• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 County map of state of Florida
 Part I
 Part II. Condition and prospective...
 Part III. Soil analysis; analyses...






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00046
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00046
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Part I
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Wheat in Florida
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Growing rye in Florida
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Growing onions in Florida
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Growing cassava in Florida--its uses
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Law fixing standard for tomato crates and baskets
            Page 27
            Page 28
    Part II. Condition and prospective yield of crops for quarter ending September 30, 1917
        Page 29
        Divisions of the state by counties
            Page 30
        Department of agriculture
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
    Part III. Soil analysis; analyses of Florida muck soils; fertilizers, feeding stuffs, and foods and drugs
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 60a
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Department of agriculture - Division of chemistry
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
Full Text





Volume 27 Number 4



FLORIDAX

QUARTERLY


BULLETIN

OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


OCTOBER 1, 1917.

W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.

PART 1-Wheat in Florida. Growing Rye in Florida.
Growing Onions in Florida. Growing Cassava in
Florida. Law Fixing Standard for Tomato
Crates and Baskets.
PART 2-Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops for
Quarter Ending September 30, 1917.
PART 3-Fertilizers, Feeding Stuffs, and Foods and Drugs.

entered January 81, 1908, at Tallahasee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congrees of June, 1900.
THESEt ULITINS AR ISSUED fRl TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

T. J. APPLITA3D, STATIC PaITI
TALL SNAUBIM, fOBIDA






























COUNT Y -i o
MAP OF ^i p o L K
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STATEoFFLORIDA r

SHOWING SUBDIVISIONS i ST.Luc
MANATEE /
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SANTA I '- IJACKSON I
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PART I.

Wheat in Florida; Growing Rye in Florida;
Growing Onions in Florida; Growing Cassava
in Florida--Its Uses; Law Fixing Standard
for Tomato Crates and Baskets.









WHEAT IN FLORIDA.

By H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk Department of Agriculture.
That wheat can be successfully grown in Florida, there
is no doubt. The early settlers in Florida grew their
own wheat and made their own flour. True, the mills
used in those days were of vastly different type from the
present, but the quality of the flour was equally as nutri-
tions and wholesome, if not more so, than the new process
flours of today. We consider that the growing of wheat
in Florida, owing to the condition of the times and the
demand for breadstuffs by the allied powers, is prac-
tically a necessity, and that Florida in common with
other States should live within herself as nearly as pos-
sible. In fact, it is a patriotic duty, which the people of
our State owes to our country and the cause we are en-
gaged in defending, to grow every kind of food products
that is necessary not only to maintain the people at home,
but to supply our quota of foodstuffs to the armies in the
field. Wheat can be grown in Florida from the north
central portion of the State, northeast and west to the
Perdido River. Most of the land in Lhe region iamed
will produce one or more of the varieties of wheat adapted
to southern conditions. Wheat is the world's choicest
bread crop and the source of one of the principal foods
of the most progressive and intelligent peoples and na-
tions of the world. The only other crop that approaches
it in food value, and that is grown to any extent, is rice.
With these conditions before us we feel justified in sug-
gesting that all farmers who can, and whose lands are
adapted, in whole or in part, to wheat growing, plant at
least enough for home consumption. A few acres planted
by each farmer will give him all of the flour that he needs
throughout the year. If each farmer in Florida, of the
ordinary size farm, should plant from three to five acres
to wheat, he would find it the most profitable crop that
he cduld plant. In doing this, if he does no 1nore, it
would set free many hundred thousands of bushels of
wheat for war consumption. We suggest the following
varieties as being adapted to Florida soils: Blue Stem,
Red May, Georgia Red and Leap's Prolific. Of these, the
Blue Stem, a smooth-headed wheat, is well adapted to
the better quality of sandy loam soils of Florida; like-









wise, the Red May wheat. The eGorgia Red and Leap's
Prolific do best on the clay loam soils. Any of the
varieties mentioned will do well on the better gradations
of the soils mentioned above.
SOILS.-Light fertile clay and medium fertile sandy
loams of good depth, and well drained, are the best lands
for wheat culture. Heavy clays are too close in texture
and liable to bake under certain conditions. But light
clay loam and good sandy loams have about the proper
consistency or degree of compactness necessary to retain
moisture, and are better adapted to wheat cultivation
than the heavier clays or lighter loams. Good drainage
is necessary to the proper development of the wheat
plant, and a medium porous, permeable sub-soil is also
important during most of the growing period of wheat.
A great deal depends on the soil as regards the yield as
well as the quality of the grain. Deep plowing is not
necessary to the successful growing of wheat. In break-
ing land that has not been in cultivation the year pre-
vious, six to ten inches, depending upon conditions of
the soil, will be about correct. If it is stubble land that is
to be planted in wheat, it need not be broken with a turn
plow. If in the first instance the land is well broken, then
harrowed cross-wise with a disk, and later with a straight-
toothed smoothing harrow, a good seed bed will be
obtained. If it is stubble land, such as corn land, cow-
peas or velvet beans, where the crop has been cut off for
hay, the soil will need no turning, but the planting can
be equally as well done by preparing the land with a
heavy disk; then if the wheat is to be sown broadcast
it can be sown on the disked soil and harrowed in with
a straight-toothed harrow. The best way of planting
wheat, however, is with a drill, which opens the furrows,
drops the seed, covers and rolls it with one operation.
In preparing the land, however, the surface should be
left clean without sticks or weeds left lying on the
ground, which would interfere with the handling of the
harvest machinery. -In the case of fallow lands, it should
be well broken early in the fall, or in Florida in the late
summer, from three weeks to a month, at least, before the
wheat is to be planted. One thing to remember is that
it will be a waste of both time and seed to neglect a
proper preparation of the soil. A good seed bed is half
the battle.









The time for sowing wheat in Florida of course de-
pends upon the section of the Statewhere it is to be grown.
In Northern and Western Florida the best time would
be from about the middle of October to the middle of
November. In Southern Florida the best time would be
about the first of November to December. There can be
no fixing of positive dates in this matter, and the grower
will have to use his discretion as to the time best suited
for planting.
FERTILIZING.- The best form of manuring for
wheat, and in general the best kind of manure adapted
to wheat growing, is farm lot or stable manure, but if
this kind of manure is applied it should be under the
crop preceding the sowing of the wheat. If commercial
fertilizers are to be relied on, then it is best to apply that
broadcast,and later, if there is barn yard manure to spare,
that can be applied as a top dressing. Manures contain-
ing too much nitrogen should not be used. A good
formula for this purpose is, and one that is generally
recommended by most growers, on the character of soils
we have in Florida, a mixture analyzing about three and
one-half per cent nitrogen, ten to twelve per cent of
available phosphoric acid, and about four per cent potash,
to be followed in the spring, when the wheat indicates
a swelling of the upper portion of the plants prior to
heading, with nitrate of soda. This will be about four
weeks before the plant heads. The application of about
100 to 150 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre will add
greatly to the yield of grain. If the land has been well
cultivated and kept in a reasonably fertile condition, es-
pecially manures, like stable manure, that contain a con-
siderable amount of humus, then the following formula
would be an excellent one in producing a good yield: Acid
phosphate, 350 pounds sulphate of ammonia, 130 pounds;
muriate of potash, 90 pounds; mixed and used on one acre.
This also should be followed in the spring as above sug-
gested with about 100 pounds of nitrate of soda broadcast.
This is rather on the intensive system of manuring, but it
will pay well. Some soils under certain conditions will be
much benefited by the application of well slacked lime.
From 25 to 40 bushels per acre -on poor land, and es-
pecially the thin clay land, will have a good effect. Its
benefit consists in loosening up the clay lands, making









them more friable, of easier cultivation, and sets free the
potash in the clay for the use of the plants.
These brief descriptions and instructions are intended
more for those who have not planted wheat on their
farms. The average, older and expert farmer will easily
understand the best methods of growing grain crops.
There is much similarity in the methods used in growing
wheat, oats and rye. The same fundamental principles
underlie the characteristics of each of these crops and
the methods of their cultivation. In closing this, the
Department of Agriculture urges the people whose lands
are adapted to wheat raising in Florida to plant the
acreage that they can handle best.



GROWING RYE IN FLORIDA

BY H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk Department of Agriculture.

Soils Best Adapted to Rye:
Rye is one of the most important cover crops grown in
the State, although planted in a small way. Its real value
as a grazing crop, as well as a cover crop, does not seem
to have been appreciated as it deserves. Rye can be grown
on almost all of the well-drained soils of the State,
especially those in the North-Central, Northeastern and
Middle and Western sections of Florida. It is best
adapted to the lighter loam or sandy soils than to the
heavy clay lands, and it yields best and produces the best
quality of grain on well-drained sandy loam soils that
contain a fair supply of lime. It is not limited, however,
to such conditions, and it does about as well on acid soils
or neutral soils, and is possibly the best grain for planting
on sandy lands, which are rough and to a considerable
extent exposed to the cold of winter. It is also better
adapted to sandy and poorer classes of lands than wheat
and will stand a much greater amount of acidity in the
soil than either wheat, oats or barley. It is also
especially good for drained marsh lands and also for cut-
over lands, which are being brought under cultivation for
the first time. Rye should be generally the first crop
grown on this character of lands, and it may be grown
with equal success on other sandy soils where most cereals










fail to succeed, but the growing of rye should not be
attempted on lands that are subject to overflow or where
water may come or stand for any length of time. If too
rich in nitrogen or too much on the order of muck lands,
it is likely to cause the rye when grown to fall down, or
in other words, to lodge. Neither does rye grow so well
on wet lands, but in dryer soils it is much more resistent
to cold than wheat or oats. If the land is made too rich,
however, this condition is reversed.
Rye in Rotation:
Rye, like all other farm crops, does best when planted
in rotation, although it can be grown year after year on
the same land with as great degree of success, if not
more so, than most small grain crops. This is because few
diseases that affect this plant are found in the soil. In
many cases rye is grown in place of wheat, and there are
many people in the world who prefer rye flour and bread
to wheat flour or wheat bread. Rye also takes less from
the soil than most of the small grain, unless it be rice,
though the difference is slight in any case. One of the
best rotations is to follow other crops with rye. For
instance, rye can be sown in the corn field after the corn
has been gathered, and in this case where the soil has been
baked it is best to plow the rye in. The better plan is to
use a disk plow and not a turn plow, and follow this by
a straight tooth harrow slanted carefully and properly.
In this way labor is saved by harrowing in the grain,
which is a quicker and more practical way than by plow-
ing in under the ordinary conditions. In disking, the
grain in the standing corn stalks will be leveled by the
time the grain is ready for harvest; if it is to be harvested,
the corn stalks will have decayed to such an extent, at
least, that they will not be in the way of the harvest
machinery. If it is only intended for grazing, and in
the early Spring and turning under as a green manure
crop, should some of the stalks be left standing under
these conditions, they will not be in the way.
Varieties:
For Florida, in the sections previously mentioned, there
are really only two varieties that can be depended on.
These varieties are the Ebruzzes and the South Georgia.
Under some circumstances the Ebruzzes seems to be the
best, and under other circumstances the South Georgia
appears to give best results, but like most grains these









also are subject to fluctuations in growth, depending on
more favorable location in the one case or in the other.
The South Georgia rye, in soils best adapted to its growth,
grows perhaps a little taller than the Ebruzzes, but both
are excellent ryes and can be depended on. One advan-
tage of the rye crop is that it can be, and is often used
to fill gaps between other crops. It can be sown at most
any time, early or late fall, on lands that are either rough
or well placed, and it will nearly always take care of
itself, and make a good growth, which cannot be said of
any other grain under like conditions. It is also a good
crop to grow on hillsides or on lands that are threatened
with washing, and to this extent it is one of the best crops
that can be planted. It is an excellent preventer of soil
erosion, as it prevents the washing of the soil and the
debris down into the valleys, thus holding the soil in
place. After the rye has grown to practical maturity,
and especially while in the milk stage, it makes an ex-
cellent hay if cut at that time and properly cured. It
can also be made a good pasture for hogs, and after the
hogs have eaten down the grain then the crop can be
turned under for manurial purposes. For these purposes
it is one of the best winter crops that can be grown. Hogs
will harvest the crop and benefit the soil by the dropping
of manure in so doing. Rye is also considered a better
crop for Fall, Winter and Spring pasture than either
wheat or oats. It does not affect cattle to the extent that
oats and wheat does, and it makes a better crop to turn
under for green manurial purposes.
Preparing Seed Bed:
While in most cases rye does better than any of the
other cereals on poorly prepared soil, it is not a good
reason for neglecting the proper preparation of the soil.
As the expenses of preparing the soil is very slight and
will not be noticed to any appreciable extent, this will be
greatly repaid by a much larger yield of grain. The land
should be plowed, as a rule, from five to seven inches
deep, and it should be done from three to four weeks
before planting the seed, if possible. After the land is
plowed, it should be well harrowed and made level and
as smooth as possible, then allow it to stand for a few
days. When rye is to follow a cultivated crop it is best
to plow the land three or four inches deep and harrow it
well so as to eliminate as much of the grass and weeds









as possible. This of course puts the land in better con-
dition. This process can be carried out best by the use
of the disk and a straight-toothed harrow. As before
stated, cowpea land or corn-stubbled land can usually be
planted to rye by simply disking and harrowing. It then
can be covered, if so desired, by a wide shovel plow run-
ning between the rows of the cowpeas or the corn stubble
as the case may be. On land that has been properly
broken other than corn or stubble land rye may be sown
broadcast, but the better way to plant all grain, whether
it be rye, wheat, oats or barley, is by drilling with the
machine. This machine opens the furrow, sows the seed
and covers it with one operation. If sown broadcast it
should be disked in and the land well harrowed, which
will give a smooth seed bed.
Fertilizers:
Although rye will grow well on very poor soil, com-
paratively speaking, large yields of the forage or the
grain cannot be expected on these soils, neither will rye
succeed well on very rich soils. If grown for green pro-
duction the land should only be moderately fertilized,
nor should these fertilizers contain a too large quantity
of nitrogen. This would make the crop top-heavy and
liable to fall when the winds blow. Stable manure is
the best fertilizer for rye, but acid phosphate should gen-
erally be applied with it. It is best to mix forty to fifty
pounds of acid phosphate to each ton of stable manure,
into a form of compost. In this way each of the ingre-
dients is better and more evenly distributed. There
should be a mixture of this kind of two to four tons
applied to the acre. If commercial fertilizer only is avail-
able, it would be well to apply acid phosphate at the rate
of about two to three hundred pounds per acre at the
time the crop is sown, and this can be harrowed in with
the seed. Cotton seed meal may also be used, but with
that there is a liability of getting too much nitrogen, but
this should be applied from two to three weeks before the
grain is sown. If the rye is grown for pasturage or soil
purposes, or for the straw that is in it, then a greater
quantity of nitrogen-bearing compound could be applied
in the fertilizer, but not otherwise, as it would cause the
grain to fall or lodge. To obtain the'best stand it is best
to re-clean the seed before it is sown. Rye often loses its
germinating power, and when this is the case the grain









becomes light and can be separated by putting through a
wind mill. Even then the seed should be tested for germi-
nation. The best thing for sowing of rye depends on the
use to be made of the crop. When intended for green pro-
duction, it is best to sow it about October 1st in Florida
in the Northern part and November in the North-Central
portion of the State. If it is intended as a pasture cover
or green manure crop, or for combination purposes, it is
best to sow it from two to three weeks earlier, because
this gives it a longer season of growth for these several
purposes. The rule for the sowing of rye in Florida
would be to sow it early enough in each section of the
State so that the roots may become well established be-
fore frost or cool weather sets in. After the roots are
established rye will stand almost any degree of cold
known in Florida. When rye is harvested, if the grain
is to be saved, it can be bound in bundles and shocks, the
same as wheat, and can be threshed in the same threshing
machine that is used for threshing wheat. The usual
quantity to sow per acre is about six pecks; or in other
words, one bushel and a half. On the sandy loam soils
best adapted to rye, from three to six pecks will meet the
requirements. When sown for forage or soil purposes,
then more seed can be sown, because of the purpose for
which the rye is to be used; in other words, it makes more
grazing to the acre. As has been indicated in the begin-
ning, rye is one of the best cover and soil crops, as well
as for pasturage, that the Florida farmer can plant. It
is possibly the best crop of the kind for winter, even
better than rape, because of its root system and its ability
to prevent soil erosion, as well as supplying a large quan-
tity for pasturage, at a season when green food is scarce
for live stock.. Every farmer that is interested in the
growing of live stock should make it a point to grow
a certain acreage of rye for winter pasturage. Let the
acreage be in proportion to the number of head of live
stock to be pastured; in this way he will protect his soil
in the winter and benefit it as well.


GROWING ONIONS IN FLORIDA.

This is one of the best crops to plant in Florida for
foreign markets as well as home markets, although it is











also considered by many writers on agricultural subjects
to be one of the most difficult crops to grow. But this is
questionable. Of course it has its drawbacks, the prin-
cipal one of which is having to weed it carefully several
times, but if the plants are first grown in seed beds and
then transplanted after attaining the height of five to six
inches, using good, well-rotted lot manure, as also com-
mercial fertilizers, when you transplant them, weeding
and cultivating will not be needed so often, and in that
way much labor will be saved. A good many growers
complain of the cost and trouble of transplanting them,
but we believe that the bulk of experience shows that it
does not cost any more to transplant the plants than it
does to thin them out and weed them. Another fact in
connection with this is, that with most root plants the
yield is better from being transplanted than by growing
from seed direct. There is one great advantage that the
onion has, and why it is suited to Florida soil in general
being adapted to the successful growth in all sections of
the State, cold weather does not often damage them. The
principal variety of onions grown in Florida is the Ber-
muda. These are raised from seed grown in Teneriffe.
The Bermuda onion is considered the best adapted of any
other variety to Florida, and is one that we advise all
those who wish to grow onions to plant. Bermuda onion
growing in Florida is no new industry. They have been
grown in this State and shipped to northern markets
since in the early eighties, but the demand for them has
never been so great until in quite recent years, and is
greater today by far than ever.
PLANTING.-Seed may be pla-ted at any time from
the middle of August to about the first of January, de-
pending, of course, upon the section of the State in which
the grower lives or farms, and you can either plant the
seed in the field where you wish the plant to grow, or you
can plant them in seed beds. Planted in beds, the amount
of seed required will be less than where planted in the
drill to be thinned out. In the bed it will require from
four to five pounds to the acre. In the drill in the field
it will require from one-half to one pound additional.
SSEED BEDS.-In order to raise the best crops it is
necessary, of course, to have good thrifty plants. That
means that the seed beds shall be properly prepared, and
to obtain this condition it is well to bestow extra care











on its preparation. The land best adapted in making the
seed beds is that which has not been under cultivation
for from two to three years, and on which a crop of
leguminous plants, either cow peas or velvet beans, were
grown the previous year. Construct your beds in a con-
venient and protected location, where they can receive
prompt attention if nececsary. It is also good to scatter
thickly over the beds, some ten days or two weeks before
arranging to plant the seed, a heavy dressing of hard-
wood ashes, and rake them into the soil of the beds. Make
the beds just about wide enough to reach across con-
veniently from either side when sowing the seed or weed-
ing the bed. Make the drills in which you sow the seeds
cross-wise of the bed and about six inches apart. Four
feet is a good width for the beds, because you can reach
at least half way across from either side of the bed. You
will find it also a good plan, when first making up the
beds to apply a moderate quantity of a good commercial
fertilizer in the soil, so that it will thoroughly mix in
the soil during future preparation. When you have sown
the seed, planting them about three-quarters to an inch
in depth, press down the dirt over the seed. One of the
best tools for this purpose is a light roller. We make
this suggestion because, when the seeds begin to germi-
nate the plant is very tender, and should the rays of the
sun be hot or the season dry, the germ or young plant
would be killed by the heat. Another suggestion we have
found to be good as a great protection against either the
sun or the rain, is to stretch cheese cloth lengthwise over
the beds. This will protect them against both sun and
excessive rains. It also conserves moisture, which will
have to be applied in dry seasons. The cheese cloth can
be supported by small stakes to which the cloth can be
tied anywhere from 8 to 12 inches above the seed bed.
When the plants have attained about six inches in height
they are ready for transplanting to the field, or if the
seed was sown in the field they are ready for thinning
and for their first cultivation.
TRANSPLANTING AND CULTIVATION.-The land
where the plants are to be planted should be broken and
thoroughly prepared, from four to six weeks prior to
transplanting. In about three weeks before the trans-
planting to the field the fertilizers for the field should
be applied. If chemical manures are to be used, it should










be sown broadcast, and harrowed in with a light disk
harrow, and then re-harrowed with a slanting toothed
'harrow. If possible, about one ton of good commercial
fertilizers should be applied to the field as suggested
above. The formula should be about as follows: Am-
monia, six per cent; available phosphoric acid, five per
cent; and muriate of potash or sulphate, from eight to
ten per cent-all broadcasted and harrowed in, in the
manner above suggested. In planting the field the rows
should be about from fifteen to twenty inches apart, and
the plants should be set in the row from six to eight
inches apart. Be careful in cultivating the onions, as
their roots are shallow or near the surface, and deep cul-
tivation would destroy the root system and retard the
growth of the plants. During the period of their growth
onions to do their best should have at least two applica-
tions of nitrate of soda. The last one should be applied
about the time the bulbs are getting into good shape. This
will carry them through until they are matured. The
varieties that we suggest as the most profitable to Florida
growers are about as follows: The Crystal Wax, which
is pure white, and the ordinary white, which is to some
extent a straw color; it is called white, but it is not en-
tirely so. The Red Bermuda also is a very hardy and
thrifty and fine onion, and except for the color is the
equal of either of the other. Three other varieties that
succeed remarkably well in Florida are the Creole, the
Yellow Globe, and Prize Taker.
MATURITY.-As soon as the onion tops begin to turn
yellow and dry up, the crop can be considered matured.
This is usually from the middle of April to the middle of
May, depending upon the section of the State in which
they are grown. In the far South they have been placed
on the market as early as the first of April, but generally
the marketing period is within the date first above men-
tioned. Bermuda onions, or all of those considered here-
in, are tender and should be handled carefully in: the prep-
aration for market. They should only be pulled when
the weather is good, if it can be so arranged. When they
are pulled, which is the only proper way to gather them,
they should be left long enough, if the weather permits,
to dry out. If left in piles for a day or so, they will be
in good shape for trimming preparatory to packing and
shipping. In trimming them the tops can be best re-










moved by clipping with a pair of scissors or shears, not
too close to the bulb. Our advice at the present time to
truckers and others to grow onions is based upon the
demand, not only arising in this country, owing to war
necessities, but for shipment abroad as a part of the sup-
plies which are needed by the United States Government.
The indications are that the good prices now existing will
be maintained.


GROWING CASSAVA IN FLORIDA-ITS
USES.

(From Bulletin No. 58, U. S. Dept. of Agrl.)
In Bulletin No. 44 of the Division of Chemistry is found
a description of the sweet cassava, with remarks on its
culture, properties, and uses. This bulletin is out of
print, and it is therefore advisable, in treating of the sub-
ject of the growing and manufacture of starch from cas-
sava, to show the nature of its contents. Cassava grows
in this country in the southern peninsula of Florida, and
well up into the frost belt, and is also found in other ex-
treme portions of the United States. From a careful
study of the climatic conditions under which the plant
flourishes, it is safe to assume that it may also be grown
with success in southern Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana,
Texas, Arizona and southern California.
The name "cassava" should properly apply only to the
purified starch derived from the roots of the plant, but it
has passed into general use to designate the plant itself.
According to the Division of Botany the plant is known
by various names, as, for instance, Janiyha manihot, Mani-
hot utilissima, Jatropha Manihot, Manihot aipi, Manihot
loeflingii, and Manihot palmata. One of its common names
is manioc plant. The fleshy root of this plant yields the
greatest portion of the daily food of the natives of many
portions of tropical America, and one of its forms of
starch is imported largely into this country as tapioca.
It is a woody or shrubby plant, growing from fleshy, tuber-
ous roots, the stems being smooth, with nodules where the
leaves grow.
There is properly only one variety of the plant growing
in Florida, while that variety which grows in the Tropics
contains so much hydrocyanic acid as to render it poison-










ous. The variety grown in the subtropical region of Flor-
ida, however, contains only a small quantity of hydro-
cyanic acid, and is therefore commonly known as sweet
cassava. Some of the growers of the plant in Florida
claim that two varieties grow in the State, one of which
is poisonous on account of the large amount of hydro-
cyanic acid which it contains, and the other nonpoisonous,
as it contains only a little hydrocyanic acid. It is quite
probable, however, that after the poisonous variety has
grown for a long while in a subtropical climate it would
lose largely its poisonous properties. The leaves of the
poisonous variety in the Tropics usually have seven
branches, palmately divided. The leaves of the sweet
variety are usually only five-parted. The botanists clearly
recognize two distinct varieties. For instance, in the
Treasury of Botany (p. 718) the following remarks are
made:
It is quite clear that while the root of one is bitter and
a virulent poison, that of the other is sweet and whole-
some, and is commonly eaten cooked as a vegetable. Both
of them, especially the bitter, are most extensively culti-
vated over the greater part of tropical America and yield
an abundance of wholesome and nutritious food, the
poison of the bitter kind being got rid of during the
process of preparation it undergoes. The poisonous ex-
pressed juice, if allowed to settle, deposits a large quan-
tity of starch known as Brazilian arrowroot or tapioca
meal, from which the tapioca of the shops is prepared by
simply torrefying the moist starch upon hot plates, the
heat causing the starch grains to swell and burst and be-
come agglutinated together. A sauce called cassareep,
used for flavoring soups and other dishes, particularly the
West Indian dish known as pepper pot, is also prepared
from this juice by concentrating and rendering it harm-
less by boiling. Another of the products of cassava is an
intoxicating beverage called piwarrie, but the manner of
preparing it is not calculated to render it tempting to
Europeans. It is made by the women, who chew cassava
cakes and throw the masticated materials into a wooden
bowl, where it is allowed to ferment for some days and
then boiled. It is said to have an agreeable taste.
CASSAVA,AS AN ARTICLE OF FOOD.
The sweet cassava as grown in Florida is a common
article of diet, as well as the source of the domestic
2-Bull.










starch used over large portions of the peninsula. The
roots of the cassava are grated and used directly as human
food, and they are also fed to cattle, pigs, mules and
horses, with very happy effects, being a food which is
greatly relished. Cassava flour is prepared as a domestic
product in many parts of Florida and other localities
where the cassava is grown. In the preparation of cassava
flour the root is peeled, chopped into thin slices or grated,
spread in the sun for two, or three days until sufficiently
dry, and then ground into a fine powder. In this state
it is used for making a kind of bread for puddings and
for other culinary purposes. In the making of puddings
the addition of milk, eggs, sugar, etc., to suit the taste is
recommended. As a substitute for wheat flour in making
bread, the cassava flour is of course inferior in general
nutritive and culinary properties. It contains an ex-
cessive amount of carbohydrates, and is therefore not as
well balanced a ration as bread which is made from wheat.
For instance, in ordinary wheat flour the nitrogenous
bodies vary from 8 to 14 per cent, while in cassava flour
they rarely reach as much as 2 per cent. The chemical
composition of the cassava roots and of the cassava flour,
as determined in this laboratory, is shown in the follow-
ing tables:
COMPOSITION OF CASSAVA ROOT (DRY MATTER).
Serial number ................................. 5547
Per cent.
Ash ........................................ 1.95
Petroleum ether extract (fat).................... 1.27
Ether extract (resins, organic acids, etc.) ......... .74
Alcohol extract (amids, sugars, glucosids, etc.).... 17.43
Crude fiber .................................... 4.03
Starch ........................... .......... 71.85
Protein (nitrogenX6.25) ....................... 3.47
100.73
COMPOSITION OF CASSAVA FLOUR.
Serial numbers ................... 5922 5923
Per cent. Per cent.
Moisture ........................... 10.56 11.86
Ash ............................... 1.86 1.13
Petroleum ether extract (fat)........ 1.50 .86
Ether extract (resins and organic
acids) ........................... .64 .43










Alcohol extract (amids, sugars, gluco-
sids) ............................ 13.69 4.50
Dextrin, gum, etc., by difference...... 2.85 5.63
Crude fiber ........................ 2.96 4.15
Protein (nitrogenX6.25) ............ 1.31 1.31
Starch ............................ 64.63 70.13
Most extraordinary statements have been made in re-
gard to the yield of cassava per acre. Careful measure-
ments, however, show that the magnitude of the crop is
usually very much less than is stated in the reports which
have been made. An average crop, under favorable con-
ditions, may be placed at 5 tons of roots per acre. In
many cases, however, the yield, where no fertilization is
practiced and where the roots are grown upon sandy soil,
is much less than this. In the statement above, showing
the composition of the root, the analysis of a single sample
of roots is given. In order to determine the composition
of a more general sample, large quantities of roots were
obtained from Florida and subjected to analysis, and the
means obtained follow. In this case the roots were peeled
in order to determine the composition of the material as
it would be prepared for human food. In addition to the
analysis of the peeled roots, the fiber remaining after the
removal of the starch was also subjected to analysis, and
likewise the bark which was removed from the root. In
the case of the bark, however, the starch was not deter-
mined separately, but is included in the undermined por-
tion, forming, of course, a considerable portion thereof.
COMPOSITION OF PEELED ROOT, AND OF THE FIBER AND BARK
OF THE ROOT.

Bark of Root Peeled Root
CONSTITUENTS -
Fresh Dry S r Fresh Dry
~per Per --Per 7 Per Per
Cent. Cent. Cent. Cent. Cent.
M moisture ....................... 61.30 ...... ...... 61.301 ......
Fat (ether extract) .............. .17 0.44 0.301 .661 1.70
Protein (nitrogen X 6.25) ........ .64 1.66 1.02 2.291 5.91
Starch diastase Ex. inverted with
HC1)............... ........ 30.98 80.06 64.64 ...... ......
Fiber ............. ........ .881 2.26 10.68 3.83 9.89
Ash ................. .......... .51 1.311 1.42 2.02 5.28
Undetermined ................... 5.521 14.271 21.94 29.90 77.27
Total...................... 100.0 1100.00o 100.00o 100.001l00.oo










With the starch, in the analysis given above, is reckoned
also the soluble carbohydrates, consisting almost exclu-
sively of cane sugar, and of which, in an analysis of
another portion of the dry substance, as high as 17 per
cent was found. In the laboratory it is not difficult to
prepare crystallized cane sugar from the aqueous extract
of the fresh pulp. I have made such a preparation. The
percentage of sugar in the plant, however, is too low to
excite any reasonable hope of the preparation of this
article on a commercial scale. The most promising way
to save it is by conversion into glucose, as indicated in
another place. The undetermined portion consists of the
digestible fiber and carbohydrates of the pentose series.
The pentosans in the fiber were determined by the furol
process, as modified by Krug, and the amount in the air-
dried material was found to be 3.92 per cent, and in the
material after the removal of the starch 5.33 per cent.
The fresh root was found to contain 38.7 per cent of dry
matter, being considerably more than was found in the
fresh sample of the previous analysis. Of this 38.7 per
cent, 30.98 consisted of starch and soluble carbohydrates.
Experiments were made to determine the yield of air-
dry starch which could be obtained from the roots by labor-
atory work. Two sets of experiments were made. In the
first set the roots were pulped on a Pellet rasp, used for
preparing beet pulp for instaneous diffusion. Twelve kilos
of the unpeeled root were rasped in this way and the
starch separated by washing through a sieve of bolting
cloth. The washings and settling were collected and dried
in the ordinary method of starch manufacture. The yield
of pure starch was 3,105 grams, equivalent to 25.9 per cent
of the total weight of the root. The starch was almost
absolutely pure, containing only a trace of nitrogenous
matter. In the second experiment 10 kilos of the root were
ground in a pulping machine, used for preparing green
fodder for analysis. The pulp was much coarser than
that produced by the Pellet rasp. Treated in the same
way, the yield of air-dry starch was 2,360 grams, or 23.6
per cent. One of the striking points in connection with
the work is that the residue after extraction of the starch,
consisting largely of fiber, contained still a large percent-
age of starch, showing that the process employed did not
secure the whole of the starch from the pulp. The diam-











eter of the starch granules is a little over 0.01 rim., being
much smaller than the average of potato starch.
The relations of the mineral components of the cassava
plant to the plant food in the soil, with the exception of
nitrogen, are best studied from the ash. A large quan-
tity of ash, therefore, was prepared from the peeled root
and from the bark, and analysis of these samples were
obtained. The data are given in the following table:
ANALYSIS OF THE ASH OF THE CASSAVA ROOT.

Peeled Root Bark of Root
CONSTITUENTS _
A. B. Mean A. I. Mean

Per Per Per Per Per Per
Cent. Cent. Cent. Cent. Cent. Cent.
Carbon ................... 0.301 0.311 0.31 0.791 0.77 0.78
Silica (soluble in solution I I
of Na.,CO,,) ............ .971 .911 .941 10.531 11.361 10.94
Silica (insoluble in solution I I
of NoCO,,) ............. 7.15 7.151 7.151 52.991 52.161 52.58
Ferric oxid (Fe2,) ....... .661 .661 .66 2.461 2.441 2.45
Calcium oxid (CaO)....... 10.63 10.64 10.641 6.581 6.65 6.62
Magnesium oxid (MgO).... 7.36 7.35 7.351 3.31 3.33 3.32
Sodium oxid (NaO)....... 1.121 1.28 1.201 .841 1.051 .95
Potassium oxid (K2O)..... 41.72 41.54 41.631 14.731 14.681 14.70
Phosphoric acid (PO,).... 15.58 15.591 15.581 2.441 2.461 2.45
Sulphuric acid (SO,) ...... 3.67 3.801 3.73 1.711 1.711 1.71
Carbonic acid (CO,)....... 9.15 9.121 9.14 2.531 2.501 2.51
Chlorin (Cl) ............. 2.76 2.751 2.75 1.411 1.421 1.41
I __ __ I- I I I --i
Total ................. 1101.07 101.101101.081100.321100.53 100.42
Oxygen equivalent to cblorin .62 .621 .62 .311 .311 .31
I I I- I I I --
Difference ............. 1100.451100.48 100.46 100.01 100.22 100.11

From the above numbers it is seen that the ash of the
peeled root is especially rich in potash, almost one-half
of the total weight being composed of this substance. The
potash is combined chiefly with carbonic and phosphoric
acids. In the ash of the bark, as might be expected, silica
is the predominant element, comprising more than half
the total weight.
Assuming a yield of 5 tons of root per acre, the weights
of the important fertilizing materials removed by such a
crop can be readily calculated from the data given.
Since the bark forms approximately 2.2 per cent of











the entire root, the total crop would be made up of the
following amounts of bark and peeled root which would
contain the amounts of mineral matter given below:
RELATIVE AMOUNT OF BARK AND PEELED ROOT IN A CROP OF
CASSAVA, AND AMOUNT OF ASH CONTENT.


SUBSTANCE Pounds Pounds
of Ash

Peeled root ................................. 9,780 49.88
Bark of root.................................. 220 4.44

Total....................... .............. 10,000 54.32

The most important mineral matters contained therein
are shown in the following table:
TABLE SHOWING MINERAL MATTER CONTAINED IN ASH OF
PEELED ROOT AND BARK.

Ash from Ash from Total Ash
Peeled Root Bark from 5 tons
MATERIAL (49.88 (4.44 (54.32
pounds) pounds) pounds)

SPounds Pounds Pounis
Lime (CaO) ..................... 5.31 0.29 5.60
Magnesia (MgO) .................. 3.67 .15 3.82
Pothsh (K O) .................... 20.77 .65 21.42
Phosphoric acid (PO,) ............. 7.77 .11 7.88

Residue....................... 12.56 3.24 15.60

The less valuable mineral plant foods-that is, those
that are of so little note as to require no conservation
or addition-amount to 15.60 pounds per acre, and the
more valuable to 32.72 pounds per acre.

METHODS OF CULTURE.
Cassava was grown for one year at the Department
experiment station at Runnymede (post office, Narcoos-
see), Osceola county, Fla. The crop was grown as food
for stock. The fierd in which the crop was grown is high-
pine sand, with almost no other ingredient. The soil on
which it was grown was apparently pure sand.
Attempts were also made to grow the cassava in a piece
of very wet muck land at the station in which sugar cana










would not grow to any advantage. An immense develop-
ment of tops was secured, some of the plants reaching a
height of 10 feet and resembling young trees. The root
development was fair, but not commensurately increased
with the top growth. Some of the stems were easily 2
inches in diameter. On well-drained muck land I think
the crop would be-large and profitable.
In sand land the planting should be preceded by the
removal of stumps, sprouts, etc., and the soil given a thor-
ough plowing. It is advisable to spread about 300 pounds
of fine raw Florida phosphate floats or about 150 pounds
of superphosphate containing 12 per cent. available acid
to the acre. This may be applied as to top-dressing and
thoroughly worked into the soil by a deep running culti-
vator. The rows should be marked out in furrows 3 to 4
inches deep and from 31/2 to 4 feet apart. To get a good
stand about double the number of cuttings required to
produce 2,500 hills per acre should be planted. The excess
of plants can be removed with a hoe as soon as vigorous
growth is assured, leaving one hill every 3 or 4 feet.
About 150 pounds of kainit per acre should be dropped in
the hills before planting, together with an equal amount
of cotton seed meal, or half that amount of Chile salt-
peter (nitrate of soda).
The cultivation should be such as to keep the field free
of all weeds and the surface of the soil well stirred. While
the plants are young, deep cultivation is not objection-
able, but as soon as the root system begins to develop,
superficial culture must be practiced not to exceed 2
inches in depth. Some cultivators draw the soil to the
plant during cultivation, so as to form a ridge at the time
of laying by. Where nitrate of soda has been used an ad-
ditional 50 or 75 pounds per acre should be sown broad-
cast just before the final cultivation. The above method
is the one which should be followed for the poorest kind
of sand soils, where a maximum crop is desired. For
muck soils, the cotton seed meal and nitrate of soda
should be omitted and about 500 pounds of Florida phos-
phate floats used per acre. If sand soils are covered with
a good layer of muck before the plowing the nitrogenous
fertilizers may also be omitted or reduced in quantity.
In ordinary seasons with the treatment outlined above,
a crop of from 4 to 7 tons per acre will be secured. On
sand soils containing a little organic matter approaching










the hammock variety, a fair yield of from 2 to 4 tons per
acre will be secured by good cultivation without
fertilizing.
For seed, the stems of the unfrosted plants are cut into
pieces about 6 inches in length, care being taken that each
piece has two or more eyes. In planting, these pieces
may be laid directly down in the furrows and covered,
but the general practice is to place them obliquely in the
furrows so that one end may not be covered. In case of a
threatening frost before a field is ready for planting, the
unfrosted tops may be cut, thrown into heaps, and pro-
tected with leaves or trash from the action of the frost.
They should, however, be embedded in moderately moist
earth if they are to be kept for any length of time before
planting. In case of frost before the seed is saved, the
stumps, i. e., the points of union of the top with the root,
will usually be found uninjured, and these may be cut
away and planted instead of the cuttings just described.
The larger parts of the stems immediately above the
ground make the best seed.
The roots should be left in the ground until they are
needed for use, whether for food, for starch, or for glu-
cose. The crop can be harvested at any time during the
year, but the best season is from October to May. The
roots should not be allowed to grow more than two sea-
sons, and for most purposes it is beliveded that an annual
harvest will prove the more profitable.
As is the case with all new and promising plants, the
most extravagant statements have been made in regard
to the amount of cassava which can be produced per acre.
In many of the returns received from our correspondents
in Florida statements were made in regard to the yield
which were entirely beyond the bounds of reason. These
extravagant statements, of course, did not proceed from
any desire on the part of the correspondents to misstate
the facts, but on account of their misapprehension of
them. Statements of yield are made, as a rule, not upon
accurately measured and weighed products, but upon a
glance over a field or the taking of a few hills. It is easy,
therefore, for the most honest and upright correspondent
to fall into gross error in regard to the amount which
will be furnished by an acre. In my own observation of
small areas, and from the accredited statements of those
authorities which seem to merit the highest consideration,










I am convinced that on the ordinary pine land of Florida,
with proper preparation and cultivation and appropriate
fertilization, a yield of from 4 to 7 or perhaps 8 tons per
acre may be reasonably expected. It is difficult to see,
however, how it is possible for such yields as have been
reported-viz., 40, 50, and even 60 tons per acre-to be
gathered. In exceptional conditions, as is the case with
all crops, exceptional yields may be obtained, but these
must not be considered in the practical study of the prob-
lem of profitable production.
The profit which the farmer may make from growing
this crop and the manufacturer from using it should, in
my opinion, be based upon a yield of 4 or 5 tons per acre.
If it be desired to make starch from the plant, we may
suppose as a minimum rate of yield that 20 per cent. of
the weight of the fresh root may be obtained as mer-
chantable starch of a high grade. On a yield of 4 tons per
acre this would amount to eight-tenths of a ton, or 1,600
pounds. Compare this with the weight of starch obtained
from Indian corn producing 40 bushels per acre. The
yield of merchantable starch of a high grade may be
placed at 35 pounds per bushel, which for 40 bushels
would amount to 1,400 pounds. It is thus seen that the
rate of yield per acre in the matter of starch from cassava
would be fully equal if not superior to that from Indian
corn.
If the matter of the manufacture of glucose be consid-
ered, the estimate is even more favorable. Our experi-
ments have shown that after the removal of the bark the
whole root may be rasped and treated directly for the
manufacture of glucose, either by inversion with diastase
or by treating with dilute sulphuric acid. In the latter
case not only were the starch and sugar present in the
root obtained as glucose, but also a considerable quantity
of the digestible fiber. It is not an extravagant state-
ment, therefore, to suppose that fully 30 per cent. of the
weight of the fresh root could be obtained as commercial
glucose. This would give a yield per acre of 1.2 tons, or
2,400 pounds. These statements are made, of course, sub-
ject to, the practical determination of the manufacturer
of glucose and starch from this plant. Attempts have al-
ready been made in the manufacture of starch, but of
course the full development of this industry must await










the investment of capital and the necessary adjustment
of new machinery to new processes.
According to the best information, the general course
of procedure in the manufacture of starch from cassava
is the same as with potatoes. All the machinery used in
the potato-starch factories can be employed just as well
in the cassava factories, but the character of the rasps
and bolting cloths must be adapted to the changed condi-
tions due to the differences in the raw materials em-
ployed. There are many makers of potato-starch appar-
atus in the United States, and some manufacturers prefer
one form of apparatus and some another. The same is
true in regard to the working process; one person prefers
the tabling of the starch directly from the grater after
sifting, while another prefers the settling tanks, and still
others a combination of both.
It is evident that the methods of work must be adapted
to the conditions which obtain and the character of the
,materials to be employed. In some seasons both the cas-
sava and potatoes yield better results than in others, and
and only large experience can determine in the multitude
of details the best method to be pursued.
During the season of 1898-99 a yield of 20 per cent. of
commercial starch on the weight of cassava root em-
ployed was obtained, and therefore with improved machin-
ery and improved cultivation it will not be difficult to
bring this yield up to 25 per cent.
It is evident from a careful study of the problem in so
far as it has been worked out in practical experience, and
theoretically considered, that very little change in machin-
ery and methods will be found necessary in adapting a
starch factory to the preparation of starch from cassava.
Since cassava will yield nearly double the percentage of
starch obtained from an equal weight of potatoes, it is
evident that in this plant the practical man will find a
promising source of profit in those sections of our country
where the soil and climate are situated to the growth of
cassava.
Large areas in Florida are well situated to cassava
growing which so far have not been found profitable for
other agricultural purposes.










LAW FIXING STANDARD FOR TOMATO
CRATES AND BASKETS

CHAPTER 7316-(No. 58.)

AN ACT to Fix and Establish a Legal or Standard Crate
and a Legal or Standard Basket for Tomatoes.

Be It Enacted by the Legislatwre of the State of Florida:

Section 1. That hereafter the legal and standard crate
for tomatoes shall measure ten (10) inches in depth,
eleven (11) inches in width, and twenty-four (24) inches
in length, on the outside.
Sec. 2. That hereafter the legal and standard basket
for use in tomato crates shall measure nine and one-half
(91/) inches long in the bottom, five (5) inches wide in
the bottom and four and one-half (42) inches deep, all
of the last aforementioned measurements being inside
measurements. The length of the inside of the top hoop
of each basket shall be thirty-two and one-half (32)
inches.
Sec. 3. No crate or basket intended for the sale or
shipment or delivery for sale or shipment of tomatoes
except of the standard measure herein specified, shall be
manufactured or sold.
Sec. 4. Every crate or basket used for the sale or de-
livery of tomatoes shall be of the Florida standard meas-
ure as above provided. No person shall use any crate or
basket for such sale, shipment or delivery, except the
same be of such standard measure. This shall not apply
to local persons, dealers in or growers of tomatoes, or
shipments within the State. Any person violating any
of the provisions of this Act shall be deemed guilty of a
misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be pun-
ished by a fine not exceeding One Hundred Dollars
($100.00) or by imprisonment in the county jail not
exceeding thirty (30) days, or by both such fine and im-
prisonment.
Sec. 5. All laws and parts of laws in conflict with the
provisions of this Act be and the same are hereby re-
pealed.
Sec. 6. This Act is to take effect October 1, 1917.
Approved June 5, 1917.


















PART II.

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops for
Quarter Ending September 30, 1917.











DIVISIONS OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES.

Following are the subdivisions of the State, and the
counties contained in each:


Western Division.
Bay,
Calhoun,
Escambia,
Holmes,
Jackson,
Okaloosa,
Santa Rosa,
Walton,
Washington-9.


Northeastern Division.
Alachua,
Baker,
Bradford,
Clay,
Columbia,
Duval,
Nassau,
Putnam,
St. Johns,
Suwannee-lO.


Broward,
Dade,
DeSoto,
Lee,
Manatee,


Northern Division.
Franklin,
Gadsden,
Hamilton,
Jefferson,
Lafayette,
Leon,
Liberty,
Madison,
Taylor,
Wakulla-10.

Central Division.
Brevard,
Citrus,
Flagler,
Hernando,
Hillsborough,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,
Orange,
Osceola,
Pasco,
Pinellas,
Polk,
Seminole,
Sumter,
Volusia-16.


Southern Division.
Monroe,
Okeechobee,
Palm Beach,
St. Lucie-9.











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
W. A. McRAE, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk.


CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.
BY DIVISIONS.
WESTERN DivisioN.-The reports from our correspond-
ents in this division show a very gratifying increase over
the previous year (which includes this period) of almost
all of the general farm crops in this division. The excep-
tion is that of cotton, although cotton is in better shape
than it was at this time last year. The average improve-
ment in this division as referred to cotton is not very
great, but it is increasing just the same. The boll weevil,
of course, is at the bottom of the shortness of the cotton
crop. At this time, during the year 1916, the cotton crop
indicated a little over one-third of a crop. At this time
the indications are that the yield will be about one-half
of a crop. All other crops grown in this section will grow
normal crops, and possibly an increase over any former
period. The corn crop indicates the largest yield ever
known in this section of the State and this can also be
said of sweet potato and peanut crops. In fact, there is
a very large increase in all of the leguminous crops, as
well as the grain crop, including the yield in leguminous
hays. Pasturage has been good as a general thing, and
the condition of live stock, as well as its health, has also
been excellent on the average. Few diseases have been
reported to this date.
NORTHERN DIVISION.-In this division conditions vary
little from the one just discussed. The chief difference
is in the condition of the cotton crop, which is smaller
than in the above mentioned district. The indications
are that the crop in this division will be little over forty
per cent. of the usual crop, and it may fall somewhat be-
low that. The conditions that produce this change are
the same that control the success or failure of the cotton
crop in all sections of the State, that is the boll weevil.
The crop generally has been good, but the boll weevil
knows no difference, and is not affected by climatic con-
ditions to any appreciable extent. In this district the up-










land cotton indicates something over forty per cent of a
yield. The Sea Island cotton indicates a yield of about
only twenty-seven per cent. As with the foregoing dis-
trict the majority of the field crops show a great increase
in all of the counties contained in this division. The
corn, sugar cane, field peas, rice, sweet potatoes, and
peanuts are exceptionally fine. Nothing equal to these
indicated yields have ever been attained in this
State before. The live stock in this division is in as
good condition as in the Western division, and in this
connection we will mention that there is great improve-
ment in the growing and feeding of live stock and their
care. Other than cotton, the entire crops of this division
indicate excellent yields. The real question, and this
applies not only to this division, but others, is what to do
with, and how to house the grain crops when they are
ready for harvesting.
NORTHEASTERN DIVISION.-In this division the improve-
ment in the crops are not quite so marked, but there is
also less, though not so apparent, in the indicated yield of
the cotton crop. This is because the boll weevil has not
yet made the advances in this district that he has in the
two former ones. Both the upland cotton and the Sea
Island cotton are in much better condition and indicate
better yields than in either the Northern and Western
divisions of the State. As for the other farm crops, they
are, as a rule, about the general average and indicate in-
creased yields, both in the grain crops and in the grass
and hay crops. One reason that the field crops in the sec-
tions of the State going Eastward and Southward are
smaller in extent than in the Northern and Western sec-
tions of the State, is because not so much importance is
given to the field crops, and part of the farming industry
is divided between this and the vegetable and fruit grow-
ing industries. This same condition occurs as we go
farther East and South, but there is a great improvement
in many of the field and grain crops of this district, all
of which attributes to the extra volume of farm products.
In this district live stock has maintained its own and is
in first-rate average condition. In this district the con-
dition of citrus fruit crop makes itself apparent, and it is
to be regretted that it shows a condition so different from
what it was desired. Indications are, however, that with-










in two or three years the effects of the February cold will
simply be a memory and will be forgotten.
CENTRAL DIvIsIoN.-The crops in this division indicate
a production of a good normal yield. Some of the crops
are better than in 1916, and most of them are equally
as good. There is a good deal of cotton being grown in
this district, where but little has been grown before. One
notable county is Hernando, which is growing its first
crop of cotton since 1896-7, and which at that time was
the first grown of any consequence since the Civil War.
This year quite an acreage of cotton has been grown and
the yield has been unusually good. In fact, the yield has
been so satisfactory as to stimulate the industry in Her-
nando County, and will undoubtedly cause a much larger
acreage the coming year. Most of this cotton is Sea
Island, but a fairly good acreage of upland cotton was
also planted, and both varieties have succeeded well. No
boll weevils have been seen, and with proper precautions
it would seem that the boll weevil could be kept out of
that section for several years at least. In this district
there are four counties that grow long staple, or Sea
Island cotton, and three that are growing short cotton,
all successful. The same condition as to live stock exists
in this section as in the foregoing one. The conditions of
the fruit trees and the prospect of the fruit crop is shown
in the tables, about as correct as it is possible to get esti-
mates. The information in this respect particularly has
been obtained by almost a grove to grove canvass, and
we have no reason to doubt its correctness. The trees
show a wonderful improvement, considering what they
went through with in February, and the indications for
a crop are better or at least equal to any reasonable
expectations.
SOUTHERN DIVISION.-In this division the climatic con-
ditions have not been as favorable as they should be to
produce the best effect on the vegetables as well as the
fruit trees. There has been a lack of precipitation that
is shown to a considerable extent in its effect on the
growth of trees and the setting of fruit. From this dis-
trict the vast majority of the fruit production in the
State will have to come, as it was least affected by the
cold of last winter. This district produces most of the
vegetables as well as the fruit crop of the State grown
for commerce. The result of the vegetable production
3-Bull.










was favorable and the condition of those crops growing
at present shows excellent indications. The fruit in this
district is, of course, in much better condition, and the
prospective yield also, than those to the North and West
of this division. In this division our correspondents also
paid particular attention to the fruit crop in their efforts
to obtain as near as possible the correct situation regard-
ing the fruit trees and the yield of fruit. In numerous
instances the correspondents made personal trips through
almost all of the several counties from which they report.
The tables show the result of this information. While
it is apparent that for the present year the crop of fruit
will be limited, the progress made in reviving the orchards
show that it will not be long before the condition of the
fruit groves will be such as to produce practically their
normal crops. Looking at the report from all sections
of the State carefully, it must be admitted that Florida's
agricultural and horticultural interests are in an un-
usually good condition and offer unusual prospects for
abundant yields. There can be no danger of want, when
nature is so lavish in her gifts and the soil so generous
in its yields. The effect will be simply to show the possi-
bilities of Florida soils to produce in all agricultural and
horticultural lines and stimulate to greater exertion the
work of the future. It is also proof that if necessity com-
pels, Florida could live within her own boundaries easily.










35

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD OF CROPS
FOR QUARTER ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1917, AS COMPARED
WITH SAME PERIOD FOR 1916.


COUNTY Upland Cotton Sea Island Cotton

Western Division Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
__Yield I Yield
B ay .................. .... . ......... .
Calhoun ....... .... ... ... ... . 100 100
Escambia ............. 65 50 .............
Holmes ............... 60 50 ...... ... .........
Okaloosa .............. 60 50 ....... .....
Santa Rosa ........... 65 55 .......... .......
W alton ............... 75 75 . .. . ...
Washington ............ .. 75 50 .. ....
Div. Av. per cent......I 67 [ 55 100 I 100
Northern Division
Franklin .............. ......... ...
Gadsden .............. 20 20 ....................
Jefferson .............. 25 30 30 25
Leon ................. 80 75 .. .. .
Liberty ............... 75 50 .....
Madison .............. 40 40 25 25
Taylor ................ .. ... .......... 35 30
W akulla .............. 100 50 ...... .....
Div. Av. per cent ...... 57 I 44 I 30 I 27
Northeastern Division
Alachua .............. 80 75 60 60
Baker ................ .......... .......... 50 50
Bradford .............. .......... .......... 50 50
Clay ................. .................... 100 100
Duval ................ .......... .......... 80 50
Nassau ................ 75 75 75 75
St. Johns .................................................
Suwannee ............. .......... .......... 75 60
Div. Av. per cent......I 78 I 75 1 70 I 65
Central Division
B revard ............... .......... .......... .........
Citrus ................ .......... ....... .. .......... ....
Hernando .............. 100 100 100 100
Hillsborough .......... .......... .......... .......... .. .. ......
Lake ................... .......... .......... 80 60
Levy ................. 70 70 50 50
Orange ................ ........- ....................... .....
O sceola ............... .......... .... ..... .
Pasco .... ............ .......... 80 75
Seminole .............. 100 100 ....
Volusia .. .......... .. ... ..... .. ... ..........
Div. Av. per cent...... 90 90 78 71
Southern Division
Dade .......... ............. ....... :... .......... ............
D eSoto ............... .......... .......... .......... .....
Lee .Beach.......................................................
Palm Beach ......... ........................ ....... -
St. Lucle .......... ............ .. ......................
Div. Av. per cent . ........ ..................
State Av. per cent ..... 76 66 I 70 66










36

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Corn Sugar Cane

Western Division Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
Yield Yield
Bay.. ..............- 100 100 100 100
Calhoun ............. 100 100 100 100
Escambia ............. 85 75 75 75
Holmes ............... 100 125 100 115
Okaloosa .............. 100 125 100 115
Santa Rosa ............ 100 130 100 110
Walton ............... 100 125 100 110
Washington ........... 90 125 80 85
Div. Av. per cent ...... 97 112 | 94 101
Northern Division
Franklin .............. 100 125 100 125
Gadsden .............. 100 120 100 115
Jefferson .............. 60 75 80 90
Leon ................. 100 135 100 115
Liberty 100 120 100 115
Liberty ............... 100 120 100 115
Madison .............. 100 110 100 110
Taylor ................ 100 115 100 110
Wakulla .............. 100 125 100 I 110
Div. Av. per cent...... 95 116 98 i111
Northeastern Division
Alachua .............. 90 75 100 100
Baker ............... 100 90 100 100
Bradford .............. 90 100 75 90
Clay ............... 90 95 100 I 100
Duval ................ 75 85 75 75
Nassau ............... 85 100 80 90 ,
St. Johns ............. 100 110 80 100
Suwannee ............. 100 125 100 110
Dlv. Av. per cent...... 91 96 89 | 96
Central Division
Brevard ................ 100 100 90 90-
Citrus ................ 100 110 100 100
Hernando ............. 60 125 100 100
Hllsborough ........... 100 100 80 100
Lake ................. 80 70 I 80 75
Levy ...... ... 80 85 80 80
Orange ............... 100 75 .
Osceola ............... 80 80 75 90
Pasco ........... ...... 80 95 90 I 90
Seminole. .. :... 100 125 .
Volusia ............ 80 80 100 100
Div. Av. per cent....... 87 95 | 88 2
Southern Division
I .n '" iJ 7 TC


uaae ......... .......
DeSoto ...............
Lee .........
Palm Beach..........
St. Luce .............
Div. Av. per cent......
State Av. epr cent......


100 100
100 100
85 125
90 150
S95 115


91 I 106 I 93 I 103


,









37

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Field Peas

Western Division Condition IProspectivel
I I Yield I


Rice

Condition I Prospective
I Yield


Bay ................. -100 100 90 100
Calhoun ............. 75 90 50 I 100
Escambia .............. 50 50 80 7
Holmes ... .100 110 100 115
Okaloosa ............. 100 115 100 110
Santa Rosa ........... 100 115 100 105
Walton ............... 100 50 100 100
Washington ........... 100 105 100 I 110
Div. Av. per cent....... 91 92 I 90 I 102
Northern Division


Franklin .......... 100 12o ........ ..........
Gadsden ......... .... 100 110 100 150
Jefferson ..........100 100 ............
Leon .................. 100 120 100 110
Liberty ............ 100 110 100 100
Madison .......... . 90 100 ... . ..
Taylor ............ .... 100 100 .......
Wakulla ............... 100 105 100 10 0
Div. Av. per cent....... I 96 109 100 | 115
Northeastern Division
Alachua .. ......... ...1. 100 .... .. .....
Baker .............. 50 60 100 100
Bradford .............. 80 75 .. .. ....
Clay ................. 100 100 .......... .......
Duval............... 75 75 75 75
Nassau....... 95 100 100 I 110
St. Johns ........... 100 110 .......... ..
Suwannee ............. 100 100 .........I..
Div. Av. per cent....... 88 90 I 92 I 95
Central Division
Brevard ........ ... .. ...... ..........
Citrus ......... 100 80 .......... ..
ernando ............. 75 100 100 125
Hillsborough ........ 90 100 .......
Lake ............ 85 80 ....... ..
Levy .......... 90 90 40 50
Orange ............. 80 85 .......... ....
Osceola .............. 100 100 80 90
Pasco: ... .... 95 95 95 I 9
Sem inole .. .... .......... .......... .......... I ..........
Volusia ............... 100 100 I........ I ..........
Div. Av. per cent....... 91 I 2 79 90
Southern Division
l .. .. .. .0


Dade ................. ..100. .
DeSoto ................ 100 100 100 100
Lee .. ....... 100 100 100 100
Palm Beach ........... 80 95 .......
St. Lucie .............. 80 100 ......... ..
Div. Av. per cent......| 88 I 99 ~ 100 I 100
State Av. per cent...... 91 I 96 I 92 | 100










38

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


nray ................... ;V
Calhoun ............... 100
Escambia ............. 100
Holmes ............... 100
Okaloosa .............. 100
Santa Rosa ............ 100
Walton ............... 100
Washington ........... 90
Div. Av. per cent....... 98


100 ..........
150 80
115 ....
125 ....
130
125 ....
110
118 80


..........
"'80"
..... ..
. ..... ...
...... ....
.. ..


Northern Division
Franklin ............. 100 125 .... .........
Gadsden ............... 100 125 .......... ........
Jefferson .............. 75 100 .. ... ....
Leon ................. 100 135
Liberty ............... 100 125 ..
Madison .............. . 100 110
Taylor ................ 100 115
Wakulla ............... 100 125
Div. Av. per cent....... 97 120 ) .. .......
Northeastern Division
Alachua ............. I 110 .......... .....
Baker ................. 100 110 ........
Bradford .............. 75 85 ......... ......
Clay ................ . 100 110 ..
Duval ................. 100 175 75
Nassau ............... 100 125
St. Johns .............. 100 115
Suwannee ............. 100 125 .. ... ....
Div. Av. per cent....... 97 I 119 75 80
Central Division
Brevard ............... 95 110 .......... .
Citrus ............... 100 90
Hernando ............. 100 125 ........ .I .. ....
Hillsborough ........... 100 105
Lake ................. 80 75 80 80
Levy ................ 95 110 95 95
Orange ............... 100 110 ... .
Osceola ............... 90 110.
Pasco ................. 100 90 90 90
Seminole .............. 100 110 .. ....
Volusia .............. 85 90. . .
Div. Av. per cent....... 95 102 I 88 88
Southern Division
Dadc .................. 100 110......
DeSoto ............... 100 125
Lee ................... 100 115
Palm Beach ............. 100 150
St. Lucie .............. 90 800
Div. Av. per cent ...... 98 160 ...... ..
State Av. per cent...... 97 I 120 I 81 | 83










39

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Peanuts Broom Corn

Western Divison Condition Prospective[ Condition Prospective
Yield ] I Yield
Bay .................. 100 .10.0 .......... .........
Calhoun .............. 100 100 .
Escambia ............. 100 125 ........
Holmes ............... 100 125 ........
Okaloosa .............. 100 120 .......... ........
Santa Rosa ............ 100 125
Walton ............. 100 130 ...........
Washington ........... 100 110 ......... .........
Divv. per cent ..... 100- 117 .......... ........
Northern Division
Franklin .............. 100 1........
Gadsden ............... 100 210 ......... .........
Jefferson .............. 100 110 ..........
Leon ................. 100 130 .......... ...... .
Liberty ............... 100 120 ......... .......
M adison ............... 100 125 .......... .......
Taylor ..100 120 . .:. ::.
Wakulla .............. 100 j 120 ..... ..
Div. Av. per cent ....... 100 129 j ........... ....
Northeastern Division
Alachua ............... 100 115 .......... .....
Baker ................. 100 110 ........ ........
Bradford ............. 80 90 .......... ......
Clay .................. 100 110 :......... ...:
Duval ................ 75 75 ..........I .
Nassau ............... 100 125 100 [ 100
St. Johns ............. 100 100 .......... |... .....
Suwannee ............. 100 130 ..................
Div. Av. per cent.......! 94 107 100 100
Central Division


Brevard ...............
Citrus ................
Hernando ............
Hillsborough ...........
Lake ...... .........
Levy ..................
Orange ................
Osceola ...............
Pasco .................
Seminole .. .............
Volusia ...............
Div. Av. per cent.......


..........00
100
100
90
85

95
100
100
96


... E ... ..... .. ..

110
100 . .. . . .
110 . .. . . .
1 0 ..........
100. .. ..........
.......... ..........I
95 ..........
100
110
89 ......... .


Southern Division
Dade ... ...................
DeSoto ................ 100 115 .......... ..........
Lee ................... . ... ... ....... ... .... .
Palm Beach ............ 100 125 ..... ..
St. Luce .............. 90 200 .......... ...
Div. Av. per cent......I 96 135 I .......... ..........
State Av. per cent...... 97 115 100 I 100









40

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.
I I
COUNTY Native Hay Grasses I Rhodes Grass for Hay

Western Division Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
Yield Yield
Bay .................. 10 ..........
Calhoun ............... 90 100
Escambia .............. 100 100
Holmes ...... ........ .. ... .......
Okaloosa ............. 1.. 100 100 : ..
Santa Rosa ............ 100 100 .. ..
Walton ................ 100 100 100 100
Washington ............ 100 100 _..... .......
Div. Av. per cent....... 99 100 100 100
Northern Division
Franklin .............. 100 100 100 100
Gadsden ............... 65 75 .... .... I .... .
Jefferson .............. ................... .......
Leon ................. 100 100
Liberty ............... 100 100 .......... ..........
Madison ............... 100 100 ......... ...
Taylor ......... 100 100 ........... ....
Wakulla ............. 100 100 ...... .... ... .
Dlv. Av. per cent....... 95 95 I 100 100
Northeastern Division
Alachua ............... 100 100 .......... . .
Baker ................. 100 125 .................
Bradford .............. 90 90 ......... .I..........
Clay .................. 100 100 .. .... .....
Duval ................. 100 100 ..... .....I..
Nassau ................ 100 100 100 100
St. Johns .............. 100 100 ......
Suwannee .......... 1000 10 ....... ..........
Div. Av. per cent....... 99 102 | 100 100
Central Division
Brevard ................ 0 100 ...... .... ..
Citrus ................ 85 90 100 100
Hernando ............. 100 50 ........ ......
Hillsorough ........... 100 100 ........... ..
Lake .................. 90 90 .......... ..
Levy .................. 90 95 .......... .. .. ....
Orange ................ 100 100 .......... .........
Osceola ............... 100 100 .......... .... .....
Pasco ................. 100 100 .......... ..........
Seminole .............. 100 100 ..........
Volusia ... ........ 100 110 .......... ..........
Div. Av. per cent ....... 96 i 94 100 I 100
Southern Division
Dade .................. 100 I 100 ..........
DeSoto ............... 1 00 100 ........ ...........
Lee ................... 100 100 ..........
Palm Beach ........... 100 100 ... .
St. Lucie .............. 100 100 .......... .........
Div. Av. per cent ...... 100 100 .......... ..........
State Av. per cent...... 96 I 98 100 100











41


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Alfalfa for Hay I Natal Grass for Hay

Western Division Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
Yield Yield
Bay .............. .......... ..................... ..........
Calhoun ............... .. ....... .......... ... ... ...
Escambia ............. .......... ........... 100 100
H olmes ............... ................. .......... ..........
Okaloosa ..................... ... .......... .. ....... ...........
Santa Rosa ............ .......... .......... ........ ..........
W alton .............. .......... .......... ..............
Washington ............. .. ...................... ... ......
Div. Av. per cent....... .......... ......... 100 I 100
Northern Division


Franklin .............. ....... .... .. .1O 1 uu
Gadsden .............. 100 100 .........
Jefferson ........................... .......... ..... ..... .
Leon ........................... ......... .......... .......
Liberty ..................... .......... ..... .. ..........
Madison ............. ........100 100
Taylor ................ .................... 100 100
W akulla ....... .......... ..........
Div. Av. per cent....... I 100 100 I 100 I 100
Northeastern Division
Alachua ................................. .... ....... | .
Baker .......................... .......... 100 125
Bradford ............................................ ..........
Clay .................. .......... .......... I. ......... .. ...
Duval ................ .......... ..... ............. .........
Nassau ................................ ..........
St. Johns ............. .......... ......... ....... ... .......
Suw annee ............ .......... ...... .. ....... .. .......
Div. Av. per cent....... ............ .... I 100 I 125
Central Division


Brevara ...............
Citrus ................
Hernando .............
Hillsborough ..........
Lake .................
Levy .................
Orange ...............
Osceola ..............
Pasco ...... ..........
Seminole ..............
Volusia ...............
Div. Av. per cent.......


80 90
100 110

85" 85

S...i6" j 6....
100 100
100 100
90 90
.........I .......
100 100
95 1 96


Southern Division
Dade ............. ........ ..... .. ........ .
De~oto .................................... 100 120
Lee ................... .......... .. . .
Palm Beach ........... .......... ... ...... .....
St. Lucie .............. ........... .... .......
Div. Av. per cent...... .. ...... ...... 100 I 120
State Av. per cent....... 100 I 100 99 I 108


I


i w w


. . . . . . 1


.. . ...
..........
..........
..........
. .... ... .
. .. ... .. .

..........
..........
..........
..........









42

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Velvet Beans Japanese Cane for
__Forage
Western Division Condition Prospectivel Condition Prospective
Yield Yield
Bay .................. 85 85 90 80
Calhoun ............... 100 100 75 100
Escambid .............. 75 75 100 50
Holmes ............... 100 110 .... i .... ....
Okaloosa .............. 100 115 100 100
Santa Rosa ........... 100 115 100 100
Walton ............... 100 110 100 100
Washington ........... 90 100 75 I 70
Div. Av. per cent....... 94 1 101 91 86
Northern Division
Franklin .............. 100 100 .... . . ....
Gadsden .............. 100 125 100 100
Jefferson .............. 75 90 . .
Leon ................. 100 115 10 100
Liberty ............... 100 100
Madison ............... 90 90
Taylor ................ 100 100 .......
Wakulla .............. 100 100
Div. Av. per cent....... 95 103- | 100 | 100
Northeastern Division
Alachua ............... 80 100 100 155
Baker ................. 80 100 ........ ..
Bradford .............. 100 110 ........j...
Clay .................... 100 100 ......
Duval ................ 90 100 75 75
Nassau ............... 100 120 100 110
St. Johns ............. 100 115 .......... .........
Suwannee ............. 100 115 ..... ....
Div. Av. per cent....... 94 I 108 92 | 95
Central Division
Brevard ............... 75-- 100 50 I 75
Citrus ............... 100 100 100 110
Hernando ............. 90 75 .. ..... ..
Hillsborough ........... 100 100
Lake ................. 85 85 70 75
Levy ................. 80 85 60 75
Orange ................ 100 100 .
Osceola ................ 80 100 80 100
Pasco ................. 90 95 90 90
Seminole .............. 100 100 ................
Volusia ............... 90 90
Div. Av. per cent....... 90 94 75 88
Southern Division
lul.........I.....


Dade .................
DeSoto ................
Lee ...................
Palm Beach ...........
St. Lucie .............


100u ............. ..
110
100 ... .......
95 80 90


Div. Av. per cent....... 99 99 80 | 90
State Av. per cent....... 94 | 100 | 88 I 92









43

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Pastures (All Kinds) Bananas

Western Division Condition IProspective Condition Prospective
Yield I Yield
ay ................ 100 .......... ..... .......
Calhoun .................. .100 .................... .........
Escambia .............. 100 ........... ....
Holmes ................. 100 .... .::::::100 :: : ..
Okaloosa .............. . 100
Santa Rosa ........... 100 .......... .......... I..........
Walton ............... 100 .......... .... ....... ..
W ashington ........... 90 .......... ........ ..........
Dir. Av. per cent.......i 99 .......... .......... i ......
Northern Division
Franklin .............. 90 0.......... 90 0
Gadsden .............. 100 .......... ...... I..........
Jefferson .............. 100 .......... ........... ..:
Leon ................. 100 ....
Liberty ............... 100 ..... .... ........ ..........
M adison .............. 110 .......... ........ ..........
Taylor ............... 100 ..... ....
Wakulla ............. 100 ...... .
Div. Av. per cent....... 100 ........... 90 I 90
Northeastern Division
A lachua .............. ......... ....... .. .........
Baker ................ 110 ..... .. ..... .. .. .. .
Bradford ............... 90 ....... ..... ....... ......... ..
Clay .................. 100 .......... .......... .. ........
Duval ................. 75 .......... .... .... ..... .....
Nassau ............... 100 .......... 100 50
St. Johns ............. 100 .......... ....... I ...
Suwannee ......... 1... ..................... .........
Div. Ar'.per cent....... 97 .......... 100 50
Central Division
Brevard ............... ....... .......... ..
Citrus .............. . 100 .......... .
Hernando ............. ...100 ... ... .... ....
Hillsborough .......... 100 .......... ..... ........
Lake ................. 85 .......... .......... ... .......
Levy .......... 95 .......... ....... I .........
Orange ................ 100 .......... .. ..... .... ......
Osceola ............... 100 ...50 25
Pasco ................ 100 .......... 50 25
Sem inole .............. 100 ........ . ......
Volusia ............... 100 .......... ... I ....
Div. Av. per cent....... 98 .......... | 50 25
Southern Division
Dade ................. 100 .......... 95 100
D eSoto ................ 100 .......... ....... I ..........
Lee ................... 90 ...... .. 80 60
Palm Beach ........... 100 .......... 70 40
St. Lucie ............. 100 .......... 75 50
Div. Av. per cent....... 98 I.......... 80 I 63
State Av. per cent....... 98 1..........| 80 | 57










44


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Mangoes Avocado Pears

Western Division Condition [Prospective Condition Prospective
SYield Yield
Bay ..................... ............. .......... .........
Calhoun ......................... .......... .......... ..........
Escambia ............... ............... I. ....
H olm es ............... .......... .......... .....
Okaloosa ............ .................... .......... ............
Santa Rosa ............ .......... ......... .......... ..........
W alton ............... .......... .......... ....................
Washington ....... .....................
Div. Av. per cent... ..... ........ I . . ..........
Northern Division
Franklin ................ ....... ....... ......
Gadsden .............. .. . ...
Jefferson ............. .. ......................... .. .......
Leon ................ ........ .................... ..........
Liberty ...... .. ...... .......... ..........
M adison ..... ......... .......... .......... .......
Taylor .............. ..........
Wakulla .............................. .................
Div. Av. per cent ....... ......... .. ....... .. .. . .... .........
Northeastern Division
A lachua .............. ........... ....... ....... .....
B aker ................ ........ ...... ......
Bradford .............. .......... .......
Clay .................. ........ . ... ... ....... ..........
Duval ................ .......... ........ ..........
Nassau ..... .......... ........................
St. Johns ............ ............... .. ...
Suw annee ............. .......... .......... .......... .
Div. Av. per cent. .................. .......... ...............
Central Division


Brevard ............... ........ . .........
C itrus ................ .......... ......... .
Hernando ............. .......... ...... .
Hillsborough .......... .......... .......... .
Lake ................. ....... ............. .
Levy ................. .......... ...... .. .
Orange ..................... .............. ..
Osceola ............... 50 20
P asco ................. .......... ...........
Seminole .............. .......... ....... ....
Volusia .............. ......... ...........
Div. Av. per cent....... 5050 20 |


.. -.. ..- .....
..........-
.. . . . . . . . .

. . .. . . .. .. ..
. 86 .-- -.. . .
80 25
......- . ....
. . - . . .
...... .. ... .....


80 ( 25


Southern D1ivision
Dade .................. 50 30 60 50
DeSoto ...................................... 40 30
Lee .................. 50 40 50 40
Palm Beach ........... 40 40 50 40
St. Lucle ............. 10 .......... 10 .....
Div. Av. per cent....... 38 37 I 42 I 40
State Av. per cent....... 44 1 29 61 33










45

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Guavas Orange Trees

Western Division Condition IProspectivel Condition I Prospective
__Yield I Yield
Bay ................. ....... ........... 60 60
Calhoun ............... ........... ......... 50 I 50
Escambia .................................................
Holmes ..................................................
Okaloosa .................................. ................
Santa Rosa .......................................... ..........
W alton ............... ............................... .. ........
W ashington ........... .......... .......... ....... .........
Div. Av. per cent....... .......... ......... I 55 I 55
Northern Division
Franklin .............. 90 90 ... ... . ..........
Gadsden ............... ........ ...... .................
Jefferson .............. ......... ... .. .. .... .
Leon ................. ......... .... .. ...... ...
Liberty ................................... .. ...... ......... .
M adison .............. .......... ............
Taylor ................ :.........: ........... .... ...
W akulla ............... .......... .......... .......... ..........
Div. Av. per cent ....... 90 I 90 .......... ... .....
Northeastern Division
Alachua .............. .................. 100 ..........
Baker .................. ........ .......... ........
Bradford ............................... .......
Clay ........... ....... .......... .......... ..........
Duval ................... ..... ............. 100 50
Nassau ................................... 80 75
St. Johns .............. .......... ........
Suwannee ............. ......... ....
Div. Av. per cent....... .......... ......... .. 94 | 63
Central Division
Brevard ............... 2 .......... 80 40
Citrus ............. ... .. ........ .......... 60 20
Hernando ....................... .......... 50 12
Hillsborough ....... ...... .. 60 25
Lake ..............30 25 60 30
Levy ............ .... ... ..... ...... .......
Orange .. 60 35
Osceola ......... .. 30 25 100 50
Pasco ................. 25 20 70 45
Seminole .............. ... .. ............. 80 75
Volusia ............... 40 20 50 25
Div. Av. per cent....... 25 | 23 67 36
Southern Division
Dade ............... 60 30 90 I T45
DeSoto ............... 50 25 80 40
Lee ................... 60 40 80 45
Palm Beach ........... 25 15 90 70
St. Lucie .............. 10 .......... 90 70
Div. Av. per cent....... 43 28 86 I 54
State Av. per cent....... 53 47 76 52











46


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY Lemon Trees Lime Trees

Western Division I Condition Prospective| Condition Prospective
( Yield I ] Yield
Bay .................. 60 10 ......... ......
Calhoun .............. ..... .. . ..........
Escambia ............. ..... ... ......
Holmes ........................ .......... ...... .
Okaloosa .............. ............ ....... .. .......
Santa Rosa ..................... ....................... ......
W alton .................. ... ... **.......... ......... ...
W ashington ........... .......... .......... .......... ..........
Div. Av. per cent....... 0 10 .......... .......
Northern Division
Franklin ..... ...... ... ...... ........... ... ..........
Gadsden ........... .. ........... ... ..........
Jefferson ......................... ...................
Leon ................. .. ........ ........... ...... .........
Liberty ............... ......... ............ ..........
M adison .............. .......... .......... .... .....
T aylor ................ .......... ...........
Wakulla .............. ...... .... ...... .... ...........
Div. Av. per cent....... .......... | ...... .... ... ...
Northeastern Division
Alachua ........ ..... .. ..... ........... ...
B aker .......... .. ....... .. .... .. .... ..
Bradford .............. .......... ........ ... ..... ....
Clay .................. .......... .............. .. ... .....
D uval ........... ..... .. ........ .......... .........
Nassau ............... 80 25 .......... .....
St. Johns ..................... .. .......... .... ..... ....... ..
Suw annee ............. :.......... .......... .. ...... .... ..
Div. Av. per cent....... 80 25 |..........|.........
Central Division
Brevard .............. 40 20 20 5
Citrus ............. ..... .. ... .... ... .. .. .... .. .... ....
H ernando ............. .......... .......... ...
H illsorough ......... .. ...... ... ...
Lake ................. ............... ...... .......
Levy .....................................................
Orange ............... ......... .......... .......... ......
Osceola .............. 100 25 100 10
Pasco ................. ..... ..... ......... .. .... ...........
Sem inole .............. .......... .......... ........... ......
V olusia ............... ....... .......... ... .....
Div. Av. per cent....... 70 23 I 60 1 8
Southern Division
Dade ........ .. 1 0 1 ... .. ..
DeSoto ....... .. ........ .. . . ........
Lee ........................... .. ..... .. ........ ....
Palm Beach........... 60 60 25 10
St. Lucie . . ..... . 85 60 25 ....
Div. Av. per cent....... 82 73 25 I 10
State Av. per cent....... | 76 I 33 I 43 I 9











47


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY


Grapefruit Trees


Western Division Condition I Prospective
| Yield
Bay ......................... .. ............. I T
Calhoun ................. ..... .... ......... .. ......
Escam bia ...................... .... .......... .... .. ..........
Holmes ......................... ........ ......... ... .... .....
Okaloosa ................................... .......... ......
Santa R osa ................................. .......... ..........
W alton ................................... .......... .. .....
Washington ....................................... ...........
Div. Av. per cent.............................I 00 | 60
Northern Division
Franklin ............................ .. I. ..... .. I -. .. ...
Jeffers on ........................ .......
Jefferson ........ ............................ ....... ..........
Leon ........................... .... .... .. .. ......... .
Liberty .................. ......... .... ... ..... .... I ..... .
Madison ... ................... ...... .. . 50 50
Taylor ..................... ..... ...............
W akulla ....... ............................ ..... ......
Div. Av. per cent........................... 50 I 50
Northeastern Division


Alachua ................ ......*.* .. .* .......... I .....
B aker ...................................... ........ ....
Bradford ......................... .......... ... .......
Clay ........................ ........... .............. .
Duval .................................. . 100 50
Nassau ..................................... 50 25
St. Johns ........ ....................... ......... .......... .
Suwannee ...................................
Div. Av. per cent. .................... ....... 75 | 38
Central Division ,


B revard ....................................
Citrus ........................ .... .........
Hernando ...................... ............
Hillsborough ...............................
Lake .......................................
Levy ......................... ...........
O range .....................................
Osceola .....................................
Pasco ............... ..... ...... ... ....
Seminole ....................................
Volusia ................................ ...
Div. Av. per cent............................


90 I 40
75 40
50 ] 12
60 | 35
60 I 30
...... .* ..... ... *
50 I 35
100 25
75 30
75 I 75
45 | 15
68 ] 34


Dade ...................................... 90 50
DeSoto .................................... . 80 40
Lee ....................................... 80 45
Palm Beach ............................. 75 50
St. Lucie ...... ............................ 95 75
Div. Av. per cent................... .... 84 5 52
State Av. per cent............................ 67 I 47


Southern Division


"


[


-- --






















PART III.

Soil Analysis; Analyses of Florida Muck Soils;
Fertilizer, Feeding Stuffs, and Foods and
Drugs.


4-Bull









SOIL ANALYSIS


ANALYSES OF FLORIDA

MUCK SOILS


Extracts from


STATE CHEMIST'S REPORTS, 1912 and 1914;
BULLETIN NO. 43, FLORIDA AGRICUL-
TURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, 1897; A
CHEMICAL STUDY OF SOME TYPICAL
SOILS OF THE FLORIDA PENINSULAR,
BY A. A. PERSONS


Compiled by
R. E. ROSE
State Chemist












SOIL ANALYSIS

BY R. E. ROSE, STATE CHEMIST.

Frequently samples of soil are sent to the Ciemical
Division for analysis, with a request to advise as to the
best methods of fertilizing. There is but little informa-
tion to be derived from a soil analysis that would be of
benefit to farmers. So much depends on tilth, drainage,
culture and other physical conditions, that chemical analy-
sis made under laboratory conditions is of little value.
A chemical analysis of soil may indicate a very fertile
soil, rich in plant food, while the facts are the soils are
not productive. This is instanced by the rich Sawgrass
muck lands and river bottoms of the State, that are fertile
chemically, but not productive until properly drained;
also, by the arid lands of the West, rich in the elements
of plant food, but not productive until irrigated. Other
soils, with less plant food, but on account of proper
physical conditions, culture and tilth, are exceedingly
productive.

R. E. ROSE, FLORIDA STATE CHEMIST 1908.

The average of thousands of analyses of Florida soils
made by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
and the State Laboratory is as follows:

Nitrogen (per cent.)................ 0.0413
Potash (per cent.)................ 0.0091
Phosphoric Acid (per cent.)........ 0.1635

This is a fair average of all of the Norfolk and Ports-
mouth soil series of 1he State, which comprise by far the
greater portion of the State.
The following conclusions as to the value of chemical
analyses of soils, alone, without considering other factors
-drainage, culture, physical and biological conditions of
the soil under consideration, as to its productiveness, are
those now generally accepted by experiment stations, prac-
tical and scientific agriculturists, chemists and biologists:










Hence, for a chemist to have stated
that a given soil was necessarily productive be-
cause he had found present in it all of the ele-
ments that plants required in growth, would have
been a great mistake, for a practical test would
often have proved his statement false."
"There is probably no one subject in connec-
tion with their profession, that is so little under-
stood by farmers generally, as that of the real
value to be attached to a chemical analysis of a
soil. Indeed, 'I may say, that there is scarcely
a question that is the subject of so much discus-
sion and disagreement, even among the agricul-
tural chemists of the country, as that of the real
importance to be attached to such an analysis."
"It will be seen that the weak point in an
analysis is that, while it reveals what a soil
actually contains and in what proportions the
several constituents are present, it does not state
with absolute accuracy just how much of that
plant-food is in an available form, i. e., in a form
suited for plant assimilation."
"While a chemical analysis cannot definitely
answer everything in connection with the above
queries, still it can aid very much in solving all
such problems, and, together with a physical
analysis, can contribute much valuable informa-
tion along such lines."
(A. A. Persons, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station, 1897.)
"It is generally admitted that the productive-
ness of a soil cannot be determined by a mere
chemical analysis alone. True, the analysis will
show what elements are present and in what
quantities, but it does not show what is abso-
lutely available for the immediate use of the
plant. Of two soils showing great similarity in
chemical composition, the one may be highly pro-
ductive and the other very unproductive. The
reasons for this may possibly be found in different
moisture conditions, or a difference in physical
texture, or in the difference in the amount of
available plant food, or in a combination of all
these differences. The chemical analysis may,










however, be of value in showing what the possi-
bilities of the soil are under the proper treat-
ment."
"This subject has been studied by the agricul-
tural chemist, the soil physicist, and the prac-
tical farmer, and all have contributed to the fund
of knowledge."
(A. W. Blair, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station, 1906.)
"The Experiment Station does not analyze
samples of soil to determine the fertilizer require-
ments. There is no chemical method known that
will show reliably the availability of plant food
elements present in the soil, as this is a variable
factor, influenced by the kind of crop, the type of
soil, the climate and biological conditions; hence,
we do not recommend this method of testing soil."
(Agricultural Experiment Station, Perdue Uni
versity, 1908.)
The foregoing facts and opinions are drawn from prac-
tical experience, and scientific deduction, after careful
investigation by competent scientific observers, establishes
the fact that a chemical analysis of soil is of little value
to the practical farmer, and that correct deduction can
not be drawn without a personal knowledge of all the
physical and biological conditions-drainage, tilth, cul-
ture, season, and other local factors, necessary to be con-
sidered in passing upon the fertility or productiveness
of a soil.
Tallahassee, Fla., Junie, 1915.


MUCK SOIL ANALYSES
Numerous inquiries for the analyses of muck soils, par-
ticularly of Everglade and other saw grass mucks, having
exhausted the reports of the State Chemist for 1912 and
1914, while Bulletin No. 43 of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station, A Chemical Study of Somle Typical
Soils of the Florida Peninsular, by Prof. A. A. Persons,
is also out of print, I have compiled a number of analyses
of Florida muck soils as reported in these publications.
It will be noted that there is little difference in the
Nitrogen (Ammonia) content in pure mucks, that is,









mucks not mixed with sand. Where the Insoluble Matter
(sand) is considerable, the Nitrogen (Ammonia) is pro-
portionately less. Sand is therefore the principal adul-
terant found in Florida muck soils. Sandy subsoils con-
tain notably less Nitrogen than the pure mucks found in
deep beds-three to ten feet. Shallow muck beds-one
to two feet-necessarily contain more sand and less
Nitrogen.
Beds of muck deposited in still water, not affected by
drains or runs of sandy water during freshets, sand bars,
or ridges, have a uniform high Nitrogen content. The
uniformity of the Nitrogen content is notable and is
naturally greatest in those specimens having but a small
percentage of sand.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist.
Tallahassee, Fla., September, 1917.


ANALYSES OF FLORIDA MUCK SOILS
BY R. E. ROSE, STATE CHEMIST.
Hundreds of analyses of muck soils from all parts of
the State have been made-saw grass muck, pond muck,
bay head muck, etc. The physical characteristics vary
considerably, depending entirely on the state of decay or
decomposition.
Muck constantly covered with water does not decay
or rot.
Muck occasionally exposed to the air (partial drain-
age) decomposes and becomes a fine-grained soil.
Perfect drainage will cause any muck bed to decay, rot,
or decompose and become a fine-grained garden mould.
Imperfect drainage will not.
The average of all muck soil anlayses shows as follows:
Nitrogen (as ammonia)........ 3.10%
Phosphoric Acid............... 0.18%
Potash ...................... 0.08%
It will be noted that there is sixty times as much
Nitrogen (Ammonia), with practically the same percent-
age of Phosphoric Acid, and nearly nine times as much
Potash as found in the average sandy soils of the State.
This great excess of nitrogen, when made available by
proper drainage, deep plowing and proper culture, as-










sisted by phosphoric acid and potash, thus providing the
necessary media for the growth of the nitrogenous fer-
ments (nitrogen-forming bacteria), insures large crops
on properly drained and cultivated muck soils, wherein
the nitrifying agencies of the air, together with properly
encouraged bacteria, have made the enormous supply of
nitrogen available to plant growth.
Nitrogen induces foliage development, hence is largely
necessary for such crops as cabbage, lettuce and celery,
while potash and phosphate tend to produce starch, sugar
and seed, and to make firm, heavy fruit, that will bear
shipment, with less danger of decay. Hence the economy
of adding phosphate and potash to muck soils, which
require-
First. Perfect drainage, to get rid of stagnant, acid
water, and allow the air to enter the soil to oxidize, or
rot it.
Second. An addition of phosphoric acid and potash to
form a media to aid in developing the nitrogenous bac-
teria, necessary to make the nitrogen available, and to
aid in forming starch, sugar and seeds. While properly
drained, deeply plowed muck soil will produce large crops
without adding phosphate or potash, the great excess- of
nitrogen and, comparatively, small amount of potash and
phosphate, necessarily makes the addition of these two
elements economical and profitable, by the increase in
yield and better shipping quality of the vegetables and
fruits. Hence the application of 500 to 1000 pounds of
16% acid phosphate and 100 to 200 pounds of 50%
Sulfate (or Muriate) of Potash, or 1000 to 2000 pounds
of unleached ashes, carrying 6% of potash and 40% Car-
bonate of Lime, is an economical addition.

MUCK AS A FERTILIZER.
The application of sour, freshly-dug, undecomposed
muck, or peat, to sandy soils as a fertilizer or amend-
ment, or to add humus to a sandy soil, is of little or no
value. As said by a noted Florida grower, "It is a harm-
less though costly amusement." Such raw, undecom-
posed, acid muck, applied to sandy soil, simply dries out
carbonizess), its nitrogen dissipates, leaving nothing but
carbon (charcoal) in the soil. Hence, the application of
raw, sour, undecomposed muck to ordinary sandy soils
is not advisable, as it is not economical.










MUCK COMPOSTS-MANURE.
If newly-dug, raw, acid, undecomposed muck be com-
posted, using 500 pounds of 16% acid phosphate and 100
pounds of 50% sulfate (or muriate) of potash to each
cord of wet muck (128 cubic feet), well distributed
throughout the heap, the heap kept moist (not wet),
broken down and turned several times, in two months a
cord (some three tons) of excellent manure, will be ob-
tained. Where practical, a few barrow loads of fresh
stable manure added to this heap, will hasten decomposi-
tion, add nitrifying bacteria, and aid largely in making
available the inert nitrogen in the raw muck.
The heap should be kept moist at all times (not wet).
Never allow it to overheat or "fire fang," nor to dry out.
If necessary, turn the heap, dampen it (to cool it off),
and again heap it up.
The "compost heap" is the "Bank" from which the
French, German, Belgian, Dutch and Swedish farmers-
the best farmers in the world-draw their supplies of
plant food. On the size and quality of the compost heap,
the credit of these farmers is based.
When the dairy cow, the pig, the silo, and the compost
heap, which can be greatly enhanced in size by the muck
pond, become more in evidence in the South, and particu-
larly in Florida, the problem of rural credits, commercial
fertilizer, and crop mortgages, will naturally be settled
by the farmer becoming the lender, and not the borrower;
the financial master, not the slave.
MUCK IN STABLES AND BARN LOTS.
An economical method of utilizing muck is to employ
it as a bedding in horse and cow stalls, to absorb the
liquids, the most valuable portion of the manure.
Place six to twelve inches of raw muck (fairly dry) in
each stall, in which mix acid phosphate and potash in the
proportions given for the compost heap. By this means
ten tons of first-class stable manure may be obtained,
where one would be, under ordinary conditions.
The secret of a good compost heap (or manure heap),
particularly in Florida, is to keep the heap moist (not
wet), and avoid over-heating-"fire fang."
This can readily be accomplished by breaking down the
heap, dampening, and again heaping up. The Sulfate of
Lime (Gypsum) which composes some sixty per cent of










acid phosphate (which, by the way, is not acid) will pre-
vent the escape of nitrogen as ammonia, but will absorb
it as Sulfate of Ammonia; soluble, but not volatile.
The contrary effect is had by the use of Lime Carbonate,
or Oxide (bprnt lime), or wood ashes, which have a ten-
dency to decompose the nitrogenous matter and allow it
to escape as ammonia. Hence the application of lime car-
bonate, or oxide, or wood ashes, to a manure pile is a
blunder, while the application of acid phosphate-Gyp-
sum (Lime Sulfate)-and phosphate, is advisable.
IMPERFECTLY DRAINED MUCK SOILS.
There are many instances, particularly in Florida, of
imperfectly drained muck soils-tracts adjacent to canals
or drains, in which insufficient lateral or field ditches
have been cut. The surface water has been to- a greater
or less degree removed by the canals or drains, while the
sour, acid water in the soil still remains.
Frequently this land becomes dry from evaporation,
though the acids are not removed. On the contrary, the
acids are concentrated by this evaporation. -uch soils
naturally fail to produce cultivated crops.
Often an attempt to correct this acid condition by the
application of lime is made. Such an application to such
soils, not provided with the necessary field ditches, is but
an expedient, and of no permanent benefit. The acids
naturally continue to form, and in a comparatively short
time, neutralize the lime.
There is but one reliable method of removing acid from
muck soils (slowly decomposing vegetable matter), and
that is by thorough drainage, allowing the rains to fall
upon, pass down and through the soil, into the drains,
which must be kept open (even in the dryest weather),
by this means washing out (draining away) the con-
stantly accumulating acids.
There are a large number of such imperfectly drained
tracts of muck soil in the State, unproductive and dis-
appointing, partially drained, and generally dried by
evaporation to a considerable extent, still for the want
of drainage, sour, undecomposed, and unfit for cultivated
crops. These same soils, properly drained by the neces-
sary field ditches, at intervals of say 105 feet (one-half
acre) at least three feet deep, with fall or slope sufficient
to drain the soils not less than three feet below the sur-









face, will in a short time (after one or more rainy
seasons), be freed of their superabundance of acid and
become productive.
The application of phosphate and potash, after thor-
ough drainage, together with an application of ground
lime stone, will materially hasten the process of decom-
posing the vegetable matter, forming a rich, productive
mould, or soil, a condition impossible on partly (shallow)
drained muck, in which there are no field drains to re-
move the sour, acid waters from the zone which should
be occupied by living bacteria, and the roots of healthy
plants.
Such thoroughly drained soils, deeply plowed and thor-
oughly decomposed (rotted), changed from a peat or
muck into soil, will not suffer for moisture, even in the
dryest seasons in Florida, though crops on imperfectly
drained land do suffer by the concentration of acid in
the soil, by evaporation, during dry weather, thus bring-
ing the acids .of the lower soils to the surface (acids
which should be removed by drainage).
This problem now confronts the farmer on much of
the irrigated soils of the West, where drainage has been
neglected-in this case the alkali, dissolved by the irriga-
tion waters, not being provided with drainage, is brought
to the surface by evaporation, where the alkali remains,
soon changing the fields into alkaline bogs, of no agricul-
tural value. When provided with drains, this condition
is corrected, and the irrigated land becomes wonderfully
productive.
The same thing occurs in Florida, except that acid-
not alkali-is the substance that must be gotten rid of.
Fortunately, with our humid climate, kvith some 60 inches
of rainfall, the acids of our muck soils can be rapidly
gotten rid of by washing them out, through properly con-
structed drains, with sufficient fall or slope.
Tallahassee, Fla., June 18, 1915.





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EXTRACT FROM STATE CHEMIST'S
REPORT, 1912.

ANALYSIS OF EVERGLADES SOILS.
The following analyses of Everglades soils, 34 samples
taken at various points in the Everglades, from Lake
Okeechobee to the Miami River, near the banks of the
State Canals, are located on the accompanying map.
The samples were taken in duplicate by representatives
of the United States Agricultural Department, and the
Drainage Commissioners of'the State of Florida.
The surface soils samples are taken from the surface to
12 inches deep, the subsoils from 12 inches to 36 inches
deep.
The average of the series shows:
Ammonia (NH,) .................... 3.10%
Phosphoric Acid (P205) ............... 0.18%
Potash (K20) ........................ 0.08%
All samples reported are on an air dry basis.
The Ammonia (Nitrogen) determinations are made by
the official modified Gunning Method for fertilizer. The
Potash and Phosphoric Acid determinations by the official
method for fertilizers.
M. 1784-Maximum Ammonia................ 4.41 %
Soil Sample No. 29.
M. 1793-Minimum Ammonia ................ 0.44 %
Sandy Sub-soil No. 38.
M. 1792-Maximum Phosphoric Acid......... 0.53 %
(Evidently added phosphates on culti-
vated soil.)
Soil No. 37.
M. 1795-Minimum Phosphoric Acid.......... 0.04 %
Sub-soil No. 42.
M. 1770-Maximum Potash .................. 0.175%
Sub-soil No. 14.
M. 1790-Minimum Potash ................. 0.03 %
Soil No. 35.
M. 1793-Minimum Potash .................. 0.03 %
Sub-soil No. 37.








62

EVERGLADE SOILS.

Samples taken from Lake Okeechobee to Miami, near
Banks of State Canals.

M. 1765-Everglades Soil No. 9.
Surface soil, Miami Canal, NE. 1/4 Sec. 4, T.
45, R. 35.
Moisture ..........................12.06 %
Ammonia ......................... 3.35 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.26 %
Potash ............................ 0.115%

M. 1766-Everglades Soil No. 10.
Sub-soil No. 9.
Moisture ..........................12.22 %
Ammonia ......................... 3.52 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.10 %
Potash ............................ 0.085%

M. 1767-Everglades Soil No. 11.
Surface soil, shores of Lake Okeechobee.
Demonstration Farm, West of Miami Canal.
Cultivated field.
Moisture ......................... 13.81 %
Ammonia ........................ 3.72 %
Phosphoric Acid ................. 0.13 %
Potash .............................. 0.105%

M. 1768-Everglades Soil No. 12.
Sub-soil of No. 11.
Moisture ........................ 11.46 %
Ammonia ........................ 2.94 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.098%
Potash ............................ 0.115%

M. 1769-Everglades Soil No. 13.
West side of Miami Canal, near Lake Okee-
chobee.
Virgin soil.
Moisture ......................... .11.29 %
Ammonia ........................ 2.86 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.28 %
Potash ............................ 0.165%










M. 1770-Everglades Soil No. 14.
Sub-soil of No. 10.
Moisture ..........................10.38 %
Ammonia ......................... 2.36 %
Phosphoric Acid .................... 0.37 %
Potash (Maximum) ................ 0.175%

M. 1771-Everglades Soil No. 15.
South Miami Canal, near Lake Okeechobee.
Cultivated land.
Moisture .......................... 13.04 %
Ammonia ......................... 3.37 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.30 %
Potash ............................ 0.105%

M. 1772-Everglades Soil No. 16.
Sub-soil of No. 15.
Moisture ..........................11.06 %
Ammonia ........................ 2.56 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.21 %
Potash ............................ 0.115%

M. 1773-Everglades Soil No. 17.
Sec. 11, T. 45, R. 38, East of Hillsborough
Canal.
Moisture ......................... 13.43 %
Ammonia ........................ 4.37 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.20 %o
Potash ............................ 0.07 %

M. 1774-Everglades Soil No. 18.
Sub-soil of No. 17.
Moisture ..........................13.17 %
Ammonia ........................ 3.64 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.05 %
Potash ............................ 0.06 %o

M. 1775-Everglades Soil No. 19.
Sec. 14, T. 46, R. 39, 25 miles from Lake Okee-
chobee, East of Hillsborough Canal.
Moisture ..........................12.09 %
Ammonia ........................ 4.05 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.11 %
Potash ........................... 0.095%









M. 1776-Everglades Soil No. 20.
Sub-soil of No. 19.
Moisture ..................... ....... 2.82 %
Ammonia ......................... 2.82 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.05 %
Potash ............. ............ 0.07 %

M. 1777-Everglades Soil No. 21.
Sec. 9, T. 47, R. 40, 32 miles from Lake Okee-
chobee, North of Canal.
Moisture ........................ 12.12 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.1' %
Potash .......................... 0.04 %

M. 1778-Everglades Soil No. 22.
Sub-soil of No. 21.
Moisture ......................... 1116 %
Ammonia ......................... 3.71 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.06 %
Potash ............................ 0.04 %

M. 1779-Everglades Soil No. 23.
Sec. 29, T. 47, R. 41, North of Canal.
Moisture ........................ .. 11.83 %
Ammonia ......................... 3.06 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.09 %
Potash ............................ 0.07 %

M. 1780-Everglades Soil No. 24.
Sub-soil of No. 23.
Moisture ......................... 12.74 %
Ammonia ......................... 3.00 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.06 %
Potash ........................... 0.06 %

M. 1781-Everglades Soil No. 25.
Cleared land on border of Lake Okeechobee,
West of N. New River Canal. Virgin soil.
Moisture .......................... 10.84 %
Ammonia ........................ 2.89 %
Phosphoric Acid .................... 0.32 %
Potash ............................ 0.105%








65

M. 1782-Everglades Soil No. 27.
11/4 mile S. of Lake Okeechobee, on West side
of N. New River Canal.
Moisture .........................10.19 %
Ammonia ........................ 2.97 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.46 %
Potash ............................ 0.085%

M. 1783-Everglades Soil No. 28.
Sub-soil of No. 27.
Moisture .........................11.65 %
Ammonia ......................... 3.32 %o
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.20 %
Potash ............................ 0.115%

M. 1784-Everglades Soil No. 29.
East side of N. New River Canal, 10 miles S.
of Lake Okeechobee.
Moisture ......................... 12.54 %
Ammonia (Maximum) ............. 4.41 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.29 %
Potash ................. .. ....... 0.05 %

M. 1785-Everglades Soil No. 30.
Sub-soil of No. 29.
Moisture .......................... 14.06 %
Ammonia ......................... 4.32 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.20 %
Potash ............................ 0.05 %

M. 1786-Everglades Soil No. 31.
Center of Sec. 29, T. 48, R. 39, West of N.
New River Canal.
Moisture ......................... 14.09 %
Ammonia ........................ 3.72 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.14 %
Potash .................... ....... 0.07 %

M. 1787-Everglades Soil No. 32.
Sub-soil of No. 31.
Moisture ..........................11.08 %
Ammonia ........................ 3.12 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.06 %
Potash ............................ 0.06 %
5-Bull.










M. 1788-Everglades Soil No. 33.
SE. 1/4 Sec. 34, T. 49, R. 39, South of Canal.
Moisture .......... ............... 13.41 %
Ammonia ........................ 3.51 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.18 %
Potash ........................... 0.08 %

M. 1789-Everglades Soil No. 34.
Sub-soil of No. 33.
Moisture ..........................13.28 %
Ammonia ......................... 2.98 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.06 %
Potash ............................ 0.05 %

M. 1790-Everglades Soil No. 35.
Center of Sec. 3, T. 50, R. 40, North of Canal.
Moisture ..........................13.04 %
Ammonia ........................ 3.12 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.17 %
Potash (Minimum) ................ 0.03 %

M. 1791-Everglades Soil No. 36.
Sub-soil of No. 35.
M oisture ..........................11.04 %
Ammonia ........................ 3.42 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.11 %
Potash ............................ 0.07 %

M. 1792-Everglades Soil No. 37.
"Musa Isle" Grove, South of Miami Canal.
Cultivated soil -evidently added Phosphate.
Moisture ........................ 9.02 %
Ammonia ........................ 2.33 %
Phosphoric Acid (Maximum)........ 0.53 %
Potash ............................ 0.05 %

M. 1793-Everglades Soil No. 38.
Sub-soil of No. 37. Sandy sub-soil.
Moisture .......................... 1.52 %
Ammonia (Minimum) ............... 0.44 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.24 %
Potash (Minimum) ................ 0.03 %










M. 1794-Everglades Soil No. 41.
Center of Sec. 11, T. 53, R. 40.
Moisture ......................... 14.86 %
Ammonia ........................ 3.47 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.11 %
Potash ............................ 0.085%

M. 1795--Everglades Soil No. 42.
Sub-soil of No. 41.
Moisture ..........................13.14 %
Ammonia ........................ 3.60 %
Phosphoric Acid (Minimum)........ 0.04 %
Potash ............................. 0.06 %

M. 1796-Everglades Soil No. 43.
NE. 1/4 Sec. 31, T. 52, R. 40.
Moisture .........................11.63 %
Ammonia ......................... 3.44 %
Phosphoric Acid ....:.............. 0.15 %
Potash ............................ 0.06 %

M. 1798-Everglades Soil No. 45.
E. 1/2 Sec. 9, T. 52, R. 39.
Moisture .......................... 12.32 %
Ammonia .......... ........... 4.07 %
Phosphoric Acid ................... 0.13 %
Potash ............. ... ............ 0.07 %

M. 1799-Everglades Soil No..46.
Sub-soil of No. 45.
Moisture .......................... 12.38 %
Ammonia ......................... 3.67 %
Phosphoric Acid .................. 0.25 %
Potash ............................ 0.07 %

NoTE.-Numbers 1792 and 1793-soil No. 37 and sub-
soil No. 38-taken from "Musa Isle Grove"-a cultivated
orange grove, have evidently been fertilized with com-
mercial fertilizers, particularly phosphates.










EXTRACT FROM STATE CHEMIST'S
REPORT-1914.


ANALYSES OF MUCK SOILS FROM THE UPPER
ST. JOHNS VALLEY.
M. 2005-Muck Soil No. 1 (12-inch surface). Sec. 1,
Fellsmere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture .......................= 17.87 %
Nitrogen .......................= 2.35 %
Volatile matter ..................= 91.76 %
Involatile matter (ash) ..........= 8.24 %
Insoluble matter (sand) .........= 4.46 %
Phosphoric acid.................= 0.024%
Potash .........................= 0.041%
Lime ........................... 0.83 %
Iron and alumina...............= 1.92 %
M. 2006-Subsoil No. 1 (12 to 36 in.) Secs 2 and 3,
Fellsmere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture .......................= 14.70 %
Nitrogen .......................= 1.76 %
Volatile matter .................= 72.91 %
Involatile matter (ash)..........= 27.09 %
Insoluble matter (sand) .........= 21.81 %
Phosphoric acid .................= 0.050%
Potash .........................= 0.058%
Lime ...........................= 1.62 %
Iron and alumina ............... 2.80 %
M. 2007-Muck Soil No. 2 (12-inch surface). Myrtle
hammock on ditch N, 12, near lateral canal
N, Fellsmere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture .......................= 18.04 %
Nitrogen .......................= 2.38 %
Volatile matter .................= 87.88 %
Involatile matter (ash) ..........= 12.12 %
Insoluble matter (sand) .........= 7.35 %
Phosphoric acid.................= 0.148%
Potash ........................= 0.073%
Lime ..........................= 2.55 %
Iron and alumina ...............= 1.38 %










M. 2008-Muck Soil No. 3 (18-inch surface). Sec. 1,
corner of lateral canal Q and railroad ditch,
Fellsmere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture ........................= 16.35 %
Nitrogen ......................= 3.39 %
Volatile matter .................= 95.70 %
Involatile matter (ash) ..........= 4.30 %
Insoluble matter (sand) .........= 1.72 %
Phosphoric acid .................= 0.100%
Potash ......................... 0.052%
Lime ..........................= 1.29 %
Iron and alumina ...............= 0.52 %

M. 2009-Subsoil No. 3 (18 to 36 inches). Sec. 2, corner
of lateral canal Q and railroad ditch, Fells-
mere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture .......................= 16.75 %
Nitrogen ....................... 2.76 %
Volatile matter .................= 95.32 %
Involatile matter (ash) ..........= 4.68 %
Insoluble matter (sand) ......... 0.71 %
Phosphoric acid ................. 0.058%
Potash ............................= 0.028%
Lime ..........................= 1.52 %
Iron and alumina................= 1.78 %

M. 2010-Soil No. 4 (18-inch surface). Sec. 1, corner of
lateral M and railroad ditch, Fellsmere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture ............ ... ...... 17.18 %
Nitrogen ....................... 2.99 %
Volatile matter .................= 95.74 %
Involatile matter (ash) ..........= 4.26 %
Insoluble matter (sand) .........= 1.55 %
Phosphoric acid .................= 0.180%
Potash .........................= 0.043%
Lime .......................= 1.68 %
Iron and alumina............. ..= 0.71 %









M. 2011-Subsoil No. 4 (18 to 39 inches). Secs. 2 and
3, corner of lateral M and railroad ditch,
Fellsmere, Fla.
Air Dry Sample.
Moisture ..................... 16.55 %
Nitrogen .......................= 2.52 %
Volatile matter .................= 92.84 %
Involatile matter (ash) ..........= 7.16 %
Insoluble matter (sand) .........= 1.55 %
Phosphoric acid................. 0.072%
Potash .......................... 0.030%
Lime ..........................= 2.95 %
Iron and alumina...............= 1.71 %



EXTRACT FROM BULLETIN NO. 43 OF THE
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT
STATION-1897.


BY A. A. PERSONS.

No. 16-Dade County Saw Grass Muck.
Moisture at 1000 0................. 3.9300%
Nitrogen .......................... 1.2300%
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 59.8035%
Phosphoric acid (P20) ............. 0.1472%
Potash (K20)...................... 0.0260%
Lime (CaO) ...................... 3.9850%
Iron and alumina ................ 2.5803%

No. 53-Dade County Reclaimed Bay Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C................. 7.2350%
Nitrogen ......................... 1.4560%
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 43.0630%
Phosphoric acid (P20) ............. 0.1120%
Potash (K20) ..................... Trace
Lime (CaO) ..................... .. 0.1500%
Iron and alumina................. 3.3470%










No. 54-Dade County Reclaimed Bay Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C................ 7.1750%
Nitrogen ......................... 1.3300%
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 48.7350%
Phosphoric acid (P20,)............. 0.0480%
Potash (K2O)..................... 0.0038%
Lime (CaO) ....................... 0.1000%
Iron and alumina................. 3.3470%

No. 90-Osceola County Government Station Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C................ 0.0000%
Nitrogen ......................... 2.4400%
Insoluble matter (sand) ............. 7.9700%
Phosphoric acid (P2O) .............. 0.1600%
Potash (K O) ..................... 0.0800%
Lime (CaO) ....................... Trace
Iron and alumina................. 0.8000%

No. 91-Osceola County Government Station Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C................ 0.0000%
Nitrogen ......................... 1.7000%
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 33.3900%
Phosphoric acid (P2Os) ............. Trace
Potash (K20) ..................... 0.0600%
Lime (CaO) ...................... Trace
Iron and alumina................. 2.4210%

No. 92-Osceola County Government Station Muck, sub-
soil.
Moisture at 100C ................ 0.0000%
Nitrogen ............. ............ 0.3100%
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 84.9100%
Phosphoric acid (P20s)............. Trace
Potash (K20)..................... 0.0700%
Lime (CaO) ....................... Trace
Iron and alumina................. 2.2890%o

No. 93-Osceola County Government Station Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C ................. 0.00000
Nitrogen .................. .......... ..... 2.7400%'
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 7.3900%
Phosphoric acid (P20) ............. Trace
Potash (K20)..................... 0.0900%
Lime (CaO) ....................... Trace
Iron and alumina................. 1.7600%










No. 94-Osceola County Government Station Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C................ 0.0000%
Nitrogen ......................... 3.0000%'
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 2.2500%
Phosphoric acid (P20s)............. Trace
Potash (K20).................... 0.0400%
Lime (CaO) ....................... Trace
Iron and alumina................. 1.2600%'
No. 95--Osceola County Government Station Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C................. 0.0000%
Nitrogen ......................... 2.7600%
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 2.1300%
Phosphoric acid (P20) ............. Trace
Potash (K20)..................... 0.1000%o
Lime (CaO) ....................... Trace
Iron and alumina................. 1.3900%'
No. 96-Osceola County Government Station Muck, sub-
soil.
Moisture at 1000 C................. 0.0000%
Nitrogen ......................... 1.0100%
Insoluble matter (sand)............. 65.8600%
Phosphoric acid (P20) ............. Trace
Potash (K0)...................... 0.0300%'
Lime (CaO) ....................... Trace
Iron and alumina .................. 1.3000%
No. 97-Osceola County St. Cloud Orchard Muck, sandy
ridge.
Moisture at 100 C................ 0.0000%
Nitrogen .......................... 1.50009%
Insoluble matter (sand) ........... 53.5900%
Phosphoric acid (P20,)............. Trace
Potash (K,20)..................... 0.1500%
Lime (CaO) ....................... Trace
Iron and alumina.................. 10.0100%
No. 98-Osceola County Sugar Cane Muck Land, sandy
ridge.
Moisture at 100 C................... 0.00009%
Nitrogen .......................... 1.3900%
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 50.3800%
Phosphoric acid (P20O)............. Trace
Potash (K2O)..................... 0.5100%
Lime (CaO) ....................... Trace
Iron and alumina.................. 12.6900%










No. 35-Polk County Bay Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C................. 14.7050%
Nitrogen ......................... 2.4500%
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 3.2750%
Phosphoric acid (P20s) ............ 0.0544%
Potash (K20) ..................... 0.0482%
Lime (CaO) ....................... 3.4600%
Iron and alumina................. 0.5106%
R-Orange County Reclaimed Apopka Saw Grass
Muck.
Moisture at 100 C ................. ......
Nitrogen ......................... 2.8000%
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 4.2000%
Phosphoric acid (P2,) ............. 0.2100%
Potash (K20)..................... 0.0780%
Lime (CaO) ...................... 2.0920%
Iron and alumina.................. 1.6500%
S-Orange County Reclaimed Apopka Saw Grass
Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C................. .....
Nitrogen ......................... 2.8500%7
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 4.5500%
Phosphoric acid (P205)............. 0.1810%
Potash (K20).................... 0.0700%
Lime (CaO) ...................... 1.9670%
Iron and alumina.................. 3.0200%
T-Orange County Average Saw Grass Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C.......................
Nitrogen .......................... 2.2800%
Insoluble matter (sand) ............ 10.1500%
Phosphoric acid (P2,O)............. 0.2800%
Potash (K0O) ..................... 0.0600%
Lime (CaO) ....................... 1.8300%
Iron and alumina................. 5.7000%
No. 23-Lake County Bay Muck.
Moisture at 100 C................ 13.9500%
Nitrogen ......................... 1.3832%
Insoluble matter (sand)............ 5.0480%
Phosphoric acid (P2O.) ............. 0.4032%
Potash (K0) ..................... 0.0386%
Lime (CaO) ...................... 3.1950%
Iron and alumina................. 0.6768%










No. 24-Lake County Saw Grass Muck.
Moisture at 1000 C.................
Nitrogen ..........................
Insoluble matter (sand)............
Phosphoric acid (P20) .............
Potash (K20) ......................
Lime (CaO) .......................
Iron and alumina..................


12.2200%
2.6460%
4.2770%
0.1152%
0.0116%
1.7500%
0.5748%










HOW TO LEGALLY DRAW, PACK AND TRANSMIT
SAMPLES OF FERTILIZERS AND COMMER-
CIAL FEED STUFFS FOR ANALYSIS
BY THE STATE LABORATORY.

1. Only such samples as are drawn from original
packages, EACH BEARING THE GUARANTEE OF A LAWFUL
DEALER, AND THE INSPECTION STAMP REQUIRED BY LAW, will
be analyzed by the State Laboratory, when drawn within
sixty days after date of delivery.
2. If the lot or shipment be TEN or more packages, the
sample must be drawn from NOT LESS THAN TEN packages.
3. If the lot or shipment be LESS THAN TEN packages,
the sample shall be drawn from EACH package.
4. The sample shall be drawn in the presence of TWO
disinterested witnesses, and shall be SEALED IN THEIR
PRESENCE, and TRANSMITTED by a DISINTERESTED PARTY
(one of the witnesses), to the COMMISSIONER OF AGRI-
CULTURE.
5. Not less than one pound of fertilizer, or one-half
pound of commercial feed stuff must be placed in a tin
can or glass bottle and addressed and sent, prepaid, to
the Commissioner of Agricuture.
6. The purchaser (or sender) shall address a letter
to the Commissioner of Agriculture, stating:
1. The number of original packages represented by
the sample, and the number of packages sampled.
S2. That each package had attached to it the guaran-
tee tag and stamp required by law.
3. That the sample was drawn in the presence of two
or more witnesses within sixty days of delivery.
4. THIS LETTER MUST NOT BE ENCLOSED IN THE PACKAGE.
5. The tags OFF THE PACKAGE SAMPLED, with the guar-
anteed analysis and stamps, must be RETAINED by the pur-
chaser, to compare with the certificate, and for future
evidence, if necessary, and BY NO MEANS SENT TO THIS
OFFICE.
The State Chemist is not the proper officer to receive
the sample.










STATE VALUATIONS.

(Based on Commercial Values, Dec. 31, 1916.)

For Available and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, Ammonia
and Potash, for the Season of 1917.
Available Phosphoric Acid............... 5c a pound
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid............... lc a pound
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen). .22.75c a pound
Potash (as actual potash, KO).......... 30c a pound
If calculated by Units:
Available Phosphoric Acid.......:...... .$1.00 per unit
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid. .............. .20 per unit
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen).. 4.55 per unit
Potash ................................. 6.00 per unit
With a uniform allowance of $1.50 per ton for mixing
and bagging.
A unit is twenty pounds, or 1 per cent in a ton. We
find this to be the easiet and quickest method for calcu-
lating the value of fertilizer. To illustrate this, take for
example, a fertilizer with analyses as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid. .6.11 per cent. x $1.00-$ 6.11
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid. .1.50 per cent. x .20- .30
Ammonia ................. 3.42 per cent. x 4.55- 15.56
Potash ...................3.23 per cent. x 6.00- 19.38
Mixing and Bagging .......................... 1.50

Commercial value at seaports................... $42.85
Or a fertilizer analyzing as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid.... 8 per cent. x $1.00-$ 8.00
Ammonia ... ............... 2 per cent. x 4.55- 9.10
Potash ....................2 per cent. x 6.00- 12.00
Mixing and Bagging.......................... 1.50

Commercial value at seaports.................. .30.60
The valuations and market prices in preceding illustra-
tions are based on market prices for one-ton lots.

MARKET PRICES OF CHEMICALS AND FERTILIZ-
ING MATERIALS AT FLORIDA SEAPORTS,
OCTOBER 1, 1917.
"Under unsettled conditions, potash quotations are
wholly nominal."










AMMONIATES.
Per Ton
Nitrate of Soda, 18% Ammonia, in original sacks$ 98.00
Sulphate of Ammonia, 25% Ammonia........... 150.00
Dried Blood, 16% Ammonia .................. 120.00
Cyanamid, 17% Ammonia....................... 100.00

AMMONIA AND PHOSPHORIC ACID.
High Grade Tankage, 10% Ammonia, 3% Phos-
phoric Acid ................................ 80.00
Pure Fine Ground Steamed Bone, 3% Ammonia,
22% Phosphoric Acid ........................ 45.00
Raw Bone, 4% Ammonia, 20% Phosphoric Acid.. 50.00
Ground Castor Pomace, 6% Ammonia, 2% Phos-
phoric Acid, 1% Potash..................... 46.00
Bright Cotton Seed Meal, 7% Ammonia...... Mkt. price

PHOSPHORIC ACID.
High Grade Acid Phosphate, 16% Av. Phosphoric
Acid ...................... ............... 19.00
Acid Phosphate, 14% Av. Phosphoric Acid...... 18.00
Bone Black, 16% Av. Phosphoric Acid.......... 25.00
Thomas Phosphate or Basic Slag, 18% Phosphoric
A cid ...................................... 24.00

MISCELLANEOUS.
Tobacco Dust, No. 1, 11/2% Ammonia, 2% Potash. 45.00
Baled Tobacco Stems, 2% Ammonia, 32%% KO
Potash ................................... 34.00
Tobacco Dust, extra fine and strong............. 85.00
Land Plaster .............................. 15.00
Floats, 30,% Phosphoric Acid ................... 12.00
Ashes, 2 to 3% Potash ....................... 19.00
Ashes, 3 to 4% Potash ....................... 26.00

NEW YORK WHOLESALE PRICES, CURRENT
OCTOBER 1, 1917-FERTILIZER
MATERIALS.

AMMONIATES.
Ammonia, Sulph., prompt, per cwt....... 7.00 @ 7.15
futures .............................. 7.00 @ 7.15









Fish Scrap, dried, 11% Ammonia and 14%
Bone Phosphate, f. o. b. delivered Bal-
timore, per unit.................... 6.50 @ 10
wet, acidulated, 6% Ammonia, 3% Phos-
phoric Acid, delivered............... 6.00 @ 50
Ground Fish Guano, imported, 10% Bone
Phosphate, c. i. f. N. Y., Balto. or
Philadelphia ....................... @ -
Tankage, 11 and 15%, f. o. b. Chicago...... 5.90 @ 10
Tankage, 10 and 20%, f. o. b. Chicago,
ground ............................ 5.90 @ 10
Tankage, 9 and 20%, f. o. b. Chicago,
ground ............................ 5.90 @ 10
Tankage, concentrated, f. o. b. Chicago,
14 to 15%, f. o. b. Chicago........... 5.80 @ 10
Garbage, tankage, f. o. b. Chicago........ 4.50@10-1.50
Hoofmeal, f. o. b. Chicago, per unit....... 5.80 @ -
Dried Blood, 12% Ammonia, f. o. b. New
York .............................. 6.40 @ 6.50
Tankage, f. o. b. New York.............. 6.35 @ 10
Nitrate of Soda, 95%, spot, per 100 lbs... 4.97@ 5.00
futures, 95% .............. ........... 4.97@ 5.00

PHOSPHATES.


Acid Phosphate, per ton .................
Bones, rough, hard ................. ...
soft steamed unground .................
ground, steamed, 11/4% Ammonia and
60% Bone Phosphate................
ditto, 3 and 50%. ..................
raw, ground, 4% Ammonia and 50%
Bone Phosphate ...................
South Carolina Phosphate Rock, kiln dried,
f. o. b. Ashley River.................
Florida Land Pebble Phosphate Rock, 68%,
f. o. b. Tampa, Fla .................
Florida High Grade Phosphate Hard Rock,
77%, f. o. b. Florida ports............
Tennessee Phosphate Rock, f. o. b. Mt.
Pleasant, domestic, 78@80%, per ton..
75% guaranteed .....................
68@ 72% ............................


16.00
30.00
27.50


@18.00
@35.00
@ -


30.00 @35.00
30.00 @35.00

35.00 @40.00

4.00 @ 4.50

3.15 @ 3.25

5.50 @ 6.00

5.50 @ 6.00
4.75 @ 5.00
4.25 @ 4.50










POTASHES.

Muriate of Potash, 80@85%, basis 80%,
in bags, per ton ...................325.00@350.00
Muriate of Potash, min. 90@95%, basis
80%, in bags ...................... Nominal
Muriate of Potash, min. 98%, basis 80%,
in bags ............................ Nominal
Sulphate of Potash, 90@95%, basis 80%,
in bags ............................ 300 @ -
Double Manure Salt, 48@53%, basis 48%,
in bags ..................... .... .. Nominal
Manure Salt, min. 20%, K0O, in bulk..... Nominal
Hardsalt, min. 16%, K20, in bulk........ Nominal
Kainit, min. 12.4%, K20, in bulk......... Nominal

COMMERCIAL STATE VALUES OF FEED STUFF
FOR 1917.
For the season of 1917 the following "State values"
are fixed as a guide to purchasers, quotation, January 1.
These values are based on the current prices of corn,
which has been chosen as a standard in fixing the com-
mercial values, the price of corn, to a large extent, gov-
erning the price of other feeds, pork, beef, etc.:
Indian corn being the standard at $43.00 per ton.
(2.15 per sack of 100 lbs., $1.20 per bu. 56 Ibs.)
To find the commercial State value, multiply the per-
centages by the price per unit.
A unit being 20 pounds (1%) of a ton.
Protein, 4.45c per pound. ................. 89c per unit
Starch and Sugar, 2.05c per pound.......... 41c per unit
Fats, 4.6c per pound ......................92c per unit
EXAMPLE No. 1.
Corn-
Protein ............................10.50 x 89c $ 9.34
Starch and Sugar.................... 69.60 x 41c 28.53
Fat ................................ 5.40 x92c 4.97

State value, per ton....................... .....$42.84
EXAMPLE No. 2.
Corn and Oats, Equal Parts-
Protein ........................... 11.15 x 89c $ 9.92










Starch and Sugar ....................64.65 x 41c 26.50
Fat ................................ 5.20 x 92c 4.78

State value, per ton .......................... $41.20

STATE VALUES.
It is not intended by the "State valuations" to fix the
price or commercial value of a given brand. The "State
values" are the market prices for the various approved
chemicals and materials used in mixing or manufactur-
ing commercial fertilizers or commercial stock feed at
the date of issuing a Bulletin, or the opening of the
"season." They may, but seldom do, vary from the
market prices, and are made liberal to meet any slight
advance or decline.
They are compiled from price lists and commercial
reports by reputable dealers and journals.
The question is frequently asked: "What is Smith's
Fruit and Vine worth per ton?" Such a question can-
not be answered categorically. By analysis, .the am-
monia, available phosphoric acid and potash may be de-
termined and the inquirer informed what the cost of the
necessary material to compound a ton of goods similar
to "Smith's Fruit and Vine" would be, using none but
accepted and well-known materials of the best quality.
State values do not consider "trade secrets," loss on
bad bills, cost of advertisements and expenses of collec-
tions. The "State value" is simply that price at which
the various ingredients necessary to use in compounding
a fertilizer or feed, can be purchased for cash in ton lots
at Florida seaports.
These price lists published in this report, with the
"State values," July 1, 1917, are nominal.
SPECIAL SAMPLES.
Florida is the only State in the Union that provides
for the "special sample" drawn by the consumer or pur-
chaser, UNDER PROPER RULES AND REGULATIONS FIXED BY
LAW-to be sent to the Commissioner of Agriculture for
analysis free of cost. Any citizen in the State who has
purchased fertilizers or feeds FOR HIS OWN USE MAY DRAW
A SAMPLE OF THE SAME, ACCORDING TO LAW, and have the









same analyzed by the State Chemist, free of cost. In
case of adulteration or deficiency he can, on establishing
the fact, receive double the cost demanded for the goods.
The law requires the "special samples" to be drawn in
a manner to prevent the submission of spurious samples;
rules and regulations are published in every Bulletin for
drawing and transmitting "special samples."
This special sample has been a most potent factor iny
enforcing the law and discouraging the sale of adulter-
ated or misbranded goods.
Special samples of foods and drugs may also be sent to
the State Laboratory for analysis free of cost, when the
sample is properly drawn according to law. The neces-
sary instructions and blanks required to properly draw
and transmit samples of food and drugs will be sent to
any citizen requesting the same.
"THE SPECIAL SAMPLE FURNISHES THE CON-
SUMER WITH THE SAME PROTECTION DEMAND-
ED BY THE MANUFACTURER, WHO BUYS HIS
MATERIALS ONLY UPON GUARANTEE AND PAYS
FOR THEM ACCORDING TO ANALYSIS, AND IS
PAID FOR BY THE CONSUMER OUT OF THE
FUNDS DERIVED FROM THE INSPECTION FEE
OF TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER TON PAID ON FER-
TILIZERS AND FEEDS SOLD IN THE STATE."


6-Bull.








82

COMPOSITION OF FERTILIZER MATERIALS.
NITROGENOUS MATERIALS.

Pounds ler hundred.
Total
Ammonia. Phosphoric Potash.
Acid.
hitrate of Soda.......... 17 to 191............ ............
Sulphate of Ammonia.... 21 to 261 ..................
Dried Blood ...... ..... 12 to 17 ........... .........
concentrated Tankage... 12 to 15 1 to 41 ...........
Bone Tankage .......... 6 to 0 10 to 15 ............
Dried Fish Scrap........ 6 to 11 3 to 81 ............
Cotton Seed Meal........ 7 to 10 2 to 3 1 to 2
Hoof Meal ............. 13 to 17 1 to 2 1 to 2
PHOSPHATE MATERIALS.

Pounds per Hundred.

Ammonia. Available Insoluble
Phos. Acid.
Florida Pebble Phosphate.I .......... .......... 26 to 32
Florida Rock Phosphate.............. ............ 30 to 35
Florida Super Phosphate. ........... 14 to 45 1 to 3
Ground Bone ............ 3 to 6 5 to 8 15 to 17
Steamed Bone .......... 1 to 4 6 to 9 10 to 20
Dissolved Bone .......... 2 to 4| 13 to 15 2 to 3
POTASH MATERIALS AND FARM MANURES.
Pounds Per Hundred.
Actual Am'onla. Phos. Lime.
Potash. Acid.

Muriate of Potash ...... 50 to (i2 .............. .......
Sulphate of Potash..... 48 to 52 ....... ......... .........
Carbonate of Potash.... 55 to 0 ....... ......... ...
Nitrate of Potash....... 40 to 44 12 to 16 .................
Dbl. Sul. of Pot. and Mag. 25 to 30 ..........................
Kainit ................. 12 to 13 ......... ..................
Sylvinit ............... 16 to 20 ......... ..... .
Cotton Seed Hull Ashes.. 15 to 30 ......... 7 to 9 10
Wood Ashes, unleached. 2 to 8 ......... 1 to 2 .........
Wood Ashes, leached.... 0 to 2 ......... 1 to 1~ 35 to 40
Tobacco Stems ......... 3 to 9 2 to 4 ......... 3
Cow Manure (fresh).... 0.45 0.50 0.30 0.30
Horse Manure (fresh).. 0.50 0.0 0.25 0.30
Sheep Manure (fresh).. 0.X0 1.00 0.35 0.35
Hog Manure (fresh).... 0.30 1.00 0.40 0.10
Hen Dung (fresh)...... 0.85 1.75 1.25 0.25
Mixed Stable Manure... 0.50 0.75 0.50 0.70









FACTORS FOR CONVERSION.

To Convert-
Ammonia into nitrogen, multiply by............ 0.824
Ammonia into protein, multiply by.............. 5.15
Nitrogen into ammonia, multiply by............ 1.214
Nitrate of soda into nitrogen, multiply by ........ 0.1647
Nitrogen into protein, multiply by.............. 6.25
Bone phosphate into phosphoric acid, multiply by 0.458
Phosphoric acid into bone phosphate, multiply by 2.184
Muriate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.632
Actual potash into muriate of potash, multiply by 1.583
Sulphate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.541
Actual potash into sulphate of potash, multiply by 1.85
Nitrate of potash into nitrogen, multiply by...... 0.139
Carbonate of potash into actual potash, multiply 0.681
Actual potash into carbonate of potash, multiply 1.466
Chlorine, in "kainit," multiply potash (KO) by.. 2.33
For instance, you buy 95 per cent nitrate of soda and
want to know how much nitrogen is in it, multiply 95
per cent by 0.1647, you will get 15.65 per cent nitrogen;
you want to know how much ammonia this nitrogen is
equivalent to, then multiply 15.65 per cent by 1.214 and
you get 18.99 per cent, the equivalent in ammonia.
Or, to convert 90 per cent carbonate of potash into
actual potash (K,O), multiply 90 by 0.681, equals 61.29
per cent actual potash (KO).







84

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA FEEDING
STUFFS.

-0
II
NAME OF FEED. d
e i


Maiden Cane Hay..... 28.60 11.60 42.40 2.60 4.20

Natal Grass Hay...... 36.70 7.40 39.20 1.80 5.00

Para Grass Hay...... 31.20 8.00 45.70 1.60 6.20

Rhodes Grass Hay.... 41.10 7.70 36.80 1.30 6.60

Beggarweed Hay...... 24.30 21.60 35.10 4.10 4.00

Kudzu Vine Hay...... 32.30 15.90 33.00 1.60 6.80

Cow Pea Hay......... 20.50 13.00 45.90 4.20 7.50

Velvet Bean Hay..... 29.70 14.70 41.00 1.70 5.70

Velvet Beans ......... 7.00 21.00 53.10 5.40 3.60

Velvet Bean Hulls.... 27.00 7.50 44.60 1.60 4.30

Velvet Beans and Hulls 10.70 9.40 50.60 4.50 3.50

Cow Peas ............ 4.10 20.80 55.70 1.40 3.20

Soy Bean Meal....... 4.50 48.40 27.50 6.40 4.40

Peanut Vine Meal..... 29.60 9.90 38.40 6.30 6.60

Cotton Seed.......... 23.20 18.40 24.70 19.90 3.50

Cotton Seed Hulls.... 44.40 4.00 36.60 2.00 2.60

Bright Cotton S'd Meal 9.40 38.62 28.60 7.80 5.80


--








85

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA FEEDING
STUFFS--(Continued).



NAME OF FEED. E



Dark Cotton Seed Meal 20.00 23.15 37.10 5.50 5.00

Barley (grain) ....... 2.70 12.40 69.80 1.80 2.40

Corn Grain........... 2.10 10.50 69.60 5.40 1.50

Corn Meal............ 1.90 9.70 68.70 3.80 1.40

Hominy Feed......... 4.00 10.50 65.30 7.80 2.60

Corn and Cob Meal.... 5.80 7.50 70.80 3.10 1.20

Ground Corn Shucks.. 30.20 2.80 54.60 0.60 1.90

Ground Corn Cobs.... 30.00 3.00 56.60 0.70 1.60

Oats (grain) ......... 9.50 11.80 59.70 5.00 3.00

Rice (grain) ......... 0.20 7.40 79.20 0.40 0.40

Rice Bran............ 9.50 12.10 49.90 8.80 10.00

Wheat (grain) ....... 1.80 11.90 71.90 2.10 1.80

Wheat Bran.......... 9.00 15.40 53.90 4.00 5.80

Wheat Middlings ..... 5.40 15.40 53.90 4.00 5.80

Wheat Mixed Feed.... 7.80 16.90 54.40 4.80 5.30

Wheat Ship Stuff..... 5.60 14.60 59.80 5.00 3.70

Dry Jap Sugar Cane.. 26.20 2.30 62.60 1.501 2.80








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FERTILIZER SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1917. FRANK T. WILSON, Asst. Chemist.
Snlnples Taken by Purchaser Under Section 9. Act Approved May 22, 1901.


Phosphoric Acid
0
NAME, OR BRAND. 3 *.
l l I I
o3 w - &
-.4 f t


High Grade Fertilizer..........

Fertilizer .....................

Fertilizer ....................

Ammonia Salt ................

Tankage ......................

Fertilizer .....................

Fertilizer "A" ................

Fertilizer "B" ................


8.57

7.18

7.81

15.33

5.78

10.68

12.46


42471 9.051 5.GO


4.72 8.60

1.S7113.65

1.72 8.85

..... .....

5.30' 8.10

4.47 10.65

2.05 8.80

3.251 8.85


5.051 0.98


K. S. Parrish, Parrish.

J. W. Jernigan, Orlando.

C. L. Parrish, Parrish.

Robert Ranson, St. Augustine.

Carroll Dunscombe, Stuart.

C. W. Field, Orlando.


3.95| 3.701W. W. Waters, Delray.

5.40 2.00 G. A. Sparks, Delray.








Fertilizer "C" ................. 424 13.73

High Grade Fertilizer......... 4240 5.41

Phoslime ...................... 4250 .....

Ashes ......................... 4251 ....

Fertilizer .................. .. 4252 16.76

Fertilizer ..................... 4253 12.48

Mixed Fertilizer ............... 4254 5.80


2.090 7.70 4.20

3.37 0.40 4.70

17.451 .90 .....



7.65110.30 3.23

4.20112.40 5.13

1.401 9.00 4.38
1


3.22 J. W. Rogers, Delray.

..... K. S. Parrlsh, Parrish.

....K. S. Parrish, Parish.

6.47 Del Orb Fruit Co., Clearwater.

0.27 J. L. Earman, West Palm Beach.

2.03 R. P. Hansen, Kissimmee.

0.43 W. H. Byers, Sanford.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FERTILIZER SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. OFFICIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1917. FRANK T. WILSON, Asst. Chemist.
Samples Taken by State Chemist and State Inspectors Under Sections 1 and 2, Act Approved May 22, 1901.
Deficiencies Greater Than 0.20% Are Distinguished by Black Face Type.


NAME, OR BRAND.


a 0
cd rj
c 30


Phosphoric Acid.

. 3

s i -
$3 0


I I
Wizard Manure ................ 2504 Guaranteed ..... ..... .....
S Found..... 12.62 .. .....

W. & C. Florida Vegetable Fer-i2505 Guaranteed 10.00 6.00 1.00
tilizer ....................... Found ..... 11.90 5.70 3.60

Cherokee Grower............... 2506 Guaranteed 12.00 9.00 .....
Found..... 9.26 8.50 4.60

Cuban Guano .................. 2507 Guaranteed 18.00 6.00 10.00
Found..... 20.931 5.7015.00

Sheep Manure................. 2508Guaranteed ........
] Found...... 9.58 2.90 0.40


BY WHOM AND
WHERE
MANUFACTURED.


I I
1.00 2.10 1.00 Tne Pulverized Manure Co.,
1.70 2.73 3.101 Chicago, Ill.-

7.00 4.001 3.00Amer. Agricultural Chem.
9.30 4.23 3.35 Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

..... 4.00 .....Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer
13.10 4.23 ..... Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

16.00 1.00 1.00|The Cuban Guano Co.,
20.70 1.051 0.39 Tampa, Fla.

..... .. ..... Virginia-Carolina Chemical
3.30 2.48 1.741 Co., Savannah, Ga.








Sheep's Head Pulverized Sehep 2509 Guaranteed .....
Manure ................ .... Found ..... 11.72 1.00 .....
I I 1.2 0.18
Orange Tree Fruiter............ 2510 Guaranteed .....
Found..... 4.88 8.00 .....
1 1 9.19 1.80
Ideal Strawberry Fertilizer ..... 2511Guaranteed 12.001
Found..... 11.651 8.00 .....
1 I 111.20 3.20
Special Mixture ............... 2512|Guaranteed 12.00
Found..... 13.43 9.00 .....
110.60 1.05


1.251 2.73! 1.50]Natural Guano Co., Aurora,
1.80 3.52 1.991 Ill.

..... 4.00 ..... E. O. Painter Fertilizer
10.95 3.80 ..... Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

.... 4.001..... Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer
8.00 4.301..... Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

.... 3.00 .....Peninsular Fertilizer Co.,
11.65 3.65 ..... Palatka, Fla.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FEEDING STUFF SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. SPECIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1917. E. PECK GREENE, Asst. Chemist.
Samples Taken by Purchaser Under Section 9, Act Approved May 24, 1905.



.NAME, OR B FOR WHOM SENT.
E OR B
44 04


Cocoanut Meal .................... 392


Cotton Seed Meal ..................

Sugar Beet Meal.................

Cotton Seed Meal.................

W ild M illet :......................

Ground Feed ......................

Velvet Beans and Ear Corn.........

Pure Velvet Bean Feed.............
(Bean and Pod.)


7.321 21.50


393 ......

394 8.18

395 ......

3961 30.45

397 12.37

398 19.67

399 14.95


48.51


36.05 ......

11.48 46.07

36.051......

8.55 43.51

14.261 53.23

13.511 50.11

16.901 49.20


7.30



0.44


1.00

3.67

3.02

3.80


I
5.6blThe Southern Cotton Oil Co.,
| Charleston, S. C.
I
...... J. T. Taylor, Quincy.

26.12 Consolidated Gro. Co., Jacksonville.
I
...... E. L. Hoadley, Tarpon Springs.

8.87lCarleton G. Smith, Christmas.

4.97 J. G. Permenter Co., Jacksonville.
3.92J. W. Gibson, Sneads.
4.5592J. W. Gibson, Sneads.
4.551J. W. Gibson, Sneads.
I


I







Cotton Seed Meal.................

Mixed Feed .......................

Cotton Seed Meal.................

Grass ..........................

Corn in Shucks and Velvet Beans...


400 ......

401 7.90

402 ......

403 26.20

404 16.75


41.71 ......

14.70 50.69

33.99 .....

11.321 41.06

12.901 51.71


11.071

2.72



2.15

2.02


...... Frank N. Smalley, Savannah, Ga.

11.321W. H. Webb, Winter Haven.

...... W. P. Bryan, Baker.
I
9.921J. Hinton Pledger, Tallahassee.

4.20 J. Frank Cochran, Tallahassee.


i










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FEEDING STUFF SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. OFFICIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1917. E. PECK GREENE, asst. Chemist
Samples Taken by State Chemist and State Inspectors Under Sections 1, 2 and 13, Act Approved May 24, 1905.
Deficiencies Greater than 0.20% are Distinguished by Black Face Type.


NAME, OR BRAND. 2s i 3 NAME AND ADDRESS OF
3 | ~ A MANUFACTURER.
_____z_ <__ E & 5_


Peters' King Corn............. 2578 Guaranteed 18.001
S Found ..... 18.10
I I
Cumberland Dairy and Cattle 12579 Guaranteed 20.00
Feed ....................... Found ..... 19.33[

Chick Chuck Poultry Feed..... 2580 Guaranteed 1.00
I Found..... 0.971
Buco Cotton Seed Meal........ 2581iGuaranteed 27.001
I Found..... 22.551
I I I 1
Economy Horse and Mule Feed 2582 Guaranteed 12.001
Found..... 11.271
Daisy Dairy Feed............... 2583Guaranteed 12.00
Found..... 21.67


10.00 50.00
10.35 48.38

16.00 45.00
16.25 43.28

50.00 ......
51.24 4.47
20.00 38.00
33.08 30.15

8.00 50.00
10.39 53.32

12.00 50.00
12.29 44.65


1.50 ...... M. C. Peters Mill Co., Oma-
1.621 9.001, ha, Neb.

4.00 ...... Trio Milling Co., Grovania,
4.041 4.601 Ga.
I I
2.001 30.00 Russion Cement Co., Glouces-
2.051 34.521 ter, Mass.
I I
3.50 ...... The Buckeye Cotton 'Oil Co.,
3.70 4.071 Cincinnati, Ohio.

2.50 ...... John E. Koerner & Co., New
2.41 9.101 Orleans, La.

4.00 ...... J. T. Gibbons, New Orleans,
1.881 7.751 La.







Milco Feed ................... 2584lGuaranteed
|Found.....
Second Class Cotton Seed Meal 2585 Guaranteed


Lookout Dairy Feed...........2586lGuaranteed
Found.....
blue Ribbon Dairy Feed....... 2587 Guaranteed
S Found.....

Milk Made Dairy Feed......... 25881Guaranteed
Found .....
Alfalfa Meal ................. 2589 Guaranteed
Found.....
Red Comb Meat Mash with 2591 Guaranteed
Shell ....................... Found ....

Creamo Brand Cotton Seed 12592 Guaranteed
Meal ....................... Found.....

Besto Scratch Feed........... 2593 Guaranteed
Found.....

Happy Hen Scratch Feed...... 2594 Guaranteed
Found.....


22.00 20.00
24.421 15.80

.. . 36.05
35.45

25.00 15.00
23.07i 14.92
]
14.00] 25.00
10.10] 25.18

12.501 24.00
12.701 24.13

36.00 14.00
22.87 14.92

10.001 15.00
5.651 16.22

.. . 20.00
21.92 21.32

4.001 11.00
2.371 11.58

5.001 10.00
3.10j 10.62


30.00
41.72



45.00
44.86

41.00
43.73

48.00
40.45


41.44

45.00
54.93

30.00
38.96

65.00
67.41

65.00
68.84


5.00 ...... Empire Cotton Oil Co., At-
4.661 3.691 lanta, Ga.

..... .... Camilla Cotton Oil and Fer-
...... ..... tilizer Co., Camilla, Ga.

4.00 ...... Monarch Mills, Chattanooga,
4.051 4.751 Tenn.
1 i
5.00 ...... The Quaker Oats Co., Chi-
5.82 5.521 cago, Ill.
i I
5.00 ...... International Sugar Feed
6.09 8.201 Co., Memphis, Tenn.
I I
1.20 ...... The Lebanon Alfalfa Mills,
1.581 9.521 Lebanon, Kans.
I I
4.00. ..... Hales & Edwards Co., Chi-
4.281 7.701 cago, Ill.
i I
5.00 ...... Tennessee Fibre Co., Mem-
4.58 4.151 phis, Tenn.

3.60 ...... J. T. Gibbons, New Orleans,
4.07 2.001 La.

3.501...... Edgar-Morgan Co., Memphis,
3.701 2.371 Tenn.
i I


I I










OFFICIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1917-Continued.


NAME, OR BRaID. jg >



Second Class Cotton Seed Meal 2595 Guaranteed
Found.....

Reliable Chick Feed........... 25961Guaranteed
Found.....

Best Molasses Feed........... 2597 Guaranteed
Found.....

Nutro Sweet Feed............. 2598 Guaranteed
Found.....

Bully Mule Feed............... 2599Guaranteed
Found....
Old Virginy H. & M. Molasses 126001Guaranteed
Feed ....................... Found.....

Molco Horse and Mule Feed.... 2601Guaranteed
Found.....

Slos Middlings ................ 2602 Guaranteed
I Found.....


0 0)
S .


23.501

6.001
1.82

12.00
10.35

15.00]
13.75j

23.001
22.501

12.00
12.54

16.001
14.791

8.001
6.501


20.00 32.00
21.06 37.55

10.00 50.00
10.35 69.61

10.00 55.00
10.90 55.16

9.00 55.00
10.62 55.78

9.00 45.00
10.21 46.71

9.00 52.00
10.93 53.40

9.00 50.00
11.69 48.79

15.'00 54.00
16.321 54.67


NAME AND ADDRESS OF
3j MANUFACTURER.


6.00 ...... The Southern Cotton Oil Co.,
4.17 4.001 Pensacola, Fla.

3.00 ...... Excello Feed Milling Co., St.
2.80 4.851 Joseph, Mo.

3.50 ...... J. T. Gibbons, New Orleans,
2.94 6.351 La.

2.50 ...... INational Oats Co., St. Louis,
2.42 6.321 Mo.

3.00 ...... Just Mills, Nashville, Tenn.
2.42 6.361

2.50 ...... J. T. Gibbons, New Orleans,
3.67 6.741 La.

2.00 ...... G. E. Patteson & Co.. Mem-
2.181 8.751 phis, Tenn.

4.00 ...... Slos & Crescent Milling Co.,
3.821 6.771 Chicago, Ill.








Velvet Bean Meal............. 2603Guaranteed 14.00 17.25
Found.... 11.15 17.99
Wheat Shorts ................ 26041Guaranteed 8.00 16.00
Found..... 6.00 16.06
I I
Pure Wheat Shorts........... 2605|Guaranteed 6.001 16.00
SFound..... 5.05 16.02
Corno Dairy Feed............. 2606Guaranteed 15.00! 15.00
Found..... 18.501 15.74
Corno Sweet Feed............. 2607Guaranteed 15.00 10.00
IFound..... 13.18 11.02
Supreme Horse and Mule Feed. 2608|Guaranteed 12.00 11.00
Found..... 9.93 11.04
Stafolife Horse and Mule Feed. 2609IGuaranteed 12.00 9.00
SIFound..... 14.52 11.60
Old Jack Horse and Mule Feed.12610 Guaranteed 16.00 9.00
IFound..... 13.94 12.71
Lucky Horse and Mule Feed... 2611 Guaranteed 15.00 9.50
IFound.....f 14.80 9.41
Red Comb Poultry Feed........ 2612 Guaranteed 5.00 10.00
Found.....j 4.25 10.88
11 11


55.00
52.22

56.00
56.22

58.00
57.97

50.00
44.12

25.00
53.50

50.00
58.07

55.00
47.53

50.00
52.40

54.00
57.76

60.00
67.52


4.25 ...... McGowin-Bennet Milling Co.,
4.37 4.10! Georgiana, Ala.

4.00 ...... Cairo Milling Co., Cairo, Ill.
4.13 5.271

4.50 ...... The Acme Mills, Hopkins-
4.27 4.921 ville, Ky.

3.50 ...... The Corno Mills Co., St.
3.041 5.351 Louis, Mo.
I I
2.50 ...... The Corno Mills Co., St.
2.141 6.101 Louis, Mo.

2.501...... The Superior Feed Co., Mem-
2.231 6.93[ phis, Tenn.

3.001...... John E. Koerner & Co., New
3.60 9.451 Orleans, La.

1.50...... John Wade & Sons, Mem-
2.351 3.461 phis, Tenn.

2.25 ...... Marco Mills, Pine Bluff, Ark.
2.68 4.011

2.50 ...... Hales & Edwards, Chicago,
3.351 2.401 Ill.
I I


I I









OFFICIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1917-Continued.


NAME, OR BRAND. NAME AND ADDRESS OF
NA.E O MANUFACTURER.

-~ < Cd k P


I I I
Milk Made Dairy Feed......... 26131Guaranteed[ 12.50 24.00
aFound ..... 15.70 24.04
Wheat Bran .................. 2614 Guaranteed 10.00 14.50
Found..... 9.45 16.67
Wheat Bran with Screenings... 2615 Guaranteed1 9.501 14.50
IFound..... 9.751 17.11
I 1
Alfalfa Meal .................. 26161Guaranteed 36.00 12.00
Found..... 28.30 14.30

Victor Feed .................. 26171Guaranteed 12.00 8.00
IFound..... 5.70 9.74
I I
Wade's Little Chick Feed..... 2618Gsuaranteed 4.001 11.00
Found..... 2.22) 12.55

Peters' "Arab" Horse Feed..... 2619Guaranteed| 15.00 10.00
I Found..... 13.44 12.04


48.00
45.46

54.00
52.36

54.00
49.73

35.05
62.00
64.01

65.00
65.33

59.00
52.28


I I
5.00J ...... International Sugar Feed
6.901 8.501 Co., Memhpis, Tenn.

4.00 ...... National Feed Co., St. Louis,
4.20 6.651 Mo.

4.00 ...... Standard-Tilton Milling Co., w
3.771 6.671 St. Louis, Mo.

1.501 ......The Wichita Alfalfa Stock
1.301 8.301 Food Co., Wichita, Kans.

3.00 ...... The Quaker Oats Co., Chi-
3.101 4.531 cago, Ill.

3.00 ...... John Wade & Sons, Mem-
3.001 4.501 phis, Tenn.
I I
2.00 ......IM. C. Peters Mill Co., Omaha,
2.35 6.081 Neb.









Sweepstakes Horse and Mule 12620 Guaranteedl 17.00|
Feed ....................... Found..... 15.79

Emerald Horse Feed........... 2621IGuaranteed 15.00
Found..... 13.281
S1I
Merit Horse and Mule Feed.... 12622 Guaranteed 15.00
IFound..... 11.36

Peters' Economy Horse Feed.. 26231Guaranteed 20.001
IFound .... 16.48

Kutter Horse and Mule Feed... 2624]Guaranteed 20.00
IFound..... 17.711

Nutro Sweet Feed............. 2625Guaranteed 15.001
IFound..... 14.231
I I
Jockey Horse and Mule Feed.. 2626 Guaranteed 15.00
Found..... 19.05)
I 1
Economy Horse and Mule Feed 12627 Guaranteed 12.001
IFound..... 18.20)
I I
Corno Sweet Feed.............. 2628 Guaranteed 15.00|
|Found..... 12.971
I I I
The Great South Horse and 2629 Guaranteed 14.00]
Mule Feed .................. IFound..... 6.961
I 1


9.00
11.71

9.00
10.69

9.00
11.01

10.00
10.84

9.00
11.09

9.00
9.07

9.50
9.78

8.00
8.70

10.00
10.59

10.00
1.83


50.00
51.88

50.00
49.59

50.00
54.35

45.00
49.85

45.00
45.94

55.00
56.16

54.00
52.28

50.00
46.26

55.00
53.41

50.00
57.41


2.00 ...... Indian Milling Co., Tusca-
2.16 6.261 loosa, Ala.

2.00 ...... John E. Koerner & Co., New
2.13 9.291 Orleans, La.

1.50 ...... Great Western Feed Co., St.
1.26 7.281 Louis, Mo.

2.001 ......M. C. Peters Mill Co., Omaha,
2.201 6.67[ Neb.
I I
1.00 ...... Kornfalfa Feed Milling Co.,
1.811 8.341 Kansas City, Mo.

2.50 ...... National Oats Co., St. Louis, a
2.25 6.00| Mo.
I I
2.25 ...... Marco Mlls, Pine Bluff, Ark.
2.641 4.491

2.50 ...... John E. Koerner & Co., New
2.571 10.20! Orleans, La.
I I
2.50 ...... The Corno Mills Co., St.
2.42 6.45] Louis, Mo.

3.00 ...... South Georgia Milling Co.,
2.391 6.091 Valdosta, Ga.
I I


--









OFFICIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1917--Continued.


NAME, OR BRAND. 2 a a NAME AND ADDRESS.OF
NAME, OR BRAND. MANUFACTURER.
o S S MANUFACTURER.
cd T4 .0


I I
Peters' King Corn............. 2630 Guaranteed
Found.....

Veribest Horse Feed.......... 2631 Guaranteed
ound.....
Happy Jack Molasses Feed.... 12632 Guaranteed
Found.....

Old Beck Sweet Feed.......... 2633 Guaranteed
Found.....

Stafolife Horse and Mule Feed. 2634 Guaranteed
IFound.....
I
Green Cross Horse Mixed Feed 26351Guaranteed
Found.....

East Coast Sweet Feed....... 2636Guaranteed
Found.....

Economy Ox Feed............ 2637 Guaranteed
SFound.....


I I I


18.00U
17.761

12.00
12.88

12.00
14.22

12.001
9.331

12.00
11.65

12.001
13.58

12.00
17.26

16.861
19.051


50.00
46.29

55.00
53.26

52.00
57.34

55.00
59.82

55.00
56.28

62.00
59.55

57.00
49.32

44.49
53.72


I I
1.501 ......M. C. Peters Mill Co., Omaha,
1.50 7.501 Neb.

2.00 ...... John E. Koerner & Co., New
2.081 8.70] Orleans, La.

2.501...... J. T. Gibbons, New Orleans,
2.181 6.821 La.

2.00 ..... |Edgar-Morgan Co., Memphis,
2.30 6.821 Tenn.
I
3.00 ...... John E. Koerner & Co., New
3.56 8.74[ Orleans, La.

2.50 ...... The Quaker Oats Co., Chi-
2.47 4.691 cago, Ill.

1.50 ...... Consolidated Grocery Co..
1.14 6.411 Jacksonville, Fla..

2.64 ...... Cottondale Milling Co., Cot-
1.82 3.471 tondale, Fla.








Peerless Alfamo Horse Feed... 26381Guaranteed
IFound .....

Gongalez Horse and Mule Feed 12639 Guaranteed
Found.....
I
Red Mill Molasses Feed.......2640FGuaranteedl
Found.....

Sugaration Stock Feed ........ 2641Guaranteed
I |Found.....
Purina Feed with Molasses.... 2642 Guaranteed
Found.....

Bay Mule Molasses Feed....... 2643 Guaranteed
IFound.....
Golden Sweet Mule Feed....... 2644]Guaranteedl
IFound.....
I I
Dandy Horse and Mule Feed... 2645]Guaranteedl
Found.....

IFound.....
I II


12.00 10.00 55.00
12.78 13.20 52.55

15.001 10.00 54.00
10.43 12.76 57.50

16.001 9.00 55.00
11.88] 11.83 53.68

11.041 11.05 64.00
14.14] 11.59 53.90

13.001 9.30 53.00
11.98 11.46 56.60

14.00 8.50 49.00
16.57 8.96 54.15

15.001 9.00 58.00
16.711 10.82 54.90
1
14.00] 10.00 55.00
14.62 11.70 50.42

15.001 10.00 50.00
14.401 11.46 51.45
1


2.00 ......O1maha Alfalfa Milling Co.,
2.13 7.12 Omaha, Neb.
I I
3.00 ...... The M. F. Gonzalez Co., Pen-
3.16 5.671 sacola, Fla.

1.501...... National Milling Co., Macon,
1.39 6.331 Ga.

2.50 ...... G. E. Patteson & Co., Mem-
2.51 4.901 pnis, Tenn.

1.701...... Purina Mills, St. Louis, Mo.
1.80 5.31!

1.50 ...... Milam-Morgan Co., New Or- c
1.581 6.581 leans, La.
I 1
2.00 ...... The Quaker 'Oats Co., Chi-
1.501 6.311 cago, Ill.

2.00 ...... John Wade & Sons, Mem-
2.051 7.311. phis, Tenn.
2.50 ...... The Quaker Oats Co., Chi-
2.18 5.841 cago, Ill.
I


I


I




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