• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 Part I
 Part II. Crop acreages and...
 Part III. Fertilizers, feed stuffs...














Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00040
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00040
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Part I
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Inventory of Florida forests, etc.
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        The future of peat and muck soils
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
        The cultivation of melons (also cucumbers) in Florida
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Avocado propagation
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
        Avocado culture
            Page 43
            Page 44
        Considering the cattle tick
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
        Census tables of population
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
    Part II. Crop acreages and conditions
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Part III. Fertilizers, feed stuffs and, food and drugs
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
Full Text





Volume 26




F]


QUARTERLY


BULLETIN


OF THE


AGRICULTURAL DEP, .IMENT
. . . +% i#


W. ; r dcRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.

Part 1-Inventory of Florida Forests, etc.; the Future of
Peat and Muck Soils; the Cultivation of Melons
(also Cucumbers) in Florida; Avocado Propaga-
tion, Avocado Culture; Considering the Cattle
Tick; Census Tables of Population.
Part 2-Crop Acreages and Conditions.
Part 3-Fertilizers, Feed Stuffs and Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.

THESt BULInINS ARE ISSUED FR TO THOSE EQUISTING THEM

T. J. APPLEYARD, STATE PBRISTER
TALLAHASEEH, FLORIDA
- A=---


Number 2




SOR IDA


APRJ'


316


B.














COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA.


NOTE: Cut showing new countles.could not be obtained in time for this Bulletin.
"unallng tnp nl .itlodda TI!M

















PART 1.

Inventory of Florida Forests, Etc.
The Future of Peat and Muck Soils.
The Cultivation of Melons (also Cucumbers) in
Florida.
Avocado Propagation.
Avocado Culture.
Considering the Cattle Tick.
Census Tables of Population.











AN INVENTORY OF FLORIDA'S FORESTS

AND THE OUTLOOK FOR THE FUTURE
BY ROLAND M. HARPER
(Formerly with State Geological Survey)
Summary of Contents.-Area and density of forests-Distribu-
tion and character. Frequency of fire in different types-Compo-
sition. List of commonest trees-Rate of growth and consumption.
Some interesting prophecies which have not come true-Influence
of fire, agriculture, etc. Conclusion.
Florida probably has a larger area of forest at the
present time than any other state in the Union; for the
other eastern states that are about the same size have
much more cleared land, and the western states that are
considerably larger have vast areas of prairie or desert.
Of a total land area of 35,111,040 acres, only 1,805,408, or
about 5%, is classed as "improved land in farms" by the
census of 1910. Adding to the improved land about
6,000,000 acres of Everglades, prairies, marshes, towns
and cities, roads, old fields, and farms overlooked by the
census enumerators, leaves about 27,000,000 acres of
forest.
Of this 17,659,000 acres were owned or controlled by
lumbermen on Jan. 1, 1911, according to an exhaustive
report on the lumber industry of the United States pub-
lished by the Bureau of Corporations of the Department
of Commerce and Labor in January, 1913. The average
stand of merchantable saw timber on this land was 4,200
feet (board measure) per acre. To be on the safe side
we may assume that the forests not owned by lumbermen
are a little less dense, and put the average for the state
at 4,000 feet per acre; which would give a total stand on
Jan. 1, 1911, of 108 billion feet.
Distribution and Character of Forests.-Florida, not-
withstanding its utter lack of mountains, is one of the
most diversified states in the Union, and 25 natural











divisions are easily distinguished. Most of them have
been described in the 3d and 6th Annual Reports of the
Florida Geological Survey, but a very brief outline of the
geography of the state will be given here, for the benefit
of prospective investors and homeseekers who may not
have those publications.





















Fig. 1-Cypress pond in East Florida flatwoods, northeast of Bellamy.
Alachua county. The trees are Taxodium imbricarium (cypress) and
Pinus Elliottli (slash pine). July 17, 1909.
The non-tropical hardwoods are most abundant in a
belt of red hills and hammocks, 100 to 200 feet above
sea-level, parallel to the Gulf coast in Gadsden, Leon,
Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, Suwannee, Columbia.
Alachua and Marion Counties, with outliers in Jackson
and Hernando. High pine land, characterized by long-
leaf pine and black-jack oak, covers most of West Florida,
the lime-sink region from Hamilton County to Hills-
borough, and the lake region from Clay to DeSoto. Some
of the high pine land is over 200 feet above sea-level, and
a few points reach 300. In many places in the lake
region and on old dunes along the east coast is a type of












forest peculiar to Florida, known as "scrub," consisting
mostly of spruce pine and small evergreen oaks, on a
white sandy soil. The rest of the state is mostly flat pine
woods, interspersed with swamps and hammocks. Long-
leaf pine is the prevailing tree in the flatwoods north of
Osceola County and slash pine miscalledd "Cuban pine"
by some writers on forestry) south of here.


Fig. 2-Slash pine bog about six miles south of Tavares, Lake county.
Trees all Pinus Elllottll. Herbaceous vegetation, mostly Anchistea Vir-
ginica (a fern); all dead at this time, of course, with nearly all the
plnnae dropped off, leaving the stalks. Feb. 20, 1909.











The Everglades in the south cover about 4,000 square
miles and are practically treeless. Along the coast there
is considerable live oak, cabbage palmetto, and sandy
hammock vegetation, with narrow salt marshes in the
north and mangrove swamps in the south. Dense ham-
mocks, composed almost entirely of tropical hardwoods,
occur in spots along the east coast, especially south of
Miami, where frost is almost unknown, and cover nearly
the whole of the Keys.
The hardwood forests of northern Florida, like those
farther north, are seldom visited by destructive fires.
The long-leaf and slash pine forests are subject to fre-
quent fires, formerly started by lightning and now mostly
by human agency, which sweep over any one spot about
once in two years and tend to keep down the underbrush,
but do no harm to mature and sound pines. (If these
fires came regularly there would be little chance for the
pine to reproduce itself, but in any spot that escapes
burning for a few years there is opportunity for a new
crop of trees to start, and this need happen only once in
the lifetime of a pine to insure the perpetuation of the
species.) Fire sweeps through the scrub about once in
the lifetime of a spruce pine and kills the trees, as in the
spruce forests of the far north, but a new crop soon
springs up from seed. The tropical hammocks likewise
seem to be subject to destructive fires at long intervals.
Composition of the Forests.-The estimated total num-
ber of kinds of trees in Florida depends largely on where
the line is drawn between closely related species and
between trees and shrubs, but a minimum estimate is
200, which is considerably more than any other state
has. Nearly half of these, however, are tropical species
which are confined to within a few miles of the coast in
South Florida, and make up a very insignificant part of
the state's total forest resources.








































































Fig. 3-Upland hardwood forest on red clay soil derived from lime-
stone. about seven miles northwest of Marianna. Trees mostly Fagus
grandifolia (beech) and Quercus Schneckii (red oak), with a bushy under-
growth of Cercis (redbud) and a few oak sprouts. May 11, 1914.











There is an annotated catalogue of 202 native species
of trees by A. H. Curtiss of Jacksonville on pages 259-
267 of the handbook of Florida published by the State
Agricultural Department in 1904 (now out of print).
A list of 281 native and cultivated trees of Florida by
Dr. John Gifford, of Cocoanut Grove, was published in
1909 by the State Federation of Women's Clubs.
Dr. John K. Small, of New York, whose work in Florida
has been chiefly confined to Dade County, published in
the spring of 1913 a little book on the trees of Florida.
with descriptions of each, but it is too complete if any-
thing, for it includes quite a number of species which are
never anything but shrubs in this state, and some whose
occurrence in the state is very doubtful, besides making
too fine distinctions between species in some cases. The
Quarterly Bulletin of the Agricultural Department of
Florida for July, 1913 (vol. 23, No. 3), contains an article
on the wood-using industries of Florida, prepared in the
office of the U. S. Forest Service by Hu Maxwell, which
includes a list of Florida trees with notes on the uses of
most of them. (On account of the exhaustion of the sup-
ply the same article was reprinted as a supplement to the
Bulletin for October, 1914.) In the 3d Annual Report of
the Florida Geological Survey (pages 314-315) there is a
list of trees that grow on peat, and their distribution is
given on succeeding pages.











None of the publications just mentioned give an
adequate idea of the relative abundance of the trees,
except that Maxwell's wood-using report indicates the
amounts of the more important species used by manu-
facturers in the state, which is roughly proportional to
their abundance. The report of the Bureau of Corpora-


Fig. 4-Rocky hillside near the Chipola or Long Moss Spring, with
hardwood forest composed of Fagus (beech), Celtis (hackberry), Ulmus
fulva (slippery elm), Magnolia grandiflora (magnolia), and other trees.
T'he rock is limestone. March 10, 1910.
tions previously referred to divides the standing timber
of Florida into four classes, namely, long-leaf pine (which
covers two kinds of slash pine also), short-leaf and lob-
lolly pine (probably including also black pine and one or
two others), cypress (two species), and hardwoods, and
estimates the percentage of each. There is also a separate
rough estimate of the more important kinds of hardwoods.
In the 6th Annual Report of the State Geological Survey
(pp. 400-406) there is a list of over 100 trees of northern
Florida, with the estimated percentage of each.












The following list includes the 46 commonest trees of
the whole state, arranged in approximate order of abund-
ance, with percentages, based on the estimates just men-
tioned and the writer's field work in every county in the
state. The percentages of course cannot be guaranteed.


Fig. 5-Scene in open pine woods, with no underbrush and "pimply"
soil, on a hill near Hinson's (or Douglass) Crossroads, about nine miles
west of Vernon, Washington county, looking toward a similar bill about a
quarter of a mile away. (The house is in the saddle between the two
hills.) The trees are all long-leaf pine, and the herbaceous vegetation is
mostly wiregrass. May 7, 1914.
but possibly there is no one who has studied the forests
of the state extensively enough yet to assert that any one
figure is wrong. Percentages below 3 are given to the
nearest tenth, and no account is taken of species which
rank below 0.1C or one thousandth of the total. (This












apparently excludes all the tropical species.) The total
amount of any species in the state is of course the product
of its percentage and the total standing timber.
Technical as well as common names are given, for two
or more species may have the same common name, or one
species may go by different names in different regions,
and a few have no generally accepted common name at
all. The general distribution in the state of each species
is briefly indicated. (The 6th Annual Report of the State
Geological Survey tells just where in northern Florida
each species is most abundant, information which ought
to be very useful to prospective investors.)


















Fig. 6-Looking north over hills and river bottoms from near top of
Aspalaga Bluff, Gadsden county. This view having been taken In early
spring, when the deciduous trees were still leafless, gives an idea of the
proportions of evergreens. Most of those in the picture are Pinus Taeda
(short-leaf pine). The trees in the bottoms are all deciduous. March 7,
1909.
40. Long-leaf pine (Pinius palustriis). Ablundant as far south
as Titusville and Punta Gorda, with extreme southern limit in
Lee County.
15. Slash pine (Pinus Caribaea). The prevailing pine of South
Florida, and extending northward along the coasts. Much less
valuable than the long-leaf.
7. (Pond) cypress (Taxodium imbricarism). Common in
Northern Florida, and extending sparingly southward to Dade
County.











5. Slash pine (Pinus Elliottii). Shallow ponds, branch-
s aamps, etc., from DeSoto County northward. Not usually sepa-'
rated'from long-leaf pine in the lumber and naval stores markets.
4. Cypress (Taxodium, disticiimn). Mostly in muddy.or cal-.
carleous swamps, nearly throughout.
3. Cabbage palmetto (Sabal Palmetto). In all the counties
south of Suwannee. and along the coast to North Carolina on the
east, and Bay (County on the west.





















Fig. 7-S('ene about two miles southeast of DeFuniak Sprinks, Walton
county, showing open pine forests, a small branch swamp with Magnolia
glauca (bay, and 'yrilla racemiflora (tyty), and a wet slope with charac-
teristic vegetation in foreground. May 0, 1914.
3. Black-jack oak (Quercus Vatesbuei). High pine land, from
D)eSoto County northward.
2.5. Short-leaf or loblolly pine (Pinus Taeda). Moderately
rich soils, from Pasco County northward.
2.3. Black pine (Pines serotina). Sour flatwoods, etc., from
Walton County to Osceola.
2.2. Bay (Magnolioa lauca). Non-alluvial swamps. nearly
throughout.
1.7. Spruce pine (P'inus clausa). Old dunes along coasts, and
scrub of the interior.
1.5. Sweet gum (Liquidamar Styraciflua). Moderately rich
soils, south to DeSoto County.
1.1. Turkey oak (Quercus cinerea). Distribution similar to
that of Q. Catcsbaci, but apparently preferring slightly more phos-
phatic soils.
1.0.' Short-leaf pine '(Pinu. eliinata). Moderately rich up-









15

lands, Middle and West Florida, especially around Tallahassee.
1.0. Black gum (.Nysa biflora), Shallow ponds and, swamps
from DeSoto County northward.
0.9. Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora). Hammocks, south to
DeSoto County.
0.8. Maple (Acer rubrini). Swamps, nearly throughout.
0.6. Red oak (Quercus falcata). Rich uplands. from Marion
County northward.
0.5. Live oak (Quercus Virginiana). Hammocks, lake shores,
and phosphatic soils, nearly throughout. Commonest in the red
hills of Leon County.
0.4. Water oak (Qucrcus nigra). Swamps and bottoms, mostly
northward.
0.4. Live oak (Qucrciis yeminata). Poorest dry sandy soils.
0.4. Dogwood (Cornmus florida). Hammocks and rich uplands.
from Polk County northward. Commonest in Leon and Wakulla
Counties.
0.3. Spruce pine (Pinus glabra). Hammocks and rich uplands.
from Alachua County northward.
0.3. Water oak (Quercus laurifolia). Sandy hammocks, mostly
northward.
0.2. Cedar (Juniperus Virginiana). Limestone outcrops and
low hammocks, south to Brevard and Manatee Counties.
0.2. Hickory (Hicoria alba). Rich uplands, south to Marion
County.
0.2. Hickory (Hicoria glabra). Sandy hammocks, etc., south
to St. Lucie County.
0.2. Poplar (Liriodendron Tulipifera). Non-alluvial swamps,
etc., West and Middle Florida and also in Putnam County.
0.2. Tan bay (Gordonia Lasianthus). Bays and non-alluvial
swamps, mostly north of DeSoto County and east of the Suwan-
nee River.
0.1. Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus Michauxii). Distribution
similar to the next.
0.1. Ironwood (Carpinus Caroliniana). River-banks, low ham-
mocks, etc., south to Hernando County.
0.1. Beech (Fagus grandifolia). Rich woods. Middle and West
Florida.
0.1. Elm (Ulmus Floridana). Low hammocks, especially in
Gulf hammock region.
0.1. Black-jack oak (Quercus Marylandica). Dry red clay
uplands from Leon County westward.
0.1. Hackberry (Celtis occidentdliUs). Riter bottoms, rich
hammocks, etc. .










0.1, Holly. (Ilex opaca). Hammocks, etc., mostly northward.
0.1. Red bay (PerSea Borbonia). Rich hammocks.
0.1. Ash (Fraxinus Caroliniana). Swamps, widely distributed.
0.1. Yaupon (Ilex Cassine). Non-alluvial swamps, mostly
eastward.
0.1. Willow (Salix nigra). Banks of streams, Middle and West
Florida.
0.1. Mulberry (Morus rubra). Rich hammocks and bottoms,
south to Dade County.
0.1. Lin or basswood (Tilia pubescent). Low hammocks, etc..
from Leon to Orange and Hernando Counties.
0.1. Tupelo gum (Nyassa uniflora). Swamps and sloughs,
from Wakulla County to the Choctawhatchee River.
0.1. Juniper (Chanaecyparis thyoides). Non alluvial swamps,
from Liberty County westward.
0.1. Ash (Fraxinus Americana). Rich uplands and hammocks,
mostly northward.
0.1. Red bay (Persea pubescens). Non-alluvial swamps, widely
distributed.

Evergreens make up about 77% of the total, which is a
considerably higher figure than in any other eastern
state.
Rate of Growth and Consumption.-Just how fast the
forests are growing is an unknown quantity, but the rate
of growth of a tree is usually inversely proportional to
its longevity, and if the average lifetime of a tree in
Florida is 100 years the annual increment, barring acci
dents and human interference, would be something like
2%, or over two billion feet. In 1910, the latest year for
which there are reasonably complete statistics, there were
491 sawmills in Florida, which cut in the preceding year
1,201,734,000 feet of lumber (not counting laths and
shingles). Something like 80% of this was long-leaf pine.
which forms not over half the total stand, so that it is
evident that that species at least is being cut faster than
it grows, especially when we take into consideration the
large amounts used for shingles, crates, cross-ties, posts,
fuel, etc. (which do not figure in the lumber statistics),











wasted in logging and turpentining, and destroyed in
clearing land. But it is not being exhausted nearly as
rapidly as was formerly supposed.






















Fig. 8-Dry woods about three miles north of Chaires. Trees mostly
Quercus falcata (red oak) and 'Cornus florida (dog wood), both in bloom.
Tillandsia usneoldes (Spanish moss) abundant. April 4, 1914.
Some Interesting Prophecies.-Dr. Charles Mohr, of
Mobile, an experienced botanist, who was engaged to
examine the forests of West Florida for the Tenth Census
of the United States in 1880, wrote as follows (10th
Census, vol. 9, page 523):
"The well timbered portion of West Florida commences with
the southern border of Holmes county. This region is now, how-
ever, nearly exhausted along water-courses large enough for raft-
ing. * There is scarcely enough left between the Escam-
bla and Choctawhatchee rivers * to keep the mills on
the coast supplied for another half-dozen years. * The ex-
haustion of the timber-lands throughout the whole breadth of
Western Florida, as far as the banks of the Choctawhatchee river,
will certainly be accomplished before the end of the next five
years." (For more extensive quotations from this report, and
comments thereon, see 6th Annual Report Fla;. Geological Survey,
1914, pp. 239-240.)
2-Bul










Some years later Dr. Mohr visited Middle Florida, and
he wrote as follows about the country along the C. T. & G.
(now G. F. & A.) R. R., between Tallahassee and Carra-
belle, in The Forester (a monthly magazine published in
Washington, D. C., now called American Forestry) for
July, 1898:


Fig. 9-Marly (?) flatwoods about eight miles southeast of Hampton
Springs, Taylor county. Trees mostly Pinus Elliottlli and Sabal Palmetto.
March 30, 1910.
"Passing over this road in 1895, shortly after its opening to
traffic, there were to be seen several large sawmills in operation
along its line; at present they are found dismantled on account
of the failure of the timber supply, which, it seems, had fallen far
short of estimates. The large complex of these pine lands, em-
bracing about 125,000 acres, is now to be worked solely for its
resin. The turpentine orchards are subjected to the closest man-
agement; trees barely of the dimensions to support a box of
smallest size and affording a minimum profit in being worked, are
bled; the few seed-bearing trees that escape the axe of the logger
cannot survive for any length of time the severe treatment in-
flicted, and the young growth will be totally destroyed by fire by
the time the turpentine orchards are abandoned, with no chance
left for its reproduction by spontaneous sowing. The fact that










this coast tract will be converted into a desolate wilderness asserts
itself in every direction, a destiny which will inevitably be shared
by the rest of this plain in its whole extent."
Prof. C. S. Sargent, of Boston, who was (and is) the
greatest authority on North American trees, and was the
principal author of the Tenth Census report on forests
quoted from above, sounded another alarm as to the
possible future of the land after lumbering. In an edi-
torial on Florida pines, in Garden and Forest for Feb.
17, 1892, he expressed himself as follows:
"A part of the territory * will in time degenerate into
a wind-swept desert of shifting sand-dunes, which will in time,
unless fires can be stopped, gradually spread over the whole
territory."
Dr! Mohr's statements were founded on long experience
and careful observation in southern Alabama (about
which he made similar predictions in the same two pub-
lications), and there can be ho doubt of his sincerity, but
the good old man was evidently unduly alarmed by the
rapid destruction he witnessed, and did not make suffi-
cient allowance for the recuperative powers of the long-
leaf pine. There is still an abundance of virgin pine
timber in West Florida away from the railroads;' and in
November, 1908, an area of about 735 square miles in
Walton and Santa Rosa Counties was withdrawn from
homestead entry by the federal government, on account
of the large amount of unclaimed timber in it, and called
the "Choctawhatchee National Forest." (It will be appro-
priate to state here that in the same month a smaller
area in eastern Marion County was set aside by the gov-
ernment as the "Ocala National Forest," and also that
there are other forest reservations in Florida that are
much older. In 1828 the government appropriated
$10,000 for the purchase of live oak lands along the
coast of West Florida so as to insure a supply of that
timber, which was then in great-demand for shipbuilding
purposes, for the navy; and between 1830 and 1860
208,824 acres were reserved in Florida for that purpose,











including the whole of Santa Rosa Island and many
scattered areas in Middle and West Florida.) The pine
forests between Tallahassee and Carrabelle are still far
from exhaustion, too. The introduction of the cup-and-
gutter method of turpentining, invented by Dr. C. H.
Herty in 1902, has diminished the danfage from that
source, that Dr. Mohr observed.




















Fig. 10-Flatwoods a few miles west of Wildwood, Sumter county,
with long-leaf pine, gallberry and saw palmetto. The largest pines have
been cut for lumber. (Soil mapped as "Leon sand.") March 10, 1914.
There was even less merit in Prof. Sargent's predic-
tion, for at the present writing, nearly a quarter of a
century later, there is no sign of any dunes forming in the
interior of Florida. Mr. A. H. Curtiss, of Jacksonville, a
botanist of note, who reported on the forests of Middle
and East Florida for the Tenth Census, took a much more
hopeful view of the situation, saying in part as follows
(10th Census, vol. 9, p. 522):
"One of the most important facts in regard to the forests of
Florida is their ipermanence. Owing to the sterility of soil and
the liability to inundation of most of the State [!], it is certain
that but a very small portion of Florida will ever be cleared of











its forest covering. Taking into consideration the great area cov-
ered with valuable pine forests, and the fact that,there. 'ill hbe a
continuous new growth if the spread of forest fires can be. checked,
only trees of the largest size being cut, it is evident that Florida
will furnish ea perpetual supply of the most valuable pine lumber."
Agricultural developments in Florida since that time
have been greater than any one would have predicted
then, the area of cultivated land having nearly doubled
between 1880 and 1910), and it is not quite true that most
of the state is liable to inundation, but in other respects
Mr. Curtiss was about right. Mr. Hu Maxwell, of Chi-
cago (formerly with the U. S. Forest Service), expressed
similarly optimistic views for the future of the forests in
all the southern States in the big special edition of the
Manufacturers' Record for March 27, 1913, which is well
worth reading.




















Fig. 11-High pine land with scattered oaks, about five miles we.st,of
Inverness, Citrus county. The largest oak is a live oak (Quercus gemi-
nata). (Soil mapped as "Norfolk fine sand.") March 14, 1914.
Influence of Fire and Agrioulture on the Peranennce
of the Forests.-All four of the writers quoted above seem
to have exaggerated the danger from fire. Mr. Maxwell,










in his report on the wood-using industries of Florida
previously referred to, says:
"Florida appears to be suffering more from forest fires than
most of the other Southern States * Tree seedlings may
come up again, but the fire will follow, and every visitation leaves
the ground more barren. No forests will stand fire indefinitely.
and Florida's in every part of the State are showing the results
of burnings. * The habit of frequently burning forest
lands perhaps works more harm to long-leaf pine than to any
other tree, by killing the young growth."
Fire has undoubtedly destroyed much timber in the
North, and almost put an end to the production of white
pine in the lower peninsula of Michigan; and northern
foresters are almost unanimous in regarding it as the
worst enemy of the forests. But conditions are quite
different in the long-leaf pine regions of the South, and
Mohr and Curtiss, from their long experience in such
regions, should have known better; but they were appar
ently carried away by the exhortations of their northern
colleagues. The long-leaf and slash pines and a few
other trees have evidently been accustomed to frequent
fires for thousands of years, and are practically immune
to it after they are a few years old. Furthermore, there
is good reason to believe that if fire were prevented abso-
lutely our long-leaf pine forests would in a few genera-
tions be replaced by hammocks, as was pointed out by
Mrs. Ellen Call Long, of Tallahassee, more than 25 years
ago. (If Mr. Maxwell had said "less" instead of "more"
in the first and last of the sentences just quoted from
him he would probably have been nearer the truth.) The
fact that forest fires are more or less of a necessity in
this part of the world was recognized long ago by the
Florida legislature, which in 1879 passed a law fixing the
open season for burning the woods at Feb. 15 to March
31, but providing that the commissioners of any county
might change these dates at their discretion by giving
proper notice. Although the settling up of the country
increases the number of fires, it also limits the area over











which each fire can spread, so that the frequency of fire
at any one point probably does not increase. (For a
fuller discussion of the effects of fire on forests in Flor-
ida see the 6th Annual Report of the State Geological
Survey, 1914, pp. 184, 185, 413, 442; 7th Annual Report,
1915, pp. 143, 147, 148, 165, 170, 171, 335.)


Fig. 12-Red oak woods about one and one-half miles east southeaAt of
Ocala. Trees in foreground red oak (Quercus falcata), others mostly
sweet gum (Liquidambar); all deciduous. Locality for soil sample cor-
responding to chemical analysis No. 2 (mapped as "Gainesville loamy
sand.") Feb. 13, 1915.
The worst enemy of our forests at present is the farmer,
for field crops and forest trees cannot grow on the same
land at the same time, and the cultivated area is rapidly
increasing in Florida. However, the complete exhaus-
tion of our timber by this means is probably several cen-
turies off. In the phosphate regions from Alachua to
Polk County thousands of acres of long-leaf pine land
have been almost completely stripped to furnish fuel
for the phosphate drying kilns (and all of this has taken
place since the publication of the Tenth Census report
above quoted), but some of the operators are beginning










to use oil instead, and, young pines are sLringingqp .
abundantly in many places.
In fact wherever the lumber, turpentine and.phosphate
men have done their worst and departed to new fields
the pines begin to grow again unless the farmer comes
immediately after, for there are hardly enough people in
Florida yet to keep the forests down. Even when the
p' opulaih ico is much denser than it is now the rate ofcut-
(i l may not be increased, for we now have substitutes
fooi Wood in almost every industry.in which it is used, and
the use of these substitutes is constantly increasing, so
much that the manufacturers of long-leaf pine and
Cypress lumber in the last few years have tried to stein
the, tide by advertising their products extensively in
newspapers and magazines. Long before all our forests
are replaced by cultivated fields we will probably learn
to dispense with wood almost entirely, as the Eskimos,
Tibetans, Turks, Spaniards, Mexicans and other people
living where trees are scarce do now, and the remaining
forests will be valued chiefly for their beauty and their
influence on climate, stream flow, etc.














THE FUTURE OF PEAT AND MUCK SOILS
IN FLORIDA
BY ROBERT RANSON, St. Augustine, Fla.
So much valuable, information has been collected and
printed from time to time on the peat and muck soils
of our State that one might fairly conclude that the last
word thereon had been written, but the continual output
of.additional articles, much of them necessarily repeti-
tions, testify to the unslacking interest in the reclama-
tion of vast areas of low lands and a keen hope and
expectation that successful drainage may soon make them
available for cultivation as a whole and not in spots as is
at present the case.
No better article on this subject has appeared than
that of State Chemist R. E. Rose in his annual report for
1914 and submitted to the Governor under (late of Jan.
1st, 1915.
His experience in the actual cultivation of such lands
gives his report a value far above that of the theorist and
his unfailing faith in the ultimate reclamation of this
class of land, by proper drainage, is an inspiration to .cn-
tinued effort.
In view of the fpregoing statements it might seem
unnecessary for me to attempt apy further elucidation
of the subject of the future possibilities of peat and muck
soils, were it not for the fact that my life work and study
for the past eighteen years has brought out certain points
of importance as to future possibilities, that have so far
only been considered in a general way and which owing
to late discoveries- of scientists on both sides of the
Atlantic have awakened a keener interest than ever be-
fore shown, in,this kind of soil.










Broadly speaking and for the purposes of this article I
propose calling all such soils in Florida, peat or muck,
interchangeably, for want of a better name.
Neither the dictionaries nor the encyclopedias afford
us any satisfactory name whereby to describe such bodies
of decayed vegetable matter as found in this State. Com-
pared with the peats of Canada and those found in
Europe ours appear to be far older and more completely
decayed and darker in color; very dark brown or black,
which color and condition I have only seen in European
peats at the bottom of deep deposits.
Prof. Chas. A. Davis, peat expert of the Bureau of
Mines in Washington in a recent statement, in pamphlet
form, describes peat as "incipient coal" which reminds
me of a remark made to me by a friend some years ago
on first seeing some of my prepared material, he said,
Mr. Ranson! this is coal ten thousand years young.
While the use of this material in Florida for fuel and
gas production has been the subject of numerous interest-
ing experiments at different times, it is the object of this
paper to regard the matter only from its agricultural
side.
A general survey of the average soil of peninsula
Florida reveals vast and tiresome stretches of sandy land,
and though covered with heavy growth of pine or pal-
metto, impress the new comer to the State, as the poorest
land he has ever seen, and for him to come suddenly upon
large areas of black, well rotted peat is a welcome change
and opens up great possibilities and hopes, providing only
its surplus water can be got rid of.
In theory and judged by its color it ought to be as rich
as manure, yet it is found that this apparently rich black
soil seldom gives the expected results or permanent
satisfaction.
Even when dug out and mixed with sandy soils with
the expectation of fertilizing them, results are often dis-
appointing, and though the analysis shows a preponder-










ance of the very elements needed in the sandy soils, there
yet seems to be something lacking.
The nitrogenous and other organic substances con-
tained therein, appear for some reason, to be insoluble
and unavailable for plant food and we come to one or two
conclusions, that we must either condemn it as useless,
or by further study and experiment find out if something
can not be done to render its valuable constituents, as
shown by analysis, available.
The potash propaganda has printed reams on the sub-
ject and explains all failures on muck soils as being due
to a lack of potash.
Those who have lime and phosphates to dispose of, give
out equally convincing printed matter showing that it
needs one or the other, and while all are to a certain
extent right, practical experience still shows something
wanting. The simple statement that insufficient drainage
is the cause of failure, though correct, still fails to satisfy
us unless we can show a greater effect from drainage than
simply freeing the soil of water.
I shall endeavor to supply this deficiency by recurring
to the causes of the original formation of peat or muck,
without being too technical, and in so doing, state that we
have many evidences that our Florida peat deposits must
be very old, far older than would seem possible in the
case of material so liable to decay, disintegrate and sut-
sequently disappear.
Prof. Darwin wrote a book once to prove that peat
could not exist in a tropical or semi-tropical country,
as in such a climate decay was so rapid that it could not
form, and yet it is doubtful whether in any part of the
world we can find larger or richer bodies of peat, in pro-
portion to the area of the state, than in Florida, and my
attention has been called in the.past few years to .the
same thing in countries much nearer to the equator than
we arp.notably in Cuba and in Mexico.
We ,are accustomed to seeing any organic, master,










whether animal or vegetable, as soon as it has outlived
its usefulness, decay and later disappear, whether sur-
roundea by air or submerged in water, so'that in a short
space of time not a vestige of it is left behind, but in the
case of our peat bogs' we find millions of tons of what
was formerly vegetation, decayed to such a point that
no trace of its original form is recognizable without the
aid of the microscope, and yet, something has stepped in
and arrested further decay, and we find preserved for
our use great deposits of decayed vegetation with every
evidence that it reached its present condition, centuries
ago and remained unchanged from then till now.
Fossil bones of prehistoric animals have been found in
such deposits on the east coast of Florida and other
evidences of extinct vegetable growths, would seem to
carry us back to those dim ages, so wonderfully described
by that prince of geologists, Hugh Miller, in The Old Red
Sandstone and The Footprints Of The Creator, when
atmospheric and climatic conditions conduced to the
development of club mosses as tall as our largest pines,
but which under present conditions grow no larger than
a man's finger. Thus it is necessary to find out why this
great process of decay suddenly came to a standstill, and
if we can satisfactorily solve this problem, we stand a
better chance to bring about conditions to again start the
decaying process and thus render these vast inert bodies
of plant food, available to our present day agriculture.
It is an achievement worthy of our utmost study and
pains and like all such benefits to the human race it can
only be successfully accomplished by the co-operation of
many minds, all having in sight the same goal.
Saffice it to say that 'for some years past much patient
endeavor has been expended on.this problem, and I feel
safe in stating, that the question has been solved; not by
agriculturists, nor by 'chemists,' but by bacteriologists,
though not ignoring the lihlp of the first nailed and










greatly assisted by inductive reasoning of close observers
of Nature.
From the bacteriologist we learn the explanation of
that subtile link that in this case combines organic and
inorganic chemistry, and broadly speaking we begin to
understand that after all, so-called decay is brought about
by the existence of a newer (bacterial) life.
Thus going back to the original formation of the black
rotted peat, we see not the result of death, so much as the
result of bacterial life, by the activities of which, nitrogen
and other elements have been added to the mass and
which then perished in their own excreta, for want of
oxygen, after having changed the whole to that condition
in which we encounter it, centuries later, inert and use-
less, but containing great possibilities for future agri-
culturists, and awaiting either natural or scientific treat-
ment, which like the magic wand shall in some way
resurect the old or bring into being, new generations of
bacteria to complete the task so well begun.
Experiments of the past few years have amply proven
that no known substance is so well suited to the life and
propogation of those bacteria helpful to the agriculturist,
as is peat, when put in proper condition and it will be
interesting to note how this is accomplished.
I must first, however, digress somewhat, in order to
give my readers a resume of the work of those bacteriolo-
gists which finally led up to the valuable discoveries of
Prof. W. B. Bottomley, a noted English scientist, and
whose work will doubtless within the next few years
entirely revolutionize our present methods of fertilization.
More than thirty years ago the attention of German
scientists was drawn to study the reasons as to why cer-
tain leguminous plants added nitrogen to the soils in
which they were grown, and on examination of their
roots they were discovered to be infested with bactPria
by whose efforts the nitrogen of the air was transferred
to the plants and subsequently tq.dthbil'this, enritp ig











it. These bacilli were separated from the roots, planted
in various mediums, more or less suited to their con-
tinued life and activities, with varying success.
As far as I have been able to learn, no one,'up to the
time of Prof. Bottomley, had ever succeeded in cultivat-
ing what is termed a free growing nitrifying bacteria,
that is, one not necessarily dependent upon the roots of
legumes for their existence, but one, which growing freely
in the soil, will feed nitrogen to almost any plant needing
a supply.
After many careful experiments, covering some four
years, he finally settled on peat, which properly prepared,
inoculated and applied, rendered not only the peat-con-
tained nitrogen, available, but also the potash and phos-
phate content of the peat and surrounding soil.
This enormously constructive discovery is fraught with
more value to our peat and muck soils than all the sug-
gestions of the potash, phosphate or lime propogandists,
valuable as they are to the farmer on such soils. Doubt-
less many an ancient farmer whose bones have long since
mingled with the dust has achieved notable success by
properly preparing his soils, later inoculating them by
the application of home made stable manure, with valu-
able bacteria, but who was blissfully ignorant of the real
causes of his success, nor could such causes ever have
been known without the revelations of the microscope,
followed by careful experiments of trained scientists.
Thus we are brought back to the subject of drainage,
for no one thing is so necessary to successful bacterial
4ife as a perfectly drained peat or muck soil, and every
recorded failure of growers on such soils have been traced
to lack of proper drainage.
That in many places such rich, black peat soils have
Sb'een found so dry as to tempt men to cultivate them, is a
'matter of history, so also are their recorded failures.
' This 'state of dryness, however, as shown by our State










Chemist and others, was not the result of drainage but
of a long protracted drought, which was distinctly favor-
able to the growth of injurious bacteria and unfavorable
to the growth of those known to be beneficial. Then
naturally followed the verdict that such soils were worth-
less, when the fault lay not in the soils but in unfavor-
able conditions.
Thus the first essential is thorough drainage, well be-
low that point to which the roots of growing crops may
be expected to penetrate.
Such drainage will not only free the soil of its inherent
and excessive moisture, but will actually place the same
in better shape to withstand a long continued drought.
In a recent trip through the Glades and similar lands
partially reclaimed, I found vegetation suffering from
drought and withering in muck land, where a few inches
below the surface I was able to squeeze water from a
handful of soil by simply pressing it in my hands, and if
the same amount of moisture had been found in clay or
sand, it would have been termed a water logged soil.
I think it quite probable that in the future it will be
found necessary at times to provide for some irrigation
on drained muck lands in a dry time, but not to the
extent required on higher lands, as proper drainage will
equally facilitate capillary attraction.
The secondary effect of drainage seems almost more
important than the first, namely, the aeration of the soil,
so beneficial to the life of the aerobic bacteria, a lineal
descendant of one of old friends who had so much part
in building the peat beds. Drainage is not long com-
plete before he actively begins his work of humating the
peat, rendering it available for plant food and suitable
to the life and propogation of his successor, the nitrifying
bacillus. Thus by degrees a useless inert soil is made to
produce crops which otherwise it never could have done,
and the judgment of the grower is at last vindicated, who











on first observing it estimated its value by its color, and
was tempted to cultivate it.
By his failures he has learned more than if at first suc-
cessful, as he has been forced to delve into the secrets
of the soil and call into counsel the chemist, the scientist
and the drainage engineer and each in turn has taught
him something, without which, he could never have
succeeded.
In conclusion, I may say that it requires no prophet to
predict, that in a few years, development, by that same
spirit of patient investigation that has characterized the
practice of medicine, surgery and science generally, and
applied to the preparation of the soils will result in such
yields of useful produce to man and in such amazing
quantities as will raise a fitting monument to those who
devoted their time and talent to drainage and reclama
tion, and future generations will rise up to call them
blessed.














THE CULTIVATION OF MELONS (ALSO
CUCUMBERS) IN FLORIDA.

By H. S. ELLIOTT, Chief Clerk, Dep't. of Agriculture.
The south is the recognized home of the melon family
of fruits, as well as' ntimerous closely allied vegetables,
and there is no portion of it that will produce better or
larger crops than can be grown in our own state. The
melon family of plants do best on a rich, sandy loam
soil with plenty of warm sunshine and moisture. This
kind of soil predominates in Florida, and there is no
country in the world that has more sunshine than can
be found in Florida. All kinds of melons are or can be
raised very successfully in nearly all parts of the State.
But only in the southern portion can they be grown with
real success during the winter months. In the Northern
and Central sections they are planted in the early spring.
Make your first plantings-in January, February or March
and from then until May. If you wish to force the crop.
then preparation for a plentiful water supply must he
made in time, as large amounts daily will be required
to bring success.
PREPARATION OF THE SOIL AND FERTILIZING.
The soil should be deeply plowed at least two ways,
and then harrowed two or three times crosswise, the last
time with a smoothing harrow. For cantaloupes lay the
field off in beds about six feet wide and apply the fer-
tilizer in a continuous line in .a furrow run along the
center of the beds, using at the rate of about one thou
sand pounds to the acre. This fertilizer should analyze
about as follows: 5% to 7% ammonia; available phos-
phoric acid, 7% to 9%;. potash, 5% to 7%. For water-
melons use the same fertilizer, but apply, it as you make
8-Bul











up the hill, using from two to two and one-half pounds
to each hill, mixing well with the soil. It will be im-
possible to do this work too thoroughly. As soon as the
'plant of bcfth the' melons and the cafitaloupes start to
run, then make a second application of the fertilizer,
using about five hundred pounds to the acre of the same
kind and putting it about one to two feet from the plants
which will reach out after it. It is best not to disturb
the vines after they start to run, as this is liable to bruise
them and lesson the yield. All of this is as suitable for
cucumbers as melons.
DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING.

Plant the cantaloupe seeds in a straight row about
three or four feet apart along in the middle of the fur-
rows.above mentioned, putting about six seed to the hill.
When the plants come up and start to growing well, thin
them out to two or at most three plants to the hill. For
planting the watermelons, lay off your land in checks
eight to ten feet each way and plant in the checks. If
the land is low, it should be well drained and the seed
planted in hills above the level of the field; but if it is
medium high land, plant on the level. Put the same num-
ber of seed to the hill as you do for cantaloupes, thinning
as soon as the plants start to grow. If you wish to
have extra early melons and cantaloupes, plant in paper
pots, two or three weeks earlier and then at the desired
time transplant to the permanent hill.
VARIETIES.

The Florida Favorite and the Tom Watson are the most
popular varieties of the watermelons for shipping, al-
though the Duke Jones, the Kolb Gem, Augusta Rattle-
snake and the Kleckly Sweet are well liked in some sec-
tions. The first named are mostly long melons, while the
Jones and Kolb Gem are round. For the home garden
and local markets there is no melon that will give better











results than can be had from the-stnidard oblong melon,
Kleckly Sweet and Augusta,.Rattlesnake. Florida grown
watermelon seeds give the best results here.

VARIETIES OF CANTALOUPES.

The genuine Rocky Ford cantaloupe is the standard
variety planted in most of the trucking sections of the
State and makes to perfection. The Emerald Gem is
also a fine melon and succeeds well. There is a new
Rocky Ford variety, which should be of special value to
the Florida Growers. It is known as the rust and blight-
resisting Rocky Ford cantaloupe. As its name implies,
it is immune to the rust and blight, and as these are the
worst enemies of the cantaloupes in Florida, it should
make this melon a popular variety with Florida truckers
as well for home use and local markets. The Large Late
Hackensack, Jenny Lind and Montreal Market are also
fine melons. Nothing but Colorado grown seed should be
planted, no matter if you have to pay double the price of
seed to be obtained elsewhere, the crop will more than
make up for the difference in the quality of the fruit.

CULTIVATION.
Frequent and shallow cultivation with a straight tooth
harrow is best where crop is planted in the field, if in the
garden, the hoe is the best. It is essential to keep the
soil well open to let the warm air and sunshine in. It is
also a good idea, when the vines are about one to three
feet long to pinch off the ends of the main vine. This
makes them put on laterals which form the female flowers,
also adds to the vigor of the vines and yield of fruit,
and causing them to fruit quicker. If the vines appear
to be putting on too many small melons, pinch off some
of them, which will make the fruit that you leave larger
and better. Do not pinch the ends of the watermelon
vines as the main vines are the principal bearers, unlike
cantaloupes.











INSECTS AND DI1SASES.

The same insects and diseases attack these crops that
attack the cucumber, and the remedies advised for the one
are equally good. for the other. If the plants stArt to
damping off when young, dust them with powdered sul-
phur. This disease is generally caused by excessive moist-
ure and improper drainage, and if these conditions exist
you cannot remedy it, but let it be a warning to you
when you plant your next crop, to see that the land is
thoroughly drained. The Aphis, cut worm, and striped
cucumber beetle are the most formidable insect enemies
of the plants. For Aphis (lice) use good tobacco dust
prepared for the purpose, applied with a dust sprayer,
Both over and on underside of leaves, and for other eating
insects, spray with a solution of Arsenate of lead and
water in the proportion of about one and a half pounds
of lead to fifty gallons of water. Should fungus diseases
appear, spray often with Bordeaux Mixture, say every
eight or ten days. This will prevent these troubles, which
is much easier than to cure after they get started.
GATHERING AND SHIPPING.
It is best to ship cantaloupes and watermelons just
before they are full ripe or as soon as they are matured.
Leave a small part of the stem, say an inch, attached to
the melon, as they seem to keep better. If it is desirable
to remove the stem, the vendor can do this when he offers
the fruit for sale to his customers.
Pack the cantaloupes in standard crates,- and they may
be wrapped if necessary as it is desired. Wrapping is a
protection from bruising, and this is a matter that must
be guarded against under all circumstances. Water
melons are packed in cars in which common straw, or hay.
or pine straw from the woods is used to cover well the
bottom and protect the sides and ends of the cars. This
must be carefully done to protect the melons from injury
while in transit.










The measurement for the standard cantaloupe crate
is 12x12x32 inches. Cucumber crates 8x20x27 inches.
SUGGESTIONS AS TO MARKETING THE CROP.
No matter how fine a crop you produce, unless you
make some money out of it your time and labor have
been lost.
The main thing is to put up your melons or vegetables
in the best manner possible. Grade them very properly
according to size and quality. Pack in standard crates
and be sure to have the crates neat. It will be noted that
the most successful growers put up their products in a
first class. manner. It is wise to have a trade mark also,
for fancy stock, if not for all grades, and mark grade on
package; but under no conditions pack anything but
extra fancy stock under first grade. If this is done, it
will not be long before the grower will have a reputation
built up on his brand, and can obtain a good price when
other stock not so carefully graded is hardly bringing
profitable prices. Poorly packed first class products will
rarely pay a profit. It is a good idea to plant enough of
one kind of fruit and'vegetables to be able to ship in car
lots, as if you have good stock and can load a whole car,
straight or mixed, you can nearly always dispose of them
f.o.b. your station. Which is much more satisfactory than
shipping to commission men on consignment. Sell at the
station when possible, even though the goods should
bring a less price than is offered in the market or other-
wise; either delays in route, creating poor condition, or
drop in prices may cause a loss. As above suggested,
growers should plant for car lot shipments if possible.
if not, then a number of growers should combine so as to
obtain such benefits.












AVOCADO PROPAGATION
By P. H. ROLFS, Director,: Agricultural Experiment
Station, Gainesville, Florida.
Avocados are easily grown; from seed. The seed, retain,
their:vitality for several weeks after having been removed
from the fruit.. For this reason it has been possible to.
distribute avocados to all portions of the tropical world.
While the seedlings usually produce a rapid growth and
generally make..excellent trees, only about one. out. of
thirty proves as valuable as budded varieties. The latter
can. usually be obtained from nurserymen,
PLANTING OF SEED.
The seed should be planted soon after it is taken from
the fruit. One of the most satisfactory ways of propa-
gating avocados is to plant the seed in boxes five inches
square and fourteen inches deep. Such a box can be made
from cypress shingles and a piece of pine board. The soil,
used in these boxes should be rich loam. Place the seed in.
the soil so that it will be covered about an inch, and.
water daily. When about ten inches tall the plants can
be placed in position for.budding. Those that are tardy
in developing can be given further attention. In time
nearly 100% of the seeds will make plants suitable for
budding.
'*The plants may be set out at a season of the year when
suitable moisture conditions occur. Less cost for water-
ing will be necessary if they are set during the rainy
season. Greater losses will qccur if they are set during
colp dry weather.
Sometimes it is desirable, to pla the. seed directly in
te eld here the ttre is to stand. Treatment somp.
what similar to that given the ee ite b bold be
accorded those in the efld. Toprotet the vyoeg se -










ling from sun scalding, it is advisable to place half rotted
mulching about them. With careful attention they will
grow nearly as rapidly in the field as:jn seed boxes.

BUDDING.
Almost any of the several methods of budding may be
employed. Where both stock and scion are in good con-
dition, shield budding, which is usually employed for
citrus, will be found satisfactory. Before the bud is in-
serted, care should be taken to examine the stock to see
that the bark separates smoothly from the wood. In
other words, the stock must be growing well. Most people
have best success during dry weather.
Bud wood of desirable varieties may be obtained from
most trees in large quantity. Usually the scions from
which the buds are cut should be about the thickness of
an ordinary lead pencil. Choose ripened end branches.
and avoid soft-wood and scions in a flush of growth. Buds
that have shown a tendency to grow will take readily
and be more likely to "spring" than buds which are
dormant or have lost their "eye." Where bud wood is
scarce the terminal bud from ripened wood may he used
and will take as rapidly as the side buds.

CARE OF BUDS.
In budding avocados, as in budding other nursery stock.
it is advisable to perform the operation as speedily as is
consistent with care. As little time as possible should
elapse between opening the bark and cutting the bud
from the scion.
Immediately after inserting the bud, wrap carefully.
Beginners will find it advisable to use waxed cloth. Wrap
the "bud firmly but leave an opening for the "eye." The
experienced budder will prefer to use wrapping twine.
Wrapping twine should be drawn firmly and yet not tight,
enough to injure the bark during the next week or ten
days. The T cut should be as carfutlly closed as possible.










In a week or two it will be possible to tell whether the
bud has taken or not. If the bud has failed, the wrap-
ping may be removed and another attempt made. If the
bud has taken it will be advisable to remove some of the
wrapping to permit rapid growth of the bud.
As soon as it is definitely known that the bud has
taken, the top of the stock may be cut back. The operator
will have to use considerable judgment as to the form
this cutting back will take. At times it is sufficient to
remove the terminal bud and thus throw growth into the
bud. At other times it is advisable to lop the stock by
cutting it enough to permit the entire top to be bent over
without breaking off. As soon as the bud has made a
growth two or three inches long, more of the top may be
removed, or, in the case of weak stock, all of the top may
be removed. Finally the stock should be cut off close
above the bud and smoothed carefully. In most cases it
is advisable to cover the wound with some antiseptic or
paint.











AVOCADO CULTURE
By P. H. ROLFS.

The varieties of avocado knuwn as Mexican, withstand
winter conditions as far north as Gainesville. Protected
specimens of the West Indian-dentral American types
have fruited as far, north as Daytona pn the East Coast
and Pinellas County on the West Coast. The most ex-
tensive commercial orchards are being planted in the
Biscayne Bay and Caloosahatchee River regions. Seed-
lings of ,the favorite kinds, are likely to be killed to the
ground by frost. Bearing trees are not likely to be killed
by a temperature of 25 degrees, unless it is of several
hours duration.
The range of soil that may be employed for successful
avocado culture is much wider than that for citrus cul-
ture. The avocado, however, fakes very kindly to the best
soils that can be obtained. The best citrus soils will be
found to be among the best for avocado. 'After the site
ias been chosen, clearing should be done in the usual
way. All debris should be removed from the field and the
soil well prepared. It is advisable to plant some cover
crop on the portion of the field not occupied by the
avocados.
DISTANCE OF PLANTING.

The trees may be set in rows 21 feet apart and 21 feet
apart in the row for the weaker growing varieties such
as the Trapp. For the. more vigorous varieties it would
be advisable to. give greater.: space. '~Eh former distance
will give one hundred trees to the acre. If: rws are made
30. feet .apart and the tree 2l9,feet apart in the rowt for
the .lager varieties, seventy trees: will be required to the
at.e, If. it is desirable to plant out>,a seedling grove,. it
wiUl. e advisable to makethe: oqws about 30 feet, apatamd
plant the seedlings closer in the row. As a large-~pwi










cent of the seedlings will be unprofitable, it will then be
possible, later, tolcubod t those that -re ,hot desirable.
CULTIVATION.
The cultivation of the avocado grove is essentially the
same as that for citrus. Careful cultivation during the
dry portion of the year and a cover crop during the sum-
mer months are necessary. If the cover crop is not needed
as forage, it may be incorporated with the soil and thus
provide humus for the grove. Velvet beans will probably
give a larger amount of humus than any other crop, and
at the same time add a large amount of nitrogen to the
soil. Grass crops do not add to the fertility but con-
serve it.
FERTILIZATION.
The avocado tree is especially partial to nitrogen fer-
tilizer from an organic source. It does not seem to make
much difference which of the commercial forms is used.
A large amount of potash and phosphoric acid in the
formula is beneficial to the trees. In general the fertilizer
formulas for citrus will prove profitable, excepting that
organic ammonia should be substituted for the inorganic
ammonia.
VARIETIES.
A large number of varieties are being offered by differ-
ent nurserymen in the State. It is important to select
either the earliest varieties or those that ripen late or
very late. The mid-season budded varieties must com-
pete with the large mass of seedlings, and for that reason
the fruit usually sells low. Baldwin and Early are among
the good early varieties. Trapp is good for late and the
various Guatemalan varieties for very late. The earliest
fruits in Florida ripen about the first week is July. Then
follows succession until late in October or November
when the Trapp begin to mature. The Guatemalan
varieties ripen during January and the early spring
monthly: -














CONSIDERING THE CATTLE TICK-SOME
SENTIMENTAL AS WELL AS PRAC-
TICAL PHASES OF THE SUBJECT.
By W. A. McRAE, Commissioner -of Agriculture.
The little things of life when magnified become annoy-
ing and often serious. A grain of sand is a necessary
thing in concrete, but when in your eye it is decidedly
out of place and painfully annoying. A little thing, in
a multiplied form, has long beenLthe source of immense
loss to the South, a cost in a financial way running into
millions upon millions of dollars, not to speak of the
suffering and misery it has caused and continues to cause
to helpless animal life.
This little thing in its egg form is almost microscopic.











No. --Cattle Tick when hatched.
The egg produces an insect with six legs,-usual "o. mosl
insects--(Cut No. 1), but before it reaches its real. ac-
tvity the "little cuss," as Artemus;Ward once.termed: a
certain insect, has an added pair, making eight legs,
(See Cut No. 2). It leaves behind, a large Pogeny, :the
female laying. as -high as 5,000 eggs, (S.ee Cut No,. 3).
For its size it has a formidable name,;.: .-'targarepus











(Boophilus) aunalatus." It is better known, however,
as the Cattle Tick, and has become the greatest menace
and obstacle to the profitable raising of live stock of
aif$hing else in the S Muth.
It carries a disease peculiar to cattle, and variously
termed Texas fever, Tick fever, Splenetic fever and Bloody
Murrain. The disease has its seat in the blood, through
an organism which preys on the red corpuscles-as in
malaria in the human body when inoculated by the bite
of the mosquito-and when in its acute form destroys
from five to ten pounds of blood a day. In the severely
acute form of fever the animal rarely recovers, and the











No. 2-Cattle Tick at age of activity.
general loss in this way alone would supply and operate
dipping vats in every neighborhood. In addition to car-
rying this dangerous disease the cattle tick is a blood
sucker and the cause of constant torment and torture.
A person who has suffered from the bite of a "chigger,"
or red bug, or who has been annoyed by a flea crawling
up and down and nipping his back, may be able by com-
parison to appreciate what suffering our dumb beasts
are subjected to when covered with ticks, thousands in
number, as shown by the illustration No. 4, of a portion
of a steer's hide. Through the perforations made in the
hide by the biting of the ticks blood serum or water oozes
out keeping the hair moist and matted often, resulting
in abscesses and ulcers inhabited by maggots from eggs
laid by other insects.








47

S,,Suppose for -example that you-the reader-hod. a
patch on your back, inaccessable as in case .f the steer-
a. festering sore-as shown in cut No. 4, on your back for
comparison to the dimensions of the picture. Imagine
if possible your maddening distress and pain. Nature
would heal the agonizing spot--except for the fact that
the bugs keep it alive and burning. Extend this affliction
as an epidemic among the human race and the appeal for
help would sound to Heaver.
This humane side of the horirble tit infection of a
faithful, use~l, patient and pifo8dtI 'animal friend,
unable to spek and tell of its liti ttltf e, except in its
silent and emaciated appearance, is a mute appeal to
man for help. Picture No. 5, that of a cow prostrate on
the ground, should be another appeal to our humanity.
For months and years it had suffered untold misery.
We have treated this affiliction as if applied to ourselves.
It is usually viewed from an economic standpoint, and
that means:
1. Small and stunted animals;
2. Inferior in quality;
(a) as to meat;
(b) as to price;
(c) as to hides of little value;
(d) as to diminished milk supply;
(e) as to poorness of milk;
3. Liability to other diseases;
4. Large mortality;
5. Difficulty in exporting to tick free territory, where
they cannot be sold in open market.
6. Difficulty in supporting improved animals from
free territory, without danger of infection and death.
7. Objection among outsiders to invest or engage in
the industry on account of tick ravages.
8. Loss to individuals, as well as to State and Nation,
by allowing the tick to exist-and thus too, when the
remedy is so easily and cheaply available.










The concrete economic situation in this matter, show-
ing the vaalle of' ick eradication, was most forcibih'set
fori1" by statements iiade before the Texas Catilemen's
Con kntioh held recently at Houston, by lDrs. L. J. Allen
anii'liFarrvy Grafke, of the T'-." Bureau of Animal In-
dis'y. These investigators said:












No. : Fm-in; 'l'ik and Egg,.
"Ticks ale costing Texas $10,000,000 a year. Southern
States are paying a board bill of $80,000,000 a year.
"Five dollars can be added to the value of every beef
animal in the tick country in Texas by the eradication
of the tick.
"One dollar can be added to the hide value of every
cow or steer in the tick infested area.
"Ticks can be eradicated in one year at a cost of 20
to 50 cents a head.
"Any man can eradicate the ticks from his range in a
year; any county can do the same, or the state could be-
come tickless in a year if it would try."
Dr. -Grafke furnished the convention with facts show-
ing what ticks do to dairy cows, his findings being based
on careful experiments. A dairy was divided into three
parts, A third of the cows had been freed from ticks, a
third 'fehiained "slightly ticky" and the remaining third
were rntige' cows badly infested. The "slightly ticky'
''ik 1a -, .rdcae n on e l *I *os . '* -









49

cows gave 18.6 per cent less milk than the tickless cows,
while the infested cows gave 42.4 per cent less.
Apply these statements to Florida. We have about
1,000,000 head of cattle. Free them from ticks and it
would add six or more million dollars to their value, not


No. 4--Steer Hide infected with Ticks.
4--Bul










to speak of the large increase in milk supply, besides the
comfort given to this large number of living creatures.
Florida should take vigorous, united and decisive steps
to put a great and necessary industry upon a firm found-
ation. The cost to do this will be trifling in comparison
to the value and good to be attained.
The life history of the tick is simple. It rarely appears
on animals other than cattle. It matures its eggs while
feeding and ravaging upon its host, and dropping to the
ground delivers them, and they hatch in from two to six
weeks, depending upon conditions. They often remain
alive for months without apparent increase in size. In
the pastures these diminutive pests find their way to the
animal and attach themselves in large numbers to the
tender portions of the underside of the body and gradu-
ally spread to all parts.
We have laws prohibiting under penalties personal
cruelty in any form to our domestic animals, and yet we
allow this unspeakable agony to exist-this unceasing
tragedy to be perpetrated upon dumb beasts when relief
is easily and cheaply possible, through either the dipping
vat or restricted pastures.
The continuous sucking of blood naturally diminishes
and impoverishes the circulation and the perforations
not only injure the hide, but allow the entrance of pus-
producing germs and organisms which give rise to
abscesses which frequently terminate in maggot infested
ulcers. On calves ticks retard growth. On cows the
added injury is a diminished flow of milk of impover-
ished quality. An examination of a well filled tick
shows blood and nutriment taken from its host which
should go to the formation of bone, flesh, fat and milk.
Various methods have been followed in trying to rid
cattle of ticks, by picking or brushing them off, by spray-
ing with disinfectants, and by dipping-formerly in
petroleum solutions-but successfully practiced at this
time with an arsenical compound. The dipping vat is a











simple device, merely a narrow swimming tank with a
chute at one end for the entrance of the cattle and a
sloping exit at the other end. The cost of building and
operating a vat is a mere song compared to the benefits-
financially and humanely.
Congress has expended several hundred thousand dol-
lars in carrying on investigations to help rid the South
of ticks and the dipping vat solves the problem. It is
now up to the stock raisers and farmers of Florida to


No. 5-Cow suffering from Tick infection.
energetically push this most desirable work to a suc-
cessful conclusion and put the State on the highway to
a prosperity not otherwise in this important industry.
It is not only a humane movement but an economic prop-
osition of highest importance.
Dipping vats have already been established in many











progressive localities in Florida, and let the whole State
join in the effort and not await legislative enactments.
Laws are often rendered necessary to force people to
save themselves.
The owner of a few cattle-kept under fence-who
does not feel able to build a vat can make the arsenical
solution and wash the animals himself, by using the fol-
lowing formula: One pound of white arsenic, three
pounds of sal soda, and one quart of pine tar. Dissolve
the arsenic in two or three gallons of water, and boil
until the arsenic is all dissolved. After the solution is
cool, add the pine tar. Add to this solution 45 gallons
of water. Use this mixture every 21 days. It should not
be used at more frequent intervals. Keep the solution
where children, fowls or animals cannot get access to it.
Full information as to the tick and the method of get-
ting rid of it can be had from the Bureau of Animal
Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington.
D. C., from the Florida Experiment Station, Gainesville,
or from the Florida Department of Agriculture, Talla-
hassee.












CENSUS TABLES OF POPULATION

POPULATION, MALE AND FEMALE, BY RACES: 1915.

Total WHITE I NEGRO
Total I
COUNTIES Popula- -
tion Total Male Female Total Male Female


Total for State... *921,618 559,787 291,694 268,103 360,394 187,295 173,099

Alachu ....... 35,332 1591 8.138 7781 19.413 9.924 9.489
Baker ........ 5,136 4.263 2.150 2.113' 73 480 393
Bay ............ 13,518 9,340 4,7201 4.5501 4.178 2.3091 1.869
Bradford ........ 16.202 11.6651 60121 5,653 4,537 2.375 2,162
Brevard .......... 7.214 5.1421 2788 2,3541 2,072 1.1151 957
Broward ........ 4.762 3,110 1,701 1,409 1,652 9591 693
Calhoun ........ 7,468 5,135 2,708 2,427 2,333 1,3291 1,004
Citrus .......... 5,235 2.959 1.510 1.449 2.276 1,2271 1,049
Clay ............ 7,257 4,305 2,2771 2.028 2,952 1,675 1.277
Columbia ....... 16,023 7,710 3,9441 3.7661 n.3131 4,259| 4,054
Dade ......... I 24,461 1.241 8,6531 7,5881 8.2201 4.4901 3,730
DeSoto ..... 22,117 18.8231 10.1161 8.7071 3.?94 1.918 1.376
Duval .......... 94,794 47.727 24,502 23.2251 47,067 23,876 23,191
Escambia .......I 41.112 25.8831 13,'44 12.639! 15.229 7.286, 7,943
Franklin ........ 5,432 2.7901 1.4001 1.3901 2642 1.369! 1.273
Gadsden ........ 22,989 7,3-31 3,7651 3.558 15.666 7,5841 8,082
Hamilton ....... I 12.484 6.8561 3.5181 3 339 5.6l81 2.141 2.814
Hernando....... 6,291 3,194 1,691 1,503 3,097 1,813 1,284
Hillsborough ... 83,634 65,754 34.5721 31.182 17.8801 9.176 8,704
Holmes .........I 14.0971 12577 6.4571 6.1201 1,520 879 641
Jackson ......... 35,349 18.501 9,3981 9,1031 16,848 8.3081 8.540
Jefferson ........ 16,197 3.910 2,0131 1,8971 12,287 6.1211 6.166
Lafayette ....... 7.860 6.4371 3,4491 2,9881 1,423 89!1 594
Lake ........... 12,421 7.9331 4,0761 3.857 4,488 2.542 1.946
Lee ............ 8.682 7,1951 3.9251 3,270 1.4871 846 641
Leon ........... 20.131 5,.0"3 2.560! 2.5331 15.03s 7.18 7.870
Levy ..... 11,992 6,102 3,295 2,897 5,800 3,257 2,543
Liberty ......... 4920 2591 1.371 1.220 2 39 1.290 1.039
Madison ........I 17,832 7,913 3,884 4,029 9,91 4,89 4,80
Manatee ........I 15 156 1,069 5,900 5,169 4.610 2.552 2,058
Marion ......... I 28,611 11,8651 6.1711 5.6941 16.746 8.702 8.044
Monroe ......... 19,607! 14.698] 7,9361 6,762! 4.909 2.4101 2,499
Nassau ......... 10.002 5,-761 2.6981 2.5781 4726 2.3991 2.327
Orange ........ 10,937 10,052 5,0761 4,9761 5,345 2,7501 2,595
Osceola .....I 15.397 9.305 4,861 4.444 1.632 908 724
Palm Beach ...... 9.561 6 4991 3.4631 3,036. 3,0621 1,690 1.442
Pasco ... .. . I 9.634 7.1871 3.8491 3.3381 2.447 1.436 1.011
Pinellas .......... 18.7881 14.1441 7.3221 6,822! 4.644 2,339 2,305
Polk ........... 37,4211 25.9521 13.6251 12,3271 11,469 6.410 5,059
Putnam ......... 15.862I 8,0?6 4.907| 3,8191 7,836 4.278! 3,558
Santa Rosa ..... 20.745 14.6341 7.5491 70851 6.1111 3.2941 2,817
Seminole ........I 9,446 4.9561 2.5721 2.3841 4.4901 2.338 2.152
St. Johns .......I 13.4321 8.1491 4.173! 3,976! 5,283 2.817 2.466
St. Lucie ....... 8.5891 6.3311 3.4731 2.8581 2.258 1,341 917
Sumter ......... I 7.5171 4.934! 2.6001 2.3141 2.583 1.409 1.174
Suwannee ...... 20.0861 11.8151 6.001 5.7651 8.471 4,9031 4,968
Taylor ......... I 10,740 6.0971 3.293 2,8041 4,6431 2,871 1,772
Volusia .......... .I 21.783 12.9501 6,6291 6.3>91 8,833 4.778 4.055
Wakulla ........ I 7,606] 3.081 1.6751 1.5331 4.3981 2.336 2.062
Walton .......... 16.4731 12,0311 6.2471 5,7841 4,4421 2,3601 2,082
Washington .....11.1231 8.1281 4.3881 3.7401 2,995[ 1,587 1,408

*The total population of the State is 921,618. composed as follows: White,
559.787: negro. 360,394: persons of other races, 226; Indians, 129, and State con-
victs. 1,082. Total, 1,437.
Yote.-The total copulation of the counties in this table is the total of the
white and negro population, excluding any persons of other races and State convicts,
which explains any variation that may be noticed in comparison with other tables.










54


POPULATION OF VOTING AGE, BY RACES, IN CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS,
BY COUNTIES.

Population, 1915 Voting Ages, 1915
COUNTIES
White Negro White Negro

Total for First Congressional Iisirict.. 11 ,.144 58,275 50.112 19.787

Citrus ................................ 2.959 2,276 825 680
DeSoto ............................... 18,823 3.294 5.499 1,177
Hernando .............................. 3,194 3,097 989 1,169
Hillsborough .......................... 65,754 17,880 | 19,120 6,062
Lake ................................. 7,933 4,488 | 2,448 1,546
Lee .................................. 7.195 1,487 2.264 613
M anatee ..............................; 11,069 4,610 3.251 1,645
Pasco ................................ 7,187 2.447 2,242 946
Pinellas .............................. 14,144 4,644 4,625 1,445
Polk ................................. 25,952 11.469 7.551 3,802
Sumter ............................... 4,934 2,583 1.298 702
Total for Second Congressional District... 105,918 102.779 27.396 26.644
Alachua ............................... .. 15.919 9 41 4.238 i 4,919
Baker ................................. 4,26 3 I 873 91 259
Bradford ............... ............. 11.665 4.537 2.770 1.199
Columbia ............................. 7,710 8.313 1.974 1.978
Hamilton ......... ....... ........ . t.8356 5,628 1.733 I 1.350
Jefferson .............................. 3.910 12,287 1,041 2,479
Lafayette ............................. I 6,437 1,423 | 1,649 I 539
Levy .............. ... ............. 6.192 5,800 1.671 1.905
M adison .............................. 7.913 9,919 1.871 2.111
M arion ............................... 11.8,65 16,746 3.505 4.618
Nassau ............................... 5,276 4,726 1,411 1,343
Suwannee .............................. 11,815 8,471 2,868 1.884
Taylor ................... ......... 6,097 4,643 1,750 2,060
Total for Third Congressional District .... 127,234 93,729 31,897 | 23,309
Bay ..................................I 9,340--4,178--2,720 --1,469
Calhoun .............................. 5,135 2,333 1.178 678
Escambia ............................. 2.883 15,229 7,150 4,163
Franklin .............................. 1 2.790 2,642 752 781
Gadsden .............................. 7,323 15.666 1,905 3,334
Holmes ............................... 12,577 1.520 2.805 490
Jackson ............................... I 1S,501 16,848 4,153 3,539
Leon .................................. 5,093 I 15,038 1,394 3,319
Liberty ................................ 2,591 1 2.329 I 601 702
Okaloosa* ............................. ....... ...... .... ........... .....
Santa Rosa ........................... I 14.634 I 6.111 3,604 | 1.917
W akulla .............................. 3,208 4,398 746 i 963
W alton ............................... 1 12,031 4,442 3,008 1.226
Washington ..................... 8,128 2.995 1,881 728
*This county was created out of Santa Rosa and Walton counties, but did not
become a county under the law creating it until after the census was taken.


Total for Fourth Congressional District....
B revard ..............................
Brow ard ..............................
C la y . . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .
D ade .................................
D u val ................................ I
M onroe ...............................
Orange ..............................
O sceola ............................... i
Palm Beach ............................
P utnam ...................... .......
St. Johns ..................... ....... I
St. Lucie ............................. .
Seminole ............................. I
Volusia ............................... I


157,491
5.142
3,110
4,305
16,241
47,727
14,698
10,052
9,305
6.499
8.026
8.149
6.331
4,956
12.950


105,611
2,072
1,652
2,952
8,220
47,067
4,909
5.345
1,632
3,062
7,836
5,283
2,258
4,490
8,833


50,702 I 34.664
1.641 721
1,074 661
1,165 1,071
5,653 3,003
15,351 14,917
4.624 1,281
3,134 1.639
3,124 577
2,212 1,069
2.484 2,698
2.543 1,806
2,029 909
1,602 1,401
4,066 2,911











55


POPULATION OF CITIES OF 5,000 OR MORE: 1915 AND 1910.

CITIES COUNTIES I 1915 White Negro Total
S_ 1910
Gainesville .......... .Alachua ............. [* 6,736 3,609 3,126 6,183
Jacksonville ........ Duval .............. i*66,850 30,798 36,035 57,699
Key West ........... Monroe .............. 18,495 13,624 4,860 19,945
Lakeland ........... Polk ............... 7,287 4,760 2,527 3,719
Miami ............ Dade . . .. . ... 15,592 9,916 5,659 5,471
Ocala .............. ..Marion ............. 5,370 2,717 2,652 4,370
Orlando ............ Orange ......... . 6,448 4,058 2,390 3,894
Pensacola .......... Escambia ........... *23,219 13,426 9,788 22,982
St. Augustine........ St. Johns ........... 5,471 3,833 1,638 5,494
St. Petersburg ...... Pinellas ............ 7,186 4,897 2,289 4,127
Tallahassee .......... Leon ............... 5,193 2,264 2,925 5,018
Tampa .............. illsborougih ........ *48,160 36,210 11,914 37,782
West Tampa......... IHillsborough ........ 7,837 6,867 967 8,258

POPULATION OF CITIES, 2,500 TO 5,000: 1915 AND 1910.


CITIES

Apalachicola ........
Arcadia ............
Bartow ............
Bradentown ........
Daytona ............
DeLand ............
Fernandina .........
Fort Myers..........
Kissimmee ..........
Lake City...........
Live Oak............
Palatka ............
Plant City ..........
Quincy .............
Sanford ............
West Palm Beach ....


COUNTIES I 1915

Franklin .......... 3,400
DeSoto ............ 3,504
Polk ............... 3,412
Manatee ............ 8* 3,305
I Volusia ......... .. 4,526
Volusia ............. 3,490
Nassau ............. 3,114
Lee ........... . 3,244
Oseeola ........... 4,221
Columbia ........... 3,422
Suwannee ............ 3.294
Putnam . ......... 4,622
SIlillsborough ........ |* 3.229
(Gadsden ............ 3,451
1 Reminole ............ 4,998
| Palm Beach ......... 4,090


White

1,673
2,574
1,994
2,268
2,033
2,054
1,158
2,220
3,224
1,793
1,651
2,097
2,084
1,125
2,494
2.307


Negro I Total
|1910
1,726 3,065
929 1,736
1,418 2,662
1,036 1,886
2,493 3,080
1,535 2,812
1,953 3,482
236 2,463
996 2,157
1,628 5,032
1,643 3,450
2,524 3,779
1,144 2,481
2,326 3,204
2,502 3,570
1,780 1,743


POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS OF 1.000 TO


2,500: 1915 AND 1910.


CITIES AND TOWNS

Alton ..............
Bonifay ....... .....
Brooksvllle .........
Chipley ............
Clearwater ..........
Dade City...........
DeFunlak Springs....
East Millville........
Eustis ............
Fort Meade..........
Fort Pierce..........
Green Cove Springs...
High Springs ........
Jasper .............
Lauderdale .........
Leesburg ..........
Lynn Haven..........
Madison ............
Manatee ............
Marianna ...........
M ilton .............
Monticello ..........
Mulberry ...........


COUNTIES I 1915

Lafayette ........... 1,050
Holmes .............I 1,107
Hernando .... ...... I 1,385
Washington ......... 1,571
Pinellas ............ I* 1,932
Pasco ............. 1,950
Walton .............. 2.142
Bay ............... 1.502
Lake ............. .. 1,148
Polk .. . ..... .. 2.150
St. Lucie ........... 1 1.942
Clay ............... I 2.287
'A lachua ............ 1.265
Hamilton ........... i 1.631
Broward .......... .. 1,870
Lake ............... 1,860
Bay ................ 1,250
Madison ............ 1,763
Manatee ....... ..... 1,487
Jackson ....... .....* 2.357
Santa Rosa ... 1,415
Jefferson .. ...... 2,040
Polk ....... 1.121


White

593
797
875
1,001
1,199
1,336
1,441
1,122
725
1,542
1,293
1,133
732
930
1,250
896
1,182
908
724
1,172
928
805
717


Negro

457
310
510
570
731
614
701
400
423
608
649
1,154
533
701
620
464
68
853
763
1,183
487
1,235
403


Total
1910

922
979
1,099
1,171
1,066
2,017
910
1,165
1,333
1,319
1,468
1,730

991
1,560
988
1,915
831
1,829
1,418















POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS OF 1,000 TO 2,500: 1915 AND 1910.-
Continued.


CITIES AND TOWNS

New Augustine......
Newberry ..........
New Smyrna........
Pablo Beach.........
Palmetto ...........
Panama City........
Perry ..............
Port Tampa City.....
Punta Gorda.........
St. Andrews ........
Sarasota ...........
South Jacksonville ...
Starke ............ .
St. Cloud ............
Tarpon Springs......
Titusville ...........
Wauchula ..........
Winter Haven .......
Zephyrhills .........


COUNTIES

St. Johns ...........
Alachua ............
Volusia ............. *
Duval .............. *
Manatee ............ I
B ay ................
Taylor .............
Hillsborough ........ I
DeSoto .............
B ay ................
Manatee ............ .
Duval .............. *
Bradford ........ .
Osceola .............
Pinellas ............
Brevard ............
DeSoto .............
P olk ........ ......
Pasco ... ..........


1915

1.716
1,000
2,012
1.000
1.625 .
2.013
1.941
1,071 1
1,772
1.400
1,682
1.522
1.239
2,080
1.938
1,310
1,839
1,226
1,450


White Negro Total
S I 1910
1,032 684 1,586
360 640 816
1,312 699 1.121
695 1 300 330
1.051 574 i 773
1.461 5! 52 425
1.119 821 1,012
590 480 1 1,343
1.339 433 1.012
1,047 353 675
1,173 5091 840
1,349 I 172 I 1.147

2,080 .... .....
1,420 516 i 2.212
813 497 868
1,831 8 1.099
1.119 107 ..
1,406 44 1 423


POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS OF 1,000 AND UNDER: 1915 AND 1910.


CITIES AND TOWNS

Alachua ............
Alford ............
Altha ..............
Anthony ............
Apopka ...........
Auburndale .........
Avon Park .........
Archer .............
Bayview ............
Baldwin ............
B ell ................
Belleview ...........
Blountstown ........
Bowling Green.......
Bradley ...........
Branford ..........
Bunnell ............
Bushnell ..........
Callahan ...........
Camphellton ........
Carrabelle .........
Center Hill...........
Citra ..............
Cedar Key...........
Cocoa .............
Coleman ............
Cottondale ..........
Crescent City .......
Crystal River.......
Cypress ............
Dania ..............
Daytona Beach ......
Deerfield ...........
Davenport ..........
DeLeon Springs......
Delrav .............
Dunedin ............
Dunnellon ..........
Eatonville ..........


COUNTIES

Alachna ............
Jackson ............ I
Calhoun ..........I
M arion .............
Ormn ge .............
P olk ............... I
DoSoto .............
Alachua ............
Brevard ............
D uval ..............
Alachua ............
M ar on ............. I
Calhoun ............ I
DoSoto ............. I
P olk ............... I
RSiwann'o. ........... I
St. Johns ........... I
Sumter ............. .
Nassau ............. I
Jackson ............
Franklin ............ I
Sum ter ............. I
M arion ............. I
Levy ............... I
Brevard ............:I
Sumter .............
Jackson ............
Putnam ............ I
citruss ..............
Jackson ............ .
Broward .. ...... .
Volusta .............
Broward ............
Polk ............... I
Volusia ............. I
Palm BIneh .........
Pinellas ............
M arion .. ...........
Orange ............. I


White I Negro ii Total
I I 1910
369 I 375 I! 610
165 50 I ....
296 4 1 ...
246I 160 1i 442
295 303 I 410
427 84 1 ...
394 1 24 .
225 | 57 468
121 .......1
284 286 ..
216 34 1 243
182 I....... 190
698 229 5! 546
533 137 'I 422
194 101 ...
217 194 .
.. .. I ... ... .. . .
272 71 I .....
347 136 11 .....
152 I 181 ...
655 295 II 900
396 99 299
215 185 394
556 I 244 864
417 390 613
249 140 387
240 152 ...
466 343 677
504 396 I 663
213 76 II .....
338 174 II .
524 55 331
133 237 ..
130 37
167 I 137 II 216
421 418 ..
358 I 71 256
431 548 1,227
....... 122 108


L















POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS OF 1,000 AND UNDER: 1915 AND 1910.
Continued.


CITIES AND TOWNS

Eau Gallie .........
Ellenton ............
Esto ...............
Federal Point........
Fellsmere ...........
Florida City.........
Glendale ...........
Graceville ..........
Greensboro .........
Gretna .............
Greenville ..........
Gulfport ...........
Haines City.........
Hallendale ..........
Hampton ...........
Hastings ...........
Havana ...........
Hawks Park.........
Hawthorne .........
Holly Hill...........
Hilliard ............
Homestead .........
Interlachen .........
Jennings ...........
Kathleen ...........
LaBelle ............
Lake Butler .........
Lake Helen..........
Lake Alfred.........
Lakewood ..........
Lake Worth ........
Largo .............
Laurel Hill....... . .
Lawtey .. . . .
Lee ................
Macclenny ..........
Maitland ...........
Malone .............
Mayo ..............
Mayport ............
McIntosh ...........
Melbourne .. .......
Melrose .. .......

Micanopy ...........
M illville ............
Mt. Dora ............
Noma ..............
Oakland ............
Okeechobee .........
Orange City.........
Orange Park.........
Ormond ............
Ozona ..............
Passa-a-Grille .......
Palatka Heights......
Palm Beach .........
Paxton .............
Pinellas Park........
Ponce de Leon.......
Pomona .. .......
Pompano ...........
Port Orange........
Raiford ...........
Reddick ............


COUNTIES

Brevard ...........
M anatee ...........
H olmes .............. i
Putnam ............
St. Lude...........
D ade ...............I
W alton ............ I
Jackson ............
Gadsden ............
Gadsden ............
M adison ............
Pinellas ............ .
Polk ...............
Broward ...........
Bradford ...........
St. Johns ....... ..
Gadsden ...... ..... .
Volusia . . . . . . .
Alachua ............ .
Volusia .... . .....
Nassau . . . . . . .
D ade ...............
Putnam ............ I
Hamilton ........... .
P olk ...............
L ee ................
Bradford ........... .
Volusia .............
P olk ................
W alton .............
Palm Beacl. .......
Pinellas ............
Walton ..............
Bradford ...........
Madison .......
Baker ............ .
Orange ... .........
Jackson ....... ....
Lafayette .....
uval ..............
M arion .. .......... I
Brevard ............
(Alachua) ..........
(Putnam) .. ......
Alachua ............ I
B ay ................ I
Lake ...............
Holmes .............
Orange . ......... I
St. Lucie ............
Volusia .............
C lay ...............
Volusia .............
Pinellas ............
Pinellas ......... ...
Putnam ... ....... !
Palm Beacb ......... I
W alton .............
Pinellas ............ I
Holmes ............. .
Putnam ............ I
Broward ............ I
Volusia ............. I
Bradford ...........
M arion .. ......... I


1915

543
497
276
279
898
368
104
731
297
131
622
284
378
407
349
558
486
178
496
378
429
721
350
682
361
240
832
786
253
324
612 |
552
300
532
212
368
145
633
719
500
206 I
408

191
617
692
576
832
250
982
506
341
857
152
109
734
113
329
223
295
438
484
296
500
191


~-~~----~--~-


White Negro Total
1910
300 43 329
290 207
222 54 340
121 158 147
689 209 ......
307 61
104
580 151 734
227 70 175
66 65 201
288 334 751
281 3
246 132
211 196
221 128 265
... .. t 399
334 152 432
172 1
264 232 324
365 13 207
242 187
425 296
147 203 263
370 312 480
321 40
236 4
570 262 685
336 450 646
134 119
149 175 360
612 ..
504 48 291
288 12 816
299 233 492
193 19 ....
298 70 388
126 19 157
322 311 ..
498 221 578
315 185 441
162 44 ..
404 4 157

146 45 245
295 322 613
464 228 ..
403 173 371
634 198 806
161 89 211
902 80 .
185 321 490
136 203 372
411 446 780
141 11 ..
78 31 ..
415 319 367
101 12 ..
247 112 .
179 44 ..
240 55 ..
214 224 301
257 227 269
269 27 ......
330 170 ....
126 65 ( 498










58



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS OF 1,000 AND UNDER: 1915 AND 1010.
Continued.


CITIES AND TOWNS COUNTIES. I 1915 White
I
San Mateo ... .. utnam ............. 327 186
Seabreeze . ..... olusia ...... ... .... 443 435
Sopehoppy .......... Wakulla ............ I 150 147
Sneads .............. Jackson ............ 571 337
Stuart ......... ... Palm Beach ......... 599 484
Sebring .. ... DeSoto ............. 398 356
Taft ............... Orange .......... .. 216 88
Tavares ........ . Lake ............... 449 370
Trenton ...... ... Alachua ............ 550 300
Umatllla ........... Lake ............... 527 527
Waldo .......... Alachua ........... I 550 300
Webster .. ......... Sumter ............. 307 250
Welborn ............ Suwannee .......... 341 262
White Springs....... Hamilton ........... 900 631
W illiston ........... Levy ............... 800 457
Wildwood .......... Sumter ............. 385 276
Winter Garden....... Orange ............. 648 432
Winter Park......... Orange ............. 787 400
Welaka ............ Putnam ............ 350 177
Zolfo .............. I DeSoto ........ 350 284


Negro I Total
S1910
141 110
8 308
3 192
234 506
115 ..
42 .
128 .
79 175
250 304
. . . . 283
250 304
57 301
79 247
269 1,177
343 371
109 329
216 351
387 570
173 294
66 171


*The variation in this total is caused by the addition of persons of another race.
tThe enumerator gave only the total population, failing to define the corporate
limits, so that the number of each race cannot be stated.


















PART II.

CROP ACREAGES AND CONDITIONS.













DIVISION OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES.

Following are the divisions of the State, and the coun-
ties contained in each:

Northern Division. Northeastern Division.
Franklin, Alachua,
Gadsden, Baker,
Hamilton, Bradford,
Jefferson, Clay,
Lafayette, Columbia,
Leon, Duval,
Liberty, Nassau,
Madison, Putnam,
Suwannee, St. Johns-9.
Taylor,
Wakulla-11.
Central Division.
Western Division. Citrus,
Bay, Hernando,
Calhoun, Lake,
Escambia. Levy,
Holmes. Marion,
Jackson, Orange,
Okaloose, Pasco,
Santa Rosa, Seminole,
Walton, Sumter,
Washington-9. Volusia-10.
Southern Division.
Brevard,
Broward, Monroe,
Dade, Osceela,
DeSoto, Palm Beach,
Hillsborough, Pinellas,
Lee. Polk,
Manatee. St. Lucie-13.














DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
W. A. McRAE, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk.



CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.

By DIVISIONS.

NORTHERN DIVISION. The climatic conditions existing
in this division differ very considerably from those of
last year. Last year, it will be remembered, excessive
rains almost flooded the country and that they extended
late into the season. It was cold also at the same time.
This season, conditions have been almost the reverse,
except as to cold, and although not quite as cold as last
year it has been cool enough to interfere with cotton to
a considerable extent. The greatest difficulty this season
has been the extended dry weather which has affected
not only this division, but the entire State. It has had
the effect of causing late planting and also of delaying
to a great extent the planting of both cotton and corn
crops, also seriously affecting the final growth and
development of the oat crop, which at one time bid fair
to be a record breaking crop in this division and this
section as well as the entire northern section of the State.
There has been considerable reduction in the acreage
planted to cotton. This is because of the uncertain mar-
ket conditions which have produced low prices as well
as uncertainty in these values. The acreage to grain
crops has generally been considerably increased over last
year. The general condition of crops throughout this
division is only fair because of the drought. This con-
dition has also affected the pastures of the country and
kept back the improvement in live stock accordingly.










Otherwise, live stock is doing well, no sickness being re-
ported of any consequence in the counties of this division.
WESTERN DIVISION. Practically the same conditions
exist in this section as in the one previously discussed.
The acreage in cotton is slightly increased over the
former one, but to no appreciable extent. The whole
season has been dry, lacking rain, not only through the
latter part of the winter, but the entire spring. The
condition of crops is about the same as in the fore-
going division. Live stock is also in about the same con-
dition, and pastures are affected in this section as in
the former. Altogether the conditions are only fair,
which can be attributed more to the continued dry
weather than anything else, although corn in many local-
ities is looking well.
NORTHEASTERN DIVISION. The climatic conditions here
are practically the same as in the others, although the
ability to plant certain crops earlier than in the north-
ern and western portions of the State anl difference in
the character of the soil, have made it easier to get bet-
ter stands than in the first mentioned. Cotton in this
district, which is mostly of the sea island variety, is in
possibly better condition and a larger acreage than in
the first two mentioned divisions. There has also been
a little more precipitation in this division than in the
more northerly and westerly sections. This, of course.
coupled with the loose character of the soil, has given it
an advantage over these sections. Corn is planted to a
greater extent than last year and is in equally as good
condition. Live stock is also in fair condition and the
pastures are holding out remarkably well considering
the extended dry season.
CENTRAL DIVISION. The climatic conditions existing
in this district are also about the same as in the others.
These conditions are so wide spread that they might be
classed as universal. In this division a great part of the
vegetable and fruit products of the State are grown and,










as a rule, are grown mostly in the late winter and early
spring. They are, therefore, not quite as badly affected
by adverse climatic conditions as those further north
and west. There have also been occasional showers over
various sections of this division which have been of
great benefit to the fruit and vegetable crops, but, as a
rule, there has been little difference throughout this sec-
tion from those first discussed. There being more low
lands in this section than in the more northerly ones,
pastures are to some extent better and live stock is in
correspondingly better condition. Under these condi-
tions it is hardly to be expected that live stock will grow
to the normal condition before the latter part of June.
This will apply also to all other divisions of the State.
One thing is notable, however, that in all this there are
fatal diseases in only one or two small localities in the
State and chiefly among the hogs.
SOUTHERN DIVISION. In this division conditions ap-
pear to be practically the same as in the rest of the State,
and there is, practically, little difference in the condi-
tion of the fruit and other crops grown in this section.
Reports show, however, that the citrus crops are not in
quite as good condition as they should be. In a possi-
ble condition of 100 the reports from numerous cor-
respondents on the subject show only about a real condi-
tion of 85%, in some places it is lower than that, so if
there is anything in the indications at present, the com-
ing citrus fruit crop will certainly be smaller than that
of last year. There is an increase, however, in the plant-
ing of avocado pears and mangoes and other tropical
fruits and their development is being attained in a more
successful way than formerly, in fact, this is because of
a better understanding of the true requirements of these
various products. Taken all together, the yield of the
vegetable crop of the State may be expected to fall some-
what below the normal and can be classed as only a fair
yield, although in. possibly, a majority of instances the
5 -Bul







66

crops harvested, with the exception of the citrus fruit
crop, have been as remunerative as usual. The best fruit
crop, as to acreage, condition, yield and profit, appears to
have been the strawberry crop. This would indicate that
a much larger acreage could be profitably planted to
strawberries and that they could also be growu much
further south for commercial purposes than they are at
present. When we take into consideration conditions
throughout the State it is probable that most of the crops
will show an average yield.









67


REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION OF CROPS BY PERCENT-
AGES PLANTED AND BEING PLANTED, FOR THE QUARTER
ENDING MARCH 31, 1916, AS COMPARED WITH SAME PERIOD
FOR 1915.


COUNTIES.

Northern Division.
Franklin ............... ..
Gadsden .........................
H am ilton ........................
Jefferson ........................
T.afayett . . . . . . . . . .
Leon ...........................
M adison ......................... I
Taylor .........................
Wakulla . ... ................. I


Upland
Cotton.
Acreage.

20


90
50

50
.1


Sea Island
Cotton.
SAcreage. I

50
S..0
S 50
SO


t ?C


C(ort.

Acreage.
100
110
100
100
115
110
60
100
9o


uiv. Average per cent .............. I ul I o I
Western Division.
Calhoun ........................ 35 35 110
Escambia ................. .... . 100 .. 125
Holmes .......................... 40 .120
Okaloosa ........................ 100
Walton ............ ......... I. 100
Santa Rosa ...................... 75 100
Washinton ....................... 50 .. 125
Div. Average per cent. .............. 64 I 35 111
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... .. 115 100
Baker ..................... .. 115 90
-radford ........................ 95 110 100
(lay ............................ .. 110 115
Celumbia ........................ 90 120
Nassau ..............100 125
St. Johns ........................ 100
Div. Average per cent............. .I 95 I 107 l 107
Central Division.
Hernando .................... 95
Lake .............. 90
Levy ............................ 50 60 90
Marion ....................... . 80 100 100
Orange .......................... 100
Pasco ........ ..... ............. 100
Seminole ........................ 100
Sumter .......... .. 100
Volusia ...................... .. 100
Div. Average per cent.............. I 80 97
Southern Division.
Brevard ..........................
DeSo to .......................... 00
Dade 100
DeSoto 2.00
Hlee............................... 100
Manatee . . . 100
Osceola . ...................... 120
Palm Beach ...................... .. 120
Polk ............................ .. 125
St. Lucie ........................ 125
Div. Average per cent.............. I I 124
State Average per cent............. 70 I 70 108









68


REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. Oats. Bugarcane. Broom Uorn

Northern Division. Acreage. Acreage. I Acreage.
Franklin ......................... 80 100 I
Gadsden ......................... 20 40 100
Hamilton ........................ 20 90 I
Jefferson ........................ 90 40 SO
Lafalette .................... .... 90 40
Leon ............................ 110 100
Madison ... .............. I 110 100
Taylor............. 40 75
Wakulla .......... 100 100
Div. Average per cent.............. 73 I 76 I 90
Western Division.
Calhoun ........................ 100 o 75
Eseambia ....................... 100 125 10)
Holmes ..... ................ 110 105
Okaloosa' ... ..................... 110 100
Santa Rosa .................. 100 100
Walton.......................... 75 40
Walton . . 75 40
Washington ...................... 125 110 110
Div. Average per cent.............. 103 I 94 105
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ........ .............. 65 100
Baker ........................... 100 110
Bradford ........................ 95 100 125
Clay ........................... 100 100
Columbia ........................ 200 100
Nassau ...... ......... 100 100 100
St. Johns .............. ......... 100 100
Div. Average per cent.............. 109 101 1 113
Central Division.
Hernando .................... I... 95 100 :2
Lake ............................ 80 1 100
Levy ...... ................. 90 90
Marion ........... ....... .. ....... 100 105
Orange .................... ..... 100 100
Pasco ............................ 80 0
Sem nole ............. ......... 100 100
Volusta .......................... 110 100
Div. Average per cent.............. 95 97 .
Southern Division.
Brevard .................. ........ .
Broward ................... ...... .
Dade ....................... ...
DeSoto ............................ 200
Hlllsborough ....... ........... .. 100
Lee ............................. .. 100
Manatee ......................... 100 50
Osceola .................. I 100 100 100
Palm Beach ...................... 125
Polk ...... ....................... 100 150
St. Lucie ......................... I 105 __
Div. Average per cent..............I 133 111 1 75
State Average per cent ............. I 103 96 9














AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES.

Northern Division.
Franklin ..................... .
Gadsden ..................... .
Hamilton ........................
Jefferson ............
Lafayette ..........
Leon . ...........
M adison ........................
Taylor .............
W akulla .............
Div. Average per cent..............


I


Tobacco Tobacco
Open Under Rye.
Field Shade
Acreage. I Acreage. I Acreage.

100 s85 610
.... 75

100 o 1600
100

100 75
"100 | 98 I 72


Western Division.
Calhoun .................... . .
Escambia ..................... .. 7 1
Holmes ........................... .
Okaloosa ........ ............... .
Santa Rosa ..................... ... 100
W alton ...................... ..
W ashington .................. .. .. 100
Div. Average per cent.............. 1 80 75i 100
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ......................... .. . 100
Baker ........................... .. .. 80
Bradford ........................ .. .. 100
Clay ........................... .. 125
Columbia ...................... .. 110
Nassau .......................... . 100
St. Johns ......................... .
Div. Average per cent..............| .. I 1 103
Central Division.
Hernando ......... ... .....
Lake ............................ ...
Levy aron.......................... .
M arion .......................... .....
Orange ........ ; .
Pasco ........................... 1
Seminole ........................ 125
Sum tcr ........................
Volusia ....................
Div. Average per cent .............. 125 I 100 90
Southern Division.
Brevard ..................... .... ....
Broward .........................
D ade ..........................
D eSoto ..........................
Hillsborough ..................... .. .. 1 100
L ee .............................
Manatee ......................... .. .. 100
Osceola ....................... .. .
Palm Beach ........... .... ....
Polk ............................
St. Lucie ........................
Div. Average per cent.............. . 100
State Average per cent............. | 102 91 93


REPORT OF ACREAGE



















Northern
Franklin
Gadsden
Hamllto
Jefferso:
Lafayet
Leon .
Madison
Taylor
Wakulla
Div. Av


REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. Rice. S rweet \ Field Peas
COU Potatoes. I
"n Division. Acrenge. Acreage. Acreage.
a ................... ...... ..100 100
n 1 0...........
n ........................I 0 100


S...... .............. 00 00
a .....c .................... 95_ 90
erage per cent. . . . . ... I 50 I 93


Western Division.
Calhoun ...... ............. . 12 I 100
Escam bia ........................ I 7) I 150
Holm es .......................... 110 105
Okaloosa .......... . 100 100
Santa Rosa. ...................... 100 10., 100
W alton .......................... 50 100 100
Washington ...... ... ......... 100 100 100
DIv. Average per cent.............. 81 I 112 I 10S
Northeastern Division.
Alachua .................. ... 1 0
Baker ........................... 10. 100 100
Bradford ......................... 100 110 100
Clay ...... .. ............... I 100 100
Columbia ........................ 100 00 110
Nassau .......................... 150 125 125
St. Johns ........................ 100 100
Div. Average per cent.............. 111 I 104 9 S
Central Division.
Ilernando .............. ........... 1 0 10
Lake ................... 90 101)
LevyMarion ................... . 100 100
Marion 01) I1w
Pascnge ........................... 70 100
Seminole ......................... 100 100
Sumter .......................... ... 100 100
Volusia ....... .......... .. 1.00 100 120
Div. Average per cent.............. 90 I 97 103
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... .... .......... 8 SO
Broward ...................... ... 100 100
Dade .................... 100 100
DeSoto .......................... 200 300 250
Hlllsborough ..................... 100 100 100
Lee ....... ........... 100 10 100
Manatee .... ..... ...... 100 100 100
Oseeola .................. ....... 100 100
Palm Beach ......... ...... .. 150
Polk ............................ .. 125 120
St. Lucie ................... ... 100
Div. Average per cent.............. 120 124 I 119
State Average per cent.............I 90 105 I 104










71


REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. Peanuts. Cassava. Velvet
I| Beans.
Northern Division. Acreage. | Acreage. Acreage.
Franklin ......................... 40 .. 50
a adsden ........................ 75 I .. 50
amilton ......................... 120 .. 100
Jefferson ......................... . I 75
Lafayette .......................... 75 75
Leon 1............................10
M adison ......................... I 110 I .. 100
Taylor ........................... 100 .. 90
Wakulla .........................I 100 8 .. O0
Div. Average per cent.............. I 84 1 . 81
Western Division.
Calhoun ........................ 120 .. 100
Escambia ........................ 150 I 100 200
H olm es .......................... I 115 .. 120
Okaloosa ......................... 110 .. 100
Santa Rosa ..................... 100 I .. 100
W alton .......................... 100 I .. 110
W ashington ...................... 105 .. 130
Div. Average per cent.............. 114 100 | 123
Xortheastern Division.
Alachna ......................... 115 .. 115
Baker ........................... 110 100 120
Bradford ........................ 100 100
Clay ............................ 90 100 110
Columbia ........................ I 110 .. 120
Nassau ........................ 125 100 125
St. Johns ........................ 100 100
Div. Average per cent.............. 108 | 100 | 113
Central Division.
Hernando ........................I 100 .. 0.
Lake ............................ 75 9I 0 110
Levy ............................ 100 .. 110
M arion .......................... 100 110
Orange ....................... . 60 120
Pasco ........................... 70 .. 100
Sem inole ......................... .. .. 100
Sum ler .......................... .. .. 100
Volusia ......................... 115 120
Div. Average per cent .............. 93 | 75 107
Southern Division.
Brevard .........................I .
Broward ................. ....... 100
Dale .................... ...... 100 .. 100
DeSoto ... ....................... .. 200
Hillsborough ..................... 100 100
Lee ............................. .. | 100 100
Manatee ......................... .. 100 100
Osceola .......................... 125 .. 150
Palm Beach ...................... .
Polk .................... ....... 125
St. Lucie ........................ 100 .. 100
Div. Average per cent........... ... 108 100 122
State Average per cent ............. | 101 i 04 1 109













REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES.

Northern Division.
Franklin ......... .....
Gadsden ..............
Hamilton ............
Jefferson ... ..........
Lafayette .............
Leon .................
Taylor ................
W akulla ...............
Div. Average per cent... I


Cabbage. I rish Potatoes.

Acreage. I Condition. Acreage. I Condition.
100 100 100 100
10 50
75 60 75 65
80 80
110 1 66 110 10066
100 100 1 100 100

93 88 I 79 83


Western Division.
Calhoun ............. 100 0 100 I 200 I 00
Escambla ........... 100 85 50 75
Holmes ............... 1015 100 110 I 100
Okaloosa .............. .. .. I .
Santa Rosa ............ 7. 5 I 90 100 1 90
W alton ............... .. .. ..
Washington ........ .. 100 9
Div. Average per cent...) 95 94 112 91
Northeastern Division.
Alachua................ .. I I I.
B aker ................ .. .
Bradford ............... ... 100 90
Clay ............... 100 100 100 100
Columbia .............. 110 100 85 90
Nassau ................ 100 75 I 7 75
St. Johns ............. 100 90 100 SO
Div. Average per cent... 108 91 92 I 87
Central Division.
Hernando ............. 100 I 100 I 100 00
Lake .................. I 100 I 90 I 100 8
Levy ................. 90 I 90 90 80
Marion ............... 95 90 I 105 100
Orange .............. I.
Pasco ................. 60 80 70 60
Seminole .... .. 100 100 100 90
Sumter .......... 80 1 80 80 75
Volusla .............. 100 80 100 70
Div. Average per cent.. 91 | 89 1 93 8 81
Southern Division.


Brevard ............
Broward ..........
Dade .................
DeSoto ...............
Hlllsborough ..........
Lee ...................
Manatee ..............
Osceola ...............
Palm Beach............
Polk .................
St. Lucle.............
Div. Average per cent...
State Averafe ner cent..


90
300
100
l66
100
100
too
100

122
101


85
85
100
90
90
90
90
90

90
90


95
100
250
100
100
100
200
150
110
100
131
101


90
90
100
90
90
90
100
100
90
90
93
87











73


REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. Tomatoes. CuVcumbers.


Northern Divison. Acreage. Condition.
Franklin .............. 100 I 75
Gadsden .............. .
Hamilton.. ...........1
Jefferson .............. I ...
Lafayette .............I
Leon ................. o100 100
Madison ..............I 100 100
Taylor ...............
Wakulla ........... ..
Tlv. Avrave noer ent... I 100 I 02


Acreage. I Condition.
100 90



100 100
100 90

100 n 98


Western Division.
Calhoun .............. 0 100 100
Escambia ............ 100 85 100 85
Holmes .............. ...
Okaloosa ...........
Santa Rosa........... 100 90 100 85
W alton ............... .
Washington ........ .
Div. Average per cent.... I 97 88 100 90
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... .
Baker ............. ... .
Bradford ............. 5 85 95 85
Clay ................. 110 100 100 100
Columbia ............. 100 90 100 90
Nassau ............... 100 75 100 90
St. Johns.............. 100 80 100 80
Div. Average per cent... 101 I 86 99 89
Central Division.
IIernando ............. 100 90
Lake ................. 100 S
Levy ............... .. 9 0 8 00 80
Marion ............... 100 05 100 95
Orange .............. .
Pasco ................ 60 70 50 60
Seminole ............. 100 90 100 85
Sumter ............... 75 70 100 90
Volusia ............... 100 70 100 80
Div. Average per cent .. 89 81 I 93 81
Southern Division.
Brevard ..............
Broward .............. 100 100 90 85
Dade ................. 100 100 95 85
DeSoto ............... 250 100 250 100
Hillsborough .......... 100 100 100 90
Lee .................. 100 90 100 100
Manatee .............. 100 100 100 100
Osceola ...............I 100 90 200 95
Palm Beach............ 120 90 110 100
Polk .................. 120 90 125 90
St. Lucie ............. 120 95 115 85
Div. Average per cent... I 121 96 129 _093
State Average per cent.. I 102 89 104 1 89














REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. English Peas. Beans.

Northern' Division. I Acreage. I Condition. Acreage. Condition.
Franklin ....... ....... 75 I 100 100 75
Gadsden .............. I
Hamilton .............I I
Jefferson ............. .
Lafayette .............
Leon ................. 100 9 100 00
Madison .............. 100 100 100 00
Taylor ............... .
W akulla ..............
Div. Average per cent... 97 I 100 I 88
Western Division..
talhoun ... .......... 100 | 100 FI 1
Escambia ........... .. 125 100 100 90
Holmes .
Ilolmes ............... I ... .. ..
Okaloos:a ..............
Santa Rosa ............ 100 100 100 90
W alton .............. I .
W ashington ........... .
Div. Average per cent... 108 100 I 100 90
Nortiheaster Division.
Alachua ..............I .. I .
Baker ...............
Bradford .............: 95 I 8 105 95
Clay .................
Columbia .............. 110 100 100 90
Nassau ................ 125 50 100 85
St. Johns .......... .. I. ..
Div. Average per cent... | 110 | 78 F 102 90
Central Division.
Hernando ............. .
Lake ................. 100 90 85 85
Levy ................. 90 75 85 80
Marion .. ............. 100 100 100 90
Orange ................ .. ..
Pasco ................ 80
Seminole .............. 100 100 100 83
Summer ............... 100 SO
Volutia ................. 100 90 100 70
Div. Average per cent... 08 91 9S 79
Southern Division.


Brevard .............. ..
Broward .............. !
Dade ......... .
D) Solo .............. I 00
S[illsboroug . . . . .
Lee .................. I .
Lee I
M anatee .............. I
Osceola ......... .
Palm Beach ......
Polk .. .........
St. Lucie ............. 100
Div. Average per cent... | 96
State Averace nor cent..l 101


I 75 - So
85 110 I 100
90 110 i 100
100 3 00 100
100 100
1 .. 100 100
100 100
S 100 100 100
I 100 100
125 100
S 90_ 110 90
S 93 | 121 97
92 103 I 89


Stnte~~~~ Avry n-cn 0













REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. Lettuce. Egg Plants.

'ortlicrn Dirision. Acreage. ICondition. Acreage. Condition.
Franklin ..............I 90 60 60 75
Gadsden .............. I .
Hamilton ............. . I
Jefferson ............. :
Lafayette ............ .
Leon ................ 100 100 90 80
Madison .............. 100 100
Taylor ............... ....
W akulla .............. ... .
Div. Average per cent... 97 1 87 75 78
Western Division.
Calhoun ..............
Escambia ............. 100 160 160 100
Holmes ............... ..
Okaloosa ........... ... ..
Santa Rosa ................ ..
Walton .. ...............
Washington .......... ....
Div. Average per cent... 100 100 100 I s8
Yorthieastern Division.
Alacl ua .............. I .. .
B aker ................ .. ..
Bradfordl ............. .. 95 90
C(lay ................ .
Columbia ............. 100 100 100 160
Nassau ............... 100 75 100 60
St. Johns ............. 100 90 100 75
Div. Average per cent... I 100 88 I 99 -81
Central Division.
Hernando ............. .. .
Lake ............ I .. .. .. ..
Levy .... . . . . .
Marion ......... I 100 100 100
Orange ...............
Pasco ........... 70 70 80 75
Seminole ............. 100 100 100 70
Sumter ...............
Volusa ............... .. 100 100 100 70
Div. Average per cent... 93 98 95 I 75
oounthern Division.
Brevard ........ ..... ... .40 70-
Broward .......... .. 100 100
Dade ................. 100 100 100 100
DeSoto ...............
Hillsborough .......... 100 00
Lee ..................
Manatee .............. 100 100 100 100
Osceola ............... 100 100
Polk ................. 100 100
St. Lucle .............. 100 85
Div. Average per cent... 100 _97 88 | 89
State Average per cent..---98 98 91 81














REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES.


Cele


Northern Dvision. i Acreage.
Franklin ............. 60
Gadsden ..............
Hamilton ...... .....
Jefferson .............
Lafayette ..........
Leon .................
M adison ..............
Taylor ...............
W akulla .............. .
fDlv Avernee ner cent... I 0 O


ry. Beets.

Condition. Acreage. I Condition.
75 100 100




100 100

75 1 100 1 100


Western Division.
Calhoun ... .. .' .. *
Escambia ............. 75 90 10064 166
Holmes .... .
Okaloosa .......
Santa Rosa ...........
W alton ............... ..
Washington ...........
Div, Average per cent... 75 90 100 100
Northeastern Division.
Alachua .......
Baker ......
Bradford ...........
Clay ..
Columbia ............. 100 90 100 90
Nassau ............... 100 85 100 100
St. Johns ............. 100__L_ 85
Dlv. Average per cent...1 100 I 87 100 95
Central Diviion.
Hernando .............
Lake ................... .
Levy ...........100 100
Marion ............... 100 100 100 100
Orange ............... .
Paeo ....... ....... .
Seminole ............. 125 100 100 100
Sumter ............... 100 90
Volulsa ................ 100 100 100 100
Div. Average per cent... 108 I 100 100 I 98
Southern Diviston.
Brevard .................
Dade ................. .
DeSoto ....... .......
Hlllsborough ....... .. 100 100
Lee ..................
Manatee ............... 100 100 50 75
Osceola ............... 120 100 100 I 100
Palm Beach ........... 50 90
Pol ................. ....
St. Lucie .............
Div. Average per cent.. 3 1 98 75 I 88
State Average per cent.. 87 I 90 95 | 96


I












REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. W Watermelons. cOataloupes.

Northern Diviaton. I Acreage. I Condition. Areage. ICondition.
Franklin .............. 100 100 100 100
Gadsden ........... .. 100 90
Hamilton ........... 80 75
Jefferson ............. 50 0 60 0
Lafayette ............. 75 50
Leon ................. 110 85 100 90
Madison .............. 110 85 100 85
Taylor ................ 100 90
Wakulla .............. 110 90
Div. Average per cent.... 92 | 78 1-92 8
Western Division.
Calhoun ............... 8 80 7- 80
Escambia ............. 150 85 150 85
Holmes ............... 105 90
Okaloosa ............ 100 90
Santa Rosa ........... 100 90 100 9
Walton ............... 100 100
Washington ........... 100 90 100 90
Div. Average per cent... 105 | 89 1 85 86
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... 50100
Baker ................ 100 90 50 90
Bradford ............. 110 95 100 90
Clay ................ 100 100
Columbia ............. 90 85 100 86
Nassau ............... 125 90 100 90
St. Johns ............. 100 90
Div. Average per cent... 104 91 I 80 89
Central Division.
Hernando ............. 95 90
Lake ................. 100 85 100 75
Levy ................. 75 60 75 50
Marion ............... 95 90 95 90
Orange ........... ... 40 80
Pasco ................ 80 90 70 85
Seminole .............. 90 85 90 85
Sumter ............... 100 85 100 85
Volusia ............... . 70 70
Div. Average per cent... 83 82 | 88 788
Southern Division.
Brevard .............. .......
Broward .............. ...
Dade .................
DeSoto ................ 250 100
Hillsborough .......... 75 75 TB 40
Lee ..................
Manatee .............. 50 75 40 40
Oscela ................ .
Palm Beach ........... 1600 0
Polk ................. 110 900
St. Lucle .............I 90 85 ..
Div. Average per cent...| 113 | 86 5 40
State Average per cent.. 99 85 I 81 y--













REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. I Strawberries. Orange Lemon
Trees. Trees.
Northern Divison. Acreage. I Condition. Condition. I Condition.
Franklin ............. 90 90 75 I 75
Gadsden . . .
Hamilton ...........
Jefferson ............ .
Lafayette ........
Leon ................. 100 100
Madison .............. ...
Taylor ........
Wakulla ...........
Div. Average per cent... 95 95 88 88


Western Division.
Calhoun ........... s 1 80
Escambia ....... 100 90
Holmes .. . .... .
Okaloosa .............
Santa Rosa ........... 100 100
W alton ............... I 100
Washington ............ 1 I -
niv Avers.e npr cent.. .1 100 95 I 90 1 80


Northeastern Division.

Baker .............. 75 90
Bradford ............. 115 I 100 85 85
Clay . ....... . .. I 0 s
Columbia ............. 110 100
Nassau ... ......... 200 100 90 75
St. Johns ............ 110 90 100
Div. Average per cent... I 122 I 96 I 81 80
Central Division.
Hernando ........... 100 100 125
Lake ........ ........ 100 90 60
Levy ................ I 85
Marion ............... 10 100 1' 100 100
Orange ........... 75
Pasco ................ 80
Seminole ........... 100 90 100
Sumter ........ 85
Volusia ............... 100 75 40
Div. Average per cent... 98 89 75 100
Southern Division.
Brevard .............. 1 75 85
Broward ........... .100 80
Dade ................. 100 100 100 80
DeSoto ............... . 60 60
Hillsborough .......... 200 100 .
Lee ............
Manatee .............. 95
Osceola ............... 200 100 70 70
Palm Beach ............ 100 100 85 80
Polk ................. 225 100 90 85
St. Lucle ............. .. .. 90
Div. Average per cent...l 165 100 I 85 | 77
State Average per cent.. I 116 1 95 [ 84 I 85













REPORT OF ACREAGE AND

COUNTIES.

Northern Division.
Franklin .............. ..
Gadsden ..................
H amilton ........................
Jefferson ........................I
Lafayette ........................
L eon ............................ I
Madison .......... .............
Madison .................
Wakulla ........... ......
Div. Average nr cent............


CONDITION-Continued.

I Grape
Lime Fruit Pineapples.
Trees. Trees.
Condition. Condition. I Condition.
75



S 10688


88


Western Division.
Calhoun .................... .... .. 80
Holmes .......
Okaloosa .......................
Santa Rosa .....................
W alton .................
Washington ................
Div. Average per cent............. I .. I 80


Northeastern Division.
Alachua ....... ........... .
Baker ........... ..... ...
Bradford ........................
Clay ............................
Columbia ............
Nassau ..........................
St. Johns .......................
Div. Average per cent.............


Central Division.


n er anuo ........................
Lake ............................
Levy . ..
M arion ........................ .
Orange ........................ .
Pasco ......................... .
Sem inole ........................
Sum ter ..........................
Volusia ................ .
Div. Average per cent..... .. ......
Southern Division.
Brevard .........................
Broward ...........
D ade ............................
DeSoto .........................
Hillsborough .............
L ee .............................
M anatee .........................
Osceola ..........................
Palm Beach ......................
Polk ..........................
St. Lucie .......................
Div. Average per cent..............
State Average per cent.............


80

90 1
100


125
75
85
100

90
100
90
40
87


75 85 100
85 100 90
90 100 95
60 75


70 70 130
85 90 90
90 0
90 95
78 | 9 100
69 j 85 | 100


.


m I












REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES. Mangoes.

Northern Diviion. I Condition.
Franklin ....... .. .. ...........
Gadsden .........................
H amilton .........................
Jefferson ........................ .
Lafayette ........................
Leon ......................... I
M adison .........................
Taylor ........... . . ..... .
W akulla ...... ...............
Div. Average per cent .............


Guarasi. Avacadon

SCondition. Condition






..


Western Division.
Calhoun ................... . ..
Escambia .................
Holm es ..........................
Okaloosa ........................
Santa Rosa ......................
Walton ..........................
Washington ................
Div. Average per cent.............. ..
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ......................... .. I .
Baker ........................... .. ..
Bradford ....................... ... .
Clay ............................ .
Columbia ........................ .
Nassau .......................... ..
St. Johns ................... .. .
Div. Average per cent............. .. .
Central Division.

Lake ....................
Levy ....
M arion .....................
Orange .......................... .
Pasco ........................... .. 60
Seminole ................. .. 100
unster 100
Sinter ..........................
Voluia ......................... 1 100
Div. Average per cent............. .. 8
Southern Division.
Brevard ......................... . .. 10
Broward ......................... 1 100
Dade ........................... 100 100 100
DeSoto .......................... 80 100 I
Hillsborough .....................
ol o..............................
Lee ... ......
Manatee ........................1 10I
Osceola ......................... 120 100 90
Palm Beach ..................... 100 100 100
Polk ................
St. Lucie ........... ........... 90
Div. Average per cent.............. 98 I 9 88
State Average per cent............. 98 [ 88 98


~--i--


----~












REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. Peaches. Pears. B
Northern Division. I Condition. Condition. Co
Franklin .............. .. ...... I .. 75
Gadsden ....................... .I
H am ilton ........................
Jefferson .......... ...........
Lafayette ..... ............... 16 4
Leon ................ ........... 100 45
M adison ....................... I 100 40
Taylor ......... ..............1.. .
Wakulla ........................... 100
Div. Average r cent .............. j NO- --- ---8


naseMs.
anaon.

mnditlon.
50






60


Western Division.
Calroun .......... ....... . 7 50
Escam hia ............. .........
H olm es .... ..................
Okaloosa ..... ....... ........
Santa Rosa ............... .... 100 75
W alton .......................... 100 50
Washington .................... 100 50
Dlv. Average per cent.............. 94 I 56
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ......................... 960 50
Baker ........................... 50 100
Bradford ........................ 0 00
Clay ............................ ..
Columbia ........................ 100 100
Nassau .......................... 50 100 75
St. Johns ........................ 100 100
Div. Average per cent............... 80 910 75
Central Division.
Hernando ........................ 125 100 75
Lake ............................ 60 50
Levy .............................. 80 75
Marion ............... ..... ...... 100 100 100
Orange .......................... 100 100
Pasco ................... ..... ... 60 40
Seminole .................... .. 100
Sumter .................
Volus a ..........................
Div. Average per cent....... ...... 1 [T 7 SW
Southern Division.
Brevard
Brevard .........................
Broward .
DadeS 10......................
Hillbshorough ......
Lee .
Osceola ....................... 60
Palm Beach ......... ...... ..... 99
Polk ...........................
St. Lucie ........................ I .
Div. Average per cent.............. .
State Average per cent ............. 89 5 74


6-Bul


















PART III.

Fertilizers,
Feed Stuffs and,
Food and Drugs.















ANALYSIS OF FOODS AND DRUGS.


Samples of Foods and Drugs are drawn under special
regulations as provided by law.

Applications should be made to the Commissioner of
Agriculture or State Chemist for the necessary blanks,
instructions, etc., for drawing and transmitting samples
of foods and drugs, including drinks of all kinds.

FOOD AND DRUG SAMPLES NOT DRAWN AND TRANSMITTED
ACCORDING TO LAW WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED FOR ANALYSIS.

COPIES OF LAWS, RULES AND REGULATIONS
AND STANDARDS.

Citizens of the State interested in fertilizers, foods and
drugs, and stock feed, can obtain, free of charge, the
respective Laws, including Rules and Regulations and
Standards, by applying to the Commissioner of Agricul-
ture or State Chemist. Application for the Quarterly
Bulletin of the State Department of Agriculture should
also be made to the Commissioner of Agriculture or
State Chemist. The Bulletins of the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station can be had by application to
the Director at Gainesville.

R. E. RosE,
State Chemist.
Approved:
W. A. McRAE,
Commissioner of Agriculture.
Tallahassee, Fla., January 1, 1916.










STATE VALUATIONS.

(Based on commercial values, Dec. 31, 1915.)
For Available and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid. Ammonia
and Potash for the Season of 1916.

Available Phosphoric Acid.............. 6c a pound
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid.............. Ic a pound
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen) .. 19,c a pound
Potash (as actual potash. KO ......... 40c a pound
If calculated by units-
Available Phosphoric Acid................1.20 per unit
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid.............. 20c per unit
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen) 3.90 per unit
Potash ............................... 8.00 per unit
With a uniform allowance of P1.50 per ton for mixing
and bagging.
A unit is twenty pounds, or 1 per cent.. in a ton. We
find this to be the easiest and quickest method for calcu-
lating the value of fertilizer. To illustrate this. take for
example a fertilizer which analyzes as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid...6.22 per cent.xS1.20-S 7.46
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid... 1.50 per cent.x .20- .30
Ammonia .................. ..42 per cent.x 3.90- 13.34
Potash ..................... .3.23 per cent.x 8.00- 25.89
Mixing and Bagging ......................... 1.50

Commercial value at sea ports.................. .. 48.49
Or as a fertilizer analyzing as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid..... 8 per cent.x$1.20-- 9.6)
Ammonia .................. ..2 per cent.x 3.90- 7.80
Potash .......................2 per cent.x 8.00- 16.00
Mixing and Bagging ........................- 1.50

Commercial value at seaports.................... $34.90
The valuations and market prices in preceding illustra-
tions are based on market prices for one-ton lots.










MARKET PRICES OF CHEMICALS AND FERTILIZ-
ING MATERIALS AT FLORIDA SEAPORTS,
JANUARY 1, 1916.

"Under unsettled conditions, potash quotations are
wholly nominal."

A- %IMONIATES.

Nitrate of Soda, 17% Ammonia .................$ 68.00
'Sulphate of Ammonia, 25% Ammonia ........... 82.00
Dried Blood, 16% Ammonia .................. 69.550
Cyanamid, 18% Ammonia ..................... 60.i00

POTASH.

High Grade Sulphate of Potash. 90% Sul-
phate, 48% KO ......................... Nominal
Low Grade Sulphate of Potash, 48% Sulphate,
26% K20 ............................... Nominal
Muriate of Potash, 80%; 48% K,O .......... Nominal
Nitrate of Potash. imported, 15% Ammonia,
44% Potash K,O ........................ Nominal
Nitrate of Potash, American, 13% Ammonia,
42%; Potash K.,O........................ Nominal
Kainit, Potash, 12% K,0 .................. Nominal
Canada Hardwood Ashes, in bags, 4% K0O
Potash .................................. Nominal

AMMONIA AND PHOSPHORIC ACID.

Water Soluble Tankage, 14% Ammonia ........$ 65.0)
High Grade Tankage, 10% Ammonia, 10% Phos-
phoric Acid ................................ 49.00
Tankage, 8% Ammonia, 18% Phosphoric Acid... 46.00
Low Grade Tankage, 61/2% Ammonia, 12% Phos-
phoric Acid ................................ 40.00











Sheep Manure, ground, 5% Ammonia .......... 35.00
Imported Fish Guano, 11% Ammonia, 51%,c
Phosphoric Acid ............................ 50.00
Pure Fine Steamed Ground Bone, 3% Ammonia,
22% Phosphoric Acid ........................... 35.00
Raw Bone, 4% Ammonia, 22% Phosphoric Acid. 38.00
Ground Castor Pomace, 51/2% Ammonia, 2%
Phosphoric Acid ............................ 28.00
Bright Cotton Seed Meal, 71/% Ammonia...... 40.00
Dark Cotton Seed Meal, 41,2% Ammonia....... 5.l

PHOSPHORIC ACID.

High Grade Acid Phosphate, 16c% Available
Phosphoric Acid ........................... 18.00
Acid Phosphate, 14% Available Phosphoric Acid. 16.00
Bone Black, 17% Available Phosphoric Acid..... 25.00

MISCELLANEOUS.

High Grade Ground Tobacco Stems, 2:, Am-
monia, 7% Potash............................ 55.00
High Grade Ground Kentucky Tobacco Stems,
2 1/2% Ammonia, 8% Potash .................. 60.00
Tobacco Dust No. 1, 2,: Ammonia, 2% Potash... 32.00
Cut Tobacco Stems, in sacks, 2 Ammonia, 4%
Potash ..................................... 34.00
Dark Tobacco Stems, baled, 2% Ammonia, 4c
Potash .................................... 30.00
Land Plaster, in sacks ......................... 12.00

The charges by reputable manufacturers for mixing and
bagging any special or regular formula are .11.50 per ton
in excess of above prices.











NEW YORK WHOLESALE PRICES, CURRENT
APRIL 1, 1916-FERTILIZER MATERIALS.

"Under unsettled conditions, quotations are wholly
nominal."

A MMONIATES.

Ammonia, Sulph., prompt.............. 3.55 @ -
futures ............................. 3.55 (@ -
Fish Scrap, dried, 11 p. c. Ammonia and
14 p. c. Bone Phosphate, f.o.b. fish
works ................... per unit 3.75 & 10
wet, accidulated, 6 p.c. Ammonia, 3 p.c.
Phosphoric Acid delivered ............. Nominal
Ground Fish Guano, imported, 10 and 11
p. c. Ammonia and 15-17 p. c. Bone
Phosphate, c.i.f. N. Y., Baltimore or
Philadelphia ...................... (@ -
Tankage, 11 p. c. and 15 p. c. f.o.b. Chi-
cago ............................. 2.85 & 10
Tankage, 10 and 20 p. c. f.o.b. 'hicago,
ground ........................... 2.85 & 10
Tankage, 9 and 20 p. c. f.o.b. Chicago,
ground ............... ........... 2.95 & 10
Tankage, concentrated, f.o.b. Chicago, 14
to 15 p. c., f.o.b. Chicago ............ 2.75 & 10
Garbage, tankage, f.o.b. Chicago ........ 9.00 (( -
Sheep Manure, concentrated, f.o.b. Chi-
cago ................ .....per ton, 13.00 @ -
Hoofmeal, f.o.b. Chicago ....... per unit, 2.60 @ 2.70
Dried blood, 12-13 p. c. Ammonia, f.o.b.
New York ....................... 2.80 @
Chicaago ........................ 2.65 @ -
Nitrate of Soda, 95 p. c. spot, per 100 lbs. 3.40 @ -
futures, 95 p. c... ................. 3.35 @ -










PHOSPHATES.


Acid Phosphate ...............per unit,
Bones, rough, hard.............per ton,
soft steamed unground............
ground, steamed, 11/ p. c. Ammonia
and 60 p. c. Bone Phosphate........
ditto, 3 and 50 p. c.............. ..
raw, ground, 4 p. c. Ammonia and 50
p. c. Bone Phosphate ..............
South Carolina Phosphate Rock, kiln
dried, f.o.b. Ashley River...........
Florida Land Pebble Phosphate Rock, 68
p. c., f.o.b. Port Tampa, Fla........
Florida high-grade Phosphate Hard Rock,
77 p. c., f.o.b. Florida ports.........
Tennessee Phosphate Rock, f.o.b. Mt.
Pleasant, domestic, 78@80 p. c., per
ton ..............................
75 p. c. guaranteed ................
68@ 72 p. c .. .....................


.80
22.50
21.50


.85
24.00
22.00


20.00 @ 21.00
23.50 (a 24.00

28.50 @ 30.00


3.50 (i


2.75 0a 3.00

5.00 (@ 5.25


5.00 @
4.75 (i
4.25 (ai


5.50
5.00
4.50


POTASIES.


Muriate of Potash. 80-85 p. c., basis 80
p. c., in bags..................... 400.00(1 415.00
Muriate of Potash. min. 95 p. c., basis 80
p. c., in bags ...................... Nominal
Muriate of Potash. min. 98 p. c., basis 80
p. c., in bags ...................... Nominal
Sulphate of Potash, 90-95 p. c., basis 80
p. c., in bags......................325.00 @ 350.00
Double Manure Salt, 48-53 p. c., basis 48
p. c., in bags......................105.00 ( -
Manure Salt, min. 20 p. c., KO, in bulk.. 60.00 (@ 50.00
Hardsalt., min. 16 p. c., KO, in bulk.... 40.00 (i 50.00
Kainit, min. 12.4 p. c., KO, in bulk...... 40.00 ( 50.00


3.75








91

COMMERCIAL STATE VALUES OF FEED STUFF,
FOR 1916.

For the season of 1916 the following "State values" are
fixed as a guide to purchasers, quotation January 1.
These values are based on the current prices of corn,
which has been chosen as a standard in fixing the com-
mercial values, the price of corn, to a large extent, gov-
erning the price of other feeds, pork, beef, etc.:

COMMERCIAL VALUES OF FEED STUFFS FOR 1916.

Indian corn being the standard @ $35.00 per ton.
($1.75 per sack of 100 lbs., 98c per bu. 56 lbs.)
To find the commercial State value, multiply the per-
centages by the price per unit.
A unit being 20 pounds (1%) of a ton.
Protein, 4.Sc per pound................... .96c per unit
Starch and Sugar, 1.55c per pound........ 31c per unit
Fats, 3.5c per pound .....................70c per unit

EXAMPLE NO. 1.

CORN AND OATS, EQUAL PARTS-

Protein ........................11.15 x 96c, $10.71
Starch and Sugar ................ 64.65 x 31c. 20.04
Fat ............................ 5.20 x 70c, 3.64

State value per ton ....................... .... $34.39

EXAMPLE No. 2.

Protein .........................10.50 x 96c. $10.08
Starch and Sugar................69.60 x 31c, 21.57
Fat .............................. 5.40 x 70c. 3.78

State value per ton.......... ................. 35.43










STATE VALUES.

It is not intended by the "State valuations" to fix the
price or commercial value of a given brand. The "State
values" are the market prices for the various approved
chemicals and materials used in mixing or manufactur-
ing commercial fertilizers or commercial stock feed at
the date of issuing a Bulletin, or the opening of the
"season." They may, but seldom do, vary from the market
prices, and are made liberal to meet any slight advance
or decline.

They are compiled from price lists and commercial re-
ports by reputable dealers and journals.

The question is frequently asked: "What is 'Smith's
Fruit and Vine' worth per ton?" Such a question cannot
be answered categorically.. By analysis, the ammonia,
available phosphoric acid and potash may be determined
and the inquirer informed what the cost of the necessary
material to compound to a ton of goods similar to
"Smith's Fruit and Vine" would be, using none but ac-
cepted and well-known materials of the best quality.

State values do not consider "trade secrets," loss on
bad bills, cost of advertisements and expenses of collec-
tions. The "State value" is simply that price at which
the various ingredients necessary to use in compounding
a fertilizer, or feed, can be purchased for in cash ton lots
at Florida seaports.

These price lists published in this report, with the
"State values," April 1, 1916, are nominal.

SPECIAL SAMPLES.

Florida is the only State in the Union that provides for
the "special sample," drawn by the consumer or pur-










chaser, UNDER PROPER RULES AND REGULATIONS FIXED BY
LAW-to be sent to the State Laboratory for analysis free
of cost. Any citizen in the State who has purchased fer-
tilizers or feeds FOR HIS OWN USE MAY DRAW A SAMPLE OF
THE SAME, ACCORDING TO LAW, and have the same analyzed
by the State Chemist free of cost. And in case of adul-
teration or deficiency he can, on establishing the fact, re-
ceive double the cost price demanded for the goods.

The law requires the "special samples" to be drawn in
a manner to prevent the submission of spurious samples;
rules and regulations are published in every Bulletin for
drawing and transmitting "special samples."

This special sample has been a most potent factor in
enforcing the law and discouraging the sale of adulter-
ated or misbranded goods.

Special samples of foods and drugs may also be sent to
the State Laboratory for analysis free of cost. when the
sample is properly drawn according to law. The neces-
sary instructions and blanks required to properly draw
and transmit samples of "food and drugs" will be sent
to any citizen requesting the same.

"THE SPECIAL SAMPLE FURNISHES THE CON-
SUMER WITH THE SAME PROTECTION DEMAND-
ED BY THE MANUFACTURER, WHO BUYS HIS
MATERIALS ONLY UPON GUARANTEE AND PAYS
FOR THEM ACCORDING TO ANALYSIS, AND IS
PAID FOR BY THE CONSUMER OUT OF THE
FUNDS DERIVED FROM THE INSPECTION FEE
OF TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER TON PAID ON FER-
TILIZERS AND FEEDS SOLD IN THE STATE."












COMPOSITION OF FERTILIZER MATERIALS.
NITROGENOUS MATERIALS.
S Pounds Per Hundred.

Ammonia. Phosphoricd. Potash.

Nitrate of Soda.......... 17 to 19 ............ ..........
Sulphate of Ammonia... 21 to 24 ............ ............
Dried Blood ............ 12 to 17 ............ ...........
Concentrated Tankage... 12 to 15 1 to 2 ...........
Bone Tankage .......... 6 to 9 10 to 15 ...........
Dried Fish Scrap ........ 8 to 11j 6 to 8 ...........
Cotton Seed Meal ....... 7 to 10 2 to 3 1% to 2
Hoof Meal ............ 13 to 17 1% to 2 1% to 2
PHOSPHATE MATERIALS.

Pounds Per Hundred.

Ammonia. Available Insoluble.
A Phos. Acid. Insolube.

Florida Pebble Phosphate .7........... ..... 26 to 32
Florida Rock Phosphate.. ............ ............ 33 to 35
Florida Super Phosphate. I.......... 14 to 451 1 to 3
Ground Bone ........... 3 to 6 5 to 81 15 to 17
Steamed Bone .......... 3 to 4 6 to 91 10 to 20
Dissolved Bone .......... 2 to 4 13 to 151 2 to 3
POTASH MATERIALS AND FARM MANURES.

Pounds Per Hundred.

Actual Phos.
Potash. Ai'onia.1 Acid. Lime.


Muriate of Potash......
Sulphate of Potash..... 48
Carbonate of Potash.... 55
Nitrate of Potash....... 40
Dbl. Sul. of Pot. and Mag. 26
Kainit ................. 12
Sylvinit ............... 16
Cotton Seed Hull Ashes. 15
Wood Ashes, unleached.I 2
Wood Ashes, leached.... I 1
Tobacco Stems ........ 5
Cow Manure (fresh).... I
Hbrse Manure (fresh)..
Sheep Manure (fresh)..
Hog Manure (fresh).... I
Hen Dung (fresh)......
Mixed Stable Manure...


50 ......... ..
50 ........ .7.......7. ........
to 52 ......... ........ .........

to 44 112 to 16 .........' ......
to 30 j......... ....... ..........
to 12 ......... .. ...... .
to 20 ......... ........ .........
to 20
to 30 ....... 7 to 9 10
to 8 . . . 1 to 2 .......
to 2 .........1 to 1- 35 to 40
to 8 2 to 4 ......... 3A
0.40|0 to 0.411 0.16! 0.31
0.5310 to 0.601 0.28' 0.31
0.671 1.001 0.191 0.33
0.60 0.551 0.191 0.08
0.85 2.071 1.541 0.24
0.63 0.761 0.26! 0.70










FACTORS FOR CONVERSION.

To convert-

Ammonia into nitrogen, multiply by............. 0.824
Ammonia into protein, multiply by............. 5.15
Nitrogen into ammonia, multiply by............ 1.214
Nitrate of soda into nitrogen, multiply by....... 0.1647
Nitrogen into protein, multiply by.............. 6.25
Bone phosphate into phosphoric acid, multiply by. 0.458
Phosphoric acid into bone phosphate, multiply by. 2.184
Muriate of potash into actual potash, multiply by. 0.632
Actual potash into muriate of potash, multiply by. 1.583
SSulphate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.541
Actual potash into sulphate of potash, multiply by 1.85
Nitrate of potash into nitrogen, multiply by..... 0.139
Carbonate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.681
Actual potash into carbonate of potash, multiply by 1.466
Chlorine, in "kainit," multiply potash (KO) by.. 2.33
For instance, you buy 95 per cent. of nitrate of soda
and want to know how much nitrogen is in it, multiply 95
per cent. by 0.1647, you will get 15.65 per cent. nitrogen;
you want to know how much ammonia this nitrogen is
equivalent to, then multiply 15.65 per cent. by 1.214 and
you get 18.99 per cent., the equivalent in ammonia.
Or, to convert 90 per cent. carbonate of potash into
actual potash (K2O), multiply 90 by 0.681. equals 61.29
per cent. actual potash (KO).









AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL
FEED STUFFS.



NAME OF FEED. I

I t -
Z r c <


Bright Cot'n Seed Meal 9.35! 39.70 28.60 7.80 35.80
Dark Cotton Seed Meal 20.00 22.90 :7.10 5 50' 5.00
Linseed Meal, old pro-
cess ......... ....50 ... 35.70 :6.00 7.20; 5.30
Linseed Meal, new pro-
cess .............. 8.40 3 106.10 36.70 3.60 5.20
Wheat Bran ............. 9.00 15.401 53.90! 4.00 5.80
Wheat Middlings ..... 5.40, 15.40 5!.40 4.10 8.20
Mixed Feed (Wheat).. 7.80 16.90 54.40] 4.801 5.30
Ship Stuff (Wheat).. 5..60 14.60 59.801 5.00 .70
Corn (grain) ......... .2.10 10.50 69.60 5.40 1.50
Corn Meal ........... 1.90 9.70 68.70 3T.80! 1.40
Corn Cobs ........... 30.10! 2.40 54.90 0.5 0) 1.40
Corn and Cob Meal .... 6.60! 8.50 64.80i 3.50i 1.50
Hominy Feed ........ 4.05 10.50 65.301 7.851 2.55
Corn and Oats, equal
parts .............. .. 5.801 11.151 64.651 5.20 2.25
Barley (grain ...... 2.70 12.401 69.80 1.S 0 2.40
Maiden Cane ......... 30.60 O 10.101 43.40! 2.15! 3.65
Oats (grain) ......... 9.50i 11.80 59.70 5.00o 3.00










AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL
FEED STUFFS-Continued.


NAME OF FEED.



Rice (grain) ........ .
Rice Bran .......... .

Rice Hulls ........... I

Wheat (grain) .......
Dry Jap Sugar Cane..1

Cow Pea .............
Cow Pea Hay ........

Velvet Beans .........
Velvet Bean Hulls......
Velvet Beans and Hulls!
Velvet Bean Hay ......
Beggarweed Hay .....
Japanese Kudzu Hay..[
Cotton Seed (whole). .
Cotton Seed Hulls. ....
Para Gras ....... ..


0 a


0.20 7.40 79.20 0.40!
9.501 12.101 49.90 8.801

35.70 3.60 38.60! 0.701

1.80 11.90 71.90 2.10o
26.22 2.28 62.551 1.551
4.10 20.801 55.70o 1.401
20.101 16.601 42.20! 2.20!

6.701 23.08 51.281 5.511
27.021 7.461 44.561 1.57J
9.201 19.70 51.301 4.501
29.70 14.70 41.001 1.701
24.70 21.70 30.20! 2.301
32.14 17.431 30.201 1.67f
I I
23.201 18.401 24.70i 19.90!
44.401 4.00! 36.601 2.00;
31.201 8.00 45.751 1.551


0.40
10.00

13.20
1.80
2.77

3.20
7.50
3.90
4.32
3.30

5.70
10.90

6.87
3.50

2.60
6.20








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FERTILIZER SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1916. FRANK T. WILSON, Asst. Chemist.
Samples taken by Purchaser Under Section 9, Act Approved May 22, 1901.

Phosphoric Acid







Sample No. 1-Washed Pebbles
from solid rock deposit .. 3790 1.70 22.7024. D ... O. Varn, Ft. Meade.

Sample No. 2 Matrix washed I
from No. 1, with sand settled 500.03:
off ............ ........... .. 379 .. .. 3.50 1 10.30 3 0 . K. 0. Varn, Ft. Meade.

Sample No. 3-Soft Rock (run j
mine) .. -S urfe 3792 . 2.60127.90 3K0.50 ..... ...... K . O. Varn, Ft. Meade.

Sample No. 4-Surface Rock in
first 2 to 4 feet.............. 3793..... 1 .4 12. 1 .. K. Var Ft. Meade.

Ashes ......................... 3794 4.46 ..... 44.66 ... . 1.57 S. C. Newlin, Groveland.

Fertilizer ...................... 3795 10.67 7.600 0.65. s.25 2.65 10.21 W. T. Bird, Blountstown.









Fertilizer ...................... 3796 4.02 7.93 0.62 8.551 2.30
Fertilizer ...................... 3797 17.321 8.351 0.30 8.65 3.70
Fertilizer No. 2A............... 3798 13.16 8.45 0.95 9.40 2.57
Hardwood Ashes ............... 3799 .. ........ ... ......I.
Pine Ashes ................... 3800 ..... . ... . ..
H ickory Ashes ................. .13801 ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
A shes ......................... 3802 ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
A shes ......................... 3803 ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
Ashes (from sawmill pit) ....... 3804 ..... .......... ..... .....
I I I
Fertilizer ..................... .380514.34 5.50 0.30 5.80 1.85

Fertilizer No. 1................. 3806 5.87 5.75 1.55 7.30 4.92
Fertilizer No. 2................. 3807i 7.43 2.801 2.55 5.35 7.67
Fertilizer .....................113808 5.83 7.95 1.50 9.45 4.301

Crematory Ashes ............... 1138091 .... ..... ..... ..... .....
Fertilizer No. 149,177........... 138101 5.72 7.63 1.72' 9.351 3.901
Fertilizer No. 149,178........... 3811 5.60! 6.651 1.651 8.301 4.45!


11.60 Blountstown Mfg. Co., Blountstown.
0.70 P. M. Dempsey, Trilby.


2.80 C. R. Warren, Blountstown.
2.301 E. C. Sluwart. Bartow.

0.84 A. L. McKay, Morriston.

0.821 A. L. McKay, Morriston.
1.621 R. W. Rhodes, Miami.
0.49 W. E. Hamner, Valrico.
5.46 R. W. Paul, Watertown.

5.071 J. T. Price, High Springs.
2.72 M. S. Mishler, Little River.
4.00 M. S. Mishler, Little River.

3.02 A. P. Buie and Colte W. Hie, Gaines-
0.68 ville.
0.68 W. J. Bailey, Tampa.
I
3.151 Armour Fertz. Works, Jacksonville.
3.21 Armour Fertz. Works, Jacksonville.








SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1916-Continued.


Phosphoric Acid.


NAME, OR BRAND. o a


1


Fertilizer No. 149,179........... 3812 4.94 4.75 1.25 6.00

fertilizerr No. 149,180........... 13813 5.49 5.45 7.55 1.65

Fertilizer No. 149,181........... 13814 2.27 8.01 0.24 8.25

Fertilizer No. 149,182........... 3815 4.52 6.07 1.35. 7.42

Fertilizer No. 1................. 13816 6.68 6.03 0.771 6.80

Fertilizer No. 2................. 381910.06 6.30 2.20 8.50

fertilizerr No. ............... . 18 9.72 S.5; 1.521 0.08

Fertilizer No. 1................. 3819 8.70 6.80 1.10 7.90

Fertilizer No. 2 .............. . 3820 8.341 7.95 1.45 9.40

Fertilizer No. 3................. 13821 7.19 7.33 2.32 9.65
I I


BY WHOM SENT.


Armour Fertz. Works, Jacksonville.

Armour Fertz. Works, Jacksonville.

Armour Fertz. Works, Jacksonville.

Armour Fertz. Works, Jacksonville.

Harry L. Geiger, Miami.

Harry L. Geiger, Miami.

Harry L. Geiger, Miami.

Geo. V. Leonard, Hastings.

Geo. V. Leonard, Hastings.

Geo. V. Leonard, Hastings.




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