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 Cover
 County map of the state of...
 Part I
 Part II. Condition and prospective...
 Part III. Immature citrus fruit;...






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00042
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00042
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
    County map of the state of Florida
        Page 2
    Part I
        Page 3
        Page 4
        The values of pasturage in pig raising, etc.
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Home curing of meat
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        We must learn how to live with the boll weevil
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Gardening in Florida
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
    Part II. Condition and prospective yield of crops for quarter ending September 30, 1916
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Part III. Immature citrus fruit; rules and regulations; fertilizers, feeding stuffs, and foods and drugs
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Immature citrus fruit
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
Full Text





Volume 26 Number 4



FLORIDA,

QUARTERLY


BULLETIN
OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


OCTOBER 1, 1916


W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.

Part 1-The Value of Pasture in Pig Raisnq, Etc. Home
Curing of Meat. We Must Learn I-:ow to Live With
the Boll Weevil. Home Gardening in Florida.
Part 2-Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops for
Quarter Ending September 30, 1916.
Part 3-Immature Citrus Fruit. Rules and Regulations.
Fertilizers, Feeding Stuffs, and Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, 1 lrida, ,:r second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.
THESt BULLETINS ARE ISSUED fREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

T. J. APPLEYARD, STATE PRINTER
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
































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PART I.

The Value of Pasture in Pig Raising, Etc.
Home Curing of Meat.
We Must Learn How to Live With the Boll
Weevil.
Home Gardening in Florida.










THE VALUE OF PASTURAGE IN PIG RAIS-
ING AND AS A MEANS OF REDUCING
THE COST OF THE PRODUCTION
OF PORK.


By H. S. Elliot, Chief Clerk Dept. of Agriculture.

Successful pig raising depends upon many things,
chief among which are: the right kind of animals, the
best methods of feeding and management, quality of the
breeds and, at least a fair knowledge of the relative value
of the numerous kinds of feeding stuffs, so that the herd
may be maintained cheaply and efficiently and that the
pork be produced at as low a cost as possible. The pigs
must, of course, be supplied with the nutrients necessary
to a proper development of the carcass. Therefore, the
question of feeding rightly to attain the ends desired, is
a vital one, but one which intelligent management and
careful investigation will solve to the grower's advantage.
Good animals and good rations, however, are not all that
is necessary to successful hog raising. The herd must be
properly managed so' as to get the necessary amount of
exercise, be kept healthy and thrifty, free from vermin and
worms, good shelter, etc. These details which are often
overlooked or neglected are important and go very far in
reducing the cost of pork production.
In addition to the above, the principal elements in the
economical production of pork are the combination of
pasturage and feeding of grain and other products, mainly
concentrates, composed of mixed, ground and cracked
cereals, which can be generally produced on the average
farm. The old way of turning the hogs out to run wild on
the open range, taking care of themselves, in a way, feed-
ing on mast, roots, etc., was to a certain extent permiss-
able under existing circumstances, but experience and in-
vestigation have demonstrated that a system of cultivated










crops, which provide grazing throughout the grazing and
fattening seasons with grain near the end of the fattening
period is not only more healthful to the stock, but is far-
reaching in the reduction of cost. Probably the best plan,
and the one recommended by this Department and also
practiced quite largely by successful growers, is to graze
the pigs on oats, rye, clovers and grasses of various kinds
and towards spring add to the grazing crops, rape, millet,
barley, etc., and towards summer and throughout this
period into the fall the oat stubble, peas, soy beans, burr
clover, velvet beans, etc. During this time a small amount
of grain should be given about once a day, which will
carry the pigs along well and cheaply and, at the same
time, making good rate of growth. Also in winter the
feeding of leguminous hays, which all hogs like to eat,
should be practiced in addition to the concentrated feeds
which will assist very materially in cheapening the cost
of production.
Again the following of cattle by pigs on limited areas,
or where cattle are herded at night and fed on grain or
hay. is also an important item in economical feeding, be-
cause of the waste they will pick up.
When silage is used in feeding cattle, it is also in the
line of economy to feed the silage to hogs, which can be
allowed them in quantity without limit, as they will eat
only what they want, without danger. This also takes to
a considerable degree, the place of grazing and even with
it, is of great assistance, adding to its efficiency as also
its economy.
Another way in which the pig economically returns a
profit to the owner not usually considered is, by bringing
much better returns for feed of inferior quality than could
possibly be obtained by selling such feed. In this con-
nection it must not be forgotten that the pig removes only
a minimum quantity of fertilizing material in his carcass,
while he leaves a maximum amount in the form of manure.










These are also important points to be observed in the econ-
omical production of pork.
The fattening period generally begins with the earliest
ripening corn and peas, which are usually in condition to
graze about August 1st to 15th in Florida. Both the fall
and spring pigs can then be turned into the fields, the
young pigs picking up most of the grain which the large
hogs usually waste. This crop will generally carry the
pigs till about October and then the velvet beans, soy
beans and peanuts are ready for grazing. As before
stated, the smaller pigs will pick up the scattered grain
on which they will make rapid gains.
Soy beans and peanuts are low in carbohydrates, but
are very rich in protein. Therefore corn should be fed in
connection with those to balance the ration; the pigs will
graze on this crop until about the first of December when
the sweet potato crop is thoroughly matured and ready to
feedi. Then the eight to twelve months old pigs are about
right in condition and size to pen for fattening and finish-
ing on corn and, if advisable or desired, also fed with the
corn, a little cotton seed meal with corn, or better still
allowed to graze on the potatoes within narrow limits so
as not to give them too much exercise.
In this method of feeding the hogs it is demonstrated
that the largest gains per acre are almost invariably made
with sweet potatoes, but this kind of fat is soft and oily
and to offset this so as to obtain better results from the
sweet potatoes, about one pound each of corn and cotton
seed meal per head, daily, should be fed. After grazing
on the potatoes for from three to five weeks as above sug-
gested, the pigs will usually be about ready for market,
the final and finishing feeding being corn or corn and cot-
ton seed meal. What potatoes ar left in the field can be
gathered by the brood sows and young pigs.
It will be noticed that, in the above methods, the hogs
are required to gather practically all of their food. This
not only saves a great deal of labor but, by actual expe-








8

rience, has proved to be an economical practice, the pigs
making under this treatment from one-fourth to one-third
greater gain per acre when allowed to gather the crops
themselves, than if confined and the food carried to them.
This is due in great part to the fact that they will eat a
large proportion of the stems and leaves of the pea vines,
velvet beans, soy beans and peanuts, all of which, es-
pecially when the peas and grain are included, are rich
in protein.
If the above methods are carefully and intelligently
observed and followed out, it is reasonably certain that
pork can be produced in this State within the limits of
three cents per pound. In fact, there are many instances
and many localities where this is regularly accomplished,
and the methods herein described are common practice.












HOME CURING OF MEAT.



(By H. S. ELLIOT.)

At this season of the year a great many inquiries are
received asking for information as to best methods and
processes for the Home Curing of Meat in Florida. The
following methods have been proven entirely reliable
in all parts of the State, and we can recommend them
as sure and safe.
Curing meats with brine is a good method for farm use.
It is less trouble to pack the meat in a barrel and pour
brine over it than to go over it three or four times and
rub in salt, as in the dry-curing method. The brine also
protects the meat from insects and vermin. Brine made
of pure water and according to the direction in the fol-
lowing recipes should keep a reasonable length of time.
During warm weather, however, brine should be watched
closely, and if it becomes "ropy" like sirup, it should be
boiled or new brine made. A cool, moist sellar is the
best place for brine curing.
Pure water, salt, sugar or molasses, and saltpeter are
al the ingredients needed for the ordinary curing of
meat. The meat may be packed in large earthen jars
or a clean hardwood barrel. The barrel or jar may be
used repeatedly unles meat has spoiled in it. It should
be scalded thoroughly, however, each time before fresh
meat is packed.
Curing should begin as soon as the meat is cooled and
while it is still fresh. Ordinarily 24 to 36 hours after
slaughter are sufficient for cooling. Frozen meat should
not be salted, as the frost prevents proper penetration
of the salt and uneven curing results.










SUGAR-CURED HAMS AND BACON.

When the meat is cooled, rub each piece with salt and
allow it to drain over night. Then pack it in the barrels
with the hams and shoulders in the bottom, using the
strips of bacon to fill in between or to put on top. Weigh
out for each one hundred pounds of meat, eight pounds
of salt, two pounds of brown sugar, and two ounces of
saltpeter. Two ounces of finely ground black pepper may
be added with benefit. Dissolve all in four gallons of
water, and cover the meat with the brine. For summer
use it will be safest 1o boil the brine before using. In that
case it should be cooled thoroughly before it is used. For
winter curing it is not necessary to boil the brine. Bacon
strips should remain in this brine four to six weeks;
hams six to eight weeks. This is a standard recipe and
has given the best of satisfaction. Hams and bacon cured
in the spring will keep right through Ihe summer after
they are smoked. The meat will be sweet and palatable
if smoked properly, and the flavor will be good.

PLAIN SALT PORK.

Rub each piece of meat with fine common salt and
pack closely in a barrel. Let stand over night. The
next day weigh out ten pounds of salt and two ounces
of saltpeter to each 100 pounds of meat and dissolve in
four (4) gallons of boiling water. Pour this brine over
the meat when cold, cover and weight down to keep it
under the brine. Meat will pack best if cut into pieces
about 6 inches square. The pork should be kept in the
brine till used.

How TO SMOKE AMEAT.

Pickled and cured meats are smoked to aid in their
preservation and to give flavor and palatability. The











creosote formed by the combustion of the wood closes the
pores to some extent, excluding the air, and is objection-
able to insects.

HOUSE AND FUEL.

The smokehouse should be eight or ten feet high to
give the best results, and of a size suited to the amount
of meat likely to be smoked, six by eight feet being large
enough for ordinary farm use. Ample ventilation should
be provided to carry off the warm air in order to prevent
over heating the meat. Small openings under the eaves
or a chimney in the roof will be sufficient if arranged so
as to be easily controlled. A fire pot outside of the house
proper with a flue through which the smoke may be con-
ducted to the meat chamber gives the best conditions for
smoking. When this cannot be well arranged a fire may
be built on the floor of the house and the meat shielded
by a sheet of metal. Where the meat can be hung 6 to 7
feet above the fire this precaution need not be taken. The
construction should be such as to alow the smoke to pass
up freely over the meat and out of the house, though rapid
circulation is at the expense of fuel.

FILLING THEi HOUSE.

Meat that is to be smoked should be removed from the
brine two or three days before being put in the smoke-
house. If it has been cured in a strong brine, it will be
best to soak the pieces in cold water overnight to prevent
a crust of salt from forming on the outside when drained.
Washing the meat in tepid water and scrubbing clean
with a brush is a good practice. The pieces should then
be hung up to drain for a day or two. When drained
they may be hung in the house. All should be suspended
below the ventilators and should hang so that no two
pieces come in contact, as this would prevent uniform
smoking.











WE MUST LEARN HOW TO LIVE
WITH THE BOLL WEEVIL.



By W. A. McRae, Commissioner of Agriculture.

All known methods to get rid of the boll weevil have
failed; it cannot be directly starved nor poisoned; the
applications of caustic sprays or poison dust are ineffect-
ual because the weevil is safe from harm inside the cotton
buds where it spends a good deal of its life. So the farmer
must accept conditions until an active parasite, or human
remedy, can be found to help suppress it. In the mean-
time, the only thing to do is for the farmer to grow cotton
in spite of the weevil through proper cultural methods.
Following is an outline of the general methods recom-
mended by the Georgia State Entomologist, and followed
by Texas growers with much success:
1. Early Planting. As there are but few weevils at
the beginning of the season, the cotton grower must get
an early start and have as many bolls set as possible be-
fore the weevils show up in numbers. The pest does not
attack bolls until the squares are all used, so that by set-
ting early bolls, the grower makes his cotton from these,
the weevils using the later-forming squares. Thus the
stronger and faster growth he can get from his plants
eorly in the spring, the more cotton he can hope to make.
This is the object of early planting and of the following
recommendation:
By early planting is not meant to plant before the
ground is in condition for planting, but at the earliest
possible date after the ground is right, taking into con-
sideration the danger of late frosts.
2. Fertilizing and Working. These are very important
factors. They are necessary for the strong, quick growth











desired. Too much stress cannot be put upon these fea-
tures; they often cause the difference between success and
fanlure. Practice shallow cultivation and plow at least
once a week. Keep this up until cotton is ready to pick.
3. Clean Cultivation. This should be thoroughly prac-
ticed. The middles should be kept clean so that the sun
can reach the ground, the heat killing many of the weevils.
The borders of the fields should be kept clean of weeds
and trash, especially during the fall, so as not to have any
conveniently favorable place for the weevil to hibernate.
Where possible a mulch condition of the soil is preferable
to cloddy, killed cultivation.
4. Collection of Infested Squares. Hand-picking of
fallen squares will prove an economical and effective
method of control. When weevils emerge from winter
quarters they find their way to the nearest cotton fields
and feed on tender growth of cotton until squares develop.
A black or brown leaf here and there is evidence of its
presence. The use of a bag attached to a hoop over which
the plants are shaken is often a successful method of get-
ting infested squares and weevils. The gathered squares
should be burned, or preferable, placed in wire cages so
that lhe parasites may escape while the weevils remain
prisoners.
5. Fall Destruction of Stalks. The cotton grower who
succeeds under boll weevil conditions is the man who
keeps up a continuous fight. The cotton should be har-
vested as rapidly as possible. If picking can be completed
by October 1, or not later than October 15, it will open
way for a very complete and practical control of weevil.
The boll weevil can be practically controlled by the
complete destruction of all green cotton at least four
weeks before the first killing frosts occur.
Two methods of stalk starvation may be considered:
(A) Wherever the teams and plows are capable of
putting the stalks under four inches of dirt, they may be
plowed under.











(B) When stalks cannot be plowed under deeply, they
can be uprooted, piled and burned as soon as dry enough
to burn. Where land is free of stumps or any other ob-
stacle, stalks can be cut with V shaped harrow. This har-
row throws stalks in alternate rows and they can be
burned when dry, without extra labor of throwing them
into piles.
If it is not practicable to plow under, or cut and burn,
they should by all means be uprooted, thereby cutting off
food supply and forcing weevils to go into winter quar-
ters in half starved condition.
6. Crop Rotation. This should be practiced not only
for the benefit of the soil, but from the effect it will have
on the weevils. They hibernate in or near the field which
contained the past year's crop. By rotating crops the new
cotton may be at considerable distance from this field.
This makes it next necessary for the weevils to travel in
search of their favorite food. Weakened by tlh wniter,
many of them will die before reaching the cotton, and the
crop will have an opportunity of making a better growth
before being attacked.
After the stalk problem has been solved, put in winter
cover crops, such as oats, rye, barley, rape, and clover.
Where leguminous crops, such as veatches and clover
can be used, these are more valuable than grain crops
because they provide good winter grazing for live stock
and are unsurpassed for building up the soil.
It was the good fortune of the writer to attend a recent
meeting at Thomasville, Ga., held under the auspices of
the Georgia State Board of Entomology. A distinguished
company of men addressed the gathering and the interest
did not flag from start to finish. Farmers, white and
black, and their wives, were present, and business and pro-
fessional men of the community, who realized the serious-
ness of the matter in hand-the fight against tle b:!1l
weevil.










The speakers included: Dr. E. Lee Worsham, State
Entomologist; A. C. Lewis, Assistant Entomologist;
John A. Lewis, President of the State Agricultural So-
ciety, and W. B. Hurder, Manager of the State Fruit
Growers Exchange. The chief address was by Dr. Wor-
sham, who detailed by means of a series of most effective
and illuminating charts a history of the boll weevil, the
unavailing efforts to halt its progress, and closing with
the suggestions outlined above as the only known method
to raise cotton in spite of this diminutive but formidable
pest.
We cannot impress too earnestly upon growers the
value and importance .of good seed. This means seed that
has been developed by selection from early and strong
plants. By individual care and selection it is possible to
develop a strain of cotton better adapted to their condi-
tions than mixed seed from elsewhere. To select seed
proIerly is necessary to know. the kind of cotton that we
wish to develop. Improved varieties of everything grown
by man have been made by selection. Burbank and others
have been successful through their unending patience and
effort. Seed selection is a good thing even without weevils
or other enemies to fight. Work at the Experiment Sta-
tions of the different States shows the value of pedigreed
seed, not only with cotton, but everything else grown. The
best way to fight the boll weevil, and all other afflictions,
is good farming. Where there is wilt it is necessary to
plant wilt-resistant varieties, and with good seed and good
farming, good yields are possible. It has been demon
strated that both wilt and anthracnose can be controlled
or eradicated by proper seed selection.
The boll weevil entered Texas at Brownsville, in 1892,
from Mexico. It has advanced since then, northward and
eastward, at the rate of about 65 miles a year. It was
fifteen years in covering Texas, and is now found in
Arizona, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Tennessee, Georgia and Florida. It is over halfway across











Florida and is now entering the Sea Island territory
where, in the opinion of entomologists, it will do even
more serious harm than in the upland or short staple cot-
ton country to the north and west.
Since the boll weevil entered the cotton fiends of the
South, it has cost our Southern farmers a billion dollars,
in round figures, a sum beyond ordinary comprehension-
equal to the actual value of all of Florida. The assessed
valuation of our State in 1915 was $292,000,000. More
than three times this vast sum-equal to all the belong-
ings of our million population-has been lost to the South
since this Villa among the insect tribes came to us from
Mexico.
The decrease in Jackson county this year over the nor-
mal yield will reach a loss of a million dollars. In Leon
county the'decrease in income will be a quarter of a mil-
lion. The total loss to Florida farmers this year will
amount to several million dollars.
This is a serious matter and the end is not in sight. It
will be well into the Sea Island territory next year, and
the loss will be more complete than in the short staple
regions. Long staple cotton matures late, and it is in the
late varieties that the weevil does its worst.
Our farmers must not despair at the danger menacing
them. With courage, industry and intelligence they can
ultimately overcome the scourge. Skill and patience
properly applied will do it. Cotton cannot be abandoned.
It is the world's most important product. It has been
well said that "cotton clothes, feeds, cures and kills man
and beast according to its uses." More of it has been
raised in the South than anywhere else on earth.
For the first time in the history of a hundred years of
culture, cotton has encountered an enemy for which no
direct remedy has been found. As already intimated, we
must circumvent it by proper cultural methods as noted
above. Entomologists say there is no probability that the
boll weevil will ever be exterminated. No injurious insect
2-Bull.




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THE BOLL WEEVIL AND INSECTS OFTEN MISTAKEN FOR IT.
a, The Cotton Boll Weevil, Anthonomus grandis; b, the mallow weevil, Anthono-
mus fulvus; c, the southern pine weevil, Pissodes nemorensis; d, the cotton-
wood-flower weevil, Dorytomus mucidus; e, Conotrachelus erinaceus; f, the
pecan gall weevil, Conotrachelus elegans. (Bul. 114, U. S. Bureau of Ento-
mology.)


$j~










has ever been fully exterminated. The Rocky Mountain
locust, or grasshopper, has practically disappeared, more
on account of climatic conditions than anything else. In
France an enemy that for a time threatened to destroy
the grape and wine-making industry was put under con-
trol by zealously and intelligently combatting it. That is
what we must do with the boll weevil.
We must learn how to live with this undesirable Mexi-
can invader. We can reduce their numbers by the de-
struction of the plants in the boll, by early planting with
seeds carefully selected from well developed early plants,
by practical fertilization-forcing growth-and thorough
cultivation, and by keeping fields clear of trash in which
the adults can hibernate over winter. Keeping the fields
clear of hiding places for the weevil during the winter
season cannot be made effective unless universally prac-
ticed by every grower. A few neglected spots will prove
a starting-point for what will become an army of de-
struction.
There are a good many insects closely resembling the
boll weevil. Plate I shows some of these insects. The
figure (a) on the plate shows the genuine pest. The line
shown on the right side of each shows the natural length of
each of the pests. Mr. (a) is the one most concerning
the cotton grower. Its chief if not sole mischief is to the
cotton plant, although it has been found feeding on okra
blooms and a few minor plants. Plate II shows the ana-
tomical structure of the boll weevil. For these plates we
are indebted to the kindness of Dr. E. Lee Worsham, the
State Entomologist of Georgia, and obtained by him from
the U. S. Bureau of Entomology and can be depended
upon for accuracy.
The egg is a very small white object and is deposited
inside the square or boll and cannot be found except by
careful dissection of the square. The egg hatches the lar-
va and it preys on the boll. Then the pupa forms, tender,
delicate and creamy white. From this the adult emerges







C


ANATOMICAL STRUCTURE OF THE BOLL WEEVIL.
a, Dorsal view of anal segments of larva; b, front view of head and interior
segments of larva; c, central view of anal segments of larva; d, lateral view
of adult; e, lateral view of larva; f, ventral view of adule; g, dorsal view of
adult with wings spread; h, ventral view of pupa; i, central view of anal seg-
ments of pupa: j, ventral view of anterior portion of pupa. (Bul. 114 U. S.
Bureau of Entomology.)











and after a few days is vigorous enough to escape and go
in search of food. It immediately hunts for plants on
which the squares are forming. The female eats a hole in
the square and turning around deposits the egg. From
the egg to complete development the time depends upon
conditions, but the average is about fifty days. The
female lays from 50 to 200 eggs during the season, and
taking the length of the average growing season it has
been found that from eight to ten generations are possible
for the first egg laid in the spring, and the total from one
egg may run into millions. It is the estimate of the U. S.
Bureau of Entomology, in Bulletin No. 114, that the num-
ber of progeny that may spring from a pair of hibernating
weevils will reach over 3,000,000 in the 4th generation.
This shows what a few weevils hiding away in trash,
weeds or Spanish moss, in a fence corner or neglected
nook, may do. They enter hibernation at the approach
of cold weather. In the Spring and Fall they take flights,
and their advances are usually in the Fall, often going
sixty or more miles into new territory. Hot, dry weather
is against them. Blackbirds, meadow larks, sparrows,
wrens and the titmouse feed on the adult weevils when
moving about, while quail search them out when in hid-
ing. There are several parasitic insect enemies of the
weevil, hut they are not known to be very effective.
The . S. Department of agriculture has published in
Farmers' Bulletins a great deal of information on the sub-
ject of the boll weevil, and it is suggested that our farmers
write to their members of Congress for these publications,
and also on otlier agricultural matters over which they
may be perplexed. There is nothing of importance to
farmers that has not been treated in one form or another
by the Federal Department of Agriculture. The Florida
Experiment Station at Gainesville, has issued a large
volume of information on agricultural topics and our far-
mers are advised to get in touch with it when in trouble.
If conditions are serious the Station will send men to












investigate. The Station is supported by public taxation,
and our farmers should not hesitate to ask for advice when
insects or fungus diseases attack their growing things,
either plants or animals.




















ERRATA RELATING TO "GARDENING IN FLORIDA."
On page 23, in article "Gardening in Florida," fifth line from
top, the word "flehing" should be "fishing."
On page 24, first line, "Floida" should be "Florida." Same
page, line 20 from top, "ceast" should be "cease." Same page,
line 30 from top, "peninsult" should be "peninsula." In line
30, word "dinto" should be "into."
On page 25, 17th line from top, the word at end of line,
"solth" should be "sloth."
On page 27, line 8, "woms" should be "worms;" line 11,
run-over word "inpurious" should be "injurious;" line 20,
"blght" should be "blignt."
On page 28, line 12, "eeds" should be "weeds."
On page 29, line 17, "powderery" should be "powdery."
On page 30, line 15, run over part of word "lghtful" should
be lightfull."
On page 31 the line "from April Quarterly Bulletin, 1915"
should be "from April Florida Quarterly Bulletin, 1916."












GARDENING IN FLORIDA.



By W. A. McRlae, Commissioner of Agriculture.

The Winter season is right at hand when Floridians
make the most out of their gardens. The winter in the
North is a time when growth is halted and the snow covers
the frozen soil and water navigation is stopped by thick
ice, but in Florida it is a time when we can go fiehing and
sailing, a time of warmth and growth, and thousands of
cars of vegetables and fruits are produced for Northern
consumers. Florida is a "Garden State" and I am glad
I was born and live in Florida. Our State is not one of
great cities, in one of which a poet in masterly fashion
tells a tragedy and marks a reproach:

"Of my city the worst that men will ever say is this:
You took little children away from the sun and the dew.
And the glimmers that played in the grass under the
great sky
And the reckless rain; you put them between walls
To work, broken and smothered, for bread and wages,
To eat dust in their throats and die empty hearted
For a little handful of pay on a few Saturday nights."

Life in Florida-a flowery land under bright skies, with
winds from the seas bearing purity and health in their
wings-is a call to a better, finer and nobler view of human
responsibility for much of what is wrong and sad in our
present civilization. When the Builder of the Earth
created Adam and Eve He established them in a garden-
not a sawmill, a factory, a mill, a store, a bank, a steam-
boat, or a railroad. A garden was the starting point.
The factory, store, bank, and railroad were afterthoughts.










Floida is a Garden State-as already said-and the after-
thoughts are necessary adjuncts, but they could not exist
without the garden, the field, and the grove. The land is
Ihe sole source of original wealth, of food, and of clothing.
Florida enjoys, and properly, the reputation of being a
State of "All Good Weather," a condition John Ruskin
so aptly describes in his delightful style: "Sunshine is
delicious, rain is refreshing, wind braces up, snow is
exhilarating; there is really no such things as bad weather
-only different kinds of good weather." The English
philanthropist unfortunately never had a chance to visit
Florida, where our "All Good Weather" is all the better
by freedom from snow and its attendants sleet and
slush. Have abiding faith in yourself and in the growing
things in your garden-and full belief in the possibilities
of our State, blest as it is with opportunities second to
no other part of the earth. As John Allen well says:
"Thoughts of doubt and fear never accomplish anything
and never can. They always lead to failure. Purpose,
energy, power to do, and all strong thoughts ceast when
doubt and fear creep in."
"Trucking" is the term commonly applied to garden
work in Florida. A home garden can be had on every
town lot, and on every farm, and something can be raised
in every month. Look over the list of things possible of
being planted as given in "Planting Dates," appearing at
the close of this article. By planning properly and car-
rying out your plans, wonders can be accomplished in the
Florida garden. Florida is different from any other part
of the United States. It is a 400 mile peninsula, bordered
on the east by the Gulf stream, and running like a huge
finger southward dinto temperate waters. Naturally it
is for the most part semi-tropical, and because of it
almost universal freedom from frost, its lands produce
abundant crops of tender vegetables in winter time. It
produces them at a time when they are not grown in
States to the north, and for that reason Florida is known








25

as the Nation's winter garden. The barrenness of the
markets and the demand in the North for freshly-grown
vegetables enables the Florida truck grower to sell his
products at profitable prices. Think, too, of the Florida
gardener having crisp celery and lettuce and strawberries
grown in the open, for his own table when the North is
covered with snow.
Why a garden?
it is a remedy against burdensome grocery bills. It
saves running to the drug store to buy some nostrum to
relieve a pain or irregularity which would probably never
have occurred if garden stuff, well cooked and eaten, had
been on the table. The simple remedies from the gardens
of our grandmIothers, used on t he sturdy fathers and
miothers-many of whom are still with us are little
thought of today. Dryden long ago said: "The first phy-
sicians by debauch were made; Excess began, and solth
sustains the trade." The garden helps to prevent the fence
corner accumulations of cans, bottles, jars and cartons
expensively embellished with fancy pictures and gaily
colored printed matter-lthe package often costing more
than its contents. We wonder at the high cost of living.
Is it not the high cost of high living? The garden gives
needed exercise especially for the townsman. Again, as
Dryden says:

"Better to hunt the fields for health unbought,
Than fee the doctor for a nauseous draught:
The wise for cure 'on exercise depend;
God never made His work for man to mend."

Many gardeners undertake too much when under in-
spiration at the beginning of the season. As a result they
become slaves to work, and their ardor cools and the gar-
den too often becomes a failure. Make it a work of love,
love of growing things, and not mere drudgery. It is told
of a garden lover that he had a bench on the back of which











was inscribed, "Who Loves a Garden, Still His Eden
Keeps." On this bench the gardener rested at intervals,
and thought and contemplated the beauty about him. He
could say with Browning:

"The year's at the spring,
And day's at the morn,
Morning's at seven:
The hillside's dew pearled;
The lark's on the wing;
The snail's on the thorn;
God's in His Heaven-
All's right with the world."

While most of Florida gardening is in the winter, yet
the summer supplies a great variety, indeed there is no
month when something cannot be grown for the table.
A Northern subscriber of the Panama City Pilot asked
Editor G. M. West, what the gardens furnished in mid-
summer, to which he replied as to his own garden:
"Plums, blackberries and the last of the strawberries
for fruits; peas, snap and shelled beans, sweet peppers,
squash, onions, Irish potatoes, turnips, sweet corn, cucum-
bers, cantaloupes, and watermelons. The early sweet po-
tatoes will soon be ready to use, while there are grapefruit,
late oranges and Ponderosa lemons still hanging on the
trees, not enough for use, but sufficient to show what can
be done in raising a supply of them. Many have cabbage
growing yet. The grape vines are loaded to the limit of
delicious grapes, while figs are doing well and will be
ready to pick soon."
A question ,of good seed is one to be fully considered by
the gardener. A high yield is not possible, even by com-
pliance with all other conditions unless the seed is of the
best. Poor seeds are expensive, as like usually begets like.
Garden workers have something to do more than sowing
sc(,ds and cultivating the plants. Carefully observe their











condition. If you see a leaf curled up, or a yellow or
brown spot, or a plant looking a bit sick, hunt for the
cause. The trouble may be due to an insect or disease.
Insects do the most damage. There are three general
divisions of bugs: (1) chewers; (2) suckers; and (3)
root workers and borers. The chewers are easily recog-
nized slugs, caterpillars, potato beetles, and tomato
woms, and can be destroyed by applying poisons to the
foliage on which they live. Suckers include scales, lice,
bugs and the white fly, and preparations of nicotine will
usually fix them. The chewers and suckers are more in-
purious than root borers, and should be promptly dusted
or they will multiply with rapidity. Root workers-
maggots and worms-are harder to get at, and digging
around the roots is necessary.

"We can't get what we hope for at first-
Success cuts many jigs-
But .one thing is sure-a man will succeed-
If he digs."

Plant diseases usually take one of three forms-(1)
blght or yellowing and dying of the foliage; (2) mildew,
and (3) authrasnose, the spotting or hardening of parts
of leaves, fruits or stalks. These are fungus diseases and
the standard treatment is Bordeaux mixture used as a
spray. The use of this mixture is advised on general
principles as well as dusting with tobacco in anticipation
of trouble. Any precautions used to keep plants in vigor-
our form will repay both time and expense. Birds and
toads are natural and active enemies of insects preying
on garden truck and their presence in your garden should
be encouraged. The harmless varieties of snakes prey on
members of the rodent family, often very injurious to
vegetables, and while there is an inherited and instinctive
fear of snakes their unnecessary destruction is not
favored by entomologists. So when you see a toad hop-











ping about or a little garter, or other kinds of harmless
snakes gliding along there is no need of alarm. They are
looking for enemies of your growing plants.
Rider Haggard in his story of "King Solomon's Mines"
says: "You can never get your Zulu to take much inter-
est in gardening." I sometimes think that this trait of
not taking much interest in a garden is not confined to
the dominate colored race of South Africa. Countless
numbers of white men in America, and home owners too.
are not giving the attention they should to this profitable
occupation.
Keep gardens free from eeds. A plant out of place is
a weed aid it helps to rob the soil of fertility and should
lie pulled up. Fertilizing, weeding and thinning vegeta-
ble beds or rows are matters worthy of study. No gar-
den can do its best without intelligent care, not neces-
-arily extra hard work. but liberal applications of that
best of fertilizers-brains.
Some people are governed in their planting by moon
signs. The moon has a pull on the ocean and with the
sun has its share in moving the water-a liquid-but it
has no influence on vegetation. Plants have their sea
sons. Plant your seeds, each in its season, and see that
you have good seed, a fact that cannot be too fully im-
pressed.
When vegetables are marketed the grower must seek
to please his customers. Care in gathering, assorting
and packing must be observed. Get your. stuff in the
hands of buyers, or in the grocery as soon as possible,
after it is gathered and put up in tasty bundles or pack-
ages. Grow only the best of vegetables and of varieties
that are most in demand. Well packed and nicely dis-
played goods are half sold. The eye must be pleased.
The possibilities of the garden are very great. Bailey's
Cyclopedia of Horticulture contains something like 2,000
pages and at a mere guess there are probably four or five
different fruits, vegetables and flowers mentioned on each











page. But do not think for an instant that Bailey ex-
hausts the possibilities of vegetation. Our gardeners are
like our vocabularies. The average man makes regular
use of a small number of words-a few hundred, or a
thousand or two-out of the vast number--400000-now
found in the complete dictionary.
Most people plant just what their neighbors plant,
appease their appetites with the fruits and vegetables
that fathers and grand-fathers grew, harvested and ate
before us, and let it go at that, thereby missing a lot of
new, tasty and nourishing things that might be added to
our garden lists at little expense or difficulty and to our
profit. You can cultivate a garden with a stick, a hoe, a
rake, or your fingers. Cultivating means a stirring of
the soil. Do not go too deep, so as to break the fine root-
lets of the plants reaching out for food, just stir the sur
face and keep it fine and powderery.
Did you ever notice how the rain sinks into the soil?
It goes down and down until it reaches an underground
river or spring, unless it is called up by the sun, which is
ever pulling it out of the soil, to pass away as vapor and
form clouds to come back again as rain or dow. We
should take care about letting it get away, for the water
is needed to dissolve plant food. One way is to culti-
vate, by making a dust blanket. An experiment will
demonstrate the value of a dust blanket. Dig down in
it and then dig in an uncultivated spot, and in the latter
you will find moisture at a much greater depth.
Humus, or decayed vegetation, is necessary in the gar-
den and field. It holds water. The soil moisture helps
poet has put it into verse in this form:
"This is the moisture that lives in the soil;
This is the humus that holds the moisture that
lives in the soil;
This is the gas that humus gives off as it holds
the moisture that lives in the soil;











This is the plant food that the gases unlock as
the humus decays that holds the moisture that
lives in the soil of everybody's garden."
A good rule if you find it necessary to apply water arti
ficially is to "water much and seldom-never little and
often."
Every garden should have a space or corner for plants
that are valued for the sweet scent of their leaves. One
will want lavender, lemon verbena and sweet geraniums.
These with fragrant rose buds or petals, will be quite
sufficient. When the roses bloom, pick and dry the tiny
buds. A box of fragrant rosebuds makes a charming per
sonal gift. Lemon verbena may be dried and used alone,
or can be mixed with other scented leaves or buds. De
Ightful linen-closet or bureau drawer pads can be made
of dried lavender or lemon verbena and will fill sachets
and other pleasant uses can be made of the leaves.
Something new should be tried in every garden every
year. It may be a rose, or a turnip, or anything else that
will grow in the climate of the garden. It was through
experiments of this kind that all of the good things we
eat were developed into usefulness. The U. S. Depart-
ment of Agricluture, Washington, D. C., will supply you
with "Farmers Bulletins" containing a great deal of in-
formation about gardens. And don't forget to write to
the Florida College of Agriculture, at Gainesville, and
learn about what is offered through a correspondence
course in trucking, one adapted to our conditions. The
text book used is by Prof. P. H. Rolfs, Director of the
Experiment Station, and it can be depended upon to
give the right kind of advice.
There are scores of good books on gardening and men
and women are made better and wiser by reading them.
The subject of gardening is one however not possible to
cover in one article or a dozen. I have only brought for-
ward a few general hints, enough to have served a
purpose.











As intimated every month in Florida will allow the
growth of something for sale or home use, and "Plant-
ing Dates" for staple products in our State are given
as follows: ..J'


SEASONS AND DATES FOR PLANTING VEGE-
TABLES AND OTHER CROPS IN FLORIDA.



From April 'Quarterly Bulletin, 1915.

The following lists include what experience demon-
strates can be successfully grown each month as the sea-
son most suitable for each variety comes around in the
several sections of the State.

NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA.

January-Asparagus Seed, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage
Seed and Plants, Cauliflower Seed, Collards, Leeks, Let-
tuce, Mustard, Onion Sets, Radishes, Rape, Spanish
Onion Seed, Tomato Seed, Turnips, Oats, Strawberry
Plants.
February Asparagus Seed, Early Corn, Brussels
Sprouts, Cabbage, Carrots, Collards, Eggplant Seed,
English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Leeks, Lettuce, Onions,
Parsley, Parsnip, Pepper Seed, Rutabagas, Salsify, Spin-
ach, Beets, Turnips.
March-Beans, Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cantaloupes,
Carrots, Collards, Cowpeas, Cucumbers, Early Field Corn,
Cotton, Eggplant, English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale,
Kohlrabi, Leek, Okra, Parsley, Parsnip, Pepper, Pump-
kin, Radish, Rape, Rutabagas, Salsify, Squash, Sugar
Corn, Watermelons, Tomato, Turnip, Sugar Cane, Japan-
ese Cane.











April-Beans, Cantaloupes, Cowpeas, Cucumber, Egg-
plant, English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kohlrabi, Lettuce,
Okra, Parsley, Parsnip, Peppers. Pumpkins, Radishes,
Rutabavas, Squash, Sugar Corn, Field Corn, Sweet Pota-
toes, Cotton, Tomatoes, Turnips, Watermelons, Sorghum.
May -B means, Butter Beans, Cantaloupes, Cowpeas,
Cucumbers, Eggplant, Okra, Peppers, Pumpkins, Squash,
Sugar Corn, Sweet Potatoes, Tomato Plants and seed,
Watermelons, Sorghum, Velvet Beans.
June-Butter Beans, Cowpeas, Eggplants, Peppers,
Squash, Sweet Potatoes, Tomatoes, Watermelons.
July-Cowpeas, Eggplant, Parsley, Peppers, Pumpkin,
Rutabagas, Squash, Sweet Potatoes, Tomato Plants and
seed, Watermelons, Sorghum.
August-Beans, Beets, Cabbage, Cauliflower Seed, Car-
rots, Cowpeas, Cucumbers, Collards, Eggplanis, Irish Po
tatoes, ale, Kohlrabi, Okra, Onions, Rape, Rutabagas,
Salsify, Spnach, Squash', Tomatoes, Turnips, Celery Seed.
September-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Carrots,
Cauliflower Plants, Celery Plants, Collards, Cowpeas,
English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Leeks, Lettuce, Mus
tard, Onion Sets, Parsnip, Radishes, Rape, Rutabagas,
Salsify, Spinach, Turnips.
October-Beets, Bermuda Onion Seed, Brussels
Sprouts, Cabbage, Carrots, Cauliflower Plants, Celery
Plants, Collards, Kale, Leeks, Lettuce Seeds and Plants,
Mustard, Onion Sets, Parsnips, Radishes, Rape, Spinach,
Turnips.
November-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage Seed and
Plants, Carrots, Collards, Kale, Lettuce, Mustard, Onion
Sets, Parsnips, Radishes, Rape, Spinach, Turnips, Oats,
Rye, Strawberry Plants, Vetch and Crimson Clover.
December-Cabbage Plants and Seed, Collards, Leeks,
Lettuce Plants and Seed, Mustard, Onions, Radishes,
Rape, Oats, Rye, Strawberry Plants, Vetch and Crimson
Clover.











CENTRAL FLORIDA.

January-Asparagus Seed, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage
Seed and Plants, Cauliflower Seed, Collards, Leeks, Let-
tuce, Mustard, Onion Sets, Radishes, Rape, Spanish Onion
Seed, Tomato Seed, Turnips, Eggplant Seed, Oats.
February-Asparagus Seed, Early Corn, Sea Island
Cotton, Beans, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Cantaloupes,
Carrots, Collards, Cucumbers, Eggplant Seed, English
Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Leeks, Lettuce, Onions, Par-
sley, Parsnip, epper Seed, Rutabagas, Salsify, Spinach,
Windsor Beans, Beets, Sugar Cane, Field Corn.
March-Beans, Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cantaloupes,
Carrots, Cauliflower, Collards, Cowpeas, Cucumbers
Early Corn, Sggplant, English Peas, Irish Potatoes,
Kale, Kohlrabi, Leek, Okra, Onion, Parsley, Parsnip, Pep-
per, Pumpkin, Radish, Rape, Rutabagas, Salsify, Squash,
Sugar Corn, Watermelons, Tomatoes, Turnips, Sea Island
Cotton, Sugar Cane, Field Corn.
April-Beans, Cantaloupes, Collards, Cowpeas, Cucum
bers, Eggplant, English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kohlrabi.
Lettuce, Okra, Onion Plants, Parsley, Parsnip, Peppers,
Pumpkin, Radishes, Rutabagas, Squash, Sugar Corn,
Dasheens, Sweet Potatoes, Tomatoes, Turnips, Water-
melons, Velvet Beans.
May-Beans, Butter Beans, Cantaloupes, Collards,
Cowpeas, Cucumbers, Eggplant, Okra, Peppers, Pump
kins, Squash, Sugar Corn, Sweet Potatoes, Tomato Plants
and Seed, Watermelons, Velvet Beans, Dasheens.
June-Butter Beans, Cabbage Seed, Cauliflower Seed,
Celery Seed, Cowpeas, Eggplant, Parsley, Peppers, Pump-
kin, Rutabagas, Squash, Sweet Potatoes, Tomato Plants
and Seed, Watermelons.
July-Cabbage Seed, Cantaloupes, Cauliflower Seed,
Celery Seed, Cowpeas, Eggplant, Parsley, Peppers, Pump.
kin, Rutabagas, Squash, Sweet Potatoes, Tomato Plants
and Seed. Watermelons.
"--Bull.











August-Beans, Beets, Cabbage, Cauliflower Seed, Car-
rots, Cowpeas, Cress, Cucumbers, Collards, Eggplant,
Irish potatoes, Kale, Kohlrabi, Oka, Onions, Rape, Ruta-
bagas, Salsify, Spinach, Squash, Tomatoes, Turnips,
Windsor Beans, Celery Seed.
September-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Carrots,
Cauliflower Plants, Celery Plants, Collards, Cowpeas, Cu
cumbers, English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Leeks, Let-
tuce, Mustard, Onon Sets, Parsnip, Radishes, Rape, Ruta-
bagas, Salsify, Spinach, Squash, Turnips.
October-Beets, Bermuda Onion Seed, Brussels Sprouts,
Cabbage, Carrots, Cauliflower Plants, Celery Plants, Col
lards, Kale, Leeks, Lettuce Seed and Plants, Mustard,
Onion Sets, Parsnip, Radishes, Rape, Spinach, Turnips,
Strawberry Plants.
November-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage Seed and
Plants, Carrots, Collards, Kale, Lettuce, Mustard, Onion
Sets, Parsnip, Radishes, Rape, Spinach, Turnips, Oats,
Rye, Strawberry Plants.
December-Cabbage Plants and Seed, Collards, Leeks,
Lettuce Plants and Seed, Mustard, Onions, Radishes,
Rape, Strawberry Plants, Oats.

TAMPA, ORLANDO, TITUSVILLE AND SOUTHWARD.

January-Beans, Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage
Plants and Seeds, Carrots, Cauliflower Seed, Collards,
Eggplant Seed, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Kohlrabi, Lettuce,
Mustard, Radishes, Rape, Spanish Onion Seed, Spinach,
Tomato Seed, Turnips, Corn, Oats, Sugar Cane.
February-Adams, Early Corn, Beans, Beets, Brussels
Sprouts, Cabbage, Cantaloupes, Carrots, Cucumbers. Egg-
plant Seed, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Lettuce, Okra, Onions,
Pepper Seed, Spinach, Squash, Windsor Beans, Field
Corn and Sugar Cane.
March--Beans, Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cantaloupes,
Cauliflower, Cowpeas, Cucumbers, Early Corn, Eggplant,











Irish Potatoes, Lettuce, Mustard, Okra, Onions, Pepper,
Pumpkin, Radish, Squash, Sugar Corn, Tomatoes, Water
melons, Velvet Beans.
April-Beans, Collards, Cowpeas, Cucumbers, Egg-
plant, Kohlrabi, Okra, Radishes, Squash, Sugar Corn,
Sweet Potatoes, Tomatoes, Onion Plants, Pepper, Pump-
kins, Velvet Beans.
May-Beans, Butter Beans, Cowpeas, Eggplant, Okra,
Peppers, Pumpkins, Squash, Sugar Corn, Sweet Potatoes,
Tomatoes.
June-Butter Beans, Cabbage Seed, Celery Seed, Cow-
peas, Eggplant Seed, Peppers, Squash, Sweet Potatoes,
Tomato Plants and Seed, Watermelons.
July-Cabbage Seed, Cantaloupes, Celery Seed, Cow-
peas, Eggplants and Seed, Peppers, Pumpkins, Squash,
Sweet Potatoes, Tomato Plants and Seed, Watermelons.
August-Beans (snap), Cabbage, Seed, Cantaloupes,
Carrots, Cauliflower Seed, Collards, Cowpeas, Cucumbers,
Eggplant, English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Kohlrabi,
Lettuce, Mustard, Onions, Peppers, Pumpkins, Radishes,
Rape, Rutabagas, Spinach, Squash, Swiss Chard, Toma-
toes, Turnips, Windsor Beans.
September-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage Plants
and Seed, Carrots, Celery Seed and Plants, Collards, Cow
peas, Cucumbers, English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale,
Lettuce, Mustard, Onion Sets, Radish, Rape, Rutabagas.
Spinach, Squash, Swiss Chard, Turnips.
October-Beets, Bermuda Onion Seed, Brussels Sprouts,
Cabbage Plants and Seed, Carrots, Celery Seed, Collards,
Kale, Lettuce Plants and Seed, Mustard, Onion Sets, Rad-
ishes, Rape, Rutabagas, Spinach, Swiss Chard, Turnips,
Strawberry Plants, Oats.
November-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage Plants
and Seed, Carrots, Celery Seed and Plants, Collards, Kale,
Lettuce, Mustard, Onion Sets, Radishes, Rape, Rutabagas,
Spinach, Swiss Chard, Turnips, Oats, Strawberry Plants.








30

December-Cabbage Plants and Seed, Celery Plants,
Collards, Lettuce lants and Seed, Mustard, Onion Sets
and Plants, Radishes, Rape, Spanish Onion Seed, Swiss
Chard, Oats, Strawberry Plants.


















PART II.

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops for
Quarter Ending September 30, 1916.



























SUBDIVISIONS--READJUSTMENT.

Under the rapid improvement in conditions, being developed
in every section of the State a recasting or rearrangment of
the counties into subdivisions becomes necessary so as to more
equally establish the geographical areas, and locate more cor-
rectly the tropical sections of the State, fixing the boundaries
within which the tropical and other products of the State are
grown.
The subdivisions as shown on the new cut conform to the
following list of counties as contained in the five subdivisions
in the order named below.
Western and Northern Florida have rivers for their eastern
and western boundaries, except Franklin county which is on
both sides of the Apalachicola river.
The Southern boundary of Northeastern Florida corresponds
quite closely to, and might well be termed the line of demarka-
tion between the cotton and orange growing regions.
The boundary between what is designated as Central and
South Florida is simply an arbitrary line, and is selected with
special reference to as equable a division of this territory as
practicable. It is in the Southern Division that most of the
strictly tropical fruits are produced.












DIVISIONS OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES.

Following are the subdivisions of the State, and the
counties contained in each:


Western Division.
Bay,
Calhoun,
Escambia,
Holmes,
Jackson,
Okaloosa,
Santa Rosa,
Walton,
Washington-9.


Northeastern Division.
Alachua,
Baker,
Bradford,
Clay,
Columbia,
Duval,
Nassau,
Putnam,
St. Johns,
Suwannee-10.


Broward,
Dade,
DeSoto,
Lee,


Northern Division.
Franklin,
Gadsden,
Hamilton,
Jefferson,
Lafayette,
Leon,
Liberty,
Madison,
Taylor,
Wakulla-10.

Central Division.
Brevard,
Citrus,
Hernando,
Hillsborough,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,
Orange,
Osceola,
Pasco,
Pinellas,
Polk,
Seminole,
Sumter,
Volusia-15.


Southern Division.
Manatee,
Monroe,
Palm Beach,
St. Lucie-8.












DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
W. A. McRAB, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk.


CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.

BY DIVISIONS.

NORTHERN DIVISION.-In the reports from our cor-
respondents for the quarter ending September 30th., the
fact is disclosed that the cotton crop of this division will
not reach 50% of a crop. In some of the counties the
crop ranges as low as 25%, in others 31% to 50%. The
deterioration, of course, began with the heavy rains of
July incident to the protracted storms of that period
and later to the devastating effects of the boll weevil. It
is hardly possible for the average yield of the crop of the
several counties reported to reach more than 40 to 41%
of a crop. This is the lowest that has been known for
many years and carries memory back to the days of the
seventies during the caterpillar devastations. The corn
crop, which promised an unusually large yield, would be
short itself but for the additional acreage planted. The
rains in July did a great deal of harm to this crop and
as before stated, but for the large additional acreage, a
normal crop would not have been made. As it is there
is a good crop of corn though not a normal one as far as
acreage yield is concerned. The bad weather and some
minor diseases have influenced to a disadvantage a num-
ber of'other crops that come along during the summer.
All of these to a considerable extent have suffered. It
will be noted by reference to the tables that very few
of the crops reach 100 points in condition or prospective
yield. The condition of live stock in this section is un-
usually good because of the favorable seasons for the
production of grain and forage crops. These have not
been damaged to any extent by the weather conditions












except as noted, but the occasional rains have made the
pastures good almost universally.
. WESTERN DIvIsIoN.-There is no essential difference be-
tween the yield of crops in this division and the preced-
ing one. If anything, the condition and prospective yield
of cotton in the western district is below on the average
that of the northern district. The condition in this dis-
trict of upland cotton is 30 out of a possible 100 points.
The prospective yield of upland cotton based on this con-
dition is only 23 out of a possible 100 points, which of
course means a poor yield. This is a condition which has
never existed before in West Florida. There has never
been a time whefi the cotton crop in West Florida was
at so low an ebb or indicated so short a crop. Com-
paratively, the corn crop is but little better. The condi-
tion of this crop in West Florida is but 73 out of a possi-
ble 100 points either as to condition or prospective yield.
If, as stated in regard to the foregoing district, there had
not been from 25% to 30% increase in the acreage planted
to corn, there would have been a shortage of at least a
quarter of a crop. As it is the excess in acreage over the
previous years has enabled the planter to produce what
will approximate closely a full crop of corn. Other forage
crops in this section have done somewhat better than in
the previous district. The legume hay crops, particularly
have appeared to do better than in the northern district.
Cattle and other live stock are in good condition owing
to the same climatic conditions as existed in the northern
division. These conditions, of course, mean a greater
production of good grasses because of favorable seasons.
NORTHEASTERN DIVISION.-In this division, which was
not affected so much by the unfavorable conditions exist-
ing in the two former divisions, conditions are about the
average. The storms of July did not have the bad effect
in this district that they did in the northern and Western,
nor has the boll weevil as yet had an opportunity to try












his skil on the cotton fields of the long cotton district.
One or two counties near this northern district, which is
almost entirely a Sea Island cotton growing section, have
felt the effect of the boll weevil and it is hardly possible
that another year will pass without an increase of the
pest. As it is the cotton crop of this section is very neac
a normal one. The corn crop is slightly above a normal
crop and a number of the other standard field crops are
about normal or slightly above on the average. Con-
ditions generally in this division are good. Live stock is
in about the same relative condition as in the other divi-
sions, for the same reason, viz that the climatic conditions
have been generally favorable.
CENTRAL DIvIsION.-The crops of this division are, as a
general rule, of about normal condition as to prospective
yield. Only in one county in this district is cotton pro-
duced to any extent and in that the effect of the unfavor-
able climatic conditions, though they were mild as com-
pared with other sections of the State, is apparent. The
cotton in Levy county has been reduced in condition and
prospective yield to about 27% of the usual crop. This
average condition and yield, includes both the long and
short staple cotton grown in Levy county. Other crops
are in a good normal condition and the yield wil be about
as usual. In all of the counties comprising this district
the corn crop is better than usual, that is it is larger,
but about the same as far as yield per acre is concerned.
The difference is in the increased acreage, yielding enough
to make up a little above a normal crop in the counties
and in most of the forage and hay products. Take it all
together this division will show well by comparison with
the northeastern district.
SOUTHERN DIVISION.-The climatic conditions in this
division have been only fair. There have been no excesses
in temperature or percipitation to speak of, consequently
the crops are in fair shape and indicate fair yield, yet in
this division, as in the preceding one, the citrus fruit












crops are shorter than last year. The orange crop will
produce about 70% to 71% of a crop. The grape fruit
practically the same. Under these conditions the fruit
growers in the two latter divisions should take advantage
of the opportunity to control the distribution and sale of
the citrus fruit crop. There is no question about the
shortage, and, with proper management, there is no rea-
son why a short crop should not be made to pay the grow-
ers even better than a 100% crop. Another fact that is
notable in reviewing the information conveyed in these
tables is that the time has about arrived when in every
section of the State more attention must be given to the
growing and feeding of live stock. With the orange crop
small and the cotton crop of the northern and western
sections of the State a practical failure, something of the
kind must be resorted to if the agricultural section of the
country, as well as the fruit-growing section, is to prosper
as it should. With the boll weevil to keep down the pro-
duction of the standard crop in the northern and western
sections of the State, and the diseases that have taken
hold of the citrus fruit-growing industry in the southern
section of the State, the best industry that can be resorted
to to make up all these deficiencies, and even better them,
is the growing of grain and feeding it to live stock. Not
only will the land be benefited by the production of live
stock and the feeding of grain to them in all sections of
the State, but farming will be made more profitable gen-
erally because of the increased fertility of the land inci-
dent to stock growing and feeding. Besides, a farm
should always have several sources of income to depend
on, as in case one or two sources meet with failure, one or
more are still left to bring in an income.












45


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD OF CROPS
FOR QUARTER ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1916, AS COMPARED
WITH SAME PERIOD LAST YEAR.

COUNTY I Upland Cotton. Sea Island Cotton

Northern Division Condition IProspectirel Condition IProspective
I I Yield | io Yield
F franklin .............. I..................... ... ..... . .
Gadsden .............. I 50 33 | 40 30
Hamilton ............. ........... ........ I 20 33
Jefferson .............. I 50 33 50 33
Lafayette ............. I 70 70 60 60
Leon ................. 30 33 35 30
Madison .............. 50 I 50 I 50 50
Taylor ............... ....................... 40 50
Wakulla ..............I 5 25 I ..
Div. Av. per cent....... 46 I 41 | 42 41
Western Division
B ,ayV .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . ... .. .... .. . . .. .. .. ... . .. ..
Calhoun .............. 0 2 30 20
Escam bla ............. 40 10 .......... ..........
olm es ....... ... 40 30 .......... ..........
Jackson .............. 35 5 .......... ..........
Okaloosa ............. 30 30 .......... ..........
W alton ............... 25 25 .......... ..
Washington ........... 18 18 ....................
Div. Av. per cent....... 31 23 | 30 r 20
Northeastern Division
A lachua .............. ........... .......... 50 60
Baker ................ ......... ........ .I 80 65
Bradford .............. ....... ........ 90 60
Colum bia ............. ......... .......... 90 85
Nassau ................ 00 80 90 90
Putnam ............... .......... .......... 100 85
St. Johns ............. ...... ... ....... ... ... .. ..... ...
Div. Av. per cent....... )0 I 80 83 74
Central Division
Brevard ....................... .......... ...
Citrus .......................... .. .. ...
Hernando ............. ........ ............ ........... .........
Hillsborough .. ..... ......... ..... .... ........... ........
L ake ................. .. .. . .
Levy ................. 40 40 35 35
O range ............. .. .......... ..... ........ .. .......
Osceola .......... . .
Pasco .. ............. ......... ..... . . ....
Seminole ............ .......... ............ ..
Volusia .......... ..... .
Div. Av. per cent.......I 4 40 35 35
Southern Division
B row ard ............ ... .... I ..........
D ade ............... I .. ....... ..
D eSoto ............ ...... .. ........ .
Lee .
Lee ................. ..... ..
M an natee .... ... .. ........ .. ........ .. ......... ...........
Palm Beach ...........
St. L u cle ............. .......... ....... ... .. .. ........
Div. Av. per cent....... .......... .................... ..........
State Av. per cent. ..... I 52 I 46 I 48 ] 43














REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Corn Sugar Cane

Northern Division Condition Prospectivel Condition Prospective
| Yield | [ field
Franklin ......... .... 90 90 00 90
Gadsden .............. 100 110 100 100
Hamilton ............. .. 75 75 70 50
Jefferson .............. 1 70 75 50 50
Lafayette ............. 100 100 30 30
Leon ................. 90 100 75 85
Madison .............. 125 125 150 125
Taylor ................ 85 90 100 100
Wakulla .............. 100 100 100 75
Div. Av. per cent ....... 93 96 85 I 78
Western Division
Bay .................. I 80 75 85 85
Calhoun .............. 85 90 70 7
Escambia ......... .... 20 20 75 75
Holmes ............... 90 85 100 90
Jackson .............. 80 85 90 85
Okaloosa ............. 75 75 100 100
Walton ............... 50 500 50 50
Washington ........... 100 100 s0 S
)iv.v. v per cent ....... 73 73 81 ,
Northeastern Division
Alachua .............. 100 125 80 s5
Baker ................ 100 110 75 50
Bradford .............. 100 110 i0 50
Columbia ............. 100 110 100 100
Nassau ............... 100 | 120 75 75
Putnam .............. I 100 90 100 100
St. Johns ............. 1 100 I 90 100 100
Div. Av. per cent....... 100 108 8480
Central Division
Brevard ............... 90 1 80 80 90
Citrus ................ 110 115 100 05
Hernando ............. 100 100 95 90
Ilillsborough .......... 1 100 100 80 80
Lake ................. 85 80 70 70
Levy ................. 80 80 60 60
Orange ............... 100 100 100 100
Osceola ............... 90 80 90 90
Pasco .................. 90 85 90 !)0
Seminole ............ 100 100 100 100
Volusia ................. 90 90 100 101)
Div. Av. per cent ....... 94 I I
Southern Division
Broward .............. 75 30 . ..
Dade ................. 100 125 0 1066
DeSoto ...............i 100 100 80 80
Lee .................. 80 75 80 80
Manatee .............. 100 90 85 80
Palm Beach ........... 100 100 100 100
St. Lucie ........................ ....... ... 90 100
Div. Av. per cent. ..... 93 1 87 89 90-
State Av. per cent. ..... I 91 I 9 1 85 F 83














REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Field Peas Rice

Northern Division Condition IProspective Condition iProspective
__________ I Yield | Yield
Franklin ................ 100 100 ... .
Gadsden .............. 90 90 .....
Hamilton ............ 50 50 100 100
Jefferson .............. ... ... ..
Lafayette ............. .. .. .. . .
Leon ................. 50 70 .. .
M adison .............. 100 100 .......... .. . :
T aylor ............ 50 50 .......... .........
W akulla .............. 50 50 .......... ..........
Div. Av. per cent ...... [ 70 1 73 100 I 100
Western Division
Bay .................. I 80 80
Calhoun .............. 100 I 100 100 100
Escambia ............. 100 1 100 75 75
Holmes ............... I 90 90 100 100
Jackson ............... 90 90 .. ..
Okaloosa .............. 100 100 .
Walton ............... 50 50 100 100
Washington ........... I 100 100 100 100
Div. Av. per cent.'...... 89 | 89 95 90
Northeastern Division
Alachua .............. 75 65 ........
Baker ................ 100 100 100 100
Bradford .... ......... 60 70 .... ... .
Columbia ............. 100.. 105 100 100
Nassau ............... 1 100 100 90 75
Putnam ............... I 100 100 ....
St. Johns ........... I 100 100 100 100o
Div. Av. per cent....... 91 91 98 94
Central Division
B revard ............... .......... ....
Citrus ................I 1 0 75 .......... ..........
Hernando ............. 100 85 ....................
H illsborough .......... 90 95 I ....................
Lake ................. 80 80 .
Levy ................. 75 75 50 50
Orange ............... 100 100 ..... .....
Osceola ..... ...... .. 100 100 100 100
Pasco ................ 75 80 60 60
Sem inole ..............1 100 100 ...........
Volusia ...... .... .. .100 110 .... ....
Div. Av. per cent....... 92 90 70 I
Southern Division
Broward .............. 100 100 .......... .....
Dade ................. 10000 0 ........ ..... .....
DeSoro ............... 100 00 .. .. .. .. ...
L ee ................. 90 85 ..........
Manatee ... 90 90 ...........
Palm Beach ....... 100 100 ........ ..
St. Lucie ....... 85 85 . . . . .
Div. Av. per cent...... 94 9 .......... ..........
State Av. per cent....... 87 | 87 91 I 91-












48


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Sweet Potatoes Cassava

Northern Division [ Condition IProspectivel Condition IProspertire
SYield | Yield
Franklin .............. 1 100 100 :.. ..:... ..........
Gadsden .............. 80 80 ...... ... .....
H am ilton ............. 70 75 .......... ..........
Jefferson .............. 40 50 |. .. . ...
Lafayette ............. 50 50 .......... . ....
Leon ................. 75 75 ...... .....
M adison .............. 100 120 ......... ........
Taylor ................ 75 75 .......... ........
W akulla ............... 50 50 .......... .
Div. Av. per cent ....... .. 71 __ 75 .......... ......
Western Division
B ay .................. I 80 60 .......... ..
Calhoun ............ 80 85 .......... .. ......
Escambia ............. 100 100 100 100
H olm es ............... 100 100 .......... ..........
Jackson ............... 90 90 I....................
Okaloosa .............. 100 100 I....................
W alton ............... 75 75 .......... ..........
W ashington ........... 75 70 !.......... ..........
Div. Av. per cent...... 88 85 100 00
Northeastern Division
Alachua ................ 90 80 .......... .......
Baker ................ 75 75 .
Bradford .............. 100 70 ....... ....... .
Columbia ............. 100 100 ....................
Nassau ......... ...... 100 110 ...... .....
Putnam ................I 75 70 100 100
St. Johns ............. 100 100 100 100
Div. Av. per cent....... . 91 I 86 100 100
Central Division
Brevard .......... 90 75 .. . . ....
Citrus ................ 70 60 .....
lHernando ............. 75 60 ..........
Iillsborough ......... 80 75 90
Lake .................. 85 80 80
Levy ................ 90 90 .......... ...
Orange .............. 100 100 100o 100
Osceola .............. 80 100 90 80
Pasco ................ 60 50 .... ...............
Seminole .............. 100 100 .......... ...
Volusia ............... 70 70. ..
Div. Av. per cent ....... 82 | 77 90 I 88
Southern Division
Broward .............. 1 40 25 .........
Dade ................. 100 100 I..........
DeSoto ............... 100 100 .... ...... .........
Lee .................. 100 100 ..................
M anatee .............. 95 90 |.......... .........
Palm Beach ........... 90 85 ....
St. Lucie ............. 100 95 I....... ..
Div. Av. per cent ...... 89 85 . .. ........
State Av. per cent...... I 84 82 97 --I










49


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.
I I
COUNTY Peanuts Broom Corn
Northern Division I Condition Prospective Condition Prospective
I Yield Yield
Franklin .............. ......... ........ ... ...... ..
Gadsden ............I 95 100 100 100
Hamilton ............. .. .......... ................. .
Jefferson ..............1 50 I 0 1 ....0. ...... ....
Lafayette .............1 80 80 I ..... .............
Leon ................. 75 80 ........
Madison .............. 100 130 I..............
Taylor ................ 100 75 .......... ........
Wakulla .............. 100 I 100 ....................
Div. Av. per cent....... I 76 89 I 100 100
Western Division
Bay .................. 90 I 90 ..... ........
Calhoun .............. 90 00 10 .......... ....
Holmes ............. 100 105 .......... ......
Jackson ............... l 100 110
Okaloosa ..............I 100 100 1......... ......
W alton ............... 100 100 1...... .. I...
W ashington ...........I 100 100 I.......... .....
Div. Av. per cent....... 98 I 101 .......... ......
Northeastern Division
Alachua .............. I 80 0 I ......... ......
Baker ................. I 100 100 .......... .......
Bradford ..............I 90 70 I...... . .
Columbia ............. I 90 90 100 100
Nassau ............... 100 110 100 100
Putnam ............... 75 70 .............. .
St. Johns ............. 100 100 .......... ...
niv. Av. per cent....... 91 89 100 100
Central Division
B revard ............... ..... .. .... ......... .. -- ..
Citrus ................ 80 80 ..........
Hernando ............. 80 75 .......... .........
Hillsborough .......... 100 10 100 100
Lake ................. I 90 I 85 ... .. ...
Levy .................. 80 I 80 I.. ... ...
Orange ................. 100 1 100 1.......... I..
Osceola ............... .. ........ .. ........ .------.... .- .. ..
Pasco .................I 85 I 90 1.. . .
Seminole .................... ..... ....... I 1.......... .
Volusia ...............I 100 I 100 I
Dir. Av. per cent....... 89 I 88 100 I 100
Southern Division
Broward ..............1 60 40 0 7
D nde .............. ... .. ... .. ... .... ... .. .... I
DeSoto ............... 100 90 ..... ...
Lee .......... .... I.. ............. ........ .......
Manatee ............ I......... ......... .. ... .. ... . .... ..
Palm Beach ........... 95 90 .. ......
St. Lucie . ................. ................... .... ...
Div. Av. per cent......r 85 I 73 I 90 75
State Av. per cent...... 88 I -- 88 98 1 94


4-null.










50


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Native Hay Grasses Rhodes Grass for Hay

Northern Division Condition |Prospectivel Condition Prospective
I Yield | Yield
Franklin ............. .......... ..........I .......... ..........
Gadsden .............. 90 90 I .................
Hamilton ............. ... .......... ... .... ...... .. .
Jefferson .............. .......... ..... ... ...
Lafayette ...... .. . . .
Leon .......... ........ 90 ... 90 ..........
M adison .............. 115 115 .......... ...
Taylor ........... ..... 75 60 .
Wakulla .............. .. 75 75 ..
Div. Av. per cent ....... 89 86 I ....
Western Division
Bay ... .........95 0 .......... .........
Calhoun ...... ....... 100 100 . ... ... ........
Escambia ......... 100 100 ................
Holmes ............... 100 110 .......... ..........
Jackson .............. 90 95 ............
Okaloosa ............. 100 | 100 .......... .........
W alton ............... 100 100 .......... ..........
W ashington ........... 75 75 ..........
Div. Av. per cent...... I 95 I 96 I .... .... .........
Northeastern Division
Alachua ............ 100 100 .......... .......
Baker ........ ............. ...... ......
Bradford ..... ..... ............. ..............................
Columbia ........ 100 100 .... ... .. ......
Nassau ............... 100 90 100 90
Putnam ............... 100 100 .......... . .
St. Johns ..........00100 ....... .. .......00 100
Div. Av. per cent.......I 100 j 98 I. 100 90
Central Division
Brevard ............... 80 70 ..........
Citrus ................ 80 75 110 | 100
liernando ............. 90 90 . .
illsborough ........... 100 100
Lake .......95 95 85 70
Levy ...... 100 100 .......... ..
Orange ........... ..... 0 80 .....
Osceola ............... 100 100 .... . . .. .....
Pasco ................ 85 90 80 8
Seminole .............. 100 100 .. . . . . ..
\'olusia ......... 100 100 . . .
Div. Av. epr cent....... 93 91 92 I S
Southern Division
Broward .............. 100 100 ......
ljade ............ ... 100 100 ..
DeSoto ........... ... 100 100 ....... .....
Lee ................... 100 100 I.......... ..........
Manate .............. 90 90 ..................
Palm Beach ........... 90 90 .. .. ........
St. Lucie ............. 100 100 100_ 120
Div. Av. per cent ...... I 97 100 120
State Av. per cent.....I 95 I 94 97 I 9












51


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Alfalfa Natal Grass for Hay
Northern Division Conditibn IProspective Condition Prospective
| Yield Yield
F franklin .............. ........... ......... .. ....... . .........
G adsden .............. .......... ... ... . ..
Hamilton .... ........ . .... ..... ... .. ....... ...........
Jefferson .............. ....... .. ........ .. .. . .
Lafayette ............. ...... .. .......... ......................
Leon ................ ....... ... ......... ..... .....
M adison ....... ....... ........ .......... ......... ......
Taylor ......... .... .. ... ..... .. ....... .. ..... ...........
W akulla .............. ......... .......... .... ... ...........
Div. A v. per cent....... ........ .......... .......... i .. .....
Div. Av. per cent...
Western Division
B ay .................. .......... .......... .......... ..........
Calhoun .............. . .. .. .... . ........ ..
Escamabia ............. ....... ......... 100 100
H olm es ............... .......... ....... ......... .........
Jackson .............. ......... .......... .
Okaloosa ........... .. ...... .. .. .. ...... .
Walton.................. ..................... .
W ashington ........... ........ ...... ......
Div. Av. per cent....... ........ ......... 100 1 100
Northeastern Division
Alachua ............. ............---... -
B aker ................ .......... .... ... .. .. ........
Bradford ..................................................
Columbia ................ . . . .
Nassau ....... ................. .................. ......
Putnam .......... .................... 100 100
St. Johns ........................ ........... ...... ..........
Div. Av. per cent..... ............ ... ..... 100 I 100
Centr-al Division
Brevard ........ .. ........ .... ....... 25 90
Citrus. ......... ................ 110 100
....... ..... ....................
Hernando .......... .. ........ ... ..... I 100 10
Hillsborough .. ...... .. ..... ... ... .. 00 100

L .evy 95. . .. .. .-- .. .. .05
Orange ................ 90 906
1100
asceo ............... ............. ........ 0 00

Seminoleusia ..... ....... .................. I. .....0 100



Broward ................ .......... ... ......I .
Dade ........ ........ .... .......... .... .. .. .
L eeSoto ............. .... ....... ........ .0 900 .
L ee ........ .......... .......... .. .
anatee .............. I .......... ....... I ........... .........
Palm Beach ........... ... .... .. .......... .. .
St. Luci e ............. ...... ..........I
Div. Av. per cent............................ 9.....0 .. .90
State Av. per cent ... .. ........ . ... . .. 6











52


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY I Velvet Beans Japanese Cane for
___ Forage
Northern Division I Condition iProspective Conditiotn "Prospective
___ Yield [ Yield
Franklin .............. 70 I 70 .......... .
Gadsden ............ .. 0 90 85 85
Hamilton ............. 85 90 I.......... ..........
Jefferson .............. 50 60 .......... ..........
Lafayette ............. 80 85 ..
Leon ................. 90 90 .
M adison .............. 1 100 100 .......... ..........
Taylor ............... 100 75 .
Wakulla .............. I 25 25 I............. ...
Div. Av. per cent....... 77 76 85 85
Western Division
Bal ... :. .............. 100 1 5 ...........
Caloun ................ 100 100 I...........
Escambia ............. I 100 125 100 100
Holmes ...............I 100 110 1..................
Jackson ...............I 100 I 110
Okaloosa .............1 100 100
W alton ...............I 100 I 100 .... ....
Washington .. ......... 100 90 I 90 90
Div. Av. per cent....... 100 104 95 I 95
Northeastern Division
Alachua .............. I 100 100 .
Baker ................ 100 100 100 100
Bradford .............. 100 100 .......... ....
Columbia ............. 100 110 .
Nassau ................ 100 100 I 90 75
Putnam ...............I 80 85 .. ..
St. Johns ........... I 100 100 100 1
Div. Av. per cent....... I 97 99 92
Central Division
Brevard .............. 40 80 I .
Citrus ............... .I 100 100 110 100
Hernando ............. I 100 100 .
Hillsborough .......... 85 80 I 90 90
Lake ................. 95 95 90 85
Levy ................. 60 60 I 80 80
Orange ............... 100 100 I 100 100
Osceola ............... 100 100 1 100 100
Pasco ................I 75 80 I 85 90
Seminole .............. 100 100 .. ....
Volu la .............. 80 0 100100
Div Av. per cent....... I 55 I 809 I 94- 93-
Southern Division
Broward ........ ...... 100 I ... ......
Dade .................. 100 100 100 125
DeSoto ................. 100 100 I....................
Lee .................. 100 100 I.............
Manatee ..............1 100 1 100 I........... .........
Palm Beach ........... .......... .....
St. Lucie .............. 100 100 95 95
Div. Av. per cent...... 100 [ 100 I 98 I 110
State Av. per cent...... 86 94 I 94 | 95











53


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Pastures Bananas
Northern Division Condition IProspective Condition IProspective
Yield | Yield
Franklin .............. Yield _____ 60
Gadsden .............. 100 ..
Hamilton ............. 90 ........ .
Jefferson ............ 90. .......... ......... .....
Jefferson ............................-............... ........
Lafayette .......... 90
Leon ................. 90 .......... ....................
Madison ............ 120
Taylor ......... 100 ......... .I ......... . . .
W akulla ...... 50 ......... ......... . ..
Div. Av. per cent....... 91 I ......... 60 60
Western Division
Bay ..................I 100
Calhoun .............. .. 100 I:::::::.......I..............::
Escambia ............. 100 ........ I..............
Holmes ............... ............. .. ...........
Jackson 1..00 ....... ...... ...........
Okaloosa .............. 100
Walton ............... 100 ...........................
Washington .............. ... 100 .......
Dlv. Av. per cent....... 100 .......... .......... .....
Northeastern Division
Alachua .............. 100 .......... ......... ......
Baker ................ 100 .......
Bradford ........... ......... . .: : : :
Columbia ............. 100 .. .. .....
Nassau ............... 100 .. .... 100 0
Putnam ............... 100 ................ ..........
St. Johns ............. 100 .......... ...... ..........
Div. Av. per cent....... 100 I.......... 100 I 90
Central Division
Brevard .............. ........... ......... 25 |80
Citrus ................ 100 ............... ..........
Hernando ............ . 100 .. ..: ..: ..... .... . ..
Hillsborough ......... 100 .. . . 80 80
Lake ................. 85 .. ... ..... ..-
Levy ................. 70 .... .... .... . ...... ..
Orange ............. 75 .......... .... .. .
Osceola ............... 100 .......... 120 120
Pasco ................ I 100 ........ ......... ..... ..
Seminole .............. 100 .......... ....... .........
V olus a ............... 100 1 .......... I ........ . ..
Div. Av. per cent..... J 93 I .......... 78 I 3
Southern Division
Broward .............. 100 .......... 100 100
Dade ................. 100 I.......... 100 115
DeSoto ............... 100 I .......... I.
Lee .................. 100 .......... 100 100
Manatee .............. 100 ].......... 100 100
Palm Beach ........... 85 100 95
St. Lucle ............. 100 .......... 75 30
Div. Av. per cent ..... 98 . .. .. .. I 94 92
State Av. per cent .... I 96 I .. .... I 83 84











54


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY I Mangoes Avocados

Northern Division Condition IProspective Condition Prospective
Yield 1 1 Yield
Franklin ...... ......... I . .....
Gadsden ..... .. ...
Jeffraon .............. ......... ...... .......... ..........
Hamilton .: :::::::

Lafayette
Lafayette ............. ............. .......... ..
Leon ................. I .......... .......... .......... ..........
Leon .
Madison ................ ...... .......... ..........
Taylor ... . ....
W akulla ... ............ ..
Div. Av. per cent....... ......... .. .......... ........
Western Division
Bay ......... .............. ............... ... .....
Calhoun .................
Escambia ............... .......... ...
H olm eso .............. ... ... . .. ...
JJackson .............. .. ... ..... .. ......... ..
Okaloosa .. ............. .. ........ .......... ....
W alton .. ........ I ........
W ashington .... .... .... . .
D iv. Av. per cent....... .......... .I ....... I ........... .......
Northeastern Division
Alachua ......
B aker .. .. ......... ........ ..........
Bradford .............. ................
Columbia ..... ..
Nassau ...... .......... .. .. ... .. ..
Putnam .........I.... .... .. ..
Putnam ............ .........................................
St. Johns ............. ........ . ..... I .... ... I..........
Div. Av. per cent....... . ... ... ...... . I .......... .... : ....
Central Division
Brevard .............. 20 75 ... .... .........
Citrus ................ ....... .. ..........
H ernando .... ....... ...... ..... ... ..
Hillsborough .......... 100 100 100 100
Lake ........... .......... . .......... .......... ..........
Levy ................. .......... .......... .......... ..........
O range ................ ......... ....... .. .... ........ ....
Osceola ............... 90 90 ... ..........
P asco ............... . ......... ......I. ............ ..
Seminole .............. 100 1 100 I ..................
V olusia .............. .......... ......... .......... ....
Div. Av. per cent....... 78 1 90 100 [ 100
Southern Division
Broward .............. ........ ........ .. .
Dade ................. 100 100 100
DeSoto ...............I........ ....... .I 90 80
Lee .................. 100 100 100 100
M anatee ......... ..... ......... . .. .... .................
Palm Beach ........... I 9 I 90 95 90
St. Lucie ............ I 80 7 I 90 105
Div. Av. per cent...... 94 I 91 I 5 95
State Av. per cent .. .. 76 I 91 98 I 9











55


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY Guavas Orange Trees

Northern Division Condition IProspective] Condition Prospective
I __ Yield I Yield
Franklin .............. 90 1 50 80 75
G adsden ........ ... .. ........ .......... .......... ... ...
Hamilton ............. ..
Jefferson ...... ..... ....
Lafayette ...................... ...::........ .
Leon ................. ....... . ......... 80 75
M adison .............. .......... .......... 75 75
Taylor .................. ... 1 .......... .....................
Wakulla ...... ..... .................... ... . ..
Div. Av. per cent. ...... 00 50 78 75
Western Division
Bay ............. ....I ... ... 90 90
Calhoun ................ ..... ..... ...... ... 90 85
Escambia ............. ..... ... .. .. .. 50 50
H olm es ............... .......... .. ... . . .
Jackson ............... .......... .... ................ ........
Okaloosa ............. .......... ......... ......
W alton ............... .......... .......... 50 50
W ashin gton ........... .......... ... .... ..........
Div. Av. per cent ... .... .... .......... 70 I 69
Northeastern Division
Alachua ............ .. ........ .......... 100 00
Baker ................ .......... .......... ...... *.
B radford .............. ... ... .......... .......... .. .....
Columbia ............. ...... ..... ... .
Nassau ...............I.......... 10
Putnam ............... .......... ....... 60 70
St. Johns. ........ ... .... ... ...... 100 70
Div. Av. per cent....... .... .......... 90 79
Central Division
Brevard ............... 1 40 90 20 75
Citrus ................ .. ........ 100 70
Hernando .......... .. 76 65 80 70
Hillsborough .......... 90 85 90 80
Lake ................. 90 90 75 70
Levy ................. i.... ...... .... ii ... 70 70
Orange ................ I 100 11100 90
Osceola .............. I 150 150 100 85
Pasco ................ 90 90 50 30
Seminole ........... ... 100 125 100 75
Volusia ............... 100 110 100 80
Div. Av. per cent....... 93 I 91 80 72
Southern Division
Broward .............. 100 50 90 75
Dade ................. 125 120 85 75
IDeSoto .............. 100 115 85 75
Lee ..................I 100 110 90 75
Manatee .............. 100 110 90 80
Palm Beach ........... 100 100 85 70
St. Lucie ........... .. 100 120 100 60
Div. Av. per cent...... I 104 I 104 89 I 7
State Av. per cent . . I 96 I 82 | 81 I 74











56


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.

COUNTY I Lemon Trees 1 Lime Trees
Northern Division I Condition IProspectivej Condition Prospective
I Yield I I Yield
Franklin .............. 80 75 ...... ..........
Gadsden .............. .......... I ... .. .......... ... ....
Hamilton ........................ I .
Jefferson .......... I.. ......... .......... .......
Lafayette ............. . ....... ......
Leon ............. ......... ...... ... .. ......
M adison .............. .... .. ......... I ...
Taylora .............. ... ........ .. ...... .
W akulla .............. ... .. ...' *'' ..|.. ... . ..I. ..
Div. Av. per cent...... 80 | 75 I .. I.
Western Division
B ay .................. ........ . ........ .......... ..........
Escambla ........ ........ .. .. ..
Holmes ............... ............... .... ....
Jackson ............... .. ... .. .. .. .. .....
Okaloosa ............. ......... . ....... I ...........
W alton ............ .. ....... . .... I..I .. ... ........
W ashington ..........I. ..... . ..... .. . ....... .. ..
Div. Av. per cent....... I .......... .......... I .......... ..........
Northeastern Division
A lachua .............. .......... .......... ........
Baker .............. ..... I .
Bradford .............. .......... ......
Columbia .........
Nassau .......... 100 75
Putnam ....... .. ...... ...
St. Johns .. ..... ...........................
Div. Av. per cent .. 100 75 ...............
Central Division
Brevard ..............-- 20 60 0 50
Citrus ................ 100 70
Hernando ............. 90 60
Hillsborough .......... I 90 95 90 "
Lake ................. I 75 70 65 65
Levy ................. ...... . .... .......... ..........
Orange ............... 100 85 .......... .....
Osceola ............... 100 100 100 0
Pasco ................. 75 90 ...... .. .........
Seminole .............. .............................. ..........
Volusia ............... . .. .
Div. Av. per cent....... I 81 79 66 7S
Southern Division
Broward ....... . .. ... .......... ... .............
Dade ................. 90 90 95 115
DeSoto ............... .......... .......... 90 90
Lee .................. .......... .......... 90 90
Manatee .............. ......... .......... 85 90
Palm Beach ........ ...... . ......... 95 95
St. Lucie ........... 95 70 95 70
Div. Av. per cent ...... I 93 80 I 92 92
State Av. per cent...... I 86 I 77 I 79 5











57


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.
I
COUNTY I Grapefruit Trees
SCondition Prospective
Conduit field

Franklin ............... .... ............... .. 80 75
Gadsden .................................... ....... . .......
H am ilton ..... ............................ ... ... ... .......
Jefferson .............................. ..... ..................
Lafayette .... .... .. ..... . .
Leon . . . 85 75
Leon........................................I 85 .
Madison ................................... I 100 100
Taylor .................................. .......... ........
Wakulla ................... .............. .. ..........
Div. Av. per cent............................... 88 i 83
Western Division
Bay .............................. ........ 100 I 100
Calhoun ..................... ................. 90 85
Escam bia .................. .................. .... ......... ..
H olm es ..................................... .......... ..........
Jackson ...................................... .......... ......
Okaloosa ................................ .........
W alton .....................................I....................
W ashington ................... ....
Div. Av. per cent ..................... . . I 95 92
Northeastern Division
Alachua ...................................I 100 100
B aker ...................................... I ...... .. ...
Bradford ................................... I .......... .
Colum bia ............ ......................... .. .. .
Nassau ................ ................... . 00 75
Putnam .................................... 60 70
St. Johns ...................................I 100 70
Div. Av. per cent .............................I 90 I 79
Central Division
Brevard ......................... ............ .
Citrus ...................................... 1 00 70
Hernando ...... ......................... 85 70
Hillsborough ............................. . 90 70
Lake ......................... ........... 80 75
Levy .... ....... ..... ...................... 70 70
Orange ......................... ........ I 100 100
Osceola .................................. I ]00 75
P asco ......................................I 75
Seminole ...................... ..... ........ 100 75
Volusia .... 100 60
Div. Av. per cent............................. 86 62
Southern Division
Broward ............................ ... .
Dade .................... ................ 85 70
DeSoto ................................... 85 75
Lee ....................... .............. 85 75
M anatee .................. ............... 85 80
Palm Beach ................................. 90 85
St. Lucie ............... .................... 95 60
Div. Av. per cent ............... ............ 88 74
State Av. per cent ...........................I 89 I 78



















PART III.

Immature Citrus Fruit.
Rules and Regulations.
Fertilizers, Feeding Stuffs, and Foods and Drugs.













Immature Citrus Fruit

BY

R. E. ROSE
State Chemist
BEFORE THE
CITRUS SEMINAR, GAINESVILLE,
FLORIDA
OCTOBER 17-20, 1916












IMMATURE CITRUS FRUIT

By R. E. ROSE, State Chemist, before the Citrus Seminar,
Gainesville, Florida, October 17-20, 1916.
Gentlemen:
This subject probably has been, discussed more fre-
quently by the grower, shipper and consumer of citrus
fruit during the past twenty years than any other sub-
ject, affecting the production and marketing of citrus
fruit.
It became the subject of discussion by the citrus grow-
er, the agricultural press, and trade journal before the
great freezes of Florida and California, at Which time
the crops of citrus fruit in each state had become of large
size-some 5,000,000 boxes in FloridA and some 8,000,000
boxes in California. For some years after these freezes
the crop being small, far less than the demand, there was
little, if any, immature citrus fruit sent to market, hence
the quality of the fruit was seldomn questioned.
However, when the crbp again reached 5,000,000 boxes
in Florida, with a proportionate increase in California,
the problem of marketing arid distribution became acute.
The natural desire to get the fruit into' the market in
advance of a possible freeze, by which the fruit at least
would be made unfit for market, with the possibility of
serious damage to the groves, and shortening the crop for
several years to come; the temptation to ship the fruit
as earlv as the market would accept them irrespective of
quality was great, hence the shipment,of immature fruit
became general, particularly by shippers who had pur-
chased crops on the trees-often with a clause in the con-
tract requiring the. purchaeryto remove. the, entire. crop
from the trees at a fixed date, generally by January 1;
sometimes earlier.










The flooding of the market with this fruit, largely im-
mature and undesirable, early in the season necessarily
had the effect of destroying the reputation for excellence,
formerly enjoyed by the Florida orange.
In order to deceive the consumer as to ripeness and
desirability, it became a common practice to "sweat"
green, or immature oranges, thus simulating ripeness or
maturity. It was soon discovered that green fruit shipped
in an unventilated car "Released, Vents Closed and Plugs
In," thus affording "a warm moist atmosphere" would
arrive at destination, some six to ten days later, yellow
and apparently mature.
This abuse became- so common when the Florida and
California crops reached large proportions, as to demand
some action by our national pure food officials, who, after
investigation, declared that:
"There is evidence to show that the consump-
tion of such immature oranges, especially by
children, is apt to be attended by serious dis-
turbances of the digestive system."
This fact, however, was generally accepted prior to the
issuance of F. I. D. No. 133, April 6, 1911, by the national
pure food authorities.
This ruling by the national authorities was quickly
followed by the State of Florida; on June 5, 1911, the
Florida "Immature Citrus Fruit Act" became a law; in
response to a practically universal demand by the orange
growers of the State, and that of many shippers inter-
ested in maintaining the quality, reputation and market
value of Florida oranges, and was bitterly opposed, I am
pleased to say, only by a few notorious "Green Fruiters"
' E '' and speculators, who had little or no interest in the gen-
eral welfare of the industry. Its constitutionality was
questioned by those interested in the shipment of "Imma-
ture Citrus Fruit," carried to the Florida Supreme Court,
and the law sustained, as reported in the case of Sligh











vs. Kirkwood, Sheriff, reported February 7, 1913. 65
Florida, page 123. This judgment was affirmed on appeal
to the IT. S. Supreme Court, April, 1914.
It will be noted that in F. I. D. No. 133, and in the
Florida "Immature Citrus Fruit Law of 1911" no stand-
ard was fixed for determining the maturity of oranges.
However, in both cases, "Immature Oranges" were de-
clared unwholesome and unfit for consumption.
Necessarily, the question-"When is an orange mature
and wholesome?" became immediately one of great public
interest in the orange producing states. It is well known
that immature citrus fruit, after removal from the tree,
though it may be artificially colored by "holding in a
warm, moist atmosphere for a short period of time," or
shipment in an unventilated car, does not, as in the case
of deciduous fruits, ripen; that such immature oranges
"do not change in sugar or acid content after removal
from the tree" and are not prone to decay, rather to
desicate or "dry up."
It can be readily perceived that some simple method,
easily and quickly applied, one that could be applied by
any one-grower, shipper or reeciver-one that would
positively determine the degree of ripeness, irrespective
of color, became necessary.
Hence, a standard, fair to all parties-the grower, the
shipper, the receiver, and particularly to the consumer-a
reliable and accurate standard, quickly applied by any
intelligent man or woman, not requiring great skill, tech-
nical training, or expert knowledge to apply, was de-
manded, a legal standard fixed by authority, for the
guidance not only of the Inspector, but also for the
grower and shipper.
This problem of devising such a standard was delegated
by the Agricultural Department of Florida to a com-
mission of eminent scientists, trained horticulturists,
5--Bull.











specialists in orange growing and. marketing, chemists,
and business men.
This commission was appointed by the Commissioner of
Agriculture of Florida in June, 1912, and met July 6,
1912, at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
and assigned to its various members different phases of
the problem submitted.
After several sessions and much correspondence, this
Commission prepared a report of their conclusions and
presented the same to a largely attended convention of
Florida orange growers, convened by the authority of the
Florida Agricultural Department, at the State University
at Gainesville, August 15, 1912.
SThis convention unanimously adopted the standard for
oranges recommended by the Commission as follows:
"If this chemical analysis shows the percent-
age by weight of the total sugar, as invert sugar,
to be seven times, or more, than the weight of
the total acid, as citric acid, the fruit shall be
deemed mature."
This standard now generally known as the "Florida
Standard," I am pleased to say has been adopted by
the National Bureau of Chemistry and by the National
Association of Food, Drug and Dairy Officials, slightly
modified as to terms, in order that the "test" or "analy-
sis" can be readily and quickly applied in the field or in
the laboratory. The standard now adopted by the
National Food and; Drug authorities, and by many of the
Food Officials and Health Officers of the Nation, is that:
"All mature oranges shall contain not less
than eight parts of total solids to one part of
total acid, calculated as citric acid, without
water of crystalization; and that
"All mature grapefruit shall contain not less
than seven parts of total solids to one part of











acid, calculated as citric acid, without water of
crystalization."
It will be noted that one part crystalized citric acid
to seven parts of total sugar, as invert, is practically
identical with the standard now universally adopted. It
can readily be applied by any one, not color-blind, with
a few inexpensive instruments and reagents, thus obtain-
ing the information necessary, without the tedious and
expensive sugar determination, requiring a chemical labo-
ratory and a trained chemist.
It will be readily perceived that total solids include
acids, hence seven parts sugar is practically identical to
eight parts total solids.
Much time, labor and study has been devoted to this
problem by the U. S. Bureau of Chemistry in California
and in Florida, also by the Laboratories of the Universi-
ties and Experiment Stations and State Laboratories of
these States, as well as by several reputable commercial
laboratories in these, and other States, all of which agree
that the standard fixed by the Florida Commission is
equitable and fair alike to the grower and the shipper,
and the consumer.
Since the unanimous adoption of the standard by the
National Association of Dairy, Food and Drug Officials,
at Berkeley, California, August 2-5, 1915; the Health and
Food Officials, Chambers of Commerce and Boards of
Trade of many states, particularly those in which large
distributing points are situated-New York, Chicago,
Cincinnati, St. Louis, Denver and others-have adopted
the standard and decline to accept delivery of fruit which
does not comply with the National standard; and have
destroyed large quantities of citrus fruit that has failed
to pass the standard required, not only in car lots and
cargoes, but have followed and attached the fruit in the
possession of the retail dealer.










Two cargoes of Porto Rican grapefruit (windfalls from
the recent storm) were condemned and destroyed by the
Health Officers of New York, recently. This has resulted
in a notice by the New York Chamber of Commerce to the
Porto Rican and other foreign shippers, that hereafter
delivery would not be accepted of fruit that failed to pass
the National and state standards. Citrus fruit, therefore,
can not be shipped from these localities until certified as
mature by an official chemist at the shipping point.
The time is rapidly approaching when all contracts for
delivery of citrus fruit will be conditional upon its
"passing the test" of maturity on arrival at destination.
Receivers, commission and auction houses, brokers and
dealers, wholesale and retail, will not assume the risk of
the loss of the fruit by condemnation. The work of in-
spection has been greatly facilitated and improved.
The fact that a shipper can not now ship "Released,
Vents Closed and Plugs In" without calling attention to
his evident desire to "sweat" the fruit in transit; nor
prevent State or National Inspectors from obtaining this
information from the railroad agents, has had a wonder-
ful retarding effect on the "Green Fruiter," a very few of
whom still try to operate and occasionally get off a car
from some lonely siding, packed and shipped at night,
and, I am credibly informed, not billed as citrus fruit.
The act of 1910, amending the Interstate Commerce
Act, provides as follows:

U. S. ACTS OF 1910.

Chapter 309-To amend An Act to regulate
commerce. (The Interstate Commerce Law).
Section 10. Any person, corporation, or com-
pany, or any agent or officer thereof, who shall
deliver property for transportation to any com-
mon carrier or for whom, as con-











signor or consignee, any such carrier shall trans-
port property, who shall knowingly and will-
fully, directly or indirectly, himself or by em-
ployee, agent, officer, or otherwise, by false bill-
ing, false classification, false weighing, false
representation of the contents of the package, or
the substance of the property *" whether
with or without the consent or connivance of
the carrier, its agent, or officer * shall
be deemed guilty of fraud, which is hereby de-
clared to be a misdemeanor, and shall, upon
conviction thereof, be subject, for each offence,
to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or
imprisonment in the penitentiary for a term of
not exceeding two years, or both, in the discre-
tion of the court:
Section 12. Provided, That nothing in this
act shall be construed to prevent the giving of
such information in response to any legal pro-
cess issued under the authority of any state or
Federal Court, or to any officer or agent of the
Government of the United States, or of any
State or Territory, in the exercise of his powers,
or to any officer or other duly authorized person
seeking such information for the prosecution of
persons charged with or suspected of crime:
Any person * violating any
of the provisions of this section, shall
be guilty of a misdemeanor, andi for each offense,
on conviction, shall pay to the United States a
penalty of not more than one thousand dollars.
Those two amendments to the Interstate Commerce
Act have had a wonderful deterent effect upon the ship-
ment of unlawful goods by means of false statements as
to kind or class of material shipped and also afford
officials, State and National, means to promptly ascer-











tain all facts as to the point, and date of shipment, name
of consignor and consignee, car initial, number and rout-
ing, thus affording an opportunity to fix the responsi-
bility for the shipment of all unlawful goods, not only
immature citrus fruit but numerous others. Citrus fruit
is by no means the only class of fruit or vegetable, and
other farm products now demanding laws and regulations
to prevent their shipment in an immature condition-
notably the canteloupe and celery growers, shippers and
consumers are now demanding laws and regulations to
prevent this deception and abuse. Particularly are
brokers and, consignees declining to accept delivery and
pay for goods that do not conform to the National and
State standards fixed by law.
I am pleased to say that most of the larger shippers
of the State, handling most of the citrus crop, are now
in full accord with the National and State authorities,
and are upholding the law and aiding in its enforcement.
The Fertilizer, Feed Stuff and Food and Drug Laws,
which at first met with the active opposition of the man-
ufacturers and dealers, are now recognized by the legiti-
mate manufacturer and dealer in honest goods as their
best protection against the dishonest competition of the
manufacturer or dealer in inferior or adulterated goods.
It will be noted that previous to the season of 1914-15,
when the law had been declared constitutional by the
Supreme Courts of the State and Nation, and the adop-
tion of the Florida Standard by the National authorities;
but little was accomplished in preventing the shipment of
immature fruit by State officers. The shipment of citrus
fruit being practically exclusively interstate, the State,
without the co-operation of the National authorities, was
seriously handicapped, hence the shipment of 900 cars
of grapefruit prior to November 5, 1913--thus flooding
the markets with inferior fruit to the disgust of the con-
sumer and demorilization of the market, which did not











recover until very late in the season-to the great finan-
cial loss of the grower and legitimate shipper.
However, during the season of 1914-15, owing to the
hearty co-operation of the National authorities but 90
cars of grapefruit had left the State when the season
closed, November 5, while there was but little complaint
of immature oranges. These facts are well known to
the .grower and shipper, hence the general approval of the
law and demand for its enforcement by all except a few
notorious "Green Fruiters," who still persist in the efforts
to evade the law by packing and shipping at night from
lonely sidings, and, as alleged, by false billings..
A number of these cars have been attached as imma-
ture, the necessary evidence obtained of their being
shipped "Released, Vents Closed and Plugs In," and full
information forwarded to the National authorities and
to the consignee. It is believed that this practice will
cease when found unprofitable and liable to end in con-
viction and punishment.
With the active co-operation, now assured, of the
National authorities, and the various states that have
adopted the Florida standard, and the fact that numer-
ous Boards of Trade, Chambers of Commerce and other
trade organizations are now refusing to accept delivery
of citrus fruit, foreign or domestic, that does not meet
the national standard, there is reason to believe that the
effort of the honest grower and shipper of citrus fruit to
prevent the violation of the laws of the State and Nation
will be accomplished.
R. E. ROSE.











ANA1,YSIS OF FOODS AND DRUGS.

Samples of Foods and Drugs are drawn under special
regulations as provided by law.

Applications should be made to the Commissioner of
Agriculture or State Chemist for the necessary blanks.
instructions, etc., for drawing and transmitting samples
of foods and drugs, including drinks of all kinds.

FOOD AND DRUG SAMPLES NOT DRAWN AND TRANSMITTED
ACCORDING TO LAW WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED FOR ANALYSIS.

COPIES OF LAWS, RULES AND REGULATIONS
AND STANDARDS.

Citizens of the State interested in fertilizers, foods and
drugs, and stock feed, can obtain, free of charge, the
respective Laws, including Rules and Regulations and
Standards, by applying to the Commissioner of Agricul-
ture or State Chemist. Application for the (Qnrterly
Bulletin of the State Department of Agriculture should
also be made to the Commissioner of Agriculture or
State Chemist. The Bulletins of the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station can be had by application to
the Director at Gainesville.
R. E. Rosn.
State Chemist.
Approved:
W. A. MCRAE,
Commissioner of Agriculture.
Tallahassee, Fla., January 1, 1916.












HOW TO LEGALLY DRAW, PACK AND TRANSMIT
SAMPLES OF FERTILIZERS AND COMMER-
CIAL FEED STUFFS FOR ANALYSIS BY
THE STATE LABORATORY.

1. Only such samples as are drawn from original
packages, EACH BEARING THE GUARANTEE OF A LAWFUL
DEALER AND THE INSPECTION STAMP REQUIRED BY LAW, will
be analyzed by the State Laboratory.
2. If the lot or shipment be TEN or more packages, the
sample must be drawn from NOT LESS THAN TEN packages.
3. If the lot or shipment be LESS than TEN packages,
the sample shall be drawn from EACH package.
4. The sample shall be drawn in the presence of
TWO disinterested witnesses, and shall be SEALED IN THEIR
PRESENCE, and TRANSMITTED by a DISINTERESTED PARTY
(one of the witnesses) to the COMMISSIONER OF
AGRICULTURE.
5. Not less than one pound of Fertilizer, or one-half
pound of Commercial Feed Stuff must be placed in a tin
can or a glass bottle and addressed and sent, prepaid, to
the Commissioner of Agriculture.
6. The purchaser (or sender) shall address a letter
to the Commissioner of Agriculture, stating:
1. The number of original packages represented by
the sample, and the number of packages sampled.
2. That each package had attached to it the guar-
antee tag and stamp required by law.
3. That the sample was drawn in the presence of two
or more witnesses.
4. THIS LETTER MUST NOT BE INCLOSED IN THE PACKAGE.
The tags OFF THE PACKAGES SAMPLED, with the guaran-
teed analysis and stamps must be RETAINED by the pur-
chaser, to compare with the certificate, and for future
evidence, if necessary, and BY NO MEANS SENT TO THIS
OFFICE.











The State Chemist is not the proper officer to receive
the sample.
We suggest a form of the letter of transmittal to the
Commissioner of Agriculture on this page.
R. E. ROSE,
State Chemist.
Approved.
W. A. McRAE,
Commissioner of Agriculture.

.....................,.. Fla., ............., 1916
Hon. W. A. McRae,
Commissioner of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Sir:
I send you today by mail (or express) a sample of
. ...................................... for analysis
(Indicate Fertilizer, Cotton Seed Meal, or Feed Stuff)
by the State Chemist.
This sample is taken from a lot of ......... package,,
each bearing the guarantee tag and stamp required by
Law, purchased from a Florida dealer.
This sample was drawn from ......... packages in
the presence of two witnesses, this day.
The guarantee tags and stamps off the ............
packages sampled are retained by the purchaser.
This sample is -sent by me, one of the witnesses, for
Mr. ........................, the purchaser.
Yours truly,

STATE VALUATIONS.

(Based on commercial values, Oct. 1, 1916)
For Available and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, Ammonia
and Potash for the Season of 1916.
Available Phosphoric Acid............. 5c a pound
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid............. Ic a pound
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen). 194c a pound












Potash (as actual potash, K20)......... 30c a pound
If calculated by units---
Available Phosphoric Acid............. $1.10 per unit
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid............. 20c per. unit
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen) 3.90 per unit
Potash ............................... 6.00 per unit
With a uniform allowance of $1.50 per ton for mixing
and bagging.
A unit is twenty pounds, or 1 per cent., in a ton. We
find this to be the easiest and quickest method for calcu-
lating the value of fertilizer. To illustrate this, take for
example a fertilizer which analyzes as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid...6.22 per cent.x$1.10-$ 6.84
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid...1.50 per cent.x .20- .30
Ammonia ...................3.42 per cent.x 3.90- 13.34
Potash .......................3.23 per cent.x 6.00- 19.38
Mixing and Bagging .........................- 1.50

Commercial value at sea ports .................. .$41.26
Or as a fertilizer analyzing as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid ..... 8 per cent.x$1.10-$ 8.80
Ammonia .................... 2 per cent.x 3.90- 7.80
Potash .......................2 per cent.x 6.00- 12.00
Mixing and Bagging .........................- 1.50

Commercial value at seaports .................. $30.10
The valuations and market prices in preceding illustra-
tions are based on market prices for one-ton lots.
MARKET PRICES OF CHEMICALS AND FERTILIZ-
ING MATERIALS AT FLORIDA SEAPORTS,
OCTOBER 1, 1916.
"Under unsettled conditions, potash quotations are
wholly nominal."
AMMONIATES.
Nitrate of Soda, 17% Ammonia .............. $ 70.00












Sulphate of Ammonia, 25% Ammonia.......... 80.00
Dried Blood, 16% Ammonia.................. 64.00
Cyanamid, 18% Ammonia ....................... 75.00
POTASH.

High Grade Sulphate of Potash, 90% Sul-
phate, 48% K20 ........................ Nominal
Low Grade Sulphate of Potash, 48% Sulphate,
26% K20 .............................. Nominal
Muriate of Potash, 80%; 48% KO .......... Nominal
Nitrate of Potash, imported, 15% Ammonia,
44% Potash K20O....................... Nominal
Nitrate of Potash, American, 13% Ammonia,
42% Potash K20 .......................... Nominal
Kainit, Potash, 12% K20................. Nominal
Canada Hardwood Ashes, in bags, 4% K20
Potash ................................. Nom inal
AMMONIA AND PHOSPHORIC ACID.

Water Soluble Tankage, 14% Ammonia ........ $ 65.00
High Grade Tankage, 10% Ammonia, 10% Phos-
phoric Acid ................................ 44.00
Tankage, 8% Ammonia, 18% Phosphoric Acid... 46.00
Low Grade Tankage, 61/2% Ammonia, 12% Phos-
phoric Acid ............................... 36.00
Sheep Manure, ground, 5% Ammonia.......... 35.00
Imported Fish Guano, 11% Ammonia, 51/2%
Phosphoric Acid ........................... 50.00
Pure Fine Steamed Ground Bone, 3% Ammonia,
22% Phosphoric Acid ...................... 37.00
Raw Bone, 4% Ammonia, 22% Phosphoric Acid. 40.00
Ground Castor Pomace, 51/2 Ammonia, 2%
Phosphoric Acid ........................... 28.00
Bright Cotton Seed Meal, 71/2% Ammonia...... 31.00
Dark Cotton Seed Meal, 41/2% Ammonia....... 26.00











PHOSPHORIc ACID.
High Grade Acid Phosphate, 16% Available
Phosphoric Acid ............................ 16.00
Acid Phosphate, 14% Available Phosphoric Acid. 15.00
Bone Black, 17% Available Phosphoric Acid.... 25.00
MISCELLANEOUS.
High Grade Ground Tobacco Stems, 2% Am-
monia, 7% Potash ..........................$ 55.00
High Grade Ground Kentucky Tobacco Stems,
.21/2% Ammonia, 8% Potash ................ 60.00
Tobacco Dust No. 1, 2% Ammonia, 2% Potash... 32.00
Cut Tobacco Stems, in sacks, 2% Ammonia, 4%
Potash ..................................... 34.00
Dark Tobacco Stems, baled, 2% Ammonia, 41
Potash ........................... .......... 30.00
Land Plaster, in sacks ....................... 12.00

The charges by reputable manufacturers for mixing and
bagging any special or regular formula are $1.50 per ton
in excess of above prices.
NEW YORK WHOLESALE PRICES, CURRENT
OCTOBER 1, 1916-FERTILIZER MATERIALS.
"Under unsettled conditions, quotations are wholly
nominal."
AM M ONIATES.
Ammonia, Sulph., prompt............. 3.40 @ -
futures ............................ 3.40 @ -
Fish scrap, dried, 11 p. c. Ammonia and
14 p. c. Bone Phosphate, f.o.b. fish
works ...................per unit 3.00 & 10
wet, acidulated, 6 p.c. Ammonia, 3 p.c.
Phosphoric Acid, delivered.......... Nominal
Ground Fish Guano, imported, 10 and 11
p. c. Bone Phosphate, c. i. f. N. Y.,
Balto, or Phila. ............. ...- -











Tankage, 11 p. c. and 15 p. c. f.o.b.
Chicago ......................... 2.85 & 10
Tankage, 10 and 20 p. c., f.o.b. Chicago,
ground .......................... 2.55 & 10
Tankage, 9 and 20 p. c., f.o.b. Chicago,
ground .......................... 2.65 & 10
Tankage, concentrated, f.o.b., Chicago,
14 to 15 p. c., f.o.b. Chicago....... 2.50 & 10
Garbage, tankage, f.o.b. Chicago....... 9.00 @ -
Sheep Manure, concentrated, f.o.b. Chi-
cago .................... per ton 13.00 @ -
Hoofmeal, f.o.b. Chicago....... per unit 2.60 @ 2.70
Dried Blood, 12-13 p. c. Ammonia, f.o.b.
New York ....................... 2.80 @ -
Chicago ........................... 2.65 @ -
Nitrate of Soda, 95 p. c., spot........
per 100 lbs. 3.10 @ -
futures, 95 p. c..................... 3.07@ -
PHOSPHATES.
Acid Phosphate .............. per unit 80 @ 85
Bones, rough, hard..............per ton 22.50 @ 24.00
soft steamed unground.............. 21.50 @ 22.00
ground, steamed, 11/4 p. c. Ammonia
and 60 p. c. Bone Phosphate....... 20.00 @ 21.00
ditto, 3 and 50 p. c................ 23.50 (na 24.00
raw, ground, 4 p. c. Ammonia and
50 p. c. Bone Phosphate........ .. 28.50 @ 30.00
South Carolina Phosphate Rock, kiln
dried, f.o.b. Ashley River .......... 3.50 @ 3.75
Florida Land Pebble Phosphate Rock,
68 p. c., f.o.b. Tampa, Fla......... 2.75 @ 3.00
Florida High Grade Phosphate Hard
Rock, 77 p. c., f.o.b. Florida ports.. 5.00 (a) 5.25
Tennessee Phosphate Rock, f.o.b. Mt.
Pleasant, domestic, 78(80 p. c....
per ton 5.00 @ 5.50











75 p. c. guaranteed ................. 4.75 @(
68@72 p. c........................ 4.25 @

POTASHES.

Muriate of Potash, 80-85 per cent., basis
80 per cent., in bags...... per ton. 290.00 @
Muriate of Potash, min. 95 per cent.,
basis 80 per cent., in bags..per ton 300.00 @
Muriate of Potash, min. 98 per cent.,
basis 80 per cent., in bags........... N
Sulphate of Potash, 90-95 per cent.,
basis 80 per cent., in bags........ 275.00 @
Double Manure Salt, 48-53 per cent.,
basis 48 per cent., in bags........ 105.00 @
Manure Salt, min. 20 per cent., KO,
in bulk ........................ 60.00 (@i
Hard Salt, min. 16 per cent., K,0,
in bulk ......................... 40.00 (@
Kainit, min. 12.4 per cent., K20, in
bulk ................. .. ........ 40.00 @(


COMMERCIAL STATE VALUES OF
FOR 1.916.


FEED S'


5.00
4.50


350.00

310.00

ominal

300.00


50.00

50.00

50.00

1TUF'F,


For the season of 1916 the following "State values" are
fixed as a guide to purchasers, quotation January 1.
These values are based on the current prices of corn,
which has been chosen as a standard in fixing the com-
mercial values, the price of corn, to a large extent, gov-
erning the price of other feeds, pork, beef, etc.:

COMMERCIAL VALUES OF FEED STUFFS FOR 191(..

Indian corn being the standard @ $35.00 per ton.
($1.75 per sack of 100 lbs., 98c per bu. 56 lbs.)
To find the commercial State value, multiply the per-
centages by the price per unit.
A unit being 20 pounds (1%) of a ton.











Protein, 4.Sc per pound................... 96c per unit
Starch and Sugar, 1.55c per pound........ 31c per unit
Fats, 3.5c per pound.....................70c per unit

EXAMPLE NO. 1.

CORN AND OATS, EQUAL PARTS-

Protein ........................11.15 x 96c, $10.71
Starch and Sugar ................ 64.65 x 31c, 20.04
Fat ............................ 5.20 x 70c, 3.64

State value per ton.................... ..........34.39

EXAMPLE No. 2.
CORN-

Protein .........................10.50 x 96c, $10.08
Starch and Sugar................69.60 x 31c, 21.57
Fat ............................. 5.40 x 70c, 3.78

State value per ton............................. 35.4:

STATE VALUES.
It is not intended by the "State valuations" to fix the
price or commercial value of a given brand. The "State
values" are Ihe market prices for the various approved
chemicals and materials used in mixing or manufactur-
ing commercial fertilizers or commercial stock feed at
the date of issuing a Bulletin, or the opening of the
"season." They may, but seldom do, vary from the market
prices, and are made liberal to meet any slight advance
or decline.
They are compiled from price lists and commercial re
ports by reputable dealers and journals.
The question is frequently asked: "What is 'Smith's
Fruit and Vine' worth per ton?" Such a question cannot
be answered categorically. By analysis, the ammonia,
available phosphoric acid and potash may be determined











and the inquirer informed what the cost of the necessary
material to compound a ton of goods similar to "Smith's
Fruit and Vine" would be, using none but accepted and
well-known materials of the best quality.
State values do not consider "trade secrets," loss on
bad bills, cost of advertisements and expenses of collec-
tions. The "State value" is simply that price at which
the various ingredients necessary to use in compounding
a fertilizer, or feed, can be purchased for in cash ton lots
at Florida seaports.
These price lists published in this report, with the
"State values," Oct. 1, 1916, are nominal.

SPECIAL SAMPLES.
Florida is the only State in the Union that provides for
the "special sample," drawn by the consumer or pur-
chaser, UNDER PROPER RULES AND REGULATIONS FIXED BY
LAW-to be sent to the State Laboratory for analysis free
of cost. Any citizen in the State who has purchased fer-
tilizers or feeds FOR HIS OW-N USE MAY DRAW A SAMPLE OF
THE SAME, ACCORDING TO LAW, and have the same analyzed
by the State Chemist free of cost. And in case of adul-
teration or deficiency he can, on establishing the fact, re-
ceive double the cost price demanded for the goods.
The law requires the "special samples" to be drawn in
a manner to prevent the submission of spurious samples;
rules and regulations are published in every Bulletin for
drawing and transmitting "special samples."

This special sample has been a most potent factor in
enforcing the law and discouraging the sale of adulter-
ated or misbranded goods.
Special samples of foods and drugs may also be sent to
the State Laboratory for analysis free of cost, when the
sample is properly drawn according to law. The neces-
sary instructions and blanks required to properly draw
6-Bull.









82

and transmit samples of "food and drugs" will be sent
to any citizen requesting the same.
"THE SPECIAL SAMPLE FURNISHES THE CON-
SUMER WITH THE SAME PROTECTION DEMAND-
ED BY THE MANUFACTURER, WHO BUYS HIS
MATERIALS ONLY UPON GUARANTEE AND PAYS
FOR THEM ACCORDING TO ANALYSIS, AND IS
PAID FOR BY THE CONSUMER OUT OF THE
FUNDS DERIVED FROM THE INSPECTION FEE
OF TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER TON PAID ON FER-
TILIZERS AND FEEDS SOLD IN THE STATE."










83


COMPOSITION OF FERTILIZER MATERIALS.
NITROGENOUS MATERIALS.
Pounds Per Hundred.

Ammonia. Phosphoric Potash.
Acid.

Nitrate of Soda.......... 17 to 19 ............ ...........
Sulphate of Amonia... 21 to 24............ ..........
Dried Blood ............ 12 to 17 ...... .. ...........
Concentrated Tankage... 12 to 15 1 to 2 ............
Bone Tankage .......... 6 to 9 10 to 15 ...........
Dried Fish Scrap........ 8 to 11 6 to 8 ...........
Cotton Seed Meal....... 7 to 10 2 to 3 1'% to 2
Hoof Meal ............. 13 to 17 1% to 2 1% to 2
PHOSPHATE MATERIALS.
Pounds Per Hundred.
I Available
Ammonia. Phos. Acid. Insoluble.

Florida Pebble Phosphate ..................... 26 to 32
Florida Rock Phosphate ..................... 33 to 35
Florida Super Phosphate....... ..... 14 to 45 1 to 3
Ground Bone ........... 3 to 6 5 to 8 15 to 17
Steamed Bone .......... 3 to 4 6 to 9 10 to 20
Dissolved Bone ......... 2 to 4 13 to 15 2 to 3
POTASH MATERIALS AND FARM MANURES.
Pounds Per Hundred.
Actual Phos.
P^oauh Am'onia. Ads Lime.
Potash. Acid. Lime.

Muriate of Potash ...... 50 III.. .......i ..i ........
Sulphate of Potash..... 148 to 52 ....... ...... ...
Carbonate of Potash.... 155 to 60 ......... ..... ..... ..
Nitrate of Potash....... 40 to 44 112 to 16 ........ .........
Dbl. Sul. of Pot. and Mag.126 to 30 ............... .........
Kainit ................. 12 to 12i ..........................
Sylvinit ............... 16 to 20 I........ ... .. ........
Cotton Seed Hull Ashes. 15 to 30 ......... 7 to 9 10
Wood Ashes, unleached.1 2 to 8 ....... 1 to 2.........
Wood Ashes, leached.... 1 to 2 ......... 1 to 1I 35 to 40
Tobacco Stems ........ 5 to 8 2 to 4 ......... 3
Cow Manure (fresh).... 0.40[0 to 0.41 0.16 0.31
Horse Manure (fresh).. 0.5310 to 0.60 0.28 0.31
Sheep Manure (fresh)..| 0.671 1.00! 0.19 0.33
Hog Manure (fresh).... 0.601 0.55 0.19 0.08
Hen Dung (fresh)...... 0.851 2.07! 1.54 0.24
Mixed Stable Manure...! 0.631 0.761 0.26 0.70











FACTORS FOR CONVERSION.
To convert-
Ammonia into nitrogen, multiply by............. 0.824
Ammonia into protein, multiply by............. 5.15
Nitrogen into ammonia, multiply by............ 1.214
Nitrate of soda into nitrogen, multiply by....... 0.1647
Nitrogen into protein, multiply by.............. 6.25
Bone phosphate into phosphoric acid, multiply by. 0.458
Phosphoric acid into bone phosphate, multiply by. 2.184
Muriate of potash into actual potash, multiply by. 0.632
Actual potash into muriate of potash, multiply by. 1.583
Sulphate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.541
Actual potash into sulphate of potash, multiply by 1.85
Nitrate of potash into nitrogen, multiply by..... 0.139
Carbonate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.681
Actual potash into carbonate of potash, multiply by 1.466
Chlorine, in "kainit," multiply potash (K20) by.. 2.33
For instance, you buy 95 per cent. of nitrate of soda
and want to know how much nitrogen is in it, multiply 95
per cent. by 0.1647, you will get 15.65 per cent. nitrogen;
you want to know how much ammonia this nitrogen is
equivalent to, then multiply 15.65 per cent. by 1.214 and
you get 18.99 per cent., the equivalent in ammonia.
Or, to convert 90 per cent. carbonate of potash into
actual potash (K20), multiply 90 by 0.681, equals 61.29
per cent. actual potash (K,0).












AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL
FEED STUFFS.


NAME OF FEED.



Bright Cot'n Seed Meal

Dark Cotton Seed Meal

Linseed Meal, old pro-
cess ...... ........

Linseed Meal, new pro-
cess ...............

Wheat Bran ..........

Wheat Middlings .....

Mixed Feed (Wheat)..

Ship Stuff (Wheat)...

Corn (grain) .........

Corn Meal ...........

Corn Cobs ...........

Corn and Cob Meal....

Hominy Feed ........

Corn and Oats, equal
parts ........... ..

Barley (grain) .......

Maiden Cane .........

Oats (grain) ....... ..


P 0
. P.I rl

9.35 39.70 28.60

20.00 22.90 37.i0


7.50 35.70 36.001


8.40 36.10 36.70

9.00 15.40 53.90

5.40 15.40 59.40

7.80 16.90 54.40

5.60 14.60 59.801

2.10 10.50 69.601

1.90 9.70 68.701

30.101 2.40 54.901

6.60 8.50 64.801

4.05 10.501 65.301


5.80 11.15 64.65

2.701 12.40 69.80

30.601 10.10 43.401

9.50 11.801 59.701


a
rX
CS CO
h *


7.801

5.501


7.201


3.601

4.001

4.10!

4.80!

5.001

5.401

3.801

0.501

3.50i

7.85!


5.201

1.801

2.15)

5.00o


5.80

5.00


5.30


5.20

5.80

3.20

5.30

3.70

1.50

1.40

1.40

1.50

2.55


2.25

2.40

3.65

3.00











AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL
FEED STUFFS-Continued.



NAME OF FEED. 3
2 0rJ2 d W

Rice (grain) ......... 0.20 7.40 79.20 0.40 0.40

Rice Bran ........... 9.50 12.10 49.90 8.80 10.00

Rice Hulls ........... 35.70 3.60 38.60 0.70 13.20

Wheat (grain) ....... 1.80 11.90 71.90 2.10 1.80
Dry Jap Sugar Cane.. 26.22 2.28 62.55 1.55 2.77

Cow Pea ............. 4.10 20.80 55.70 1.40 3.20

Cow Pea Hay ........ 20.10 16.60 42.20 2.20 7.50

Velvet Beans ......... 6.70 23.08 51.28 5.51 3.90
Velvet Bean Hulls..... 27.02 7.46 44.56 1.57 4.32

Velvet Beans and Hulls 9.20 19.70 51.30 4.50 3.30
Velvet Bean Hay...... 29.70 14.70 41.00 1.70 5.70

Beggarweed Hay ..... 24.70 21.70 30.20 2.30 10.90

Japanese Kudzu Hay.. 32.14 17.43 30.20 1.671 6.87

Cotton Seed (whole).. 23.20 18.40 24.701 19.900 3.50
Cotton Seed Hulls..... 44.40 4.001 36.60 2.00? 2.60
Para Grass .......... 31.20 8.00 45.75 1.55 6.20
Soy Bean Meal....... 4.50 48.47 27.51 6.42 4.40









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FERTILIZER SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1916. FRANK T. WILSON, Asst. Chemist.
Samples taken by Purchaser Under Section 9, Act Approved May 22, 1901.

Phosphoric Acid

NAME, OR BRAND. a 3 .a BY WHOM SENT.

e 0


Ashes ......................... 3942 ..... ................... 0.92 D. L. Collins, Lucerne Park, Fla.

Fertilizer ...................... 394310.81 6.88 1.001 7.88 5.12 4.88 M. M. Smook, Floral City, Fla.

Fertilizer ...................... 3944 8.72 6.45 2.30 8.75 4.601 2.201J. M. W illis, W illiston, Fla.

Ashes .........................945 19.12...... ... 0.95 O. Painter Fertilizer Co., Jackson-
Sville, Fla.
Fertilizer ..................... 3946 5.07 10.10 2.50112.60 4.95 ..... J. E. Barnes, Sydney, Fla.
Fertilizer ..................... 3947 4.67 8.85 2.85 11.70 4.40 ..... G. D. Moore, Hawthorne, Fla.

Soy Bean Meal................ 3948 ......... ..... .1.30 9.46 1.971 A. G. Liles, Terra Ceia, Fla.
Fertilizer ...................... 39491 7.62 6.48 0.521 7.00 4.08 5.00 J. M. Scott, Fort Green, Fla.
1 1 1 |I I | ( 1









Phoslime ...................... 3950 ..... ........

Fertilizer ...................... 3951 6.62 12.15 1.

Fertilizer ...................... 3952 6.77 12.15 0.

Soft Phosphate ................3953 . ........

Phosphate Washings ........... 13954 23.04 1.92 8.

Fertilizer ...................... 3955 9.42 7.58 0.

Fertilizer No. 1................. .3956 13.92 5.70 1.

Fertilizer No. 2................ 3957 9.83 5.45 1.

Cave Earth .................... 3958 27.31 9.48 4.

Phosphate Rock ................ .3959 ..... ........

Sulphate of Potash ......... ... 3960 .. .......

Fertilizer No. 1 (Raw Phosphate) 3961 ..... ..... .

Fertilizer No. 2 (Raw Phosphate) 13962 ...........

Guano No. 1 (Light)............ 3963 15.56 16.601 5.

Guano No. 2 (Dark)............ 3964 11.48 4.50 7.

Red Mangrove Ashes............ 13965 10.45 ..... ..


I 6.151

5.62

5.35

0.62


.. . ... 47.711

22.05 ..... .....

28.95 .... I .. ...

24.40, 0.8 .....


P. A. McMillan, Eau Gallie, Fla.

H. A. Perry, Pomona, Fla.

W. S. Moore, Hawthorne, Fla.

Gus A. Morton, Williston, Fla.

G. M. Ellis, Fort White, Fla.

H. L. Geiger, Miami, Fla.

R. P. McAdams, Larkins, Fla.

R. P. McAdams, Larkins, Fla.

Lloyd S. Tenny, Miami, Fla.

G. A. Dashier, McAlpin, Fla.

A. M. Garrison, Bradentown, Fla.

I. I. Moody, Bunnell, Fla.

I. I. Moody, Bunnell, Fla.

B. F. Dupont, Ojus, Fla.


12.001 1.651 0.27 B. F. Dupont, Ojus, Fla.
.. 0 I
........... 0.56 Jose Geno Piodela, Key West, Fla.










SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1916-Continued.

Phosphoric Acid.


NAME, OR BRAND. 3 BY WHOM SENT.


od 0 > 0 0
9l n $4 E P4


Hardwood Ashes ............... 3966

Guano ......................... 3967

Fertilizer No. 1................. 3968

Fertilizer No. 2................. 3969

Potash Salt (Carbonate)........ 3970

Fertilizer ...................... 3971

Sheep Manure ................. 3972

Fertilizer ...................... 3973

Cotton Seed Meal .............. 3974

Fertilizer ...................... 3975


21.62

4.87

8.08

16.30

3.45

3.37

10.02



9.22


11.40

13.25

10.00


5.431 2.82[ 8.25


..... 0.92 A. Rumble, Winter Haven, Fla.

3.45 0.41 M. M. Benness, Miami, Fla.

3.85 0.42 U. A. Lightsey, Bartow, Fla.

5.70 0.19 U. A. Lightsey, Bartow, Fla.

....52.72 B. K. Phipps, Tallahassee, Fla.

1.18 8.78 B. K. Phipps, Tallahassee, Fla.

3.80 0.47 E. D. Donne, Tampa, Fla.

6.57 2.57 M. S. Mishler, Miami, Fla.

7.45 ..... J. L. Hoeflich, Eldred, Fla.

5.22 1.981 Carroll Dunscombe, Stuart, Fla.










Ground Bone .................. 3976|.....

Fertilizer ...................... 3977 8.78

A shes ......................... 13978 .....

A shes ......................... 3979 14.37

Hardwood Ashes ............... 3980 ..

Unleached Cotton Seed Hull
A shes ....................... 3982 .. .

Unleached Cotton Seed Hull
Ashes ....................... 13983 .....

Unleached Cotton Seed Hull
A shes ....................... 3984 .....

Unleached Cotton Seed Hull
A she's ....................... 3985 ....


6.00 17.5023.50 .....

6.70 3.40 10.10 3.40


. . . . . . . . . . .





.. .. ... ... .. .. ... ..








..........


Fugazzi Bros., Clearwater, Fla.

4.62 F. R. Singlehurst, St. Petersburg, Fla.

3.60 J. A. Barnes, Quincy, Fla.

1.95 S. R. Love, DeLand, Fla.

8.39 Hickson & Bledsoe, Sanford, Fla.


19.05 Gulf Fertilizer Co., Tampa, Fla.


17.00 Gulf Fertilizer Co., Tampa, Fla.


16.15 Gulf Fertilizer Co., Tampa, Fla.


18.651 Gulf Fertilizer Co., Tampa, Fla.
I


I I I I










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FERTILIZER SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. OFFICIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1916. FRANK T. WILSON, Asst. Chemist.
Samples Taken by State Chemist and State Inspectors Under Sections 1 and 2, Act Approved May 22, 1901.
Deficiencies Greater Than 0.20% Are Distinguished by Black Face Type.


NAME, OR BRAND.


00
Z .0
ga,
03
I2
.0z
cS


High Grade Superphosphate..... 2431


Special Mixture ................ 2432


Cherokee Special Mixture....... 2433


Cd





Guaranteed 12.00
Found .... .....

Guaranteed 10.00
Found .... 5.88

Guaranteed 12.00
Found .... 9.06


Dixie Truck Grower............ 2434 Guaranteed 10.00
Found .... 3.42

Vegetable No. 1................ 2435 Guaranteed 8.00
Found .... 8..13


Phosphoric Acid.

a5 (13

3



10.00 ..... ....
17.10 1.5018.60

10.00 2.00112.00
9.70 3.3013.05

8.00 ..........
8.35 1.75110.10

9.001 1.00 10.00
9.501 1.85111.35

7.00 1.00 8..00
7.251 4.05111.30


BY WHOM AND
WHERE
MANUFACTURED.


....... Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
..... .... Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

4.00 ..... Amer. Agricultural Chem.
4.801..... Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

5..00 ..... IWilson & Toomer Fertz.
5.17 ..... 1 Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

4.00 ..... Va.-Carolina Chemical Co.,
4.20 ..... Jacksonville, Fla.

4.00 ..... Standard Feriz. Co.,
5.25 ..... Gainesville, Fla.








Dexle's Ammoniated Dissolved 2436 Guaranteed 10.00 12.00 2.00 14.001 2.00..... Gulf Chemical Co.,
Bone ........................ Found .... 6.28 13.70 0.7014.40 2.12 ..... Marianna, Fla.

Fruit & Vine 3% Special........ 2437 Guarantee 8.00 0.00U 1.00 7.00 3.00 3.00UE. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
Found.... 11.60 7.35 0.45 7.80 3.Cj0 3.29| Jacksonville, Fla.
Vegetable Special ............... 2438 Guaranteed 5.00 5.00 3.00 8.001 4.00 3.00 E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
S Found .... 10.96 7.08 3.62 10..70 4.78 2.15j Jacksonvil:e, Fla.
V-C Gem Meal Mixture No. 2.... 2439 Guaranteel 110.0010.00 2.00 12.00 2.00 1.00 Va.-Carolina Chemical Co.,
| Found .... 8.95 9.701 1.0510.75 2.20 1.25 Montgomery, Ala.
I I i I I 1 I
Crescent Guano No. 1.......... 12440 Guaranted 10..00 10.00U 2.00112.00 1.00U 1.001Va.-Carolina Chemical Co.,
Found .... 10.93 ..SU0 1.5011.30 2..001 1.01| Montgomery, Ala.
Goulding's High Grade Guano... 2441 Guaranteea 16.00 10.00 0.00 10.50i 2.00 2.00 Amer. Agricultural Chem.
Found .... 13.37 10.13 0.87 111.00 2.23 1.801 Co., Pensacola, Fla.
Mutual Fertz. Co's. Blood & Bone 2442 Guaranteed 14.00 00 1.00110.00 2.001 1.00|Mutual Fertz. Co.,
Found .... 9.81 8.65 0.401 9.051 2.101 1.281 Savannah, Ga.
Ideal Cotton Fertilizer.......... 2443 Guaranteed 10.00 ......... 2.001 2.00|Wilson & Tcomer Fertz.
Found .... 12.41 6 80 3.85110.651 3.001 3.40j Co., Jacksonville, Fla.
Goulding's Gem Guano .......... 2444 Guaranteed 16.0 s.00| 0.50 8.50 2.00 2.00Amer. Agricultural Chem.
Found ... 11.78 7.72 2.10 9.821 2.55 2.011 Co., Pensacola, Fla.
(otton Special ................ 2445 Guaranteed 10.00/ i.00 1.001 7.00 2.001 2.00iVa.-Carolina Chem. Co.,
Found... 6.73 (6.5U0 1.05 7.551 2.20c 1.73] Gainesville, Fla.
I I I I









OFFICIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1916-Continued.

Phosphoric Acid.

k '0 0 BY WHOM AND
NAME, OR BRAND. Jg > WHERE
-- :Ei 0 g MANUFACTURED.


I.. i I I __1 I I
j" \ \ ~ \


Special Mixture ...............


Young Tree or Nursery 3%
Special .......................

Sweet Potato 3% Special........


Goat Manure .................


Fruit & Vine 3% Special.......


Guano Mixture ...............


Vegetable 3% Special...........


Guarantred
Found ....

Guaranteed
Found ....


8.00
9.43

5.00
15.72


2448 Guaranteed ....
Found .... 9.53

2449 Guaranteed .....
Found .... .....

2450 Guaranteed 8.00
Found .... 8.26

2451 Guaranteed ..
Found .... 8.91

2452 Guaraateed 5.00
Found .... 11.43


7.00 1.00 8.00 .00 .Standard Fertz Co.,
6.90 3.1010..00 3 40 2.141 Gainesville, Fla.

5.00 3.00 8.00 4.001 3.00 E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
5.63 1.271 6.90 4.451 3.321 Jacksonville, Fla.

4.00 ..... .... 4.00 3.00E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
5.28 1.32 6.60 4..72 3.75 Jacksonville, Fla.

1.00 ......... 1.75 3.00 Independent Fertz. Co.,
0.95 0.05 1.00 2.10 2.87 Jacksonville, Fla.
I I
.001 1.001 7.00 3.00 3.00 E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
7.75 0.50 8.25 3.37 3.071 Jacksonville, Fla.

..... ..... 8.00 3.75 1.00 Independent Fertz. Co.,
2.28 5.47 7.75 3.80 0 44 Jacksonville, Fla.

5.00 3.00 8.00 4.00 3.00E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
5.80 2.05 7.85 4.80 3..67 Jacksonville, Fla.









Sugar Cane 3% Special........


Bone Phosphate of Lime........


"Natursown" Floats Raw Phos-
phate ........................

Unleached Ashes ...............


Unleached Ashes ...............


Unleached Hardwood Ashes.....


Special Mixture ................


Special Mixture .................


Canada Hardwood Ashes........


Excelsior Cane & Corn..........


2453 Guaranteed
Found ....

2454 Guaranteed
Found ....

2455 Guaranteed
Found ....

2460 Guai anteed
Found ....

24611Guaranteed
Found ...

2462 Guaranteed
Found ....

2463 Guaranteed
Found ....

2464 Guarnnteed
Four.d ....

2465 Gua:'anteed
Found ....

24661Gua ranteed
Found ....


..... 3.00 3.00 E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
2.4511.35 3.65 2.0 Jacksonrille, Fla.

..... 26.00 ..... ..... Leland Phosphate Co.,
..... 20 95 ..... ..... Croom, Fla.

..... 33.00 ..... ..... Lakeland Phorphate Co.,
..... 31.90 .... ..... Lakeland, I'la.

..... ..... ..... 10.00 Gulf Fertz. Co.,
...... 9.29 Tampa, Fla.

..... 5.00 Gulf Fertz. Co.,
..... ..... ..... 4.621 Tampa, Fla.

..... ..... ..... 1.50l West Coast Fertz. Co.,
..... ..... ..... 1.651 Tampa, Fla.

3.0010.00 3.00 1.001West Coast I'ertz. Co.
3.55 10.50 4.15 0.601 Tampa, Fla.

1.00 9.00 3.00 .....Gulf Fertz. Co.,
1.12 8.80 3.35 ..... Tampa, Fla.

. .. ..... ... .. ... Independent Fertz. Co.,
..... ..... ..... 166 Jacksonville, Fla.

2.00 10.00 3.50 ..... Gulf Fertz. Co.,
1.90 10.00 4.04 ..... Tampa, Fla.
S I


--










OFFICIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1916-Continued.

Phosphoric Acid.

S c BY WHOM AND
NAME, OR BRAND 0 WHERE
2 > :3 0 .0 MANUFACTURED




Nursery Fertilizer ............. 2467 Guaranteed 8.00 0.00 4.00110.001 .00 ..... West Coast Fertz. Co.,
Found .... 10..61 5.701 4.80110.501 4.95[.....I Tampa, Fla.

Low Grade Blood & Bone.... 2468 Guaranteed 5.00 ..... .....12.00 .50 ..... . Painter Fertz. Co.
Found ..... 6.88 -.93 .S7113.0 ..... Jacksonville, Fla.

Special Mixture ............... 2469 Guarnteed 8.00 5.001 7.0012.00 4.001..... West Coast Fert:,. Co.,
Foung .... 8.58 (i.1 8 5.72 11.i0 3.80 .... Tampa. Fla.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FEEDING STUFF SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. SPECIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1916. E. PECK GREENE, Asst. Chemist.
Samples Taken by Purchaser Under Section 9, Act Approved May 24, 1905.


r u m BY WHOM SENT.
NAME, OR BRAND. BY WHOM SENT.
S. .I C


Soy Bean Meal .................... 364 4.50 48.47 27.51 6.421 4.40 A. G. Liles, Terra Ceia, Fla.

Ground Ear Corn and Velvet Beans. 365 11.82 10.97 60.50 2.77 2.99 J. M. Kirkland, Graceville, Fla.

Cotton Seed Meal.................. 366 24.27 21.501 ;7.23 3.001 5.15 Lewis Bear Co., Pensacola, Fla.

Stock Feed ....................... 367 7.90 10.09 62.77 4.071 1.90 Cottondale Milling Co., Cottondale,
SFla.
Cotton Seed Meal. ................. 368 ..... 39.14 ............ . . J. H. Hancock, Punta Gorda, Fla.

Avacado Pear (Unripe)............ 370 3.32 2.19 17.62 7.751 0.85 A. M. Henry, Tallahassee, Fla.

Ground Avacado Seed .............. 371 1.17 1.90 27.99 0.69 0.63 A. M. Henry, Tallahassee, Fla.

Avacado Peel and Seed Coat.......1 372 8.72 1.90 14.96 1.391 1.28 A. M. Henry, Tallahassee, Fla.

Avacado Pear (Green)............. 37 1.52 2.19 4.30 6.80| 0.92 A. M. Henry, Tallahassee, Fla.









SPECIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1916-Continued.

O BRAND. NAME AND ADDRESS OF
NAME, OR BRAND. 05 a -
NAE i ,0 MANUFACTURER.


Avacado Pear (Red)............... 374 1.12 2.46 2.20 7.38 1.02 A. M. Henry, Tallahassee, Fla.
Resin Weed ......................| 375 25.65 9.56 42.07 7.78 9.321W. F. Blackman, Sanford, Fla.
1I I i










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FEEDING STUFF SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. OFFICIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1916. E. PECK GREENE, Asst. Chem.
Samples Taken by State Chemist and State Inspectors Under Sections 1, 2 and 13,
Act Approved May 24, 1905.
Deficiencies Greater than 0.20% are Distinguished by Black Face Type.


NAME, OR BRAND.


Saa

2;- Cd PL-
i d~

CdZ C :
4a < 0-'d


Creamo Brand Cotton Seed 2326 Guaranteed......
Meal ....................... Found. 23.77

Excello Hen Feed............. 2327 Guaranteed 6.00
I 'Found..... 2.621

Wheat Bran ........... ....... 2328 Guaranteed 10.00[
Found..... 8.40

Rex Middlings ............... 2329 Guaranteed 7.00
Found..... 7.02

Kentucky Farm Feed .......... 12330 Guaranteed! 6.42
I Found ..... 5.32

Ideal Hen Feed................ 2331 Guaranteed 5.001
I Found..... 6.821


o o
n en r


20.00 30.00! 5.1
20.53 39.301 3.!

10.00 61.001 3.1
11.32 69.061 3.2

14.50 55.001 3.1
17.20 56.021 3.:

16.00 56.001 4.1
17.991 53.791 4.

16.451 58.001 4.
16.15 60.011 3.1

10.00 65.00! 3.1
10.35 65.941 1


NAME AND ADDRESS OF
MANUFACTURER.



...... Tennessee Fibre Co., Mem-
4.13 phis, Tenn.

...... Excello Feed Milling Co., St.
2.05 Joseph, Mo.

...... The Grain Products Co.,
6.82 Wichita, Kans.

...... Kehlor Flour Mills Co., St.
6.30 Louis, Mo.

...... Ballard & Ballard Co., Louis-
5.62 ville, Ky.

...... John Wade & Sons, Mem-
4.35 phis, Tenn.








OFFICIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1916-Continued.


NAME, OR BRAN NAME AND ADDRESS OF
___gNAME, OR BRAND. i MEM U
0 9 MANUFACTURER.


Apex Stock Feed.............. 22332 Guaranteed 12.00 9.00 58.00| 2.00......IG. E. Patteson & Co., Mem-
Found..... 13.48 10.52 54.13 2.03 7.001 phis, Tenn.
Harvester Molasses Feed...... 2333 Guaranteed 12.00 10.50 59.00 2.00 ...... Cairo Milling Co., Cairo, Ill.
| Found..... 11.17 9.33 58.441 1.91 5.541
Peerless Molasses Feed........ 23341Guaranteed 12.001 9.00 55.00 2.00...... Cairo Milling Co., Cairo, 11.
I Found..... 13.30 9.75 50.48 1.61 10.60!
Ceralfa Stock Feed............ 2335 Guaranteed 11.50 13.00 55.00 3.50 ......Edgar-Morgan Co., Memphis,
Found..... 13.70 14.65 47.50 3.00 10.95 Tenn.
Reno Horse and Mule Feed.... 2336 Guaranteed 14.00 9.00 52.00 2.00 .. John Wade & Sons, Mem-
I Found..... 16.73 9.14 52.961 1.92 7.05 phis, Tenn.
II I I I I
Mustang Molasses Feed....... 2337 Guaranteed 16.00 9.00 55.001 1.50 ...... National Milling Co., Macon,
I Found..... 13.10 9.53 52.631 1.001 7.27 Ga.
Bay Mule Molasses Feed...... 2338 Guaranteed ...... ...... ...... I.. ... .. Milam-Morgan Co., New Or-
|Found..... 16.73 9.73 53.791 3.20 7.55 leans, La.
"Jim Dandy" Molasses Feed... 23391Guaranteed 12.00! 9.00 55.00! 2.00...... Cairo Milling Co., Cairo, Ill.
I Found ..... 11.701 10.82 56.47 2.781 5.28




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