• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 County map of state of florida
 Part I
 Relating to insects injurious to...
 Farm Loan Act
 The canning and preserving of vegetables...
 Control of the velvet bean...
 Annual summary climatological service...
 Part II. Crop and live stock...
 Part III. The swamps and overflowed...
 Department of agriculture - Division...






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00041
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00041
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
    County map of state of florida
        Page 2
    Part I
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Relating to insects injurious to stored grain, and suggestions for their control
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Farm Loan Act
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    The canning and preserving of vegetables and fruits
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Control of the velvet bean caterpillar
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Annual summary climatological service Florida section
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Part II. Crop and live stock conditions
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Part III. The swamps and overflowed lands of Florida, fertilizers, feeding stuffs, and foods and drugs
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Department of agriculture - Division of chemistry
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
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        Page 178
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        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
Full Text




Volume 26 Number 3



FLORIDA

QUARTERLY


BULLETIN
OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT

JULY 1, 1916

W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGR, W LTURE
TALLAHASSEE, Fl '.,

I'art 1--ielating to Insects Injurio' to Stored Grain
and Suggestions for T' Control. Famn
Loan Act. The Canni, nd Preserving of
Vegetables and Fruits. Control of the
Velvet Benn Caterpillar. Annual Summary
Climatological Service Florida Section.
I a:t 2--r(opi Acreage and Condition.
lPait :i-The Swamp and Overflowed Lands of Florida.
Fertilizers, Feeding Stuffs, and Foods and
Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.
TIHSE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED fRt TO THOS REQUESTING THEM
T. J. APPLEYARD, STATE PRINTER
TALLAHASSBE, FLORIDA
% J












COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA.


NOTE: Cut showing new counties could not be obtained in time for this Bulletin.


















PART I.

Relating to Insects Injurious to Stored Grain,
and Suggestions for Their Control.
Farm Loan Act.
The Canning and Preserving of Vegetables and
Fruits.
Control of the Velvet Bean Caterpillar.
Annual Summary Climatological Service Florida
Section.













RELATING TO INSECTS INJURIOUS TO
STORED GRAIN, AND SUGGESTIONS
FOR THEIR CONTROL.

BY H. S. ELLIOT,
Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture.

In the words "stored grain" it is intended to include
corn, cow peas of all varieties, beans, sorghum, kaffir
corn, Milo maize, rice and all similar seeds and grains.
All of the insects attacking the above grains and seeds
operate in the same way and can be controlled through
the same agencies.
It is the object of this article to point out to the
grower, the store-keeper or the dealer, the best methods
of exterminating or at least checking the ravages of these
insects. There is quite a number of these insects, and
we know of no grain that is not affected by them to
greater or less extent. But there are three principal ones
which are the cause of the greatest amount of injury to
the seeds and grains referred to in the south and, of
course, in Florida: the Angumois grain moth. tfhe corn
weevil, the black weevil or rice weevil and the red or
brown or cow pea weevil. All of these weevils prey on
cow peas, beans, etc. The Angumois grain moth or corn
weevil was first discovered in France about 1736. as
destructive to barley and also to wheat. The rice weevil
is supposed to have been introduced into this country
from the West Indies with the earliest settlement of this
country. The cow pea weevil is supposed to have origoin-
ated in China, in fact it is found in all the Mediter-
ranean regions of Europe, and abundant proof of its
presence is recorded in all of the principal nationalities
of both hemispheres, where it has caused the destruction










of millions of dollars worth of seeds or grain every year
for many years. The earliest date of which mention is
mIade of this insect is in 1758, but it has undoubtedly
existed since before the Christian era. There are many
other weevils more or less destructive to seeds and grains
either in the field or granary, but the above described
are the principal or most important ones to this country.
All of them operate in practically the same manner and
can be controlled by the same methods.

EFFECT OF INJURY.

The principal injury caused by these insects is due to
the operations of the larvae which feed within the seeds
attacked, whether it be cow peas, beans, corn or other
seeds. Thus they have the effect of lessening the value
of these seeds either for sale, for consumption as food or
for planting; and as a single seed may contain a number
of individuals, consuming of course much of the tissue of
the seed and either damaging greatly or destroying alto-
gether the germinating power of the seed, the importance
of effective control must be realized.

METHOD OF ATTACKING SEEDS.
There is no essential difference in the manner in which
these several weevils attack the seed. The female weevil
begins to deposit her eggs on the young seed vessel in the
blossom, on the outside of the growing pods in the field
and upon the dried seed or grain. They are attached
by a glutinous substance which covers and protects the
egg. This covering extends to considerable extent around
it. Here the eggs hatch in four or five days and the
larvae penetrate into the growing seeds, each eating out
a habitation for itself, which it enlarges from time to
time as needed. In two or three weeks in summer
weather or about two months in cooler weather they
attain their full growth. When full grown, the larvae
transforms to pupa and develops later into the beetle










stage; the pupal state lasts only four or five days. The
beetle gnaws his way out of the seed by cutting the skin
of the pod or the covering placed there above referred
to. The development may take place at different periods.
Usually the first brood which develops in the field attain
maturity by about the third week in September, some-
timles earlier, judging from the appearance of the exit
holes in the pods, and the further fact that certain
varieties of peas or seeds mature sooner than this date.

SOME VARIETIES MORE SUSCEPTIBLE THAN OTHERS.

It has been observed by those familiar with the habits
of the various weevils and their methods of attacking
grain or seeds, that there are certain varieties much pre-
ferred to others by each of them. It is noted that when
the insect is very abundant in numbers it is not so apt to
di favorite plant is not at hand or near by, the insect will
not hesitate to attack any variety that may be present.
There is the best evidence for the general belief that pea
and bean weevils, like the grain weevils, prefer the soft-
est grain or seed because they are more easily penetrated.
and they experience greater difficulty in penetrating*
harder seed or grain. Certain it is that in Florida, and
the far south generally, the softer varieties of corn are
much worse and easier affected than the harder sorts. So
it is with cow peas. The following list of cow peas are
among the varieties quite susceptible to weevil attack,
their choice apparently about in the order named-Black-
eye. Browneye, Black, Lady, Rice, Manakin, Red Ripper,
Whippoorwill, New Era, Red Crowder, Clay and Un-
known. The foregoing list contains the best of the edible
varieties, but the two hardest or most resistant varieties
to weevil attack are the Iron and the Brabham peas. and
the varieties of corn known usually as flint. The plant
or vine of these last mentioned peas are also practically










immune to the fungus diseases which affect all other
varieties.
VARIOUS METHODS OF CONTROL.

The remedies for all of the insects that infest stored
seeds or grain are practically the same, but, as a matter
of information, we submit briefly, a synopsis of numerous
remedies which have been or are considered to be more
or less efficacious in the control of these insects, viz:
The Hot Water Remedy-This is done by inmmliersing the
seed in water gradually heated to 140 degrees F. The
practical application of this remedy is about as follows:
A piece of coarse material such as burlap is placed in a
kettle of the size desired or necessary, so that when
weighted down with the peas or beans it will not touch
the bottom or sides. This keeps the seeds from coming
into contact with the heating surface and prevents them
from becoming over-heated and damaged. The peas or
beans are then placed on the burlap and covered with
water and the heat turned on or fire started. The tem-
perature should be raised as rapidly as possible, the peas
or beans stirred constantly, and as soon as the tempera-
ture reaches 140 degrees F. the contents should be at
once removed. The seed can then be planted or spread
out and dried first and then planted when desired.
Holding Over Seed-This remedy has been practiced
with varying success. This method is carried out by
placing the seed in a tight bag or bags or some other
closed receptacle. If the bags are kept in a warm room
1he beetles will hatch and come out prematurely and
will die without doing further injury to the seed, as they
are not able to breed in dry seed. This method can only
be used in a limited way.
Treatment with China Berries-It is claimed by many
that china berries placed in corn cribs or pea or bean
bins will keep weevils out or drive out those already
there, but as experiments made for the purpose of test-










ing the correctness of these claims have always failed, it
may be assumed that these berries have but little if any
effect in driving out weevils or in preventing their
breeding.
Sulphur and Salt Method-The combination of these
substances has on limited experiments proven effective
in ridding corn of both the black or rice weevil and other
grain weevils. A mixture of sulphur and salt freely
sprinkled upon shucked corn will in a few days drive
away weevils under ordinary conditions, but it will not
drive out the weevils from corn or peas with 1he shucks
or hulls on.
Other Remedies-There is still quite a number of
remedies other than those above described more or less
effective, but of no great importance and we will not
treat of them here.

BISrLPHIDE OF CARBON.
There are several methods of treating such grain as
peas, beans, corn, rice and other seeds with bisulphide;
one is by applying the bisulphide by means of a long
tube or pipe in form of a tight fitting rod. l'Psh one
end of this into the center of the pile of grain, 1pur the
bisulphide down the tube, after which it may le with-
drawn. If a tight fitting rod cannot be obtained, a plug
can be put into one end of the tube and after this end has
pushed down through the grain, the plug can lle pushed
out with a stick and the liquid 'can be poured in as in
the first instance. The idea in this case is not to place
the liquid at the bottom of the pile of grain, however, but
about or a little above the center; the liquid being heavier
than the air it will descend and penetrate all parts.
Another method of treating grain with bisulphide of
carbon is about as follows: A ball of cotton, which is an
excellent material for this purpose, is tied to a rod or
stick of such a length that it can be pushed through the
grain into the center of the vessel containing the grain,










first having been well saturated with the bisulpliide. A
close cover should be immediately placed over the opening
to the vessel so as to retain the fumes and prevent their
escape. In all of these operations the amount of bisul-
phide necessary will depend upon the amount of grain
and the tightness of the vessel or bin, as the case may
be. The quantity with a tight bin or other vessel should
be about two ounces to the hundred pounds or, say, at
the rate of about one to one and a half pounds per ton.
This is an excellent method for the treatment of shelled
grain in small quantities as the liquid can be easily
applied to the center of the grain pile.

BEST METHOD.
Probably the best method of destroying grain insects
with bisulphide of carbon is about as follows: Be it un-
derstood that to get the highest results, corn must at
least be husked, and should be shelled, and all other
grains such as peas, beans, rice, wheat, oats or other
grain, should have the shell or husk removed. Then first
construct tight granaries or bins, the tighter the better
and place in them the grain to be treated. For every
one hundred (100) bushels of grain, apply either in small
saucers or other receptacles at short distances set about
over the surface of the pile of grain, two pounds of
bisulphide of carbon to each one hundred bushels of grain
or seeds, 1100 bushel to 200 bushel bins is a good size)
and close up the doors and windows, if any, tight. If
corn is treated in the ear it will require about two and
a half pounds to the one hundred bushels. Keep the bins
closed for about 72 hours or three days. The bins can
then be opened. It is best to repeat the process at the
end of about ten days using at the rate of one pound to
each one hundred bushels of grain. Then in about two
to three weeks make a third application similar to the
second. This is not always necessary, but it makes cer-
tain the complete destruction of the insects, for unless at










least two applications of the bisulphide are made some
of the larvae will escape and in a short while the trouble
will be as bad as ever, but the third application will be
enough to make destruction of all the insects sure.
The above method of treatment is adapted to use on
any scale however large or small and can be used as
easily and successfully by the smallest planter as by the
largest warehouse man or dealer. It will succeed with
all, provided these instructions are followed properly and
proportions observed.

CONSTRUCTION OF BIN.

For the information of those who may desire to con-
struct grain boxes or bins for the purpose above de-
scribed, we make the following suggestions: A building,
box or room about 100 to 200 bushels capacity suitable
for the fumigation of a quantity of peas, beans or grain
would contain approximately 500 cubic feet of space. A
fumigator of this capacity might be built, say, eight feet
square by eight feet in height. To make this tight, a good
and perhaps the best preventive for the escape of the gas,
would be to line the fumigator with sheet tin with
soldered joints, or with good wood sleatling or with
both.
Another and perhaps cheaper, and equally as good a
method would le to sheath the bin or room inside the
walls. ceiling and floors with tarred or heavy building
paper, with the joints well lapped, and then cover the
inside with matched ceiling boards. The door to the
fumigator should be made to fit tight with joints well
broken, similar to the door of a refrigerator or safe, and
should be arranged lo close against a thick felt weather
strip, which should make it practically gas tight. A bin
thus constructed would supply enough space to store
and fumigate about 200 bushels of seed or grain. This
would also allow sufficient space for the application and
diffusion of the bisulphide of carbon from top as pre-










viously directed in this article with a charge or quantity
greater than necessary for the amount of seed to be
treated.
It is suggested that on farms, especially, the fumigat-
ing building should be isolated, because of the danger
attending the use of bisulphide of carbon, its inltanmma-
bility and liability to affect live stock. In properly con-
structed buildings or warehouses, cities and towns, com-
plete isolation is not so necessary, as care and protection
are more easily and effectively exercised.

CAUTION.

Great care must be exercised in handling or using
bisulphide of carbon, as it is of a very explosive nature.
No lamps, lighted cigars, pipes, lanterns or matches should
be allowed in or near the building until it has been
opened long enough to be thoroughly aired. If this is
done there will not be the slightest danger in using this
remedy. Electric lights can be used without danger.
Grain or other seed treated with the hisulphide of carbon
is not injured in any way. The germinating power of the
seed remains intact, and its edible qualities are in no
wise affected. The odor of the bisulphide disappears en-
tirely in a few days.

SUMMARY.

1. The three principal insects injurious to stored
grain in the South are the Angumois grain moth, the
black weevil and the red grain beetle, the bean and pea
weevil.
2. The transformations and habits of these insects are
essentially the same, the eggs being laid within the grain
both before and after it is gathered, and the mature in-
sects coming forth in about three to six weeks after the
eggs are laid.
3. Their depredations are not confined to any one









cereal, and by their work they cause a marked decrease
in the weight of the grain.
4. Other insects are sometimes found in stored grain,
but as a rule in this state, cause but little injury.
.. If sulphur or salt is sprinkled in husked corn it
will lend to drive the insects away.
(i. Many farmers leave an open space in the roof of
the corn cribs to allow the rain to soak into the corn,
which causes a heating of the grain, during which it is
claimed the weevils are killed. This is doubtful.
7. China berries placed in corn seem to have but little
effect in keeping the corn free from the black weevils.
No value.
S. The best remedy for grain insects is by the use of
hisulphide of carbon. For this purpose a "quarantine"
bin should be built, and the grain treated with the bisul-
phide in this bin as it is gathered.
9. The amount of bisulphide will vary with the tight-
ness of the bin; as a rule one ounce of bisulphide to one
hundred pounds of grain being sufficient.
10. As the bisulphide is explosive, lights from matches,
cigars and the like, should be kept away until the odor
of the fumes has passed off.
11. The cost of the bisulphide is approximately 20
cents per pound when obtained direct from the manu-
facturer; possibly less, in quantities of several pounds.
12. Insects in mills should be treated with the bisul-
phide, commencing the application in the basement and
going upward.
13. In the spring the insects in the empty or nearly
empty granaries should be killed by means of the bisul-
phide or kerosene, either of which will largely decrease
the damage the following fall and winter.













APPENDIX.


On the previous pages we have devoted considerable
space to what has so far been demonstrated to be the
best methods of controlling insects that do injury to
numerous varieties of grain and seeds in this State, but
in our search through the Agricultural Departments of
a number of States, notably Louisiana, California, Okla-
homa, Mississippi and Texas, for information on the sub-
ject of insect control, we find that all of these states
except Texas use the Bisulphide of Carbon treatment.
In Texas they use a method peculiarly their own, and
claim for it the highest degree of effectiveness. They
claim to be using it successfully on a large commercial
scale. -
With the permission of the Agricultural )Department
of Texas we are quoting largely their methods as follows:

PEA CU(riNG IN TEXAS.

'EAI CURING IN TEXAS A SUCCESS.

It is now an established fact that pea curing in Texas
is beyond the experimental stage and no main who has
taken the time and pains to make personal investigation
in the matter will question the solidity of the new enter-
prise nor doubt the wisdom of progressive men in install-
ing commercial plants and encouraging the planting of
peas and similar products for the market.

EQUIPMENT NECESSARY AND APPROXIMATE COST OF INSTALL-
ING.
A well equipped commercial curing plant would con-
sist of the following equipment: A good substantial
building with plenty of floor space, which mniay le used as










a ware room for storing peas as well as a place to install
the necessary machinery. The machinery and other
equipment would consist of a huller, a cleaner or sepa-
ralor. bins, elevators, ovens or dryers and their auxiliary
appliances. Lineshafts, pullies and belts and the initial
power machine, which may be propelled by steam, elec-
tricity, gasoline or any other economical power. The
,approximIate cost, ranging from $1,000.00 to $5,000.00.
depending upon the size and designs of the building, and
the kind of material used and the size, amount and
quality of machinery installed. It is possible to equip
a small plant for even less than $1,000.00.

WITAT MAY BE PROCESSED AND THE OBJECTS OF TREATING.

In processing peas, beans, corn, maize, kaffir, etc., the
object is two-fold. First to kill the corn or pea weevil
.germ or egg; and, secondly, to extract excessive moisture
or water. To prevent the weevils from literally eating up
and rendering the peas unwholesome for food and feed,
the germs or eggs should be destroyed and it is advisable
to remove the unnecessary moisture to prevent heating
and spoiling when the peas are bulked in sacks or bins.

IETHODS-THEIR SIMILARITY AND DIFFERENCE.

There are two distinct methods of processing in vogue,
but the final results wrought by each process are practi-
cally one and the same (killing germs and extracting
water), heat being the dual antidote. The greatest dif-
ference in the two processes, so far as their practical
features are concerned, is found in the method of trans-
mitting the heat from the base of generation to the place
of application. In one the air is heated by direct contact
with fire and in the other by steam pipes, which may be
several feet or yards away from the furnace. The re-
sults being so nearly identical and for the sake of brevity
I will treat with but one method: the direct contact.










DIRECT CONTACT AND OVEN.

The direct contact method is the operation of an effec-
live, modern oven. which might properly be styled a coffee
roaster, in which is kept a gentle, uniform fire just be-
neath the peas, which are treated in a large revolving.
artistically perforated metal drum or cylinder. The
cylinder is placed within the oven or furnace and held
rigid at right an-gles with the head and back ends and
parallel with the walls of the oven by being mounted
upon a spindle-shaft extending lengthwise entirely
through and projecting from each end to bearing connec-
tions mounted on the outside and at each end of the
furnace or oven.

TO KEEP PEAS FROM BURNING.

To keep peas from burning while processing, the fire
music not lie too hot and the cylinder must b,e constantly
revolving at the rate of about 45 to 50 revolutions per
minute and for this purpose a power pully is connected
with the end of the spindle-shaft mentioned above.

FUELS USED.

Heat for processing mIy be furnished by the use of any
fuel that will make a clear, clean fire, such as coal, coke,
natural or generated gas. Where .gas is used a gas burn-
ing device must he provided.

SIZE AND CAPACITY.

These No. I roasters, which are a desirable commercial
size. are about 2' inches in diameter by 7 feet long and
will conveniently hold about 500 pounds of peas at a
time. They may be operated singly, in pairs or in bat-
leries consisting of as many as four, six or even eight
ovens.
V2-B( .
2--Bul










TIME REQUIRED FOR CURING.

The time required to kiln a charge of peas varies from
30 to 45 minutes according to the condition of the peas
with reference to ripeness or moisture. Then, too, the
temperature of the heat will undoubtedly wield an in-
fluence to prolong or shorten the time, according to height
and variations.

TEMPERATURE AND ITS EFFECT ON PEAS AND WEEVILS.

For market purposes and table use it is desirable to
cure the peas under a temperature of from 180 to 200
degrees Far. It has been demonstrated by practical men
that this range of heat, when carefully applied, does not
injure the quality of the peas in food value so far as the
market is concerned, but the germinating power for
planting purposes, to a great extent, is destroyed. They
are said to be perfectly immune from weevils and are
guaranteed as such when sold on the market, but after
being treated at a temperature that makes them immune
from weevils the germs of reproduction, in most cases, are
also killed, which renders them unfit for seed purposes.

KEEPING SEED PEAS.

Seed peas should be kept in the hull until planting time
and in the meantime should be treated with highlife
about every 20 to 30 days from harvest.

COST OF CURING PEAS.

After a curing plant has been installed the cost of pro-
cessing is normal. A conservative estimate is from 2 to 5
cents per bushel for actual work and expenses, this cost
varying, of course, according to the condition of the peas,
the arrangement and condition of the building and ma-
chinery, and especially the tact and ability of the man-
agement. In addition to this cost, however, there will be
a shrinkage and waste and processing and handling,










after the peas have been hulled, of about 8c. That means
for every 100 pounds of peas hulled there will be a loss
in weight of 8 pounds during the process from the huller
to the bags. Then taking into account the market value
of the peas in the raw state, it is safe to estimate that
it will take about 10% of the worth of the peas at $2.00
per bushel to cover the cost of processing and loss in
shrinkage.
MARKET DEMAND FOR CURED PEAS.

There is a good market demand for nicely cured, well
assorted table peas and so soon as the trade generally
is satisfied that peas immune from weevil can be had
from Texas our markets will continue to expand and
grow.
WHERE AND BY WHOM PLANTS MAY BE WISELY INSTALLED.

Each community where peas can be successfully grown
should have a curing plant. They may be secured by in-
teresting some individual or company in the installment
of such a project, or a plant can be built and operated on
a co-operative plan, where the growers themselves own
the stock and employ a manager to operate the plant and
manage the business. In either case the success will
depend upon the ability of the manager.

WHERE NECESSARY MACHINERY MAY BE HAD.

For particulars regarding ovens, machinery, etc., write
to Jabez Burns & Sons, 600 West 43rd Street, New York,
N. Y., and A. T. Ferrell & Co., Saginaw, Mich., for par-
ticulars on hullers, cleaners, etc. Both these firms are
manufacturers.














FARM LOAN ACT.

The following article relative to the provisions and op-
eration of the "Farm Loan Act" recently passed by ('on-
gress will be of interest to a very large proportion of the
population of Florida. The article is quoted from tihe
"Weekly News Letter" of the U. S. Department of Agri
culture. Every one who reads it should preserve it for
future use.

A SYSTEM FOR LENDING MONEY ON FARM LANDS AT REASON-
ABLE INTEREST FOR RELATIVELY LONG PERIODS.

The Federal Farm LoanA ct, popularly called lhe "'Ru-
ral Credits Law," was signed by the President and became
a law on July 17, 1916.

OUTLINE OF FARM LOAN ACT.

Thle act provides for the creation of 12 Federal land
banks and permits the establishment of any number of
joint-stock land banks for the purpose of making loans at
a reasonable rate of interest, for long periods of time, on
farm lands.
A Federal Farm Loan Board has complete control over
these banks.
(A) FEDERAL LAND BANKS.

Twelve Federal land banks are provided, one in each of
12 districts into which the country will be divided. These
banks are empowered to lend on first mortgagcsV on farm
lands in amounts of $100 to $10,000 for approved purposes.
The loans are to be made through farm loan associations
and agents. No loan may be made for more than 50 per
cent of the value of the land mortgaged and 20 per cent
of the value of the permanent improvements upon it.









National farm loan associations local organizations
composed exclusively of borrowers-are authorized. These
associations must be stockholders in the land banks in
proportion to the amount their members wish to borrow.
Eventually all stock in the Federal land banks will be
owned exclusively by these associations.
A reasonable interest rate is established. The act pro-
hibits the Federal land banks from charging more than
6 per cent on any mortgage, or requiring fees not approved
by the Farm Loan Board.
The borrowers will share in the net profits of the bank
because they are stockholders. It is contemplated that
ultimately the borrowers will be the only stockholders.
Long-term loans are provided by authorizing mortgages
for periods of from 5 up to 40 years.
Small annual or semiannual payments on the principal
are made a required feature of all mortgages.
(B) JOINT-STOCK LAND BANKS.
Joint-stock land banks are authorized. They are corpo-
rations for carrying on the business of lending on farm
mortgage security and issuing farm loan bonds. They
are to be under the supervision of the Farm Loan Board,
but the Government will not invest in them. Subject to
geographical limitations and subject to the 50 and 20 per
cent limitation, these banks can lend to an individual any
amount they wish, and for any purpose. They can not
charge an interest rate exceeding 6 per cent, and such rate
must not exceed by more than 1 per cent the interest they
have paid on their last issue of bonds. Their mortgages,
however, must provide for amortization payments. These
banks are prohibited from charging, under any pretext,
fees or commissions other than those authorized by
the act.
PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS ACT.
The primary purpose of this act is to promote agricul-
tural prosperity by enabling farmers to borrow money on









farm-mortgage security at a reasonable rate of interest
and for relatively long periods of time. To attain this
object, two farm-mortgage systems are provided: (1) A
system operating through regional land banks, and (2)
a system operating through joint stock land banks.
To attract money to the farm-loan field the act provides
a method whereby those who have money to lend can find
safe investment in the form of debentures or bonds, of
small and large denominations, issued by the banks and
based on the security of mortgages on farm lands.
These two systems are to be under the general super-
vision of a Federal Farm Loan Board in the Treasury
Department, composed of the Secretary of the Treasury.
as chairman ex officio, and four members appointed by
the President. This board has authority to appoint ap-
praisers, examiners, and registrars, who will be public
officials.
FEDERAL LAND-BANK SYSTEM.

Under the Federal land-bank system the act provides
for Federal land banks which make loans, for the first 12
months, exclusively through local national farm-loan as-
sociations composed of borrowers. These associations
shall be shareholders in the banks, and in that way the
members who are the borrowers will share in the profits
of the bank. The money for the loans is to cor partly
from the capital of the banks and partly from the sale by
the banks of bonds secured by first mortgages on farm
lands. The act defines strictly the purposes for and the
conditions under which loans are to be made, and re-
quires that the rate of interest charged on farm loans
shall not exceed 6 per cent per annum.
TWELVE FEDERAL LAND BANKS.
The United States shall be divided into 12 farm-loan
districts, and a Federal land bank with a subscribed capi-
tal stock of not less than $750,000, each share $5, shall be
established in each district. Each Federal land bank may










e-'tallish branches in ils district. Within 0O days after
the capital stock is offered for sale it may he plrchlased at
, 'r by anyone. Thereafter, the stock remaining unsold
slall be bought by the Secretary of tile Treasury for the
lniled States. It is provided, however, that the Govern-
meent shall not receive any dividends on its stock. Ilti-
mately, it is intended 1tha all tile stock in the lbanks shall
be owned by the association of borrowers, and provision
therefore is made in the law for transferring, the original
slock at par to these associations.

FARM LOAN ASSOCIATIONS.

The act provides for the creation of local national farm-
loan associations through which it is contemplated that
the Federal land banks shall make their loans. In the
event that a local loan association is not formed iln any
locality within a year, the Federal Farm Loan mlard may
authorize a Federal land bank to make loans on farm land
through approved agents. Ten or more persons Iwho own
and cultivate farm land qualified as security for a mort-
gage loan under tile act, or who are about to own and
cultivate such land, may form such an association, pro-
vided the aggregate of the loans desired by the member-
ship is not less than .Y20,000. Each member must take
stock in his association to an amount equivalent to -5 per
cent of the amount lie wishes to borrow. This stock the
association holds in trust as security for the member's
individual loan. The association, in turn, when applying
for money from the bank, must subscribe for stock in the
bank to an amount equivalent to 5 per cent of the sum it
wants to obtain for its members. This stock is held in
trust by the bank as security for the loans it makes
through the association. If a prospective borrower has no
money with which to pay for his association stock, he may
borrow the price of that stock as a part of the loan on his
farm land.










lnder this plan, then, every borrower must he a stock-
holder in his local association, and every association a
stockholder in its district bank. Each stockholder in an
association is liable for the acts of that association up to
twice the amount of his stock.

HOW LOANS ARE OBTAINED.

A member of a national farm loan association, bel'ore
obtaining a loan, must first fill out an application blank
supplied to. the loan association by the Federal Farm
Loan Board. This application blank and otlier necessary
papers will then be referred to a loan committee of the
association which nust appraise the property offered as
security. Such application as is approved Iy le loan
committee is then forwarded to the Federal land hank and
must be investigated and reported on by a salaried ap-
praiser of the bank before the loan is granted. This ap-
praiser is required to investigate the solvency and char-
acter of the prospective borrower as well as lhe value of
his land. When a loan is granted the amount is for-
warded to the borrower through the loan association.

CONDITIONS UNDER WHIIICTI LOANS MAY lBE OBTAINED.

The act specifically defiines the purposes for which
loans may he obtained. These are:
(a) To provide for the purchase of land for agricul-
tural uses.
(b) To provide for the purchase of equipment, fertili-
zers. and live stock necessary for the proper and reason-
able operation of the mortgaged farm; the term "equip-
ment" to be defined by the Federal Farm Loan Board.
(c) To provide buildings and for the improvement of
farm lands; the term improvementn" to be defined ib the
Fedeiail Farm Loan Board.
(d) To liquidate indebtedness of the owner of thie laud
mortgaged, existing at the time of the organization of the
first national farm loan association established in or for









the county in which the land mortgaged is situated, or in-
debtedness subsequently incurred for one of the purposes
mentioned in this section.
Loans may be made only on first mortgages on farm
land.
Only those who own and cultivate farm land or are
about io own and cultivate such land are entitled to
borrow.
No one can borrow save for the purposes stated in the
act and those who after borrowing do not use the money
for tile purposes specified in the mortgage are liable to
have their loans reduced or recalled. The secretary-
treasurer of each association is required to report any
diversion of borrowed money from the purposes stated in
the mortgages.
No individual can borrow more than $10,000 or less
than $100.
No loan may be made for more than 50 per cent of the
value of the land mortgaged and 20 per cent of the value
of the permanent insured improvements upon it.
The loan must run for not less than 5 and not more
than 40 years.
Every mortgage must provide for the repayment of the
loan under an amortization plan by means of a fixed num-
ber of annual or semiannual installments sufficient to
meet all interest and pay off the debt by the end of the
term of the loan. The installments required will be those
published in amortization tables to be prepared by the
Farm Loan Board.
The bank is given power to protect itself in case of de-
fault by recalling the loan in whole or in part, or taking
other necessary action.

THE INTEREST RATE PAID BY THE BORROWER.

No Federal land bank is permitted to charge more than
6 per cent per annum on its farm-mortgage loans, and ii
no case shall the interest charged on farm mortgages ex-










ceed by more than 1 per cent the rate paid on the last
issue of bonds.
For example, if the bank pays only 4 per cent on an
issue of bonds, it can not charge more than 5 per cent for
the next farm loans it makes.
Out of this margin of not to exceed 1 per cent, together
with such amounts as it can earn on its paid-in cash
capital, the bank must set aside certain reserves and meet
all its expenses. Any balance or net profits can be dis-
tributed as dividends to the loan associations or other
stockholders. The loan associations, from their bank divi-
dends, after setting aside the required reserves and meet-
ing expenses, can declare association dividends to their
members. In this way the profits, if any, will be dis-
tributed among the borrowers and will, to that extent,
reduce the amount of interest actually paid by them.
RESTRICTION ON FEES AND COMMISSIONS.
The Federal land banks are specifically prohibited from
charging, in connection with making a loan, any fees or
commissions which are not authorized by the Farm Loan
Board. The authorized fees need not be paid in advance,
but may be made part of the loan.
AMORTIZATION PLAN OF REPAYING LOANS.
It has been said that all loans are to be repaid on the
amortization plan. This plan calls for a number of fixed
annual or semiannual payments, which include not only
all interest and charges due the bank, but the principal
as well. These payments are so calculated as to extin-
guish the debt in a given number of years. After five
years the borrower has the right on any interest date to
make additional payments on the principal in sums of
$25 or any multiple thereof, thus discharging the debt
more quickly.
The table given below illustrates how a loan of $1,000,
bearing interest at 5 per cent, would be retired in 20 years
by an annual payment of $80.24. A study of the columns










shows how from year to year the interest is reduced and
the proportion of the payment which goes to discharge
the principal steadily increases. The final payment can-
cels the debt.


Annual
Periods.



1 ........ .. .
2. ......... .
. . . . . . .
4 ......... ..
8...........
............
7 ..... .... ..

1 ......... .
12..........
11..........
11 ........ .
1. .........
1: ..........
1 ..........
1 . .. .. .. .
16. . . . . .
17 ..........
18. .........
19 ..........
20 .........
Total ... .


Total
Annual
Payment.


$80.24
80.24

80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24

80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24
80.24

80.33
1,604.89


Interest
at 35 per
cent.


$50.00
48.49
40.90
45.23
43.48
41.615




33.38
:!!).72
37.(i9



:0.i98
28.52
25.93
23.22
20.:37
17.37
14.23
10.93
7.46
3.83
604.89


Amount
Paid on of
Principal. Principal
still
unpaid.


$30.24
11.75
:3:3.:i4
:5.01
36.76i
:8.5!9
40.)52
42.)55)
44. 18
46i.91
49.2T;
51.72
54.31
57.02
)!).87
62.87
6i6.01
69.:31
72.78
76i.50
1,000.00


.',',;'i..76
9:8.01
!404.1;7
869.66
s8:2.9!0
794.31
75:).779
711.24
i4;I;.54!;
f19.65
-)70.:))9
518.6i7
464.:;li
407.34'
* 47.47
284.604
218.59
149.28
7(;.50


After a Federal lank bank has loaned on first mortgage
$50,l00, it can obtain permission from the Farmi Loan
Board to issue $50,000 in farm loan bonds based on these
mortgages, sell such bonds in the open market, and use
the money thus obtained to lend on other mortgages.


|










This process of lending on mortgages and selling bonds
in issues of $50,000 may be repeated until bonds to the
amount of twenty times the bank's paid-up capital are
outstanding. If each bank should have only its required
minimum paid-up capital of $750,000, this plan will pro-
vide eventually, if all the authorized bonds of the 12 banks
are sold, over $180,000,000 to lend on first mortgages on
farm land. The banks, however, can increase their capital
stock above the required minimum and so increase the
amount of bonds they can sell, and thus increase the total
amount of money available for loans on farm mortgages.
To make these bonds attractive to investors, the bonds,
together with the mortgages upon which they are based,
are exempted from Federal, State, municipal, and local
taxation and are made legal investments for fiduciary and
trust funds. The capital stock of the Federal land banks
is also exempt from taxation. Federal reserve banks and
member banks of that system are empowered to buy and
sell these bonds. They are to be issued in denominations
of $520. $50. $100, $500, and $1,000.

)ORGANIZATION OF BANKS.
The temporary management of the Federal land banks
is to be in the hands of five directors appointed by the
Federal Farm Loan Board. As soon, however, as the sub-
scriptions from the loan associations total $100,000 regu-
lar directors are to be appointed as follows: Three dis-
trict directors, resident in the district, shall be appointed
by the Federal Farm Loan Board to represent the public
interest, and six local directors, resident in the district,
shall be elected by the farm loan associations who must
be stockholders in the bank. The Federal Farm Loan
Board shall designate one of its appointees to act as chair-
man. The act requires that at least one of the three dis-
trict directors shall be experienced in farming and ac-
tually engaged at the time of his appointment in farming
operations within the district. Any compensation paid











to the directors must be approved by the Federal Farm
Loan Board.
OFFICERS OF LOAN ASSOCIATIONS.

Each loan association must have a board of directors
and a secretary-treasurer. The directors shall serve with-
out pay. The secretary-treasurer shall receive such com-
pensation as may be determined by the board of directors.
The association must appoint an appraisal committee for
the purpose of valuing lands offered as security for loans.
No member of such committee shall have any interest in
the property upon which he passes.
FUNDS FOR CURRENT EXPENSES.

To provide funds for current expenses, the loan asso-
ciation may retain as a commission from each interest
payment not to exceed one-eighth of 1 per cent semi-
annually upon the unpaid principal of the loan. This
commission is to be deducted from the dividends payable
to such farm loan association by the Federal land bank.
If the commissions are not adequate, and an association
does not wish to assess members for current expenses, it
may borrow at 6 per cent from the Federal land bank to
an amount not to exceed in the aggregate one-fourth of
its bank stock.
RESERVES AND DIVIDENDS.

The law requires both the land banks and the farm loan
associations to make provision for certain reserves before
they can pay any dividends.
AGENTS AND LAND BANKS.

In sections where local conditions do not make the for-
mation of associations practicable, the Farm Loan Board
may authorize the Federal land bank to make loans
through agents approved by the board. These agents are
to be banks, trust companies, mortgage companies, or sav-
ings institutions, chartered by the State. They may re-










ceive as compensation the actual expense involved in
transacting the loan and in addition thereto a sum not to
exceed one-half of 1 per cent per annum on the unpaid
principal of the loans made through them. When the
Farm Loan Board decides that a locality is adequately
served by farm loan associations, no further loans are to
be made through agents.
JOINT-STOCK LAND BANKS.

In addition to the system of 12 Federal land banks and
the national farm loan associations of borrowers, the act
permits the establishment of joint-stock land banks and
authorizes them to carry on the business of lending di-
rectly to borrowers on farm-mortgage security and issu-
ing farm loan bonds. These banks must have a capital of
not less than $250,000. They are under the supervision
of the Federal Farm Loan Board, but the Government
does not lend them any financial assistance.
The joint-stock land bank is free from many of the con-
ditions imposed on the Federal land banks. Subject to
the 50 and 20 per cent value limitation and the limitation
as to territory, the joint-stock land bank many lend more
than $10,000 to a single individual, and it is not restricted
to making loans for the purposes specified in the case of
the Federal land bank.
The joint-stock bank, like the Federal land banks, can
not charge an interest rate on farm mortgages in excess
of 6 per cent, nor shall such interest rate exceed by more
than 1 per cent the rate of interest paid by the bank upon
its last issue of bonds. A joint-stock bank is limited in
its bond issue to 15 times its capital and surplus.
Among the restrictions placed on these banks under the
act are (1) that their mortgages must provide for an am-
ortization system of repayment such as is prescribed in
the case of loans through the Federal land banks, and (2)
that they shall in no case demand or receive under any
form or pretense any commission or charge not specific-










ally authorized by tile act and approved by the Farm
Loan Board.
The bonds of the joint-stock land banks are exempted
froim taxation. Their capital stock, however, is not
exempted.
GENERAL PROVISIONS.

The law, through the Farm Loan Board, provides the
iiecessary machinery for frequent examinations of the
banks and the associations, for the proper cancellation of
mortgages, and for the safe custody of mortgages offered
as security for bonds. When any mortgage offered as
security for bonds is withdrawn, the bank- is required to
replace the security with other mortgages or with other
satisfactory collateral.
Heavy penalties of fine or imprisonment, or both, are
imposed for violations of the act, malfeasance in office,
fraud, embezzlement, defalcation, or other illegal
practices.


AMORTIZATION METHODS FOR FARM MORTGAGE
LOANS.

Frojm ('irdcular No. 60, United States Department of
A qiirlt,1il l.
DEFINITION OF AMORTIZATION.

Amiortization, as the term is commonly used in relation
to farm mortgage loans, refers to the payment of a long-
time loan in installments (usually annual or seiiiannual),
covering both interest and principal. For example, if a
farmer lorrows .1,000, at 5 per cent interest, to be paid
back in 20 annual installments on the amortization plan
which is recommended in this circular, he will make a
payment of $80.24 at the end of each year for 20 years,
and then the debt will be canceled.










METHOD NO. 1-TIIE METHOD RECOMMENDED.
The simplest and, in general, the most satisfactory
wa i to account for amortization payments is to take out
of each installment, an amount sufficient to cover the in-
terest on the unpaid principal and apply the remainder
immediately to the reduction of the principal. The in-
stallments are to be paid at the end of each year, not at
the beginning. This method, which will be referred to
as Method No. 1 throughout this circular, gives a new
and smaller principal each year, and hence each year a
smaller interest charge. It shows exactly what part of
each payment has been used for interest and what part
has been applied on the principal, and exactly how much
is still due on the loan. The whole process is one which
will be familiar to any farmer who has ever borrowed
money with the privilege of making partial payments on
the principal. That is, it makes of amortization a simple,
familiar process, rather than something entirely new and
untried.
Other methods of figuring amortization payments will
be discussed later in this circular and specimen tables
computed by the different methods will be given for
comparison.
NOTE.-This circular explains a simple method of computing
amortization tables for use in connection with farm mortgage
loans, gives specimen tables constructed in accordance with this
method, and shows, for comparison, tables computed by other
methods. It should be of interest to all farmers who are contem-
plating the borrowing of money to be repaid on the amortization
plan. as well as to others who are concerned with the problems of
farm mortgage credit.
The first step in the construction of an amortization
table in accordance with Method No. 1 is to ascertain the
amount of the annual payment which will be required to
pay off the loan, with interest, in the time specified. This
figure is found by dividing the amount of the loan by the
present value (at compound interest) of a payment of
one dollar at the end of each year for the term of the
loan. Thus, the present value of a payment of $1 at the
3-Bul







34

end of each year for 20 years, reckoned at 5 per cent com-
pound interest, is $12.46221; dividing $1,000 by this
figure, we get 80.24 as the number of dollars that must be
paid each year in order to cancel a loan of $1,000, with
interest at 5 per cent in 20 years. In case of semi-
annual payments the interest periods are counted instead
of the years, and a rate equal to one-half the annual rate
is used.
The present value of an annual payment of one dollar
at the end of each year for any number of years up to 40.
computed at various rates, is given in Table 1.










TABLE 1.--resent value of an annual payment of one dollar (of Ilir Prnd of rech i/ari ]for i/y nilumber of years ipI to 40,
compound discount at 2, 2 %. 3, 3, 4, 41%2, 5, 51/, and 6 per cent.

Rate of Discount.


Years.
2 3
per cent. per cent. per cent.


1 ................... 0.98039 0.97561 0.97087
2 ... ................. 1.04156 1.02742 1 91347
2 88388 2.85602 2.82861
4... ............ 3.80773 3.76197 3.71710
5..................... .. 4.71346 4.64583 4.57971
S..................... 5.60143 5.50813 5.41719
7 ..... .... 6.47199 6.34930 623028
8 .................. 7.32548 7.17014 7.01969
9 ..................... 8.16224 7.97086 7.78611
10 ...... ............. 8.98258 8.75206 8.53n20
11 .............. ..... .7885 9.51241 9 .25263
12 .................... 10.57534 10.25776 9 95401
13 .................... 11.34837 10.98318 10.63496
11 .................... 9.78685 9 51421 9.25263
15 ................... 12.84926 12 38138 11.93794

16 .................... 13 57771 13.05500 12.56110
17 ................ . 14.29187 | 13.71220 13.16612
18 .................... 14.99203 14.95336 I 13.75351
19 .................... 15.67846 14.97889 14.32380
20 ..... .............. I 16.25143 15.58916 | 14.87748
21 .................. 1 17 01121 | 16.18455 15.41503
22 .................... 17.11580 )i 16.76541 15 93602
23 ................ 18.29220 17.33211 16.44361
24. .................. 18.91392 I 17.88489 16.93554
23 ................... 1 19.52345 18.42437 17.41315


3%
per cent.


0.96618
1.89070
2.80164
3.67308
4.501505
5.32855
6.11455
6.87396
7.60769
8.31661
9.001551
9.66334
10.30274
10.92052
11.51741
12.09412
12.65132
13.18968
13.70984
14.21241

14.69798
15.141713
15.62041
1 6.05S37
I l 48152


4 41, 5
per cent. per cent. per cent.


0.96154 0.95694 0.95238
1.88609 1.87267 1.85941
2.77509 2.74897 I 2.72325
3 62989 3.58753 3.54505
4.45182 4.38998 4.32948
5.24214 5.15787 5.07509
6.00205 5.89270 5.78637
6.73274 6|.59589 6.46321
7.43533 17.26879 7.10782
8.11090 7.91272 7.72173

8.76048 8.52892 8.30641
9.38507 9.11858 8.86325
9.98565 9.68285 0.39357
10 56312 10.22283 9.80864
11.11839 10.73955 10.37066

11.65230 I 11.23402 10.83777
12.16567 11.70719 11.27406
12.65030 12.15999 11.68959
1313394 12.59329 12.08532
13.59033 13.00794 12.46221

14.02916 13.40472 12.82115
14.45111 13.78442 13.16300
14.85684 14.14777 13.48857
15.24696 1 14.40548 13.79S64
15.62208 1 14.82821 14.093094


5% 8
per cent. per cent.


0.94787
1.84632
2.69793
3.50515
4.27028
4.99553
5 68297
6.33457
6.95220
7.53763
8.09254
8.61852
9 11708
9.58965
10.03758

10 46216
10.86461
11.24607
11.60765
11.95038

12.27524
12.58317
12.87504
1315170
13. 41393


0.94340
1.83339
2.67301
3.46Z11
4.21236

4.91732
5.58238
6.20979
6.80169
7.36009
7.88687
8.38384
8.85268
9.29498
9.71225

10.10589
10.47720
10.82760
11.15812
11.46992

S11.76408
12 04158
12.30338
112.55036
12.78336


_~~









TABLE 1.---Preset raise of an aniLual payment of one dollar (ut Ille end of cach year) for ainy lumber of years up to 40.
compound discount at 2, 2y,, 3. 3i/, 4. 4, 5, 51%, and 6 per ret..-(Continued.)


Rate of Discount.
Years. _

per c ncnt. perr centll-. pir cer l. 1i ]lit. per c ill. t 'lenl. I 1, l ," iil. t 'i p cent. [er o li t.

;. ................... 20.1210 I 18.95061 | 17.87685 1 (i.8903 15.98277 15.14661 14.87518 I 13.66250 13.00317
27 .................... 20.70690 1 1946401 18.32703 17.28537 10.32958 15.45130 14.64303 13.89810 13.21053
8 ...... ............. 21.28127 1| .96489 18.76411 17.66702 16.66306 15.74287 14.89813 14.12142 13.40616
9 ....... ............. 21.84438 20.45355 19.18846 1 8.03577 10.98371 16.02189 15.14107 14.33310 13.59072
30. .............. ... 22.39645 20.93029 19.60044 18.39205 17.29203 16.28889 15.37245 14.53375 13.76483
381 .: :.::.:::::..:::: 22.93770 2139540 20.00043 18.73628 17.58849 16.54439 15.59281 14.72393 13.92909
32". ......... 23.46833 21.84917 2038877 19.06887 17.87355 16.78889 15.80267 14.90420 14.08404
33.................... 1 23.98856 22.29188 20.76579 19.39021 18.14764 17.02286 16.00255 15.07507 14.23023
4............... 24.49858 22.72378 I 21.13184 19.70069 18.41120 17.24676 16.19290 15.23703 14.36814 wC
35... .... .. ... . 24.99862 23.14515 I 21.48722 20.00066 18.66461 17.46101 16.37419 15.39055 14.49825 Ci
:26 ....... 25.48884 23.55625 21.83225 20.29050 18.90828 17.66604 16.54685 15.53607 14.62099
::7 ......... 25.96945 2395731 22.16724 20 57053 19.14258 17.86224 16.71128 15.67400 14.73678
:S. .................... 26.44064 24.34860 22.49246 20.84109 19.36786 18.04999 16.86789 15.80474 14.84602
9. .................. 26.90259 24.73030 22.80822 21.10250 19.58448 18.22965 17.01704 15.92866 14.94907
40. .................. [ 27.35548 25.10277 23.11477 21.35508 19.79277 18.40158 17.15908 16.04612 15.04630
111I










By the use of Table 1 a prospective borrower can deter-
mine readily how large the payments are which actually
represent any stated rate of interest; and if he is then
offered any proposition requiring larger payments, he
may be sure that he is really called upon to pay more, in
some form or other, for the use of the money, than the
stated rate.
Table 2 gives, for convenience in reference, the annual
installiaent required to pay off a loan of $1.000 in 10, 15.
20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 years, at 5, 51/. and 6 per cent.

TABLE 2.--.nnual payments computed in accordance with
the method recommended in this circular (Method No.
1) for a loan of $1,000 to be paid off in 10. 15. 20. 25,
30, 35, and 40 years, at 5, 51/, and 6 per cent.

I Iatot of Interest
Term (years) --- -
I per cent. 5/% per cent. [6 per cent.

1. .............................. $129.50 | 5132.67 $135.87
1 ............................... 96.34 99.63 102.96
2" ................ ........ ... 80.24 83.68 87.18
............................... 70.95 74.55 78.23
10 ............................. . 65.05 58. 71 72.65
S.................. .. 61.07 G4.97 68.97
40.............................. 58.28 62.32 66. 46

Table 3 shows for a 20-year loan of $1,000 on the amtor-
tization plan outlined above, at 5, 51, and 6 per cent.
respectively, the annual payment required, the disposition
of each payment, and the amount of the principal left
unpaid at the end of each year.
So far we have considered only amortization tables
where the payment was figured in such a way that it
would exactly cancel the debt (or as nearly as possible
without paying a fraction of a cent) in a stated number
of whole years-generally a round number, such as 20.
Amortization tables are also computed with the install-
ments in round numbers of dollars, as $75, or $80, leav-
ing the term to take care of itself. The only objection







38

to this is that it is difficult, by reason of the odd number
of years and the fractional payment at the end, to com-
pare it with other propositions that may be offered.
Table 4 shows the annual status of a loan of $1,000, at
5 per cent interest, with annual payments of $75, $80,
and $85.









''ABLE u.-A,,nuiorattion table computed in accordance with the method trecoonUenUded in Ihis circular (Mtlhod mNo. 1) for a loan
of $1,000, payable in 20 annuall installments, with, intlerexl at 5, a5, and 6 per cent.

Interest at 5 per cent. Interest at 5I/2 per cent. Interest at 6 per cent.
Completed
years. Applied Principal Applied Irincipal Applied Principal
Payment Interest on still Payment Interest on still Payment Interest on still
principal unpaid principal unpaid principal unpaid

S......... $80.24 $50.00 $30.241 $969.761 $83.68 $55.00 $28.68 $971.32 $87.18 $60.00 $27.18 $972.82
2 ......... 80.24 48.49 31.75 938.01 83.68 53.421 :0.26 941.06 87.18 58.37 28.81 944.01
3 ......... 80.24 46.90 33.34 904.67 83.68 51.761 3192 909.141 87.18 56.641 30.54 913.47
4......... .. 80.24 45.23 35.01 869.66 83.68 50.00 33.68 875.46 87.18 54.81 32.37 881.10
5 ...... 80.24 43.48 36.76 832.90 83.68 48.15 35.53 S39.93 87.18 52.87 34.31 846.79
6 ......... 80.24 41.65 3859 794.31 83.68 46.20 37.48 802.45 87.18 50.811 36.37 810.42
7 ......... 80.24 39.72 40.52 753.79 83.68 44.13 39.55 762.90 87.18 48 6: 3:8.55 771.87
8 ......... 80.24 37.69 42.55 711.24 83.68 41.96 41.72 721.18 87.18 46.31 40.87 731.00 :
9 ......... 80.24 35.56 44.68 666.56 83.68 39.661 44.02 677.161 87.18 43.8( 43.32 687.68
10. ........ 80.24 33.331 46.91 619.65 83.68 37.24 46.44 630.72 87.187 41.261 45.92 641.76
11 ......... 80.24 30.98 49.26 570.391 83.68 34.69 48.99 58173 87.18 38.511 48.671 593.09
12 ......... 80.24 28.52 51.72 518.67 83.68 32.001 51.68 530.05 87.181 :.5..9 51.59 541.50
13 ......... 80.24 25.93 54.31 464.36 83.68 29.15 54.53 475.52 87.181 32.49 54.69 486.81
14 .........I 80.24 23.22 57.02 407.34 83.68 26.151 57.53 417.99 87.18 29 21 57.97 428.84
15 ........ 80.24 20.37 59.87 347.47 83.68 22.99 10.6) 357.30 87.18 25.731 61.45 367.39
16 ......... 80.24 17.37 62.871 284.60 83.68 19.65 64.03 293.27 87.18 22.04 65.14 302.25
17 ......... 80.24 14.23 6601 218.59 83.68 16.13 (17.55 225.72 87.18 18.141 69.04 233.21
18 ......... 80.24 10.93 69.31 149.28 83.68 12.41 71.27 154.45 87.18| 13.91 73.1 160.02
19 ......... 80.24 7.46 72.78 76.50 83.68 8.49 75.19 79.26 87.181 9.01 77.581 82.44
20 ......... 80.33 :.83 76.50 ........ 83.62 4.36 79.26 .. 87.39 4.95 2 44 ........
Total .. $1,604. $60489 $1,000.00 . $167.54 $67.54 $1000.00 . $743.81 .00.00 .
Total . $1,604.8 9 $(04.89 $1,000.00 ........ $1673.54 $673.541$1,000.00 $1743.81 .743.81 $1.)00.00 ..
II I II I I









TABLE 4.-Even payment amortization table, for a loan of $1,000, payable in annual installments of $75, $80, and $90, with
interest at 5 per cent.

Annual payments of .75. Annual payments of $80. Annual payments of $)0.
Completed I I I
yvlars. Applied IPrincipal Applied Principal Applied Principal
Payment Interest on still Payment Interest on still Payment Interest on still
i principal unpaid principal unpaid principal unpaid

S........ $75.001 $-0.00 $2500 $975.00 $80.00 $8000, $:0.00 $970.00 $90.00 $50.001 $40.000 $960.00
S.... 75.00 48.751 26.25 948.75 80.00 48.501 31.0 938.50 90.00 48.00 4200 918.00
75.00 47.44 27.56 921.19 80.00 46.93 ::.07[ 905.43 90.001 45.90 44.101 873.90
4........ 75.00 46.061 28.94 89225 80.00 45.27 :4.73 870.70 90.001 43.701 46.31 827.60
.... 75.00 44.61 30.39 861.86 80.00! 43.54 :i471 834 23 90.001 41.381 48.62 778.97
I I I
6 ......... 75.00 43.091 31.91 1 829.951 80.00 41.711 1 :.'-' 795.94i 90.00I 38.951 51.051 727.92
7 I 75.00 41.51 3:4.501 7901.45 80.00 39801 41.211 755.74 0.001 3l.401 53.601 674.32
8 ......... 75.001 :9.82| 35.18 761.'27 80.00 37.79 1 42.21 713.53! 90.00| 3.72 56.28| 618.04
9 ..... ... 75.001 18. 116 :t(1.94 724 34 80.00 35.68] 14.323 6(.20 91.110 | ;0.90| 59.101 558.94 0
10 ......... 75.00 :; .22| 38.78 (85.551 80.00 33.46 li; 541 622.06 90.00 27.95; 62.051 496.88
11 ......... 75.001 :4.28[ 40.72 644.831 ,0.00 31.1: 48.87 573.80 1 0.00 24.84 65.161 431.73
12 ...... 75.001 :2.24 42.76 602.08 80.00 8.6 51.31 522.49 90.00 21.59 68.411 36331
1: ......... 75.00 ::.10| 44.90 557.171 8000 26.12 53.87 468.611 90.00 18.161 71.831 291.48
14 ......... 75.00 27.86 47.14 510 03 80.00 23.4:1 5;.57 412.041 90.001 14.57 75.431 216.05
15......... 75.00! 25.50 49.50 460.54 8000 20.60 59 40 352.(64 9( 0.00 10.80 79.201 136.86
16 ......... .. 75.00 2:.03' 51.97 408.56 S000 17.13 (2.37' 290.27 90.100 6.841 83.1( 53.70
17 ... . ... 75.00 20.43 5457 :53 99 80.00 14.51 I 5.49 224.79 5;.:8 2.(8 53.70 ....
18 .. . . . 75.00 17.701 7.30 296.169 80 00 11.241 6 76 151i.0: ........ I ........ ........ I ........
19 ........ . 75.00 14.8:: 60.17 236.52 80.00 7.811 72.211 8.8 ..... ....... ... ..... .........
20 .......... 75.10 1 1.83 63.171 173.351 80 00 4.19 75.81 8 )2 ...... . . . ....
21 ...... . . I 75.0 8.;71 6 .33 107 021 .42 .4I1 8 : N ......... ..... .. ........ ........
22 ......... 75 9.65 37 37..... ........ ........... ..... ....... ........ ........ ........
I .::7 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
t ... . ..: . . ... ..
TlHl, i .l; N! -.'14 61 $21 1(24 $1 0,tlO Io i ........ 1 .608.12 $0 ('.t 1)11 ........ 1A G :;S $4!1;.: 181; $ ,00 .01 ........
__ i I [[ II LI I . .









METHOD NO. 2-ADVANCE PAYMENT.

One important variation from the amortization plan
described above is to require the payment of the install-
ments in advance-at the beginning of the year instead of
at the end.
Under this plan the first installment is taken out of the
amount represented by the face of the note, so that a man
giving his note for $1,000, to be paid in 20 annual install-
ments in advance, with interest at 5 per cent, would
actually receive in cash only $922.06-one installment of
$77.94 being deducted. In case the borrower had actual
need of the full $1,000, therefore, he would have to give
his note for a considerably larger sum (0l1,0i4.53). and
pay installments on that larger sum.
Tables 5 and 6 afford opportunity for comparison be-
tween the results obtained by this method and by Method
No. 1 in two different ways. Table 5 gives comparative
figures computed according to Method No. 1 for a loan
yielding the same amount of cash as the $1,000 advance-
payment loan, and paid off at the same time, while Table
6 gives the figures for an advance-payment loan yielding
$1,000 in cash and paid off at the end of the twentieth
year, will a parallel table computed by Method No. 1.









''TABI : 5.-Advance payment amortization table (Method No. 2): 'ace of Note, $1,000. 20 payments, 5 )pr cent interest; with
parallel table conmpnld by Methodl No. 1.
Melthld No. 2 : Face of note $1.000, Met hod No. 1 : Amount of loan .)922.00,'
20 payments. in advance. 19 i onual payments (at end of year)_
('olplrtedl years. iiin.ip l Aplied I'Principnai
Payments isn Interest (in Applied !) stil lP:13-111,1 1l9l pH' nit)ni |til ill
advance i advance) prin'cipa- uni l illnilid

0 ........................ $77.94 $48.53 $29.41 $ O70.59 70 ..... .i $922.06
1 ........................ 77.94 46.98 30.96 939.63 $76.30 $46.10 $0.20 891.86
.............. 77.94 45.35 32.59 907.04 76.30 44.59 31.71 860.15
73 ..........7.94 43.64 34.30 872.74 7;l.30 43.01 33.2| 82(6.
4 ........................ 77.94 41.83 :C0.ll s36.63 76.30 41.34 34..( 791.90
5. ........................ I 77.94 39.93 38.01 798.62 7(.30 6.100 36.70. 755.20
S.................. 77.94 37.93 40.01 758.61 703.30 37.76 8 3854 716.66
7 .................. 77.94 35.82 42.1 716.49 76.30 35.83 40.47 676.1!)
8 ......................... 7794 33.61 44.33 672.16 76.30 33.81 42.49 633.70
9 ........................ 77.94 31.28 4666 625.50 76.30 31.69 44.61 589.09
10 ........................ 77.94 28.82 49.12 576.38 70.30 29.45 46.85 542.24
11 ........................ 7794 26.23 1.71 | 524.67 | 76.30 27.11 49.19 493.05
12 ........................ 77.94 23.51 54.43 470.24 70.30 24.65 51.65 441.40
13 ............. 77.94 20.65 57.29 412.95 76.30 22.07 54.23 387.17
14 ........................ 77.94 17.63 i0.31 352.64 76.30 19.36 56.94 330.23
15 ........................1 77.94 14.46 63.48 289.16 70.30 16.51 59.79 270.44
16......... 77.94 11.12 il1.82 222.34 76.30 13.52 62.78 207.66
17 ........................: 77.94 7.60 70.34 152.00 76.30 10.38 t65.92 141.74
18 .... .......... i 77.94 3.90 74.04 77.96 76.30 7.09 69.21 72.53
19 ........................ 77.96 .......... 77.96 ..........I 76.16 3.63 72.53 .....
I I I ------/--- -!~!~- -~
Total ................. $1.8558.82 1 $558.82 $1.000.00 ......... . $1.449 56 $527.50 $922.06 .........
'This is the amount which the borrower receives in cash, after the first advance installment is deducted from the face of
the loan. Since this is all the money which the borrower will got from the loan to use in his business, the parallel table (fol-
lowing Method No. 1) has been figured on a basis which will yield the same amount in cash. payable in the same number of
subsequent installments.
SAt time of payment. Interest is reckoned on that part of the principal remaining after the payment is credited: that is,
on the figure shown under "Principal still unpaid" for the same year.









TABLE 6.-Advance payment amortization table (Method No. 2) for loan to yield $1,000 int cash after deduction of first
inslallmient: Face of note $1,082.04, paymniets completed at end of tiventicth yqur, 5 per cet interest; with parallel table com-
puted by Method A'o. 1.


Methtd No. 2 (a;dvauc payment plan) : Loan lMlhod No. 1 : Amount of loan $1,000.
to yield $1,000 in cash to borrower' 2'0 annual payments (at end of year)
Completed years. l-m, n _n ,_nil__ le n n
Paymientiin Interest iln Applie on irincipIl A applied on rci ncipal
advance.) |avancl principj still 2iin t, Inrn sl principal still
Unpaid ll unpaid
0 ......................... $82.04 $52.63 $21 .41 $1,032.63 |.................... .. . $1,000.00
1 ............... ... .. . 82.04 51.08 30.96 1.021.67 $80.24 $50.00 $30.24 969.76
2 . . . ... . . . 82.04 49.45 32.50 989.08 80.24 48.49 31.75 938 01
3 ........................ 82.04 47.74 34.30 954.78 80.24 46.90 33.34 904.67
4 . . .............. 82.04 45.93 :6.11 918.67 80.24 45.23 35.01 869.66
5 ............... ......... 82.04 44.03 38.01 880.600 80.24 43.48 36.76 832.90
6 ....... ............. 82.04 42.03 40.01 840.65 80.24 41.65 I ;8.59 794.31
7 ........................ 82.04 39.92 42.12 798.53 80.24 39.72 40.52 753.79
8 ....................... 82.04 37.71 44.33 754.20 80.24 37.69 42.55 711.24
9 . ................. 82 04 35.38 46.66 707.54 80.24 35.56 [ 44.68 666.56
10 ........ .............. I 82.04 32.92 49.12 658.42 S0.24 33 33 46.91 619.65
11 ............... . . . 82.04 30.33 51.71 606.71 80.24 30.98 49.26 570.39
12 .................. . . 82.04 27.61 54.43 552.28 80.24 28.52 51.72 518.67
13 ......... ........ . .... 82.04 24.75 57.29 494.99 80.24 25.93 54.31 464.36
14 ................ ..... .. 82.04 21.73 60.31 434.68 I 80.24 23.22 57.02 407.34
15 . ................... 82.04 18.56 63.48 371.20 80.24 I 20.37 59.87 347.47
16 ........................ 82.04 15.22 66.82 304.38 80.24 17.37 62.87 284.60
17 .......... . . . .. 82.04 11.70 70.34 234.04 80.24 14.23 60.01 218.59
18 ........................ I 82.04 800 F 74.04 100.0( 80.24 10.93 9. 31 149.28
19 ........................ 82.04 4.10 i 77.94 S2.06 I 8024 7.460 72.78 76.50
20 ........................ 82.06 |.......... 82.06 ...... I 80.38 3.83 76.50
Total ... ... $1.722.86 I $640.82 I $1.,082.60 i..1.604.89 --$604.890 I $1.000.00 -1 .
The face of the note is $1,082.04; the number of payments. 21 : that is. 20 payments made subsequent to the time of bor-
rowing the money, at which time the first instalment Is deducted.
2At time of payment. Interest is reckoned on that part of t e principal remaining after the payment is credited : that is,
on the figure shown under "Principal still unpaid" for the same year.










METHOD NO. 3--SINKING FUND.

Another variation in the manner of computing amor-
tization tables may be termed the sinking-fund method.
According to this method the principal of the loan re-
mains the same throughout the whole period, instead
of being reduced gradually as payments are made in
,excess of the accrued interest. The excess payments.
which, if one were using Method No. 1, would be imuie-
.diately applied to the reduction of the principal, are ac-
cumulated in a sinking fund (sometimes called a reserve)
for the payment of the loan at maturity. The sinking
fund is credited with interest at a given rate. If this rate
is the same as the rate on the loan, and if the interest is
compounded as often as payments are made, then the
actual result will be the same as if Method No. 1 had been
followed, provided payments are not required in advance.
Under these conditions the chief disadvantages of the
sinking-fund method are that it is needlessly cumber-
some and that many borrowers find it difficult to under-
stand. Where the payments have to he made in advance,
however, the annual installment required under the sink-
ing-fund plan will be somewhat larger (78.80. as com-
pared with $77.94, on a 20-payment loan, at 5 per cent,
with the face of the note $1,000), even where the rate of
interest allowed on the sinking fund is the same as that
charged on the loan.
But where the sinking-fund method is employed in
actual practice (and it is used rather widely) the interest
allowed on the sinking fund is often computed at a lower
rate than the interest on the loan. For example, the
lender may charge interest at 5 per cent on the loan, and
allow only 3 per cent interest on the sinking fund. The
;use of this lower rate for the interest on the sinking fund
materially increases the size of the installment required
to pay off the loan in a given number of years. On a loan
of $1,000, for example, to be paid in 20 annual install-








45

ments, the payment required, with 5 per cent on the loan
and 3 per cent on the sinking fund, is $87.22, as com-
pared with $80.24 where the interest is reckoned at 5 per
cent on both loan and sinking fund.
Table 7 illustrates these two methods of computing
amortization payments by the use of a sinking fund, and
shows, for comparison, the figures obtained in accord-
ance with Method No. 1.









TABLE 7.-- inking fund amortization table (Method A'o. 3) for loan of $1,000, 20 annual payments ( at end of year), 5 per
cent interest on loan, interest allowed on sinking fund (a) at 5 per ccut and (b) at 3 per cent; with parallel table computed
computed by Method No. 1.

ia) Interest allowed on sinking fund I h Interest allowed on sinking fund Method No. 1 : Payments applied direct-
at 5 per cent at 3 per cent ly on principal
C'ompleted-
y|ars Applied Principal
Payment Interest Sinking Balance Payment Interest Sinking lBalance Paymen Interest still
funund unp;idl principal unpaid


1 ......... $80.2.24 $950.001 $30.247 $969. $87.22 $50.00 $37.22 2.78 $0.24 $50.00 $30.24 $969.76
2 .........I 80.24 50.00 61.99| 938.01 87.22 50.001 75.56 924.44 80.24 48.49 31.75 938.01
3 ......... 80.24 5000 9533 904.67 87.22 50.00 115.05 884.95! 80.24 46.90 33.34 904.67
4 80.24 50.001 130.34 869.66 87.22 50.00 1572 844.28 80.24 45.23 35.01 869.6
.... 80.24 50.00 167.10 832.901 87.22 50.00 197.61 802.39 80.24| 43.48 36.761 832.90
I I I I I I I I
6 ......... 80.24 50.00! 205.69 794.31 87.22 50.001 240.76 759.24] 80.24 41.65 388.591 794.31
S......... 80.24 50001 24.21 753.7 87.22 50.00 285.20 714.80 80.24 39.72 40.52 753.79 )
8 ........ 80.24 50.001 288.77 711.23 87.22 50.00 3:30.98 669.02 80.241 37.169 42.551 711.24
9 .......... 80.24 50.00 333.44 666.561 87.22 50.00 378.1:t 621.871 80.24 :15 561 44.68 G66.56
10 .... .. 80.24 50.00 .380.36 619.641| 7.221 50.00 426.69 573.:l S0.24 .33.3 46.91 619.65
11 .......... I 80.24 50.001 429.611 570.391 87.22 50.001 47176.71 523.29! 80241 :10 98 49.26 570.39
12 ......... I 0.24 50.001 481.33| 518.671 87.22 50.00 52..: 471.771 80.241 2.521 51.72 1 518.67
13 ......... 8024 5000 535.64! 464.361 87.22 50.00 581.3)0 418.70 80.24 25.93. 54.31 464.36
14 ......... 8I 0.24 50.00 5)2.66 407.341 87.22 50.00 635.961 364.04 80.24 23 -2 57.02 407.34
15 ........ 80.24 50.00 652.54 347.461 87.22 50.001 692.26 307.74 80.24 20.371 59.87 347.47
16 . .. 8024 50.00 715.401 284.60! 87.22 50.001 750.253 249.751 80.241 17 371 62.87 284.60
17 ......... 80.24 50.00 781.411 218.591 87.22 50.001 y09.98 190.02" 80.24 14231 66.01! 218.59
18 ......... I S0.24 -0.001 850.721 149.281 87.22 50.00o S71.50 128.501 80.24 I0.1 :'; i 9.31 14928
19 ......... I 80.24 50 001 923.501 76.501 8722 50.00 934.87| 65.13 80.21 7.46 72.78 76.50
20 ......... 80.331 50.00] 1.000.00 ........ 1 87.08 50.00 1.0010.00 .. .. i 80..3 3 83 76 50 .. .
-Totil . .$1.1604.89 $1,000.00 . .......... . $1,744.26 $1,000.00 ............. .$1.604 | $604 89 $1 .00.00| ........
________________ I_______Is ................10 O '48!l000!








47

METHODS NO. 2 AND NO. 3 COMBINED.
The two-rate sinking fund method of computing amor-
tization payments, which has just been described, is fre-
quently combined with the requirement that the pay-
ments be made in advance, as illustrated in Table 8. In
this table the interest on the loan is computed at 6 per
cent, with interest at 4 per cent allowed on the sinking
fund. The net result of this combination is an annual
payment of $92.29, as compared with a payment of
$81.35 for a loan yielding the same amount of cash to the
borrower under the plan represented by Method No. 1.










TABLE 8.-Advance payment sinking fund table (Methods -o. 2 anld : combined): Face of note $1,000, 20 payments, (6
per cent interest on loon and 4 per cent on sinking fund; with parallel utble compulcd by Method No. 1.

Methods No. 2 and No. 3 combined (advance paiy-Ilethod No. 1: Amount of loan $007.71,' inter-
ment sinking fund plan) : Face of note $1,000, est at 6 per cent, 19 annual payments (at
6 per cent interest on loan and 4 per cent on tdl of year).
Completed cars sinking fund.
Payment (in Interest (in Sinking Balance Payment lnl res( .\pplid In tilll
advance) advance) fund d u principle I unipid

0 ........................ .$92.29 $60.00 $33.58 .$960.42 .......... .......... ........... $907.71
S ..................... . . . 92.29 60.00 68.51 931.40 $81.35 $54.46 $26.89 880.82
......... .. 92.29 60.00 14.8 895.17 i 81.35 52.85 28.50 852.32
................. 92.29 60.00 142.60 857.40 81.35 51.14 30.21 822.11
S.............. ..... . 92.29 60.00 181.80 818.11 81.35 49 33 32.02 790.09
S......................... 92.29 60.00 22. 75 777.25 81.35 47.41 33.94 756.15
S................... . 92.29 60.00 26.5.24 734.76 81.35 45.37 35.98 720.17
92.29 60.00 30).4% 600.57 81 35 43.21 38.14 682.03 K
8 ........ 92.29 60.00 ] :.55.3) 644.61 81.35 40.92 40.43 041.60
9 ........................ 92.29 60.00 I 403.19 3096.81 81.35 I 38.50 42.85 598.75
10 .. .................... ... 92.29 i0.00 452.80 547.11 81.35 | 3 .9:3 45.42 553.33
11 ........................ 92.29 60.00 504.50 495.41 81.35 :;3.20 48.15 505.18
12' ................... ..... 92.29 60.00 5 8.:8, G 441.64 81.35 :!0.31 51.0-1 454.14
1' ................ ....... 92.29 60.00 14.27 385.73 81.35 27.25 54.10 400.04
14 ...................... I 92.29 120.00 072.42 327.58 81.35 24.00 57.35 342.6)
1. ........................ 92.29 6i0.00 732.90 2 7.10 81.35 20 5( 1 60.79 281.90
1 ........................ I 92 29 60.00 7015.80 204.20 81.35 16.91 64.44 217.46
17 ........................ 92.29 60.001 8 1.21 1:8.79 81.35 13.05 68.30 149.10
18 ................ ........ 092.29 60.00 !129.24 70.76 | 81.35 8.95 72.40 76.76
19 ........................ 92.29 60.00 1.00.00 ..... ... 81.37 4.61 76.7 .
Total ................... $1,845.80 $1.200.00 .......... ......... $1.545.67 $637.96 $907.71 .......
SThis is the amount which the borrower receives in cash. after the first advance installment is deducted from the face of
the loan. Since this is all the money which the borrower wil gl 1 from the loan to use in his business, the parallel table (fol
lowing Method No. 1) has been figured on a basis which will yield the same amount in cash, payable in the same number of
subsequent installments.










METHOD NO. --EXTRA CHARGES.


A third variation from the amortization plan first
described consists in the practice of subtracting from the
installment payments not only the accrued interest but
also an extra charge (for expenses or profits) before the
balance is credited on the principal. Sometimes this
extra charge takes the form of a percentage on the unpaid
principal, in which case it is in effect an addition to the
interest rate; and sometimes it is in the form of a uni-
form deduction throughout the life of the loan. Both of
these methods are illustrated in Table 9, which gives also.
for comparison, the figures obtained by Method No. 1.

















*


-I 1 111








T.vBI. 9.--nAorizati on table inrolvin g eafra charges (Methld \No. 4): Amount of loan $1,000, 20 annual payments at end of
I/our. 5 per cent interest, ertra charge jor expenses, etc., (a) in the Jrmi of a percentage (1 per cent) on the unpaid principal,
ind1 (b) as a uniform amount deducted from each payment; withparallel table computed by Method No. 1.

I aI Expenses charged as a percentage on
the unpaid principal r(b) Epenses charged as a uniform amount Method No. 1: No extra charge

0 Zt





$q- 1 11o 1 $27 18 $972.82 $85.06 $50.(0 $4.76 $20.24 $960.76| 80.24 $50.00 $30.24 $969.76
.. $ .1CC -$.: $ .) $85. 0_- $50.00 $' 0 .0-.n 96C.7




.. 7. 48.;4 9.7:1 28.81 94401 85 (01 4.-1 -4 4.76 31.75 938.011 80.241 48.49 31.75 938.01
3... TJ7.s 471.201 0.44 30.541 913.47 5. 0 46.90 4.76 33.34 D04.67[ 8024 46.90 33.34 90467
32.38 88 1.09 8 0 5.23 46 35.0 61 80.24 4 35.01 89.66
4 .. 1 87 1 4 54 4.76




5. 87.181 44).0-, S.S1 34321 846.77 I 85 0 4-.48 4.76 3( 76 832.0 80.24 43.48 36.76 832.90 a
--?. A ; s .E CS ao .5
1 | IS $111111 111.111) $271 $72.82 $85 l .015.00 $4.76 $"0.24 $0960.761| $80.24| $50.00 $30.24I$969.76

I 41.4 .47 36.371 94401 85 .O11) .1 4.76 31.75 93.0.11 80.24 48.49 31.75 938.01
.1 0 44 91.471 85. 4.9 4.76 .34 904.671 8024 46.90 33.34 90467
4. . 1 87.18 45(71 9.11 4 .8| 881.09 85 .1111 15.23 4.76 85.01 861.66 80.24 45.23 35.011 869.66
.8 44.05 .S :12 846.77 85 Ol 4!.4, 4.76 3676 832.90| 80.24 43.48 36.761 832.90 ,
(.. 18i 42.!4| 87 810.40l) 85.110 11.6>5 4.76 8!8.519 7914:.{1 80.241 41.65 38.59! 794.81 0
7.. 7.18 40.52 8.10 :85il 771.S4! 85.0()| :;9.72 4.76 40.521 753.791 8024 39.721 40.52 75379
8.18 8.5 7 40.87 730 971 85 .001 37.69 4.76 42.55' 711.24 80.24 37.(19 42.55 711.24
.. S1 :6.r5 7.:11 43.32 687.65 1 85 .01) 35 5(1 4.76 44.68 666.56 80.24 3556 44.6S1 666.56
10... 87.18 :14.38| 6.88, 45.921 64173 85.110| 33:13 4.76! 46.91 619.651 80.24 33.33 46.91 619.65
1 .... S.18s :2.119 11.42 48 171 593.06] 85 .01) 30.98 4.76, 49.26 570.391 8024 30.98 49.26 57039
.. .18 29.65 5.93 51.601 541.46( 85.00 28.52 4.76 51.72 518.67 80.24 28.52 51.72 518.67
13... 87.18 27.07 5.41 54701 486.76 85 10 25.9:1 4.76 5431 464.361 80.24 25.93 54.31 464.36
14.. 8.18 24.34 4.87 57.971 428 71 85.011 3.22 4.76| 57.021 407.341 80.241 23.22 57.02 407.34
13... 87.18 2-1.44 4.2 111.45| 67.34 85." 20.37 4.76] 59.871 347.471 80241 20.37 59.87 34747
I I II I I
... 87.18 18.37 3.67 65.14 302.201 85 .1 1 17.37 4.7-) ( ".87 284.601 80.241 17.371 62.87 284.60
17. . 8 1 5 .11 .2 11.05 233 15| 85 100 14.23 4.7, 1 I 01 218.59 80.24 14.23 )66.01 218.59
18... 8 7.18 1.61 2.88 73-19 15.).961 85.)1)0 1 1.(0) 4.761 619.31 149.281 80.241 10.93 69.31 149.28
i ... 87.18 8.1I0I 1.6 77.58, 82.38 85.0)1 7.46 4.76 72.78 76.501 8024 7.46 72.78 7650
...1 87.12 4.121 .8 2 823 ....... 85 .1 .83 4.76 7 .. .... I 80.33 3.83 76.501......
Toli |5.;1:l.7.4:! ~.7-'.l IL9 ''-1 3 -l.-f1 -1101 1 I .- .|1701 9 -l .8 .1 52 ltI. 1. -1 00 .00
Total| 11.7d .74 $619.7.I"$12:-1 9.$1.l0 In ....... $1.700 1)|$151.01.81).$95.2(|1$1,0IH 0.00 ....... 151h 4.89 0$)1 4.8)|$1.00I.00l ..
II I _ I i I I I I I I I I










CONCLUSION.
In conclusion, it may be said that the simplest methods
of computation, so long as they are adequate, are always
the best; and that nothing is gained (for the borrower, at
any rate) by the use of any method of computing amor-
tization payments more complicated than the one first
presented in this circular (Method No. 1).
Interest on farm-nmortgage loans is usually reckoned
on the basis of payment at the end of the interest period
rather than at the beginning; and the requirement that
the installments be paid in advance adds materially to
the cost of a loan, as the examples given in Tables 5 and 6
have shown. Further, the use of the sinking fund plan,
with a lower rate of interest allowed on the accumulated
payments in the sinking fund than that charged on the
loan, results in a very material increase in the cost of
the loan to the borrower, as shown in Table 7; and the
combination of the advance payment requirement with
this form of the sinking fund plan, as shown in Table 8,
makes the cost still higher.
Where "expenses" or extra charges in any form are
taken out of the amortization payments, they should be
considered just as much a part of the cost of the loan as
that part of the payment which is labeled interest.
Tn the comparison of the various plans discussed in the
foregoing pages, emphasis has been laid upon the size of
1he annual installment as the most convenient and most
reliable basis for determining the relative desirability of
the various amortization plans presented. Other figures,
such as the total amount paid for interest especiallyy
where there are additional costs which have to be paid
out of the installments), or the "average interest rate."
are frequently used as a basis for comparison, but it is
often difficult for the prospective borrower to find out
exactly how these figures are obtained. The amount of
Ihe annual payment required, given in dollars and cents.
for an equal number of payments at the end of the year.







52

forms a definite and concrete index to the relative cost
of a loan under two or more different plans.
In most cases a prospective borrower will be able to
work out for himself, from the figures given in Table 1,
the annual installment for a loan, at a given rate, yield-
ing a given amount of cash, and paid off at the end of a
.given number of years. The Office of Markets and Rural
Organization of the UTnited States Department of Agricul-
ture is prepared to give further information in regard to
this or other specific phases of the rural credit problem.













THE CANNING AND PRESERVING OF
VEGETABLES AND FRUITS.


A Compilation of Tnformation Relating to the A.bore
Subjects From Numerous Sources.


BY H. S. ELLIOT,
Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture.


Much demand has been made upon the Department
recently for reliable information on these subjects. To
supply this in a reliable form the writer has gathered
from many sources the information that follows:
PRESERVATION OF FOOD AT HOME.
Statistics show that approximately one lalf of the
products of the garden truck farm and orchard go to
waste, while one half of the world goes to bed hungry at
night for the want of these same foods. Be that as it
may, we do know that much of the world gets up hungry
every 'morning and that those wasted food products
would fill "many an aching void," to the mutual advan-
tage of producer and consumer, if distance and market-
ing facilities could be overcome.
Almost every housekeeper has at some time "put up"
fruits and vegetables with more or less success, often
less; then become discouraged and finally decided that
factory canned goods are cheaper than "bothering with"
home canning. The many canning clubs of girls, by can-
ning the home grown products, are proving that from six
cents to fifteen cents per can may be saved besides utiliz-
ing products that would otherwise go to waste.









WHY FOOD SPOILS OR DECOMPOSES.

In the old method of home canning we worked accord-
ing to vague rules without knowing or asking why the
canned goods often "worked" or spoiled. We no longer
work by faith, but demand the evidence of things not
seen by the normal vision, and such great scientists as
Pasteur and Lebi.g have given us the benefit of their
microscopic observations. They tell us the air, water,
soil, and all vegetable and animal life are the hosts for
millions of little micro-organisms, called bacteria, yeast
and molds. They spoil for our use, vegetables, fruits or
meats, by forming acids, carbonic-acid gas, and other
compounds useless and harmful to us. Generally, bac-
teria do not develop in substances containing a high per
cent of sugar, hence preserves and jellies are not so hard
to keep. Neither do bacteria thrive in vegetables or
fruits containing a large amount of acids. This is why
lemons, rhubarb, and other acid fruits and vegetables
keep a long while when put up only with cold water.
The food stuffs rich in protein, like beans and peas, are
hard to keep because these are the favored food of'bac-
teria, which are more difficult to destroy than yeast or
molds, for they reproduce by spores that are very resist-
ant to heat. These spores, if not destroyed in the first
boiling, will vegetate or begin to grow at a very rapid
rate, so you see the necessity of the second day, and even
the third day sterilizing or boiling of such canned goods
in order that every spore may be destroyed.
Common sense, good judgment, and careful work are
bound to succeed in canning. If boiling or sterilizing is
properly done, so that all germ life is destroyed, and the
cans sealed air tight it is impossible for fruits, vegetables
or meats to decay; hence, the necessity of the repeated
"sterilize," "sterilize" will be obviated.










CANNING OUTFITS.

Any one can can, with even the slightest outfit, if the
right care is taken. The old open kettle method can be
used if jars, cans, tops and vessels are sterilized before
putting in the fruits or vegetables, and then taking the
precaution to cook or sterilize one hour for three suc-
cessive days, to destroy all germs or spores.
A common wash boiler, with a fitted top and racks
made with handles to lift out the cans or jars, is a con-
venient and easy utensil to use on the kitchen stove. A
large lard can or wash tub may be used out of doors.
with any ordinary charcoal furnace, or an old wash tub.
inverted and fitted with a joint of stove pipe, and a door
cut out on the opposite side for putting in the fuel; or
even a hole in the ground with a stove pipe or other flue
will answer for the fire box in using the "cold-pack"
merhod. A portable home canner is not expensive and
is as much a necessity in the home as a cultivator, sew-
ing machine, or cream separator. A portable hot water
canner, with the firebox attached, can be bought for from
.$5 to -.10. The steam pressure outfits are more expensive,
but takes less time, for the greater heat secured accom-
plishes sterilization more rapidly. Steam under fifteen
pounds pressure destroys all bacteria and spores.

METHODS OF FOOD PRESERVATION.

1. Harmful Chemical Preservatives.
2. Low Temperature.
3. Drying.
4. Heat.
5. Harmless Chemical Preservatives.
Harmful Chemical Preservatives, or the So-Called Pre-
serving Powders, Which Prevent the Growth of Bac-
teria.-While some of these are not harmful in them-
selves, yet they are dangerous as food preservatives, for
food already in an unwholesome condition from bacteria










may be preserved in that condition and become a menace
to the user. The use of such chemicals is a violation of
the pure food laws and should not he used.
Preservation by Means of Low -Temperature.-The
making of artificial ice and refrigerators have made the
preservation of food on a large scale of greatest import-
ance. Bacteria, yeasts and molds do not vegetate at a
low temperature.
Preservation by Means of Heat.-This, combined with
harmless chemicals, such as sugar, salt, spices, and
vinegar, are the chief methods used in the home.
CANNING TERMS DEFINED.
Scald means to subject the fruit or vegetables to boil-
ing water for about five minutes, so that the skin thereof
can be easily removed.
To blanch is to allow the fruit or vegetables to remain
in the hot water for a longer period than five minutes to
remove the skins or to soften the product. It is used for
such things as corn, beans, beets, etc.
Cold dip means to dip the product into cold water
after scalding or blanching, so that it can be more easily
handled.
Sealing (see also "capping") is to place the caps or
tops on the jars or cans. In the case of jars it is advis-
able to strew the tops on lightly at first and then fasten
firmly when the jars are cool.
Sterilizing means to boil until all germ life is de-
stroyed. The time required for sterilizing various prod-
ucts is given in the "'Time Table" following.
Exhausting. This means to cook the canned material
for a few minutes before tipping to let the air out.
Zinc flux is made by adding to muriatic acid as much
zinc as it will dissolve and then adding an equal amount
of water.
Sal amoniac flux. This is made by mixing equal parts
of dry sal ammoniac with chips of solder. Solder will not










adhere or stick to tin without flux or a similar substance,
such as resin.
Tinning the steel. To put the hot steel used for cap-
ping cans into zinc-acid flux reheat it, then put it into sal
ammoniac and solder, turning the steel several times until
it is smooth and bright.
Capping is to solder the little tops on the cans with
the capping steel. (There is a new capping steel on the
market with a gasoline blast that saves time in heating).
Tipping is to close and seal the little air vent. Some
directions say exhaust and tip.

TO REMOVE SKINS FROM PEACHES, PEARS AND PLI'MS.

T'he hardest work in canning and preserving is peeling
the fruit. The pure food law allows the following method
of peeling: Bring nine gallons of water to a loil; add
one-half can of caustic potash or concentrated lye. and
one-half ounce of alum. Lower the fruit in a wire basket
or cheese cloth into the boiling solution; let remain two
minutes; dip into cool water wash thoroughly to remove
the skins.
TO REMOVE SKINS FROM TOMATOES.

Place tomatoes in a wire basket or thin cheese cloth;
lower into boiling water and let remain from one to five
minutes till skins begin to crack; dip in cold water;
remove the core with a sharp small knife and peel the
skin from the tomato.

TO REMOVE SKINS FROM BEETS AND CARROTS.

Same as from tomatoes, only let them remain in the
boiling water longer.

TIME TABLE FOR BLANCHING.

Blanch peas, beans, etc............... 5 to 1) minutes
Blanch corn on cob .................. 5 to 1. minutes
Blanch pumpkins, squash, mangoes .... 5 minutes










Blanch okra, cabbage, sweet potatoes.. 5 minutes
Blanch asparagus ................... 5 to 10 minutes
Blanch greens ................... .... 10 to 20 minutes
Blanch rhubarb, beet tops, etc......... ( to 10 minutes
Scald tomatoes, plums, pears, etc. .... 1 to 2 minutes
Scald peaches, apricots.......... .... 1 to 2 minutes
Blanch vegetables to reduce bulk ...... 20 minutes

USEFUL TABLES FOR THE CANNER.

Cans
The pure food law requires a minimum weight of 32
ounces of tomatoes for No. 3 cans and 22 ounces for No.
2 cans.
When filled invert cans in tray and allow them to
drain; then fill them with tomato juice. I)o not fill with
water.
(ne bushel of tomatoes will fill IS No. 3 cans.
()ne bushel of tomatoes will fill 24 No. 2 cans.
1,000 No. 1 tin cans will cost about .$10.00.
1,1100 No. 2 tin cans will cost about $14.00
1,000 No. `3 tin cans will cost about $16.00.
1.,110 No. 10 tin cans will cost about $18.00.
Three and four color labels cost from .1.00 to $2.00
per 1,0040.
Solder-henmned caps cost from $1.25 to $1.50 per 1,000
The average freight car will hold about 85,000 No. 2
cans, or 55,000 No. 3 cans not cased.
When shipped in cases, the average freight car will
hold about 43,000 No. 2 cans and 30,000 No. 3 cans.
1,000 No. 2 empty cans will weigh about 212 pounds.
1.000 No. 3 empty cans will weigh about 310 pounds.
One case of 24 No. 2 empty cans will weigh about 13
pounds.
One case of 24 No. 3 empty cans will weigh about 17
pounds.













TIME TABLE.

Time Table for Canning Food With Intermittent

Sterilization.


Food


|Time of cooking
(minutes)


Special Preparation Before Canning. I L "

6C
;-.- i;'-
af _<


A.sparao'us ........ (ut in lengths to fit jar.1 Blanch
5 minutes and drain ..............
I', .......... . launch until skin is easily removed.
'Can whole, in slices, or in quarters.
; Lii: ...... Lull by hand. Blanch 5 minutes ....

i :;no. r:: -_' .... i remove strings; cut into 1 inch pieces.
Blanche 5 minutes and drain before
I putting into cans .................
'r .... ... I Blanch 5 to 15 minutes on the cob and
scrape cob, or score grains before
cutting from the cob..............
I':!pIlant ........ .|'ut in thin slices, drop in boiling water
and let stand 15 to 20 minutes.
SDrain and pack in jar.............
Is............ . . . l. Blanch 5 minutes. Remove
wrinkled peas. Put into cans. .....

PnmIlkiiu ......... Icel, cut into small blocks. Blanch 5
m minutes .........................
Spinm. .......... Wash free from all sand and grit. Re-
Smove discolored leaves. Blanch 201
minutes. Drain and pack in jars...
Succotash. (arn. j
2/3. heans 1, 8 Prepare corn and beans as directed ....
Sweet potatoes ... B!Ioil until skin will peel off. Cut in
I convenient sizes to fit cans........
Tomaties......... .Scald from 1 to 5 minutes. Remove
Sskins. Save any juice escaping ....


Tomato mixture.
Cormn 1/.omae Prepare each as directed above and mix
toes2/3 ......


15 45 60

15 45 60

15 45 |60


15 45 60



15 45 60


15 45 60

1. 45 60

15 45 60


10 30 40

15 45 75

15 45 60

10 45 60


15 45 1 60


--------










60


TIME TABLE.


Time Table for Canming Food With One Period of
Sterilization.


(To be followed in the use of the different types of
portable home canners. For altitude of 4,000l feet or

more above sea level, add about twenty or twenty-five
per cent more time to this schedule.)


A pple cider ......................
Apples .......
Asparagus (greens) ...............
Apricots ...............
Beans (Lima and string .... ...
Blackberries. dewberries ...........
Cherries, peaches ................
Corn without acids ........
Grapes, pears, plums ...............
I om iny .............
H uckelberries .....................
O kra ............ .................
Okra-tomatoes combined ...........
O ysters ..........................
Peas (field ) ......................
Peas (Garden or English .........
Pineapples .......................
Raspberries .......................
Sauerkraut .......................
Sausage .........................
Sweet potatoes ................ ...
Strawberries ................ ..
Succotash ........................
Tom atoes . ... .................
Tomatoes and corn................
G rape juice .......................
Q uince ...........................
Tomato juice ....................
Pum pkin ........................
Fish. pork ........................
Chicken. heef ....................
F ig s .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. ..
Squash ..........................
Spinach ..........................
Other greens .....................
Rhubarb ..........................
Beets ........... ................


2olr3
3
2or3 '

3

2or


2 or 3


2 or 3
1
2
2
2 or 3
2 3
2
3
3
92 or 3
2 or 3
2
2
S3
2
3

S 3
S 3
3
3


Time of vl kinL: i minutes








15 12 10 6
15 13 10 6
60 60 40 30
15 12 10
60 60 40 i 30

15 12' 10 .
20 4 0 40 30
iS0 123 10

15 15 10 60
60 50 40 25
15 12 S
60 60 40 30
50 50 40 30
50 50 i 40 i30
60 60 40 30
240 180 90 60
30 25 10 10
15 12 8 5
50 50 40 25
60 60 40 35
80 70 60 40
20 15 10 5
60 60 40 30
22 20 10 6
80 70 60 40
15 15 10 5
30 25 15 10
20 20 15 10
50 50 40 30
200 200 120 60
250 240 180 40
30 20 10
50 40 30 20
60-90 60-90 40-90 30-40
90 90 60 40
25 I 25 15 10
90 1 75 60 40


. _


~










SIRUPS.

Sirups for use in canning are made by boiling granu-
lated sugar with pure water at 212 degrees F. All the
impurities which rise to the top should be carefully
removed with a spoon or ladle until the sirup appears
clear and transparent. If the fruit is properly sterilized
the syrup will not add anything to the keeping qualities.
The density of the syrup should be determined largely by
the taste.
Western growers usually make their fruit sirups on
the basis of 1.% pints of sugar to 1 pint of water, while
many in the east use 1 pint of sugar to 11/ pints of water.
This accounts in a large measure for the greater popu-
larity of the western canned fruits.
1 pint of sugar to 1 gill of water makes a sirup of 40
degrees density.
1 pint of sugar to V/, pint of water makes a sirup of 32
degrees density.
1 pint of sugar to 1 pint of water makes a sirup of 24
degrees density.
1 pint of sugar to 11/2 pints of water makes a sirup of
17 degrees density..
1 pint of sugar to A pints of water makes a sirup of 14
degrees density.
For preserving cherries, strawberries, etc., a sirup of
411 degrees density is used. For preserving currants,
plums, quinces, etc., a sirup of 24 degrees to 32 degrees
density is used.
For canning blackberries, blueberries, cherries, peaches,
pears, plums, and raspberries, a sirup of 14 degrees to 17
degrees density is used.

SIRUP DENSITY TABLE.

To enable any person to prepare sirup of any desired
density, the following table is supplied. No allowance
has been made in the table for evaporation:







62



Percentage (or degrees) of density Sugar Water

Pounds Quarts
12 per cent ......................... 1 51
15 per cent......................... 3 81.
18 per cent......................... 4 1/ 101/2
24 per cent ........................ 6 9%
28 per cent............. .. ... 7 9
35 per cent......................... 7 61/.
40 per cent.......... ............... 2 11 /
50 per cent .................. ...... 1 1
60 per cent................... ...... 6 2
64 per cent........................ 16 41/

The above outfits are freely advertised in the papers
and magazines published in the interest of tile various
branches of Agriculture, and are usually reasonable in
price as well as efficient.

PRESERVES, JELLIES AND MARMALADES.

Sour fruits or slightly unripe fruits and berries are
best for jellies, as the pectin is at its best then: when too
ripe, or when the fruit ferments, or is cooked too long.
lte pectin undergoes a change and loses its power to
jell. Juicy fruits should not be gathered wet as they
absorb quantities of water and would require too much
boiling. If tile fruit is dusty wash quick to prevent
absorbing too much water. It requires more work aid
skill lo make jelly out of fruit to which water must he
added than from juicy fruits.

GUAVA JELLY.

Undiluted guava juice consists of over 90 per cent. of
water, about 5 per cent. of sugars, and a small percent-
age of pectin and acid. It also contains some substances
which give the color and flavor to the jelly made from it.










Pure guava jelly usually contains about 20 per cent. of
water, about 75 per cent. of sugars, and the rest is
pectin, acid, etc. During the boiling of the mixture of
juice and cane-sugar, the acid acts on the sugar, and
changes part of it into invert sugar, so that it forms a
sirup; and if there is enough acid the sugar will not
crystallize out. This strong sirup causes the pectin to
set as a jelly. The pink color is deepened by longer boil-
ing, or by more acid.
AMOUNTS OF JUICE AND SUGAR.

Suppose a large amount of water is added when cook-
ing the guavas. Now if equal amounts of this diluted
juice and cane-sugar are taken to make the jelly, there
may not be enough pectin, in which case the jelly will not
set properly, or will be sticky if it does set; or there may
not be enough acid, and the jelly will "sugar;" or there
may not be enough of the guava flavor. If a large amount
of water has been used in cooking the fruit, more juice
and less sugar should be taken to make the jelly. If the
guavas have been cooked in a double boiler without
water, equal amounts of juice and sugar will yield a good
jelly. It was found that the juice from two pounds of
ripe guavas, with one pound of sugar, yielded less than
one and a half pounds of jelly.

1HOW FAR TO BOIL.

When boiling the jelly, the temperature rises as more
and more water evaporates. To secure a uniform jelly,
it is desirable always to stop at the same point. This can
best be done by the use of a glass thermometer. Such
an instrument, reading to 300 F., can usually be bought
from a drug store; or if not procurable there, can be pur-
chased for 60 cents from the Arthur H. Thomas Com-
pany, Philadelphia. In a series of tests it was found that
the best jelly was made when the boiling was stopi ed -t
235 F. It is usually necessary to stop the boilin" for a










moment, when using the thermometer, because of the
bubbling. If the same amount of water is always used in
cooking the ripe guavas, and the same proportions of
juice and sugar are taken, and if the temperature which
is found to give the best jelly is measured with a ther-
mometer, it will be possible to turn out a uniform
product year after year.
JELLY-MAKING.

No iron or steel should come in contact with the fruit
or juice. The guavas may be heated till soft in an
enameled or aluminum vessel with a small amount of
water at the bottom, or in a double boiler. The juice
should be squeezed out through cloth in a strong press,
measured, and the proper amount of granulated sugar
added. A deep aluminum vessel is useful for boiling
down the juice. When the sugar has dissolved, the hot
solution can be filtered through cloth. It is boiled down
till the thermometer marks the proper temperature, and
then run into glasses or molds.

BLACKBERRY JELLY.

Pick out all stems and leaves, put the berries in a
kettle with some water if fruit is not very juicy, heat
slowly, mash with potato masher and turn into a colan-
der over which a cheese cloth is folded, to drain. Measure
juice and add equal amount of sugar. The same method
can be used for dewberries, currants, strawberries, etc.
PLUM JELLY.

Use unripe fruit. Put in preserving kettle with one
quart of water to each peck of fruit. Cook until plums
fall to pieces, then strain and add one pint of sugar for
every pint of juice. Simmer slowly, then put in glasses.
All wild fruits such as grapes, raspberries,and wild
plums make excellent jellies. If the jelly is covered with
paper dipped in alcohol before putting away all mold









spores will be destroyed, then another paper coming
down over the sides of the glass is tied or pasted over the
first one.
FRUIT JUICES.
Cook the fruit in preserving kettle, never in one of tin
or zinc, however, as that produces an oxide that is poison-
ous. Crush the fruit with a wooden spoon or potato
masher, boil and drain through a sieve or colander with
cheese cloth in it. Put the juice in sterilized bottles, place
in water and boil 30 minutes, seal and put in a cool place
to keep. If sweet juice is desired add sugar to it before
sealing.
Peach, plum, and grape juice are all made alike aun
very similar to jelly. If sugar is used a gill to the quart
of juice is used. This juice is not boiled down as in
jelly, only brought to a boil in order to skim and put in
bottles hot; crushed fruits may be saved as jams, mar-
malades or vinegar.
PRUIT VINEGAR.
Add warm water to the fruit peelings or crushed fruits
left over from jelly or juice, set aside until it ceases to
ferment, then drain off in jars or jugs, cork and keep cool.
The mother from vinegar or small yeast cake will hasten
the process. This applies to vinegar made from all fruits
and grapes.
FIG PRESERVES.
(Factory Method)
Use equal weight figs and sugar, add water to begin
sugar to one quart jar. Water enough to cover. Place
in canner and cook one hour.
FIG PRESERVES.
(Home Method)
Use equal weight figss and sugar, add water to begin
the cooking. Add sliced lemon, one to each gallon. Cook
until sirup thickens.
5-Bul










PLUM PRESERVES.

Use one-half as much sugar as fruit by measure. Prick
fruit, cover with water and boil until sirup thickens. The
same process is used in preserving peaches and other
fruits.
MARMALADES.

Marmalades are simply crushed fruits or berries
cooked slowly, as no water is added. Measure the fruit
and add one pint of sugar to each quart of fruit. Cook
slowly and stir frequently. This is an excellent way to
preserve fruits and berries too ripe to preserve whole.
Cook about two hours over slow heat. Put the marma-
lade in sterilized jars and seal.

MELON RIND PRESERVES.

Cut off all red and green parts of the melon. Add
one-half as much sugar as melon by weight to remaining
white rind which should be in small sliced pieces. Sliced
lemons, one to each gallon, improves the preserves. Boil
until sirup thickens.

GRAPEFRUIT JUICE FOR SUMMER BEVERAGE.

A Simple Method of Making a By-Product to Save the
Waste of Grapefruit.

A simple method of bottling the juice of grapefruit for
use in making acid beverages as a means of gaining a
useful by-product from hundreds of thousands of cases
of grapefruit which now are wasted.
All that is necessary is to bring the grapefruit juice
to the boiling point in a porcelain-lined or enameled
kettle, pour it while still hot into bottles, which then are
hermetically sealed. The juice when so handled will
keep indefinitely, and provides a base for grapefruit-ade
or other acid beverages having the characteristic acid
and flavor of the fruit. Experiments show that it is









highly important that the bottle be completely filled so
that no layer of air be left between the top of the juice
and the cork or seal. Where air in any amount comes
in contact with the top of the sterilized juice it will
cause the juice to change its color. In handling the juice
it is particularly important that it be kept from coming
into contact with iron or other metals easily acted upon
by acids.
It is also possible to freeze the grapefruit juice into
solid ice and then by whirling the ice in a centrifugal
machine, to take out a large part of the water and leave
the solids and flavoring matter of the fruit. This freez-
ing and concentrating of the juice greatly reduces the
bulk and makes a product which can be sterilized by
heating and kept indefinitely. Care must be taken to
keep the juice from coming in contact with iron.
Those who wish to make a clear juice, may filter the
grapefruit juice before it is heated by adding to it from
2 to 3 per cent (about 3 ounces avoirdupois to the
gallon) of infusorial or Fuller's earth well washed with
hot water. The mixture is then forced through a non-
metallic filter press and the clear juice reheated and
boiled. With the freezing process, the juice is filtered
after concentration, about twice the amount of infusorial
or Fuller's earth being used per gallon of concentrate.
The same process is not suitable for bottling the juice
of oranges and lemons, which will not retain their flavor
if handled in this way.
While as yet, there is no commercial market for
sterilized grapefruit juice, it is believed that many per-
sons will find this juice, with the addition of water and
sugar, a pleasant variation from lemonade or limeade.
Those who like grapefruit should find the beverage in-
viting. The method is so simple that those in regions
where grapefruit are cheap and plentiful can prepare this
product on a small scale with ordinary household
appliances.














CONTROL OF THE VELVET BEAN
CATERPILLAR.


BY J. R. WATSON


(Entomologist State Experiment Station.)


The only serious insect enemy of velvet beans in
Florida is the caterpillar of the moth, Anticersia gem-
matilis, which eats the leaves. The damage from this
insect is usually severe and often disastrous. The entire
seed crop is sometimes destroyed. Aside from soil im-
provement, it is chiefly for the seeds, or seeds and pods
for winter forage that velvet beans are grown in Florida.
They are nol generally used as green forage. Since the
plant normally produces much of its growth after late
August or September, the stripping of the vines at that
time curtails the soil-improving effect of the crop as
well as its seed production.
The severity of the infestation varies in different years
and also in different fields and localities. This is due
chiefly to the activities of the insect's natural enemies.
In general the severity of injury increases southward,
because the insects get an earlier start in the southern
part of the State.
The injury is proportional to the size of the field if
olher conditions are equal. Greater injury occurs in
large fields, because the caterpillars become so numerous
that their natural enemies (principally birds) cannot
control them. In a small field, enemies of the insect
come in from the surrounding woods and fields and
usually keep them in check.










Fortunately the caterpillars do not appear in dis-
astrous numbers until August or September in the large
velvet bean growing sections of the State. In October at
least, and often in September, they are brought under
complete control by "cholera," a fungus disease. Con-
sequently it is necessary only to supply a little aid to
the natural enemies at a critical period.
Few farmers take any measures of control. They
trust that the velvet beans will be able to survive and
produce some seed in spite of the caterpillars. This
bulletin is intended to show that by taking advantage of
the food preferences of the caterpillar and of its natural
enemies, and by the judicious use of poison, the damage
can be reduced to such an extent that velvet beans will
be a dependable crop.
Altho it is a serious pest, the velvet bean caterpillar
can be controlled at a comparatively low cost. No one
needs hesitate to plant velvet beans on account of the
ravages of this insect.

LIFE HISTORY OF THE INSECT

The eggs are small white, roundish bodies which are
about one-twelflh of an inch in diameter. The majority
of them are laid on the lower surfaces of the mature
leaves. The egg hatches in about three days. The young
larva is about one-tenth of an inch long. It feeds on the
leaves about three weeks, during which it molts (casts
its skin) five times and grows to nearly two inches long.
After it is half grown it is usually dark green with promi
nent bright colored lines with darker borders running
lengthwise of the body. Many of the caterpillars, how-
ever, are pale green and the lines are either indistinct or
entirely absent. The line along the side is wider than
the others and is often pink or brown. The caterpillar
'has no conspicuous hairs. If disturbed, it throws itself
about violently until it reaches the ground.










When full grown, the caterpillar enters the ground
where it constructs an earthen chamber in which, after
a final molt, it passes into the pupa stage. The pupa
is brown and three-fourths of an inch long. During
September the insect remains in the pupa case about ten
days before emerging as an adult moth. As the weather
becomes cooler the time is greatly lengthened, but in no
case has the insect been observed to remain in the pupa
stage all winter.
The moth, too, is variable in color but is usually some
shade of gray or brown. A characteristic mark and one
that will enable the farmer to distinguish this moth from
any other is the double line that extends diagonally
across both wings. The moth is about an inch and a half
across the outstretched wings.
MIGRATION AND DISTRIBUTION

One of our most interesting discoveries concerning this
insect is that it is migratory like the moth of the cotton
caterpillar. It does not winter in North or Central
Florida, but flies north each summer from the southern
end of the peninsula or perhaps from Cuba.
The most important practical result of this discovery
is that one can predict the coming of the caterpillars.
Since the moths are known to appear in a field before
the caterpillars, the grower can foretell almost to a day
when the caterpillars will begin to damage his crop. He
needs only to be able to recognize the tnoths and to
watch for their appearance. Since the eggs hatch in
three days, and the caterpillars do little damage until
after the second molt, an abundance of moths in a field
means that it will be necessary to dust or spray in about
twelve days. The grower who finds his field swarming
with moths should order his materials at once.
The flight of the moths northward can actually be re-
corded and predicted in the same manner as the progress











of a' storm is watched and predicted by the Weather
Bureau.
FOOD OF THE CATERPILLAR
The writer has found the caterpillars feeding on but
three plants. In order of the severity of infestation,
they are: velvet beans (Stizolobium sp.), kudzu vine
(Pueraria thunbergiana), and horse beans (Canavalia
sp.).
Some varieties and species of velvet beans are evidently
preferred to others. The Florida velvet bean is always
much more severely damaged than the Chinese when the
two are planted side by side. On the Experiment Sta-
tion grounds they frequently occupy neighboring plots,
where unusual opportunity is afforded to study the com-
parative severity of infestation.
The early varieties have usually flowered before the
caterpillars become abundant.
Some notes on the comparative amount of damage
done to different varieties, or species, of Stizolobium
when planted side by side, were made September 9, 1913,
at the Station Farm. Four varieties, Wakulla, Alachua,
Yokohama and Florida, were used in the test. Wakulla
is a very early variety, and matures at the same time as
the Yokohama, the earliest of the genus. Alachua, an-
other selection from a cross, matures one or two weeks
earlier than the Florida. There were three rows of each
kind, and they stood in the field in the order given in the
following table, which shows the comparative damage to
the different varieties:
Varietty Maturing Damaged by the Caterpillar
Wakulla Very early Little
Alachua Late Considerably
Yokohama Very early Very little
Wakulla Very early Little
Florida Very late Heavily
Wakulla Very early Little
Alachua Late Badly
Wakulla Early Slightly
Florida Very late Very heavily
Wakulla Very early Little










Alachua Late Badly
Yokohama Early Slightly
Wakulla Very early Hardly touched
The preceding discussion applies only to those cases
where the varieties are grown close together. When a
large field containing thirty or forty acres of Chinese
velvet beans is compared with another large field of
Florida velvet beans, there is less difference in the dam-
age. Even in this case, however, there is usually a differ-
ence in favor of the Chinese.

METHODS OF CONTROL
EARLY PREPARATION NECESSARY
1. The farmer should begin to fight this pest at plant-
ing time. If Chinese or early Georgia velvet beans are
as suitable as the Florida, the main crop can be planted
to them or to some of the new early varieties originated
;it the Experiment Station, such as the Osceola and the
Wakulla. Because of early maturity and probably less
attractiveness to the moths, these are damaged less
severely than the Florida velvet. If the tendency of the
Chinese to shell is a serious objection (as when it is used
as a cattle food) one of the other kinds, such as the
early Georgia, should be planted. As a further protec-
tion some of the Florida velvet beans should be planted
in the vicinity to attract the moths away from the early
varieties. This trap crop should be distributed about the
fields so that it will not be too far away (certainly not
more than an eighth of a mile) from any part of the
main field. The trap crop should be planted in accessi-
ble places so that it can be readily sprayed or dusted.
2. A flock of turkeys will consume vast numbers of
caterpillars and other insects, especially grasshoppers.
3. Birds, wasps, and skunks should not be molested.
All are useful destroyers of insects. Birds and skunks
feed on grasshoppers also, which, after the caterpillars,
are the most destructive insects in a velvet bean field.









4. A careful watch should be kept for the first moths.
The farmer can distinguish this insect from any other
common Florida moth by the (usually double) diagonal
line which stretches across both wings and turns up to
the apex of the fore wing,' the appearance of the under
side of the wings, and the peculiar darting flight. These
moths may be expected during July in South Florida,
during August in Central Florida, and during late
August and early September in the extreme northern
and western sections of the State. When the moths are
noticed in large numbers in the fields, it is probable that
the beans will need to be sprayed or dusted after twelve
days or two weeks. The presence of moths should, there-
fore, be a signal to the farmer to obtain spraying
materials.
CONTROL BY SPRAYING AND DUSTING

The application of lead arsenate or zinc arsenite is
the best means known for controlling the caterpillar.
It will be well to obtain these in the powdered form,
because the powder is more uniform in composition than
the paste, especially when the paste has lost some of its
water. Paris green should not be used on velvet beans,
as they are easily burned. A dosage of paris green
strong enough to kill a large percentage of the cater-
pillars is sure to severely damage the vines. Even with
the dosage of lead arsenate recommended here, the leaves
will be burned sometimes. However, this burning will
be confined to old leaves that have almost fulfilled their
mission, and no serious damage will result. Contrary
to the general rule the young foliage of velvet beans is
less easily burned than the old. A young and vigorous
leaf is evidently more able to withstand the poison.
Owing to the late appearance of the caterpillar and the
almost sure development of "cholera," there is usually
not more than a month during which the grower will
need to protect his crop. It is not always necessary to










treat the entire field. If the most severely infested por-
tion is treated, the birds will congregate on the untreated
portion and often hold the caterpillars in check there.
The total cost of spraying at the Station in September,
1915, was $1.10 an acre, while dusting at the same time
and place cost 80 cents an acre for one application. It
has never been necessary to repeat the spray. At least
1wo careful dustings are required for the same protec-
tion, which makes the cost 50 cents an acre more than
spraying. But in order for spraying to be practical, a
good barrel spray-pump and water must be available.
It is usually difficult to drive thru a velvet bean field
with a wagon, altho in many cases the grower can leave
a road every hundred feet at planting time. The damage
done by driving thru the vines when they are running
over the ground without support is not as great as might
be supposed. A week later it will hardly be noticeable.

FORMULAS FOR SPRAYING AND DUSTING

Not more than twelve ounces of powdered lead arse-
nate (or a pound and a half of the paste) to fifty gallons
of water can be safely used. Even with that small
amount one should put a pound and a half of qltick-lime
(or two quarts of fresh lime-sulphur solution) in the
water and should keep the liquid well agitated while
spraying.
For a spray we recommend:
Lead arsenate, powder ............ 12 ounces
Quick-lime ............... ........... pounds
W ater ..........................50 gallons
If the paste form of lead arsenate is used, take 24 ounces
instead of 12. This amount should suffice for nearly an
acre.

The dry arsenate when used as a dust should be mixed
with about four times its volume of air-slaked lime. A
coarse burlap bag is tied to each end of an eight-foot
pole, and filled with the mixture. A man on a mule then










takes the pole with the bags and rides across the field,
dusting the plants by constantly jarring the pole. At
least fifteen pounds of the mixture (three pounds of lead
arsenate or zinc arsenite) should be applied to the acre.
DUSTER MORE SATISFACTORY THAN BAGS

A more even and satisfactory method of spreading the
dust is by means of a "blower" or dusting machine.
Even a careful man using the bags and pole will
cover scarcely more than half of the surface of the
leaves and will get the dust too thick in places; our
experience has been that with ordinary labor but little
more than a third of the leaves are dusted. More time is
required to cover the field with a dusting machine, but
the added thoroness more than repays the added cost of
labor. .A careful man is able to do nearly as thoro work
with the duster as he is with a spraying outfit and at a
smaller cost.
There are several makes of "knapsack dusters" which
cost ten dollars or more. These are best operated by a
man on foot who can cover a strip about twenty feet
wide by dusting on both sides. If there is any wind, it
is better to dust only on the leeward side to avoid in-
haling the mixture. It is better to walk across the field
in a direction at right angles to the wind. A large
acreage will justify the purchase of a dusting machine.
Of course with a duster that will throw a sufficient
amount one can do more efficient work.
Dusting should be done in the early morning or after
a shower, while the vines are wet. The mixture sticks
so well that much of it remains after a heavy rain. It
will be necessary to redust every ten days or two weeks
as long as the caterpillars are abundant in order to
cover the new growth which will have put out. On the
Experiment Station gronuds we have never found it
necessary to make more than three applications.







77

If half of the caterpillars can be poisoned their
numerous enemies can usually be trusted to destroy a
good percentage of those that escape. In fact these
enemies are always the real controllers of an outbreak.
The farmer with his arsenate only helps them a bit at
a critical time. Except in especially favorably located
fields, such as small ones near woods, it will not do to
depend entirely upon these enemies. Such a policy may
mean the loss of an entire crop, and will usually mean a
reduction in yield, which will be much more costly than
the application of the insecticide.
After one or two rains it will be perfectly safe to allow
stock to eat the poisoned vines. As stock is usually not
turned in until the pods are mature, months after the
application of the poison, there can be no possible danger
of poisoning the animals even if there has been no rain
meanwhile. All the leaves which were poisoned will
have died and fallen, carrying the poison to the ground
where it soon loses its potency. Usually the pods will
not have appeared at the time the poison is applied and
consequently will carry no poison.
CONTROL BY ENEMIES
The caterpillars have many natural enemies. One of
the most important is the "rice bird," also called "black-
bird," or "red-and-buff-shouldered-marsh-blackbird." These
collect in great flocks in infested fields. Other birds,
especially mocking-birds, eat many of the caterpillars.
It is probably on account of birds alone that small
patches of velvet beans planted near woods usually
escape with little injury.
Lizards, especially the "chameleon" (Anolis), feed
eagerly upon the caterpillar. The Anolis is commonly
seen climbing over the vines in velvet bean fields. They
doubtless consume a great number of the caterpillars.
Polecats or skunks are frequently found in the velvet
bean fields and probably feed on the caterpillars and







78

pupae, since they are fond of insects. They are among
the most useful of wild animals in this respect.
Wasps of certain species carry off many caterpillars
with which to stock nests for their grubs.
Perhaps the most important insect enemies of the
caterpillars are certain species of predaceous bugs.
These bugs are abundant in velvet bean fields, and are
commonly seen with caterpillars impaled on their beaks,
or slowly and stealthily stalking their prey. Since they
attack mostly the smaller caterpillars they do a great
deal of good, as they doubtless consume many in a day.
Morever. by destroying the young caterpillars the bugs
save more velvet bean leaves than they would if they
took the older caterpillars which have already done most
of their damage.
A small bluish carabid beetle (Callida decora) is
active in destroying eggs and young caterpillars. It is
frequently seen running actively over the vines.
A number of predaceous enemies also prey upon the
pupae in the ground. Common among these are moles
and large carabid beetles say's Hunter. The former is
seldom seen, but its tunnels are everywhere under the
vines. The latter is nocturnal and is found during the
day under the dead leaves. It, too, is seldom seen, altho
it is common and highly beneficial.
Probably the only practical measure the farmer can
take to aid these natural enemies of the caterpillars is
to see that they are unmolested. Birds, wasps and
skunks, which are commonly persecuted, should be pro-
tected. They are among the farmer's best allies. It is
true that skunks have an unfortunate appetite for poul-
try, but the poultry can he kept safeguarded at night.
Turkeys are fond of insects of all kinds, and, because
they are prone to wander, are particularly valuable on
the farm. If possible a farmer should keep a flock for










their insectiverous value, even if they do not bring large
returns at marketing time.
Dragonflies capture many of the moths.

CONTROL BY CHOLERA

Bv far the most efficient check on the increase of this
pest is a disease called "Cholera" by farmers. This is
caused by the fungus (Bot,,i l rileyi). In October, 1914,
and again in 1915, and also in previous years, this fungus
almost exterminated the caterpillars in the fields around
Gainesville. Less than one-tenth of one per cent escaped.
On the Experiment Station grounds where they had been
numerous enough to destroy much of the crop, the cater-
pillars became scarce in one week. This is not unusual,
but occurs almost every year. Sooner or later the fungus
appears and nearly exterminates the caterpillars, tho
it is often too late to save the crop. After it becomes
established in the field, the fungus seems to control the
insects for the remainder of the season. The fungus to
become epidemic seems to require a cool, prolonged
rainy period, such as usually occurs in late September or
October.
SUMMARY
1. This caterpillar is the only serious insect enemy of
velvet beans in Florida.
2. The egg hatches in 3 days; the caterpillar .grows 3
weeks; the pupa stage lasts 2 weeks.
3. The insect does not survive the winter. Fields are
reinfested each summer, by moths from the south.
4. It has numerous natural enemies which should not
be molested.
5. A flock of turkeys helps to control the caterpillars.
6. When early varieties of velvet beans, such as the
Chinese, can be grown, a strip around the edges of the
field should be sown with the Florida variety as a trap
crop.







80

7. This crop should be sprayed or dusted with lead
arsenate every two weeks during the caterpillar season,
and when it is necessary the main crop should be
similarly treated.
8. Fields should be watched for the first appearance
of moths and preparations should be made to spray or
dust












U. S. I)epartment of Agriculture,

CLIMATOLOGICAL SERVICE
of the

WEATHER BUREAU
Central Office: Washington, D. C.


FLORIDA SECTION,

Prof. A. J. Mitchell, Section Director,
Jacksonville, Fla.
Year 1915.


ANNUAL SUMMARY, CLIMATOLOGICAL SERVICE,
FLORIDA SECTION.


GENERAL SUMMARY
The year 1915 averaged slightly below normal in tem-
perature, although decided departures of both a positive
anil negative character featured several months. Con-
sidered from a seasonal viewpoint, the winter months
were colder than normal, as were the first two spring
months. The summer and autumn, however, were warmer
thoil usual. Possibly the most far-reaching abnormal
features of the year were the late, and rather damaging,
frosts of spring, and the excessive rains during January,
October and November. The frosts of March and April
were felt as far south as the Miami section, and the dates
of occurrence were the latest of record, excepting April
7th, 1891. when practically freezing conditions prevailed
6-Bul










over portions of Dade County. The year was not al-
together favorable for agricultural interests. As indi-
cated, the wet weather delayed farm work during the first
months, and the low temperatures of March and April
damaged truck. The rest of the growing season was hot
and dry, and the months of harvest were mostly wet. The
highest temperature, 105 degrees, occurred in June, and
the lowest, 23 degrees, in December. The greatest average
rainfall, 7.51 inches, was recorded in October; the least,
1.25 inch, in April. Compared with 1914, the mean tem-
perature was the same, being practically normal, but the
average rainfall was 7.22 inches greater than in 1914.
Pressure.-The mean pressure for the year, reduced to
sea level, was 30.02 inches. The highest was 30.53 inches
at Jacksonville on February 11th; the lowest recorded
was 29.56 inches at Pensacola on December 28th; range
for the year, 0.97 inch.
THE WEATHER BY MONTHS.
JANUARY.-The month was slightly colder than normal,
and practically the wettest January of record. The sev-
eral periods of wet weather were associated with disturb-
ances that moved eastward near the Gulf coast line, do-
ingl serious damage to truck. Citrus fruits also suffered,
to some extent, from decay. Much replanting of truck
was necessary. The warmest weather was generally on
flie 18th, 24th and 30th, when maxima of 83 degrees were
recorded. There were heavy frosts over portions of the
northwest division during the first and second decades.
The lowest temperature, 25 degrees, occurred in Taylor
County.
FErRUARY.-The month was one of much cloudiness
with an excess of rain which, with rather persistent north-
erly winds, made it disagreeable. Two disturbances of
much energy and quite wide scope gave heavy 24-hour
rainfalls, the greatest for the month being 4.32 inches.
Frost formed in the northwestern counties on the 3rd, be-










coming quite general on the 4th. There was another frost
period in the peninsula from the 7th to 11th. Vegetation
suffered more, however, from the soggy condition of the
soil than from low temperatures. Farm work was
backward.
MARCH.-The month was notably cold, the mean tem-
perature, 57.0 degrees, being the lowest for March since
1892. Heavy to killing frost occurred over much of the
peninsula on the 9th, 10th, 18th, 21st, and from the 23rd
to 25th. On the 18th frost damaged truck to the south of
Miami-an unusual incident of March weather. Conti-
nental disturbances that passed eastward on the 4th-5th,
:1th-14th, and 30th-31st, gave heavy rains, especially in
western counties. There was ample sunshine, and farm
work made good progress. Citrus bloom was heavy.
Much corn, melons and some cotton were planted.
APRIL.-The month was featured by decided deficiencies
in both temperature and rainfall. There were frosts over
much of the northern and central divisions on the 4th and
5th, with light frost in portions of the extreme south on
the 4th, where a minimum temperature of 45 degrees oc-
curred-the lowest, so late in April, since April 7th, 1891,
when killing frost formed over much of the same terri.
tory. The dry, sunshiny weather was favorable for farm
work. Early cotton was up to a fair stand at the close of
the month, and corn, melons and truck made good prog-
ress, although about two weeks late. Citrus bloom
dropped badly in some localities.
MAY.-The cold, dry April was followed by a warm, wet
May. On the night of the 7th, the following heavy rains
fell: Bristol, 6.00; DeFuniak Springs, 5.80; Garniers,
8.40; Jasper, 4.40; Live Oak, 4.40; Monticello, 6.68; Pan-
ama City, 3.98, and Tallahassee, 4.70 inches. On the 6th,
during a thunder storm, 75 hogs were killed by lightning
at Ocala, and on the 13th, during a wind and hail storm,
property was damaged to the extent of several thousand
dollars at St. Augustine. Corn, cotton and citrus fruits










were improved. The distribution of rain was unsatisfac-
tory, however, in the south until about the 29th, when it
relieved a drought condition. The nights were agreebal.
cool.
JUNE.-Although the month was drier than usual, the
conditions on the whole were quite favorable for general
agriculture. The showers of May continued on the 1st
and 2nd, the rainfall being exceptionally heavy for the
season over much of the State. Some damage resulted to
truck which, however, was offset by the great benefit to
citrus fruits. Temperatures were generally near normal
during much of the month. The corn crop was probably
the best in the history of the section. Pine apples, how-
ever, were generally inferior. Cotton made good progress,
and bloom appeared during the second week of the month.
JULY.-Showers occurred almost daily, although the
average rainfall was below normal and drought condi-
tions prevailed at some 'stations in the western division
for fifteen or more days in succession. The high tempera-
ture, incident to the dry weather, was effective in retard-
ing the activities of the boll weevil, which appeared in
some northwestern counties. Most crops made good pro-
gress. The corn crop was well advanced-much had ma-
tured. There was a slight deterioration, however, in the
condition of citrus fruits.
Ar'cGST.-The month began with a disturbance of small
diameter over the southeast portion, which moved north-
ward near the coast line, attended by high winds and
heavy rain. It damaged property to the extent of
$1.00,000. The tropical storm of the 14th, which moved
across the Gulf, also gave heavy rains and high winds on
the extreme south and west coasts. The month was un-
favorable for cotton, which suffered from rust and heat.
The first bale was marketed during the first decade. Corn,
citrus fruits and minor crops did well. It was the warm-
est August of record.










SEPTEMIBER.-The month was warm and dry-a condition
that was favorable for harvesting cotton, corn and grasses.
Much of the cotton crop was picked. The month was fur-
ther featured by the tropical storms of the 4th and 29th,
the former striking the west coast, and the latter ap-
proaching sufficiently near to control the weather over
the section for several days. The mean temperature, 80.9
degrees, was unusual for September, arid the maximum,
101 degrees, rarely occurs during the autumn. Trucking
was delayed.
OCTOBER.-October was the sixth consecutive month
with the temperature above normal, the average daily ex-
cess, 3.0 degrees, surpassing that of previous months. It
was, also, the wettest October, except one, during the last
25 years, the average, 7.51 inches, being almost double the
normal amount. Some relief from the warm weather was
experienced during the last days of the first decade when
frost, the first of the season, formed over the extreme
northwest portion.
NOVEMBER.-The excessive temperatures of the preced-
ing six months continued during November, the average
daily excess being 2.5 degrees above normal. As a whole,
however, the month was pleasant, sunshiny and dry. The
heavy rain on the 15th and 16th aggravated an already
unsatisfactory condition in some southern counties, where
lowlands were too wet for the plow. The coldest weather
occurred generally on the 16th and 30th, when damaging
frost formed over the interior of the northern division.
DECEMBER.-The month was comparatively dry and
cold, the mean temperature being more than two degrees
below normal. Several continental disturbances gave high
winds over the extreme north portion in their south and
east sweep across the country. Colder weather followed,
particularly from 1st to 4th, 14th, 15th, and from 21st
to 23rd. There were liberal shipments of truck, berries.
and citrus fruits.













COMPARATIVE ANNUAL DATA FOR FLORIDA.


Temperature.


Year.





. . . . . . . . .

................. I
..........

................
. . . . . . .. .
. . . . . . .. .

. ..
'..........


i....iii ......
. . ~ ~ ... . .

. . . . . . . . .


.................
. . . . . . .. .

. . . . . . .. .

. . . . . . ..
. . . . . . .. .
. . . . . . .. .

. . . . . . ..


70.4
71.0
71.2
69.9
71.0
71.2
70.5
71.0
70.7
68.8
70.8
69.8
69.9
70.5
70.9
71.5
71.2
71.1
69.2
72.3
71.1
71.2
70.3
70.4


Ca




- 0.2
+ 0.4
+ 0.6
- 0.7
+ 0.4
+ 0.6
- 0.1
S+ 0.4
+ 0.1
- 1.8
+ 0.2
- 0.8
- 0.7
- 0.1
+ 0.3
+ 0.9
+ 0.6
+ 0.5
- 1.4
+ 1.7
+ 0.6
+ 0.7
- 0.1
- 0.1


Precipitation.


0

22
19
12
11
20
17
17
- 2
13
12
15
17
20
10
14
21
20
16
19
15
21
23
19
23


47.99
53.01
52.51
45.50
49.62
56.69
48.36
53.93
61.19
58.47
51.24
55.79
48.15
61.43
53.76
49.15
48.54
49.52
50.88
47.40
64.88
48.02
49.08
56.30


05

- 4.42
+ 0.60
+ 0.10
- 6.91
- 2.79
+ 4.28
- 4.05
+ 1.52
+ 8.78
+ 6.06
- 1.17
+ 3.38
- 4.26
+ 9.02
+ 1.35
- 3.26
- 3.87
- 2.89
- 1.53
- 5.01
+11.61
- 6.20
- 4.62
4- 1.53


MONTHLY SUMMARY, 1915.

Precipita- Average number
Temperature. tion. of days. Wind.


Be a .
Month. V
3 03 0



i' Q 32 5 '! 1a ; 838a12e'7 n.

January......... 57.1-0.4 83 25 5.56 +2.78 9 111 8 12 ne.
February ......... 59.0 -1.0 86125 3.85 +0.361 7 13 8 7 ne.
March ........... 57.-9.1 90 5 2.60 -0.40 151 9 7 nw.
April............ 67.3 -2.0 97 31 1.25 -1.28 3 20 8 2 e.
May............. 78.3 +2.6 100 52 6.10 +2.32 10 15 10 6 sw.
June.... ...... 80.0 +0.9 105 60 5.12 -2.31 9 14 12 4 e.
July............. 82.2 +1.0 102 60 7.26 -0.42 15 9 16 6 sw.
August..........82.7 +1.4 102 63 6.92 -0.86 12 12 14 5 sw.
September....... 80.9 +1.8 101158 4.97 -2.01 10 14 10 6 e.
October...... .. 75.4 +3.0 96 40 7.51 +3.56 13 12 11 8 ne.
November........ 67.1 +2.5 92 24 2.58 +0.18 4 20 7 3 ne.
December........ 56.6 -2.3 86 23 2.58 -0.39 6 18 8 5 ne.
Year......... 170.4 -0.11105123156 731+1.53 10311731121171 ne.


.












KILLING FROSTS, 1915.

Stations. Lastin Firstin Stations. Lastin Firstin
spring. auI n. spring, autumn.

Northern. Division. Central Div.-Con.
Arcler. .......... Mar. 25 Nov. 30 Merritts Island ... None. None.
Bristol.......... Mar.24 New Smyrna ..... None. Dec. 15
Carabelle ......... April 4 Nov. 16 Ocala............ Mar. 25 Nov. 30
Cedar Keys....... None. None. Orange City...... Mar. 25 Dec. 1
Crescent City ..... Mar. 23 Dec. 4 Orlando.......... Mar. 23 None.
Federal Point..... None. Dec. 15 Pinellas Park..... None. None.
Fenholloway ..... Mar. 25 Nov. 16 Plant City....... None. None.
Fernandina....... Mar. 9 Nov. 30 Rockwell......... Mar. 23 Dec. 4
Gainesville. ...... Mar. 23 Nov. 30 St. Cloud ........ None. Dec. 15
Hilliard.......... St. Leo...........Mar. 25 Dec. 1
Jarksonville ...... Mar. 23 Nov. 30 St. Petersburg .... None. None.
Jasper ........... Mar. 23 Nov. 30 Sanford. .......... April 4 Dec. 15
Johnstown....... Mar. 25 Nov. 30 Tampa........... None. None.
Lake City........ Mar. 25 Nov. 30 Tarpon Springs... None. Dec. 22
Live Oak ......... Mar. 23 Nov. 30 Titueville ........ None. Dec. 4
Macclenny ........ Mar. 25 Nov. 30
Madison ......... Mar. 25 Nov. 30 -:outhern Division.
Middleburg. ...... Mar. 25 Nov. 30 Arcadia .......... None. Dec. 15
Monticello. ...... Mar. 24 Nov. 16 Avon Park. ....... None. None.
Morton's Farm.... Mar. 23 Nov. 30 Boca Grande. ..... fNone. None.
Mount Pleasant... Mar. 25 Nov. 16 Bradentown...... Mar. 25 Dec. 15
Newport......... April 4 Nov. 30 Davie ............ None. None.
St. Augustine .... Mar. 23 Nov. 30 Eddy............ *
Satsuma Heights.. Mar. 23 Dec. 21 Fort Lauderdale... .None. None.
Switzerland. ..... Jan. 2 Dec. 15 Fort Myers ...... None. None.
Tallabassee. ..... ar. 24 Griffin ........... 'None. None.
Homestead. ...... d None. None.
Central Division. Hypoluxo........ .None. None.
Barlopw.......... Mar. 25 Dec. 1 Key West......... None. None.
l:,.n)>r c (near) None. Miami (1) ........ Mar. 18 None.
Brooksville (1)... Mai. 25 Miami (2)........ None. None.
Brooksville (2)... Mar. 25 Nov. 30 Punta Gorda. ..... None. None.
Clirmont ........ None. None. Ritta.......... .None. Dec. 15
Cnleman ......... April 5 Nov. 30 Sand Key ........ None. None.
De Land......... Mar. 25 Dec. 1
Eustis........... Mar. 25 Dec. 1 Western Division.
Fellsmere........ None. None. Apalachicola...... Mar. 23 Nov. 30
Fort Meade....... Mar. 25 Dec. 1 Bonifay .......... Nov. 28
Fort Pierce....... None. None. De Funlak Springs. Mar. 23 Nov. 30
Grasmere......... Mar. 25 Nov. 30 Carniers (near)... April 4 Nov. 16
Inverness........ I Dec. 1 Marianna ........ Mar. 25 Nov. 16
Kissimmee........ None. None. Molino ........... Mar. 24 Nov. 16
Lakeland.......... iNone. Pamana City......Feb. 9 Dec. 1
Lucerne Park..... None. None. Pensacola ........ Mar. 22 Dec. 3
Malabar.......... Mar. 25 Dec. 15 Wausau.......... April 5 Nov. 16

Record incomplete, Data incomplete, but this date probably correct.









CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR THE YEA It, 1915.


Stations. Counties.

a




Northern Division.'
Archer........... Alachua ... 92
Bristol........... Liberty... ..
Carrabelle........ 'ranklin... 10
Cedar Keys...... |Levy...... 10
Crescent City.... Putnamm.... 45
Federal Point .... do .... 10
Fenholloway .... ITaylor ... 75
Fernandina....... Nassau.... 10
Gainesville....... Alachua.... 176
Hilliard.......... .Nassau.... I 69
Jacksonville..... Duval......1222
Jasper........... Hamilton.. 1152
Johnstown....... Bradford.. .125
Lake City ........ Columbia... 210
Live Oak......... Suwanee... 109
Macclenny ...... Baker. ..... 125
Madison......... .Madison .. .1143]
Melrose......... Alachua .. |163 .
Middleburg ....... Clay ....... 14
Monticello......... .Ieffersni... 207
Morton's Farm....I v l... |... .
Mount Pleasant ... (;:ladden. 3061
Newport......... WVakulla .... 151
St. Augustine..... St. Johns...1 101
Satsuma Heights.. Putnam ... .1 981


Temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit.


0





ti,
0 C




a -



31 68.6 99 June 20t
6 .... 102 June 22
17 67.6 101 Aug. 1
27 71.4 96 June 10f
18 70.5 101 June 22 1
24 70.5 102 July 19 1
9 67.8 100 June 22 ]
23 .... 102 July 18 [
20 69.5 99 June 20 !
7 .... 103 June 22 .
45 .... 98 July 18
16 .... 102 June 22
17 68.2 98 June 22f
32 68.4 100 Sept. 10t
16 68.6 101 June 22
20 .... 100 June 20
16 68.4 100 June 22

15 ... 103 June 20
12 .... 104 June 22

10 67.4 102 June 20t
14 08.2 100 June 22 t
64 70.0 100 July 18fl
8 68.5 99 June 22


251Dec. 22

26 Dec. 21it
331Dec. 21
3{0 Dec. 15t
31 Dec. 15
23 Dec. 22
32 Mar. 9f
21 Mar. 2 1

26 Mar. 23
24 Dec. 22
28 Dec. 22
26 Dec. 22
21; Dec. 23
28 Dec. 22
. . a. . .
27 Mar. 231
23 Dec. 22
28 Nov. 30 I
24 Dec. 211
24 Dec. 26
30 Mar. 23
30 Mar, 23


Precipitation, in inches.


I -


a


31 54.70 8.501Oct.
6 ..... ..... ..... .
17 47.53 9.88 Jan.
29 40.9(; 6.12 May
18 66.24 11.02 A.ug.
24 59.68 11.02 Oct.
9 69.11 9.81 Jan.
23 49.95 8.52 Aug.
27 47.85 7.21 Oct.
7 ..... .... .....
45 46.55 9.36 July
16 ..... ..... ....
18 42.20. 5.97 .uly
32 53.97 6.84 Sept.

20 ..... ... ... .
16 58.32 9.60 Jan.
2 44.5)0 (;.26 .uly
15 45.49 7.47 Ju.ly
12 54.98 12.24 Jan.
10 49.32 0.20 I'eb..
1(1 67.90 10.70 Sept.
47 59.65 11.30 \,,.
8 55.44 9,56 Oct.


1.28 April

1. 60 April
0.331 April
0.78 Nov.
1.19 Nov.
. 27 April
0.54 April
0.881 April
.... .. ...
0.4.) April
S. . | . . .
0.6 00 April
0.52 April
] T. April

0.81) April
10.90 April
10.1 AprOil
(.021 lee.
- . . . . .
1.121 Nov
1.12A.\pril
0.911 April
|0.81| Nov.


SSky.
a
= R0
0 a 0R

o Ooi oO O
;5.. p... ..
.0 a ,0 .0 .
1 2 2.2 E
0 n


.1o i .... .... ... ....
1 .58 1 ... ... I.:

651 223 961 46 w
1411 89 1921 84| e
1351 188 1251 521
84 .. . .. ... . sw
)1001 21.3 951I 551 e
1261 1451 1241 96] se
.... ....... ........
1151 143 1251 971 se

92 ....I.... .... ...
101 1.i,: 10lo 1 10|n ne
... ... .... I .... I w
117 114 129 122| ne
9)7 .. ...... .... ....
10 7 . .. I .. . I .. I ....
112 111 1201 841 sw
781 232 85 481 nw
S -2 .... .... .... n
S93 196 102 671 e
S1281 184 189 421 ne








Switzerland ...... St. Johns. . 141 231... 99 Sept. 9 32 Jan. 2t 24 .... ... 0.91 April
Tallahassee......Leon...... 192 29 ....101 June 22 27Dec. 21 31 60.54 11.28 n. 0.94 April
Central Division. |
Bartow.......... Polk .......115 29 70.4 98 Aug. 25 | 26IDec. 15 29 59.50 11.84 Aug. 1.451Dllc.
Passenger (near). .Osceola. ... 40 3 .... 97 June 10 ........... 3 71.11 20.70 Aug. 1.051I)ec.
Lrooksville (1) Hernando.. 126 24 .... 97 Aug. 26 ... .... 24 ..... .......... .....
Brooksville (2) do ..... 4 69.4 96 Aug. 25-! 28 Dec. 22 4 59.75 11.75 Oct. 1.27Mar.
Clermont .........Lake...... 105 23 .... 101 .u,. 26 I 35. Jan. 13 23 52.66 12.95 July 0. 1 Dee.
Coleman.. ..... Sumter. .. 65 1 .... ... ..... 30 Dec. 41 1 ...
De Land......... Volusia.... 27 19 70.2 101 Aug. 23 26 Dec. 15 13 ....... .... 1.101 Dec.
Eustis........... Lake...... 56 25 71.1 100 Aug. 25 30 Dec. 23 25 47.09 10.65 Oct. 0.87 Nov.
Fellsmere........ St. Lucie.. 25 2|72.0 96 June 22f 34 Dec. 15 4 61.20 14.31 Aug. 1.01 Dlec.
Fort Meade....... olk...... 125 27 .... 101 Aug. 26 27 Dec. 15 33 60.45 11.26 Aug. 1.20 Dec
Fort Pierce....... St. Lucie... 10 15 73.0 97 July 1 40 Mar. 18 21 63.64 10.88 Oct. 1.361April
Glrasmere........ Orange ... 175 ) 1l..0 9 9Aug 2 29 Dec. 4f 13 51.72 12.76 Oct 1.841April
Inverness....... Citrus..... 43 171.... 99 Aug. 26 30 :oDec. 15t 17... .. .... .. ... .
Kissimmee....... Osceola.... 65 241.... 99 Aug. 21 34 Dec. 15 24 56.07 8.62May 1.80Mar.
Lakeland........ Polk ....... 2271 1 .... 94 July 10 .... .. .. 1 .. ..... .....
Lucerne Park ..... o ..........I 4 72.0 98 June 22f 36 Mar. 23 4 65.40 11.07 Anu 1.72 April
Lynne (near)..... Marion..... ..... . .. ... ...... .. 2 53.71 8.08 May 1.81 Mar.
Malabar......... Brevard.... 28 24 72.6 98 May 4 351Dec. 15 I 24 60.81 13.15 Aug. 1.37 April
MerrittsIsland... do .... 20 3371.6 94 June 22 381Dec. 15 37 60.47 14.601Aun. 0.961Dec.
New Smyrna .... Volusia... 14 31 69.4 94 May 3t 31 Dec. 15 32 68.90 13.87 July 0.81. April
Ocala........... Marion..... 98 24 68.6 99 June 22 I 28 Dec. 22 24 51.18 7.12 July 1.42 April
Orange City...... Volusia.... 39 22 69.7 101 June f9 25 Dec. 4+ 25 64.11 13.94 Oct. 1.22 Nov.
Orlando.......... Orange..... 111 24 71.5 99 May 2f 34 Mar. 23? 24 62.14 19.10 Oct 0.86 April
Pinellas Park.... Pinellas.... 20 4 .... 94 Aug. 12 | :51Dec. 22 4 60.23 14.15 Auz. 1.44 April
Plant City ....... illsboro.. 121 23 .... 100 Aug. 25 33 Nov. 230 23 43.99 6.61 Aug. 0.0 April
Rockwell.. .. . Marion. 50 14 .... 98 Aug. 25t 281)Dec. 22 16 ..... . ..... ... . ..
St. Cloud......... Osceola .. 2 .... 97 June 9"l 331Dec. 15 [ 2 ..... .. .
St. Leo.......... Pasco ...... 1901 21 70.5 94 May 2tl :141D.c. 26 21 5:.471 9.:1 .u1ly 1.54 )Mar.
St. Petersburg... inellas ... .... 1172.6 94 Aug. 23 I 391Doe. 21 1 64.78 18 .2 Au. 10.87 April
Sanford......... Seminole... 25 8 71.0 98 May 25t: 321I)oc. 15ti 864.55 14.101Oct | 0. 73 April
Tampa.... ..... IIillsboro... 104 26 71.41 94 Aug. 13 :!7T1Dc. 22 2 45.76 .11 lAun. .18 Apri
Tarpon Springs n. 'inella .... 20 3170.7 97JAng. 13 | 3111 ,. 2 24 51 .4:91.7 I. l.91Ai"i
Titusville .......... 9Irvard .....161 20 70.8 98lJne 212 1 11r14. V J 1 0 661 \ri l
Southern Divisionl. I I I
Arcadia .......... Roto.... 61 15 100 June 22 01 c. 15 1 .. .. .. ..... .... ....
\von Park ....... .... .... 150 17 71 97Aug. 21 i 611Dec. 15 I. 17 1.. Ig .1 No..
Boca Grande ...... l.ee ..... .I. 11I .. ... I ....... 1 411D ec. 21tl..! .......!.. I ..... ..1 .....


. . . . . . I . . I . .
!7 1961 731 96i n

1401 1061 1251 1341 ne
1071 .... .... .... I no
131* :01 | 1101 .-4| nw
941 1431 174 481 ne
.... I . .. .. ....
... 1271 6 '671 71) ne
1171 21.51 761 741 ne
1331 1671 1051 !131.se
99 1991 1111 551 nC
121 1451 1591 611 ne
1241 2921 521 211 no
/ . . i . . i . . I .. .
78 17n9 95 911 e
....I .... I ....1..
1091 64 2321 691 ne
S1171 2.51 591 411 ne
1031 2791 551 311 se
1171 213 851 671 e
131 .... .. .. | so
1051 ..1 i i
1331 1381 1841 423 so
1431 1521 1331 801 ne
851 2513 491 631 nw
911 i

..911.. .. .... w
... .... .... I .... I no
125 1591 1451 611 w
96 10,21 1271 76' no
1321 11 10 81 88l ne
110I 1225 1I81 1051 no
I81 '14I 871 i 41 w


I.. i...- |i .q. I
I 120! 1501 145S 701
i .... I .... i.....1..... ....










CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR THE YEAR, 1915.(Continued.)


Stations.


Counties.


Bradentown ...... Manatee.... 22
Davie ........... Broward... 10
Eddy............Lee...........
Fort Lauderdale... Broward... 10
Fort Myers....... Lee........ 12
riffin........... Broward... 12
Homestead....... Dade ...... 13
Hypoluxo........ Palm Beach. 9
Key West........ Monroe.... 15
Lock No. 1....... .Broward ..
Miami (1)....... Dade .... 71
Miami (2).. .... do ... 10
Punta Gorda...... De Soto. ... 7
Ritla............ Palm Beach. 18
Sand Key........ .Monroe.... 40

Western Division.
Apalachicola ..... .Franklin... I 24
Bonifay.......... Holmes.... 111
De Funlak Springs.Walton.... 193
Garniers (near).. ..Okaloosa. .. 22
Marianna........ IJackson.... 120
Molino...........Escambia... 49
Panama City..... JBay....... ...
Pensacola........ Escambia... 151
Wausau.......... Washington 250


T. lAmount 1o small to measure.


Temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit.


Var

V CC
t 12


97 June 23 I 31Dec. 15
96 May 4 ........ .
S. ...... I 351 Dec. 15
96 July 30 I38Mar. 18
94 May 6t 351Dec. 15
95 May 3 341Jan. 14
97 Aug. 19 I... ........
94 May 4t1 38 Mar. 18?
92 July 20 I 53|Jan. 14

91 July 17 I 43|Mar. 0i
93 July 18 1 41 Feb. 9t
95 May 17f 381Dec. 15
.. I 341Dec 15
91 July 21 541Mar. 22


102 June 22 I 30 Dec 21
. . . . . . . I . . .
105 June 22 I 28Jan. 13 1
104 June 22 23 Dec. 21
102 June 22l 251 Dec. 1
99 June 22f1 281Dec. 3t
99 June 22 I 291Dec. 14t
97 June 22 I 32lMar. 22
104 June 22 I 241Nov. 30


Precipitation, in inches.


0
C-t
re
D5
>.
O
,B
"S


2 154.51)
:.'| 4..0.
1 .
3 73.06
49 50.88
3 73.20
6 .....
21 65.05
45 44.94
3 77.10
25 54.961
5 60.82

10 39.00


12 55.30
101....
18168.79
3 56.68
14 48.40
14 52.84
19 52.1
36 58.24'
17 .....


8.801.l ly

14.5,5 Oct.
8.0. i Aug.
17.091 Oct.
. . . I. . ..
10.88 June
7.65 Jan.
14.56 Oct.
12.53 June
15. 831 Juno
9.071 July

7.-) Jail.

11 .891Jan.
S ...1 ....
9.65 July
11.290 May
6.52 Oct
9.45 May
10.321Jan.
9.92 May
.... .I... .


f0
0
I


1.44 April


S1.45 April
11.081Dec.
0.941 April

1.711 Dec.
0.921 Ang.
1.61 Mar.
1.32 April
1 .2t;|Aug.


1.27jNov.

0.801 April
I.... ....
O.111April
T. April
10.61 April
0.00 April
0.16 April
0.06 April
T. |April


SSky.
a


Cl C
a- I
o o~ o'b op.,

0 0 0~ OC
r: Zr Z Z


991 214 1 G 601 nw
... .... ... .. .. so

1i39 ....|.... I .... sc
117 .... .... .... e
112 .... ........ e
. . ... . I . I e
1151 2101 106 491 se
1161 1651 120 741 ne
120 1991 611 1051 e
1241 88R 134 1431 e
128 2191 811 65 ne
. ... I . . I . .. I n e
971 1711 1201 741 e
I I I I

89 179 1041 821 n
.... ... ~ ........ .
112 1891 931 531 sw
69 2211 511 931 s
891 2131 1061 461 ne
431 2531 23 891 n
587 2171 77 71 sw
103| 135 123 1071 ne
.... ... . . .. s


T A;\S on otler uutes.


- -- I


I I. . .


.


, . . ,

















PART II.
Crop and Live Stock Conditions.












DIVISION OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES.

Following are the divisions of the State, and the coun-
ties contained in each:

Northern Division. Northeastern Division
Franklin, Alachua,
Gadsden, Baker,
Hamilton, Bradford,
Jefferson, Clay,
Lafayette, (olumbia,
Leon, 1)uval,
Liberty, Nassau,
Madison, Putnam,
Suwannee, St. Johns-9.
Taylor,
Wakulla-11.
Central Division.
Western Division. Citrus,
Bay, Hernando,
Calhoun, Lake,
Escambia, Levy,
Holmes, Marion,
Jackson, Orange,
Okaloose, Pasco,
Santa Rosa, Seminole,
Walton, Sumter,
Washington-9. Volusia-10.
Southern Division.
lBrevard,
Broward, Monroe,
Dade, Osceola,
DeSoto, Palm Beach,
Hillsborough, Pinellas,
Lee, Polk,
Manatee, St. Lucie-13.













DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
W. A. McRAE, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk.


CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.

BY DIVISIONS.
NORTHERN DIVIsION. Reports from our correspond-
ents throughout this division indicate that the present
season has been one of the most favorable, at the same
time one of the most variable, for general crops of all
kinds. The conditions for corn, generally, have been
unexcelled in the entire division, and it is likely that this
crop will be the largest ever made in this particular sec-
tion of the State. Cotton has also fared well as the
seasons have been good-possibly better than for corn-
because there has been less rain than usual up to the
present time, but the most serious condition threatening
cotton is the boll weevil; in some localities the loss front
this source will be around 50%/, possibly over. The
acreage in cotton in the real cotton-growing district of
the State indicates an increase of about 10(1. If the
normal acreage had been planted to cotton it is not un-
likely that the largest cotton crop in the history of the
State would have been produced this year. Of course
the same conditions are advantageous to the growing of
all field crops. There has been a great deal more inter-
est in the growing of live stock and their general manage-
ment than at any period of time prior to this date. More
cattle and of better breeds and more hogs are being
grown than for many years. This is also demonstrated
as regards interest in the use of silos and the feeding
of silage. The number of such plants being constructed
is continually increasing, until the number in the State









is very close to 200 at present. In this district there are
few complaints of diseases among hogs and mostly good
reports concerning other live stock.
WVESTERN DIVISION. As a matter of fact, conditions in
this division are very much the same as in the previous
one. Practically the same climatic conditions prevail
to a great extent over this section also, and its effect on
crops generally is about the same as in the first instance.
The boll weevil is operating in this district to about the
same degree as in the northern, but its ravages appear
to be more wide spread. Some complaints state that
their losses will exceed 75T', but these are scattered. A
number of the crops in this section are in an unusually
good condition and will produce, barring accidents,
greater results than for several years. In this district
the corn crop will, probably, le larger than ever before;
so will sweet potatoes, peanuts, velvet beans and numbers
of other crops. Live stock in this section is in good
condition, as was stated in the previous ones. The
pasturage is unusually good, which, of course, adds to
the condition as well as the health of the animals.
NORTHEASTERN DIVISION. The same conditions exist
throughout this district as in the two previously men-
tioned. The crops, many of them, are increased and are
in better condition than is usual at this season of the
year. In almost every locality the condition of corn and
cotton is much above the normal, and both corn and
cotton will be unusually good. No boll weevil has, as yet,
made its appearance in the Sea Island cotton region.
In fact, all of the crops planted throughout this division
are in good condition and promise good yields. Pastures
are good and cattle are in fine condition-far better than
usual at this season of the year-and very little com-
plaint of disease.
CENTRAT. DIVISION. In this division the climatic con-
ditions have been generally favorable. In some localities









they have not been so but, taking the section as a whole,
conditions have been favorable to most of the crops.
There has been some complaint as to shortness of citrus
fruits, and it may be that there is. Apparently, while the
trees appear to be in good condition, they do not seem to
have as much fruit on them as is usual at this season.
Just why this is so we are unable to say, unless it was
that in the last spring cold some of the blooms may have
been damaged, but there is a number of complaints on
this subject. Generally the vegetables and standard
crops have yielded well in this section and live stock has
also done well. In fact, in every section of the State live
stock has improved and has, we may say, also kept in
good condition throughout the winter, better than usual.
SOUTHERN DIVISION. There is no appreciable differ-
ence in climatic conditions in this section and others.
In fact, the whole State seems to have had favorable
weather conditions on the average. In some portions of
this division, indications are that the fruit crop will be
larger than in the previous section, but these conditions
seem to be what might be termed spotted in this section-
that is in some localities they seem to have large crops of
fruit, while in other sections they do not seem to be in
such good condition or to be producing as much. Proba-
bly, it is owing to climatic conditions at the time and
place, or there may have been a deficiency in rainfall or
excessive rainfall. Any extreme conditions might pro-
duce something of this kind. In this, and for that matter
throughout the State, the citrus canker has apparently
been gotten under control, and if the fight on it can be
continued, its complete eradication appears possible
within a reasonable time. Live stock in this section is
also in a flourishing condition and the interest centered
in this industry, not only in this but in the preceding
sections, has greatly increased. In connection with this
there has been a widespread interest in the construction
7-Bul










of silos and the manufacture of silage for the feeding of
live stock. This is an idea that has taken firm root in
the minds of the people in all sections of the State and,
undoubtedly, is adapted to every section of the State,
even in the far south. It is an erroneous idea that silos
and silage feeding will not succeed in the far south.
Those who have had experience with it are satisfied that
this is true. If heat were an objection or a bar to the
successful use of silage, then the Middle States far north
of Florida could not possibly produce silage as success-
fully and satisfactorily as they do, as it is a well known
fact that temperatures are very much higher in the mid-
dle inland sections of the country than in the sea coast
sections.

NOTE.-Since the above was put in type the excessive
rain of the past few weeks, which include the period of
the storm which passed over most of the northern and all
of the western divisions, cotton, in these divisions has
been so seriously damaged that it can hardly produce
50 per cent of a crop-much of it less. Little, and in
many instances no cultivation could be given it, and the
grass has literally choked it to death. The prospect is
indeed discouraging in the extreme.









99


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD OF CROPS,
FRUIT AND FRUIT TREES, AND CONDITION OF LIVE STOCK,
FOR QUARTER ENDING JUNE 30, 1916, AS COMPARED WITH
SAME PERIOD LAST YEAR.


COUNTY. Upland Sea Island Sugar
Cotton. Cotton. or Cane.

Northern Division. Condition. Condition. Condition. condition .
Gadsden ............... 120 110 150 125
Hamilton ............ ... 100 125 75
Jefferson ............. 75 75 80 60
Leon ................. 80 .. 125 100
Madison .............. 105 100 110 100
Suwannee ............. ... 100 105 110
Taylor ................ 75 100 100
Wakulla .............. 100 ... 100 100
Div. Av. per cent....... 96 93 112 I 96
Western Division.
Calhoun .............. 50 ... 125 75
Escambia ............. 70 ... 80 80
Holmes ............... 50 ... 140 120
Jackson ............... 75 ... 125 110
Okaloosa .............. 40 ... 75 85
Walton ................ 50 . 100 100
Washington ............ 50 .. 110 100
Div. Av. per cent....... 56 ... I S108 96
Northeastern Division.
Alachua .............. 100 90 100 70
Baker ................ ... 75 120 70
Bradford .............. ... 90 90 60
Clay .................. .. 100 100 100
Columbia .............. 9. 0 85 100 95
Nassau ............... 100 100 125 100
Putnam ............... ... ... 90 100
St. Johns ............. .. ... 100 90
Div. Av. per cent. ...... 97 90 103 86
Central Division.
Hernando ............ ... ... 100 90
Lake ................. ... ... 85
Levy ................. ... 90 90
Marion ............... .. 100 105 105 95
Orange .. ............ ... . 100 85
Pasco ................. ...... 90 80
Seminole .............. ... 100 100
Volusia ................ 90 90 85
Div. Av. per cent ....... 100 98 I 95 89
Southern Division.
Dade ................. ...... 100 100
DeSoto ............... ...... 90 90
Hillsborough ........... ... ... 100 95
Lee .................. ... ... 125 90
Manatee .............. ... ... 100 100
Osceola ............... ... ... 70 80
Palm Beach ........... ... ... 90 90
Polk ................. ... ... 100 95
St. Lucle.............. ...... 70 75
Dliv. Av. per cent....... . . 95 91
State Av. per cent...... 87 .~ 94 103 | 92








100


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.


COUNTY. Sweet Field Egg
OU Rice. Potatoes. Peas. Plants.

Northern Division. Condition. Condition. Condition. Condition.
Gadsden .............. ... 100 100 ...
Hamilton ........... ... 100 100
Jefferson ............... ... 75
Leon ................. ... 100 100
Madison .............. ... 90 100
Suwannee ............. ... 100 100
Taylor ............... ... 50 75
Wakulla ... ........ .
Div. Av. per cent ... ... | .. 88 96 1
Western Division.
Calhoun .............. 100 90 100
Escambia ............... 50 100 75 50
Holmes ............... 110 125 120
Jackson ............... ... 120 120
Okaloosa ........... ... .. 80 100
W alton ............. 100 75 ...
Washington ........... .100 [ 100 100
Dlv. Av. per cent....... 90 I 102 99 1 50
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ........... .. 70 100
Baker ................ 65 50 100
Bradford ............. .. . 60
Clay ................... 100 100 100
Columbia ............. 90 100 1009
Nassau ............... 100 100 100 100
Putnam ............... .. 100 100
St. Johns.............. 90 90 100 100
Div. Av. per cent ....... 89 84 100 97
Central Division._____
Hernando ............. 8 80 90 100 -- .
Lake ................. ... 80 85 70
Levy ................. ... 90 80
Marion ............... ... 100 100
Orange .............. .. 100 100
Pasco ................. 70 80 90
Seminole .......... . ... 100 100 110
Volusia ................ ... 95 100 100
Div. Av. per cent....... 75 92 1 94 1 93
Southern Division.
Dade ................. . 112 112 100
DeSoto ............... 90
Hillsborough .............. 85 100 100 110
Lee ................... ... 150 150 100
Manatee .............. 90 100 100 95
Osceola ............... ... 80 100 60
Palm Beach ........... ... 90 ... 70
Polk .................. ... o100 100
St. Lucie .............. ... 90 90 83
Div. Av. per cent ....... 88 | 104 107 | 89
State Av. per cent...... I 85 I 94 99 82




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