted the word "control." How-
ever the government does advocate eradication of mud
holes, which are disease breeding and disseminating
places, and in their places the use of concrete hog wal-
lows, where disinfectants can be placed on the water to
help stop disease.
Internal and external parasites are costly but will not
spread cholera unless the disease is there. No doubt
cholera is charged up with a lot of deaths caused by nu-
merous other diseases, but that does not warrant letting
down the bars one bit in the work of control, which is
being prosecuted by the Florida State Live Stock Sani-












tary Board in co-operation with the United States Bu-
reau of Animal Industry, and the swine owners of the
State.
The census figures for year 1917 show that there were
1,100,000 hogs in Florida, valued at $6.50 per head. That
the death loss from disease totalled 99,000 head, worth
$643,500.

First Day-Evening Session

THE FLORIDA STATE LIVE STOCK SANITARY
BOARD.

By Hon. IV. A. McRae, Commissioner of Agriculture,
and President of the Board, Tallahassee.

I am glad to be with you on this occasion and discuss
with you and hear discussions on subjects vital not only
to our great Commonwealth, Florida, but subjects that
are at this time vital to the entire civilized world.
Mr. President, I do not believe at this time that we can
discuss any of the subjects dealing with the production
of meat and bread and clothing without saying something
about the World War and its effect now and in the future
on the production of these commodities.
Dr. George M. Rommel, Chief of the Animal Husbandry
Division, U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, in his address
at the Cut-Over Land Association, in New Orleans, Sep-
tember 27, 1917, said:
"The great war has thrown all human calculations out
of balance and his disorganized all trade conditions. This
is especially true of food supplies, especially meat."
"We had begun to reach a point in beef production
(before the war) where we had only enough for ourselves.
The war has made it necessary for our people to forego
much of the meat they need in order to supply beef for
the soldiers in Europe. The war has called on us for
greatly increased exports of pork products and ham and
bacon are now among the poor man's luxuries instead
of among his necessities."
"To date, (September 27, 1917,) the war has caused
the slaughter of 28,000,000 cattle, 54,000,000 sheep, and
32,000,000 hogs from the live stock supplies in Europe.











Will the future see still further inroads on her animal
population? Will the plowing up of grazing lands in
Great Britain mean a permanent loss in her live stock
production? Will the vegetarian diet now forced upon
the non-combatant population in Europe become more or
less the rule after the war, or will the meat diet of the
soldier in the trenches follow him when he returns home
to peaceful pursuits? If the discharged soldier takes
home with him an appetite for a diet in which meat is
an important factor, where is the meat coming from?"
To the United States, more than. to any other nation,
they will look for the meat supply when the great World
War is over. And Florida, because of her adaptability
for growing meat animals, should furnish a large part of
this nation's meat supply.
The Legislature of 1917 passed many laws of a con-
structive nature. One of these was the law creating
the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, and it is about
the work of this Board that I am to speak at this time.
The members of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board
are: W. A. McRae, Commissioner of Agriculture, presi-
dent of the Board; J. C. Luning, State Treasurer; W. N.
Sheats, State Superintendent of Public Instruction; Dr.
W. F. Blackman and R. W. Storrs. The first named
three were named in the law, while the other two mem-
bers were appointed by the Governor.
The law carries an appropriation of $150,000 for the
biennium, from July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1919.
Immediately after its organization the Board began
the laying of plans for systematically carrying out the
provisions of the law. It was evident from the first that
the work should be carried on under three heads or divis-
ions, i. e.: tick eradication, hog cholera control, and con-
trol of contagious, infectious and communicable diseases.
For the first year, from July 1, 1917, to June 30, 1918,
the following amounts were appropriated for the work as
outlined: For tick eradication, $35,000; for hog cholera
control, $25,000; and for the control of contagious, infec-
tious and communicable diseases, $15,000. The cost of
administration to be charged proportionately to each of
the different heads.
For the past several years and up to July 1, 1917,
when the act creating the State Live Stock Sanitary












Board went into effect, the animal industry of the State
of Florida was under the State Board of Health, and
such money as the State Board of Health could spare was
given to this industry.
The arrangement was unfortunate, both to the State
Board of Health and to the live stock industry of the
State. The State Board of Health was forced to work
with something not akin to the general duties of state
health boards, and to expend monies, that rightly be-
longed to that body for other purposes. While the ani-
mal industry got value received for every dollar expended
and the State was most fortunate in having as State Vet-
erinarian the best men the country afforded, yet these
men were often hampered for lack of funds with which
to work.
The creation of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board
has relieved the State Board of Health of a great and un-
necessary burden and at the same time the greatest ad-
vance was given to the live stock industry of the State.
At the time the Act was passed creating the State Live
Stock Sanitary Board there were only six men employed
by the State Board of Health to look after the animal in-
dustry of the entire State and but a very small amount
of money was being spent in this industry by the National
government or the counties in co-operation.
The National government had begun the laying of plans
for a campaign of large proportions towards tick eradi-
cation and this work was entrusted to Dr. E. M. Nigh-
bert, whose success in this line in other states was well
known. Dr. A. H. Logan had been laying plans for
greater work in hog cholera control for nearly two years,
and the work of these two experts in Florida was to be
terminated if the State of Florida failed to pass a good
live stock law and carrying a good appropriation.
The first division to get launched was that of tick erad-
ication. An agreement was entered into between the
State and the Bureau of Animal Industry at Washington,
and the work of tick eradication through close co-opera-
tion on the part of the State, the National government
and some of the counties that have made appropriations
for this work has made remarkable progress. At this
time the State Live Stock Sanitary Board has twenty-
eight inspectors working in the same number of counties.












Thirty counties have already made appropriations for vat
construction, and the outlook now is that several more
will make appropriations this year.
We now have three counties-Monroe, Dade and Brow-
ard-and the larger part of Palm Beach county, tick
free. An election is called for January 15, in Lake coun-
ty, which provides for compulsory dipping of cattle. It
is to be hoped that the election in Lake county will carry
as that will soon be followed by several other counties
that will soon be ready for this move.
The division of hog cholera control was the next to be
worked out, and October 2nd the agreement was finally
signed between the Bureau of Animal Industry, at Wash-
ington, the States Relations Service and the State of
Florida, and this work is just now beginning to move off
in good shape.
The Bureau of Animal Industry now has four trained
veterinarians in the field, when at the time the State Live
Stock Sanitary law was passed it only had one man, Dr.
Logan, who had done very valuable work in the State for
nearly two years. The State now has six veterinarians
and the States Relations Service is giving the assistance
of all the County Demonstration Agents. At a glance
one can see what a mighty force is at work in the State
of Florida for the building up of our live stock industry.
The third division is looked after by the State through
the State Veterinarian and his assistants. While this
division belongs to be looked after by the State of Flor-
ida, yet every agency at work in the field is always
alert to report anything of a suspicious nature to the
State authorities, and in that way it may be said that
we have the closest co-operation in this division.
There is another great force at work and to which
much credit is due in aiding in the enactment of the
State Live Stock Sanitary Law and which has done so
much to educate our people to the needs of more and bet-
ter live stock and that is the Florida Cattle Tick Erad-
ication Committee of the Southern Settlement and Devel-
opment Organization. This non-profit organization, com-
posed of the best men in the South-busy men who are
giving of their time and their means to build up the
South, is doing untold good. It lost, and the State lost,
in the death of its manager, Mr. P. L. Sutherland. His












place has not, as yet, been filled. It will be hard to fill,
but' this organization is composed of big men, business
men, and they will leave nothing undone to keep their
good work going on for the upbuilding of our fair State.
A tribute of praise is due to the newspapers of the
State, in that they have been more than liberal in set-
ting forth the importance of the work of the State Live
Stock Sanitary Board and other agencies, in helping to
stamp out the deadly tick and halt the spread of hog
cholera. This in face of insistent and persistent demands
of a multitude of projects associated with the war, all of
them meritorious, and the editors have been sorely
pressed for space, but they recognized the value of the
movement to better a great home industry and have in-
deed been generous.
Much has been done by all the forces at work. The
State Live Stock Sanitary Board is just one of the sev-
eral units that is putting forth great effort with one
common end in view-the eradication of the cattle fever
tick, the control of hog cholera and the control of con-
tagious, infectious and communicable diseases.
The State Live Stock Sanitary Board is putting forth
its very best efforts and, like the other forces in the field,
it has been hampered by its trained men being taken into
the army. But the Nation's honor is at stake and the
army and navy and every branch of the Nation's defense
has the right of way and we are not complaining at the
loss of our trained men. We try and we have been able
thus far to fill up the broken ranks.
This is a time when slackers are not needed in State
or Nation and a good motto for every agency at work
in any line of development should be "The most that we
can do is the least that we ought to do." I believe every
member of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board is
pledged to such a spirit of action, and I feel sure that
with all the agencies at work in close co-operation, great
things can be expected during the next two years in the
live stock industry in this State.
I am reminded of a story which I shall give in conclus-
ion. A small boy in one of our southern cities heard so
much about the high cost of living and so many sugges-
tions about how every one could help in the fight for in-
creased production, till he finally decided that he would












take the money from his little bank and buy some chick-
ens and raise eggs for sale. The little fellow went out
in town and he found a pair of little bantam chickens
which he decided he should buy, and he paid the price
and carried them home. Each day he watched them
closely and one day, very much to his delight, he found
the hen sitting on a newly-made nest. He waited with
patience until he heard her cackle and he ran to see the
first egg, but much to his surprise and chagrin he found
a tiny little egg. He could see at once that that kind
of egg would do but little to reduce the high cost of liv-
ing, and there would be no demand for them in the mar-
ket. The little fellow stopped, thought a while, and di-
rectly he came across a goose egg. He picked it up,
looked at it, and wrote this on it and put it by the nest
of his little bantam hen: "Look at this next time and do
the best you can."
This is a time when every citizen of Florida is ex-
pected to do the best he can.

FIELD WORK FOR BOARD.

By R. W .Storrs, Member of Board, DeFuniak Springs.

By common consent of the Board members, the duties
of looking after important matters effecting our work
outside of the Board meetings has been delegated to me.
All of the members are very busy with their numerous
duties, but some one has to do a certain amount of vis-
iting around over the State to straighten out tangles
which sometimes arise as to proper co-operation of county
officials with the Board, and other matters.
We are getting splendid co-operation in both of our
campaigns; eradication of the cattle fever ticks and con-
trol of hog cholera.
It is important that the swine breeders in the various
communities should practice closer co-operation in hand-
ling swine diseases which break out from time to time,
for one man cannot insure the safety of his hogs when
disease is prevalent all around his farm.












THE OLD Cow.

By Frank 8. Hastings, Manager S. M. S. Ranok,
Stamford, Texas.

The element of time enters into every thing. You are
launching some of your best activities under very favor-
able circumstances. Tick eradication is only six years old
in Texas and $20,000 was the amount appropriated for
live stock sanitation at the start.
W. N. Waddell of Fort Worth, was placed in charge
of administering the work of the Live Stock Sanitary
Commission, and he had the confidence of the cattle men,
so was able to accomplish much good with limited funds.
I want to congratulate Florida on having a Legisla-
ture that is alive to what you are undertaking.
Abraham of Biblical times was a cow man and had his
problems of grass and water for his herds. I am sorry
that he did not cast his lot in Florida, for I think he
could not have found any better opportunities anywhere.
The old cow furnishes milk and butter, also fertiliza-
tion of the land. Corn belt farmers sometimes feed cat-
tle at an apparent loss, but in their method of crop rota-
tion it is essential that they renew fertility.
What I shall say is based on early eradication of the
cattle fever ticks. When I went to Texas sixteen years
ago the only way was to throw the animal and pick off
the ticks. The cattle were brought to the border in win-
ter, hand ticked and then passed by inspection.
We cleaned up one ranch of 100,000 acres, thirty miles
below the quarantine line. When marketing our stock
we had to drive to the border, dip for exposure to ticks
and then we could ship into free territory.
SI have found some real demonstrations of cattle op-
portunities in herds visited in Alachua and Marion coun-
ties. They will compare favorably with pure bred herds
in the Northern States.
You cannot breed down in Florida. The bottom has
been reached. But in ten years you can eliminate every
scrub in the State. The process of upbuilding is very
short. The Florida cow has qualities which make her
valuable for use in breeding up, if good beef type bulls
are mated with her.
The use of scrub bulls is a crime. I do not think I











ever saw more waste than in Florida, but I do not know
of any country where conditions can be righted more
quickly. The process of up-building under right methods
is very short. The culling process must be carefully
watched, but there is a favorable market for culls which
are used for canners, so the work need not be done at
a loss.
The government believes that live stock production is
its second greatest problem, and in every possible way
that it can give cooperation, is pledged to do so. In fact,
I do not think I would have been here at all unless a
high official in the Bureau of Animal Industry had not
urged me to come, in line with their work of general de-
velopment throughout the South.
Fencing will add new values to your lands and help de-
velop the cattle industry. It means defined ownership
which is always recognized. It means fire control, be-
cause it eliminates the wantonness which we now find all
over your open range, each man working out his own
problem and firing the range for various causes.
Fencing means that an area may be developed to its
capacity. For instance, on. your ranges fire kills the var-
ious varieties of the carpet or blanket grass and kills the
little blue cane as well as any number of other grasses,
all of which, however, come back where an area is pro-
tected, and as they are among your very best feeds, the
carrying capacity of a pasture will be materially in-
creased.
It is a scientific fact that eradication of the tick may
be accomplished by resting a pasture for a certain time.
Fencing means the concentration of that area to the best
bulls as against not only their mixture with the scrub
bulls on the open range, but the fact that the old Spanish
fighting blood in the scrub bull materially reduces the
effectiveness of the higher class bull.
The introduction of good bulls is a comparatively sim-
ple matter because they can be purchased, but a great
cow herd can only be produced by accumulation, pro-
bably by a culling of at least ten per cent. of all females
every year during the process of up-grading. The yearl-
ing heifers should not be bred. We always cull them
when about eighteen months old cutting them ten per
cent. Culling should be done from an individual stand-
point and from the standpoint of "Get."












I think advisable, too, in your branding, to put the
year brand on all heifers, as it will be of material assist-
ance to you in the matter of knowing the intensification
of blood during the early process. It will not be so im-
portant later on when the cattle are all very high grade.
Another thing which offers a great economy in your
country is the possibility of dropping calves on an aver-
age of about two months earlier than they do in Texas.
We do not like to have a calf come before the first of
April. I believe that you can drop yours during Jan-
uary and February without any trouble. Dropping a
calf at that time will have him old enough to eat your
young grasses when they begin to come. He will have
a two-months pull over the Texas calf, will have two
months longer to combine nursing and grazing to deliver
him the first of November.
The old cow stands as the mother of the live stock in-
dustry. Your old cow will be the mother to cattle, the
world will make a path to your door to buy.
I hope you will build up the membership of your As-
sociation until it becomes a great power in developing the
live stock industry of the State.

Second Day-Morning Session

AT INTERSTATE STOCK YARDS.

THE FLORIDA LIVE STOCK EXCHANGE.

By B. F. Williamsoa, Jacksonville.

I am glad to welcome the members of the Florida State
Live Stock Association to the Interstate Stock Yards,
and hope that each one of you will get a better idea of
the facilities offered here for marketing your surplus live
stock.
The territory served by this organization is capable of
greater live stock production, and Jacksonville, as a port
city, offers the world's markets to you. We must have a
more equal distribution of stock throughout the year to
get the best results.
The Government refuses to accept "soft" hog meat on
their contracts and as the South is the only market for












such quality of pork meat, you can readily understand
that the supply is larger than the demand, resulting in
lower prices. The South can use a certain amount of
"soft" meat, but as a general rule each community pro-
duces about all it requires.
Velvet beans, corn or sweet potatoes produce hard fat
in hogs which have not been softened by getting large
quantities of acorns, peanuts or chufas before being
placed in the fattening pens.

THE ARMOUR PACKING Co.

By J. H. Boekhoff, Superintendent, Jacksonvillc.

It is my privilege to welcome you here on behalf of Ar-
mour & Company. I speak for the House of Armour
when I say that we are glad to have you visit our Jack-
sonville plant which will grow and prosper as you pros-
per and increase your herds of meat animals.
We want you to see what we do here with the animals
you raise. If you can take away with you a clear idea
of our needs and our problems it will help you in raising
cattle and hogs that will give both of us the best possible
returns.
In Florida we have been feeding our hogs on peanuts.
Peanut-fed hogs look fine and I guess they taste all right,
but from the packer's standpoint they are very undesir-
able and not worth within several dollars per hundred
pounds of what a corn-fed hog is worth. Hogs that are
fed on peanuts or acorns are oily and lack the firmness
necessary to the best grade of pork products.
Of course there are advantages in feeding peanuts to
hogs. For one thing, the hogs will do the harvesting for
themselves.
But the big thing for you men who are raising both hogs
and peanuts to consider is this: Do you get the maximum
returns, Investigations conducted by many experts have
demonstrated that you do not. Feeding peanuts to hogs
pays a profit all right, but not the biggest profit by any
means.
It is all right to raise peanuts but they ought to be
made into peanut oil and peanut cake rather than into
oily hogs. Peanut cake is excellent feed for cattle and
will not make them less desirable as meat animals. They












will not be subject to a discount when they are brought
to market; but peanut-fed hogs will be oily and will not
bring you the same price that properly fed hogs will.
Feed your peanuts to the mill-not to the hogs.
Another point which might seem trivial to any other
than we who are in the meat business, has to do with
dehorning of cattle. Horns are of value when our by-
product factories turn them into buttons and knife
handles and novelties, but they are mighty costly when
they result in bruised or lacerated meat carcasses.
Cattle that have horns just Laturally make use of them
and when a carload of long-horned cattle come into the
yards our buyers know better than to pay a top price
for them. They will not pay out at top prices because
we are sure to find imperfections in the carcasses which
reduce their value.
On our trip through the plant we are going to show
you just why it is that we cannot pay as much for peanut-
fed hogs and horned cattle as we will for corn-fed hogs
and dehorned cattle. 'Do not think that the oily carcasses
of hogs and the bruised carcasses of cattle have been
saved up for this visit. They are examples of what we
run across every day and it is an evil that we cannot
correct. It is up to you to correct it and the reason you
should correct it is that it means money in your pockets
to do so.
Now gentlemen, let's look.through the finest packing
plant in this part of the country.

INSPECTION AND DINNER.

Following a thorough inspection of the packing plant
which was in full operation, the members, numbering
about 200, gathered in the dining room, and were served a
sumptuous dinner as guests of Armour & Company.

Second Day-Afternoon Session

Exhibit and auction sale of grade and pure-bred swine,
in stock yards, in charge of Florida Live Stock Exchange.


3-Bull












Second Day-Evening Session

AUDITORIUM, SEMINOLE HOTEL.

FLORIDA CONDITIONS AS SEEN FROM THE OUT-
SIDE FROM THE TEXAS STANDPOINT.

By W. N. Waddell, Fort Worth, Texas.

In order to understand or to be able to appreciate a
proposition of almost any character it is necessary to ap-
proach it by comparison and in making comparisons
touching Florida I wish to state that I have traveled over
the range of the five northern states of old Mexico, I
have traveled over the southern part of the range belt of
Arizona, I have traveled over about half of the State of
New Mexico, and virtually all of Texas, and I find in
Florida conditions favorable to the production of live
stock that do not exist in any of the states I have named
which constitute the great range belt of the Southwest.
In Mexico there is very little water, and water is very
hard to get by digging, the wells averaging from 150 to
1,000 feet deep, and in a great many instances no water
at all. In Mexico they also have a great many animals
that prey on the live stock, such as panthers, lobo wolves,
bears, as well as the common ordinary coyote. None of
these have to be contended.with here. In Arizona and
New Mexico about the same conditions prevail as do in
northern Old Mexico. In Texas we have bears and sun-
dry pests to prey on our live stock. The prairie dog in-
fests a great many of our ranches, destroying the grass,
digging holes in the ground and making it dangerous for
the cowboy to ride over in the pursuit of his range en-
deavors. We have wolves of all species. In Texas we
have also the screw worms that are a tax on the live
stock producer to the extent of from two to five per cent.
of the calves born on his ranch, and I am sorry to say
that worst of all we have periodical droughts. None of
these adverse conditions I find prevail in Florida.
Here I find the country covered with a thick, heavy
coat of grass, streams running with plenty of water, and
I understand where natural water is not available that
it is only about from twenty to one hundred feet to an











abundant supply of water under the ground, making the
proposition of watering the ranches in Florida where ar-
tificial water is necessary a very simple matter. The
climate in Florida is temperate and mild, rainfall is regu-
lar and abundant, and so far as the production of forage
for live stock on the range is concerned, your rainfall and
your soils all seem to combine in favor of the producer
of live stock.
Florida today as never before is attracting national at-
tention as a possible beef producing State. The eyes of
the investing public are turned towards Florida and it
is my judgment that within the next five years Florida
will make greater strides in the development of the live
stock industry than it has ever made before. And I want
here and now to issue a warning to you gentlemen who
are running your cattle on the open ranges of Florida
that you had better get busy and get control of what land
you expect to use as a cattle ranch, for if I mistake not
outsiders are coming into this State who will buy or
lease these lands, put them under fence and inaugurate a
system of live stock production on an improved basis as
compared to the present methods being pursued in this
State.
And in this connection I wish to state that I have dis-
cussed this open range proposition with some of the larg-
est land owners in Florida. They tell me that they want
to see Florida developed; they tell me they are in line to
lend their energies, their time and their money to any-
thing that will develop the State of Florida. After lis-
tening to them talk this line of earnest progressiveness I
have put the proposition to them just like it was put to
us in Texas and that is, formulate an equitable leasing
proposition, one that will safeguard the interests of the
land owner and at the same time lend protection to the
vested rights of the lessee, and advertise that to the
world. Let the people not only of Florida, but the people
outside of the State of Florida know that they can come
to Florida and at a small rental cost lease as many acres
of good grazing land as they have money to get cattle
with which to stock it, assuring the prospective lessee
that they will fence the land according to his desires and
will build him a ranch house to live in, that they will
fence him a horse pasture to keep his saddle horses in,











will build him a dipping vat on the land and where neces-
sary will bore wells and equip them with wind-mills and
pump sufficient to furnish plenty of water for the live
stock on the land so leased.
There was never any marked development or marked
improvement in the live stock industry in the State of
Texas as long as the cattle ranged on the free grass, but
in 1884 the Legislature passed what was known as a
Lease Law. Then it was, gentlemen, that the fencing up
of the State of Texas began in earnest. No man was will-
ing to pay lease on land and let somebody else's cattle
graze on it. And that is the first step needed to be taken
in the evolution of better cattle in Florida. The land
owners should fence up their lands, cut them up in pas-
tures to suit the men who want to run their cattle on
them, making the lands of Florida revenue producing in-
stead of being a liability, and put the cattle of Florida
under fence and under control wherein individual effort
may develop in a desire to excel. I cannot stress this
proposition too strongly. I haven't the language to ex-
press the importance of putting the lands of Florida un-
der fence and the cattle under control in order that bet-
ter cattle and more cattle may be raised. The most im-
portant step looking to better cattle in Florida has al-
ready been taken in the creation of a State Live Stock
Sanitary Board and the work incident thereto of tick
eradication.
I am glad to see the interest manifest in this State
looking to the eradicationof the dreaded fever tick. No
well devised progress towards the up-breeding of the live
stock of this State can be attained until the tick is erad-
icated and no man of human nature can afford to allow
the ticks to eat on his cattle.
It was my pleasure to be chairman of the Live Stock
Sanitary Commission of the State of Texas for four years
and I am proud to say to you that it was under my direc-
tion and through my efforts that the first systematic tick
eradication work was ever conducted in Texas.
Those four years of my life I virtually consecrated to
the improvement and development of live stock in Texas.
So much so did I follow that idea that since going out of
office my every impulse seems to throb in the interest of
better live stock production and I am here now, a long












way from home, a long way from my own business and
interests, studying Florida conditions, contributing my
mite, offering any suggestions that I think might be
worth while looking to the improvement and betterment
of the live stock industry of this State.
Florida is wasting approximately enough good pasture
to produce a meat supply sufficient to feed several states,
by confining the quality of the herds to the little native
cattle we saw on the ranges. True we saw lots of cattle,
more than I supposed existed in the entire State, but the
opportunity before the cattle men is to breed up the
quality and size. That this can be done was demonstrat-
ed by some herds we visited, and the reports on those
herds show that this is a better cattle breeding country
than Texas, for your owners are branding a larger pro-
portion of calves to breeding cows in herds than we are
able to get.
I am sure that good cattle can be raised in Florida be-
cause I have seen them. I am sure that good hogs can
be raised in Florida because I have seen them and on the
question of the hog I wish to state that on the open range
country of Florida, especially the southern part in the
prairie country where there are hard wood and cabbage
hammocks, is the ideal country in which to grow hogs. I
made the statement when I was here in the summer that
I believed a man could fence up a range of ten or twenty
or thirty thousand acres in Florida, stock it with cattle
and stock it with hogs and the hogs would pay the over-
head charges of running the ranch, and my observations
here for the past thirty days traveling over the State have
convinced me that that statement was not very much ex-
aggerated.
There is no reason why cattlemen should not make di-
vidends on investments while breeding up the quality of
their herds, for this is a great cattle country.
I am very much surprised to find that sheep are not
more generally handled on the ranges with the cattle.
The absence of coyotes make sheep raising particularly
attractive and they will not injure the pasturage for cat-
tle if properly proportioned. There ought to be several
hundred thousand sheep on the Kissimmee River Valley
ranges. We handle large numbers of sheep and cattle to-
gether, although our ranges are not nearly so good as
those in Florida.












Now in conclusion. These are momentous times. This
is a momentous occasion. This meeting of live stock men
of Florida if I read the signs aright, will make a chapter
in history that all will look back to with a degree of pride
and if when that history is written there can be one fav-
orable mention made of any effort that I performed look-
ing to the betterment of live stock conditions in Florida,
I will feel amply paid. I thank you.

FLORIDA FIFTEEN YEARS AFTER.

By Dr. H. E. Stockbridge, Atlanta, Georgia.

"Looking backward" may sometimes be fully as useful
as looking forward. Applying the lessons of the past to
the problems of the present is one of the best means for
avoiding errors in the future. Comparison of the past
with the present, moreover, should always supply new
courage by the realization of progress made.
It is hard to realize, yet it is certainly true, that fif-
teen years ago there was not a herd of registered beef
cattle in the State. There were a few good dairy herds,
but not a single good dairy. Few men had breadth of
vision or sufficient confidence to even express belief in
the possibility of developing a really progressive live
stock industry in Florida. Then a change occurred easily
traced to the publication of Bulletin 55 of the Florida
Experiment Station, in the spring of 1900.
To what an extent this publication was really the begin-
ning of the things now great realities, is well shown by
the first illustration-a field of velvet beans. This was
the first picture ever published of a field of velvet beans
grown and recommended as a forage crop. It was the
first recognition of the possibilities of what has in the
brief time since become one of the greatest forage and
soil improving crops of the world.
Another illustration in this same bulletin has equal
historic interest. It shows twelve dressed hogs, with the
legend: "Killed April 20th, with the atmospheric tempera-
ture at 84 degrees, and cured by use of 1,000 pounds of
ice." That was the beginning of the independence of
southern hog growers of weather in the harvesting of
their hog crops. It was the forerunner of the scores of
local ice plants now insuring farmers against loss of












meat from bad weather, and of the dozen modern pack-
ing plants in which western packers have invested many
millions of dollars in the South.
I shall crave indulgence while I quote a few state-
ments I made in this bulletin seventeen years ago which,
however visionary they may have seemed then, are incon-
testible realities now. Page 219: "The State of Florida
as a whole possesses very exceptional advantages for
most forms of stock husbandry." "The soils and climate
of Florida are perfectly adapted to the successful growth
of cultivated grasses and forage crops adapted to the fat-
tening of animals." Page 306: "Two (feedstuffs), name-
ly, beggarweed and velvet beans * are almost dis-
tinctively Florida crops." Page 307: "The quality of the
beef produced was fully equal to the western beef offered
in our markets." "Velvet beans (pod) meal is believed
to be natural protein food for Florida feeders." (In this
connection it is interesting to recall the statements made
by the manager of the Armour's plant today. He stated
that their experience showed the meat made from velvet
beans to be as hard and good as that from corn.) Page
307: "After being placed on full feed seventy days of
feeding seems to bring Florida steers to their maximum
gain," Page 308: "By comparison with actual feeding
experiments in Texas and Nebraska * our Florida
steers gave a profit of 23.35 per cent. over the former,
while our average gain per day was double that of the lat-
ter, and our actual cost per pound of product was less
than one-half as much. Our results, moreover, were se-
cured in one-half the time required in Nebraska."
A Kentuckian transplanted to Florida could not forget
his nativity and had the courage to test his convictions in
a practical way. So S. H. Gaitskill started a 2000-acre
Shorthorn farm in Marion county-the first real stock
farm in Florida. Another Marion county man, Mr. Cham-
bliss, caught the infection and the new era was under
way. The few men responsible or guilty for these
things came into control of the state fair held at Lake
City in 1902. We determined to make it, as far as possi-
ble, a live stock exposition, and brought together the
largest exhibit of blooded stock ever seen in the South.
Much of it was sold and distributed throughout the State.
It is not necessary to follow the evolution further, nor











to speak of the present, when this Association contains
members from nearly every great live stock state in the
Union who have come here to establish herds of all the
prominent breeds to secure the now well recognized ad-
vantages of Florida.
A word as to the future. The vision of fifteen years
ago is realized. Now I fully believe that fifteen years
hence will see the Southeastern States the center of the
great meat producing industry of the American continent.
Climate soil and economic conditions render the result
inevitable. The days of pioneering are past. We are
about to come into our own.

FLORIDA GRASSES AND FORAGE CROPS.

By Prof. C. V. Piper, Agrostologist, U. S. Bureau of
Plant Industry, Washington, D. C.

For many years I have been interested in the problem
of more and better forage for the South, because it has
long been evident to students of agriculture that sooner
or later there would be an important live stock industry
developed in the South.
As an indication of the extent of this movement I may
state that within the past two years over thirty extensive
live stock enterprises have been launched, all in the piney
woods region of the southern states. Most of these com-
panies have ample capital and most of them are proceed-
ing along conservative lines.
The future development and prosperity of this industry
must rest upon a thorough knowledge and'proper utiliza-
tion of the forage crops adapted to the region. In very
large measure these forages are quite different from those
used in the portions of the United States where animal
husbandry is most developed. From a practical stand-
point we cannot use in the South the forages of the North
and West, with the important exception of corn. The
other great forages--timothy, red clover, alfalfa, blue
grass and white clover-can never become important in
Florida. This fact needs emphasis, because the newcomer
in Florida is often carried away with the idea that these
forages may be made to succeed.
Now, of course, I am fully aware that Florida and all
the South has long had an extensive cattle industry based











on the natural grasses of the prairies and of the piney
woods. In general, this has been a profitable industry,
especially on free range. Without hurting anyone's feel-
ings, we will, I think, agree that this has not been a
very high grade of live stock ranching. Indeed, the ordi-
nary Northern or Western man, who is, of course, a sup-
erficial observer, has gotten the idea from the scrub cat-
tle and razorback hogs that he saw, that there is some-
thing in .the South that is inimical to good live stock.
Usually he has decided it is the climate. Fortunately we
know from the work of every Southern experiment sta-
tion, as well as of a few good live stock ranches, that the
South can raise just as good cattle and hogs as the North.
It isn't a matter of climate, at all, but purely one of
breed and feed.
Perhaps it will be most helpful in discussing the fo-
rages adapted to Florida to proceed from the viewpoint
of the man starting a cattle ranch. The basis, of course,
of any profitable cattle ranch is permanent pasturage,
the cheapest of all feeds, and, to supplement this, a sup-
ply of feed, which may be hay, ensilage, or in Southern
Florida, green feed, to bridge over the season of short pas-
tures. If one is to produce highly finished beef, grain
feeds and other concentrates must be raised or purchased.
In discussing pasturage it will be convenient to recog-
nize three types of lands, namely, piney woods, prairie,
and mucks, realizing, of course, that this is a very rough
classification.

PINEY WOODS LANDS.

In the piney woods the natural pasturage is composed
mainly of broom sedge and wire grasses. During the
growing season, from spring till late fall, these grasses
furnish fair pasturage, but through the rest of tlte year
they merely enable animals to exist. What can be done
towards converting the poor native pastures into good
permanent pastures? There are three possibilities in the
light of our present knowledge. On better soils good
Bermuda pastures can be developed, or where the lands
are moist, as on most flatwood areas, carpet grass may
be used. On the drier and poorer soils, Natal grass is the
only one that has given much success.
How can Bermuda or carpet grass pasture best be es-












tablished? The sure method is to stump your land and
plow it, and then plant the Bermuda by the vegetative
method in spring, or any time thereafter in summer, dur-
ing the rainy season. At the McNeil station in Missis-
sippi, located on land much like that of the northern tier
of counties in Florida, they have developed the following
method: Plow furrows about ten feet apart between the
stumps in spring, and stick in a root or sprig of Bermuda
about every ten feet. At McNeill it is found necessary to
use a little fertilizer to insure the growth of these Ber-
muda plants. During the following winter the stumps
are removed and then in spring the land is plowed and
Lespedeza seed sown. Enough Bermuda has grown in
the furrows to insure a stand of Bermuda, and this is
supplemented by the Lespedeza. Indeed, the first season
the. Lespedeza will furnish more pasturage than the Ber-
muda. Lespedeza is rather a tricky plant in Florida and
is hardly worth consideration except in the northern part
of the.State.
On most of the Florida flatwood soils carpet grass is
much more aggressive than Bermuda, and in time will, if
left alone, completely replace the Bermuda. To a large
extent this can be obviated by plowing the pastures when-
ever the carpet grass seems to be obtaining the upper
hand. Unfortunately, we do not know the relative values
of equal areas of Bermuda grass and of carpet grass
where the latter is most aggressive. Carpet grass does
not grow so tall, but is green for a longer period. It
may, indeed, be found more economical not to try to save
the Bermuda after the carpet grass crowds it. From ob-
servations; I am inclined to believe that neither the carry-
ing capacity nor the feed values per acre of the two
grasses is greatly different on most flatwood soils. If
this be true, it would not be economy to go to any par-
ticulaf trouble to retain the Bermuda instead of the car-
pet grass.
Carpet grass produces abundant good seed, and there-
fore spreads much more rapidly than Bermuda, which
rarely produces seed in humid regions.
It is found necessary to remove the stumps at McNeill,
because for the first year or two on the plowed ground,
weeds, especially "fennel" or "Yankee weed," appear
abundantly, and must be mowed or they will kill the
grasses by shading. Mowing with the stumps on the land












is impracticable, as the weeds conceal many of the
stumps.
Whether it is practicable to establish good permanent
pastures without stumping and plowing the land is yet
an unsolved problem. About every Florida settlement
where the town cattle graze, there is good pasture, com-
monly carpet grads. You will find just this on the out-
skirts of Jacksonville. Such pasturage has been estab-
lished by heavy continuous grazing, under which condi-
tions the broom sedge and wire grass are exterminated,
while the creeping carpet grass comes in and persists.
It may be that the manure of the animals is also a fac-
tor, and there can scarcely be a question that the tramp-
ling helps. As an example of this kind occurs about
nearly every Florida town, it would seem as if it could
be duplicated on cattle ranches. I have suggested to
several cattlemen that it is worth trying on a scale by
three methods: (1) Simply burning the native grass in
winter; (2) burning, followed by disking or harrowing;
and (3) plowing among the stumps.
If possible, carpet grass seed should be scattered on
each area, and in all cases close grazing should be prac-
ticed. Unfortunately, carpet grass seed cannot be secured
commercially, except in small quantities at high prices,
but it is easy to cut the mature carpet grass in fall from
a pasture and cure the hay. The carpet grass can then
be sown simply by scattering the hay. Whether any of
these schemes will work out satisfactorily still remains
to be determined.
As to Natal grass, I have already mentioned that this
succeeds better on the poorer and drier pine lands than
any other grass yet introduced. Thus far it has been ex-
ploited purely as a grass for market hay. On this basis
many hundred acres were planted in Lake County and
elsewhere. Grass culture purely for market hay is a
very precarious proposition. The proper agricultural
economy is grass for live stock, selling only the surplus
to the market. Notwithstanding the very large acreage
planted to Natal, I have been quite unable to secure sat-
isfactory data as to its value for pasturage, measured in
carrying capacity and satisfactory gains. It seems to
me, from the slender data I have been able to secure,
fairly probable that Natal will prove a valuable grass for
combined hay and pasture on the soils to which it is so












well adapted, but of course it can hardly be expected to
yield enough to justify the extravagant prices paid for
land planted to Natal.

PRAIRIE LANDS.

On the prairies of Florida there is much better natural
pasturage than in the piney woods, and, indeed, it is on
the prairies that the old type of cattle industry reached
its highest development. The prairies are in reality wet
meadows. Their grass cover is due to water relations,
most of them being periodically overflowed conditions
that are inimical to pines and palmettos. On the other
hand, the period of overflow is too brief to meet the con-
ditions necessary for cypress and other swamp trees.
These prairies stretch from the border of the pine woods
and palmettos on relatively high ground to permanently
wet swamps. The best natural pasturage consists of var-
ious species of paspalum and related flat-leaved grasses
on the soils fairly moist during a large part of the year;
and maiden cane on still moister land, or even in shallow
water. Generally speaking, the moisture relations of the
more extensive prairies are nearly ideal for continuous
pasturage in the varying seasons. There is grave danger
in any extensive drainage operations, as palmettos and
pines will quickly invade such drained land and thus de-
stroy the grass.
For improved pasture on these lands, particularly on
those reasonably moist, Para grass offers great possibil-
ities. The remarkably rapid growth and high yield of
this grass, combined with its palatability and nutritious-
ness, make it of prime importance in connection with bet-
ter live stock. Para succeeds well also on the better up-
lands, but generally speaking, it is a grass for moist
lands. The farther south, the more valuable it is, as
after frost it is of little value.
Another grass that is likely to be very valuable on the
prairies, and, indeed, on the flatwoods and better up-
lands, is paspalum dilatatum, native to Argentina. This
is perhaps the best of the paspalums, and it is now wide-
spread in the southern states. Unfortunately, with us
the seeds are largely destroyed by a fungus, but good com-
mercial seed is obtainable in quantity from Australia.











MUCK LANDS.

On the muck lands the problem of pasturage is easy.
At least four grasses, namely, Para, Carib, Rhodes and
Bermuda, especially Giant Bermuda, yield wonderfully.
The enormous area of muck lands in Florida, especially
in the Everglades, can, it would seem, be utilized only
with the aid of live stock. While there may be some
difficult problems to solve in handling live stock on
muck soils, especially in the wet season, there can be lit-
tle doubt that grass and live stock will insure the perma-
nency of these lands. Under continuous cultivation, there
is a constant shrinkage in muck soils, but with grass and
live stock this is nearly, if not quite, counterbalanced.
Carib grass on muck soils is, from limited data, supe-
rior to Para grass both in yield and quality. On other
types of soil Para will outyield Carib. Rhodes grass does
wonderfully on muck soil, and, indeed, on most rich
soils. Giant Bermuda is far coarser and more vigorous
than ordinary Bermuda. It will succeed wherever ordi-
nary Bermuda will grow, and, in addition, seems much
better able to withstand flooding.
Temporary or annual pasture crops are mainly import-
ant in connection with swine raising. Various systems
of such crops have been devised to furnish successive pas-
tures. Florida has a long list of such crops that can be
utilized. Among them are oats, rye, rape, sorghum, pea-
nuts, cow peas, chufas, sweet potatoes, corn and velvet
beans. Under certain conditions 'the cattleman may
have to utilize one or more of these crops, but corn and
velvet beans is the one that is the most important.
The importance of the velvet bean to the live stock in-
dustry now developing in the South can scarcely be over-
estimated. Grown with corn, it increases the corn crop
year after year, and besides furnishes a large amount of
nutritious feed to be eaten by the animals when the grass
pasture season is over. It reduces greatly the cost of fin-
ishing of beef animals for market. This year the velvet
bean has been no small factor in helping out the great
shortage of foodstuffs, quantities of them having been
shipped to Texas. Finally, it has resulted in a new indus-
try for the South, namely, the manufacture of velvet
bean meal, which has already won for itself a large de-
mand.











HAY PLANTS.

The problem of producing hay in Florida is made par-
ticularly difficult by frequent rains, except in the fall of
the year. The bulk of the hay now produced is from crab
grass that volunteers in cultivated fields. In recent years
much Natal hay has been grown for market. Para grass
hay is of good quality, and Rhodes grass of very fine
quality. Other hays are made from cow peas, cow peas
and sorghum mixed, Mexican clover, beggarweed, oats,
millet, etc.
The subject of hay, however, is vital only to the city
market. To the live stock man it is of minor import-
ance, as silage furnishes so satisfactory a substitute.

ENSILAGE CROPS.

Corn is, of course, the standard crop for ensilage, and
its relative importance in Florida is not far different from
that in other states.
Under certain conditions sorghums will yield greater
tonnage than corn, and the resulting silage is but slightly
inferior.
Florida possesses, in addition, a unique silage plant in
Japanese sugar cane. The perennial nature of this plant
and its high yielding capacity, make it a cheap fodder to
grow. It may be utilized as green feed, as silage, as dry
fodder, or for pasture. Your own experiment station has
published the best information we hav eon this forage.
As a feed for dairy cows there can be no question of its
high value, either green or as silage. There still seems
to be question, however, as to the relative value of Japan-
ese cane silage as compared with corn silage. In south-
ern Florida the cane stays green all winter, as a rule, so
that there is no necessity for ensiling it for winter feed.
It may well prove, however, that a supply of Japanese
cane silage will prove good insurance against periods of
shortage even in South Florida.
You may have noted that all the pasture plants I have
mentioned are grasses. Very unfortunately we have not
as yet any good perennial pasture legume adapted to
Florida. I say "unfortunately" because, as is well known
the true grasses are nutritious in proportion to the fer-
tility of the land. That is, the better the land the more












nutritious the pasture. But with legumes no such rela-
tions exist, because legumes are not dependent on the soil
for their nitrogen supply.
While we have no satisfactory perennial pasture le-
gume, we have one summer annual, Lespedeza, that helps
to some extent in North Florida. There are also two win
ter annuals that reproduce themselves in which I have
considerable confidence, namely, burr clover and narrow-
leaf vetch. I believe that on many of the better pasture
soils, especially in north Florida, that these legumes can
be established and that they will re-seed themselves year
after year. Of course due care must be taken to secure
innoculation, preferably by the soil method.
Kudzu is not particularly new, but it seems to me des-
tined to a much greater importance than at present. It
is the only perennial forage legume that has in any sense
made good in Florida. It is much better adapted to
clayey soils than to sandy soils, but it also succeeds re-
markably well on the limestone soils about Miami. On
the better sandy soils it would also seem to be valuable,
but on the poorer sandy soils and poorly drained lands it
is doubtful if it has a place. On clay soils at Arlington
Farms, Va., we have consistently gotten two cuttings,
totaling five tons of hay per acre-double what we can
get from cow peas or soy beans. I believe kudzu is en-
titled to a fair trial by every Florida cattleman.
At the present time we have under trial five creeping
pasture grasses, more or less like Bermuda in a general
way. You are, of course, aware that a pasture grass to
be valuable should be able to spread naturally and must
be able to hold the ground. Naturally it takes time to
determine all these facts.

Third Day-Morning Session
FINANCING THE CATTLE INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA
NEEDS OF THE SMALL STOCKMAN.
By Hon. L. S. Light, Reddick.
Denmark, with an area about equal to this State, has
1,900 co-operative societies, has the best livestock in the
world and in one year exported about $90,000,000 worth
of dairy, hog and poultry products besides supplying her
own needs.












Co-operative breeding associations in our country in
the Northwest are doing well and a co-operative breed-
ing association in my own neighborhood here for cattle,
horses and hogs would do well. Individually, the small
farmer is not able to obtain the right breeding for good
stock.
The co-operative Boy's Pig Club of Marion County was
a grand success; not a dollar lost to those who advanced
the cash to buy hogs for the boys. If co-operative hog
raising among the boys of Marion County was a big suc-
cess why could not co-operative associations among the
daddys do just as well?
It took Mr. Chambliss, a banker, to get the boys going.
Help must come from those who can organize and who
are judges of good stock. I appeal to the Florida State
Live Stock Association to help. I believe in Florida with
all my soul, but as a livestock State we are now at the
bottom. Iowa's livestock is assessed at $521,000,000
which is $210,000,000 more than the assessed value of
Florida. Iowa's hogs alone will buy Jacksonville at
three times the assessed valuation of all the railroads of
Florida. The hogs of Iowa can pay for all of Duval
County, all Hillsborough County and all the Florida rail-
roads at their assessed valuation. Will good livestock,
well taken care of pay? I offer the following resolution:
Whereas, The small stockman must finance the secur-
ing of good breeding stock and as it is impossible for
him to individually own such breeding stock as he should
have, therefore, be it
Resolved, That the Florida State Live Stock Associa-
tion do all it can to organize and help the small stockman
start co-operative breeding organizations in this State.
Now I want to prove by comparison that there is more
profit in good cattle, well taken care of under private
fences, than there is in open range scrub cattle. These
comparisons are facts and the truth. Mr. Chambliss,
banker and stockman of Ocala, had on exhibition at the
Marion County Fair of 1916, one steer three years old
that weighed 1250 pounds, worth in the markets about
$125.00. I sold from open range five head of four-year-
old cattle for $125.00. Mr. Chambliss' one steer was
worth as much as my five. The Anthony Farms had
three steers on exhibition at the Marion County Fair of
1917, that weighed 1,500 pounds each, worth in the Jack-












sonville markets fully $150.00 each, or as much as five
steers open range same age would sell for. Mr. J. W.
Meffert is raising mule colts from good large mares. He
sold in 1916 a pair of mule colts for $500.00. I sold same
year a pair of Florida common colts for $175.00. Mr.
Meffert received nearly three times as much for his good
stock per head as I did for my scrub stock. The above
makes me say there is much more profit in good stock,
well taken care of, than in scrub stock neglected.

FINANCIAL NEEDS OF THE FLORIDA STOCKMAN.

By C. A. Carson, Jr., Kissimmee.

In order to understand the financial needs of the Flor-
ida stockman it is necessary to understand something of
his methods, his problems, his hopes and the general
trend of events in his business. It is necessary to under-
stand the problems and methods of the individual stock-
man, and it is also necessary to get a perspective of the
entire stock business as it has existed in the past, exists
now and will probably exist in the future.
Some progressives believed in tick control and eradi-
cation, others owning cattle on the same range did not
believe they could get rid of the tick by dipping. They
said cattle bred ticks. The progressive man was help-
less, if, as generally was the case, he was outnumbered.
Yet under these conditions, people made money out of
cattle, good money. The foundations for many of the
larger fortunes of Florida were made in the cattle busi-
ness.
Still another powerful reason for the lack of progress
is found in the fact that cattle always sold by the head,
brought his owner as much money as another 3-year-old
steer that outweighed him possibly one hundred pounds.
There was no incentive to raise better cattle. As soon as
the pound took the place of the head, progressive men
wanted better cattle. They started fencing and putting
their cattle in pastures, so that they might reap the bene-
fit of their progressiveness, and started in to improve
their cattle.
One of the best ways to further the'cattle business in
Florida is, therefore, to arrange it so that the old cow-
man can buy land he must have if he is to continue to
4-Bull.











produce cattle and if the industry is to have the benefit
of long years of observation and experience.
This is the most important of the financial needs of
Florida-of cattlemen at the present time, for this is the
situation now. The old cow-man is being fenced and put
out of business. If he could obtain money on long time
at a reasonable rate of interest, he could continue in the
business he knows better now than anyone who may re-
place him.
With this fencing movement comes the opportunity,
even necessity of improving his cattle, and it may be said
to their credit that practically every cow-man in South
Florida, as soon as he gets his cattle in a pasture, im-
ports better bulls, and starts on the road to better cattle.
But this also takes money, lots of it. Osceola county
alone, in the last year has spent $15,000 or more for bet-
ter bulls, and would have spent possibly twice that much
if money had been easily obtainable at a low rate of in-
terest and on long time.
Another important work that is costing cattle men
money, and will cost them a great deal more, is tick erad-
ication. The work of tick eradication in Florida, the
actual work, would cost, it seems to me, at least a dollar
a head for all the cattle in the State, if it were done in
one year. But it can't be done in one year now, and every
year's delay costs hundreds of thousands of dollars in
loss of cattle, stunted cattle and in dipping to keep the
ticks down until the State or the county is ready to clean
up. A great deal of this cost will be and is borne by the
cattle men, another imperative need for money.
These are things that must be met if we are to keep up
with the progress of other localities and in other lines in
our own State. It is daily becoming more apparent that
South Florida will be the breeding ground and the other
southern states the feeding center for a good grade of
cattle. If we live up to our opportunities we shall pro-
duce a large portion of the country's meat. The cattle
business alone, rightly handled, will make the whole
Southeast a rich and prosperous land. But in order to
reach this goal we must have more money on a longer
time and should have a lower rate of interest.
We need, of course, to stimulate production in every
way possible and to prevent waste wherever it occurs.












Both take money. And as far as the South Florida cat-
tleman is concerned the lack of ready money is responsi-
ble for most of the waste that occurs.
The principal waste, the greatest waste, results from
the slaughter of good breeding cows and heifers. This
sometimes, but rarely, results from lack of grass. More
often than not, it is due to a lack of money. If money
were readily obtainable this waste would in a large
measure disappear. Then if there were some agency
whose business it was to bring the man who wants to
sell cows and heifers in touch with some one else who
wanted to buy them, and keep them for breeding pur-
poses this waste would be almost entirely eliminated.
Now as to the security offered by Florida cattle and
Florida cattlemen. I think the bankers here, and through-
out the State, will bear me out in the statement that as
a class, cattle loans are the safest loans they make, and
that the percentage of loss through such loans is smaller
than through any other class of loans, of which they have
knowledge. The security is ample.
We have the climate, we have the ranges, we have the
cattle, we have the cattlemen, but unless we mobilize the
forces of credit, so that money may be readily obtainable
on long time at a reasonable rate of interest, we shall
fall far short of our opportunities, our obligations to the
nation in its hour of trial, and of our destiny.

CATTLE LOAN COMPANIES IN THE WEST.

By Howard R. Smith, Live Stock Commissioner, National
Live Stock Exchange, Chicago.
James J. Hill said that banks can do more than any
other agency in developing the live stock industry. Money
loaned on live stock means more than the interest derived.
It means development which will enlarge all lines of in-
dustry.
The country bankers can do more to help the live stock
men than the large bankers, because they are in close
touch with their needs and opportunities. Some times it
is advisable to discourage the ambitions of borrowers,
when they are not in position to take proper care of the
stock.
Nearly all cattle loan companies are affilliated with












banks. They can handle certain lines of paper that the
banks cannot accept, getting their funds from the banks
on paper that is acceptable.
Too many borrowers have a horror of making out a
mortgage to protect the loan. They think it is embarrass-
ing to have a mortgage recorded, and often forego mak-
ing profitable investments rather than let their neigh-
bors say that their farm or live stock is mortgaged. That
is a serious mistake, for very few men in any line of en-
deavor have at all times the amount of money necessary
to develop their business to the highest efficiency.

CATTLE LOAN COMPANIES IN TEXAS.

By W. N. Waddell, Ft. Worth, Texas.

Cattle paper today is the most desirable in that coun-
try. There is nearly $7,000,000 loaned on cattle in Texas.
Local banks should be the feeders for a cattle loan com-
pany, organized to handle the excess paper of those banks.
The main factors to consider in making a cattle loan
are the man, and whether he has a place to keep the cat-
tle during the life of that loan.
There should be organized in Florida one big cattle.
loan company by the bankers of the State. You have to
go East to get the amount of money necessary to finance
the live stock industry so that it can be developed to the
maximum. A cattle loan company which is conservative
in its loans will soon build up credit among the eastern
bankers and be able to get all the money required.
The greatest need in Florida at the present time is an
adequate law for protection of cattle loans, and a law
compelling registration of marks and brands at one cen-
tral office. Under your present mortgage laws there is
too much risk in placing a loan on cattle. That is the
reason why outside cattle loan companies are not doing
more business in this State.

THE FEDERAL LAND BANK.
By L. I. Guion. Vice-President of Federal Land Bank,
Columbia, South Carolina.
I am very pleased to meet the live stock men of Flor-
ida to discuss with you the relation of the Federal Land











Bank of Columbia to the live stock industry in these
states which we serve.
In order to do so intelligently, we must first discuss
live stock; the condition under which they are bred; the
availability of cheap sources of food, both pasture for
summer and food in winter; the kind of live stock kept,
whether scrubs or improved animals, etc. There are some
basic principles pertaining to live stock on which experi
enced live stock men seldom, if ever, differ.
The first is, that no live stock undertaking is upon a
firm foundation unless ample pasture with nutritious
grasses and legumes are at hand; and second, that some
adequate source of comparatively cheap food is available
to supplement pastures both in times of drought and dur-
ing winter months. There is little room for doubt that
a large percentage of cattle are stunted in growth during
their first winter. All young stock should have an abund-
ance of food. Mature cattle can be wintered or carried
over periods of short feed with apparently little harm,
but not so with young stock.
Tick eradication is absolutely necessary. The United
States government, with the consent and aid of states
involved, is spending large sums of money yearly to erad-
icate the cattle tick. The directors of the Federal Land
Bank of Columbia are a unit in their opinion that not a
dollar of money we loan can be legally invested in cat-
tle in tick infected communities. We cannot believe that
a man who is so unprogressive as to harbor ticks is pro-
gressive enough to deserve money on long terms and at
favorable rates of interest and we propose to back the
authorities in charge of tick eradication to the very limit.
The Federal Land Banks have for their purpose the
furnishing of capital at a low rate of interest for a long
term of years to solvent farmers of good character, the
money to be used for specific constructive purposes on the
property given as security and to encourage deserving
tenants, renters, etc., to become farm owners. We can
only loan money on farming land and on the insurable
buildings thereon. We could not make a loan on live
stock directly, but we can make a loan on a man's farm
and allow him to use the proceeds of the loan to purchase
live stock to be placed upon the premises given as secur-
ity. We will furnish money to fence land on which to











keep live stock, but we cannot furnish a nickel to buy
cattle, hogs, sheep or goats running at large. In most
cases where a man owns his land the amount of money
he can obtain from the Federal Loan Bank will be ample
for the beginner to invest in live stock. Given unlimited
means to go into the live stock business without experi-
ence, most men will prove an utter failure. Every failure
we have in the live stock business will help to hold back
live stock interests far more than any one success.
To sum up the situation briefly: We can be of great
help to most farmers wishing to raise live stock in con-
nection with general farming. We can and are anxious
to be of help to the large stock men who fence their lands
and are running their business on a safe basis. We are,
at present, limited by law to $10,000 to any one individ-
ual for any purpose. A recommendation by the Farm
Loan Board is now before Congress to increase this limit
to $25,000. To the open range men, we can be of no
assistance because the law specifically limits the use of
the money on the premises given as security. The man
who raises stock on open range has no way of complying
with the law. If your local money lenders, banks, etc.,
are liberal with men they know that are reliable and
worthy, the benefits of the Federal Land Banks can be
far more reaching. Any cattle loan company or banking
institution will loan fifty per cent. of the value of cattle
in proper hands; many will loan seventy-five per cent.
With the sum borrowed from the Federal Land Banks as
a nest egg, most solvent men of good character will be
able to buy all the live stock they should have to make
a beginning.
The Federal Land Banks do not profess to loan more
money on farming lands than any other safe and sane in-
stitution would loan, but we do make loans at low rates
.of interest and on most favorable terms. The very fact
that our loans can run for forty (40) years makes, it
incumbent upon us to look carefully as to the applicant's
ability to pay his interest and amortization payments. It
is necessary that all titles be correct because if titles are
not good our security and the security of the fellow mem-
bers of any association is lost.
In conclusion let me say that the directors of the Fed-
eral Land Bank of Columbia appreciate very much the












opportunity of presenting to you gentlemen the conclu-
sions to which they have come with respect to the live
stock industry in the State of Florida. As their direct
representative, I may say to you that we are impressed
with the future of your State as one of the great live
stock states of the Union. We are, however, convinced
that before your State can take its proper place in the
fore-front of the cattle industry in the United States, one
further forward step is necessary; namely, that you rec-
ognize squarely conditions which are a handicap to your
development and that you extend your co-operation 1o
having these detrimental conditions removed. The prob-
lem of cattle tick you are now solving. The one other
problem you must meet face to face without equivocation
is the problem of securing the enactment of a state-wide
"no-fence" law. The blight of the range cows and the
razor-back hog must be lifted and only the enactment of a
"no-fence" law will successfully bring this about. Earn-
estly as we desire to do what lies in our power to assist
in the agricultural development of your State, of which
the cattle industry is so important a part, we cannot un-
dertake to do anything which will encourage a contin-
uance of the scrub-cow and the razor-back hog. Except
in cases where the cattle business is conducted under
fence or in sections subject to a "no-fence" law, our
hands are tied and only the enactment of a state-wide
"no-fence" law will enable us to render full service to that
part of the business of farming in which you gentlemen
are interested.

Third Day-Afternoon Session

THE SWINE INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA.

Program in Charge of Dr. A. H. Logan. Field Agent,
B. A. I., Gainesville.

Boys CLUB WORK.
By G. L. Herrington, Agent Boys' Clubs, University of
Florida, Gainestille.

The boys' agricultural clubs are organized among
farmer boys between ten and eighteen years of age, the
purpose being to conduct small demonstrations along the











most practical methods of farming. Almost every boy
will enter the clubs and make a success of his efforts
when given the right encouragement and assistance by
all who should be interested in him.
This paper gives a brief report of the work done in
1917 as tabulated from record books made out by the
boys under the supervision of the County Agents.
There were 1,900 boys in 41 counties enrolled in the
corn, peanut, truck crop and pig clubs. Some boys are
members of only one of these clubs while many others
are conducting two or more branches of the work.
The following summary of the corn club work gives an
idea of its extent in Florida:
Total number of boys enrolled in the State...... 1132
Total number of boys reporting in the State.... 413
Total number of bushels reported in the State. .15,531.54
Total cost .......................... .$6,969.31
Average cost per bushel................... .46
Average number of bushels per acre........... 37.7
It is interesting to notice that we have a gradual in-
crease in number of 100 bushels yields each year. Two
years ago one boy produced more than a hundred bushels,
last year three boys made a similar record and this year
four reached the hundred bushel mark. Their names and
reports are as follows:
LeRoy Alderman, Lake County, 106.5, .39, First Prize.
Lawton Martin, Marion County, 100.1, .13, Second
Prize.
Edgar Locke, Lake County, 100.5, .27, Third Prize.
Paul Parrish, Polk County, 102.2, .27, Fourth Prize.
The corn club boys have learned valuable lessons in
crop rotation. A great many have planted peanuts, cow
peas or velvet beans with their corn and obtained about
the same yield of corn that they have been accustomed to
without the legume crop. They find that the legume crop
is almost a net profit.
The peanut club has made some progress this year and
there seems to be an increased interest in the growing of
this crop in all general farming sections of the State.
Thirty-four boys in this club made an average yield of
51.2 bushels of peanuts per acre, costing thirty-nine cents
a bushel. With our present price for peanuts they made
good profits. Many other boys who planted peanuts with
their corn left them in the field for their pigs to harvest.












The truck crop clubs are being developed in the most
southern counties where they are most applicable. These
crops are grown during the winter months and reports
are not ready at this time.
I am sure the Live Stock Association is more interest-
ed in the pig club but I have mentioned the other
branches of the club work so that you may know the boys
are growing feed for the pigs they are raising.
The pig club has made unusual progress this year and
created more interest among the boys and farmers and
business men throughout the State than any other branch
of the club work. The swine breeders in Florida have
been able to supply about fifty per cent of the pigs need-
ed, and the others were ordered from breeders in other
Southeastern States. There were 652 boys who joined
the pig club and raised pure-bred pigs.
Each boy keeps a record of all his work. but on account
of the difficulty in bringing the animals to the exhibits
we collected complete data from only 225. This report
is summarized as follows:

Weight at beginning of contest .............. 8955 lbs.
W eight at end of contest .....................41670 lbs.
Net gain in weight ..........................32715 bs.
Average weight at beginning of contest ....... 39.8 lbs.
Average weight at end of contest ............. 185.2 lbs.
Average net gain in weight .................. 145.4 lbs.
Length of feeding period..................... 147.3 days
Average daily gain in weight ............... .99 lbs.
Average cost per pound of gain ............. 6 cents
Average price paid for pigs ................. $10.38
Average cost of gain per pig .................. $ 9.23
Average value at close of contest ............. $50.30
Average net profit per pig .................... $30.69

The bankers of the State have continued again this
year to loan money to all boys recommended by the county
agents to be used in purchasing pure-bred swine. The
boys are required to give their notes and in most cases no
endorsement is necessary. They have the use of the
money for a year and a half at six per cent. interest.
This gives ample time to raise pigs from those they pur-
chase and sell a few before their notes are due.
The three hundred boys who raised pure-bred gilts last












year have bred their animals and raised one or two lit-
ters this year. A great many who gave $10.00 for their
original gilts have sold pigs this year for $12.50 each.
WORK OF COUNTY DEMONSTRATION AGENTS.
Prof. C. K. McQuarrie gave an interesting talk on the
work of the county demonstration agents, going into the
early history of organization, which resulted from failure
to reach the individual farmers through any other chan-
nel.
"It is intended that the county agent should be the
leader of agricultural work in his own county," he said.
"The agent should also help to start remedial work along
proper lines in outbreaks of hog cholera, but is not ex-
pected to give up all his time to vaccinating hogs when
there is a veterinarian available."
FEEDING SWINE.
By Prof. John M. Scott, Animal Industrialist,
Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla.
A great many people are of the opinion that it is a
great waste of time to feed swine. Such an idea is cor-
rect, provided the rations are supplied in sufficient quan-
tities where the hogs will have access to them.
Where the hogs are compelled to range over 1,000
acres of wild land, and especially where he has to hustle
. all day to find enough for breakfast, he will be a poor
hog and will return very little,, if any, profit to the
owner.
We may give an abundance of feed but by lack of a
balanced ration, the hog may not gain weight. Silage is
of little value as a hog feed for it is too bulky.
It is a well recognized fact that whole peanuts do not
produce a satisfactory quality of pork, but we believe that
peanut meal, when used to balance up the ration, will
produce a good quality of pork.
PROBLEMS OF THE PRODUCER.
By Z. C. Herlong, Micanopy, Florida.
In engaging in the business of swine breeding we should
be in a proper state of mind to undertake the work. We
have heard men say that they thought of trying the work











for a while. Supposing a man should engage in the
banking business and express himself generally that he
had planned to try that business for a season and see how
he liked it. It is not probable that he would be at all
successful. The same would be true of one engaged in
any other enterprise, and it is surely more essential to
have a fixed purpose in the breeding business than in
any other line of endeavor.
The problem of finance is one that is receiving greater
attention than ever before, and but few seasons will pass
before the pork producer here in Florida, as elsewhere,
will occupy that position and receive that consideration
at the hands of the bankers and financiers to which the
industry and the work in which he is engaged entitles
him.
We are fortunate indeed, in Florida, in that the loca-
tion of our State is such that we have not those winter
conditions to contend with encountered by northern
breeders, but we do have weather that hogs need protec-
tion from and for this provision must be made. The
location of our pastures and runs is of great importance
in handling the herd and we have yet to see the farm that
has as many pastures as could be used to advantage.
However, such a large number is not required where the
production of pork is the sole object.
We are impressed that here in Florida one of the great-
est deficiencies lies in our incompetency in judging our
selection, and it is natural that we should be so when we
consider that it is only recently that we have found it
profitable to grow good hogs in this State as we were
without a market for such. We must give this matter
great concern and by studying the subject practically
and not theoretically, the difficulty will soon be over-
come.l I hope to see farmers judging contests put on
which will be interesting and instructive. Through our
inefficiency in this respect we have not given the proper
consideration nor attached sufficient importance to the
selection of breeding stock, and as a result much of the
breeding stock in the State now is of inferior quality.
It takes nerve to pay the price necessary for the best
breeding stock and this is one of our problems. We need
more nerve but I could not pass without observing that
this is being overcome and we find here in Florida that











the farmers are becoming more and more exacting in their
demands for only high class breeding stock.
There is today no excuse for the use of any but pure-
bred males as they are plenty and comparatively cheap in
price. It is only by the use of such that we can get a fixed
and known quality transmitted to the offspring. The
boar should be selected with a type in mind and selected
to conform to such.
For us who propose to use only pure-bred sows and
boars there is yet a greater task in selecting the founda-
tion stock. We have made the mistake of selecting the
little round, fat pig that is pretty when young but when
we have tried to grow them out they have failed us. We
have found that the pig with lots of stretch is the winner
in the race for gain all the way. By our mistakes we
have learned that to get the pig that makes the hog we
must have them long and tall and with flat sides and
reasonably wide. The cylinder shaped bodies will not
easily feed down.
We have made the mistake of breeding a sow too fat
and reducing her flesh while she was carrying the litter.
If she must be bred in very high flesh she should not be
reduced while carrying the litter to have the best results
with the litter. We have also made the mistake of breed-
ing a sow too poor and keeping her in that condition till
farrowing time. The ideal condition for the sow has
been found to be to have her thin (and by saying thin I
would not be misunderstood, as I do not intend that she
should ever become dead poor), and just before breeding
feed her to gain rapidly until bred and then after breed-
ing time keep her improving all the while till farrowing
time.
We have found difficulties in mating. We sometimes
have bred two excellent animals together and have found
offspring inferior and our conclusions are that the best
possible cross is from a strong masculine boar with
rather coarse hair and he may be on the rough order, bred
to a smooth sow with lots of finish and as feminine as
possible. Such a mating as a rule, even should the sow
be just a little under size has produced our best results.
We would prefer the sow to be as large as possible with-
out sacrificing the essentials. Of course, we cannot
always get these things just like we want them so we












have to change the operation in some cases, which, how-
ever, we consider less desirable.
We have tried various feeds for herd boars but have
gotten the best results always when oats in some form
composed a part of the ration during the breeding sea-
son. The same is true of sows just prior to breeding.
We have found it difficult to determine the results of
pasturage of bred sows on velvet beans as we had some
abortions on one season's pasturage, but we have not ex-
perienced it at any other season, notwithstanding we
have tried it for several years, and this is one of the
problems that remain for us unsolved. We believe how-
ever in velvet beans and have fed them in every way, but
of all forms of feeding them we are convinced that to
cook them thoroughly is the best. For fattening hogs
they will take them from the fields with satisfactory re-
sults and without the expense of harvesting and cooking.
The most valuable sows grow large and they require at-
tention at farrowing time or there is great danger of
loss. It is essential that a guard rail surround the sow's
pen and the little pigs will learn quickly to get under it
when there is danger. The first few days of a pig's life
is a critical time. If the sow is overfed the result is us-
ually the loss of the pigs. Few people realize the enor-
mous amount of milk produced by a good brood sow, and
when this is brought to a full flow before the pigs have
gained sufficient strength to handle it, the result is fatal.
The pigs must be observed closely all the time and at the
first indication of scours the feed should be cut. If this
is promptly done it is unlikely that a dangerous stage of
the disease will be reached. The losses which we so often
experience at this time can only be overcome by observing
closely the danger signal and take immediate warning
therefrom and time or improved conditions will not re-
lieve us of this necessity.
Another time of great danger is when the little pigs
first begin to eat. It is often observed that probably one
of the very best pigs in the litter will be found dead ap-
parently without cause. The cause we believe to be for
this, that the digestive organs of the little fellow are ex-
tremely delicate at this time and the very rapid growth
induces an incomparable appetite, and he consequently
has placed upon those delicate organs a burden that they
are unable to bear, and indigestion of the most acute form












removes him. The best method of handling this appears
to be to feed the little fellows by themselves as soon as
possible the kind of feed and the quantity that seems
proper and cause the adjustment of the system to the
new feed conditions gradually, which will perhaps over-
come that inordinate craving otherwise experienced for
additional feeds.
We have observed that litters fed from high troughs
have a tendency to develop low backs and the remedy is,
of course, simple and consists of using only a very low
trough for the pigs. We have also observed that when
pigs are allowed to creep under pens or fences they ac-
quire the habit of dropping the back and this should be
guarded against by having no place under which they
can slide. The creep should be built high enough that
the pig's back will never touch the top and preferably
with a board at the bottom to make them get over and
the larger hogs may be excluded by having the opening
only wide enough to admit the pigs of the size desired.
The feeding problem is one that will always be with
us and one that is worthy of the most careful consider
tion. It is needless to say that it is extremely desirable
to have an abundance of forage and grazing crops as this
is generally understood, but 1 fear that we have not fully
realized the importance of having the greatest possible
variety of these forage. crops at all times in order that
the pigs may be stimulated by this variety to consume
larger quantities than they would be inclined to take of
any one, and it has been clearly demonstrated that a
given amount of mixed feed is better than an equal
amount of any one and will induce greater gains. It is
recognized that forage crops will, by increasing the ca-
pacity of the stomach, enable the animal to handle quan-
tities of all feed and consequently make greater gains and
at less cost.
Rape, rye and oats are our main winter pastures,
while cow peas and the sorghums and native grasses have
their place in their season for green feed. The harvesting
of such crops being accomplished by the hogs themselves
eliminates the expense and the secretions being distrib-
uted over the entire field assures soil building that could
in no other way be accomplished so economically or ef-
fectively. Grain should always be provided in some man-
ner and while the hog will go to the field to get this grain











if it is there and bring it home in bacon, he cannot find
what does not exist and if the grain is no in the fields
of access it must be fed from the barns to insure the best
and most economical results.
We have found a most satisfactory result from feeding
from the fields as far as possible as the animal thereby
gets the exercise essential to a good appetite and good
health, and the sanitary conditions more nearly approach
perfection as the hog is constantly feeding on a new sur-
face while greater gains and more rugged constitutions
in the herd are assured.
In order that too much grain may not be consumed
where breeding hogs have access to it in the fields, they
should be allowed access to only a small part of the field
at a time or only have access to the field for a very short
time at first. We have at times experienced bad results
from sudden change of the feed and this is to be guarded
against, as in making a change at first only a small quan-
tity of the new feed should be allowed the animal.
One of the difficulties experienced everywhere that hogs
are grown is a development of the frame. It is essential
that we build a frame upon which the pork structure may
safely rest, for if we have failed in this we cannot hope
for satisfactory results. We must have a frame that will
carry with ease a great weight and that will not be so
taxed by this weight that it may not gracefully and with-
out effort go to pasture and graze for long periods with-
out fatigue. In order to have this frame, an abundance
of calcium and phosphorus must in some form be fed and
the animal must have sufficient exercise that nature will
set about to meet the demand, for if the hogs are penned
close and there is no call for a strong frame, nature will
not consent to provide for that which is not required.
Some breeders are ignoring this all-important fact and
the penalty for failure to provide a strong and dense bone
structure is loss through accident and restricted useful-
ness for breeding purposes and a feeding operation with-
out the greatest profit.
The parasite problem is ever present and is worthy of
our constant attention, but sanitation is our weapon and
frequent changes of pasture the strategy that will assure
victory. Lice, of course, must be dispatched by the oil
route. They are expensive boarders and should not be
tolerated.











The problem of finishing is one that looms large at all
times and thi is one that every one can best solve for
himself, but I doubt if there is any feed that will do it as
quickly and economically as peanuts, though a combina-
tion of corn and velvet beans works well indeed. We
should overcome our tendency to consider hogs finished
about the time they are in a good condition to feed eco-
nomically. We must put more flesh and fat on them than
we have been doing to make the most profit.
The marketing of our pork hogs is no longer a prob-
lem as the packing houses have solved this and will be in
a position to afford more favorable facilities than we have
yet enjoyed, but I believe we should have some center of
marketing.
To those of us who have devoted ourselves to the pro-
duction of breeding stock and the marketing of same there
is ever present the question of marketing policy. The in-
dustry should be kept on the highest possible plane and
we must sustain it by making only honest representa-
tions. We are enthusiastic over our stock and it is right
that we should be, but let us not permit our enthusiasm
to sway our judgment and make too extravagant repre-
sentation. If we know a fault in an animal which we
offer it is our duty to state it and it is the best policy.
If our customer should not be satisfied when the hog ar-
rives on his mail order, return his money and take back
the hog. We may be imposed upon in some cases, but
even then it is better so. We must guard against selling
a good animal too cheap and a poor one too high. We
must have the confidence and esteem of our customer and
maintain the industry on a plane that commands respect.
At the present time of food shortage and national nec-
essity, vaccination against cholera is in my opinion a
duty. The government is maintaining competent veterin-
arians to advise the proper methods of administering and
handling the herd for vaccination. The bad results ex-
perienced in exceptional cases are usually attributable to
improper handling of the herd.
When we have done our very best there will still con-
front us problems which we will be unable to solve. It
is so in every undertaking but by constant application
when market time comes and the balance is made, we
have yet greater incentive and inspiration to produce
more pork, and the pigs cracking the corn worth $4.00












per hundred pounds is music that makes our hearts glad.
Some one has said that a happy hog is a help to human-
ity, but a pessimistic porker is the epitome of despair.
Melancholia murders profits in the pig pen and icicles are
cold comforters. Pigs and prosperity are synonymous
only when the pigs have congenial temperaments, con-
tented countenances, warm, dry quarters and plenty of
exercise, including exercise of the mandibular muscles
and the alimentary canal. Fill them up and watch them
laugh. Don't feed them on second-hand corn cobs and
barb wire shavings or they will get mad and leave with-
out paying their board.

PROBLEMS OF THE PACKER.

Mr. H. B. Minium of Jacksonville, manager for Ar-
mour & Company, briefly mentioned some of the problems
confronting the packers, which include utilizing the pea-
nut fed hogs at satisfactory prices to the producers. This
has been partially solved by paying a premium for hogs
which dress out "hard" thereby encouraging production
of better quality hogs.

Third Day-Evening Session

Banquet at Seminole Hotel, tendered to the Associa-
tion by the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce. Covers
were laid for 200 guests and an eight-course dinner was
served.
Following the dinner a Berkshire boar was sold for the
benefit of the Red Cross, netting $750 to that organiza-
tion.
Mr. A. P. Anthony served as toastmaster.
Following was the toast program:
Florida's First State Fair-J. J. Logan, Jacksonville.
'Possum Hunting-Dr. E. M. Nighbert, Jacksonville.
Advertising Florida's Live Stock Possibilities-J. E.
Ingraham, St. Augustine.
The Wholesalers' Interest in Live Stock Development-
J. D. Holmes, Jacksonville.
Abraham, the Forefather in the Live Stock Business-
M. S. Pollack, Jacksonville.
The Live Stock Press-Harry L. Brown, St. Augustine.
5-Bull.












All Going Out and Nothing Coming In-Harry B.
Hoyt, Jacksonville.
The Packer and the Stockman-Dr. J. H. DeLoach,
Chicago, Ill.
Cow Ticks and Politics-A. M. Williamson, Jackson-
ville.
A Little Cloud Like a Man's Hand-W. N. Waddell,
Fort Worth, Texas.
Greater Florida-F. C. Groover, Jacksonville.

Fourth Day-Morning Session

VALUE OF STATE FAIRS TO THE LIVE STOCK
INDUSTRY.

By B. K. Hanafourde, General Manager Florida State
Fair and Exposition.

All of you present fully realize the growth of the live
stock industry in Florida in the past few years. Many of
you know some of the things that will increase the devel-
opment of this industry until Florida comes into her own
as a stock raising state, but who of you have ever con-
sidered the real value to each of you and to every other
farmer, swine raiser, breeder, dairyman and cattle raiser
in Florida of a great State Fair?
Won't you return home after the fair and after having
taken away one of the prizes, with renewed enthusiasm
to come back next year with a better horse, cow, steer,
bull, calf or hog? Won't you ask questions and with your
own eyes see that horse, cow, steer, bull, calf or hog that
was raised and fed in the other county, and of which
you had never heard, and did not believe was possible,
because you had always considered that county not a
stock raising community? Or will you return home and
say to yourself, well, I took a prize and there is no use
in me trying to better my stock or increase my herds;
I'll just go back next year and show them up again?
Gentlemen, you can't stand still and let well enough
alone. That is what was the matter with Florida for all
these many years. This land, sunshine, grass and stock
raising possibilities have always been here, and the man,
woman, city, county or state that stand still stagnates;
you have either got to go forward or backward. You












know yourself that methods of breeding and feeding have
changed within the past few years, and those who are fol-
lowing these advanced ideas are those who are making
money out of their stock, and increasing their value to
their nation, especially at this time of her greatest need.
Everything is great by comparison. If all cows were
the same there would be no better cows. You may think
you have got an animal that will walk away with the
first prize; so does every other stock raiser. When he
comes to the State Fair and sees the stock of others in
comparison with his own, he knows who has the best and
learns how to make his better.
Maybe you do not know it, or have not realized it, but
the State Fair is an educational institution of the first
magnitude. We hear, see and feel many things that in
after life demonstrate where we got them. Through ob-
servation. Many people can read an article and yet not
be able to fully understand it, yet those same persons can
see the subject of the article in actual use and working
and grasp at once its most intricate details. Therefore,
the State Fair. Those things you have read about will
be actually demonstrated. That high grade animal you
read about and saw a picture of will actually be shown to
you. You can see it from all sides, and also hear its
owner tell how he fed it and how he cared for it, and
maybe his methods will be the means of you putting into
practice the substance of an article which you have read
many times, but had not been able to grasp.
Florida's development during the past few years along
live stock lines will be fully demonstrated to you and by
you, and the vast possibilities lying dormant within the
State along these lines will be demonstrated to the many
thousands of visitors who will visit the State Fair and
see your stock and your neighbors' stock. It will en-
courage them to come to Florida to go into the cattle
raising business or to farm, and an increase along this
line will be the means of other great packing houses,
graineries and implement houses being built and estab.
lished within the State.












BREEDING DUROC JERSEYS.

By R. J. Evans, Chicago, Secretary American Duroc
Jersey Record Association.

I am certainly glad to meet with the Florida Live
Stock Association on my first visit to Jacksonville, and
second short visit to your State. I was made more happy
by being present at the birth mentioned by Dr. Blackman
-the organization of the Florida Swine Growers. I was.
cognizant of the new and increasing interest in live stock,
but am surprised and more than pleased to see such good
attendance at these sessions.
The time for getting into the hog business or for in-
creasing your hog production is most opportune. The
world is shorter of fats than has ever been known, and
only the hog can be depended upon to alleviate that
shortage.
The subject assigned to me is the Duroc. For twenty
years I have been going up and down the hog belt and
out into the territories where the hog industry is newer,
preaching more and better Durocs, and when I visit these
localities where the interest is just being awakened, I
feel more than ever encouraged with the work.
The Duroc is particularly well adapted to the climate
and crops of Florida as he puts on many cheap pounds
while grazing. He is a rustler and full of vigor, he comes
in large litters, strong and active. Profit and increased
production are the two things for which we are striving
and the large litters of the Duroc pave the way for both.
The engine of the hog goes into offal and by-products
at the packing centers, but it weighs heavy at the de-
livery point. The engine in the Duroc is larger than in
other breeds, and gives him the desired stamina to with-
stand the changes of feed and weather under which other
breeds go down. This large engine also enables him to
convert more pounds of feed into pounds of pork.
Durocs outnumber all other breeds at the market cen-
ters by actual count at several of the principal markets.
This is the one greatest proof that he makes good. You
cannot fool the great army of farmers and feeders in this
country.
The type of the Duroc is the profitable type. It is the
type to which all other breeds are aiming. Long bodied,











well arched backs giving an abundance of choice cuts of
meat, and sustaining the heavy load of the finished hog
on the way to market, or the sow carrying large litter to
farrowing time. High off the ground to insure room for
growth and proper development. All breeds are getting
away from the roly poly barrel bodied hog. He will not
do. The hog must have stretch, height, heart girth and
be reasonably wide over the ribs; his sides come straight
down and at maturity away down.
All Durocs are not good. There are many families,
many strains, all of them eligible to registry. It may be
a strong statement but I believe Florida would be better
off vith her native scrub than with some of the Durocs
"with papers" advertised for $10 and $12. Buy the indi-
vidual, backed by good breeding; but get the individual
first. Buy from men of reputation. The pedigree of a
hog is no better than the character of the men whose
names appear thereon.
Durocs, like all other hogs, need care and feed. What
is a pure bred animal? One bred to exist on less.than a
scrub? No. A pure bred hog has been so bred and de-
veloped through succeeding generations for many years
for the explicit purpose of being able to consume more
pounds of feed and convert it into pounds of pork in less
time than the primitive hog. The pure bred attains at six
months the weight of a native hog at two or three years.
The pure bred hog needs more feed and more care. The
life of a pig is short. Every day must count if he is to
make the owner money, and all through his first three
months he must have bone making feed and very little
fat producing feed, rape, oats, rye and grasses with some
slops. The corn, peanuts and velvet beans should come
later. Get the frame first. The fat is the easiest part
of the hog to produce.
The hog is not a filthy animal naturally for in his na-
tural state he roamed the healthful woods. Keep pens
and lots sanitary, well drained; use disinfectants on
buildings and pens. A little whitewash is good if noth-
ing else is obtainable and be sure to have a clean place
to feed him. Use some worm expeller occasionally. Keep
the digestive apparatus in good condition, bowels loose
and active, and you will have little trouble with disease.
Prevention are worth millions of cures.
Cholera is the one black nightmare of the hog man











partly because a hog apparently never dies from any
other disease. What we need in the hog business is a
campaign of thorough education on proper and thorough
sanitation and possibly a little less propaganda for inocu-
lation. Keep the thief out of the barn rather than try to
shut the door afterwards.
Durocs of the right type are to be found by the hun-
dreds in Florida. Your breeders are buying the best
stock obtainable. These men are putting your State on
the hog map. In the past year I have attended seven
sales of pure bred Durocs in Georgia and Alabama in
which Florida breeders have bought the best. The Duroc
has come into your State to stay and to help you do your
part in feeding the world and I know the Duroc and the
Florida hog man will both make good.
Here's to the Old Red Sow. May her litters come in
ever continuing regularity and size, and her voracious ap-
petite hold out until the war is over and peace and plenty
brought to every nation on the globe.

POLAND-CHINAS.

By C. Kirpatrick, Orrville, Alabama, Representing the
National Poland-China Record Association,
Winchester, Indiana.

I have listened with great pleasure to what the gentle-
men representing other breeds of swine have had to say,
their favorites have been well represented here today, but
I want to say to you, that after a period of thirty-two
years breeding pure bred hogs, I am convinced that the
Poland-China leads them all.
I have lived on the farm all my life, I am fresh from
the soil and in close touch with nature, and the longer I
live I am convinced more and more of the importance
of the hog on the Southern farm. He is susceptible to a
high degree of development; he is the most prolific source
of increase in the meat products of all meat animals.
The other breeds of hogs are good and from the fact
that we have so many different breeds it must have been
decreed so from the beginning: for God, Himself, in cre-
ating man in His Own image saw fit to endow each one
differently; there is a difference in intellect; in charac-
ter; in will power; in mentality and in facial relations











to each other, but yet the thing created is called man.
And so we find it with hogs-some are red, some black,
some white and some are black with a white streak
around the body; and yet they are all swine. But re-
member, they, as man are not equally equipped to do the
greatest good in life. The Poland-China from the very
nature of his being has been adopted by the American
farmer as the hog to tie to. The fecundity of the breed
equals that of any, with this advantage; the ability to put
on more pounds of pork per unit and do it quicker than
any other hog known. They have great depth of body,
full heart space, strong feet and deep heavy hams, in fact,
is par-excellence the farmer's hog, and the farmer's hog
because the packers demand just this kind of meat and
fats to meet their exacting trade.
Listen to what a man of national repute has to say
about the hog, and he is describing the Poland China, no
doubt: "The hog is a machine, one that oils itself, puts
ten bushels of feed in less space than a bushel measure
and in doing so doubles the value of the feed used, then
carries it to market on his back. A well bred hog is
called a mint; the grain and grasses are a bullion which,
put into the hog. is transmuted into pork; and it is an
honest mint and gives sixteen ounces of avoirdupois of
edible meat. Properly bred, intelligently fed and handled,
this autocratic power will pay off all debts; furnish the
money to improve the farm, remodel the old home, and
furnish it up-to-date, as well as furnish the money to
send the farm boy to the agricultural colleges of the land,
thus making them better prepared to farm and labor as
men in every respect than they otherwise would be.
Now in conclusion, take this home with you and medi-
tate upon it, the Poland-China is an American hog, "made
in America," the hog that greased the trail of the pioneer
in his Westward march across the continent and in the
settlement and development of the mighty West as we
see it today. Another thought. It will take that which
is made in America, which is bred in America and which
is developed in America to show the Kaiser where to get
off and to make the "world safe for Democracy." I
thank you.











REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS.

To the President and Members of the Florida State Live
Stock Association in Annual Convention Assembled:
Gentlemen: We, your Committee on Resolutions, re-
spectfully beg leave to submit the following report.
WHEREAS the eradication of the cattle fever tick is
primarily essential in undertaking the development of sat-
isfactory cattle industry in the State of Florida; there-
fore,
BE IT RESOLVED, that every encouragement and full
co-operation possible be extended by this Association to
the respective State and Federal Officers charged with
the responsibilities of conducting tick eradication work
in this State.
AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that this Asso-
ciation considers that the co-operating forces composed
of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board and the Bureau
of Animal Industry.of the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, have perfected a system of operating that is entirely
adequate to carry on this work to a successful termina-
tion.
AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that tick eradica-
tion is a work of the people through the co-operation of
the respective county commissioners and that the Com-
missioners of the various counties in this State, in which
the work has not been completed be called upon by farm-
ers, cattlemen and others resident in such counties, peti-
tioning them to take immediate steps to make local funds
available for co-operation in this important work; and,
WHEREAS, under the provisions of the Live Stock
Sanitary Laws of the State, local qualified voters are
authorized to vote on the proposition of compulsory sys-
tematic tick eradication in the respective counties.
THEREFORE, be it resolved that farmers, cattlemen
and others take immediate steps to see that such elec-
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that farmers, cat-
tlemen and others take immediate steps to see that Puch
elections are called in their respective counties at the
very earliest date practical and advisable in order that
the work of tick eradication may be inaugurated.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that we commend the
enactment of the recent law creating the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board, especially commending those who devot-











ed their time, thought and money for the success of this
legislation, particularly commending the Governor for
his approval.
WHEREAS, it seems desirable to secure a larger mem-
bership for the Florida State Live Stock Association;
and, particularly recruits from the ranks of the native
Florida livestock owners, in order to give the cattle in-
dustry more and better representation and strength to
improve conditions.
BE IT RESOLVED. that the Florida State Live Stock
Association take immediate action to promote the organ-
ization of County Associations or District Associations
to be affiliated with the State Association. (Adopted
and referred to Executive Committee with powers to
act.)
WHEREAS, the fences on a number of ranches and
farms in this State have been cut during the past year,
and
WHEREAS, these lawless acts not only cause great fi-
nancial loss and other damage and inconvenience to the
growers of live stock, but also bring the State into dis-
repute and discourage the coming into Florida of farm-
ers from other states and the development of new live
stock enterprises, therefore, be it
RESOLVED by the Florida State Live Stock Associa-
tion, in annual meeting assembled, that the attention of
his Excellency, Governor Catts, be called to this matter,
and that he be earnestly requested to use every means
in his power to punish the perpetrators of these crimes
and to prevent their recurrence in the future;
RESOLVED, that the members of this Association
hereby pledge their hearty support to the Governor and
to the Sheriffs of the several Counties in their efforts to
this end; and be it further
RESOLVED, that a committee of five be appointed for
the purpose of presenting these resolutions to the Gov-
ernor, and of taking such further measures as may seem
best for the protection of the farmers of the State from
such depredations, and the safeguarding of the good
name of Florida.
WHEREAS, the public range in Florida is fast disap-
pearing, and,










WHEREAS, there is more profit in good stock, well
kept in private enclosures, than on Public Range, and,
WHEREAS, the small stockman individually has not
the finances to secure the best grade of breeding stock,
and,
WHEREAS, there are co-operative breeding associa-
tions in this country and foreign countries that enable
the small stockman to secure the very best breeding stock
at prices within his reach. Therefore be it
RESOLVED, That the Florida State Live Stock Asso-
ciation use its best efforts to assist the small stockman to
organize co-operative breeding associations and lend them
aid in the selection and purchase of the right kind of
stock.
RESOLVED, That in the death of Mr. P. L. Suther-
land, of Jacksonville, the State of Florida, and in partic-
ular the interests represented by this Association, have
met with an immeasurable loss.
A citizen of Florida for a long period of time, Mr. Suth-
erland's love for the State, his faith in its future, and his
unselfish devotion to the welfare of its people, increased
with the passing years, until they became with him a
master passion. He saw with clear and prophetic vision
that the future upbuilding of the State, economically and
socially, depends especially on the development in it of
a diversified agriculture and an extensive live stock in-
dustry, and he gave himself to this cause with his whole
heart. It was due in no small degree to his untiring,
sagacious, tactful and persuasive efforts that the State
Live Stock Sanitary Board was created by the last Legis-
lature, and that suitable laws were enacted for the pro-
motion and support of its work, and that the membership
of this Association has been so largely increased.
Mr. Sutherland was a man to be admired and loved.
Of a keen and powerful mind, a friendly and tender heart,
a chivalrous and loyal spirit, an unwavering will, and elo-
quent tongue, and ingratiating manner and a high devo-
tion to the State and country, he leaves with us a memory
to be cherished and an example to be followed.
RESOLVED, That a copy of these resolutions be sent
to the family of the deceased; the Florida Cattle Tick
Eradication Committee of the Southern Settlement and
Development Organization, of which the deceased was











manager at the time of his death; the press of the State
that has so generously aided in the work of tick eradica-
tion, and that a copy be spread upon the minutes of this
Association.
RESOLVED, That in the death since our last meeting
of the Hon. Joseph N. Whitner, of Sanford, .honorary
president of this Association, the live stock industry of
Florida has lost one of its oldest, most enthusiastic and
ablest of its friends and promoters. We miss his genial
and helpful presence with us and hereby express our
appreciation of his faithful life, and the important place
which he occupied so long in the development in Florida
of the interests which this Association represents.
RESOLVED, That, Whereas, a permanent and profita-
ble live stock industry is an indispensable prerequisite
to a permanent diversified agriculture on the coastal
plain area of the South Atlantic and Gulf States, and
WHEREAS, experience has proven that a permanent
and profitable live stock industry cannot be maintained
without an abundance of cheap and nutritious grasses
and other forage, and
WHERAS, It appears that no extensive investigations
along these lines have been made by either the State or
the Federal government, therefore be it
RESOLVED by the Florida State Live Stock Associa-
tion in annual convention assembled, that the Florida
delegation in Congress be petitioned to work for an ade-
quate appropriation to be expended under the direction
of the Secretary of Agriculture to begin an immediate in-
vestigation along these lines in cooperation with the res-
pective state colleges of the states affected to the end that
all available data regarding permanent pasture grasses
and other forages and the actual feeding thereof be ob-
tained and disseminated as quickly as possible.
WHEREAS, One of the greatest needs for the further-
ance of the live stock interests of the State of Florida is
additional capital for its development, and
WHEREAS, Under the existing laws loans upon live
stock and particularly cattle are practically a moral risk
only by reason of the wholly inadequate chattel mortgage
and marks and brands laws, therefore be it
RESOLVED, That this Association urges upon the
next session of the Florida Legislature the necessity of











amending the former to the end and effect that the dis-
posal, withholding or alienating of property covered by
chattel mortgage shall be a felony with adequate penal-
ties for violation;-and the latter so that compulsory State
registration of marks and brands shall be required, and
urges upon its membership that they bring these matters
to the attention of all candidates for election to the Leg-
islature and secure from them a pledge to work and vote
for the amendment of the laws above mentioned in sub-
stantially the way indicated.
WHEREAS, the newspaper publishers of Florida have
materially assisted in bringing the work of the Florida
State Live Stock Association to the attention of the live
stock breeders of the State.
RESOLVED, that the members of this Association ex-
tend to them our hearty thanks.
RESOLVED, that the thanks of this Association are
due and are hereby tendered to the Jacksonville Chamber
of Commerce for their generous hospitality which has
done so much to make our stay in the city so pleasant.
To W. M. Traer, editor of the Florida Farmer and
Stockman for his untiring efforts in handling the many
details which made the convention such a success.
To the Armour Company for the delightful luncheon
served at their plant and to Charles E. Day, manager of
the Seminole Hotel, for the use of the splendid auditor-
ium in which our sessions have been held.
R. W. STORRS,
(Signed) F. N. BURT,
L. S. LIGHT,
Committee.
Unanimously adopted.
Representatives from Jacksonville, St. Augustine and
Kissimmee presented invitations to the Association to
meet in their cities next year. After some balloting, Kis-
simmee was unanimously selected for the meeting place,
the date to be announced later by the Executive Com-
mittee.
The Nominating Committee, composed of W. F. Coach-
man, Jacksonville; S. H. Gaitskill, McIntosh, and August
Van Eopel, Tampa, reported the names for officers, who
were elected. They appear in front part of this report.
The members decided to continue the membership fee












at one dollar per year, and try to increase the member-
ship which last year was 262, the high record in the his-
tory of the Association.
The Association adjourned sine die at 12:10 p. m.



POCKET GOPHERS AS ENEMIES TO TREES

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY.

BY DAVID E. LANTZ.

Assistant, Biological Survey.

INTRODUCTION.

Three groups of North American mammals are general-
ly recognized as enemies of the fruit grower and forester.
These are pocket gophers, rabbits, and short-tailed field
mice. Each of these does enormous damage, often amount-
ing to thousands of dollars upon a single plantation. In
some localities they make the profits from orcharding ex-
ceedingly uncertain. Of the three, pocket gophers inflict
losses fully as great as those caused by either rabbits or.
field mice; and since they work underground, the injury
is concealed, often until it is too late for protective meas-
ures.

DISTRIBUTION AND CLASSIFICATION.

Pocket gophers, locally known also as pouched rats,
salamanders, tuzas, or merely gophers, inhabit more than
half the entire territory of the United States outside of
Alaska and the island possessions. They occur through-
out the greater part of almost every State west of the
Mississippi, and east of that river in the greater part of
Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and large areas in Florida,
Georgia, and Alabama. Outside the United States they
inhabit northwest Canada northward to Winnepeg and
most of the Saskatchewan Valley. They are abundant in
many parts of Mexico, whence their range extends south-
ward to Costa Rica.












Nine genera of this family of rodents are recognized,
but only three of them occur within the United States.

GENERAL HABITS.

Pocket gophers live almost entirely within the subter-
ranean tunnels which they excavate, and are seldom seen
except when bringing fresh soil to the surface. The of-
ten-repeated statement that they are strictly nocturnal is
untrue. They are most active in morning and early even-
ing, but when the weather is cool and not too dry they
work from dawn to sunset and probably continue dur-
ing much of the night. They sometimes burrow surpris-
ing distances within twenty-four hours, as is evidenced
by the number of fresh mounds of earth thrown out in
that time. In hot, dry weather they do little digging.
Apparently pocket gophers breed but once a year, us-
ually early in spring, and they produce from two to six
young in a litter. T. H. Scheffer, of the Kansas State
Agricultural College, trapped thirty-four pregnant fe-
males from January 31 to May 13. The smaller number
of embryos found was 1; the largest, 6; the average, 4.2.
While gophers are less prolific than many other rodents,
the seclusion in which they live compensates in great
measure for their lack of fecundity, since their enemies
have relatively few opportunities to secure them. Except
in the mating season and when the female is caring for
her young, gophers seem to live alone.
Pocket gophers usually inhabit loose alluvial soils, sel-
dom those that are hard or clayey. Originally they sub-
sisted on roots and stems of native plants, but they im-
mediately turned their attention to the cultivated plants
introduced by the settler, including succulent garden veg-
etables, alfalfa, and clover; they are indebted to the set-
tler also for the destruction of many of their natural
enemies and for loosening the soil by tillage. Thus the
gopher's environment is greatly improved, and, except
where due vigilance has been exercised, these pests have
multiplied and greatly extended their range in cultivated
lands.
Pocket gophers do harm in many ways. They eat hay
and pasture and cover grass with earth. They cause heavy
loss of hay by preventing close mowing. Their burrows
admit surface water and on sloping ground lead to the












washing of deep gullies. Their tunnels in dams and levees
cause many costly breaks. They ruin gardens and injure
many field crops. Besides all this, and probably as im-
portant, is the damage they do to fruit and other trees.

INJURY TO ORCHARDS.

While the pocket gopher no doubt exercises choice in its
diet, it injures nearly all common kinds of fruit trees. It
is said that on some parts of the Pacific slope gophers
do not injure the peach, but probably this is because bet-
ter-liked trees are available. It is certain that the gopher
of the Mississippi Valley often damages the peach se-
verely.
Dr. A. K. Fisher, of the Biological Survey, informs the
writer that in southern California he observed that the
roots of the fig tree seem to be most subject to attacks of
gophers and that those of the apricot appear to stand
next in favor. Orange, lemon, almond, apple, pear, and
all other orchard trees of the region, except the peach, are
injured by the animals.
In regions inhabited by gophers the selection of an or-
chard site free from them is often possible. The soil best
suited for trees is most likely to be infested by gophers.
Frequently the orchardist, in order to have the soil in
proper condition for tree planting, first raises and turns
down crops of alfalfa, clover, or cowpeas. Sometimes he
grows preliminary crops of sweet potatoes or sugar beets.
As any of these crops is likely to attract pocket gophers
to the place and increase the danger to trees subsequently
planted there, the fruit grower will find it all the more
necessary to rid the land of the pests before planting his
orchard.
Fruit trees are often badly injured before their owner
is aware of the presence of the animals. Although eviden-
ces of the presence of gophers are usually unmistakable to
the experienced eye, it sometimes takes unusual vigilance
to discover them, especially among tall grass, weeds, or
other undergrofth. The mounds of soil show plainly the
general direction of the main tunnel. Each mound is at
the extremity of a short lateral, dug upward and outward
to the surface nearly at right angles to the main tunnel.
Each load of soil pushed up and over the mound makes it
higher and wider. The double line of hillocks may be












traced to that last made, which is generally small and
composed of fresh, moist soil. The lateral leading to this
latest mound is not usually packed solid with soil, but is
either left open temporarily or loosely filled. Open lat-
erals are sometimes used as exits through which the go-
pher comes to secure food or to take observations.
A gopher which in tunneling comes to a tree root at-
tacks and eats through it. If the root is relished, it is
followed and eaten close up to the tree trunk. Then an-
other root is destroyed, and so on until the entire root
system is gnawed away, wood and bark alike, leaving the
trunk loose in the ground. Large trees are sometimes en-
tirely girdled just below the ground, the gopher cutting
deep into the wood below the bark. This kills the tree as
certainly as if its root system were destroyed. The work
resembles that done by pine or meadow mice, but the
girdling is deeper and much more quickly fatal to the
tree.
Sometimes the pocket gopher on approaching a large or-
chard tree goes from root to root at some distance from
the trunk, eating parts or girdling them inturn. Occa-
sionally it injures smaller roots only, and does not im-
mediately or even seriously impair the growth of the
tree. But there is always danger, should the animal not
be destroyed, that it will continue its work until it has
killed many trees. Besides the direct damage, its injury
to the roots of orchard trees affords opportunity for sub-
sequent attacks of fungous or other diseases.

INJURY TO NURSERY STOCK.

Complaints from western nurserymen of injury to their
stock by pocket gophers are frequent. The trees in
nursey rows are small and close together. Consequently
a gopher by following the rows can in a short time kill
many trees. When the animal enters a nursery, a fa>
vorite method is to follow for about a rod the first row
of trees encountered, then to cross to another row, and
thus to cross the entire block of trees, destroying a dozen
or more from each row. Such injury is usually done in
late fall or winter, and the nurseryman is often unaware
until spring of the mischief done by the gopher.
In attacking nursery trees the gopher takes the entire
root,, not merely the bark. It does not eat the roots all













at once, but cuts them into short pieces, packs them into
its enormous cheek pouches, and carries them away to
its caches, or stores, of food. It is these provisions for
the future that makes its injury to young orchards, nur-
series, and gardens so extensive. The animal lays up
far more than it ever consumes. It is not uncommon to
plow up stores of small potatoes or roots of clover, al-
falfa, or trees amounting to from a peck to a half bushel
at a place. As the stores are usually placed much deeper
in the ground, those uncovered by the plowman are but
a small part of those deposited by the animals.

INJURY TO FOREST TREES.

Pocket gophers seldom inhabit dense forests, but in
the open forests of Georgia, Florida, and Alabama they
live almost entirely upon tree roots; still the injury they
do to the forest growth is not serious. In the Prairie
States where gophers occur they sometimes damage young
trees growing naturally along the borders of streams, but
their harmfulness to forest interests is best illustrated by
their work in young artificial plantations. They injure
windbreaks, ornamental plantations, and shade trees
fully as much as they do orchards, and in the same man-
ner.
Gophers are especially detrimental to young forest
plantations in the sandhill regions of the West, and, like
rabbits, make the work of forestation very uncertain.
They are even worse than rabbits, because they work un-
seen and almost invariably kill instead of merely injuring
the young trees.
DESTROYING POCKET GOPHERS.

The orchardist or forester, before setting out trees in a
tract infested by pocket gophers, should take the precau-
tion to rid the land of these animals. In addition, ad-
joining premises, roadways, and waste places should be
cleared of the pests. The more thoroughly the work is
done, the more permanent will be the benefit. Several
means of combating gophers are available.
POISONING.
If but few pocket gophers are to be destroyed, there is
little choice between traps and poisons as the means to
---Bull.












be used. If, however, the animals are numerous or dis-
tributed over large areas, poisoning is by far the quickest
as well as the cheapest method.
Strychnia sulphate is recommended as the most satis-
factory gopher poison. If properly used, it involves no
danger to other animals. The chief requisite for success
is to get the poisoned baits into the main tunnel. If left
in the lateral where the gopher is working, the baits are
frequently pushed out with the soil, to be wasted or pos-
sibly to become a source of danger to birds or other ani-
mals.
Considerable latitude is possible in the choice of baits
for gophers. Pieces of potato, carrot, beet, sweet potato,
and celery, also raisins, prunes, shelled corn, wheat, and
green alfalfa have all been used with success. The ripe
raisin grape has been recommended by California orchard-
ists. The first seven named are prepared by inserting in
them dry strychinine, in either crystal or powdered form.
The pieces of carrot, beet, or potato should not be larger
than a hulled walnut. A slit is made in each with a sharp
knife and a little of the poison, about equal in bulk to
half a grain of wheat, is placed in the cut. To prepare
the grain or alfalfa, a poisoned sirup is generally used.
The grain is soaked in the sirup; the alfalfa may be either
sprinkled with liquid or dipped into it.
The sirup is prepared as follows: An ounce of strych-
nia sulphate is dissolved in a quart of boiling water, and
a quart of thick sugar sirup is added and the mixture
thoroughly stirred. This liquid is enough to poison 35
pounds of grain or 30 pounds of green alfalfa. For the
alfalfa a little more water is needed. The liquid will
keep for several months if a little borax is added.
The baits having been prepared, the operator inserts
them one by one into the gopher tunnels. The tunnels
may be readily located by the use of a prod consisting of
a spade handle shod with a metal point and having a
metal bar for the operator's foot about 15 inches from the
point. The prod when withdrawn leaves a hole through
which the bait may be dropped into the gopher runs.
The hole may be covered or left open; no difference in
results has been noticed by the writer. The prod saves
the labor of digging down to the tunnel and enables a
man in a day to distribute gopher poison to 30 or 40 acres
of badly infested alfalfa land or meadow. For loose soils












a pointed stick will answer, but for sod or harder soils
the iron-pointed prod with foot bar is far better.
The method just described is applicable throughout the
Mississippi Valley and wherever pocket gophers work
near the surface. It has been used with great success
in parts of Mexico and at certain seasons on the Pacific
slope. Experience has proved, however, that in parts of
the far West, especially in California, where the soil be-
comes dry and hard from drought, gophers burrow too
deeply for the prod to withdrawn. In such circumstances
a spade or shovel is needed to expose the tunnel, and
poisoning these rodents becomes fully as laborious as
trapping them.
TRAPPING.

Next to poisoning pocket gophers, trapping has given
most satisfactory results. While the ordinary steel trap
(No. 0) may be successfully employed, the modern gopher
traps possess decided advantages. They kill the animals
at once instead of holding them for hours by the leg. Most
of them are designed to be placed in the lateral where
the gopher is bringing up soil, and these are set with
.much less labor than those fro which the main tunnel must
be opened. Several excellent special gopher traps have
been tested by the Biological Survey, and doubtless there
are others equally effective.
To set the ordinary steel trap, an opening should be
made in the main runway of the gopher, and the trap
so placed that the top is about level with the bottom of
the tunnel. The hole should then be. covered with sods
or boards so as to exclude the light. In trapping gophers
bait is rarely used, but probably green food when scarce
would make an attractive bait.
The special gopher traps are usually set in the laterals.
The freshest mound of earth should be selected. The
trapper should then dig back with a trowel to the open
part of the lateral, set the trap there, and either cover
the hole or leave it with only a little light entering. A
few days' experience will teach one more about setting
traps for gophers than pages of directions could. He
must not be discouraged by failure at first, but vary the
method of setting the trap until he learns the best way
for his locality. While the method is somewhat slow,
persistent trapping steadily decreases the pests until the












last gopher on a farm may be captures. A correspondent
of the Biological Survey writes that he caught 1,332 of
the animals within 2 miles of his home. A friend of
the writer in Kansas trapped 350 gophers on a 40-acre
clover field in four months. A California newspaper stated
that in the spring of 1901 a man near Watsonville, by us-
ing 52 traps, caught 233 in twenty-four and one-half
hours. William Burnice, of Bowbells, N. Dak., trapped
more than 1,500 gophers on his quarter section during a
single year.
FLOODING.

Where available, water is one of the best means of com-
bating pocket gophers. Flooding the land in winter is
especially effective, as it wets the animals and drives them
to the surface, where they soon succumb to the cold. In
warm weather the method can be made effective if men
and dogs are on hand to kill the animals as they seek
refuge on the embankments.

FUMIGATION.

Much has been claimed for the liquid known as carbon
bisulphid as a means of destroying pocket gophers, and
many machines have been invented to facilitate the ap-
plication of the fumes of burning sulphur to the burrows
of these animals; but the experience of the writer and
many others has shown that, as a rule, many of the ani-
mals escape in both methods of fumigation. They dig so
rapidly that in a moment they can close the tunnel to the
advancing sulphurous gas, while the gases from carbon
bisulphid are often taken up by the porous soil long be-
fore they reach the gopher through the intricate burrows-
Carbon bisulphid is effective against all animals that
have simple burrows, but it often fails with the pocket
gopher and the common mole.

OTHER HELPS IN COMBATING GOPHERS.

The assistance given the farmer by the natural enemies
of destructive rodents it not to be overlooked or despised.
Although the habits of the gopher afford it great protec-
tion from predaceous enemies ,a considerable number of
animals habitually feed upon it. Probably all the larger











hawks and nearly all the owls often succeed in capturing
pocket gophers outside the burrows.
Of al the birds of prey the barn owl is probably the
most useful to the farmer. Nearly all stomachs and pel-
lets of this bird received from California by the Biological
Survey contained remains of the pocket gopher. Clark P.
Streator, writing from the same State, says:
In examining a large series of nests (of barn owls) at
all months of the year I have found nothing but gophers
(Thmzormys), except on one occasion where there were
one or two specimens of Brewer's blackbird. On further
investigation I found a deposit of pellets of nothing but
gopher hair and bones which had been ejected by the owls
and had accumulated, in a few instances to the extent of
2 or 3 cubic feet, in the trees in which they had lived. I
also found that in the breeding season it was not uncom-
mon to find six or more gophers, that were not eaten by
the young, lying about the nest.
W. M. Bristoe, in the Pacific Rural Press for October
23, 1897, states that a neighbor found barn owls had made
their home in the pigeonhouse. Thinking they were after
the pigeons, he shot the male and the next day trapped
the female in the house. On investigation he found four
young owls in the next, together with the bodies of ten
pocket gophers. He immediately released the female.
The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) is especially
valuable in destroying pocket gophers. Many ranchmen
in California protect this bird on their lands. Its excel-
lent work in killing field mice and gophers entitles it
to careful protection everywhere.
Of the carnivorous mammals, badgers, weasels, wild-
cats, coyotes, and skunks kill many of the pests. The
badger is especially efficient in capturing them, a fact
which should be widely known, as this valuable mammal
is often wantonly destroyed.
Two natural enemies of the gopher are particularly im-
portant, because they are able to traverse its burrows.
These are weasels and snakes.
Of serpents, the bull snakes (genus Pituophis) are of
first importance. The Pacific bull snake (P. catenifer),
because of its habit of killing pocket gophers, is quite
generally called the gopher snake. A writer in the Paci-
fic Rural Press for May 12, 1888, says of the reptile:
It is an act of insane folly to destroy them, for they











are the most active and efficient allies of the nurseryman,
farmer, and fruit raiser in the destruction of those most
pernicious pests, the gopher and the squirrel. They de-
stroy more gophers than all the appliances that man can
bring to bear in the shape of traps, poisons, and gases.
Dogs are excellent assistants in killing pocket gophers
that have been driven from fields by flooding. They are
indeed almost indispensable when men or boys are not
available, and they may be trained to a high degree of
efficiency. Occasionally a cat which roams afield aban-
dons its ordinary diet of mice and birds and devotes its
energies to catching gophers. The writer has heard of
several cats whose owners regarded their service as go-
pher destroyers as invaluable.

FURTHER DIRECTIONS FOR DESTROYING POCKET GOPHERS.

Pocket gophers are readily caught in any one of sev-
eral makes of special traps commonly on the market, and
a few of these suffice to keep sma'l areas free of the pests.
For ridding alfalfa fields, orchards, and long stretches of
ditch embankments of them, a very successful and much
more practical method is to poison them by use of baits
of sweet potato or of parsnips placed in their under-
ground runways.
The baits should be cut about 1 inch long and one-half
inch square, and washed and drained. From a pepper
box slowly sift one-eighth ounce of powdered strychnine
(alkaliod) and one-tenth of this quantity of saccharine
(ground together in a mortar) over about 4 quarts of the
dampened baits, stirring to distribute the poison evenly.
The runways, which are usually 4 to 8 inches beneath
the surface, can be located by means of a probe made
of any strong handle an inch in diameter and 36 inches
long. One end should be bluntly pointed. Into the other
should be fitted a piece of three-eighih inch iron rod, pro-
truding about twelve inches, and bluntly pointed. A foot
rest aids in probing in hard soils. By forcing down the
iron rod near gopher workings, or a foot or two back of
fresh mounds, the one tunnel can be felt as the point
breaks into it. The blunt end of the instrument is then
used carefully to enlarge the hole, a bait or two is drop-
ped into the run, and the probe hole closed.
One soon becomes expert in locating the runs, and a











man can treat 300 to 500 gopher workings in a day.
Baits need be placed at only two points in each separate
system of 10 to 30 mounds, which is usually the home of
a single gopher. Experience has shown that baits placed
fairly in the open runs invariably kill the gophers. The
method has found great favor wherever introduced.

CAUTION.

All poison containers and all utensils used in the prep-
aration of poisons should be kept PLAINLY LABELED
and OUT OF REACH of children, irresponsible persons,
and live stock.
COOPERATION.

In warfare against any rodent pest little permanent
good can be accomplished except by cooperative effort.
Although it always pays the individual farmer or fruit
grower to exterminate pocket gophers from his own lands,
yet if he can not secure cooperation of the whole com-
munity he must constantly guard against a return of the
pests and be ever ready to renew offensive operations
against them. With united effort the animals can be
completely exterminated over entire townships, or even
counties, and when this is accomplished immunity from
-the pest will continue indefinitely. *



PINK BOLL WORM

FOR THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN.

By E. H. Sellards, State Geologist.

On February 16th, 1918, a convention was held at Jack-
son, Mississippi, the object of which was to consider meth-
ods of control of the pink cotton boll worm, a new and
very serious cotton pest.
THE DESCRIPTION OF THE INSECT.

The pink cotton boll worm in the adult or full grown
condition is a small dull brown and apparently very











harmless moth, which even when abundant is seldom seen
in the field, because it hides away during the day and
flies only in the late evening about dusk. The full grown
insect lives but a short time and does no harm other than
to deposit eggs.
The damage to the cotton is done by the young insect
when in the caterpillar, "larval" or "worm" stage. The
moth deposits the eggs on or near the cotton bolls. When
first hatched the young caterpillar is a very small white
worm which as soon as it comes from the egg begins to
eat its way into the cotton boll. After going into the
boll the young worm burrows to the center and feeds on
the cotton seeds moving from one seed to another. Fre-
quently a single boll is infested with many worms. The
seeds are destroyed, the lint is stained, the cotton boll
often rots and usually drops from the plant.
The worm continues feeding in the boll until it becomes
full grown. In its later stages it is slightly pinkish in
color from which it gets the name of pink cotton boll
worm. When full grown the worm spins a cocoon in the
cotton boll, but before doing so cuts an opening to the
outside so that the moth when it comes out of the cocoon
can escape from the boll.
From about four to twenty eggs-are laid on a boll
by a single moth. These eggs hatch in from four to twelve
days. The worm itself requires about twenty to thirty
days to become full grown in the boll. It then remains
in the cocoon stage from ten to twenty days. It is thus
seen that several generations may breed in the cotton
during a single summer and the insect thus multiplies
very rapidly.

DIFFERENT FROM THE COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.

The pink cotton boll worm must not be confused with
the cotton boll weevil. It is an entirely different insect,
being a moth and not a weevil. Both are serious pests to
cotton but of the two the pink cotton boll worm is much
the more serious. Also the pink cotton boll worm is not
to be confused with any caterpillar that feeds on the
leaves af cotton. The pink boll worm feeds only in the
cotton boll and eats the cotton seed, and is to be found
only by cutting open the cotton boll and examining the
interior.











HISTORY OF INTRODUCTION INTO THE UNITED STATES.

The pink cotton boll worm is believed to have been
native to Egypt but has now spread to practically all im-
portant cotton growing areas in the world except that of
the United States. It has long been known in India and
the cotton growing countries of Africa. During 1913 and
1914 through through the importation of cotton seed it
was brought from Africa to Brazil. In the same way
it has been brought to Mexico where it is probably rather
widely scattered. In the United States it is found at
present, so far as known, only in Texas, and at only two
localities in that State. The introduction into Texas from
Mexico is believed to have been entirely accidental, and
was due to the salvage of cotton from a wrecked ship
carrying Mexican cotton. This cotton being not very per-
fectly ginned contained some seed, and in the seed the
pink boll worm.
This first infestation in Texas was on the Gulf coast
near Galveston. Before being discovered the insect had
spread for some distance along the coast and as much as
seven miles inland. The second infestation in Texas is
near the town of Hearne which is over 100 miles inland
from the Gulf coast. This infestation is believed to have
been due to the shipment of cotton seed from the area
near the Gulf before the infestation there had been dis-
covered.

AMOUNT OF DAMAGE DONE BY THE PINK COTTON BOLL WORM.

The damage that would result from the presence of this
insect in the cotton belt of the United States can only be
estimated by the damage that it is known to have done
elsewhere. In India the loss from this insect in the cot-
ton crop is estimated at $10,000,000 per year. In Egypt
the loss is estimated at not less than 10 per cent of the
crop each year and if often much more than that. In
Brail the cotton crop where the insect was present was
reduced as much as 50 per cent within three years after
being infested. In Honolulu cotton growing has almost
ceased since the introduction of this pest. From all avail-
able evidence it seems certain that this is much the worst
cotton insect known.











METHODS OF CONTROL.

The methods of control of the pink cotton boll worm
must be based on a knowledge of the habits of the insect.
First of all it is known that the adult moth does not fly
any great distance and that naturally by its own means
it spreads very slowly. On the other hand the fact that
the young, or larvae, feed on cotton seed and live through
the winter in the cotton seeds makes the spread by ship-
ment of cotton seed very rapid unless properly controlled.
In fact the spread of the insect over large areas is ac-
complished almost entirely by man himself. Therefore
the natural method of control of the insect is to pre-
vent its being carried from place to place in cotton seed
or in any other way.

FUMIGATION OF COTTON SEED.

It has not yet been shown to just what extent cotton
seed can be made safe for shipment from an infested area
by fumigation. It is known that the insect when spend-
ing the winter in the cotton seed encloses itself in a web
and often mats two cotton seeds around it as protection.
It is probable therefore that fumigating gases do not
readily get to the insect. Carbon bisulphide and dydro-
cyanic acid gas are being used but it is doubtful if any
one can say at present just how reliable these gases are
in getting to and killing the insect in cotton seed.

CONTROL METHODS IN TEXAS.

The methods of control that are being used in the in-
fested areas in Texas are intended not only to prevent
spread but also to entirely exterminate the insect. The
plan of control there used is as follows: When infesta-
tion is discovered the infested area is quarantined so that
the shipment both of the cotton and cotton seed can be
controlled. The second step is to discontinue, through
proclamation from the Governor, the growing of cotton
in the infested area for a period of three years. Finally
there is also declared around this area a cotton free zone
ten miles in width in which cotton shall not be grown.
The worm is not certainly known to feed on any plant
other than cotton, hence the discontinuance of growing of











cotton in an area for a period of three years is believed
to be a sufficient length of time to insure the eradication
of the insect. The ten-mile wide surrounding zone is be-
lived to be wide enough so that no adult moths will spread
by flight or by being carried by the wind or otherwise.

HOW TO RECOGNIZE THE INSECT

It is not believed and it is not probable that the pink
cotton boll worm has found its way into Florida. How-
ever, since such insects may be carried in many accidental
ways as the introduction into Texas shows, farmers in
Florida should always be on the lookout for any new or
unknown insect in their cotton fields. It is especially im-
portant in case of infestation to discover the insect when
first introduced and before it has spread so that it can be
the more easily controlled and exterminated.
It is not always easy for the farmer to distinguish this
insect from others that are more or less like it and in
case of doubt the only safe plan is to send the unknown
insect to the entomological department of the State Ex-
periment Station for identification. When looking for
this insect in the cotton field, search should be made for
a small dusky brown moth scarcely one-half inch long
which appears very shy, and will quickly hide from sight
by getting under leaves, grass or loose dirt. The moths
fly mostly about dusk and will seldom be seen at midday.
If infestation is suspected the cotton bolls should be
searched for the worms feeding on the cotton seeds. These
worms are small, hardly one-half inch long when full
grown. When young they are white worms with brown
heads, and when nearly full grown the body becomes
somewhat pinkish in color. The cocoon is also found in
the boll near the outer edge and always with a hole cut
to the exterior so that the moth when it emerges can get
out. As already stated the caterpillars feed almost en-
tirely in the bolls and never on the leaves, so that ordi-
nary caterpillars feeding on cotton leaves need cause no
uneasiness so far as this insect is concerned.
From what is known of the habits of the pink cotton
boll worm we may reasonably be encouraged to believe
that by the application of proper scientific methods and
the strict control of the shipment of cotton and cotton
seeds this very serious cotton pest can be entirely eradi-











cated and permanently excluded from the United. States.
Careful watch for any possible infestation and prompt
and rigid action to evterminate the pest should it gain a
foothold are the measures absolutely necessary to the free-
dom of the cotton belt of the United States from this ad-
ditional serious cotton insect.





PEANUTS FOR OIL PRODUCTION

CO-OPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICUL-
TURE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DIVISION
OF AGRICULTURE.

By A. P. Spencer and E. W. Jenkins.

Peanut oil is one of the most important food oils in the
world. In 1912, approximately 151/2 million gallons of
edible oil, and 23 million gallons of edible oil were pro-
duced in Marseilles. In the same year Germany imported
68,765 tons of peanuts, practically all of which were used
for making oil.
Until 1915 very little peanut oil was produced in the
United States, although the nation has been a large con-
sumer. Importations for the year ending June 30, 1914,
amounted to 1,332,100 gallons, a large part of which was
used in making oleomargarine. Present war and trans-
portation conditions and the urgent needs for edible oils
by the allied armies have reduced the importation of oils
into the United States to a very appreciable extent, so
that the price of peanut oil at the mills has increased 100
per cent since 1915.
In the United States the consumption of peanut oil for
salad and cooking purposes and in making oleomargine
and similar compounds may be greatly increased by man-
ufacturing higher grades of edible oil than those hereto-
fore imported. Such oil must compare in quality with
the best brands of European oils, and consequently should
sell at a much higher price than most of the imported
peanut oils. In France only the finest grade of oil are
used as food. Since most of this supply was retained for












local consumption, only second-grade oils were imported
into the United States. These second grade oils have been
used in the manufacture of vegetable oleomargarines
which are chiefly mixtures of peanut, cocoanut and sim-
ilar oils, ripened with milk. An additional quantity of
this oil is used in teh preparation of sardines. Peanut
oil is superior to olive oil for this purpose, in that pea-
nut oil will stand continued heating required for cooking
the sardines, while olive oil will n6t. The lower grades
of non-edible peanut oil are used in making soap.
Heretofore there has been no established market for
high grade American peanut oil because of the limited
amount produced. These facts would indicate that a
permanent industry may be established in the United
States that will continue after the close of the war if the
manufacturers of peanut oil will make a product to com-
pare favorably with the best grades of oil produced in
Europe, utilize the lower grades as is done in Europe, and
make the most profitable use of by-products. Inasmuch
as European oil may be restricted from the market during
the period of the war, American oils should gain a repu-
tation in American markets for quality which will make
it difficult to replace them with imported oil. Present
conditions should encourage the peanut industry, particu-
larly in the South, where a readjustment of the farming
program has been made necessary by the advent of the
boll weevil.
Whereever the boll weevil has made it necessary to
substitute other crops for cotton a largely increased acre-
age of peanuts is being grown. Farmers report yields of
from 40 to 100 bushels per acre on land usually producing
20 to 40 bushels of corn, or good crop of cotton. Land
now under cultivation in Florida suitable for growing
peanuts is quite extensive, and a still larger area of cut-
over land will grow good crops when cultivated. This
would indicate that there is enough land throughout the
South suitable for growing peanuts to supply the entire
domestic trade and a considerable quantity for export,
should there be a foreign market at the close of the war.
The very large area of cut-over sandy lands of the South
is well suited to grow peanuts.
In the manufacture of peanut oil there are valuable
by-products, such as inferior nuts, peanut cake, peanut
vine hay and other feed products. These by-products are












among the richest of stock feeds, and can be utilized to
a good advantage in feeding cattle, hogs, horses and
mules, so that the by-product itself is an important source
of profit to both the oil manufacturer and the farmer.
'Taking all facts as into consideration it seems there is an
opportunity for farmers, stockman, mill owners, and
bankers to interest themselves in increased production of
peanuts and peanut oil, and thereby build up an industry
that will give farmers a cash crop, provide them with
stock feed, and allow for investments in an enterprise
that promises to be more profitable than cotton raising.
The peanut oil industry affords cotton mill owners an
opportunity to convert their cotton seed oil mills into pea-
nut oil mills. While it is necessary to install additional
machinery for making high-grade oil, the oil presses,
grinders, filter presses and conveyors in the cotton ail
mills can be used in making peanut oil. It is
also necessary to have an en equipment for clean-
ing and shelling the nuts as well as machinery
for picking and planting. The peanut industry has been
an important one for many years so that the processes of
manufacture of high-grade oil are well known and the
necessary machinery is entirely practical for a further de-
velopment of the industry.

PEANUT OIL VALUABLE FOR FOOD.

Peanut oil can be used without additional refining, if
pressed from sound stock it has a good color and a sweet
nutty flavor. It can be substituted for animal fats, and
is satisfactory for salads and table oil, just as it runs
from the press, whereas cotton seed oil must be refined
before being used. In this respect peanut oil is like olive
oil. The best grade of peanut oil for table use comes di-
rect from the nut, just as the best olive oil comes from
the fresh olives.
Rancid peanut oil made from spoiled nuts, or from
sound nuts improperly treated, can be refined and made
edible, but this lacks the characteristic peanut taste of
the high-grade oil, and is inferior for salads and table
purposes. Such oil if properly refined and mixed with
,other oils may yield an entirely satisfactory product.
Just to what extent the refining process can be made
profitable will depend on the commercial value of com-












peting products, as the lower grade peanut oil must com-
pete with the cheaper grades of cotton seed oil in the man-
ufacture of oleomargarine, soap and other oil products.

YIELD OF OIL.

An analysis of twelve samples of Spanish peanuts show
them to contain 52.8 per cent of oil, and nineteen sam-
ples of Virginia peanuts an average of 43 per cent., figured
on the basis of dry shell nuts. A further analysis (Farm-
er's Bulletin 751) of shell nuts grown at Florence, S. C.,
shows that shelled Spanish nuts contain 49.1 per cent,
Valencias 49.6 and the African or North Carolina 45.9
per cent of oil, or approximately 50 per cent by weight.
In actual practice there are about 600 pounds of hulls
and trash in each ton of the farmers' stock, or, stated
otherwise, one ton of farmers stock will yield about 1,400
pounds of sound, clean nuts. Estimate these nuts to con-
tain 50 per cent oil would give approximately 700 pounds
of oil, and 700 pounds of high-grade meal in each ton of
farmers' stock. If the nuts are crushed with the hulls the
yield of meal will be about 1,250 pounds but of a lower
grade.
After the trash is removed and the oil expressed from
Spanish nuts, the residual peanut cake contains about
9 per cent of oil, which would leave approximately 637
pounds of oil for each ton of the farmers' stock, or a total
of 85 gallons. One bushel of good farmers' stock, will
yield about 11/s to 11/ gallons of oil. For Florida no
actual analysis has been made to determine the amount
of oil obtainable from the one ton of nuts. The foregoing
figures are only approximate inasmuch as the percentage
of oil in all varieties differ when grown on different soils
and under different climatic conditions.
When a peanut mill is equipped with the best of mod-
ern machinery a slightly higher percentage of oil may
be obtained. However, on a commercial scale it is not
likely to be profitable to express a larger percentage of
the oil as it would decrease the tonnage capacity of the
mill if less than 8 or 9 per cent of oil were left in the
cake. This also would require more power at a cost
greater than the value of the amount of the oil recovered.













VARIETIES OF PEANUTS FOR OIL PRODUCTION.

The main varieties of peanuts grown in Florida are the
Florida Runner or African, the White Spanish and Va-
lencia. The Jumbo Runner is grown only toa limited ex-
tent. Of these the Florida Runner is at present most
extensively grown and is used almost entirely for stock
feed. The White Spanish is grown in about the same
territory; it will produce good crops on a greater variety
of soils than any other variety grown. The Valencia is a
comparatively new variety. It is a fair yielder on the
average peanut soils, but is not considered so desirable
as either the Florida Runner or the Spanish, although
on most lands used for trucking it has produced good
yields when other varieties grown side by side with it
have failed. The Jumbo Runner resembles the Florida
Runner in its habits of growth, but yields a very large
nut. It has proven fairly satisfactory on most of the
peanut areas of the State, although it has not grown in
favor to any extent. For oil production the White Span-
ish is the favorite variety; the proportion of meat to hull
is greater than in other varieties, and it yields a higher
per centage of oil. The main objection to it has been that
is sprouts readily as soon as ripe if the soil is moist; and
as peanuts have been used almost entirely for hog feeding,
allowing the hogs to pasture them, it is often desired that
peanuts remain in the soil until late fall or winter. For
this reason Spanish peanuts are not so suitable for hog
pasture as the Florida Runner, which will lay in the soil
without sprouting until spring. With the manufacture of
oil it is desirable to harvest the nuts as soon as ripe, and
get the crop out of the way early in the season. The
Spanish variety has a long planting season and can be
planted after winter truck crops or spring oats. While
no records are available that would compare the yield
of the different varieties, reports indicate that the yield
is from twenty to fifty bushels, and practically the same
with all varieties when grown under favorable conditions.
Analysis of five varieties of peanuts grown at Florence,
South Carolina:












(Farmers' Bulletin 751.)
Constituents of nuts and shell
Variety Oil (P. C.) Protein (P. C.)
Spanish .................. 52.30 41.36
Valencia ................. 50.98 40.87
African .................. 48.36 37.90
Virginia Runner ......... 47.31 34.67
Virginia Bunch .......... 49.26 36.77

BY-PRODUCTS OF THE PEANUT OIL FACTORY.

In preparing peanuts for extracting the oil the nuts are
ground usually by a system of corrugated rolls. For the
higher grade of oil the nuts are shelled before grinding.
The most valuable by-product remaining is the peanut
cake or meal containing from 6 to 10 per cent oil, and
from 24 to 28 per cent protein, which makes it a valuable
stock feed, with about the same feeding value as cotton-
seed meal. If the meal is ground without the hulls the
protein content will be from 27 to 30 per cent and may
be as high as 47 per cent. If ground with the hulls the
average protein content is about 24 per cent. Peanut
meal is one of the best concentrates that can be made
from Southern grown crops, and may be used extensively
in the feeding of beef cattle, dairy cattle, hogs, horses,
mules or poultry. Actual experiments have not been
made to determine the relative value of peanut and cot-
tonseedmeal for feeding beef cattle and hogs. Peanut
meal is unquestionably superior to cottonseed meal for
hog feeding inasmuch as no detrimental results are ob-
tained from feeding it. Peanut meal is also preferable
to the whole peanut for fattening hogs, in that a much
firmer meat and lard will be produced. The meal is also
satisfactory as a horse feed. It has been extensively used
in Europe for many years with good results, feeding at
the rate of from 2 to 4 pounds a day, but because of its
high protein content it should be mixed with corn or oats
and should never be fed as the only concentrate. It is
especially valuable to add to corn to improve the con-
dition of run-down horses or young colts. Peanut meal
is also valuable for feeding small calves and may be
fed with corn, or used as a partial substitute for skim
milk. While no experimental data are available it is prob-
able that peanut meal may be used much the same as lin-
7-Bull.












seed meal since the analysis is similar, and it is relished
by most stock. Linseed meal has given excellent results
in calf feeding when fed mixed with ground grains or
boiled into a gruel and mixed with skimmed milk; after
the calves become accustomed to the gruel only a small
amount of milk is necessary to make them take it readily.
The following analysis will indicate the food value of pea-
nut meal when compared with the whole nut:
Protein C. H. Fat
Peanut in the hull........... 20.4 16.4 36.2
Peanut kernals .............. 26.8 17.5 44.9
Peanut cake or meal, from
hulled nuts ............... 47.6 23.7 8.0
Peanut cake or meal, hulls
included .................. 28.4 27.0 11.1
Peanut hulls ................ 7.3 18.9 2.6



GROWING BROOM CORN IN FLORIDA

(Andropogan Sorghum Vulgare.)

Broom corn, as is well known, resembles sorghum in
appearance, both plants being varieties of the same spe-
cies. The culture of the two plants has much in common.
Broom corn usually grows 8 to 12 feet high, though the
dwarf variety attains only half that heighth. The chief
economic difference between broom corn and other varie-
ties of sorghum consists in the greater length, strength,
and straightness of the fine stems composing the head, or
panicle, and supporting the seeds. The longer, straighter
and tougher these stems or straws and the greener their
color after curing, the higher the price the product com-
mands. The variety, the character of the soil and sea-
son, and the thickness of planting influence these quali-
ties.
VARIETIES.

The different varieties of broom corn afford dissimilar
products. The dwarf variety produces the short brush
used in the manufacture of small brooms and whisks. It
is somewhat difficult to harvest and is cultivated only to












a limited extent. Of the large variety, the Evergreen,
known as the Missouri or Tennessee Evergreen, has given
general satisfaction. The Mohawk is regarded as the
earliest, but as affording a smaller yield. There is some
advantage in planting more than one variety and at sev-
eral different dates so as to extend through a long sea-
son the time of harvesting. At a number of the Experi-
ment Stations the Evergreen proved the best of several
varieties tested, and was much improved by the selec-
tion of seed through several years, the brush becoming
longer, stronger, straighter and brighter. In the field
from which seed was selected the inferior heads were cut
away before shedding their pollen, and thus kept from
crossing with the more valuable heads.

CLIMATE, SOIL AND MANURING.

A climate suitable for Indian corn is also adapted to
the growth of the broom corn plant. Dry weather at
harvesting time is a favorable climatic condition. A
well-drained, rich, sandy or gravelly loam soil such as
will produce a heavy yield of Indian corn, and is as free
as possible from weeds, is best for broom corn. If the
soil is not fertile it should be liberally manured. Fine,
thoroughly rotted barn-yard manure, and other nitro-
genous fertilizers may be used with advantage, prefera-
bly in the rows or drills, in order to hasten the growth
of the young plants which are usually small and delicate.
In general it may be said that the system of manuring
followed should be practically the same as that found best
adapted to corn in the same locality, and will depend
largely upon the character of the soil.

MANNER OF PLANTING.

There are two methods of planting which may be fol-
lowed, namely: surface planting and listing. Either of
these methods, if carefully followed, will give good re-
sults. In sections where listing is practiced the soil
should receive some previous preparation, and the listed
rows need not be more than three or four inches deep.
This is plenty deep enough to secure all of the advantage
of this system, and there will be little danger in covering
the young plants at the time of the first cultivation. The












broom corn seed can be planted with an ordinary corn
planter which is provided with Kaffir corn plates, or it
may be put in with an ordinary grain drill by blocking
the proper number of feed holes so that the rows may be
given the correct spacing. The seed of the dwarf varieties
are usually planted in rows 36 inches apart, and enough
material isused to secure a stand of one plant to every
four to eight inches in the row. The standard sorts are
inches a part, and twelve to fifteen inches in the row. It
given greater spacing, the rows being placed at least 42
will require three to five pounds of seed to give the pro-
per stand. Where the seed is first class in quality, and
will give a germination test of 90 to 95 per cent, the min-
imum quantity may be planted; however, if the seeds con-
tain a large amount of trash and have been damaged to
a slight extent so that the vitality has been impaired,
much more seed should be sown.

CULTIVATING THE CROP.

The cultivation of broom corn is similar to that given
to corn or sorghum. The early growth of the plant is slow,
hence the need of prompt and shallow cultivation to keep
the weeds in subjection and to maintain a thin layer of
loose soil on the surface.
In the culture of broom corn the value of rotation of
crops is not thoroughly appreciated, and it is sometimes
grown for many years in succession on the same land. If
the stalks are plowed under and the seeds returned to
the soil either in their green state or are fed to animals
and the manure obtained applied to the soil, the draft on
the soil is not very heavy. However, continuous culture,
even of crops removing but small quantities of fertilizer in-
gredients, will eventually impoverish the soil, especially
when, as is sometimes the case with broom corn, the stalks
are burned on the land. Better crops will generally be
secured when broom corn enters into the regular farm ro-
tation, or when an occasional crop of clover, cow peas, or
other leguminous plants are grown on the land usually de-
voted to it.
As soon as the young plants are two or three inches
high cultivation should be commenced. If a good stand
has been secured, some thinning may be done with the
smoothing harrow or weeder by giving cross cultivation.




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